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January 2017

  1. Dr. Mohsen Saeid Manesh, Omideh Darezereshki Poor, Zahra Montazery, Parisa Jamal Abadi, Mahdiye Borzooki, Zahra Babaei and Shahrzad Razban

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive-behavioral intervention on emotional-behavioral problems in bereaved adolescent girls. Being a quasi-experimental study, the research employed a pretest, posttest and follow-up (one month) design. The statistical population included bereaved high school adolescent girls in Yazd city in 2015. Of them, 30 students were selected via access sampling method, and were then randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The measurement instrument was Goodman Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). Experimental group received 8 sessions of cognitive-behavioral intervention (each a 90-minute session). The results of analysis of covariance (with SPSS15) showed that cognitive behavioral intervention had significantly reduced emotional-behavioral problems in bereaved adolescent girls both in post test and follow-up (P ≤ 0.05). Results also showed a significant difference between groups in all subscales including emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problem in post test and follow-up (P ≤ 0.05).

  2. Duong Dieu

    There are many ways to measure the angle of strabismus and many methods to calculate the amount of muscle recess-resect in a pair of opposing muscles. We used the Hirschberg method for measuring the kappa angle and we describe an alternate-formula which is simple for calculating the amount of muscle to recess-resect for the surgical correction of strabismus in 70 patients with either esotropia or exotropia. Some surgical techniques and results are reported herein after ten years follow-up.

  3. Dr. Palyekar Shreya Narayan

    Advanced periodontal surgeries are amelioration of conventional periodontal surgeries. Advanced periodontal surgeries emphasizes on different regenerative procedures to reconstruct lost hard and soft tissue. It employs combination of 2 or more different surgical procedure, modification in incision & suturing techniques, exploit different materials, and interdisciplinary approach for favorable treatment outcome. This case report illustrating 2 cases with one year follow-up period which had been treated by utilizing principles of advanced periodontal surgeries. First case describes interdisciplinary approach for management of adjacent defect namely: Sieberts class III ridge defect and periapical cyst. Second case is management of palatal perforation associated with large periradicular cyst.

  4. MPE. Ana Rosa Can Valle, M. en C. Betty Sarabia Alcocer, Dra. Luz Virginia Pacheco Quijano, MEAP. Fajime Cú Quijano, Mtro. Sinuhe Estrada Carmona, Dr. Gabriela Isabel Pérez Aranda and Dra.Liliana García Reyes

    The three major factors that affect health and that must be taken into account for a comprehensive action on lifestyles are: individual, social and environmental factors. These factors could be developed exhaustively, but in this approach to behavioral change in health we will stay in the analysis and development of those that are more affordable for the professional who works with older people, healthy behaviors such as: not smoking, not drinking in excess, Exercise are behaviors related to health that are learned, generated and developed within a given environment, which will give the keys to resources and limits, in a country, region or context produces certain lifestyles. Objective: To identify the lifestyles of the Elderly. Method: This research has a qualitative, descriptive approach, we studied 46 Seniors from different community or Gerontological Centers of the City of San Francisco de Campeche, the instrument that was applied is the questionnaire of Lifestyle made up of 12 sections that explores: Smoking, caffeine consumption, alcoholic beverages, physical exercise, hours of sleep per day and personal hygiene. The information obtained was analyzed using statistical methods. 67% (31) are women and 33% (15) are men, when asked the Elderly if they consumed caffeine such as coffee, tea or soft drink, 52% (24) Answered yes and 48% (22) answered that they did not consume it. 24% of the Elderly answered that if they used to drink alcohol frequently and 76% said that they did not usually drink these drinks, mostly women. Conclusions: The use of caffeine as coffee, tea or soft drinks is an important factor. Ingestion of these products leads to obesity. In older people who drink alcoholic beverages, 24% said that they did not use these drugs And most are women. It is relevant the lifestyles of the Elderly and should recommend good personal hygiene, their hours of dreams at least eight hours.

  5. Dr. M. A. Kashem, Dr. Joybaer Anam Chowdhury and Dr. Taisir Shahriar

    Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for stroke. (Gorelick, 2002; Pedelty and Gorelick, 2004) It is estimated that 25% or more of strokes may be attributable to hypertension. Because many patients with stroke have mild hypertension or prehypertension, we have shifted our focus and now think of stroke on a continuum of risk based on blood pressure (BP) level rather than on a threshold effect. (Elliott, 2007) Because high BP may not exist in isolation, a wider definition of hypertension has been proposed that also takes into account the absolute risk of cardiovascular events and associated metabolic factors or early disease markers. (Elliott, 2007)

  6. Asyah Alshigag, Jinan Alzine, Hawra Alawami, Sokainah Al Jasem, Aysha Adm and Prof. Roula Albounni

    Paddy this study aimed To investigate the possible relationship between anemia and oral hygiene and to evaluate the periodontal status of patients with anemia. A total of approximately (50) patients consisted of ….males and …. Females who have Anemia as systemic disease of any age group in saudi Arabian kingdom participated in the study, Our study showed strong relationship between anemia as systemic disease and periodontal problems, while there wasn’t relationship between anemia and oral hygiene.

  7. Made Krisna Adi Jaya and Fauna Herawati

    Background: Neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is a disorder that occurs in the peripheral nervous system. The incidence of diabetic neuropathy was found more prevalent in elderly (44%) compared to adult (24%). Amitriptyline and Gabapentin are widely used on treatment of neuropathic pain. There were variations in the results of the studies that have been done related to effectiveness between both drugs, causes the need further research, especially on geriatrics. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Amitriptyline versus Gabapentin for diabetic neuropathic pain in geriatric. Methods: A prospective cohort study involving 70 elderly were observed during 4 weeks. The outcome targets were neuropathy pain scale reduction (≥ 2 unit). Non-parametric Wilcoxon, Mann Whitney U, and Chi-Square test were used to analyze the outcome. Result: The whole subjects who got Amitriptyline or Gabapentin decreased pain scale ≥ 2 units compared to baseline. Comparison head to head at low doses, Amitriptyline showed reduce pain intensity greater than Gabapentin (p < 0.05), while on therapeutic doses show there was no difference in efficacy between two drugs (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Amitriptyline was found better in reducing diabetic neuropathic pain intensity compared to Gabapentin.

  8. Dr. Viswanath, V., Viswa Chaitanya Chandu, Suresh Chand Yaddanapalli and Bhanu Kiran Ghanta

    Introduction: Human brain often is envisioned as the most intricate structure in the universe. About 150 years ago, scientists realized that the two sides of the human brain, right and left, are different in magnitude, anatomy, and their areas of strength which is commonly termed as hemispheric specialization or brain lateralization. It has been hypothesized that left brained individuals are more verbal, linear, rational, logical, and analytical in their thinking, while right brained individuals are more intuitive, creative, non verbal. In today’s world, it is important to develop ‘Whole brain thinking’, that is the capability to be a right brain thinker in situations that require creativity, intuition and to be a left brain thinker when the scenario demands logic and rationality. Objective: To understand the general hemispheric dominance and the consequent traits of budding health professionals from three different backgrounds with respect to their nature and scope of practice. Methodology: A pretested, self administered questionnaire with 40 questions was used to assess the hemispheric dominance among students from three different health professions namely dentistry, nursing, and pharmacy, studying in relatively homogenous area with respect to geography and socioeconomic conditions. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal Wallis ANOVA, Chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Results: There were no significant differences in the mean left brain and right brain scores between students from different health professions. Though mean right brain scores were found to be lower compared to mean left brain scores, this difference was not statistically significant. There were no gender differences in the mean left and right brain scores as well. Conclusion: In view of the challenging nature of health profession and the role these professionals have to assume in future, it is important for these professionals to develop whole brain thinking, and necessary strategies have to be integrated in the health care curriculum.

  9. Dr. Saraswathi Gopal, K. and Dr. Padma, M.

    Wound healing process involves the activity of leukocytes and platelets. The growth factors present in platelets are important to guide the regenerating cells to the area of healing. After the introduction of regenerative potentiality of platelets in 1974, various platelet concentrates platelet rich plasma (PRP) and platelet rich fibrin (PRF) were used as regenerative medicine preparations. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is an autogenous biomaterial consisting of growth factors and cytokines entrapped in a fibrin matrix. It combines the fibrant sealant properties along with growth factors thereby providing an ideal environment for wound healing and regeneration of tissues. PRF is produced with a simple method, low cost and easily available, which has been applied in different fields of dentistry, particularly oral and maxillofacial, orthopaedic and plastic surgery. The following review attempts regarding the technique of using PRF, focusing on its preparation, advantages, and disadvantages of using it in clinical applications.

  10. Muhammad A. Halwani, Hossam M. El-Hawary, Abudlrahman A Alghamdi, Bader S Alsmari Nasser Saeed Alghamdi and Yazeed M Al Zahrani

    Introduction: Women exposure to radiation during pregnancy can be really harmful to fetus. However a lot of women might not know this fact, especially the singles, new married ones who are about to become mothers. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude of the Saudi women towards the risk of exposure to radiation during pregnancy. Methods: Randomly distributed electronically made questionnaire during the summer of 2016 to Saudi females. All data were electronically collected within 2 month time of distribution and then analyzed using SPSS (The Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 16.0 software. Results: In total a 519 questionnaire was distributed across five regions of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia of which 510/519 (98.3%) responded. Around 82.2% of the women responded were between the age of 18-40 years and 69.4% of the women were married. 87.8% of women involved had previous knowledge about the health hazards of exposure to radiation during pregnancy. In the group of women who were aware of the risk, it was clear that occupation is the major factor that contributed in their awareness while being a governmental worker improves this awareness significantly (p-value>0.05). There were no significant differences in the knowledge between the regions although around 39% of the study population was from the west part of the country. In all 12.2 % (62/510) of the women did not know that exposure to radiation will put any risk on the fetus if they were exposed. Conclusion: Although the majority of the women involved in the study had awareness of the risk of infection, small group were an aware of that risk. The study clearly indicates that there is a need of more awareness campaigns in the community to increase the knowledge and attitude towards exposure to radiology and decrease the associated risk and complications.

  11. Dr. Shyamal Bar, Dr. Shabnam Zahir and Dr. Jiban Mishra

    Sleep related breathing disorders specially obstructive sleep apnea is a multifactorial complex condition associated with high co-morbidity and mortality rates. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with decreased oxygen saturation due to mechanical obstruction at different level of upper airway associated with anatomical deviation like maxillary or mandibular retrognathism, large tongue, elongated soft palate inferior hyoid position and severe malocclusion. It affects both children and adults equally and causes neuropsychological impairment, metabolic and cardiovascular co-morbidity, sexual dysfunction, compromised economic potentiality and quality of life. Epworth sleepiness scale data, polysomnogram along with cephalometric radiographs, 2D-3D scans for anatomical variations and clinical evaluation are reliable measures to detect Obstructive Sleep Apneas. Multi disciplinary approaches from non invasive to advanced surgical procedures provided by specialty like ENT, Chest medicine, Sleep specialist, Maxillofacial surgeon and Orthodontist can serve better treatment to OSA patient. Orthodontic specialty has the opportunity to detect anatomical deviation early and can provided growth modifications with different non-invasive better compliant oral appliances for mild to moderate OSA patients. Classical treatment ranges from behavioral modification and MAD’s like oral appliances for mild to moderate OSA situation. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective measure for moderate to severe conditions .In severe situation different surgical approaches are followed with variable responses. This article reviews the current basic scientific knowledge about Obstructive Sleep Apnea including definition, prevalence, riskfactor, pathophysiology, diagnosis, complication and conventional & advanced treatment modalities with special emphasis on orthodontic mode of treatment.

  12. Dr. Deepak Kumar and Dr. D. K. Sinha

    Recent studies have shown that closure of loop ileostomy can be performed in the day-care setting, reducing the length and cost of hospitalisation. By analysing our patients who have undergone closure, we aimed to determine the minimum duration of hospital stay and potential factors behind longer stays. A database of patients undergoing closure of loop ileostomy in our unit was examined. The time taken to discharge, morbidity, complications and re-admission rates were recorded. Fifty four patients underwent reversal of ileostomy between July 2015 and November 2016. Median age was 53 years (range, 22–81 years). The median length of stay was 5 days (range, 5–18 days). Many appeared able to be discharged earlier. Thirty six patients (66.6%) had bowel function within 2 days. Eleven patients (20%) developed complications, which included wound infection (10%), small bowel obstruction/ileus (4%), anastomotic leak (4%) & enterocutaneous fistula (2%). Of the patients, 50% stayed longer than 5 days despite having no postoperative complications. The majority of patients undergoing loop ileostomy reversal at our institution can be discharged earlier than they are at present. Support in the community and the implementation of modified UK day-case surgery protocols are suggested to help shorten patient's length of stay in hospital.

  13. Megha Takiar, Ritika Jaiswal, Surinder Sachdeva and Sunil Takiar

    Gene therapy is a field of biotechnology and has proved to acquire the forefront of medical research by genetic modification of cells for therapeutic purposes. Safe methods have been advocated to do this, using several viral and non-viral vectors. Two main strategies include in vivo and ex vivo modification. Gene transfer protocols have been approved for human use in inherited diseases, cancers and acquired disorders. It has a promising era in the field of dentistry. Gene therapy has been used as a mode for regeneration, treatment of salivary gland diseases, head and neck cancers and pain management. It encompasses various future strategies to modify microorganisms and treat various diseases at the very root of initiation. This review will highlight human gene therapy as an effective addition to the arsenal of approaches to many dental therapies in the 21st century.

  14. Dr. Quaid Johar Shakir and Dr. Atmaja Ronak Patel

    In the past 100 years, there has been extensive development of the mechanical cutting devices used in dentistry. One of the most exciting developments in medical technology is the laser. The past decade has been a veritable explosion of research into the clinical applications of lasers in dental practice. Based on Albert Einstein’s theory of spontaneous and stimulated emission of radiation, Maiman developed the first laser prototype in 1960. The first application of laser to dental tissue was reported by Goldman in 1972 and Stern and Sognnaes published an article describing the effects of ruby laser on enamel and dentin. Compared with the use of a conventional scalpel, lasers can cut, ablate and reshape the oral soft tissues more easily, with minimal or no bleeding and little pain as well as no or only a few sutures. Laser surgery occasionally requires no local anesthetic or only a topical anesthetic. Minimal wound contraction and scarring are other advantages of laser surgery. Less postoperative pain in patients is also frequently observed by clinicians, but this has not yet been scientifically proven.

  15. Ravindra Bongulwar

    Purpose of this study was to analyze clinical and radiographic features of odontogenic infection with underlying pathology. Systematic approach leads to narrow the differential diagnosis on the basis of exclusion. This results in correct diagnosis, proper treatment and avoiding overtreatment unnecessarily. This case report highlighted an unusual case of odontogenic infection involving adjacent fascial spaces with underlying pathology which was mimicking cyst, tumor and odontome. Systematic approach helped us to achieve an accurate diagnosis, treatment and avoiding overtreatment.

  16. Swati R. Bharadwaj, Deepak Kulkarni, Lakshmi Shetty, Uday S. Londhe, Shraddha Channe and Nilesh Khandelwal

    This is a case report of a 30 year old female who reported to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dr D. Y. Patil Dental College & Hospital, Pimpri, Pune with a chief complaint of swelling in the lower left back region of the jaw. The patient had a history of trauma to left angle region 25 years back (at the age of 5 years), for which she was treated extraorally under General Anesthesia. Clinical examination and radiographic findings revealed a metallic compression plate present on the left mandibular second and third molar region along with reduced height of mandible on left posterior body region and presence of impacted second and third molar teeth. The patient was operated under General anaesthesia for removal of the implant and the impacted teeth. There was no intraoperative or postoperative complications reported and healing occurred uneventfully.

  17. Mbongo, J. A., Kala, J. C., Oyéré, R., Mapoukou, A., Nkouka, E., Gombet Koulimaya, C. E., Bitséné Mpika, G., Péko, J. F. and Iloki, L. H.

    But : Evaluer les connaissances des médecins généralistes sur le cancer du col, son dépistage, et de connaitre le degré de participation pratique du médecin généraliste dans le dépistage du cancer du col. Matériels et méthodes : Il s’agit d’une étude de CAP, sur une période de deux mois. Ont été inclus les médecins généralistes exerçant dans les secteurs publics et privés. Tous les médecins généralistes, en arrêt de travail pour cause de maladie, ou en congé administratif ont été exclus. Résultats : Sur 52 médecins généralistes ayant participé à l’étude, 84,6% ignoraient l’incidence du cancer du col. Il le reconnaissaient à 94,2%, comme un problème de santé publique et qu’il était curable en cas de détection précoce pour 82,7% des participants. Le rôle de l’Human Papilloma Virus, comme facteur de risque du cancer du col de l’utérus était ignoré par 34,6% des participants. L’action du nombre de partenaire sexuel dans la survenue de ce cancer n’a été reconnue que par 48,1 % des médecins. Le tabagisme comme facteur de risque a été ignoré par 82,7% des participants. Sur les techniques de dépistage, 88,5% des participants reconnaissaient le frottis cervico-vaginal ; les méthodes d’inspection visuelle (IVA - IVL) 34,6 et 36,5 % ; et la recherche du HPV n’était reconnues que par 46,2 % des participants. L’appréciation des connaissances des participants sur le dépistage du cancer du col : Pour l’âge de début 57,7% de bonnes réponses ; l’âge limite ignoré par 69,2 participants et la périodicité avec 90,4 % de mauvaises réponses. L’évaluation de l’indice de connaissance n’a fait noter que 7,7% de bonnes connaissances. L’indice de pratique 96, 2% de mauvaises pratiques. L’appréciation de l’indice d’attitude des participants sur le dépistage, a fait noter une bonne attitude chez 82,7% des participants. La relation de dépendance connaissance-attitude, faisait noter 5participants avec association insuffisantes connaissances et d’attitudes. Pour l’indicateur de pratique et d’attitude, 9 avaient l’association mauvaise pratique avec mauvaises attitudes. Conclusion : Les connaissances des médecins généralistes sur le dépistage du cancer du col, et leur degré de participation pratique dans le dépistage sont encore insuffisantes.

  18. Dr. Suraj C. Bangar, Dr. Sanyukta Khairnar, Dr. Bhagyashree Jagtap, Dr. Kalyani Bhate, Dr. Santhosh Kumar, S. N. and Dr. Sushmita Mitra

    Swellings in the head and neck region are most commonly presented to a surgeon that may be reactionary, benign or malignant. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a well-established, benign and rare variant accounting for about 1% to 9% of all odontogenic tumors commonly occurring in young female. The report contains an unusual case of 16 years old female with cystic AOT in relation to impacted canine on right anterior maxilla, mimicking dentigerous cyst. This case report aims to highlight the clinical course, histological features and surgical management of cystic AOT. Treatment modality opted for the case was conservative with excellent prognosis and negligible chances of recurrence.

  19. Dr. Manjari Kishore and Dr. Prajwala Gupta

    Subareolar breast abscess is rare in male which may clinicoradiologicaly mimic gynaecomastia and diabetes mellitus is an associated risk factor. It may sometimes present with episode of nipple discharge. Cytology is a quick mode of diagnosis for further management in such cases.

  20. Alsubhi, Hadeel Ahmed, Namnqani, Raghad Mohammed, Alghamdi, Bayan Hamdan, Bajuneid, Reem Abdullah, Alzahrani, Asma'a Ali and Alhasan, Ahmed Hassan

    Acute pancreatitis in children is a costly and increasingly recognized disease. As in grownups, the occurrence of intense pancreatitis in children likewise appears to be growing. Several studies have actually documented an increase throughout the past 10 to 15 years. The aim of this systematic review study was to review complications and incidence of acute pancreatitis in children, also we aimed to discuss the etiology regarding AP all these are based on evidence of human population studies from the pediatrics literature. We performed an electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SciELO databases. These databases were searched for eligible studies discussing the complications, etiology and epidemiology of acute pancreatitis in children population. Our search had no limit period of studies publication, therefore, we searched through December 2016 Relevant references and historical quotes, as well as extremely important studies within the context of the review were analyzed in the same way, regardless of the publication dates. The incidence of intense pancreatitis in children has actually been increasing for the past 2 years, most likely as a result of multifactorial causes. AP is a disease of great significance in children, due to its tough medical diagnosis and severity of symptoms and associated complications; besides, it has a significantly higher occurrence because of a growing suspicion and better knowledge of its clinical qualities. The main causes of AP in children are biliary disease and medication, however as much as 1/3 of patients might not have a defined etiology at diagnosis. Issues of severe pancreatitis in children are sterilized and infected collections, fistulas, and vascular complications.

  21. Dr. Sagar K. Shinde, Dr. Nilima Rajhans, Dr. Nilkanth Mhaske and Dr. Swapnil Suresh Jadhav

    Peripheral Giant Cell granuloma is benign inflammatory hyperplasic & reactive exophytic lesion of gingiva & alveolar ridge. This lesion commonly occure as a result of local irritating factors like plaque & calculus, chronic irritation by old prosthesis, overhanging restoration, food impaction and foreign body particles. peripheral giant cell granuloma originates from PDL & gingiva & responsible for pathological migration & mobility of associated teeth. This article presents a case report of large peripheral giant cell granuloma of mandibular gingiva & its management. An excisional biopsy of lesion was performed & diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. The large size of lesion leading to pathological migration of adjacent teeth and reverting back to the original position, and after the treatment along with one year follow-up are discussed here.

  22. Dr. Mohammed Asif Khan, Dr. Sunil Dhaded and Dr. Subashani

    Lingualized occlusion represents an established method for development of function and esthetics in complete denture articulation. The chewing pattern and masticatory efficiency of the patient with denture depend’s upon the scheme of occlusion of complete denture. (Occlusal designs on masticatory ability and patient satisfaction with complete denture, 2013) The choice of occlusal scheme will determine the pattern of occlusal contacts and the direction of forces that are transmitted through the bases of denture, will depend upon intensity of contacts achieved in the denture. That is why occlusal scheme is considered important factors in the design of complete denture.

  23. Jaber Sharahili, Nabil Alamir, Ahmed Ajeebi, Eman Otaif, Mohammad Dighriri, Ahmed Alkhawaji, Yasser Doshi, Hassan I. Quzi, Abdu Mohsen Adawi, Turki Anab, Abdulaziz Almahdi, Alhasan Alrefai and Amani Madkhali

    Background: HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV and HEV; there are the main five viruses can cause hepatitis. Types B and C can lead to chronic disease and the most common cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to estimate the awareness towards viral hepatitis in KSA AND Specially towards medical students in Jazan University Methods: A Cross sectional descriptive study by total of 384 questionnaires distributed. Results: 354 students returned completed forms (response rate: 92.19% [354/384]). The majority were females (94.89% [167/176]), in general males showed better knowledge toward viral hepatitis while females showed better altitude, however the level of knowledge and altitude were very poor among the students Conclusion: Generally; In this study we conclude the knowledge of medical students were poor reverse they attitude. The male are knowledgeable than female, but in attitude the female have a good attitude than male. But not a big difference.

  24. Mathias O N Nnadi

    Summary: Fall has been with us for ages. Our forefathers experienced it. They made proverbs from falls. The consequences of falls are enormous, including traumatic brain injuries. It is one of the most common causes of traumatic brain injuries. The need to prevent it from happening cannot be overemphasized. Objective: The aim was to determine the treatment outcomes in patients we managed in our center for traumatic brain injuries from falls Methods: It was a prospective observational study of patients we managed in our center for traumatic brain injuries from falls from August 2010 to July 2016. The patients were managed in accident and emergency using Advanced Trauma Life Support protocols. After resuscitation patients were admitted in the wards or intensive care units based on severity of injury. Those who needed surgery were operated and admitted in the appropriate wards. Treatment continued in the wards until discharged. They were followed up in surgical out-patient clinic. Their Glasgow Outcome Scores were assessed three months post-injury. Data were collected using structured proforma which was component of our prospective data bank that was approved by our ethics committee. Data were analyzed with Environmental Performance Index 7 software. Results : There were 69 patients in the study. Males were 53. The ages ranged from four months to 86 years. The most common cause was slip on the floor. Forty one patients fell at home. The favorable outcome was 85.51%. Severity of injury and age affected the outcome, while age alone affected the hospital stay. Conclusion: Slipping, fall from balcony and home materials cause majority of falls. The favorable outcome was 85.51%. Fall prevention campaign is essential.

  25. Maïmouna Touré, Malick Diao, Souleymane Thiam, Mbaye Sène, Mor Diaw, Abdou Khadir Sow, Valentin Ouédraego, Arnaud Jean Florent Tiendrébéogo, Aïssatou Seck, Salimata Houndjo, Abdoulaye Ba and Abdoulaye Samb

    Introduction: The regular sport increases the hope and the quality of life, also allows the control of the weight. Questions remain on the effects of the sport on the clinico-biological parameters of the body. Our aim was to study the effect the impact of the regular sport on the body composition and the hepatic and muscular enzymatic profile by comparing foot ball players to sedentary subjects. Methodology: It was an experimental study concerning twenty seven (27) men. They are 14 foot ball players and 13sedentary subjects, between 18 and 30 years old. They had all sudden a measure of their constitution in fat and an analysis of transaminases, ALP, GGT, Total bilirubin, Fasting blood sugar, Creatine Kinase and lipids. Results: We had noticed that the BMI, the total fat mass as visceral fat was always higher at the sedentary subjects but the difference was not significant. The hepatic biological parameters are all higher at the foot ball players. However this differences was statistically significant only for AST (p=0,01) and ALT (p=0,04). So CK was also higer at the foot ball players. After a linear regression, we noticed that AST remains associated with ALT (p=0,005) and with CK (p=0,015).

  26. Shana T Nagaroor, Lola Ramachandran and Dr. Annie Thadicaren

    Meconium stained amniotic fluid is a common occurrence in many deliveries. It was considered physiological as well as pathological. It is difficult to know when this meconium causes distress in the newborn. In this study we have attempted to correlate umbilical artery blood pH at birth and neonatal status in Meconium Stained Liquor (MSL). In the present study it was observed that 90.9% of babies in Grade 1 MSL group had a pH of >7.2, 68% of babies in grade 2 MSL group had pH >7.2 and 40% of babies with Grade 3 MSL had normal pH at birth. Out of the 62 patients studied, only 5% of babies born through grade 1 MSL required Neonatal intensive care unit(NICU) admission while 50% of babies born through grade 3 MSL required NICU admission,45% of babies with grade 2 MSL required NICU admission and this is statistically significant. The cord blood pH is a sensitive parameter to diagnose birth asphyxia and can be used in high risk cases as this may help to provide appropriate care to the newborn thus preventing neonatal mortality as well as morbidity.

  27. Dr. Pramod Chandra Dwivedi

    The term Ama refers to raw, unripe, unprocessed or improperly digested condition of food substances probably due to the result of mandagni (hypo functioning of Agni). Ayurveda is basically more oriented toward the management of lifestyle disorders which are in prominence due to stress-related phenomena and some other reasons among certain age groups in the society. Agni is the root cause of cause of Ayu, Bala and Varna. Agni may disturbed by life style disorders. Mandagni is the root cause of all diseases and is a causative factor for the production of Ama. Ama is described by all Acharya but the greatest clinical detail for this entity Ama has been for the first time described by Acharya Vagbhatta. It is very necessary how we can diagnose Ama formed in body for the purpose of treatment of disease. Ama acts as an antigen and possesses the potency to induce immunological reaction in a susceptible individual and Ama can also be generated within the body (endogenous ama) by virtue of excessively vitiated doshas (autoimmune). This paper will discuss about the various clinical aspect of Ama (Apakwa food) and its impact over body.

  28. Dr. Mahesh Menon, M., Dr. Arun, A. V., Dr. Mahendra, S., Dr. Mahesh, C. M., Dr. Balamohan Shetty and Dr. Harish Koushik, S. R.

    Aims & Objectives: 1.The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate the positional changes of hyoid bone and its effect on the patency of airway in anteroposterior dimension of pharynx (C3 –Hy) compared with upper bony airway (AA’-PNS) in Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions. 2. To evaluate the position of hyoid bone using hyoid triangle and its relation to mandibular position in Class I, Class II and Class III. Materials and methods: Cephalometric radiographs of 75 patients (25 each of skeletal Classes I, II and III respectively) were selected from the archives of the Department of orthodontics. Radiographs were manually traced on 0.003” acetate sheets. Descriptive statistics for 14 variables were calculated. Results: Linear and angular measurements showed positional alteration of hyoid bone in skeletal Class II and Class III subjects. In Class II group the hyoid bone was displaced posteriorly and angulated inferio-posteriorly. In Class III group it is positioned anteriorly and angulated superior-anteriorly. No statistically significant sexual dimorphism exists in linear and angular measurements of hyoid positioning. However, significant difference does exist in linear and angular measurements within same sex group related to skeletal Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusion.

  29. Gönen Başer and Eyyüp Karahan

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT) in patients with first diagnosed and advanced primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods: This study is a retrospective chart review of patients with OHT, first diagnosed early POAG without any medication and uncontrolled POAG with maximum tolerated medical therapy who underwent SLT at the Sifa University, between July 2010 and July 2011.The aforementioned data were gathered from the, 3-month, 6-month, 12-month, 24-month, and 36-month postoperative visits. Both groups were compared regarding decrease in IOP, percentage of IOP decrease, and success rate after SLT treatment. The data were analyzed using independent t-test to compare IOP levels and the decrease of IOP between the both groups at different time points. A P-Value of P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The mean IOP in the 3 groups at baseline was similar and did not reach statistical significance. The therapy effect was stronger in the early POAG patients in the first year. The success rate at the last visit at 36th month was 44.4% in the group of first diagnosed POAG, and 23.5% in the group of uncontrolled POAG. Conclusion: The long-term therapeutic effect in patients with OHT and first diagnosed POAG is moderate. The efficacy is lesser in advanced patients. However, the main advantage of SLT is the protecting of the ocular surface from the toxicity of the preservants of anti-glaucoma drops.

  30. Dr. MD. Awais Ahmed, Dr. K. Amarnath, Dr. M. Suresh Kumar and Dr. D. Visalakshi

    Stable anatomical fracture reduction and segment control before miniplate fixation can be difficult to achieve in comminuted maxilla fractures. Various methods have been employed for mobilization and anatomical reduction of fracture segments though no single method is used universally. Disadvantages include imprecise segment alignment and poor segment stability/control. We have employed Screw-Wire Traction (SWT) to address this problem. The successful fracture reduction achieved by Screw-Wire Traction alone or in combination for multisegment maxilla fractures.

  31. Salim Akdemir, M., Ebru Tarıkci Kilic, Ethem Unal and Selim Aydın

    Fluid therapy is an integral aspect of trauma resuscitation.With advances in resuscitation research, controversies abound regarding approaches to the fluid management.To determine therapeutic strategies, patients response to the initial fluid challenge is very important. In this case, we discuss the life saving massive fluid resuscitation in hemorrhaging patient who had been operated three times and stayed in the ICU for days because of a knife injury resulting from a stab wound in the chest, abdomen and right shoulder.

  32. Karan Raj Singh Sandhu and Ajay Bibra

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a hereditary disorder associated with developmental disorders of two or more structures of ectodermal embryonic origin. The triad of nail dystrophy, alopecia or hypotrichosis and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis is usually accompanied by a lack of sweat glands. Varying degrees of Hypodontia or anodontia of the primary and permanent dentition poorly developed alveolar ridges and improper maxillo - mandibular relations, are the most common oral manifestations. It usually affects males and females are the carriers. Case presentation: A 28 year-old young man with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) presented in this article, had typical features of HED: hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis, severe hypodontia, atrophic alveolar ridges, old-looking facial expression. According to the patient’s age and clinical findings, implants supported fixed prosthesis in both arches was the treatment of choice.

  33. Dr. Rahul S. Patil and Dr. Vijay Kumar

    Background: Conventional NERS (New Risk Stratification) Score (Fajadet and Chieffo, 2012) are proven to be superior to SYNTAX score in predicting MACE, but involved complex calculation. This is duly addressed by a simplified version, by the NERS Score II. (Kalbfleisch and Hort, 1977) We performed a prospective pilot study to assess efficacy of NERS II to predict clinical outcome in form of MACE and also symptom relief / quality of life, in patients with UPLMCAD (Unprotected left main coronary artery disease) undergoing either PCI or CABG. Methods: Forty-one patients with UPLMCAD undergoing coronary revascularisation (20 PCI + 21 CABG) were included in the study between 1st January, 2013 to 31st Dec 2014 in Amrita institute of Medical sciences and followed up after 1 year of procedure. All the individuals were assessed for MACE, functional class, echo, SAQ score, TMT positivity, and Duke score. All these variables were correlated with pre-procedure NERS II. Results: 9 out of 41 patients had MACE (deaths 5, ACS 3, TVR 1). ROC curves for NERS II showed cut-off value as 16.55 to stratify patients as low and high risk, with a sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 81.2%. Although the incidence of MACCE did not vary significantly between 2 NERS II groups. Other parameters of clinical profile like TMT positivity, functional class, Duke and SAQ score were found to have significant between-group difference. Odds-ratio for TMT were positive (OR = 21, 95% CI 1.9412 to 27.21), odds-ratio for functional class (OR = 7.7, 95% CI 1.39 to 42.63), odds-ratio for duke score (OR = 15, 95% CI 2.02 to 11.07). Conclusion: NERS II score is an effective tool to predict clinical outcome in the form of symptom relief in UPLMCAD patients undergoing revascularization. However with respect to MACE event, there was a definite poorer outcome with high NERS II score. No statistical significance was seen between the group differences. This was probably due to lesser number of MACE events. Also a single cut-off score of 16.55 can be used to risk stratify UPLMCAD patients as LOW RISK NERS II (< 16.55), and HIGH RISK NERS II ( >/= 16.55) with statistically significant different outcomes (Sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 81.8%).

  34. Dr. Suresh Kumar, G., Dr. Suraj John Thomas, Dr. Nithin Joseph Jude, B., Dr. Sakthi Devi, S. and Dr. Shiva Santhosh, P.

    Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumour (CEOT), also known as Pindborg Tumour is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in literature. We are reporting a case of Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumour in a 25 year old male patient with a painless bony swelling in the maxilla. Approximately, 50% of the cases are associated with an un-erupted tooth or an odontome, and it was the same with our case, except that it was an impacted maxillary canine over shadowed by a retained deciduous tooth. Considering the intrabony location of the lesion and its limited size, we opted for a more conservative surgery. The clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features and the surgical treatment are discussed with relevant references.

  35. Turki G. Bafaraj, York F. Zöllner and Hasan A. Alzahrani

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease today’s societies encounter. Diabetes symptomatology implies a definitive hormonal background involving insulin production, or its tissue uptake (types 1 and 2 diabetes, respectively); however its exact etiology is still unknown. Diabetes is a disease of complications, e.g., angiopathy, neuropathy; particularly diabetic foot disorders (DFDs) which can be devastating. Amputation, especially following ulceration is a catastrophic endpoint of DFDs. Saudi Arabia suffers a terrifying DM situation (>20% adults), aggravated by high obesity rates and modernized way of living. Above 25% Saudi diabetics develop DFDs, >25% of whom end up with amputation. “Cost of illness” (COI) can be used to estimate the economic burden of DFDs. This work focuses on COI in DFDs in Saudi; identifying risks affecting this cost. Methodology: Records of adult diabetics with DFDs enrolled with a major insurance agency in Jeddah, KSA were reviewed. Studied data included demographics, intervention options, and reimbursement as a COI measurement during fiscal year (FY) 2015. A quota sample of 60 diabetics was recruited; their risk factors for developed DFDs and COI analyzed. Results: The median age of participants was 58y (IQR 3y). Male: female 2.53:1; and Saudi: non-Saudi 4:1. Most subjects (43.3%) needed debridement, 35% minor amputation, 15% major amputation, and 6.7% conservative treatment for their DFDs episodes. Age≥55 significantly required more intensive intervention compared to younger age (minor amputation 35% vs. 0%, major amputation 15% vs. 0%, respectively; Fisher’s exact 8.567, p=0.011). Age significantly impacted COI [r(df=58) =0.333, p=0.009]. Saudis significantly experienced amputation more frequently than non-Saudis (33.3% vs. 1.7% major amputation, 15.0% vs. 0.0% minor amputation, respectively; Fisher’s exact 11.98, p=0.004). They also bear higher COI [t(df 55.6= 4.7, p<0.0001). Mean COI significantly varied by intervention option [F (df 3, 56) =101.3, p<0.0001]. Age could predict change in COI (Exp B = 1.84, 95% 1.2 - 2.74. Although COI varied by type of intervention, the latter could not predict such change in COI. Conclusion: Age is risk for a worsened DFDs prognosis and higher costs. Saudis are at risk of more costly DFs. The change in COI could be predicted by studied risks. Findings from this work can be used in developing an integrated DFDs database, planning to alleviate DFDs burden and improve the health related quality of life Saudi diabetic patients.

  36. Dr. Satyendra Kumar Jha, Dr. Imit Pal Saluja, Dr. Samiksha Acharya, Dr. Manish B Sarode and Dr. Pranjan Mitra

    The capacity to replace missing parts of the body lost due to disease process, trauma or other reasons have been fascinating scientist since decades. Regeneration of lost part of skin intestinal and buccal epithelium, blood etc by the body paved the way for search of basic parent cell from which all other cells are derived. This led to the discovery of stem cells in1960 and since then stem cell-based treatments are being used and investigated in medicine for neural, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases. In recent history, stem cells from teeth have been researched and is said to be able to cure various tooth-related and maxillofacial defects. This article presents a brief introduction on stem cell and its futuristic application in the field of dentistry.

  37. Dr. Murgesh Pastapur, Dr. Anantha Krishnan, C. and Dr. Rishika Reddy

    Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent worldwide, and is also noted to be high in India. Low levels of 25(OH) D, the principle circulating storage form of vitamin D, is present in as many as one third to one half of otherwise healthy middle aged to elderly population. Vitamin D, known primarily as a factor of bone metabolism, can affect the transcription of a number of genes, which play a vital role in the development of ACS and pathogenesis of CAD. The vitamin D axis affects vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, inflammation, vascular calcification, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and blood pressure, all of which affect risk of CVD and myocardial infarction (MI). Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in pathogenesis of CAD and vitamin D deficiency is postulated to promote endothelial dysfunction Because hypovitaminosis D is prevalent and easily correctable, establishing the relationship between vitamin D and risk of MI is important. Objectives: 1. To assess the levels of Vitamin D in patients with acute coronary syndromes. 2. To elucidate a possible correlation between the levels of Vitamin D in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Methods: A prospective study of 50 patients admitted in Basaveshwar Hospital, Kalaburagi with acute coronary syndromes were studied between December 2013 and May 2015. The Vitamin D levels were analyzed in all the patients and correlated with different parameters for statistical significance. Results: The mean age of the study group was 57.96±9.6 years. Of the 50 patients, 28 were males with a male: female ratio of 1.2:1. Our study group had 17 patients who had a smoking history and 15 who consumed alcohol. AWMI was the most common presentation that was observed in 20/50 patients and NSTEMI was seen least in 9/50 patients. Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 78% of patients with acute coronary syndrome. 26 patients had Vitamin D deficiency levels (<20 ng/ml) while 13 patients had insufficiency (vitamin D levels 21-30 ng/ml). 57.7% of females had Vitamin D deficiency. This was significant when compared to the male population. Vitamin D deficient patients had a higher incidence of diabetes (57.69%) and hypertension (69.23%). Contrary to many studies, we could not elicit any significant association between total cholesterol levels or triglyceride levels. One patient in our study expired within 24 hours. He had an AWMI who presented in cardiogenic shock. His Vitamin D level was 20.2 ng/ml. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (78%) among ACS patients. Vitamin D deficiency, along with increasing the prevalence of traditional risk factors for ACS, might also be an independent risk factor for ACS.

  38. Ashok Kumar Chahal, Mch., Ashwani Kumar, D.M., Divya Arora, D.N.B., Mamta MD, Jatin Lal, M D, Kuldeep Singh Lallar, D.M. and Shamsher Singh Lohchab, Mch.

    Aim: This retrospective study was planned to evaluate the various outcomes of mitral valve repair in rheumatic mitral valve disease. Methods: Between January 2007 to July 2015, 238 rheumatic mitral valve repair was done at our institution. The data was collected retrospectively and various post-operative outcomes were analysed in term of mortality, rate of survival, re-operation rate, NYHA class and thromboembolism & bleeding complications. Mitral valve was assessed by transthoracic echocardiography and various results were analysed. Results: Mean age of study population was 32.17±11.90. 56.72% were female patients. Early mortality was 5.62% and late mortality was 3.13%. Mean follow up was 71±23 months. Survival at mean follow up was 91.59%. Freedom from re-operation was 95%. The rate of re-do procedure was 4.12%. Residual pathology was present in 6.25%. The post-operative mean NYHA class, mitral valve area, mean gradient across mitral valve were 1.34±0.741, 3.17±0.58, 3.81±0.92 respectively. Conclusion: Mitral valve repair in Rheumatic heart disease is possible in majority of patients with excellent results when comprehensive repair techniques are used.

  39. Dr. Tejashree, A., Archana Hegde, M., Dr. Deepashree, R. and Ahmed Ali Khan

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be one of the world’s most important infectious causes of morbidity and mortility. The backbone of TB diagnosis worldwide continues to be smear microscopy. For microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB), fluorescence microscopy (FM) using Auramine staining has been shown to have 10% higher sensitivity compared to routine light microscopy used with Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, without compromising specificity. Objectives: This study is carried out to diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis by Fluorescence microscopy and comparing the smear sensitivity and specificity of conventional Light microscopy with ZN (Gabbet’s method) and FM with LED microscopes. Materials and Methods: About 100 samples were included in the study. These samples belonged to suspected cases of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis. Samples were stained both by Gabbet’s and Fluorescent staining as per standard protocol. Results: Out of total 100 samples included in the study, 71 were sputum samples and 29 were of other body fluids. Of all, 18 were found to be positive by both FM and ZN staining.25% (4/18)of the samples belong to female patients and 75%(14/18)were from male patients with an incidence rate of who tested positive. Conclusion: Use of FM helped in rapid detection of tubercle bacilli from various body fluids when the organisms were scanty.

  40. Dr. Rasika Pawar, Dr. Sumeet Rongate, Dr. Sangeeta Palaskar, Dr. Pushkar Gawande

    Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma (COF) is a benign odontogenic tumor which is believed to be derived from periodontal ligament cells. COF is considered under fibro-osseous lesion in WHO classification. It is relatively common in mandible but rare in maxilla. COF consist of highly cellular connective tissue with varying amount of calcifying mass that may resemble bone, cementum or both. It primarily affects middle age individuals with mean age of 42 yrs. We report a case of cement-ossifying fibroma of the posterior maxilla in a 25 yr. old male patient.

  41. Roberto Garcia, Denise G. Ramos and Mariliza H. da Silva

    Background: Previous studies demonstrate that the incidence of HIV infection has increased among men who have sex with men. And yet, quantitative surveys fail to demonstrate a corresponding change in their behavior. Aims: To conduct a mixed methods study about condom use among HIV positive individuals, comparing reports provided through a quantitative survey and a qualitative interview. Methods: We collected quantitative data from 178 HIV positive participants, 81 of them also undergoing a qualitative interview. Results: A total of 73 (41%) individuals in our overall sample reported to always use condoms during sex in the quantitative survey (n = 178), while in our qualitative interview sub-sample only 14 (17.3%) individuals did not report behaviors that contradicted the constant use of condoms (n = 81), the decrease in percentage being attributed to contradictions. A large percentage of these individuals providing contradictory statements reported making use of illicit drugs during sex. We also found a number of qualitative emerging concepts indicating that contradictory statements were made in the context of fictitious scenarios where condoms were not used, situations where trust was questioned, simply not being willing to use condoms without any apparent rationale, darkrooms, and situations where patients willingly engaged in extreme sexual behaviors. Conclusions: Given the discrepancy between what individuals report in quantitative surveys and what they subsequently report during qualitative interviews, clinical and policy guidelines should be cautious in interpreting surveys without a parallel, qualitative component.

  42. Jog Antony, Reeta James, Neethu Poulose, Aswini, B. and Sreelakshmi Sreedhar

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder, which has high impact on individual’s perspective of living a better life. The raising health care cost and changing quality of life associated with the diseases is alarming towards the worse future of the diseases. Objective Methodology: The study was a prospective observational study conducted in a 500 bedded multispecialty tertiary level referral and teaching hospital for a period of 1 year. In this study descriptive survey was used to collect the data. The questionnaires used were Kuppuswamy’s socioeconomic status scale, The 8 item Morisky medication adherence scale and WHOQoL-BREF. Results: The scores of the four domains of WHOQOL-BREF scale were physical health domain (mean ±SD 45.84±9.67), psychological well-being (mean ±SD 43.94±12.48), social domain (mean ±SD 48.56±20.46) and environmental domain (mean ±SD 55.18±12.77). The average total health care cost of diabetes per year was 43918.23 INR. The total direct cost was found to be 22331.11 INR and indirect cost was 21587.12 INR. Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus is one of chronic illnesses which have a significant impact on patient’s health related quality of life and economical aspects.

  43. Athar Parvez, Gurmeet Singh, Digamber Chaubey, Sonalini Thakur and Suparna, P.N.

    The study is focused to establish correlation between Serum Ferritin, Serum Cholesterol and Biliary Cholesterol. The study was performed on a group of 118 patients who were admitted in department of surgery for cholecystectomy (laparoscopic / open) in multi-speciality hospital at Lucknow. Based on the serum iron content, the patients with cholelithiasis were divided into two groups. Group A patients were with normal serum iron and Group B iron deficient patients. Serum and Biliary cholesterol contents of both groups will be analysed and comparison were done with each other. The mean bile cholesterol level in Group I and in Group II will be measured. The difference in values in both the groups were analysed statistically for p value. The result was analysed and formulated. There was no significant variation (P =0.367) in the serum cholesterol of the two groups in previous studies. Similar results of p value in the serum cholesterol of the two groups in present study were obtained i.e. (p=0.394), whereas gall bladder bile cholesterol was significantly increased (P < 0.0001) in the serum iron deficient (Group II) than in the normal serum iron (Group I), thus suggesting that iron deficiency may be contributing to the super saturation of gall bladder bile with respect to cholesterol independent of serum cholesterol levels

  44. Nisha Marwah, Namita Bhutani, Sunita Singh, Rajnish Kalra, Monika Gupta and Rajeev Sen

    Background: Haematological disorders are quite frequent in all age groups. These have diverse modes of presentation that often require bone marrow aspiration (BMA) for both diagnosis and management. This simple and relatively safe procedure is important particularly in resource poor centres since access to adjuvant diagnostic techniques are often lacking. The present study aims to analyse the causes of haematological disorders, its spectrum, indications and interpretation of BMA findings. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective and prospective study carried out in Department of Pathology, Pt.BDS PGIMS Rohtak, India over a period of 16 months (January 2014 -April 2015). BMA of 879 cases of suspected haematological disorders was carried out. Records regarding the clinical indication for the procedure, peripheral blood smear reports, blood counts and significant findings on bone-marrow aspiration examination were retrieved. Results: Majority of the patients were children aged less than 15 years (37%). Male to female ratio was 1.07:1. The main indications for BMA included: anaemia (37%), diagnosis of leukemia (30%) and pancytopenia (9%). Most (87%) of the marrow aspirates examined had definite pathological features and rest were normal marrow elements. Anaemia with erythroid hyperplasia was the most common pathology, followed by megaloblastic anaemia and microcytic hypochromic anaemias. Conclusion: BMA is an important step and veritable tool to arrive at the confirmatory diagnosis of wide range of haematological disorders.

  45. Dr. Ankur K. Shrivastava, Dr. Divya Verma, Dr. Kanishk Singh and Rajaram Kacher

    Introduction: Worldwide glaucoma is the second leading cause of preventable blindness after cataract. In developed countries less than 50% of affected people are aware about their disease, awareness is further lower in developing world. Incidence in India is steadily rising and by year 2020 it is projected to be second largest home for glaucoma cases. Glaucoma is irreversible and remains asymptomatic until it is in a very advanced stage. Early diagnosis and treatment remains an important cornerstone in management of this deadly disease. Published data indicates that late presentation to doctor is an important risk factor for subsequent blindness and is associated with poor awareness about the condition. Patient's knowledge / lack of knowledge concerning eye care may play a significant role in seeking timely eye care treatment. For this, efficient information, education and communication material (IEC) and population screening strategy needs to be designed to increase the community’s knowledge about glaucoma. Aims and objective: To evaluate the awareness and knowledge about glaucoma in patients attending Ophthalmic outpatient department (OPD) at a tertiary center in Central India. Material and methods: The study was conducted over a period of six months from January to June 2014 at Ophthalmology OPD. A pre-prepared questionnaire was given to all participants between ages of 40-70 years, which included participant’s socio-demographic profile, awareness, knowledge about glaucoma and the usefulness of awareness raising strategies. The source of awareness about glaucoma was also questioned. Results: Total number of participants was 500, out of which 337 (67.4%) were aware and 163 (32.6%) unaware about glaucoma. Among aware participants 148 (44%) were having knowledge of glaucoma and 189 (56%) were not having knowledge of glaucoma. Only 23% of aware participants were screened for glaucoma. 77% participants know that glaucoma is irreversible while only 36% know that it is blinding condition. Mass media was found to be most effective awareness raising strategy. Conclusion: Public awareness of this almost silent disease plays a pivotal role in bringing the high-risk patient to the ophthalmologists, and hence, preventing the dreadful results. However, only spreading the awareness about glaucoma is not sufficient to prevent blindness but people need to be informed and educated about the disease. An aware and knowledgeable person is in a good position to inform others about need for glaucoma screening program to utilize screening services provided by eye care personnel. This could diminish the morbidity and economic burden of the disease.

  46. Dr. Nirmala, A. C., Dr. Edwin George and Dr. Rajendra Prasad, H.

    Introduction: Thyroid dysfunctions, both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, have been associated with insulin resistance which has been reported to be the major cause of impaired glucose metabolism in type-II Diabetes mellitus (T2 DM). Dyslipidemia is a common metabolic derangement seen in both diabetic patients and patients with thyroid dysfunction. In patients with both these disorders, dyslipidemia is more likely to be present. Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular events. Therefore, effective management in such patients may help to significantly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study done over a period of 18 months. The study included 60 patients with known T2 DM in Victoria hospital affiliated to Bangalore medical college & research institute. These diabetic patients were divided into 2 groups, one with euthyroid status (n=30) and the other with thyroid dysfunction (n=30) and a comparison of fasting lipid profile between these two groups were done. Results: The mean age of the diabetic patients in the group with thyroid dysfunction was 57.56 ± 8.55 years and mean age of diabetic patients in the group without thyroid dysfunction was 54.6 ± 9.08 years. The male: female distribution among the former group was 43.3% and 56.7%, and that among the latter group was 46.66% and 53.44% respectively. The two groups were age & sex matched. The fasting lipid profile was significantly abnormal in diabetic patients with thyroid dysfunction (p=0.001), when compared with those without thyroid dysfunction and HDL was found to be significantly low in the group with thyroid dysfunction (p=0.01). Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is predominantly seen among diabetic patients with thyroid dysfunction. There is an increase in LDL/VLDL/TGs, along with reduction in HDL cholesterol among diabetic patients with thyroid dysfunction.

  47. Suad Hannawi and Issa Al Salmi

    Introduction: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are more likely to developed reduced kidney function over time. Presence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) appears to play a role. Also renal dysfunction in RA found to be associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease independently of traditional CV risk factors. On the other hand, presence of RA in individuals with reduced kidney function may lead to an increase in morbidity from CVD development. Objective of this article is to identify the determinants of kidney function; through measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in RA population. Method: eighty RA participants, without CVD, cerebrovascular, diabetes or renal diseases were recruited. Univariate and multivariate linear regression were used to identify the determinants of GFR. Results: The mean age of the participants was 46 ±13 years, (71 female and 9 male). The mean GFR was 136 ± 50 ml/min/1.73m2. The factors that found to determine the GFR level in a negative linear trend were age of the participants (p< 0.001, CI: -0.021, -0.011), age at RA symptoms onset (p<0.001, CI: -0.016, -0.006), age at RA diagnosis (P<0.001, CI: -0.018, -0.008), systolic blood pressure; SBP (p=0.001, CI: -0.012, -0.0030), diastolic blood pressure; DBP (p=0.041, CI: -0.015, -0.000), body weight (p=0.008, CI: -0.010, -0.002), body mass index; BMI (p=0.033, CI: -0.033, -0.001), uric acid level (p<0.001, CI:-0.003, -0.001), erythrocytes sedimentation rate; ESR (p=0.033, CI -0.006, -0.000), c-reactive protein; CRP (p=0.034, CI: -0.006, -0.000), ferritin (p=0.007, CI: -0.003, -0.001), triglyceride; TG (p=0.008, CI -0.271, -0.042), urine microalbumin level (p=0.041, CI: -0.002, -0.000), and microalbumin creatinin ratio (p=0.008, -0.015, -0.002). Multiple model that included all the variables with a significant association with GFR in the univariate analysis showed that the GFR is determined by age, uric acid level, urine microalbumin, BMI, SBP, CRP and triglyceride level (R2=94). Conclusion: Renal function in RA is shaped by both traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors. Therefore, traditional and non-traditional risk factor measurements may provide a means for optimizing care of RA patients and reducing mortality related to CV and renal diseases.

  48. Frank Mayer

    This short communication is a proposal. Experimental data are not yet available. Mitochondria in eukaryotic cells are not involved in the processes of membrane flow and membrane transformation between cellular organelles. Therefore, a drug intended to remain inside a cell can be expected to stay there when it is bound to mitochondria. A prerequisite for binding is that the drug is equipped with a component that is suited to specifically bind to a kind of protein that is exposed at the surface of the outer mitochondrial membrane (“intracellular drug targeting”).

  49. Gupta Rashmi, Gupta Gopal Das, Singh Santosh Kumar and Singh Lakshman

    In this study generate gall bladder stone in Swiss albino mice (Musmusculus) by given lithogenic diet, then used trial drug (Rohitakadhya extract & Phaltrikadi kwath) to evaluate its effect on gall bladder stone & gall bladder mucosa. Swiss albino mice (Musmusculus) were obtained from central, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi and kept in animal house of Centre of Experimental Medicine & Surgery, IMS, BHU. The experimental Protocol used in this study regarding the use of animals was approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University (Approval number; CAEC/1145-27/04/2015) and the care of animals was taken as per the CPCSEA guidelines. This experimental study has been divided in four groups & each group having six mice. All mice are operated & gall bladder excised, morphological findings are noted than specimen kept over glass slide to view by microscope. After that the specimen was lay opened & than seen under microscope & findings are noted. Finally histological slides are prepared for histological study. It was found that trial drugs are very effective on gall bladder stone & mucosa. Findings shows- no any sludge’s & stone seen over mucosa of gall bladder. Histological findings have been observed that inflammatory changes are very less in number, mucosa becomes intact, edema& congestion are not seen.

  50. Sandeep R. Bholane, Sheetal S. Potnis and Sandesh S. Baralay

    Extraction decisions are extremely important during diagnosis and treatment planning. Management of class II malocclusion in adult is most difficult in orthodontics. In this case report, we present the orthodontic treatment of 19 year old female patient with a Class II div I subdivision malocclusion, with class II incisor and canine relationship, class II molar on left side and class I on right side with overjet of 10 mm and overbite of 6 mm and shift of upper midline to left side by 3mm treated with extraction of upper right first premolar and distalisation of upper left first and second molar with K loop.

  51. Dr. Vaibhav Joshi, Dr. Varun Suhag and Dr. Shalini Gupta

    Post extraction immediate implant placement in multirooted molar area is a challenging task in view of anatomical limitations of the socket and in achieving primary stability after ideal placement of the implant along the interradicular septa. The aim of this article is to present a technique of tooth guided implant site preparation for immediate implant placement in multirooted molar areas. Coronal portion of the concerned tooth was reduced to the level of marginal gingiva, osteotomies were performed using centre of the remaining tooth root complex as the reference point and the implant bed is prepared engaging the interradicular septa. The remaining tooth root complex after complete implant site preparation is atraumatically removed and the fixture is placed directly in the prepared implant site thus allowing the precise placement with proper angulation. This technique helps the surgeon in ideal implant positioning in immediate implant placement cases as it prevents slipping of the drills in mesial or distal root sockets during initial osteotomies and allows stabilized and guided implant placement.

  52. Surendra B. Patil, Shree Harsh and Rahul Nikam

    Submucus Cleft Palate is a rare congenital disorder which is can present in paediatric age group in a variety of ways. Most of the submucus clefts are seen in posterior part of the palate. We report a very rare variety of submucus cleft with congenital oro nasal fistula at soft and hard palate junction.

  53. Anish Gupta, Bhavna Kakkar, Rahul Jain, Sandeep Garg and Narender Pal Singh

    AIM: 1. To study the adherence of physicians and other paramedical staff to hand hygiene while attending the patients. 2. To study different modalities used by them for maintaining hand hygiene. 3. To study the beliefs and perceptions of physicians about hand hygiene. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study on 80 participants-40 doctors and 40 nurses, selected by simple random sampling, total 960 observations of hand washing opportunities according to the CDC guidelines,12 on each participant in 4 departments medicine, surgery, casualty and C.C.U. Observations were made without their knowledge and then a questionnaire was filled by them. Statistical analysis: Wilcox on rank-sum test and Kruskal-wallis rank tests were used for the analysis of the data. Results: Overall adherence was 13.75 %.there was significant difference in adherence of surgery and other 3 departments, maximum in surgery (27.92%) but they didn’t differ much with respect to each other. Also acc. to questionnaire adherence was more if a bed side hand rub solution was present (15% against 5%). No significant difference w.r.t. age, sex, duration of work, pocket hand rub was found. Modalities used were- soap water>sterilium>both. Conclusion: Overall adherence is low; although more in surgery than other departments, it is still low. Increasing the availability of a bedside hand rub solution can increase adherence.

  54. Márcio Cristiano de Melo and Prof. Maria Rita Donalisio

    Survival and evolution of clinical and laboratory diagnosis of AIDS patients have improved considerably after the start of the availability of HAART since 1996. In addition, there is a reduction in the number of hospitalizations of people living with HIV / AIDS, a decrease in opportunistic infections and an increase in chronic diseases, among them hepatic, cardiovascular, renal, among others. The studies of survival of people with AIDS are one way of assessing the epidemic situation, the parameters of the evolution of the disease, the patients' living conditions, and particularly the impact of intervention measures and policies.

  55. Dr. Mirjana Kjaeva Pejkovska

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a condition in which a birth defect occurs on the diaphragm. This is a very serious, life threatening state which requires many measurements to be taken for its prevention, treatment, therapy and long term observation. This article presents our experiences with a patient born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia followed intrauterine, after his birth and until his 12 months of age. The baby (patient) born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia was diagnosed intrauterine in the 32 week of pregnancy with ultrasonographic examinations. The diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance. After the established diagnosis, the mother and the baby were treated properly in terms of using the world established protocol for treatment of CDH babies and followed for a monitoring period. Babies born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia have a difficult beginning in life followed by many diagnostic and therapeutical treatments. A major surgery for closure of the birth defect is of great importance for the life saving of these babies. Sometimes additional treatments and paediatric care are necessary like other multiple surgeries, depending on the problem indicated.

  56. Dr. Dedeepya Gudivada and Dr. Sheela Kumar Gujjari

    Purpose: Gingival inflammation in response to the accumulation of dental plaque is aggravated by systemic factors such as diabetes. In adults with type 2 diabetes, it may occur at higher rates than those in adults without diabetes. Many products have been researched to counter both inflammation and higher glucose levels, one such natural product is Glycyrrhizaglabra, also known as licorice and sweet wood which has many pharmaceutical properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-bacterial, anti-ulcer, anti-viral and anti-carcinogenic effects. Chewing gum has been used for centuries to clean the mouth and freshen the breath. Thus, in this study we are evaluating the use of flavored chewing gum as an adjunct to toothbrushing in diabetic patients. Materials and Method: 20 subjects with diagnosed with diabetes (FBS-125-140mg/dl) and chronic generalized gingivitis were included in this randomized, clinical study. Initial clinical parameters plaque and gingival index were assessed and baseline unstimulated saliva collected. After completion of scaling patients were randomized into control and test group. Test group patients were asked to chew gum twice daily after brushing for 2 min. Control group were asked to chew placebo gum twice daily after brushing for 2min. Clinical measurements were repeated at6 week interval. Results: There was a significant decrease in plaque and gingival index within each group and were insignificant when both the groups were compared (p>0.05). There was no change in unstimulated saliva both within the group and on intergroup comparison. Conclusion: Our results showed improvement in plaque score and gingival health when licorice was used along with tooth brushing. In future, higher concentrations or different concentrations of licorice in a long term study with larger sample size is required to ascertain the efficacy of glyccyrhiza or its extract in the treatment of gingival diseases.

  57. Mahesh C.M., Bobby Joseph Babu, Balamohan Shetty and Harish Koushik

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta is one of the most common hereditary disorders of dentin formation. It follows an autosomal pattern of transmission, affecting both the formation and mineralization of dentin. Either or both primary and permanent dentition is affected by it. This paper describes a case of Dentinogenesis imperfecta which reported for orthodontic treatment.

  58. Dr. Bhavna Kakkar, Dr. Anish Gupta, Dr. Rahul Jain and Dr. Ruchi Jain

    Anesthesiologists are highly skilled professionals, trained to make quick decisions and perform complex procedures under pressure. Stress is a necessary evil at certain times of an activity, in order to achieve the best possible performance, but if the intensity or duration of stress is excessive, the affected physician may suffer from reduced alertness and show signs of fatigue, which impacts negatively on his skills Negative health consequences of stress include headache, asthma, back pain, arrhythmias, fatigue, headaches, hypertension (HTN), irritable bowel syndrome, ulcers, depression, suppression of immune system, myocardial infarction. The skills of stress management are integral to the management of disparate conditions at work and in everyday life. Communication skills are basic necessity in our personal and professional lives and the ability to stand up for one’s rights without violating the rights of others is important in the practice of assertiveness.

  59. Dr. Yogesh S. Sonawane, Dr. Amar A. Thakare, Dr. Deepak C. Kelgandre, Dr. Pratibha L. Shirsath and Dr. Geetanjali S. Nikam

    Loss of the facial structures affects the physical, psychological and social well being of an individual. The maxillofacial prosthesis not only restores the oral or associated facial structures but also improves the patient aesthetic, form and function. Loss of an eye may be due to congenital defect, neoplastic lesions or trauma. Different treatment modalities are available for ocular defects. This article not only describes a simplified prosthetic management of an ocular defect but also include an technique to mimick the shade and color of the prosthesis similar to that of the natural eye.

  60. Majumder, D. R., Bhatia, A. M. and Khan, S.

    Bacteria are pioneer of life on earth. Habitation of bacteria can be traced back to trillions of years and since then these unique living forms are evolving on our planet. Biofilm is the complex structure formed by microbes by adhering to substrate (support structure) and flourishing communally. This type of growth system allows them to interact (quorum sensing) and survive efficiently under adverse conditions (influence of antibiotics, other physico-chemical factors). These characteristics of surviving and flourishing exhibited by microbes can be used in human welfare and at the same time can be hazardous if not handled carefully. It can be rightly stated that the biofilm is a double sided sword. In the present study a detailed account has been given about the structure of biofilm, its composition, stages of formation of biofilm, its characteristics like biofilm as a boon to the mankind viz. treatment of nuclear waste, effluent treatment, production of nano-particles, improvement of soil properties and remediation of environment by treating toxic factors affecting the Mother Nature. The bane of biofilm cannot be ignored. Biofilm possesses a great threat to human health by causing severe infections and also to industrial sectors especially food production units.

  61. Pallavi Tyagi, Pakhi Gupta and Sabeeha Khan

    Cervical cancer is cancer of the cervix, the opening to the uterus. It is caused by HPV (Human papilliomavirus) infection. HPV is sexually transmitted; it’s also extremely common. Most women get HPV at some point in their lives, but most clear the infection in a couple of years without any problems. If the cancer is caught at an early stage, it is monitored throughout the pregnancy and treating it after the birth of the baby. However, if the cancer is more advanced, it will need to be removed and that involves removing tissue from the cervix, which holds uterus shut during pregnancy. Sometimes, it becomes necessary treat cervical cancer during pregnancy by shaving off cells on the cervix. That can usually be done while maintaining the pregnancy.

  62. Dr. Wadia, A. and Kataria, R.

    Microbiological and chemical quality of drinking water primarily results from water origin and type of applied water treatment. Since the drinking water is one of the main way through which many infectious agents can be transmitted to humans causing waterborne diseases, constant monitoring of drinking water quality in water supply systems is needed. This study investigates the microbiological quality of tanker water supplied in different localities in Mumbai during summer, Rainy and winter season for the period of the year July 2011 - April 2012. Since increased concentrations of some chemical compounds in water can influence on appearance and growth of microbiological populations, in this study relevant physicochemical parameters were also measured and correlated with obtained values of analysed microbiological parameters. Physico-chemical parameters studied includes determination of the pH, temperature, turbidity, hardness, alkalinity, chlorides, fluorides nitrate, iron, silica levels in the water samples. The results obtained indicated that the chemical quality of the water samples under study falls within the standards recommended by World Health Organisation. However, more potentially dangerous discovery was the level of Coliform contamination which exceeds the WHO standards. Other microorganisms detected were E. coli, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Pseudomonas. This can result in the high incidence of water-borne diseases such as Dysentry, Diarrhea and Typhoid fever.

  63. Ramprasad B. Pal, Rashmi Joshi and Upasana Pathak

    Background& Objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is majorly responsible for a variety of infections in healthcare setting and in general community. These infections range from mild skin boils or pimples to severe life threatening infection of deep tissues, lungs etc. MRSA is of concern not only because of its resistance to methicillin but also because it is generally resistant to many other chemotherapeutic agents like cephalosporin, macrolides and aminoglycosides. MRSA must be detected and treated aggressively to prevent secondary infections. This study will help to determine the simple, most specific and sensitive method for the detection of MRSA, which could be carried out in routine microbiology laboratory. Methods: Strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different clinical specimens were included in the study, which were screened for methicillin resistance. Screening with oxacillin and cefoxitin antibiotic discs, oxacillin MIC using commercial E test strip and detection of mecA gene product PBP2a using Latex agglutination test was carried out. Antibiotic susceptibility test for all MRSA strains was carried out by Kirby Bauer Disc diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines to determine their sensitivity pattern against an array of antibiotics. Multiplex PCR of confirmed MRSA strains was carried out to study resistance genes. Results: In the present study 70 (74.468 %) S.aureus isolates were found to be methicillin resistant by AST with oxacillin (1μg) as well as cefoxitin (30μg), latex agglutination test identified 89 (94.680 %) as MRSA, whereas by oxacillin MIC by E-test only 55 (58.510 %) isolates were found to be MRSA and 74 (78.723%) carried the mecA gene which was determined by the PCR. Interpretation and Conclusion: Results of AST with both Oxacillin (1μg) and cefoxitin (30μg) were somewhat similar to that of PCR results, which is considered as gold standard for detection of methicillin resistance genes. The other investigated methods like latex agglutination, oxacillin E-test may not be appropriate because of the relatively lower levels of concordance with PCR results.

  64. SAVADOGO Mamoudou, Armel PODA, Sondo K Apoline, Diallo Ismaël, Zoungrana Jacques, Boushab Mohamed Boushab, Birba Emile, Kyélem Nicole

    The development of common tuberculosis in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patient causes an increase in viral load, resulting in TCD4 lymphopenia. When it develops three months following the initiation of an antiretroviral therapy (ART), its manifestations may simulate an inflammatory syndrome of immune restoration. The authors report a case of multifocal tuberculosis developing approximately three months following the ARV treatment, with the aim of contributing to a better management of tuberculosis-HIV coinfection. It is a 45-year-old patient tested positive for HIV1 and placed on Atripla since May 07, 2015 with a CD4 T cell rate of 302 cells/mm3. She was admitted on July 7, 2015 in the Department of Infectious Diseases for chronic cough and alteration of general condition in whom multifocal tuberculosis (pulmonary, pleural and peritoneal) was diagnosed with a TCD4 lymphocyte fallen down to 147 cells/mm3. The interview indicated a good adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Placed under a tuberculosis quadritherapy, the evolution was favorable and she left the hospital on August 10, 2015. Tuberculosis developing three months after initiation of antiretroviral therapy is not always a manifestation of immune restoration syndrome. The accompanying TCD4 lymphopenia is often transitional and does not require a change in antiretroviral therapy.

  65. Haluk ŞENGÜN

    The cost of health care has been rising rapidly in our country and in the world and it takes more from the budget. Costs, malpractices, wasted time, and general bureaucratic inefficiencies has bought a need for the new approches. Lean management is the elimination of any activity that does not add value to an organization's end product, and using what is referred to as a "just-in-time" inventory strategy, which aims to reduce inventory and associated carrying costs. Technology can reduce the manual labor involved in many processes that take place within a hospital and improve overall efficiency. Lean organizations differ from traditional organizations in putting the power of improving an organization into the hands of the employees that directly interact with the end product, rather than management. The largest difference between traditionally managed organizations and lean organizations is their focus on systemic improvement. Lean organizations focus on identifying the root causes of all problems and adjusting processes to stop the same problems from occurring in the future. The purpose of this study is to present lean hospital management system to the health sector in Turkey, which can benefit us in all means, can be used. In this way, lean system can support health care workers and doctors, making sure that they can give their full attention to the situation in their hands. This system will reduce risks, costs, and waste while empowering and making it easier for the hospitals to improve in the long run.

  66. Dr. Nagarathna C., Dr. Veena Arali, Dr. Sujith A Surendran, Dr. Prasannakumar Bhat and Dr. Anto George C. G.

    Background: The diagnosis of den to-facial asymmetry has been discussed significantly, but the esthetic significance of facial and dental midline symmetries has been inconclusive with respect to upper and lower arch dentition. Aim: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the extent of deviation of dental midline from the facial soft tissue midline and its association with different malocclusions. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional double blind study was conducted in a randomly selected sample of 500 children of 12-17 years. The molar relation and the presence of any malocclusions were noted. Impressions of both maxilla and mandibular arches were made in each subject and study cast were prepared. The following three points were marked on the face: bridge of the nose, base of the upper lip and chin to determine the facial midline. The dental midline(DMD) was assessed by verifying the coincidence of the vertical lines between the central incisors in the maxillary and mandibular arch. Results: All the data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using chi square test. The study population consisted of 500 subjects, for statistical convenience the group of the subjects were divided into three groups 12-13 years, 14-15 years, 16-17 years. The coincidence of facial and dental midline (FDMC) was found to be statistically significant in 12-13, 14-15 years age groups (pvalue-0.00). No statistical significance was found in 16-17 years age group. Conclusion: FDMC and minor discrepancies as less as 2mm should be considered as normal and an important objective in orthodontic treatment planning.

  67. Dr. Sawant Priyanka H., Dr. N Vimala and Dr. Leena V Padhye

    Abnormalities in the root canal anatomy are a commonly occurring phenomenon. A thorough knowledge of the root canal anatomy and its variations is necessary for successful completion of the endodontic treatment. Mandibular second premolars usually have a single root and a single root canal. The incidence of two separate roots itself in this tooth is quite rare. Mandibular premolars are known for having an aberrant anatomy. Often considered an enigma to the endodontist, the mandibular first premolar with dual canals dividing at various levels of the root can generate complex mechanical problems. Reports about the incidence of extra roots in these teeth are quite rare. This paper attempts at explaining a rare case of successful endodontic management of a two-rooted mandibular second premolar with awareness of data pertaining to the number of canals, knowledge of canal morphology, correct radiographic interpretation, and tactile examination of canal walls which are important in detecting the presence of multiple canals

  68. Harikrishnan Ramachandran Nair

    Background: Several epidemiologic studies have reported that high serum levels of uric acid are strongly associated with prevalent health condition such as obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome essential hypertension and renal disease. This study aimed to investigate the level of uric acid in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and in non-diabetes controls with normal kidney function. This study also included the correlation of serum uric acid with glucose, creatinine, age, gender and duration of diabetes. Method: A single-centric, hospital based, cross-sectional study was conducted for 6 months. The study had two groups: 92 patients with diabetes and 92 patients without diabetes. All the patients were having normal kidney function. The patients were evaluated for fasting blood sugar (FBS), post prandial blood sugar (PPBS) and serum uric acid levels. Result: No significant difference in mean uric acid levels were reported between diabetes and non-diabetes population. No significant correlation of uric acid levels with age, gender and glucose levels (FBS and PPBS) were not reported, but the significant positive correlation of uric and duration of diabetes were observed in male diabetes population. Conclusion: Since the cross sectional study shows confounding data, the implication of uric acid levels in diabetes mellitus as well as in pre-diabetes need to be further investigated.

  69. Ankita K. Kotecha, Nagaraj B. Kalburgi, Arati C. Koregol and Jitendra Kumar Pehalajani

    Background: Periodontal epithelium has an active role in multi-factorial pathogenesis of periodontal diseases by producing diverse range of antimicrobial peptides, amongst which cathelicidins (LL-37) is the only one of its kind that has been found in humans. Genetic factors such as deficiency of LL-37 and environmental factors such as smokeless tobacco products consumption are found to be associated with severe periodontal destruction. Hence, the present study was conducted to estimate salivary LL-37 levels of chronic periodontitis (CP) subjects who consume smokeless tobacco Products (STP) and also correlate it with clinical parameters. Methods: 90 subjects distributed into three groups (n=30 each) as Healthy, CP and CP with STP habit participated in the study. Clinical parameters such as Gingival Index (GI), Oral Hygiene Index- Simplified (OHI-S), Pocket Probing Depth (PPD) and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) were recorded. Unstimulated whole Saliva was collected by draining method. Salivary LL-37 levels were estimated by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Results: Mean Salivary LL-37 levels (ng/ml) was 24.03±60.59 in Healthy, 235.06±318.8 in CP and 102.95±151.45 in CP with STP group (p<0.0001). Spearman correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation of salivary LL-37 levels with GI, OHI-S, PPD and CAL (p<0.0003). Conclusion: Salivary LL-37 levels were markedly reduced in CP subjects who consumed STP compared to CP subjects but were higher than healthy subjects.

  70. Dr. Nagarathna, C., Dr. Jaya, A.R., Dr. Anto George, C.G., Dr. Navin, H.K. and Dr. Sujith, A.S.

    Background: Eruption is the axial movement of tooth from its non functional position in bone to functional occlusion. Root development represents the fundamental biologic parameter for tooth eruption. Aim: Evaluate the rate of eruption of Permanent maxillary central incisors (PMCI) with respect to chronological age and biological tooth eruption time and late eruption of PMCI to associated local factors. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in 100 children aged between 8-12 yrs. Who visited Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Rajarajeswari Dental College and Hospital seeking dental treatment. After obtaining informed consent, children were randomly selected, examined for age and clinical apparent dentition, grouped as follows,1)Control group includes children with erupted PMCI 2)Study group includes children with late eruption of PMCI, Further, children were radio graphically assessed to determine biological tooth eruption ( 2/3rd of root completion ) and late eruption associated with local factors if any. Results: The data was analyzed with Mann Whitney U test. Mean age of the boys (52%) and girls (48%) was 8-9yrs.The results of control group and study group showed statistical significant difference between intergroup and intra group with respect to 2/3rd of root formation for the eruption of PMCI. Conclusion: Eruption is a physiologic process, where 2/3rdof root completion influences the chronologic eruption of PMCI. Late eruption of the same can be attributed to the presence of local factors.

  71. Dr. Navin, H. K., Dr. Prasanna Kumar Bhat, Dr. Supratim Koley and Dr. Umapathy Thimmegowda

    Background: To organize community-oriented oral health promotion programs, systematic analysis of the oral health situation would be needed, including information on oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP). Aim: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward oral health among 9 to 14-year-old school children in a government schools of Ramanagara district, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 999 children (Male: 662; Female; 336) who were in the age group of 9-14 years studying in government schools of Ramanagara district Karnataka. Data on oral health KAP was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. The data obtained was subjected to Statistical analysis using Chi-square test. Results: This survey found that only 87% of the children brush their teeth once daily. Most of the students did not know that oral problems caused other general diseases(53%). Cavities were present in 41% of study participants. High proportion of study participants reported having knowledge about the lack of brushing was the cause of gum problems (45%) Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that oral health KAP of study participants are poor and needs to be improved. Systematic community-oriented oral health promotion programs are needed to improve oral health KAP of school children.

  72. Anika Sulania and Dr. Anita Khokhar

    Introduction: Knowledge of BLS and practice of simple CPR techniques ensures the survival of the patient long enough till experienced medical help arrives and in most cases is itself sufficient for survival. Ideally, everyone should know BLS and CPR, but its awareness to medical personnel is invaluable as they face many such situations in their life especially in buddings doctors who will have tackle this kind of emergencies in their medical practice and it has been part of their teaching. With this the study was planned to assess the awareness of medical interns regarding BLS and understanding the deficits was planned with the objectives to assess the knowledge, awareness and practices of Basic Life Support in medical interns in a tertiary care Hospital of Delhi and to assess the need of including BLS in the medical curriculum. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done with pre designed and pretested interview schedule based on AHA, 2015 guidelines. Consent was taken and those who consented were asked to fill the schedule in the presence of investigator to clear the doubts in understanding any question. Results: Response rate was 93.7 with 60 % males study participants. Significant knowledge gap was found which was depicted in proportions and knowledge score. Self-grading regarding BLS (22.7% above average) or Initiating was low (41.4% were confident) with lack of professional training (67%) was considered to be the main cause of that. Conclusion: Our findings suggest inadequate basic life support knowledge and need of regular trainings and workshops.

  73. Narsimha Rao, Y., Naveen Babu K., Basaveswara Rao, M. V. and Prasada Rao, M.

    Objective: Objective: In the present work, hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Dendrobium normale were tested against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxic in rats. Methods: CCL4 has been used as the screening model for hepatoprotective activity Results: The results indicated an increase in serum biochemical parameters like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphate (ALP) and total bilirubin (TB) levels are sensitive indices for hepatic damage. The ability of the above mentioned extracts to maintain the biochemical parameters level near to normal values are indication of their hepatoprotective potential. Conclusion: The present investigation showed hepatoprotective activity against CCL4 induced liver damage in rats

  74. Priya Shalini Lakra and Ranjan George Baxla

    Objectives: To observe levels of LDH levels for prognosis of breast cancer in breast carcinoma patients and in controls. Methods: Fifty breast carcinoma patients were studied with regard to its clinical, histopathological and therapeutic modalities to that of the prognosis of the disease indicated by serum lactate dehydrogenase, liberated by aerobic respiration of cancer cells and were followed up for a period of eighteen months. Results: This study also shows that lactate dehydrogenase levels decrease following treatment showing that the tumor is the cause of lactate dehydrogenase production in carcinoma breast patients, the pre treatment lactate dehydrogenase levels were seen to decrease with significance of the study showing p value to be <0.001 and the level of lactate dehydrogenase was found to be raised across the stages of carcinoma breast. In the present study lactate dehydrogenase is shown to indicate survival in breast carcinoma patients (p value <0.003). Conclusion: Lactate dehydrogenase proves to be a prognostic marker in carcinoma breast that is simple, cheap and easily available.

  75. Shakthivel, M., Suresh, V. C., Vinod, R. and Easow, J. M.

    Background and Objectives: The use of cellphones has increased as an easy mode of communication. Health Care Workers (HCW) have made it a potential fomite in transmission of Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI). At present there are no guidelines for the care and disinfection of cellphones in the health care setting. This study is aimed to determine the resident organisms, its frequency, antibiotic susceptibility and efficacy of isopropyl alcohol in disinfecting mobiles. Methods: Swabs from 100 cellphones were taken; 50 each from study and control group. Two samples were collected from each phone using sterile cotton swabs and cultured as per standard protocol. Phones were disinfected with 90% isopropyl alcohol using sterile gauze piece. Interpretation and Results: 70 % of cellphones of HCW were contaminated, with a predominance of Pseudomonas spp. - 71.4%. The disinfection procedure was effective only in 57% of cellphones.

  76. Mudasir Rashid Baba

    Background: The weakness of muscles results in impairment of motor skills affecting daily activities in children with cerebral palsy (CP). It has been reported that children with cerebral palsy when subjected to strengthening interventions produce improvements in functional abilities. This paper describes the effects of constant strength training of a school-based progressive functional development for children with CP. Aims: To determine the outcome of continuous versus intermittent strength training using 10 metre walking test (10MWT) in improving the functional abilities in children with spastic diplegia. Methods: Thirty (30) spastic diplegic children with Gross Motor Function Classification level I to II (GMFCS) aged 5 to 12 years were randomly enrolled. The children were equally distributed, 15 each in intervention group (Group A) and control group (Group B) and were subjected to 10MWT (32.8feet) before and after intervention. Group A received 5days of intervention every week for 8 weeks, whereas (Group B) was subjected to 3 days of intervention every week for 8 weeks. The start time was taken at 2 meters distance from the start up distance and three successive trials were taken. The average of three trials was considered. Results: Continuous strengthening program had shown statistically significant alteration in functional outcome measured by (10MWT) (P<0.05) Conclusion: There is a significant improvement on functional abilities and the walking speed in children who underwent constant strengthening training. The time taken to cover 10 meter distance also showed a marked reduction.

  77. Marcilene Alves de Souza Castrillon, Marco Antonio Aparecido Barelli, Taiana Paula Streck Vendruscolo, Raiane Scandiane da Silva, Fabio Tomaz de Oliveira, Carla Corrêa Lima, Bruno Wagner Zago and Flavio Dessauni Tardin

    This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of biomass and saccharin sorghum genotypes, based on 19 agronomic traits by the means of multicategorical variables. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the University of the State of Mato Grosso/UNEMAT, in Cáceres. We evaluated 25 genotypes of saccharin sorghum and 36 genotypes of biomass sorghum, in a randomized complete-block design with three replications. The data were submitted to three clustering methods, Tocher optimization, UPGMA hierarchical and Projection distances in 3D plan and comparing their results. The study showed the most divergent genotypes and the behavior of the three methods, which have proved partially concordant in the grouping of genotypes. The combined use of the clustering methods enabled a more accurate assessment for inference, and evidence the existence of genetic variability among saccharin and biomass sorghum genotypes.

  78. Dr. Shalini Ray, Dr. Ipsa Mohapatra, Dr. R. N.Rout, Dr. Jyoti Nayak and Dr. Meely Panda

    Skin diseases among farmers is usually under reported and it is ignored by farmers as most of them consider it as "part of their job". Skin being the most exposed organ while farming, the farmers are predisposed to skin diseases among other health hazards. Objective: This study aims at finding out the prevalence of skin disease and associated risk factors among farmers. Methodology: Multistage cluster random sampling using PPS (Probability Proportional to Size) was used to select farmers in a coastal block of Odisha. A total of 200 farmers were selected for the study. Complete dermatological examination was conducted in a well lit area. Results: The prevalence of skin diseases was found to be 63% among farmers in rural settings. The common skin diseases reported among pesticide handlers were hyperkeratosis, paronychia, fungal infections, nail dystrophy, dermatitis, melasma, freckles, PLE and others. Lower socioeconomic status, illiteracy, longer exposure to pesticides, non usage of PPE were found to be risk factors for skin diseases among farmers. Conclusion: Health education among the farmers along with appropriate PPE should be encouraged to prevent skin diseases in this group of population. An integrated approach and further research is required to find out a casual association between different risk factors and skin diseases among farmers.

  79. Monica, M., Yadav Rao, K., Parthasarathi Reddy, P., Shakeel Anjum, M. D., Sheetal Akula and *Jyothi, M.

    Introduction: Technology has changed the way student’s access information. As the members of the millennial generation, current dental students are more technology–savvy and connected than the previous generation. Many books are now available in electronic formats and electronic publishing is rapidly replacing printed materials. Objectives: To assess the perceptions of students regarding the internet, e-textbooks, and printed textbooks. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 dental colleges in and around Hyderabad city on 864 dental students using a self-administered questionnaire which was given to the students from 2nd year B.D.S to final year M.D.S to know the perceptions of e-book learning and printed textbook learning. Results: Of the 864 students, 83% of them agreed that e- books offer more updated information over printed textbook and, 82% agreed that e- books are easy in carrying and storage but majority of them also agreed that reading e- books is more strenuous, and knowledge gained from reading a printed copy is retained for a longer period of time. Conclusion: Despite advancements in the internet, learning technologies and provision of updated information from e- books, dental students still prefer to buy, understand and learn from a printed textbook.

  80. Ambaga, M.

    By us established that final conversion, metabolic fates of separate three atoms as C, H, O contained in any forms of foods - donators as carbohydrate, fatty acids, aminoacids occured in the full 9 stepped cycle of electron and proton conductance inside the human body as follows: Metabolic fates of C, O atoms in the full 9 stepped cycle of electron and proton conductance inside the human body: a. C, O atoms contained in food molecules through the 1-th stage and 2-th stage of the full 9 stepped cycle of electron and proton conductance inside the human body have been transferred and converted to CO2 i.e.in these stages acetyl residues of acetyl - CoA and pyruvate, also succinyl - CoA, fumarate, pyruvate, acetyl - CoA, alpha - ketoacids as 7 intermediates of Krebs cycle after oxidative deamination of aminoacids converted to CO2. Metabolic fates of H atoms - first variant in case of free protons in the full 9 stepped cycle of electron and proton conductance inside the human body: a. H atoms contained in food molecules through the 1-th stage as release of proton, electrons from food substrates under the undirect action of oxygen released from membrane surroundings of erythrocyte in the 9-th stage converted to NADH, FADH2. b. b.After these stages of conversion of H atoms contained in food molecules to NADH, FADH2 have been started the next stages of conductance of free protons, including the 5-th stage- as translocation of proton to intermembrane space of mitochondria without accompanying electro, the 6-th stage as creation of proton gradient in the intermembrane space of mitochondria and following transfer of proton to matrix through ATP synthase, the 7-th stage as formation of metabolic water in the mitochondrian matrix by protonation of molecular oxygen by matrix proton, the 8-th stage as diffusion of proton from mitochondrial matrix of all cells and metabolic water formed during protonation of molecular oxygen by matrix proton entered through plasma membrane of red blood cells with participation of aquaporin protein channels, also the 9-th stage - metabolic water entered to red blood cells reacts with CO2 formed in the 2-th stage by formation H2CO3, which is followed by reaction as H2CO3=H+HCO3 and released during this stage free proton promotes the release of oxygen from hemoglobin, i.e. occurred the meeting of CO2 formed in the 2-stage with metabolic water formed in the 7- th stage of the full 9 stepped cycle of electron and proton conductance inside red blood cells. Metabolicfates of H atoms - second variant in case of free electrons in the full 9 stepped cycle of electron and proton conductance inside the human body: a. 4-th stage of the full 9 stepped cycle of electron and proton conductance inside the human body as transfer of electron to cytochrom C and to molecular oxygen without accompanying proton, formation of activated oxygen and 7-th stage as formation of metabolic water in the mitochondrian matrix in the form of oxidation of proton by activated oxygens after obtaining electrons from cytochrom C i.e.protonation of molecular oxygen by matrix proton.

  81. Bharath, N. and Dinesh, D. S.

    Finishing and polishing of composite restorative materials plays a major role in success and longevity of restoration. Aim of this study is to analyze the finishing and polishing procedures by measuring the surface roughness of the novel resin composites using profilometer and scanning electron microscopy before and after subjection to three body wear simulation method. The four posterior composites evaluated are p90, filtekz 50 x trafil, filtek z250. The mean surface roughness was found to be highest in group 4 and lowest in group 1 and these findings were confirmed by scanning electron microscope findings.

  82. Dr. Gurmeet Singh, Dr. Athar Parvez, Dr. Digamber Chaubey and Dr. Jain, K.B.

    Gallstones are the most common biliary pathology. In Asian population, cholelithiasis ranges from approximately 3 to 15% 1. Women are three times more likely to develop gallstones than men. The study was performed on a group of 115 patients who were admitted in Department of General Surgery for Cholecystectomy (Laproscopic) during period of 1 year 20 days. The average age of the patients was 42.45 (±14.05) years. 52.2% of patients were from age group 30-50 years of which most were females (30-40 yr: 78.8%) (41-50 yr: 77.8%). 20% of total patients were of age group 51-60 yrs, 17.4% were less than 30 yrs and 10.4% of patients were more than 60 year old. 89.9% of total patients were females while only 19.1% were males. Mustard oil was used by most (75.7%) of the patients of which 82.8% were females and 17.2% males whereas refined oil as a cooking medium was used by 24.3% of patients of which 75% were females and 25% were males. Most of the patients were non-vegetarian (60.9%) of which 85.7% were females and 14.3% were males whereas 39.1% of the patients were vegetarian of whom 26.7% were males and 73.3% females.

  83. Ngoc Huynh

    The legal and moral justification for cloning has been a source of argument in the research world. A case study reflected how Dr. Zuk planned cloning John Lennon using DNA taken from his rotten tooth in the 1960s, which brought about the debate of morality and privacy in human cloning. The court ruled that Lennon's privacy was violated, as well as the fact that human beings have the right to safety and autonomy. Human cloning was found to exhibit high failure rate, plus the fact that there were no available tools to detect genetic abnormalities resulting from cloning. Religious and societal discourse have perceived cloning to violate natural law which could also influence the society negatively. The foregoing has made human cloning in its current form unacceptable. Dr. Zuk experiment was questioned against the backdrop of the discourse. Without an answer, it was suggested that government should make specific rules about human cloning so that it would be more morally acceptable by the society.

  84. Indrajit Gupta, V. K. Dhulkhed, Gagandeep Singh, Tushar Munnoli, Naveen Kumar Naveen, Bilal Mohammad and Juberahmad Rajjak Attar

    Background: Dexmedetomidine is an α2-adrenoreceptor agonist with sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic effects. We evaluate the effect of preanaesthetic dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg single infusion on sedation, haemodynamics, anaesthetic consumption, and recovery profiles during anaesthesia. Methods: Sixty patients of both gender with American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I or II undergoing surgery with anticipated operation time of 2 h, were randomly assigned to receive dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg (study group) or normal saline (control group) intravenously over 10 min before anaesthetic induction. After tracheal intubation with Inj. thiopentone sodium 5 mg/kg intravenous (i.v.), vecuronium 0.12 mg/kg i.v., anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, O2 50%, N2O 50% around a BIS value of 40. Results: After infusion of the study drug was completed, BIS of study group was significantly lower than that of control group (57.36±3.88 vs 96.66±1.51, p < 0.0001). After tracheal intubation, HR, SBP, DBP, MAP was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in control group than the study group. During maintenance, HR, SBP, DBP and MAP remained significantly lower (p < 0.05) in study group than control group. Sevoflurane consumption for 2 hours duration of surgery was significantly less in study group than control group (25.05±2.67 vs 33.14±3.70,p<0.0001). Patients in study group took significantly more time to respond to suction catheter, to obey verbal commands and for complete extubation than the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Preanesthetic dexmetomidine 1 μg/kg single infusion is an economical and useful adjuvant to general anaesthesia that maintains stable haemodynamics, decrease anaesthetic consumption and provides good post-operative analgesia.

  85. Fanny Margaretha Laihad, Dian Mulawarmanti, Kristanti Parisihni, Noengki Prameswari, Syamsulina Revianti and Widyastuti

    Background: Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are uncommon, but when they occur, they are devastating to patients. These infections are opportunistic, they occur when the organism to which are frequently exposed gain entry to the body due to a decrease in host defenses. Periodontitis usually caused by bacteria infection. The aim of this study is to introduce a rare case of periodontitis suspected caused by fungal infection. Case: The focus case is 59 year-old immunocompromised patient with left maxillary canine teeth had a caries, vital pulp but there was already swelling on her left cheek, very sharp pain , the patient had a headache, no fever and normal gingiva. Result: The patient was treated with antibiotic, no effect but with antifungal had a good outcome and the left maxillary canine teeth had an endodontic treatment Conclusion: It is suspected that this periodontitis was caused by fungal infection because this patient had a history identification of fungal infection which was cultured from her right ear and the skin swab of ass right.

  86. Syed Imtiyaz Hussain, Ruby Reshi, Gulshan Akhter, Baba Iqbal and Jibran Amin

    Background: Endometrial curettage is one of the commonest invasive gynecological procedure in reproductive as well as post reproductive age in abnormal uterine bleeding. Objective: To determine the histological types of endometrial lesions in curettage specimens, of peri menopausal women having abnormal uterine bleeding. Methodology: This is a one year retrospective study which was conducted from 1st January 2015 to 30th December 2015 at post graduate department of pathology in Govt. medical college Srinagar. A total of 300 endometrial curettings were included in the study. The inclusion criteria was sufficient endometrial specimen from perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding, where as the exclusion criteria was insufficient curetting specimen. A minimum of one sections and a maximum of two sections were taken from the endometrial specimen. Sections 4-5 micron thick were prepared and stained with H&E and reported by histopathologist. The data was entered and analyzed in SPSS version 20. Results: A total of 300 endometrial currettings were included in this study with age range from 35 to 49years. The most common age group encountered was 35-39 years, in which 171(57%) cases of endometrial currettings were noted. The common histological lesions were secretory phase of endometrium 96 (32 %) followed by proliferative phase 74 (24.6 %), simple hyperplasia without atypia 35(11.6%), retained product of conception 19 (6.3%), disordered proliferative endometrium 17 (5.6%) endometritis 12(4%), endometrial polyp 14 (4.6%) and endometrial adenocarcinoma 2(0.6%). Conclusion: This study showed that that endometrial curettage is a significant diagnostic tool in identification of the lesion leading to abnormal uterine bleeding.

  87. Makne Sachin, Wagatkar Jayshri and Shah Dimpi

    Background: The presence of supernumerary teeth, between the two central incisors, known under the term mesiodens, is one of the most common developmental problems in children. Their presence may give rise to a variety of clinical problems. Detection of supernumerary teeth is best achieved by thorough clinical and radiographic examination. Supernumerary teeth may be encountered by the general dental practitioner as a chance finding on a radiograph or as the cause of an impacted central incisor. Design: This article presents an overview of the clinical problems associated with supernumerary teeth and includes a discussion of the classification, diagnosis, and management of this difficult clinical entity. Conclusion: The most common supernumerary tooth, which appears in the maxillary midline, is mesiodens. Their diagnosis and management should form part of a comprehensive treatment plan. Treatment depends on the type and position of the supernumerary tooth and on its effect on adjacent teeth. The article throws a light on various modalities for investigation and treatment of supernumerary teeth, which is important for an early intervention in children to avoid major complications.

  88. Lucas Silva Barreira, João Carlos Medeiros, Jaqueline Dalla Rosa, Fabio Mielezrski, Rafael FelippeRatke and Wéverson Lima Fonseca

    In tropical soils, the correction of soil acidity may help increase the efficiency of phosphate fertilization. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the growth and development of soybean plants (Glycine max) under different doses of limestone and phosphorus in a dystrophic Yellow Latosol. The study was performed in a greenhouse of the Federal University of Piauí, from October to November, 2014. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design, with three replications and the treatments were arranged in a 4x5 factorial scheme, constituted by the combination of liming (0, 1.5, 6.0 and 12 Mg ha-1) and doses of phosphorus (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg ha1 de P2O5) At 50 days after sowing, the following variables were evaluated: plant height, leaf area, stem diameter, fresh matter and dry matter of plants. The combined application of approximately 6 Mg ha-1 of limestone and 260 kg ha-1 of P2O5 provides the highest growths in soybean plants. The soil pH increases with the limestone dose increase, reaching values in the range of 6 to 6.5 with the application of 12 Mg ha-1 of limestone. The interaction between liming and phosphate fertilization was positive for the soybean growth and development.

  89. Nikolay Tsenov, Todor Gubatov, Georgi Raykov, Albena Ivanova and Plamen Chamurliiski

    Purpose is to verify the new approach for correct separating of wheat varieties in groups matching particular standards of their level of grain yield during the years and towards the different environmental conditions. Materials and Methods: 76 breeding lines were researched for two consecutive years. The first one was with favorable conditions for growing (2006) and the second one in 2007 was characterized by well-defined prolonged drought and unusually high temperatures during the active growing season of crop. Real values of grain yield of each variety were used for the calculation of breeding indexes, which establishes the level of tolerance to abiotic stress. It was made classification based on indices and parameters derived from combinations between them. The separation into groups according to their level of grain yield was founded on direct comparison using the correlations established these indices and combinations. Main Results: By applying the score assessment of the values of the studied indices and parameters is quite possible grain yield genotype be evaluated during contrasting environmental conditions. It was very clear the importance of derivatives indices by newly formed parameters because they were used to value the other cultivars in the certain group. Conclusions: The suitability of the new integrated approach to practical grouping of varieties, according to grain yield in contrast growing conditions was confirmed. An efficient method is proposed for grain yield assessment through all season which dissimilar weather conditions influences on wheat.

  90. Neelam Tiwari

    Present paper deals with the analysis of diversity of Plankton (i.e., Phytoplankton and Zooplankton) and their seasonal variation of density in the Pariyat ariver, at Jabalpur district (M.P.). Four sampling stations were selected on the Pariyat river for sampling purpose. Samples were collected for a period of one year (October 2015 to September 2016) at each month of every season. Collected samples were evaluated for study of diversity of Plankton (i.e., Phytoplankton and Zooplankton) and their seasonal varaition of density. Registered Phytoplankton were belong to 35 species of 25 genera of different groups like as Chlorophyceae (12 species of 11 genera), Euglenophyceae (3 species of 2 genera), Bacillario-phyceae (5 species of 5 genera) and Cyanophyceae (15 species of 7 genera). In the study period group Chlorophyceae was dominated over rest of the Phytoplankton population. Registered Zooplankton were belong to 22 species of 16 genera of different groups like as Protozoa (3 species of 3 genera), Rotifera (12 species of 6 genera), Cladocera (5 species of 5 genera) and Copepoda (2 species of 2 genera). Among recorded Zooplankton Rotifer’s population was dominant during entire study span. It was noticed that density of Plankton was maximum in summer, minimum in rainy season and intermediate in winter season.

  91. Samer Shamshad, Dr. Savita Chaurasia, Dr. Anoop Kumar, Dr. Showket Hussain and Dr. Mausumi Bharadwaj

    In reliable to the fact that changes in amino acid sequence of HPV-16 E6 & E7 proteins might modify the transforming activity of the protein by disturbing the interactions with the EGFR proteins. It was proposed that those variations in the E6 & E7 proteins may affect the transforming potential of HPV-16 owing to change affinity for cellular transcription factors or for viral DNA. In this study, HPV-16 DNA was isolated from cervical cancer tissue using the specific primer designed by the Primer 3 plus software for the HPV antigen E2 gene. The amplified gene was ligated with T vector (pEGTMZ) and transformed into DH5α cells. The plasmid DNA obtained was then established by restriction digestion and sequence analysis which was found to be 99% similar to that obtained in GenBank. Dendrogram was constructed using ClustalW software (online) to get the similarity of the sequence with the existing sequence in the NCBI.

  92. Sinha, A., Pandey, A. and Suneetha, V.

    A cross-sectional door-to-door home survey was conducted in the village of Nelvoy in Vellore District of Tamil Nadu to assess 9 standard factors governing the incidence and prediction of the risk of Diabetes Mellitus in the village. A structured questionnaire was delivered to a sample of 100 people (65 female and 35 male) in a village with a population of about 1700 people. Sociological, physiological and bio-technical (medical) data was collected and analyzed using statistical methods against standard medical classifications of various factors. The Study reports its findings for each of the 9 factors related to prevalence of diabetes in this population. While 14% of the population of the village of Nelvoy lies in the category of Established Cases of diabetes mellitus, another 9% are already in pre-diabetic stage. Almost half (47%) of the village population are either overweight or obese, with females exceeding males in the overweight/obese category and hence are at high risk of diabetes. Young adults are in the most danger of acquiring diabetes in the coming years.

  93. Shilpi Singh

    Banana plant, considered as a nature’s gift to mankind is widely known for its fruit part due to its enormous nutritional and health benefits but banana blossom (widely known as flower or heart), also has potential to be regarded as a functional food or superfood due to its high nutrient content (excellent source of fibre, good source of protein, vitamin A,C and E, minerals like phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium and antioxidants) and great therapeutic value (lowers menstrual bleeding, facilitates lactation, helps in overcoming diabetes, anaemia and ulcer, reduces anxiety, helpful in weight loss and good for gastrointestinal health). Despite of being such a wonder food it is still underrated in most part of the world (except south-east Asian countries). Therefore, it is the demand of present time to increase the awareness about banana blossom as it will not only reduce the banana waste but will also help people all over the world, reap its health benefits.

  94. Tripathi, I. P., Sangam Lal Dwivedi, Arvind Dwivedi and Renu Prajapati

    The surface water quality of west zone in central India prescribed, the physicochemical parameter such as, temperature, pH, total hardness, total dissolved solid, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, was analyzed. The physicochemical parameter for some samples showed that the values are deviating from the prescribedlimites for the domestic purpose, the results analyzed by correlation has been used to suggest models for predicting water quality. The water quality in all the study areas surveyed was found to be unfit for human consumption, the lack of water quality different diseases freaquently affect for local people. Hence suitable water management is essential to avoid contamination.

  95. Jehad M. H. Ighbareyeh, Cano-Ortiz, A., Cano Carmona, E., Mohammed M. H. Ighbareyeh, Asma A. A. Suliemieh and Shahir Hijjeh

    Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is one of the most important export crops in Palestine. In this study, we analyzed the mean monthly temperature and precipitation using data from one weather station of the Palestine Meteorological Department, recorded in the period from (1993-2009), with the same years of plant production (rainfed) from the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS). Statistical analysis included a bioclimatic analysis of Palestinian meteorological station for the period previous by using bioclimatic classification of the Earth of Rivas Martinez Salvador, with regard to simple continentality index, compensated thermicity index, annual ombrothermic index, water deficit and soil water reserve. In concluded, when we applied a principal component analysis (PCA), observed that the Jenin type plot during (1996-2004) are positively correlated and affected by the bioclimate factors as annual ombrothermic index, compensated thermicity index and climate factors as a soil water reserve to plant yield, while negatively correlated and influenced by the rest factors of the climate as temperature, deficit water and precipitation during (1993-1996 and 2004-2009). Furthermore, the optimum of the plant production is achieved with values of simple thermicity index between (16-22), annual ombrothermic index (2.7 - 4.5), compensated thermicity index (250-420), precipitation more than 800 mm., temperature (18-320C) at the summer, and thermomediterranean to mesomediterranean of thermotype in Jenin at the north of Palestine.

  96. Soliman, D. E., Abdel Badiea, N. M., Lotfy, N. M. and Shehata, M. G.

    Nucleotide diversity was studied using Cyt b (mt) DNA in different geographically Phlebotomus papatasi populations, but with both history of cutaneous leishmaniasis, Alexandria, and North Sinai-Egypt. Although, Egyptian P. papatasi was utilized as a part of different reports as a part of Mediterranean coat , However, it doesn't mirror the gene structure of the sandflies population in Egypt especially these reports doesn’t stuck to particular regions in these reports. Sand flies (N = 842) were collected from both regions using sticky papers and CDC miniature light traps. Cyt b (mt) DNA was extracted from pools each of 25 females, amplified using specific primers, and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that Cyt b gene region had two haplotypes with five polymorphic sites in Egyptian P. papatasi. In addition, neutrality test (Tajima’s D) showed no significant difference, indicating that P. papatasi populations from study regions were genetically homogeneous, as reported for other Mediterranean regions.

  97. Frank Mayer

    Bacterial cells that synthesize sensible products should be lysed with techniques that do not damage the products. We describe such an approach; we call it “induced lysis”.

  98. Elamathi, P. and Madhanraj, P.

    Paddy is one of the most important food plants in the world. The plants practice of growing rice in heat lands, popularly known as rice has led a number of diseases affecting the crop. The aim of the present investigation suggests that the antifungal activity of 10 plant extracts used in traditional medicine against the phytopathogenic fungus Bipolaris oryzae by agar well diffusion method. Bipolaris oryzae is a soil borne pathogenic fungi which cause leaf spot disease in Rice. The plants are reservoir of biological active compounds to combat various pathogens. Various medicinal plants were used for antifungal activities against Bipolaris oryzae. The plants Acalypha indica Achyranthes aspera, Andrographis paniculata, Azadirachta indica, Catharanthus roseus, Justicia adhatoda, Plectranthus amboinicus, Phyllanthus niruri, Senna auriculata and Vitex negundo with different solvents such as aqueous, ethanol and methanol was used for extracts of plant phytochemicals by soxhlet apparatus. However methanol with medicinal plants extracts was excellent performance when compared to other solvents. The results were discussed in detail.

  99. Preet Rachna and Vashistha, B. D.

    Present study was conducted to study the effect of different concentrations of sucrose on protonemal growth and bud formation of Hydrogonium arcuatum and Anoectangium clarum. Addition of sucrose have no effect on bud formation in Anoectangium clarum and 1% sucrose shows maximum protonemal growth in both moss species.

  100. Sara Mascaretti, Carlo Masciocchi, Giulio Mascaretti, Eva Fascetti and Sonia Iafrate

    Backround: patients affected by single and multiple uterine fibroids and that underwent Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatment have been monitored in the post treatment phase with Real-time Tissue Elastography (RTE) in order to evaluate the flexibility and vascularization levels of MRgFUS treated fibroids. Methods: from September 2015 to October 2016, 30 patients aged between 23 and 51 affected by single and multiple uterine fibroids (sized between 2 and 14 cm) have been monitored in our clinic unit through the Real-time Tissue Elastography (RTE) to examine the flexibility level of MRgFUS treated fibroids. Results: In our operating unit, 30 patients out of 30 have undergone the evaluation through elastosonography before and after the Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatment for single and multiple uterine fibroids. Beyond the elastosonography evaluation, patients have been closely evaluated by means of a complete gynecological examination, a transvaginal ultrasound, an MRI with and without contrast agent and a symptoms severity score (SSS) questionnaire. All the evaluations have been carried out for the selection of patients that had to undergo the focused ultrasound treatment and, after the treatment, a 3 months, 6 months and 9 months follow-up. 29 patients out of 30 had, after 12 months, a 75% reduction of the NVP, an 80% reduction of the SSS and a 70% reduction in average of the fibroid volume. With the use of elastosonography, the level of elasticity and vascularisation of the treated area has been highlighted. Conclusions: elastosonography represents a diagnostic instrument in addition to the gynecological examination, the transvaginal ultrasound, the MRI with and without contrast agent and the symptoms severity score (SSS) questionnaire, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of focused ultrasound in the treatment of single and multiple uterine fibroids in women of childbearing age and not. Furthermore, it represents an extra tool in the evaluation of patients to be included in the focused ultrasound treatment and to evaluate the rigidity level of the fibroid after the treatment.

  101. Gajbhiye, S. P. and Bhalerao, S. A.

    Phytoremediation potential of Alternanthera sessilis L. for the heavy metals chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) was studied. The samples of water, soil and plant material were collected from heavily polluted Thane-Belapur Industrial Area, Navi Mumbai, India. The collected samples of water and soil were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters as well as heavy metals while plant samples were analyzed for heavy metals using ICP-AES. The results for physico-chemical parameters for water and soil showed all the values were above the permissible limits. Highest concentration of these metals was reported in soil than wastewater. These metals were reported in the sequence of Fe>Cu>Cr> Zn>Ni. Alternanthera sessilis L. showed high bioaccumulation of these heavy metals Roots have higher concentration of heavy metals as compared to shoots. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals have sequence of Fe>Zn>Cr>Cu>Ni. From the experiment it is clear that Alternanthera sessilis L. have ability to withstand such high concentration of heavy metals and prove to be potential species for phytoremediation.

  102. Jonwal, C.L., Rawat, V. S., Geetika Bhalla, Rashmi Sisodia and Neeta Sahgal

    Purpose: The aim of present study was to investigate the protective role of melatonin (Mel) against 10 GHz microwave radiation induced adverse effects on testes of mice. Materials and methods: 6-8 weeks old 24 male Swiss albino mice were procured from inbred colony and were divided into 3 groups. Group I Sham exposed (control), Group II microwaves (MW) exposed, Group III (MW + Mel) treated with melatonin (2mg/kg body weight). The power density was measured 0.25 mW/cm2 and the SAR was calculated 0.12 W/kg. Results: After completion of exposure period the animals were sacrificed and testes were excised to study various stress related parameters. Analysis of data revealed that long-term 10 GHz exposure resulted in significant decrease (P < 0.001) in Superoxide dismutase (SOD),Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and testosterone whereas Catalase (CAT), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS increased significantly(P < 0.001). Meanwhile, melatonin reversed adverse effects of MW radiation and it increased SOD, GPx, testosterone and decreased CAT, MDA and ROS significantly in MW + Mel group (P< 0.001). Conclusion: It may be concluded that free radicals causing oxidative stress could be responsible for detrimental effects in testes whereas, melatonin proved to be a strong antioxidant and it reversed the adverse effects of MW radiation.

  103. Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen and Joseila Maldaner

    The current methodologies available for Trichoderma sp. multiplication under controlled conditions require long periods to produce the fungal inoculum. This study presents a simple and efficient methodology for multiplication of pure Trichoderma sp. cultures within only 13 days of incubation. The differential of the proposed methodology is the multiplication step in commercial organic substrates, which optimizes and reduces the production cost of the fungal inoculum, thus facilitating its use in the production of different species of seedlings of agricultural and forestry interest, as well as in research that aims to evaluate the agricultural potential of different Trichoderma sp. isolates.

  104. Esaïe TSOATA, Carine NONO TEMEGNE and Emmanuel Youmbi

    Early biochemical criterion of four Fabaceae leguminous plants, were studied, in glasshouse, under water stress condition, in pots on a substrate made up of ¾ of ground and ¼ of sand, with seedlings having two three leaflets leaves. Experimental design was a factorial arranged in a completely randomized block with: four species (Cajanus cajan, Phaseolus lunatus, Tephrosia vogelii and Vigna subterranea), four watering levels: 90 (blank), 60, 30 and 15% of field capacity, replicated five times. Various parameters measured after 15 days of water stress, are content of: chlorophyll a+b, carotenoids, proline, total amino acids, total soluble proteins and total soluble sugars. Results obtained for studied parameters show that water stress differently modifies metabolism of plants according to genotype. Proline content and total soluble sugars content can be used like early indicators and relevant criteria of tolerance to drought, usable in varietal selection and like parameters of improvement of yield in arid areas.

  105. Rajesh Kumar, Milan Kumar Chakravarty, Palash Mondal and Somen Chakraborty

    Ten improved chickpea genotypes were evaluated in field condition against gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Weekly observations showed that mean larval population of the insect in different genotypes ranged from 5.19 to 9.44 meter row-1 from 2nd week of January to end of February, whereas, the pod damage varied from 9.32 to 30.35%. The results revealed that among the tested genotypes, BG-256 showed the maximum resistance to the noctuid insect followed by KPG-59 with less larval population plant-1, minimum pod damage and highest grain yield. From the experimental findings, it was concluded that the genotypes BG-256 and KPG-59 could be used in crossing/evolving new elite chickpea varieties.

  106. Nagaraju Navagana, Bandaru V. Rao and Tarakeswara Nadiu, M.

    Cotton is one of the most important commercial crops cultivated throughout India. A survey on the weeds growing in cotton crop fields in the 43 mandals, of Visakhapatnam district was carried out to identify the weed flora, species composition, density, frequency and importance value index (IVI). A total of 55 different plant species belonging to 45 genera and 21 families have been recorded in cotton fields in the study area. Among 21 families Asteraceae was the largest weed family representing 10 weed species, while Euphorbiaceae with 7 species reported as the second largest weed family followed by Poaceae (5) and Cyperaceae (4). The results of phytosociological studies revealed that Phyllanthus debilis (3.10) was found to be the most abundant species followed by Chromoleana odorata (3.0) Celosia argentea (2.6) Phyllanthus amarus (2.6) and Cyperus iria (2.58). The Important Value Indiex (IVI) of individual weed species encountered in the cotton crop fields revealed that Chenopodium album (9.44) was the most important species followed by Euphorbia hirta (8.94), Phyllanthus maderaspatensis (8.62) Cleome viscosa (8.03) and Tridax procumbens (8.03) in that order.

  107. Fahmi S Moqbel, Mohammed AL-Azzy Mohimeed, Hussein Khleel, Mujahed Al-Shiaani and Fahd M. Abd Al Galil

    Abamectin is widely used as an insecticide, acaricide, and anthelmintic. The present study assessed the effects of repeated administration of Abamectin (Vapcomic- 1.8% EC) injection formulation on albino male rats the various biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were noted. Two groups each of five of albino male rats were utilized in the current investigation. Abamectin was administered interaperitoneal which treated with (0.1 mg\kg, 0.6 mg\kg) body weight daily for 15 days. At the end of the study period blood samples were collected from all the groups to measure plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities, and the levels of total protein and cholesterol level changes in biochemical parameters were more intense in male rats from group T2 than those reported in group T1. The levels of ALT AST were significantly elevated in rats from group T2 when compared to the control group. In group T1 and T2 showed a significant decrease in the levels of total protein and cholesterol.

  108. Katrodiya Jayesh R. and Makadia Krishna J.

    Myopia is a type of refractive error in which parallel rays of light coming from infinity are focused in front of the retina, when accommodation is at rest. Timir is related with first two Abhyantar Patala of eye. Timir means the darkness or loss of vision and Symptomatology of Timir can be considered as Myopia. Ghrita has its own nutrional value; it helps in regulating functions of extra ocular muscles and eye lids. Jivanti is Chakshyushya and Sarvadoshaghna. The Chakshyushya regimen mentioned in the classics can be useful in controlling the progress of the disease. Snehapana of Jivantyadi Ghrita is Chakshyushya and good beneficial for eye and vision. Jivantyadi Ghrita is a medicated Ghrita which acts as an excellent eye toner and improve vision and function of eye. It delays degenerative diseases of the eye, which has no side effects. However it is best to use this product under medical supervision.

  109. Muzamil Jan and Suriya Gowhar

    The present study was an attempt to observe the attitudes of divorcee women towards their marital status and to compare the attitude of divorcee women in urban and rural areas. The sample was selected through random sampling technique. For the sample, 100 divorcee women were selected from urban and rural areas. The sample was collected with the help of readymade scale namely measuring attitude towards divorce constructed by Anupama Shah and Anjali Gupta (1993). The study shows that the majority of divorcee women belonging to urban area agree that in troubled married life one should go in for divorce even if one feel lonely, un happy and frustrated. It is found that majority of divorcee women from urban area agree that divorce should be avoided after having children. More over it is found that majority of divorcee women belonging to rural area agree that a modern partner should avoid divorce by adjusting with an orthodox partner.

  110. Geetha Devi, S., Venkateswarulu, B. and Chandrasekar, K.

    A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2002-03 on sandy loam soils at Bapatla, Andhra Pradesh to study the effects of pre and post-emergence herbicides, alone or integrated with manual/mechanical weeding on weed pressure, productivity and economic returns of Rabi groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). Pendimethalin @ 0.75kg/ha as pre-emergence(PE)+imazethapyr@75 g/ha as post-emergence(PoE) herbicides at 21 days after sowing (DAS) resulted in significantly higher growth attributes, yield attributes, yield and net returns over the unweeded control and was found at par withT1: Hand-weeding at 20 and 40 DAS,T7:Pendimethalin @ 0.75kg a.i./ha(PE)+Intercultivation with wheel-hoeing fallowed by hand weeding and T5:Pendimethalin@0.75kg a.i./ha(PE)+imazethapyr @ 50 g a.i./ha(PoE).

  111. IMBGA B kossi, SAMBOU Vincent, KIENO P. Florent and DIEYE Younouss

    In this work, we have determined the thermophysical parameters of various formulations with laterite and slaked lime. This shows that the thermal conductivity decreases when the lime rate is lower than 4% and increases when the rate is higher than 4%. The thermal conductivity was for a rate of 4%; it increases to 21.13% for 16% of lime used. We found that the compressive strength increases but very slowly. However, the increase in mechanical strength of the various formulations still remains lower than the strength of the laterite without lime. Lime has a significant impact on the thermal properties, but this impact on the mechanical properties is low, since the mechanical strength increases by 6.84% for rates of 12% and 16% of lime used.

  112. Uma Maheswari, O., Vadivel, A. and Sivakumar, D.

    The purpose of the present paper is to introduce the concepts of rwμ -Lindel¨of spaces in generalized topological spaces and study someof their properties and characterizations.

  113. Priyanka Yadav, Jyoti Dahiya, Kanishk Bhardwaj, Ravleen Kaur, Ranjana Saxsena, Hema Banati, Aruna Chhikara and Amita Malik

    Textile industries are major source of water pollution, dyestuffs have proven to be problematic as these are most difficult to treat and recover the dye. These dye effluents are discharged in millions of gallons from different textile mills world over. These are known to affect the environment adversely reducing the dissolved oxygen thus affecting the aquatic life. Conventional treatment techniques involve physical, chemical and biological methodologies. These are not full-proof and thus new techniques are required to improve the efficiency of dye removal. Ionic liquids have been reported to be novel solvents for carrying out liquid –liquid extractions. The asymmetric cations with different combinations of anions can be explored for the removal of dye from the generated textile effluents. These could provide possible solutions to overcome this problem of textile industry.

  114. Nur Yazdani, P. E., Vinod Reddy Kamagani Kuntla and Srinivas Prabakar

    Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) wrapping is being successfully used to strengthen deteriorated and/or under-designed concrete structures for flexure, shear, axial, blast and impact capacities. The technique is economic, labor friendly, durable and space saving. In this study, the effect of various FRP wrapping parameters, such as type, fiber orientation, number of layers and the role of the epoxy adhesive, were investigated on the ingress of chloride ions inside the concrete substrate. A surface saline ponding approach for 16 weeks and chemical determination of chloride contents of powder concrete at various concrete depths were utilized. FRP wrapping was found to provide excellent barrier against chloride ingress (28% reduction on average). The chloride resistance came from the composite FRP laminate and not from epoxy only. The chloride content decreased rapidly and linearly with the penetration depth. Carbon FRP (CFRP) was more effective than the thinner glass FRP (GFRP), and double layers more effective than single layer. The FRP fiber directionality had no bearing on chloride penetration. Although less expensive, the less strong GFRP is at a disadvantage in providing long-term durability to concrete structures, as compared to CFRP wrapping.

  115. Rezaei Jahromi, K. and Dehghanian, C.

    In different industries organic compounds are used as corrosion inhibitor in acid solution. Organic compounds are highly cost and it may not be economical to use. Organic inhibitors make a thin layer on the metal's surface that may absorb on the cathode or anode surface or both. Decrease corrosion rate. This article discuss about some organic drug that has been used as an inhibitor of corrosion. These drug compounds has been used in two types: drug and expired drug. This method decrease the cost in corrosion field. In this experiment EIS test has been used to major the polarization resistance and the capacity of electrical double layer. The drug has been used with these concentrations 500-100-1500ppm. Drug pantoprazole with the concentration of 1500 ppm was the best inhibitor among other compounds. And it has been observed that the active type of the drug works better as an inhibitor than another type.

  116. Varsha Yaduvanshi, Manish Rai and Dr. Mohit Gangwar

    Cloud computing is model which uses combine concept of “software-as-a-service” and “utility computing”, provide convenient and on-demand services to requested end users. Security in Cloud computing is an important and critical aspect, and has numerous issues and problem related to it. Cloud service provider and the cloud service consumer should make sure that the cloud is safe enough from all the external threats so that the customer does not face any problem such as loss of data or data theft. There is also a possibility where a malicious user can penetrate the cloud by impersonating a legitimate user, thus infecting the entire cloud and affects many customers who are sharing the infected cloud. This paper firstly lists the parameters that affect the security of the cloud then it explores the cloud security issues and problems faced by cloud service provider and cloud service consumer such as data, privacy, and infected application and security issues. It discusses a new technique to tackle these issues and problems.

  117. Sidharath Joshi

    During the past three centuries, there has always been an emphasis on development of a kind of engine that has superior efficiency is less polluting and has good power generation. This review paper describes the new advancement in the four stroke Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) which has enormous advantage. For further improvement in IC engines, a Belgium Engineer name Gerhard Schmitz presented a new innovation called five stroke Engine. This concept gained momentum and its prototype was put in reality by Ilmor Engineering. After considering research, it was developed with the idea of generating expansion ratio significantly higher than compression ratio. This engine has a similar torque generation and high power density but low fuel consumption when compared with the Four-stroke engines. The total efficiency is improved in the certain range.

  118. Mohamed A. Khalifa, Abdelmotleb Ali Mostafa and Osama Ezzat Abdellatif

    This studypresents CFD 3-D winglets analysis on a civil aircraft wing ofNACA23016airfoil for root wing section, NACA 23014airfoil for mean wing section and NACA 23012airfoil for tip wing section. These airfoils were considered as 4 m chord length at root section, 2.8 m chord length at mean section and 1.6 m chord length at tip wing section at which is added the winglet with the same profile at tip section with 45 degree cant angle. A CFD study to evaluatethe aerodynamics characteristics of lift coefficient CL, drag coefficient CD and lift to drag ratio, L/D lift, pathlines and pressure contours is presented.All wings are simulated at a subsonic Mach number of (0.2) and ambient conditions pressure of (1 bar) and temperature of (15o C) at sea level. The wing with winglet blended connection has approximately the lift to drag ratio, CL/CD range varies from (11- 12.4)% with different air stream angles more than wing without winglet. The wing model with sharp edge winglet has lift to drag ratio, CL/CD range varies from (6.4- 8.2) % with different air stream angles less than the wing without winglet. CFD results proved that the wing with blended winglet is more efficient than the wing with sharp edge.

  119. Priti Deshmukh, Pradeep K. Soni, Ravi Bansal and Halve, A. K.

    A new series of imines ((E)-4-(((4-substituted-phenyl)imino)methyl)-2-methoxyphenyl-acetate and (E)-2-allyl-4-(((4-substituted-phenyl)imino)methyl)-6-methoxy phenyl-4-methyl-benzene-sulfonate) has been synthesized by the condensation of 3-methoxy-4-acetyloxy benzaldehyde and 3-methoxy-4-p-toluene-sulphonyloxy-5-allyl-benzaldehyde with several sulfa drugs and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR spectra and elemental analysis. The compounds were screened in-vitro against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, A. niger, A. flavus using disc diffusion method. The synthesized compounds exhibited promising antimicrobial activity.

  120. Madan Kumar Sah, Padam Bahadur Shahi, Ramanand Pandit and Ashok Pandey

    An issue of major concern within the construction industry worldwide is so called ‘project delay’, whereby negotiated contracts and/or planned schedules for construction between organizations are not met in the specified time. Such project delays may be caused by the actions of the consultant and contractor. The research has been structured as the case study of construction projects during implementation phase aspects of Kathmandu valley. It revolves around the secondary data sources collected from the organization’s periodic publications, yearly reviews, customer feedback charts and market analysis of the company in competition with the others with same business process design. In order to minimize costly and time-consuming delays, project managers are required to identify and be aware of the potential causes and their possible effects on the overall completion of a construction project. Hence determining the contractual responsibility of delay is the most likely source of dispute in construction projects.

  121. Prof. Dr. Kyoo Jae Shin, Muhammad Akbar and Yogendra Rao Musunuri

    This paper is concerned with motion tracking control of the robot fishes along with the 3D holographic fishes using Radio Frequency (RF) modem, multi-link and free-swimming biomimetic robot;the researched robot fish motion control is related to the speed control through RF modem and it focuses on detecting the moving object in the water as well as tracking the robot fish along with 3D holographic fish in the aquarium world designed for an augmented reality. Color attracts the every one and easy way to recognizean object. Physically, the object of the color recognizes because of light leaving from their surfaces. In the aquarium robot world, various colors of robot fishes along with 3D holographic fishes are mimicking the behavior of the real fish and it forms an augmented reality. In this study, this algorithm is designed to detect the position of the robot fish using color detection algorithm with the Open CV through camera. By using this position data, we are able to track the robot fishes using color mark. At this color mark zone, these robot fishes and 3D holographic fishes will be stopped until this color mark remove from this zone, and 3D holographic fishes will swim, following the robot fishes, after remove this color mark, again robot fishes and 3D holographic fishes swim, this tracking process will be continued until this algorithm stops. The performance test of this detecting algorithm has been satisfied.

  122. Marcelo Caethano Souza Cabeça, Samuel Filgueiras Rodrigues, André Silva Neto, Edson Jansen Pedrosa de Miranda Junior, Gedeon Silva Reis and Antônio Maia de Oliveira

    The present work is based on a comparison between nitriding plasma technique described as CCPN (Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding) and the conventional DCPN (DirectCurrent Plasma Nitriding). Here the nitriding process applied on the AISI 316 stainless steel was investigated under the following conditions:constant pressure of 5mbar at temperatures of 400, 450 and 500°C. The cathodic cage used allowed the deposition and thermal treatment in three-dimensional way on samples and guaranteed excellent deposition rate and the growth of the layersonactivated thermal surfaces. The nitriding process appliedwith the cathodic cage produced the same properties related to the conventional one (DCPN) by eliminating common problems associates with this procedure, especially, the edge effects. The thickness of the nitrided layer obtained by the usage of the cathodic cage was closer to the one obtained by DCPN process, however with lower adhesive wear when is compared with ionic nitriding. The ideal temperature in nit riding mixture of 80% N2 - 20% H2 for the procedure with the cathodic cage was 450°C. These also contributed to thickening the layers and improve themicro hardness as well as the wear resistance of the material.

  123. Atma Yudha Prawira, Budha Maryanti and 3EtikoPuspoRini

    Mudmotors are of multi-lobe positive displacement operating on the “Moineau” principal. A drilling fluid commonly referred to as the “mud” is supplied under pressure from a surface source into the tubing during drilling to wellbore. The drilling fluid operates the mud motor (when used) and discharges at the drill bit bottom. The drilling fluid then returns to the surface via the annular space (annulus) between the drill string and the wellbore wall or inside. Fluid returning to the surface carries the rock bits (cuttings) produced by the drill bit as it disintegrates the rock to drill the wellbore. Generally, there are 2 main section on mud motor which are bearing section and power section. The power section generally includes a housing which houses a motor stator within which a motor rotor is rotationally mounted. The power section converts hydraulic energy into rotational energy by reverse application of the Moineau pump principle. The stator has a plurality of helical lobes which define a corresponding number of helical cavities. The rotor has a plurality of lobes which number one fewer than the stator lobes and which define a corresponding plurality of helical cavities. Generally, the greater the number of lobes on the rotor and stator, the greater the torque generated by the motor. Fewer lobes will generate less torque but will permit the rotor to rotate at a higher speed. Based on torque and rotate speed, determine the optimum power can be produced by power section configurations.

  124. Mehmet ÇAKMAKKAYA

    Cotton 30MnB5 quality steel (EN 10083:2006), used in agricultural machinery production, was employed in this study. Some of the components in agricultural tools are prone to abrasion during soil tillage. Processes of hardfacing with coated electrode fillet weld and surface hardening through nitriding, employed commonly for increasing abrasion resistance of such material used for digging components, were studied. A 2 mm thick deposit was formed on 8 mm thick, boron containing, heat treated and tempered steel surface using NiMo and Citomangan Hardfacing Electrodes. Also, liquid nitriding process was applied at 650ᴏC for 3 hours on this material. The mass loss of the new material formed with such methods was measured and abrasion tests thereof were conducted. Abrasion tests at 0.186 m/s rotational speed for a period of 60 hours were applied on the abrasion specimens prepared for this purpose in a container with mineral abrasives. The smallest mass loss was measured for specimens made with Citomangan hardfacing electrode. In addition, corrosion resistances of the specimens were assessed in a 0.5 mol NCL and 29.22 gr double distilled corrosive environment. Surface hardness and wear loss values do not match, which is thought to be influenced by the elemental contribution resulting in harder phases or microstructures during the testing. Agricultural tools facing severe soil wear have been surface modified by using liquid nitriding, Citomangan and NiMo hardfacing electrodes. Hardfacing electrodes are comparatively more efficient in terms of wear loss compared to liquid nitriding. Agricultural tools facing severe soil wear have been surface modified by using liquid nitriding, Citomangan and NiMo hardfacing electrodes. Hardfacing electrodes are comparatively more efficient in terms of wear loss compared to liquid nitriding. Surface hardness and wear loss values do not match, which is thought to be influenced by the elemental contribution resulting in harder phases or microstructures during the testing.

  125. Lo, C. Y.

    The formula E = mc2 is actually only a speculation of Einstein because it has never been proven. This formula started from special relativity and has become famous because of the atomic bomb. However, for a single type of energy, Einstein has failed to prove it. Einstein thought that he had proved that the electromagnetic energy is equivalent to mass because he had mistaken that the photons have only electromagnetic energy. However, General Relativity shows that the photons necessarily have the combination of electromagnetic energy and the gravitational energy. Theoretically, the electromagnetic energy is not equivalent to mass because the electromagnetic energy-stress tensor is traceless and thus cannot affect the Rici curvature as a mass does. Moreover, the electromagnetic energy would generate repulsive gravitation, which has been confirmed by experiments, but the mass generates only attractive gravitation. It is due to the existence of such a charge-mass interaction, general relativity also must be extended and Einstein's unification between electromagnetism and gravitation is necessary. In addition, experimentally a charged capacitor has a reduced weight and a piece of heated-up metal would also have a reduced weight, instead of an increased weight as Einstein predicted. Now, E = mc2 is established as an obstacle.

  126. Gessiel Newton Scheidt, Aloisio Freitas Chagas Junior, Raimundo Wagner de Sousa Aguiar, Sara Nepomuceno Patriota, Debora Portella Bis, AlexSander Rodrigues Cangussu and Augustus CaeserFrankePortella

    This study aimed to modeling and mathematical simulation of immersion bioreactor by bubbles. Were used shoots Oncidiumleucochilum, liquid MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) 0.25 mg L-1 NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) and 0.5 µL Tween 20, pH adjusted to 5.8. The cultures were maintained in growth room at 25 ± 2 ° C under cool white fluorescent lamps (35 mol.m-2.s-1), with 16 hours photoperiod. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with thirty shoots in stages. After 30 days of culture were assessed growth parameters of explants of respirometry and hydrodynamics B.I.B.®. It was found that irradiance of 35 mol.m-2.s-1 supplied over 16 hours, determining the O2 consumption totaling 23.8 hours between photosynthetic cycles. The relative electrical conductivity has a behavior consistent with what is expected of the mixture in the bioreactor, and is an appropriate measure to aeration of the culture medium promoting good stirring, causing a homogenization (180s to reach 95% of the concentration equilibrium), which indicates that there exists beyond the aeration mass liquid transfer means between stages. The results of the kinetic variable, total number of shoots, total fresh mass and shoot height propitiated consistency in relation to the established model.

  127. Aurélie Ngamy Kamwa, Cyrille Chebeu, Jacqueline Tchakounte, Jean Pierre Tchouankoue and Joseph Mvondo Ondoa

    In this study we examine the geological significance and petrogenesis of orogenic Pan-African high-K calc-alkaline magmas from the Yoro-Yangben area in southern part of central domain of the Pan-African, North-Equatorial Fold Belt in Cameroon. The objective is to constrain the source and the geotectonic setting of these magmas and therefore to understanding the geodynamic environment of the Yoro-Yangben massif in the Bafia series. 21 samples were analyzed by XRF and ICP-MS. The rock sequences consist of orthogneisses with abundant granodiorite, granite biotite and quartz monzonite composition associated to amphibolite and covers a range of about 46 to 76 wt.-% SiO2. Rocks are metaluminous and of I-type granitoids and characterized by variable LREE enrichment, moderate HREE fractionation with strong negative Eu anomalies. Trace element distribution patterns show that these rocks were derived from crustal protoliths. Sm-Nd and TDM ages point a heterogeneous source and the Nd values a major crustal component. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios indicate that the protolith had a short crustal history. Tectonic evolution is polyphase and monocyclic. Kinematic criteria (C-S fabrics, φ, δ, σ structures), magmatic and solid state deformation markers combine to the elongated shape of the plutons parallel to the Cameroon Central Shear Zone point to syntectonic (D2) magma emplacement compatible with a ductile shear zone which controls the plutonic rocks emplacement. These results resemble other Neoproterozoic high-K calc-alkaline granites of Cameroon and Central Africa Republic and also display strong similarities with high-K calc-alkaline plutons of eastern Nigeria and the Borborema Province in NE Brazil.

  128. Murtaza.S. Kothari, Ameya.D. Aiwale, Naveed.S. Tamboli, Veeneet.V. Tekam and Prof. Hemangi Kute

    Object detection and tracking are two fundamental tasks in multi - camera surveillance. This paper proposes a framework for achieving these tasks in a nonoverlapping multiple camera network. A new object detection algorithm using mean shift (MS) segmentation is introduced, and occluded objects are further separated with the help of depth information derived from stereo vision. The detected objects are then tracked by a new object tracking algorithm using a novel Bayesian Kalman filter with simplified Gaussian mixture (BKF-SGM). It employs a Gaussian mixture (GM) representation of the state and noise densities and a novel direct density simplifying algorithm for avoiding the exponential complexity growth of conventional Kalman filters (KFs) using GM. When coupled with an improved MS tracker, a new BKF-SGM with improved MS algorithm with more robust tracking performance is obtained. Furthermore, a monitoring-based object recognition algorithm is employed to support object tracking over non-overlapping network. Experimental results show that: 1) the proposed object detection algorithm yields improved segmentation results over conventional object detection methods and 2) the proposed tracking algorithm can successfully handle complex scenarios with good performance and low arithmetic complexity. Moreover, the performance of both monitoring - and training-based object recognition algorithms can be improved using our detection and tracking results as input.

  129. Mohammad Tarique Jamali

    This study shows that the behavior of a Electrochemical metal cutting in electrochemical machining process. Study find out the a particular current required for a given Material Removal Rate. The Simple CNC PROGRAM makes the machine semi -automatic.

  130. Arumugam, K. and Abdul Saleem, R. and Sugantha, K.

    In this paper we first change the fuzzy liner programming problem into the fuzzy linear system of equations. Then a Fourier Motzkin elimination method is discussed to solve the above converted fuzzy linear system of equations.

  131. Maria Emilia Camargo, Ivonne Maria Gassen and Beatriz Lúcia Salvador Bizotto

    This research has developed and tested a model contemplating the theoretical constructs product innovation and competitive priorities of quality and flexibility as background to the competitive advantage in the production chain of the Serra Gaúcha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This quantitative descriptive nature study was conducted through a survey applied to a sample of 250 chain producers. Data were analyzed by means of structural equation modeling. The results show that the competitive priorities of quality and flexibility affect positively the product innovation and the innovation of products influences positively the competitive advantage. Thus, the competitive priorities are configured as history of product innovation and product innovation has positive relationship with competitive advantage.

  132. Dr. Okonga Wabuyabo, B. M.

    Little research has been done to establish the level of success of Coca cola Company in recycling and reusing their glass bottles. This paper attempts to establish retail managers’ perception of the company’s self acclaimed success. Retail managers of supermarkets in the CBD of Nairobi, Kenya were considered for the study. Data was collected through questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive (mean, frequencies and percentages) and inferential statistics (correlation analysis) were used to analyze the data. The study found out that there is relative success although a lot needs to be done. For example, improving in communicating policy issues and in practice enhance the actual collection of broken and/or non-broken Coca cola Company glass bottles through providing drop-off points in open areas such as on the streets and in parks.

  133. Shakeel, S. and Mayer, I.

    A Flash flood is rapid flooding of geomorphic low lying areas, washes rivers, dry lakes and basins flash floods occur due to slow moving thunderstorms, heavy rains, glacial lake, out bursts or due to failure of artificial dams. Flash floods occur in fury and leads to destruction of life and property at a very considerable rate. The loss of precious lives carried off by the floods is a big score with rising number day by day. Markets offices, hospitals, educational institutions, roads etc are sounding feeling of fear, mental uneasiness grief, discomfort and anxiety are so deep rooted caused by disasterouss flash floods. Flash floods can impact hundreds of kilometers. These floods mostly occur in steep sloppy valleys in hilly and mountains areas, but can also occur in small waterways in urban environments.

  134. Bhumika Barot

    In the organization employee is one of the most important asset for the achieving organizational objective there is arise need of proper information about the cost, value and performance of their human resources. This information is the basis of effective management of human elements in any organization. With a view to provide significant information about effective human resource management, a new and specialized branch of accounting has been developed and it is known as human resource accounting (HRA). Human Resources Accounting is an accounting of identifying, measuring, classifying, summarizing and reporting the data about human resources to the investors for effective decision-making regarding the human resources of an organization. In this paper attempt has been made to explain and evaluate the Human Resources Accounting (HRA) practices of Infosys technology limited (ITL).

  135. Umbeli, T., Eltahir, S., Seham A Habeeb Allah, Nuha A Saliheen, Kunna, A., Mohamed S Ahmed and Mirghani, S. M.

    Background: Despite the worldwide commitment to improving maternal health, measuring, monitoring and comparing mortality estimates remain a challenge. Objectives: Implementing maternal death review (MDR) in Sudan, during 2010 -2015, to determine maternal mortality ratio (MMR), identify underlying causes and health system response for reducing maternal mortality. Methodology: Hospital and community- based MDR was conducted during 2010-2015. National and states’ maternal death review committees (NMDRC, SMDRC) were established, a focal person was nominated in each state, hospital and locality. Every maternal death was notified by the focal person using a telephone and notified deaths were reviewed using a structured format, discussed by SMDRC, generate recommendations and submitted to NMDRC. Data was collected by trained registrars, analyzed using microcomputer, SSPS, version 20.0. Results: Out of 3686762 Live births (LB) reported over six years, 6055 maternal deaths were notified and reviewed, MMR was 164/ 100000 LB, with different variation between states. Hospital deaths were 5207 (86.0%), while community deaths were 848 (14.0%). Direct obstetric deaths were 3791 (62.6%), mainly from haemorrhage 1881(31.1%), hypertensive disorders 784 (12.9%) and sepsis 694 (11.5%), while indirect causes were 1699 (28.0%), mainly from hepatitis, complicated malaria & severe anemia. Most of hospital deaths 4401 (72.7%) were admitted late, 3051 (50.4%) died within first 24 hours from admission. Conclusion: Poor antenatal care (ANC) and referral system, home delivery, late presentation and unavailability of blood are the main factors behind MD. Moving to maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR) requires strong commitment of the various stakeholders and responsive health system.

  136. Manish Singh

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to review the original Whipple index, and several modifications suggested to it over time. Several researchers throughout the world try to modify the Whipple index by changing the linearity assumptions and single year age range to give the better result. This study also tries to re-modify the modified Whipple index by changing the single year age range and compare it with the other indices. To know the current scenario of age misreporting in India, its states and district this newly developed index is used for calculation. The data required for this study is single year age-sex distribution of the population of India, its states and district for the census years 2001 and 2011.

  137. Andreea-Cristina Petrică and Stelian STANCU

    This paper focuses on investigating the volatility on the Romanian stock market by employing the joint symmetric and asymmetric ARMA - GARCH models on four of Bucharest Stock Exchange’ own indices which reflect only the evolution of market prices: Bucharest Exchange Trading Index (BET), Bucharest Exchange Trading Extended Index (BET-XT), Bucharest Exchange Trading – Investment Funds (BET-FI) and Bucharest Exchange Trading Energy & Related (BET-NG). We estimated ARCH, GARCH, EGARCH and GJR-GARCH models using the maximum likelihood method under the assumption of Gaussian distributed innovation terms. The empirical results show that in three cases out of four the volatility reacted asymmetrically to the good and bad news. The predominant model turned out to be EGARCH model and this is because it does not require any constraint on the parameters since the positivity of the conditional variance is automatically satisfied. JEL Classification: C22, C52, C55, C58

  138. Eba Teresa Garoma and Ashenafi Belay Adugna

    This study uncovered certain structural and functional aspects of blessings in Afan Oromo which have great intimacy with the cultural, social, political, economic and spiritual welfares of Oromo people. Accordingly, descriptions of prominent linguistic features and various functions of blessings were the objectives of the study. Macha, Tulama, Barentu and Borana-Guji dialects and their native speakers were selected using purposive and convenient and sampling techniques. Data collection instruments were contextualised elicitation, naturalistic data or spontaneous speech data and document analysis. The data gathered using the above scientific tools were analyzed through linguistic descriptive methods. The findings of the study showed that blessings of Afan Oromo have uncommon linguistic features which are rarely used in the ordinary communications of the speakers as the speech acts show structural forms which deviate from the common arrangement of words in the language. Morphosyntactically, inflectional morphemes which show tenses, moods, cases, numbers, persons and genders are identified in the expressions. They basically use second and third singular masculine persons in almost all blessing expressions of the target language. Semantically, blessings in Afan Oromo focus on peace, health, breeding, prosperity, good hopes, trust, power, growth and long life for elders. The pragmatics of the blessing speech in Afan Oromo show that elders/blessers are agents, the blessed or good doers are patients, the blessing expressions are locutionary acts, the benedictions are illocutionary acts and ‘God’s bestowal is the perlocutionary act.

  139. Mrs. Gurpreet Kaur

    We all have time to either spend or waste and it is our decision what to do it with. According to Lee, "Every individual on earth has the same amount of time 60 seconds in a minute,60 minutes in a hour, 1440 minutes in a day and 5,256,00 minutes in a year. Academic achievement is one of the important goals of education. Pandey (1973) stated, "Academic Achievement is the quality and quantity of learning in a subject asserted by examination marks". The objectives of study were (i) To study and compare the time management competence of male and female of secondary school students.(ii) To study and compare the time management competence of government and non-government secondary school students. The discriptive method of investigation was followed. Random sampling technique was used for selecting 300 secondary school students from different government and non-government schools of Amritsar city. The findings of the study were (i) significant difference in the time management competence of male and female secondary school students.(ii) no significant difference in the time management competence of government and non government secondary school students. The result shows that the performance of females in their examination which is possible only on account of effective time management.

  140. Aljazi Alanazi

    The study aimed at exploring teachers' opinions of the concept of collaborative inquiry as a tool for teacher professional development, and knowing the possibility of its implementation in the kingdom. It included a group of the kingdom teachers of primary school teachers in one of the schools of the north of the Kingdom. The participants are 16 distributed as the following, 13 teachers, 2 administrators, and a headmistress. 8 of the participants are Saudis and 5 are not Saudis. The study used the descriptive survey approach. It applied the questionnaire, and personal interview, and the results showed that the professional development of teachers in its current form does not the professional practices. The teachers pointed out the effect of the obstacles that may prevent its implementation such as many teachers' lack of knowledge of this concept, individualism domination over practices in the school environment, and lack of time required for the implementation of collaborative inquiries inside the school. The results of the personal interviews showed that teachers are aware of the importance of the need for the implementation of collaborative inquiry, and willingness to implementing it for the sake of studying and understanding the problems they face in school. On the other hand, there were different opinions of futility of the current professional development efforts. Therefore, the study recommended to study the concept of collaborative inquiry deeply, and within more time in order to discover its implementation benefits, support cooperation between sectors of higher and public education to provide teachers with inquiry skills, exchange experiences between schools, and improving inquiry skill for teachers through implementing induction programs and development workshops inside the school.

  141. Ramesh Kumar Rai

    Purvanchal is known as backward area of Uttar Pradesh and tribes are also weaker (backward) section of our society. Both are expected to collaborate from governance but in the matter of tribes, situation is lamentable. This case study highlights many burning issue, which affect politics and our society for example- political participation of tribes, tribal's faith in governmental process, government cooperation in upgrading tribal's life, administration attitude towards the tribes, the reality of the ongoing schemes for the weaker section of society, as well as their cultural and traditional value and faith which organized them and which are affect their social and political behavior. This paper also marks, social inequality, discrimination exploitation, is still prevalent in society. A large section of society is struggling to live. However, tribes have maintained their existence on its own.

  142. Ma’moun Sh., A. M., Yones, M. A., Mahmoud, D. M., Al-Ashaal S. A., Saleh, N. H., Salama, M. S. and Rady, M. H.

    Environmental variability has important influences on fly life cycle, understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of fly populations is critical for fly control and vector-borne diseases prevention. In this study two satellite sensors were used namely, Rapid Eye and Landsat8 to characterize the fly breeding places in Al- Fauoum Governorate as one of the highly crowded Governorates in Egypt with low services. The study area encompassed 15 different sites as fly breeding sites and the location of the sites were taken by using Global Positioning System (GPS).Different environmental variables derived from both satellites imageries included Land Use Land Cover (LULC) and Land Surface Temperature (LST). (LST) were estimated from the thermal bands of the Landsat8 using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The correlation between sanitation level, water supply and garbage management with fly distribution was measured. Application of (RS) and (GIS) may help the decision makers to take a decision about control program for fly borne diseases at right place, time and in right direction.

  143. Kiring’a Simiyu Edward and Jagongo Ambrose PhD

    On-line tax filing is one of the e-government services that is gaining importance for public to perform their responsibility to the country. In an effort to maintain a modernized tax administration system, the Kenya Revenue Authority developed iTax, an online filing (e-filing) that integrates the processes of registration for tax purposes, tax preparation, tax filing and consequently tax payment. Despite the rapid adoption of e-filing in Kenya, the filing system is still unreliable especially at peak period and on voluntary usage which lead to low level of compliance perceived by taxpayers. The study investigates the impact of online tax filing on tax compliance among MSE in Kibwezi sub-county. The study outlines a detailed literature review and identifies the variables for this research to be taxpayers’ perception towards online filing, taxpayers’ technical skills of filing tax returns and tax compliance. The study was based on descriptive survey research design. The information required for the study was collected from primary sources using the self administered questionnaire and interview schedule. A target population was 1,800 MSE. A total sample size of 316 was picked as representative of the target population. Simple random sampling was used to get respondents. Data was collected by means of questionnaire constructed by the researcher and administered on three hundred and sixteen MSE in Kibwezi Sub County. Pilot study was carried out to guard against using unreliable instruments. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. The validity of the instruments was tested by research experts from Kenyatta University and KRA. Reliability of data collection instrument was through split-half testing. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 was used to analyse the data collected. Data was analysed using t-test at coefficient alpha (α) level of 0.05 to test the relationship between independent and dependant variable. The findings of this study will serve as a useful guideline not only for devising strategies to promote e-government services, particularly tax e-filing service but also to improve the performance of the e-filing system. The public at large will benefit from the adoption of online tax filing while KRA will improve tax compliance. The findings of the study was that online tax filing do affect tax compliance level among MSE as far as perception on online tax filing and technical skills of filing tax returns were concerned. The correlation analysis indicate that there was negative correlation between perception towards online tax filing and tax compliance while there was a positive correlation among technical skills of filing tax returns. From regression analysis, it was revealed that holding perception on online tax filing and technical skills of filing tax returns to a constant zero, tax compliance will stand at 0.712. The summary, conclusion and policy implication have been done. Finally, the area for further research has been identified.

  144. Aluizio Haendchen Filho, Wagner Correia, Pedro Zanchett and Hércules Antonio do Prado

    The software product shown in this article is a system solution aimed at civil defense and municipalities that are located in regions suffering from steadily floods. There is great interested in programs to manage such disasters, particularly with the aid of information technology. The web system SIAH has a joint solution for the civil defense and cities suffering from river flooding. It includes technical analysis and monitoring of the river basin, full real-time forecasting, and several other technical information for the civil defense and hydrologists. In addition to technical information, the developed software will allow managing of the data that will be delivered to the population. Real-time notifications and monitoring of river and rainfall can be done via smartphones and other mobile devices. The application of the developed system will centralize the information in a single system and safe environment, reducing maintenance costs.

  145. Mohammad Abdul Hai

    A Synopsys of the Research thesis is sent here with for publication. The Ph.D degree was awarded by Kakatiya University WARANGAL Telengana state India in open viva conducted on 6.4.2016.

  146. Dr. Mandeep Singh

    The purpose of the study was to find the difference in scores of INHOUSE DOPING ERROR awareness among national level players and sports administrators in the J&K state of India. The study was limited to 56 subjects, 28 national level sport persons and 28 sport administrators in different govt. and private organizations in the J&K state of India. The study was restricted only to the extent of awareness about ‘In house doping errors’. No other aspect of Doping was studied. The level of awareness was studied through the use of self prepared objective type questions only. It was also found that sport persons and sport administrators do not different significantly from each other on awareness about ‘In house doping errors’.

  147. Beena Tripathi

    Chemical weathering breaks up the physically disintegrated rock fragments and organic matter. The process of chemical weathering in arid regions is not fast because of water deficiency. The present study was undertaken on soil contamination in Lawacha-Mohra Khurd section of Pali district, Rajasthan. The aim of the study was investigate the pollution of soil, which is a source of danger to the human and animal kingdom. The polluted soil also damages the nutrient availability along with quality of soil is also diminishing. Various inorganic soil samples were collected from different locations. In laboratory these samples of soil were analyzed to measure various chemical parameters by standard methods such as pH, electrical conductivity and % of organic carbon (OC) were determined. During the course of the study periods, fluctuation in the various parameters was observed due to unequal distribution of different minerals constituents present in the soil. These constituents in soil are produced by breaking up the rock particles and enriching with organic matter from aerial and subterranean parts, also influenced by biological activities. The role of the root systems often very important because it exhibit exceptional development and have the greatest influence of the fracturing in the rock formations producing soils rather than vegetation. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to study the different characteristics of soils around Lawacha-Mohra Khurd region of Delhi Super group and to investigate nutrient availability in different types of soil for finding out its relation with the different type of vegetation it supports.

  148. Alka Kumari, Neeraj Kumar and Manoj K Verma

    This paper describe how one research team can uses variety of different solvents to analyze their different effect on density of alcohol to better understand the characteristics of alcohol. On many occasions now need to drink, so drinking security has become a bigger problem. There are many fake alcohol incidents endanger people’s lives. Different adulterants like methanol, ammonium chloride, Urea in poisoning cases are investigated by using Alcolyzer instrumentation technique. Adulterated alcoholic beverages are legal alcoholic products that have been illicitly tampered with, for instance by criminally adulterating them with water purposely putting them into new container to conceal their true origin or adding toxic substances to manipulate the qualities of alcoholic beverages, which cause serious health difficulties like metabolic problems, blindness, permanent neurological damage and even death [Magnύsdόttir et al., 2010]. This way of counterfeiting alcoholic drink was the reason of massive alcohol poisoning. Poisoning by toxic chemicals such as Methanol, Urea, Acetone, Ammonium chloride, also for treating patient of alcohol toxicant Normal saline (9%) solution is admistrated which cause neuro-depressive effect.

  149. Khan Muneer Aslam

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyses the comparative effect of exercise onphysical fitness between active and inactive male teachers, for this purpose 68 male physical education teachers were taken from district youth services and sports Budgam Kashmir from different schools. For the assessment of effect of exercises, weight body mass index, Grip strength (left and right hand), persistence time, 12 min run and walk test and concentration of hemoglobin were taken as criterion variables. Statistical constant like arithmetic mean, standard deviation and t test were applied and the significant value obtained by t test was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The observation revealed that there was a significant difference between active and in active male on the above said variables.

  150. Jappen Oberoi

    A one line inscription from a panel of the Mahā Stūpa in Kanaganahalli reveals the giving away of the city of Ujjain by a King Pudumāvi. The information gleaned after a careful scrutiny of the contents of this peculiar epigraph when corroborated with the data we already possess regarding the Western Kshatrapas and the Sātavāhanas provides for a better comprehension of the political history of both the aforementioned dynasties.

  151. Anderson Rodrigo da Silva and Renato Paiva de Lima

    The problem of determining the maximum curvature point in fitted curves is introduced and the implementation and use of the function maxcurv() of the R package soilphysics are presented and exemplified using two usual models in experimental design and soil physics .The function maxcurv() can be used for numerically determining the maximum curvature point through four methods: the method of general curvature function, perpendicular distances, linear response plateau and linear piecewise spline. Using the first method does not require knowing the first or second derivatives of the underlying function and allows one to analyse the corresponding curvature function. The latter three methods can be used to determine local points of maximum curvature. The package soilphysics is distribution free (under GLP-2/3) and currently available from the CRAN website: http://CRAN.R-project.org/ package=soilphysics.

  152. Dr. Shantashree Sengupta

    The 21st Century is witnessing a massive flow of information in library. The increasing amount of information can be related to the extensive application of Information & Communication Technology. Today, one of the biggest challenges that libraries face is the enormous amount of data generation and to use this data to improve the quality of managerial decisions. Data mining techniques are analytical tools that can be used to extract meaningful knowledge from large data sets. To do this extraction, data mining combines artificial intelligence, statistical analysis and database management systems to attempt to pull knowledge form stored data. The present paper addresses the applications of data mining in library in an effective and efficient manner.

  153. Martin León Santiesteban and César Miguel Maldonado Alcudia

    This article presents a methodological proposal for the assessment of touristic competitiveness applicable to the Pueblos Magicos, a program that emerges in 2001 with the objective of diversifying touristic offers in Mexico, as well as favoring the communities of the towns through touristic activity. The proposal is built from five dimensions also recognized as factors or components, taken from the importance they represent for the agents involved in the touristic field. In this sense, the paper proposes an alternative for the assessment of touristic competitiveness on the basis of multi-criterion methods for decision-making. Using this approach allows to evaluate and relatively compare the ‘‘Pueblos Mágicos’ in an effective way. Its usage is dealt with as a real multicriterion problem dealing with classifying dealing with the assessment and competitiveness of these destinations in Mexico.

  154. Shima Azizi, Seied Beniamin Hosseini and Dr. C. Basavaraju

    The author is going to consider Iran’s domestic laws regarding to refugees and effective protection of them through Iran’s international responsibilities. In the Iranian context, despite the voluntary return of hundreds of thousands of Afghan and Iraqi refugees to their countries of origin during the past decade, Iran remains host to one of the world’s largest and most protracted refugee populations. The Islamic Republic of Iran is a signatory to the 1951 Convention and its related 1967 Protocol and based on international commitments, provides services to refugees. In Iran, refugees have following rights such as, residency permit and freedom to travel, access to court, law compliance, employment and so forth. Therefore there is need to study how the presence laws and other related international regulations regarding to refugees in Iran can be effective in improving refugee’s quality of lives. There is need to study the role of presence laws and other related international regulations and Non- Governmental Organizations. The author will prove that if the present domestic laws towards refugee’s community, international guidelines and organized and non- organized organizations work together closer and more committed, they will enable to create a unified response to the refugee crisis in Iran.

  155. Seied Beniamin Hosseini and Sandeep, L. Nagdive

    To cater to the ever-increasing need for strategically steering the organization’s managerial practices into strategic management, the most effective way is to integrate the HRD policy and practices with organizational strategy while aligning them with global-arching human resource management. Organizations in both public and private sectors require a critical group of positive factors concerning the effective management of human resources to successfully execute their organization strategies and goals. It involves the analysis of a myriad of internal and external environmental factors contingent to the organization, followed by a strategic approach to influencing key stakeholders and the formulation of strategic HRD policies and plans in parallel with the organization’s business strategy. Drawing from the few key research works available, this article explores the need for integrating the HRD policy and practices with the organizational strategy and assesses the process of integration, so that it warranties that the organization effectively exercise Strategic Management. Having discussed implications of HRD-Organization strategy integration practices, the article concludes that the organizations should make their HRD function more strategic in nature.

  156. Dr. Rajesh, Dr. Vishal Kashyap, Dr. Deepak, Dr. Amrisha, Dr. Arpana, Dr. Anup, Dr. Satish and Dr. Vishnu

    Small bowel obstruction is one of the common conditions presenting in surgical wards, however fecalith is one of the rare causes of bowel obstruction. We present here a case of 12 years old boy, who presented with sub-acute intestinal obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a fecalith in ileum which was retrieved through an enterotomy and primary closure was done. The patient recovered uneventfully. Thus emphasizing the need of through history and workup which steer us to the correct diagnosis.

  157. George Gborienemi Simeon and Onitsha Enebrayi Nelson

    The study investigated effects of contraceptives on the concentration of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Taking advantage of the variability of contraceptives and duration of usage, the three parameters were analyzed spectrophotometrically with the O-cresolpthalein complexion, Xyldyl blue and Molybdated UV methods respectively. Values obtained were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistics. Results show the mean concentration of calcium was significantly higher (p<0.05) in women on oral (combination 3) contraceptives when compared with the control group. The mean concentration of phosphorus and magnesium obtained from subjects on oral (combination 3) were significantly lower (p<0.05) than group. In participants on injectables (depo-provera and noristerat) contraceptives when compared with control group. However, mean serum calcium was significantly lower (p<0.05) in participants on injectables (depo-provera and noristerat contraceptives when compared with control group. The mean concentration of phosphorus and magnesium levels on injectable (depo-provera and noristerat) and implant (Jadelle) were similar in control and participants. Correlation analysis show significant association between magnesium and phosphorus and the duration of contraceptive usage. Hormonal contraceptives show no correlation with body mass index of participants. Complications usually associated with hypo or hyperstates of these micronutrients are of grave medical concern. The need for caution, monitoring and their intermittent evaluation among contraceptive users especially in long term is strongly advocated.

  158. Poonam A. Salunke, Kamlesh Ingale, Pooja Gondhankhede, Kanchan Ghate, Shital S. Patil and Dr. S. D. Barhate

    A simple, rapid, accurate and precise UV method was developed and validated for the estimation of Itraconazole in pharmaceutical dosage form. Spectroscopic method was carried out by using acidic ethanol as solvent. Itraconazole detection wavelength was set at 262nm for validation purpose linearity, accuracy, repeatability, precision, LOD, LOQ, and ruggedness parameters were studied. The linearity was found to be in the range of 2-12 µg/ml.

  159. Dr Ajay Saxena and Dr Manoj Chandak

    Aim: Aim of the study is to evaluate the lateral forces on the instrument in the apical 3rd of curved canal with two Nickel Titanium rotary systems. Methodology: One brand of instrument ProTaper F2 was scanned with micro computed tomography to produce a real-size, 3-dimensional (3-D) model and was compared with Anexas (designed by author). The stresses on the instrument during simulated shaping of the root canals were analyzed numerically by using a 3 D finite element package, taking into account the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the NiTi material. Results: Anexas shows lowest values for force generation in the apical 3rd of canal as compared to Protaper which shows higher values. Conclusion: With FE simulation of root canal shaping by 2 files, it was observed that different instrument designs would experience unequal degree of force generation in canal, as well as reaction torque from the root canal wall.

  160. Dr. Mohd. Arif, Dr. Dinesh Verma, Dr. A. S. Dalal and Dr. Anamika Vyas

    Introduction: There are several components of normal microbial flora in human intestine and the second most common aerobic bacterial flora is Klebsiella species after Escherichia coli. (Podschum et al., 1998) Klebsiella also accompanies extensive resistance to most of the available antibiotics. Resistance to beta-lactam drugs in gram negative is mainly conferred by beta-lactamase- enzymes that inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics by hydrolysis. (Ghafourian et al., 2011) There for this study was designed to determine Carbapenemase production in Klebsiella pneumonia from various clinical samples by using phenotypic test (Combined disk test, Modified Hodge test, and (combined disk test +Modified Hodge test both). Aim and objectives: The present study was undertaken to determine Carbapenemase production in Klebsiella pneumonia from various clinical samples by using phenotypic test (Combined disk test, Modified Hodge test, and (combined disk test +Modified Hodge test both). Materials and Methods: The presnt study was conducted in department of microbiology, Geetanjali medical college Udaipur (raj). Various clinical samples were obtained from the patients who came in various outdoor and indoor department of Geetanjali medical college Udaipur (raj). 100 non duplicates clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia were processed for the study. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby bauer method according to CLSI guidelines and the Imipenem resistant isolates were further tested for carbapenemase production by combined-disk test (CDT) and Modified Hodge test (MHT) (Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), 2014) and (combined disk test +Modified Hodge test both). Observation and Results: Among 100 Klebsiella pneumomiae isolates, 14% resistance for Carbepenems (Imipenem) was observed, and 86% Carbepenems (Imipenem) sensitive. all 14 Imipenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 05 (35.71%) carapenamase positive on CDT; and 04(28.57%) positive by MHT. 03 (21.4)% positive on CDT/MHT whereas 02 (14.28%) were negative on (CDT+MHT) method. Among 14 Imipenem resistant Klebsiella pneumonia isolates, 12(85.71%) were carbapenemase producer and 02(14.2%) were non-carbapenemase producer. Conclusion: To conclude, carbapenemase producing Klebsiella pneumonia isolates were relatively high in our institution. Accurate and timely detection of carbapenemase has important implications for efficient infection control and help in reducing the emergence of resistance thus decreases the morbidity and mortality rate.

  161. Siddiqi, M. A., Farooq, M. Z., Idrees, Z., Ali, S. D. and Khan, A.

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to compare Minimally Invasive DHS (MIDHS) or Conventional DHS (CDHS) techniques for surgical parameters affecting treatment of Extra capsular Proximal Femur fractures. Methods: Prospective Case Control study have evaluated 108 extracapsular proximal femur fractures operated upon between Feb 2014 to March 2016. Patients presenting to the Orthopaedic Surgery department with Extra Capsular Proximal Femoral Fractures who were treated with Minimally Invasive DHS (MIDHS) were compared with those who presented in the same time frame but were managed using Conventional DHS (CDHS) using a muscle reflecting lateral approach. The two groups were matched for pre-operative parameters such as age and gender distribution, mechanism of injury, patient comorbids, classification of fracture pattern. The two groups were compared for incision size and operative time. Postoperative outcome measures were analgesia requirement, Visual Analog Score for pain, accuracy of reduction and lag screw positioning as well as drop in Haemoglobin level and transfusion requirement. Hip functional scores (Katz Basic Activities of Daily Living - BADL) and (Harris Hip Functional Score) were also compared following the two procedures. Results: 97 patients met the inclusion criteria. Out of these 5 patients were lost in the followup, 3 due to death and 2 due to change in address and contact details. Out of the 92 patients that remained in the study MIDHS technique was employed in (n=40) cases and CDHS was done for (n=52) patients. Conclusion: In view of our findings we conclude that MIDHS significantly minimizes blood loss and transfusion requirement and reduces postoperative pain giving a much more cosmetically sized scar while not compromising on, operative time, accuracy of reduction and postoperative hip function.

  162. Dr. Hitesh, M. R. and Dr. Vedavathi, R.

    Background: Heart Failure prevalence is increasing with more than 20 million affected worldwide. Making the correct diagnosis is challenging and confirmatory in only 40-50% of cases. Heart being an endocrine organ produces and releases hormones. NT-pro BNP thought to be produced in response to mechanical stretching, increase in intra vascular volume & CCF. Several studies have shown that plasma natriuretic peptide improves diagnostic accuracy and this lead these markers being recommended in international guidelines. Objective: To measure NT pro BNP levels in suspected cases of CCF and to evaluate NT pro BNP as a diagnostic marker. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 patients- 30 cases and 30 controls between 40-70 years attending Out and In-patients Clinics in KIMS, Bangalore. 30 were cases who had sudden onset of breathlessness suspected to be due to CCF on the basis of symptoms and signs. 30 were controls without CCF and did not meet the exclusion criteria. All patients underwent relavant blood investigations. NT pro BNP detected by ELFA technique and it was correlated with ECHO findings. Results: In our study group of total 60 patients 30 were cases with dyspnoea who were suspected to have CCF, 30 were controls without CCF. Among cases 24 had CCF and elevated NT pro BNP levels. Other 6 did not have CCF and Nt pro BNP was within normal limits. Among 30 controls 29 had NT pro BNP normal for there age. NT pro BNP was significantly elevated in cases compared to controls. There was a strong correlation between NT pro BNP and CCF with a P value of <0.001. NT-Pro BNP levels Increased with decreasing EF. There was a strong correlation between EF and NT- Pro BNP levels with a P value of <0.001. Conclusion: NT pro BNP can be used as diagnostic marker in suspected cases of CCF and has inverse correlation with Ejection Fraction.

  163. Dr. Maruthamuthu Karthikeyn, Dr. Vasupradha, G., Dr. Dinakaran, J., Dr. Suresh Kumar, G. and Dr. Mohan Valiathan, G.

    Traumatic bone cyst is an intraosseous lesion and forms an important aspect of the differential diagnosis of radiolucent lesion of the jaws. The lesion has a better prognosis but a definitive diagnosis can be achieved only upon surgical intervention of the lesion. Here we present a case of traumatic bone cyst which was diagnosed as an incidental finding. The varied aspects of the lesion has been reviewed.

  164. Dr. H. Sharath Chandra, Dr. Allwin Antony Thottathil, Dr. Krishnamoorthy, S. H. and Dr. Savitha, N. S.

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a group of hereditary developmental defect in enamel formation either in quality and/or quantity which affects both deciduous and permanent teeth. It may be hypoplastic, hypomaturation, hypocalcified type. Hypomaturation-hypoplastic AI with taurodontism is a rare variant. AI has been associated with different dental anomalies including discoloured teeth, taurodontism, congenitally missing teeth, microdontia, pulpal calcification, hypercementosis, crown and root resorption. This is a case report of Hypomaturation AI with taurodontism in siblings born to parents with consanguineous marriage and congenitally missing tooth in one of the sibling.

  165. Razia Bano, Syed Hassan Raza, Anam Malick and Sajid Mushtaq

    Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the breast are rare & aggressive tumors of the breast. We report two cases over a period of 20 years. One patient had poorly differentiated neuroendocrine and invasive ductal carcinoma grade 3, whereas the other case had small cell neuroendocrine tumor of the breast.

  166. Shreya Mutha, Dr. Rasika Pawar, Dr. Sangeeta Palaskar and Dr. Rucha Gore

    Stem cell (SC) therapy has a promising future for tissue regenerative medicine. SCs have drawn attention in recent years because of their accessibility, plasticity, and high proliferative ability. SC and Progenitor cells have the ability to rescue and repair injured tissue and partially restore organ function. SCs or progenitor cells are class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialized cell types. They are capable of renewal, differentiation into all lineage of an organ and useful in regenerating tissues. Salivary gland stem cells (SGSC) are characterized by their potential for self-renewal and differentiation. They can replenish damaged cells. SGSC have been identified in many tissues within mouse and human. This substantial progress in understanding salivary gland (SG) functioning and recent identification of SC and progenitor cell population in SG provides basis for studies towards development of a SC based therapy for xerostomia.

  167. Senait Gobena, Tefera Tezera and Tariku Tesfaye

    Ensuring skill delivery attendant at each child birth is the most critical intervention in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality and Morbidity. In Ethiopia, the proportion of births attended by skilled personnel in health facilities is very low. Identifying the level and risk factors is essential for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Due to this reason this study were conducted to identifying proportion and factors influencing institutional delivery among women who gave birth in the last one year in Gimbi town. Methods: The study used community based cross-sectional study design. Data for this study was collected using structured questioner from all women who gave birth in the last one year prior to this study and conducted from December-January 2016. Results: A total of 776 women who gave birth in the last one year of Gimbi town were included in this study in which 635(81.8%) of them gave birth in health facilities. women’s age, maternal education, ANC visit, Number of children currently exist, women’s attitude towards institutional delivery pregnancy plan and partner’s education were associated with utilization of institutional delivery in bivariate analysis. Enhancing women’s education to improve their decision making power, need to be the focus area of intervention so that they recognize the vitality of health care service.

  168. Lalitha Rosali, V., Jaquline, M. J. and Jasmine, B.

    Abuse is a stressor that has a negative interference in the growth and development and health of children. Assessing the knowledge factor and prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) is a challenge faced in the society like ours. About one in seven girls and one in 25 boys are sexually abused before they turn 18.six to 11-year-old children are most likely (23%) to be abused in multiple-victim circumstances who are in the school age period of their growth and development. CSA is measured as a gigantic public health problem it demands a massive societal response. Hence the investigators were interested to assess the planned education programme (PEP) regarding CSA on knowledge of 60 school children from Mumbai in 2016. 20 modified children’s knowledge abuse questionnaire (CKAQ) was administered to assess the knowledge. And 2 questions on if had an experience as a victim and who was the victimizer was also administered to find the prevalence of any. The findings of the study indicates that there was a significant gain in the post test knowledge score 15.75 ± 3.03 when compared to the pre test knowledge score 11.74± 4.69 (p< 0.05).Children also found to have pre existing knowledge on CSA through their mothers but planned education program has significantly amplified the confidence, awareness as well as the knowledge of children. Children will play a unique role in bringing changes in our country.

  169. Dr. Amit Ramchandani, Dr. Sunny Manchanda, Dr. Jyoti Manchanda, Dr. Vilas Takate, Dr. Rupali Pathak and Dr. Riddhi Patel

    Introduction: The primary aim of this study was to observe record and treat oral mucosal lesions associated with prolonged use of removable partial dentures/complete dentures and orthodontic plates. The following objectives were kept in mind to determine the type and the prevalence of denture stomatitis, angular chelitis, flabby ridge, irritational fibroma and oral cancer in the removable complete and partial denture patients and orthodontic plates. Materials and Method: A total of 502 patients using complete dentures/removable partial dentures for more than one year were selected out of those who attended the OPD of Dental College. After detailed history, the patients were subjected to thorough clinical examination. The denture bearing areas and adjacent mucosal surfaces were carefully scrutinized to observe any changes. Results: In this study a total of 157 patients out of 503 presented with some or the other denture related mucosal changes i.e. 32.4%. Denture related mucosal changes are more frequently associated with partial denture wearers than complete denture wearers. The association between type of denture and denture related lesion was statistically significant. Twenty nine patients presented with more than one lesion. Most common oral mucosal lesion observed was denture stomatitis. Conclusion: The most factor for denture related oral mucosa lesions were using the denture at night, age of prosthesis, and educational level. Dentists can help to prevent DML through making high quality denture and train the patients about methods and materials for denture cleaning and maintaining the prosthesis.

  170. Vedesh Kumar Babu, Aga Ammar Murthuza and Varsha Mokhasi

    Background and Aim: The alarming rise in the incidence of osteoarthritis has consequently increased the number of patients opting for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Mismatch of the TKA components, namely femoral, tibial and popliteal, remains a major problem for postoperative success and patient acceptability. Numerous studies have indicated significant ethnic variations in the anatomy of the femoral component. Data on the Indian population remains sparse. This study aims to quantify the gender and side to side variations of South Indian femoral condyles. Materials and Methods: Two hundred dried south Indian femori with no gross deformities were classified based on gender and side. The femoral condyles of each bone were measured using digital vernier calipers along the following parameters: Bicondylar Width (Epicondylar Breadth), Intercondylar Width, Medial Condylar Depth, Lateral Condylar Depth and Intercondylar Depth. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 16 with p-value less than 0.01 considered significant. Results: All five parameters showed significant gender differences without any significant left-right variation. Conclusion: Dimensions of the south indian femoral condyles are much lower than comparable caucasian, african american and east-asian femori, suggesting significant ethnic variation.

  171. Neelam Shivani, Hitasree, B. N., Malathi Manne, Syed Afroz Ahmed, Charu Suri, Shahela Tanveer and Shravan Kumar

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) encompasses all malignancies originating in the oral cavity and globally it is the most common cancer. It is a fact that tumor stroma plays a vital role in tumor progression as it contains significant stromal glycoprotein and collagen. Therefore analysis of collagen fibers is of immense value which in turn aids in predicting the biological behavior of the tumor. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate birefringence pattern of collagen fibers and to determine varying proportions of stromal collagen in different grades of OSCC using picrosirius red and polarizing microscopy. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 cases, which included 22 histopathologically diagnosed cases of OSCC, of which 8 were of well differentiated, 8 moderately differentiated and 6 poorly differentiated OSCC. 6 cases of control group were also retrieved. The sections were stained with both Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and picrosirius red and they were examined under polarizing microscope. Statistical analysis: The statistical differences were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Result: It was observed that thick collagen fibers decrease and thin collagen fibers increase with dedifferentiation of OSCC and also polarization colors of thick and thin fibers changes from reddish orange (RO) to yellowish orange (YO) to greenish yellow (GY) from well to moderate to poor grades of OSCC respectively. Conclusion: Thus the present study suggested that there was a change in polarization colors of thick fibers from RO to GY, which could be due to change in mature form of collagen into immature form as the tumor progress from well to poorly differentiated OSCC. The significance of this study lies in birefringence of stromal collagen fibers observed around tumor islands in different grades of OSCC.

  172. Dr. Midhun, P Gopalakrishnan and Dr. Sukumaran, K. K.

    Jejunojejunal intussusceptions are very rare in adults and usually a lead point is found unlike in children. Adult intussusception accounts for 5% of all intussusceptions. Despite comprising 75% of the length and 90% of the surface area of gastro intestinal tract, the small bowel harbours relatively less primary neoplasms. Primary lipomas of the small intestine are also rare and it accounts for 2.6% of non malignant tumours of the intestinal tract. The clinical presentations in adults are more chronic and intermittent and it includes obstruction, abdominal cramps or gastrointestinal bleeding. We are reporting a case of 60 year old male who presented to us with features of intestinal obstruction. After evaluation laparotomy was done and it showed intussusception due to submucous lipoma of jejunum.

  173. Dr. Nishikant Gujar, Dr. Chetan Dhruv Dhandore, Dr. Shiraz Ahamed Sharief, Dr. Vijay, N., Dr. Mohd. Farhan Khan and Dr. Vivekanand Chiniwar

    Pilonidal sinus disease is a common condition seen in young adults affecting gluteal cleft and notoriously recurrent. This study was carried out in patients with pilonidal sinus to evaluate the advantages and result of rhomboid excision and Limberg flap. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in department of surgery, Al-Ameen Medical college, Bijapur from 2010 to 2015. It includes 25 patients who were treated for pilonidal sinus disease by Limberg flap. The various demographic clinical and surgical data are studied and compared to other studies. Results: In this study 25 patients of Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease underwent rhomboid excision and Limberg flap reconstruction. The duration of symptoms was 1 to 12 months operative time was 60 – 100 minutes and the post operative stay was 10 – 14 days. The complication observed was superficial skin necrosis in 8% wound infection in 8%, Seroma in 4% with no recurrence. Conclusion: Limberg flap is technical easy and effective mode of management of pilonidal sinus with low complication rate.

  174. Kankanamge, S. U., Ariyarathna, S. and Perera, P. P. R.

    Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, especially in pregnant women and young children. It is a disease with multiple causes, both nutritional (vitamin and mineral deficiencies) and non-nutritional (infection) that frequently co-occur. Nutritional anemia refers to a reduced red blood cell count due to a poor diet which is deficient in iron, folate and/or Vitamin B12. This is a cross sectional study conducted in two administrative units in Southern province of Sri Lanka. Females between 20-50 years of age (n=152 from each administrative unit) were selected. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the association between anaemia and the dietary habits in a female study population. Anemic status was assessed based on Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration where anemia is defined as Hb concentration <12 g/dl in females. When considering the relationship between Hb concentration and dietary habits in the study population, consumption of fish, white meat, green leafy vegetables and egg shows a significant positive relationship with Hb concentration.

  175. Dr. Kshama Kedar, Dr. Bhakti Gurjar and Pallavi Goel

    Introduction: Globally women face physiological and psychological health problems after midlife due to menopause. Women who have had surgical menopause experience the same symptoms caused by natural menopause; but more intensely and frequently due to the abrupt halt in estrogen production. So, premenopausal women who undergo surgical menopause may have symptoms that require treatment. Objectives: To determine the differences in severity of menopausal symptoms in women with natural and surgical menopause. Diagnostic use: The Scales designed can also be used to identify menopausal women who are severely and possibly clinically anxious and/or depressed. Method: Study design: Comparative and statistical study. Sample size and participants: All consenting females coming with postmenopausal complaints (either natural or surgical) to gynecology OPD of IGGMC, Nagpur between July to December 2015 (138 cases) Results: A total of 138 post menopausal women were questioned, out of 138, 73 women achieved natural menopause and 65 were hysterectomized females. Severity of different psychological symptoms, physical symptoms, vasomotor symptoms and libido changes were studied grossly and were proven to be statistically significant using chi sq. scale. A p value< 0.05 was taken to be statistically significant. Number of females with surgical menopause experience the Psychological (66%) and physical (73%) symptoms severely than women achieving menopause naturally (14.28% and 16.32% respectively). Number of females with surgical menopause experience the vasomotor symptoms (73%) and Libido changes symptoms severely (65%) than women achieving menopause naturally (35%). Conclusion: Women with surgical menopause experienced all climacteric symptoms evaluated in this study more intensely and frequently as compared to women who underwent natural menopause.

  176. Betty Cristiane Kuhn, Jaqueline da Silva Manzatti, Afonso Pepinelli, Patricia Rozin Carnelossi, Eliezer Rodrigues de Souto, Claudete Aparecida Mangolin and *Maria de Fátima Pires da Silva Machado

    Current assay has established protocols for micropropagation of three cassava varieties (Manihot esculenta) of commercial and industrial interest, and index the plants for CsCMV virus. The molecular markers based on retrotransposons LTRs (IRAP and REMAP markers) were employed to test the hypothesis that varieties with greater genetic similarity can develop in the same culture medium while varieties with smaller genetic similarity should require different culture media. Meristem-tips of the three varieties were inoculated in four concentrations of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in the MS culture medium. After the establishment of the meristem-tip, the plantlets were transferred to media supplemented with higher cytokinin (6BA) and auxins (NAA and IBA) concentrations containing gibberellic acid for faster development. The Fécula Branca variety showed 100% of regenerated plants in the medium containing IBA, while the IPR-União variety showed 100% of regenerated plants in the medium containing NAA. Use of the IRAP and REMAP markers showed that plants with greater genetic similarity can develop in the same culture medium while varieties showing the lowest similarity coefficient generated plantlets in culture medium containing different auxin types. So that the use of IRAP and REMAP markers may be indicated as a preliminary strategy to program the in vitro cultivation of the genotypes with greater genetic similarity in media supplemented with the same combination of growth regulators.

  177. Victoria, J. and Uma Maheswari, N.

    Effective microorganisms (EM) is a commercial biofertilizer that contains a mixture of co-existing beneficial microorganisms collected from natural environments. Predominantly it consists of species of photosynthetic and lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and actinomycetes. The present study was undertaken to determine the efficiency of Effective Microorganisms (EM). EM was obtained from the office of ‘Ecopro’ Auroville, Auroshilpam, Tamilnadu, India. The waste water was collected from the women’s hostel of STET women’s College, Sudarakkottai, Mannargudi, Sundarakkottai. The parameters that indicate the waste water treatment process such as odour, pH, DO, BOD, COD, TDS, TS, TSS, Nitrate and Phosphate were determined before and after the treatment of wastewater, to observe the efficiency of selected process. Soil samples were collected from Thiruthuraipoondi, Thiruvarur District, Tamilnadu, India which consists of Nedumbalam (Ndb) soil series, one of the soil series of Thiruvarur District. The experimental set up was designed randomly having EM alone (T1), Treated waste water alone (T2), EM plus Treated waste water (T3) and control (C). All the parameters showed an elevated level in the raw sewage but after treatment there is a steady reduction after 5, 10, 15 and 20 days of incubation. No reduction was observed in the level of DO. All the parameters were reduced to tolerable environmental standard. EM treated waste water was utilized for the cultivation of Vigna radiata. Among the treatments studied, T3 showed the highest results when compared to other treatments proving the efficiency of EM in recycling of waste water. Key words: Vigna radiata, Effective microorganisms (EM), Secondary crop, Treatments, Sewage, Incubation.

  178. Emanuel Feitosa de Assunção, Ananda Rosa Beserra Santos, Tarciana Silva dos Santos, Barbara Marchesini Malta, Severina Rodrigues de Oliveira Lins and Sônia Maria Alves de Oliveira

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation at low doses on the post - harvest control of soft rot by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum - Pcc in bell pepper, as well as to evaluate the effect of this method on the physical-chemical characteristics of the fruit. Fruit apparently disease-free was inoculated with 10 μl Pcc suspension at 1x109 UFC.mL-1. After inoculation, the fruits were irradiated with the doses of 0.25; 0,5; 1.0 and 1.25 kGy and stored at 28 ± 2 ° C, being evaluated until the controls became unviable for evaluation, 48 h after inoculation. Petri dishes were also irradiated with 36 h growth colonies at the same doses described previously, and afterwards the colonies were inoculated in healthy bell peppers, the fruits being evaluated for pH, Total Soluble Solids (TSS), percentage of Mass Loss (Weight) and firmness. All radiation doses were efficient in handling Pcc and the dose of 1.25 kGy completely inhibited its action. Only the plates irradiated with 0.5 KGy allowed the growth of the colonies after the irradiation of the plates. The physical-chemical characteristics did not present statistical difference.

  179. Puranik Vinita, Mishra Neetu, Kumari Archana and Tripathi Renu

    Natural antioxidants or phytochemical antioxidants are secondary metabolites of plants. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) can be a major source of natural or phytochemical antioxidants such as beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, terpenoids, alkaloids, and polyphenols such as flavonoids, flavones glycosides, rutin etc. It is an important commercial crop which is, used both as spice and medicine and its therapeutic benefits of ginger are mainly due to the presence of volatile oils. Consumption of bakery products in the country is increasing day by day and bread is a staple food having several attractive features. In the view of health benefit of ginger it may be worthwhile to explore possibility of incorporating ginger extract in wheat flour for the development of bread to provide a convenient food to supplement the diet.. Present study was an effort to standardize the level of ginger extract in formulation for the development of value added bread. To optimize the quantity of sugar and ginger extract to be added, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used, while rest of the ingredient level was kept constant. The lower and upper limits for sugar and ginger extract were taken as 20-30 g and 10-20 ml, respectively. Control treatment was prepared without ginger extract addition. All thirteen combinations and control were subjected for sensory quality evaluation on a 9 point hedonic scale. From the study, it was found that the bread having composition 17.93 g sugar, and 15 ml ginger extract per 100 g of bread was found optimum and the said formulation was acceptable and recommended for value added bread. The optimized bread was found to be superior in terms of minerals, calcium and iron as compared to control bread. Since, the bread was a good source of calcium and iron, hence it can be recommended for consumption for children and old age people. The addition of ginger extract, also gave an excellent antioxidant effect on the bread compared with control. It can be recommended as one of the value added products.

  180. Dhary Alewy Al - mashhadany and Sarah Mohammed Mayass

    This study was designed to determine the incidence of H.pylori in different types of food and water in Dhamar Governorate. Four hundred and twenty six samples (426) were collected included 114 Red meat, 100 Poultry meat, 100 Salad and 112 Water. The results revealed that the isolation rate of H.pylori from total samples was (11.7%), the highest rate of H.pylori isolation were found in red meat samples (15.8%), then poultry meat (13.0 %), water (11.6%), and salad (6.0 %). When we study the relationship between prevalence of H.pylori in food and water with months during the period of study. April, June and May take the more isolated rate (24.5%), (20.4%) and (16.4%) respectively, while the rate of isolation were seen decrease whenever moved away from these three months and in both directions. The results indicated that there is significant differences at (p < 0.05) between isolation rate of H.pylori from above samples and months. From this study we concluded that the incidence of H.pylori in food and water in Dhamar Governorate was high, also found that food and water have a significant role in transmission of H.pylori to human.

  181. Shafquat Yasmeen, Muhammad Tahir Rajput, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan and Syeda Saleha Hasseny

    Mutation breeding has been generally used for the improvement of plant characters in several crops. It is a powerful and effective tool in the hands of plant breeders. In mutation breeding program, selection of an effective and efficient mutagen is very essential to produce high frequency of desirable traits. The three sugarcane clones viz; NIA-0819, NIA-98 and BL4 were selected and subjected with Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) doses of 5, 10, and 15 mM and untreated of each variety were used as control. The results indicated for agronomic traits showed that maximum plant height was observed (331.67 cm) in BL4 under control and minimum plant height was observed (209 cm) at 15mM in BL4. The maximum number of tillers plant-1 (7.00) at 10 Mm. The higher number of internodes was noted (16.66) at 10 mM in BL4, maximum number of internodes length (17.31 cm) at 10 mM in NIA-98 and minimum (11.91 cm) at 5 mM in BL4. The results of quality traits indicated that maximum brix (20.33 %) was obtained at 15mM in BL4 and lowest (14.66 %) in 5mM in NIA-0819. The more purity was observed (72.43) at 10 mM in BL4, fibre (15.33) at 5 mM in BL4. The maximum sucrose (14.16 %) was recorded under at 15 mM in BL4, sugar yield (6.14 t ha-1) under control in BL4 and cane yield BL4 was noted (331 t ha-1) at 10 mM in BL4. The selected sugarcane mutants were analyzed by using simple sequence markers (SSR). Out of 13 SSR primers studied, 7 primers were found to be polymorphic, whereas 6 primers were counted to be monomorphic. A total of 495 conformers were analyzed by using 13 SSR primers as presented and 495 bands, 191 bands were polymorphic, showing 38.58 % polymorphism. The maximum number of locus (20) was produced by the primer SMC-703BS and minimum number of bands (8) was produced with primer EST-SSR29. The amplification products in 10 mM (EMS) produced multiple loci, in which the total numbers of 129 scroable bands, out of which 100 were monomorphic. They showed SMC 703BS bands15 was produced with lowest number of bands (8) was obtained with primer EST -SSR 29. The primer no amplification products found in EST-SSR30-5, EST-SSR38. The amplification products in 15 mM (EMS) produced multiple fragments in which the total number of 30 scroable bands was polymorphic. Some specific bands were also identified thus reflecting the SSR application for the identification of sugarcane mutants. The results showed that 15 mM (EMS) indicated 6 primers produced a single polymorphic band and 7 primers produced two polymorphic bands. The genetic similarity indices calculated by Jaccard’s similarity coefficient varied from (0.98 to 0.85 % indicate a high level of genetic similarity among the mutants that was mainly attributed to intra specific diversity. Hence, this SSR technique helped to identify the genetic variation in mutant plants.

  182. Nahed A. Hussien, Sayed A. Mohamed and Fatimah S. Alharbi

    Triclosan (TCS) is a widely used antimicrobial agent that is used worldwide since 1972. It can be found in various hygiene, medical and consumer products. Due to its widespread use, TCS has increasingly been a public health concern. The present study aimed to assess the histopathological potential and DNA damage induction of TCS treatment in liver tissues in male albino mice and to evaluate the protector role of vitamin E (Vit E) against TCS toxicity. TCS (15 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneal for 2 consecutive days. Other group was orally administrated with Vit E (50 mg/kg) just before TCS injection. Mice were sacrificed after 24hr from the last treatment. Liver tissues were used for histopathological and molecular evaluations (Comet assay). In the present study, TCS treatment causes damage of liver tissues represented by congested central vein and hepatoportal vessels, mononuclear cells infiltration in portal area and slight hepatic degeneration with local area of leucocytic infiltration. Moreover, the results show a significant increase in tail length, % DNA in tail and tail moment for TCS group in comparison with the negative control group in comet assay. On the other hand, Vit E pretreatment was able to protect liver tissue from TCS toxic effect. In conclusion, the present study reports the toxic potential of TCS treatment and the ameliorative effect of Vit E pre-oral administration as a result of its antioxidant property to scavenge free radicals.

  183. Mohinder Singh, Dharam Bir Yadav, Ramparkash, Rajbir Singh Khedwal, Naveen Kumar, Dabur, K. R. and Singh, N.K.

    Rice (Oryza sativa L) is the most prominent crop over globe. In India, rice crop plays vital role in country’s food security and is the backbone of livelihood for millions of people, so may be called as ‘rice is life’. Traditional puddled rice is a major source of methane, nitrous oxide emission which is directly related to greenhouse gases to global warming. Transplanting is the dominant method of sowing in the rice-wheat growing areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Direct Seeded Rice (DSR) is the technology which is water, labour and energy efficient along with eco-friendly characteristics. However, high weed infestation is the major bottleneck in DSR, especially in dry field conditions and, availability of several nutrients including N, P, S and micronutrients such as Zn and Fe, is likely to be a constraint With the increase in prices of inputs and low rice prices, rice production does not provide farmers with high income. Therefore, it is essential to know about best selection of cultivar with right time of input application for the success of the technology. Keeping this in view an experiment was conducted at Regional Research Station, CCSHAU, Karnal. Four basmati cultivars PB 1121, PB 1509, PB 1 and HB 2 were chosen as main plot treatments and three nitrogen doses with 3 & 4 splits as sub plot treatments in split plot design. Experimental results recorded highest gross returns with basmati cultivar HB-2 (Rs. 99955 & 102777 ha-1) followed by PB-1121 (Rs. 99100 & 99500 ha-1) and minimum net returns with PB 1. Highest net income was obtained with basmati cultivar HB-2 (Rs. 19681 & 22179 ha-1) followed by PB-1121 (Rs. 18844 & 18902 ha-1) and PB-1 (Rs. 4072 & 4981 ha-1). The lowest net income was obtained with PB-1509 (Rs.2366 & 3653 ha-1). There was increase in benefit-cost ratio in basmati rice cultivation with increase in N doses from 90 (1.06-1.10) to 100 (1.12-1.16) and 110 kg ha-1 (1.20-1.25) in succession. Similarly, benefit-cost ratio increased with increase in number of splits from three (1.06-1.21) to four (1.08-1.25) at same level of nitrogen.

  184. Fatin Ali Al-Chalabi and AseelAdnan Al-Kazraji

    Background: Approximtely 10% of humans at risk of UTI at some time during their lives It must be note, UTIs are also the most common hospital –acquired infection, accounting for as many as 35% of nosocomial infection. Subject and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Biology, College of Education for Pure sciences, University of Diyala. The study included 50 patients from dialysis patients who are in Ibn–Sina Dialysis Center in Baquba Teaching Hospital, during the period from November/2015 to April/2016. Results: The results showed that dialysis patients have urinary tract infection with different bacterial infections. As well the result showed that the infection rate for female was 100% and male 93.75 %.The study revealed that 22% of patients were at the age group 31-50 years, 4.8% at the age group 10-30 years and 19.2% at the age group 51-70 years As well the result showed the patients who live in rurla areas are more infection (62%), while those who live in the urban was 33%.

  185. Shweta, Manu Malik and Meena Shewag

    The traditional way of transplanting of rice is very massive, labour intensive, time consuming and costly. It requires raising of nursery, it’s uprooting, transplanting in the field and continuous ponding of water for the first 15 days. Non- availability of timely labour cause late planting and ultimately reduces the yield. Change in rice establishment method from traditional manual transplanting of seedlings to direct seedling. Weed infestation to be major bottleneck in dry seeded rice because of simultaneous emergence of rice and weeds and at the time of early growth absence of water, which can suppress weed growth.

  186. Soumya, S. L. and Bindu R. Nair

    The present study focuses on the insights of intraspecific and interspecific variability to address the questions related to diversity among the collections of Averrhoa (Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola). Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) from fifteen collections, belonging to six districts of Kerala state were analyzed. Nucleotide sequences obtained were deposited in the database and showed high percentage of similarity with the already deposited sequences in the database. Multiple sequence alignments entailed 561 conserved sites, 54 variable characters and 33 parsimony informative sites out of 615 characters aligned. Based on Maximum composite likelihood analysis, the estimated transition/transversion bias (R) was 0.53. The estimated mean nucleotide diversity of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 within subpopulations was 0.005, mean diversity in entire population was 0.035 and mean inter population diversity was 0.030. Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that the Averrhoa collections used in this study could be classified distinctly into two groups, those belonging to A. bilimbi and the rest to A. carambola. A higher sequence similarity could be noticed among the sour and sweet A. carambola collections, while three A. bilimbi collections, could be discriminated from the rest.

  187. Amirul Karman, Imran Taeran, Irham and Asmar Hi Daud

    Skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) fishing in the waters of Bacan Island by fishermen based in PPP Panamboang, South Halmahera Regency is generally done using pole and line with auxiliary gear of fish aggregating devices (FADs). Skipjack fishing activity needs effective information so maximum catch can be achieved. Information about the area and season where skipjack can be captured in a large amount can reduce the cost of fishing operation, fishing time, and energy. One solution that offered the best solution is of knowing the pattern of skipjack fishing season. The objective of this research is to analyze the pattern of skipjack fishing season in the waters of Bacan Island, South Halmahera Regency. This research was conducted in the waters of Bacan Island, South Halmahera Regency from October to November 2016. The method was survey-descriptive based on a case study. The results showed that the trend of skipjack catch production in the waters of Bacan Island, South Halmahera Regency during a ten years period (2006-2015) increase, while the trend of fishing trip productivity (ton per trip) has a decrease in 2014. Skipjack season in the waters of Bacan Island, South Halmahera Regency is during Easterly Wind Season (June-August) and peaked in July. This is due to the fertility of the waters tending to increase.

  188. Priyankadevi, Revathi, K., Senthil Kumari, S., Subashini, A. and Raghunathan, C.

    The Andaman sea Eco region is biologically rich in both diversity and abundance. The high diversity is encountered from genus to individual species, habitat and ecosystems. The coral reefs, mangroves, sea grass beds, marine lakes and deep sea valleys of the region form a constellation of diverse habitat that support a spectacular variety of fauna. Molluscsare highly successful invertebrates in terms of ecology and adaptation and are found nearly in all habitats ranging from deepest ocean trenches to the intertidal zones, and freshwater to land occupying a wide range of habitats. Much of the molluscan diversity occurs in the tropical world. Despite this great diversity, very few studies on molluscs have been carried out in the tropical world. An attempt was made to study the diversity and distribution of molluscs along the intertidal regions of Neil islands. During the survey three different beaches of Neil Island were selected, named, Sitapurbeach, Laxmanpur beach and Bharatpur beach. The study area is located 37 kms to lies in the northern part of south of the Andaman Islands. A total of 45 molluscs (bivalves and gastropods) were investigated from these islands. Gastropods were more abundant than thebivalves. Maximum species were obtained from Bharatpur beach as compared to Sitapurbeach and Laxmanpur beach. The dominant gastropodsspecies belong to order Neogastropodain all the three study area whereas dominant bivalve were reported under order Veneroida from Bharatpur beach. Laxmanpur recorded only one species of bivalve and no bivalves were recorded from Sitapur beach. The molluscs fauna showed variations in all the three study but the community structure is stable along the study area; it seems that habitat type has a strong influence on the distribution and abundance of both phyla. The present study investigated rich diversity of molluscs which included gastropods and bivalves. The result of the present study will be discussed.

  189. Golla Kamala, Vutukuru, S. S. and Chand Pasha

    Protein engineering-based drug designing is quite interesting research area for invention of peptide based drugs. The current study is aimed to engineer BuforinII antimicrobial peptide by Mechanism based protein engineering. Template BuforinII was obtained from NCBI database and its similar sequences were retrieved by using Blast P. Protein engineering resulted in a total of 200 variable peptides. 3D model developed for 200 variable peptides and BuforinII by using PEPFOLD server. The developed models were evaluated by RAMPAGE and Q-Mean servers. Based on the Ramachandran Plot, Z-score value and SVM-score of DNA binding studies, the P11A/V12P variant was found to be highly stable and more DNA binding compared with wild and remaining variants. The developed variants can be used for antimicrobial studies in laboratory.

  190. Kadam, Y. B., Kharche, V. K., Borkar, V. S., Katkar, R. N., Konde, N. M. and Gabhne, V. V.

    The present investigation was carried out in Vertisols of Akola district of Maharashtra to ascertain the effect of potassium application on yield and nutrient uptake by Bt Cotton. This was carried out by conducting field experiments on research farm of Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola and similarly on five farmer`s fields in intensive cotton growing area of Vertisols in Akola district during 2012-13 and 2013-14. The treatments comprised of various levels of potassium (0, 25, 50 kg K2O ha-1) applied through either MOP or SOP and additional foliar sprays of SOP @1.5 per cent at critical growth stages of cotton along with addition of equivalent quantity of sulphur through bensulf and control without potassium. It has been observed that despite the soils having high soil available potassium, the application of potassium was found to have significant response and improved the yield of cotton. It was observed that the increasing levels of potassium caused significant increase in yield of cotton. The lowest cotton yield was recorded at control where only nitrogen and phosphorous was applied without any potassium application. Application of K2O @ 25 kg ha-1 under farmer`s practice further increased the yields of cotton. Application of 50 kg K2O ha-1 has further increased the yields statistically over control indicating that cotton has shown response to application of potassium in Vertisols. However, the source of potassium viz, MOP and SOP used in the present study did not record statistically significant difference in the seed cotton yield. The number of bolls per plant was increased along with increase in the levels of potassium from 0, 25 and 50 kg K2O ha-1. Significant increase in boll weight has been observed due to application of potassium and the increase in levels of potassium also leads to increase in boll weight of cotton. The application of potassium @ 50 kg K2O ha-1 either through MOP or SOP irrespective of sources showed highest seed cotton yield and nutrient uptake. The yield of cotton was increased along with the increasing levels of potassium indicating necessity of balance nutrition (NP and K) under Vertisols. The foliar application of SOP @1.5% at flowering and boll development stage was beneficial to enhance seed cotton yield. The study also suggests the necessity of inclusion of application of potassium in the fertilization of cotton grown on Vertisols for increasing productivity as well as increasing nutrient uptake by cotton besides maintaining soil fertility and to arrest mining of potassium in soils.

  191. Jaime Wilfrido Aldaz Cárdenas, Ricardo Oses Rodríguez, Rigoberto Fimia Duarte, Jorge Jagger Segura Ochoa, Nancy Guadalupe Aldaz Cárdenas, Jenny Janeth Segura Ochoa and Ricardo Fundora García

    The objective of this work is directed to model the Climatic Bultó Index for Havana city with a year of advance. This index is also modeled independent in the period 2001, month 1, until the year 2005, month 5. In total there are 52 cases, from which two models are obtained, one for the index with short term parameters, (Lag 1, Lag 4) like predictor and another model of the index with parameters of one year of advance (lag 12, lag 16). The first model explains 84.6 variance % with a standard error that can not be measure; the variables that influence in the modeling of the Index are the index in the previous month, and the index fourth months behind, all the variables were significant to 99%, the tendency was not significant. The second model uses the lag 12, the lag 14 and the Lag 10, then we can forecast the Bultó Index with a year of advance, even the Lag 10 is not statistically significant we maintain this parameter in the model because it helps to improve the variance in the model. It was used the Regressive Objective Regression, with the help of the statistical package of Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 13. The pattern of Regressive Objective Regression with a year in advance presents good results with a high correlation (R= 96.1 %) and errors not determined, charts and graphics of the real values are shown and predicted for 2006. The methodology used can prevent the episodes of sickness of persons with sufficient time of advance.

  192. Asokan, S. and Jayanthi

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the phytochemicals of various pure honey samples. Three types of honey samples were collected from different area of Western ghats, Theni district, South India. The raw honey samples under study were marked as sample 1 (S1), sample 2 (S2) and sample 3 (S3). Various solvents such as aqueous, ethanol, ethyl acetate and methanol were used for extraction of honey samples. The phytochemicals such as alkaloids, carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, tannins, phlobtannins and terpenoids were analyzed by standard laboratory methods in honey sample extractions. The results showed that the Sample 1 (S1) methanol extractions are good sources of valuable phytochemicals as compared to other two samples.

  193. Abdel Moneim E. Sulieman, Ahmed G. M. Elgorashi, Elamin A. Elkhalifa and Hassan A. Modawi and Sohair A.M.Shommo

    The present study aimed to produce a non-alcoholic malt beverage using Feterita sorghum malt and evaluation of the product quality. Two products (A and B) of non- alcoholic sorghum malt beverage were prepared by addition of two different amounts of caramel. The quality of the products was evaluated using physical, chemical and sensory tests. The physicochemical properties of sorghum wort in terms of reducing sugars, pH, colour and original gravity were 43, 53 wort A were 39.42 and 41.67 mg/ml, 6.59 and 6.68 9 and EBC, 1.026 and 0.846 in wort A and wort B, respectively. The analysis of non-alcohol beverage indicated that the specific gravity, pH, total acidity, colour and alcohol content of product A and product B were 1.012 and 1.045 and 6.43, 6.39 and 3.4%, 3.8%, 12 EBC and13 EBC and 0.033 v/v and 0.043 v/v, respectively. In addition, iodine reaction was negative in each of the two products. It is concluded that effective use of germination to process sorghum grain for beverage requires a control of the temperature and time. More research is needed in order to understand the adjustments made with different stages of processing of malted beverages.

  194. Ashima Anthal and Dr. D. N. Sahi

    The present research on clutch and egg characteristics of White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus phoenicurus) was carried out during 2013-2015 in Jammu district of J&K State. A total of 67 clutches were studied. The overall mean clutch size was recorded to be 5.97 ± 1.35 varying from 3 to 8. The clutch size of 6 was recorded to be the most common (29.85%). Eggs were oval, cream in colour and marked with light and dark brown and purple blotches and spots. Mean values of egg dimensions and their range was: egg length = 40.6 ± 0.19 mm (37-46 mm), egg breadth = 30.9 ± 0.09 mm (28-34 mm), egg weight = 18.86 ± 0.63 gm (17.5-20.5gm), egg volume = 19.95 ± 1.94 cm3 (15.86-25.35 cm3) and egg shape index = 76.22 ± 3.05 (66.66-82.05). A statistically significant and strong positive correlation was recorded between egg volume and egg length and egg volume and egg breadth as well as of egg weight with egg length, egg breadth and egg volume while a strong but negative correlation was registered between egg length and egg shape index and between egg volume and egg shape index. The correlations between egg length and egg breadth were also statistically significant.

  195. López-Hernández, J. F., Flores-Vela, A. I. and Márquez-Rocha, F. J.

    Chlorination of organic molecules is catalyzed by chloroperoxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, few reports have been published on bromination of organic compounds catalyzed by chloroperoxidase. In this work, chloroperoxidase was used to catalyze the bromination of organic compounds in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and sodium bromide. The reaction mixture contain phenol red, NaBr, hydrogen peroxide and chloroperoxide, the reaction was followed by spectrophotometry and HPLC measurements at 590 nm. Chloroperoxidase catalyze the transformation of phenolsulfonphthalein (Phenol Red; PR) to 3’,3’’,5’,5’’- tetrabromophenolsulfonphthalein (Bromophenol Blue; BPB), under mild reaction conditions. The product of the reaction was characterized by HPLC-MS and FTIR. The reaction follows a Michaelis-Menten equation for NaBr, H2O2, and Phenol Red at different concentrations each. Maximum specific reaction rate has a values between 6.6 to 7.62 M-1 BPB formed min-1mg-1protein. Halogenation of phenol red with I, and Cl ions in the presence of chloroperoxidase was not detected. The main product of the reaction was Bromophenol blue, identified by HPLC-MS and FTIR analyses. Chloroperoxidase catalyze bromination reactions on organic compounds such as phenol red, thymol blue and cresol red. These capabilities might be used to produce a high value compounds.

  196. Elza Salakhova, Dilgam Tagiyev, Parvana Kalantarove and Kamala Ibrahimova

    The formation of the triple alloys Re-Cu-Se on the platinum electrode at volt amperemetric cycling has been studied. The investigation was carried out from sulphur acidic solution containing selenious acid, potassium perrhenate, chlorine copper. The kinetics of the processes was controlled using the measurements by the method of cyclic volt-amperometry on the device İVİUSTAT. For the analysis od composition and structure the methods of XRD (X-ray diffraction analysis) were used, and the investigation of films’ morphology on platinum and copper supports was conducted on scanning electron microscope (SEM). To depict the formation of the systems the corresponding mechanism of electrodeposition was suggested. It is shown that the process proceeds through several stages. The chemical composition of the obtaining layers of thin coatings makes up 14.7 at %Re, 39.6 at %Cu and 14.6 at % Se. The chemical composition of the obtaining films was determined using the method of atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS) with application of the spectrometer Perkin-Elmer.

  197. Paresh Saha, Jatindra Nath Ganguli, Neelotpal Sen Sarma

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method, using cadmium sulphate (CdSO4) and sodium selenosulphite (Na2SeSO3) as sources of cadmium and selenium ions respectively. The influence of bath temperature (Tb), on the structural, morphological, chemical composition and optical properties of these films were investigated. XRD studies revealed that the film deposited at 323K was polycrystalline with hexagonal structure and exhibited (100) preferential orientation. The film deposited under optimum conditions (Tb = 50°C, td = 2 hr and [Cd]/[Se] ratio = 3:1) was relatively well crystallized. Their surface morphologies were composed of small grains with an approximate size of 13 nm and grains grouped together to form large clusters. EDAX analysis revealed that these films were nonstoichiometric with a slight selenium deficiency. The optical band gap was found to be 1.72 eV.

  198. Kamal M. Mahmoud and Maadh T. Abdurahman

    A simple spectrophotometric technique has been developed for the determination Doxycycline hyclate (DCH) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the oxidative coupling reaction using sodium periodate and hydrazine dihydrochloride (HZD) producing an orange colored complex with maximum absorption at 420 nm. The Beer′s law is obeyed over the concentration range of (3.0 –72.0) µg ml-1, while the detection limit and quantification limit are 0.0631 and 0.1912 µg ml-1 respectively, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999 and a molar absorptivity of 3.0562× 103 L mol-1cm-1 with Sandell′s sensitivity index of 0.1678 µg cm-2. The precision and accuracy of the method are checked by calculating relative standard deviation (RSD) (≤ 2.27%) and average recovery (98.913 %). The value of the stability constant has been calculated and found to be 1.89×108 L mol-1. Different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the formed color product are carefully studied and optimized. Possible interferences that related to the determination of (DCH) in pharmaceutical capsules are studied and the results showed that the method is successfully applied for determination of DCH in pharmaceutical formulation.

  199. Wenceslao C. Perante, PhD

    This study investigated the potential use of Leyte, Philippines, Binahaan riverine waters in concrete mix. Stratified water sample stations (n=3) were characterized as follows: station 1 was salty or seawater, station 2 was brackish, and station 3, was presumably fresh water. Water cement ratio used 0% (control-potable water), 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of seawater, brackish, and fresh riverine waters respectively. Hardened concrete cylinder samples were tested for compressive strength after a curing period of 7, 14, and 28 days. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the results between and among stations, source water percentage, and curing periods. Results of the statistical analysis indicated that, although the three (3) stations yielded results equal or better than control, still, probably water source significantly affects the compressive strength of the concrete cylinders with brackish water yielding the best compressive strength values. Among water parameters, salinity, chlorides, and alkalinity showed variations among the sampling stations, and perhaps affect the compressive strength of the concrete cylinders.

  200. Dr. Preeti Malik

    This research paper reflects the unavoidable relationship between employee retention and the enjoyment at the workplace. As we are going to discuss that how the enjoyment at the workplace and work life balance are the keys to employee retention in all types of the organization. Besides this it will also emphasis on the fact that high-involvement work practices can develop the positive beliefs and attitudes associated with employee engagement, and that these practices can generate the kinds of discretionary behaviors that lead to enhanced performance and ultimately lead to the employee retention. Simply put, employees who conceive design and implement workplace and process changes are engaged employees. This article focuses on what managers can do to achieve a high level of employee engagement by adding enjoyment factors to the tasks and duties associated with the employees. The organizations should understand the employee’s needs, wants and how to meet them and then they can be on the way to the talent retention in the long run in their organizations. If you are facing employee retention issues, this paper may help you.

  201. Mustefa Sultan and Teyiba Amano

    The study on the anthropogenic factors affecting protected area was carried out in Senkele Swayne’s Hartebeest Sanctuary (SSHS). Survey questionnaires, key informant interview (KII), Focus group discussion (FGD), direct observation and literature reviews were employed to collect primary and secondary data. Four kebeles were purposefully selected from 8 kebeles surrounding SSHS. Thereafter, about 151 households were selected for survey. The FGD involved 40 households at the rate of 10 households per kebele were purposefully selected whereas about 2 experts from each 5 relevant offices and 2 Aba Gada, which accounts a total of 12 key informants were purposefully selected for KII. The study revealed that the major human activities affecting SSHS were overgrazing, uncontrolled fire, illegal settlement, deforestation, agricultural expansion and poaching as replied by 66.3%, 8.6%, 7.3%, 13.2%, 2.6% and 2.0% respondents respectively. The causes for anthropogenic factors were mainly scarcity of land, enormous livestock and fast population growth as reported by 28.5%, 23.2% and 26.5% respondents respectively. About 37.7%, 27.2%, 15.2% and 19.9% of the respondents indicated that loss of biodiversity, wildlife depletion, increases in poverty and decline in agricultural productivity as the main effect of human induced factors to the sanctuary respectively. The survey result also indicated that 31.1%, 27.2%, 15.9%, 13.2% and 3.3% respondents suggested creating employment opportunity for local community, solving local community’s problem, benefit sharing and Ecotourism development as principal solution to anthropogenic factors to SSHS respectively. In conclusion, the survey results revealed that local communities were highly dependent on the sanctuary particularly for livestock grazing. Currently conservation measure being taken at the sanctuary is not hopeful. Therefore, developing alternative means of livelihood for local communities and enhancing livestock quality by reducing its quantity is vital to balance the interest of local community and sustainability of the sanctuary.

  202. Suman Ghalawat, Amita Girdhar, Subodh Agarwal and Atul Dhingra

    Background & objectives: Online shopping provides a customer with a large variety of products and services where he is able to make comparison of different products and their features. Now days, online shopping provide the various benefits to the customers like less cost, more discounts, fast delivery, better quality, combo offers, replacement facility, guarantee and warrantee of products, discount coupons on next purchase and many more. The paper focuses to assess the relative significance of online shopping influencing factors on the overall satisfaction with the services of Online shopping sites. Methods: Present study is based on primary data with a sample of 200 respondents from Hisar district of Haryana and used factor analysis and Regression analysis to attain the objective of the study. Results: Factor analysis discloses six factors namely schemes, awareness, online shopping sites vs traditional advertising, information sharing, customer care, and lastly threat to system. Regression analysis discloses that only two factors customer care and Awareness influence more while doing online shopping.

  203. *Dr. N. Srividhya

    There is no escaping color. Whether it's choosing what to wear when you wake up in the morning or using color to make a picture full of life, color choice is always there. Color can affect your mood and motives. Some psychologists say that a person's favorite color can say something about their personality. Below is an insight into what a favorite color might have to say about a person. Not all of these traits may be true to you but you might be able to relate some to your own personality or someone else you know personality. This article is an attempt to find the most dominant color among teenagers.

  204. Dr. Sulthan Mohideen, A., Mohamed Ishaq, M. and Mohamed Ilyas, M.

    According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration: "Mineral water is any natural water that contains at least 250 parts per million of total dissolved solids (TDS). It must be verified through a lab test whereby a litre of water, evaporated at 180 degrees C, should leave a residue of minerals and salts. Bottled water is a ubiquitous commodity in the contemporary world. Though far more expensive per unit of volume than tap water or filtered water, and even gasoline in some places, bottled water is popular and widespread. The environmental impact of bottled water, however, can be significant, and the health impacts on individuals even more so. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyse the brand preference of mineral water in Cumbum town.

  205. Luigi Corniello, Andrea Improta, Gianluca Manna, Enrico Mirra and Francesco Scialla

    The research itinerary studies the reading of the graphic documentation of relating the UNESCO territory of Montenegro, and particularly the towns of Kotor, Dobrota, Perast and Herceg Novi, which overlook the Adriatic Sea. The drawing of the territory is, therefore, the result of incessant work of man, an eternal construction site where they collected the history and culture that characterize the contemporaneity of past and present: an eternal construction site, a source of creativity and change.

  206. Moumita Sinha, Arjun Rao, I. and Mitashree Mitra

    Each person on the planet can be, distinguished at molecular level on the basis of high level of polymorphism in the succession of his or her DNA, which he or she acquires from his or her biological parents and is identical in each cell of the body. DNA fingerprinting, as this system of recognizable proof is called, can affirm with sureness the parentage of a person. The utilization of DNA profiling in the criminal equity framework is a vital issue in criminal specialists today. The innovation is changing quickly and a few new procedures are getting to be distinctly accessible. DNA profiling has been depicted as an effective achievement in criminological science. The forensic use of DNA profiling is a noteworthy commitment to an innovation which can help not just in including the offender additionally to avoid the innocent. In this article an endeavor is made to expound the changing situation of the innovation in the late years and in addition to introduce the some genuine situations where distinctive variations of the DNA fingerprinting innovation were effectively connected in understanding the criminal cases in the research centers.

  207. Susan Chemuchuk

    Tourism and hospitality benefits local economies substantially by improving foreign exchange earnings, creating employment and investment opportunities, increasing government revenues, developing a country's image and supporting all other sectors of the economy as well as local communities. This paper explores the influence of technological alliances on the growth of hotel industry based on a study of hotels in Eldoret town in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design with a target population of 220 drawn from the hotel industry in Eldoret town. A sample of 112 respondents was drawn proportionately from four categories of hotels using stratified random sampling technique. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect the required data. The collected data was then analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer program version 20. Multiple regression analysis was also used to analyze the data. The findings were presented in frequency tables. From the study findings, it emerged that technological alliances increased the hotel sales, profits, product/service quality and reduction of costs. It had also enhanced market share and competitive advantage. The study recommends the need for hotels to adopt technological alliances in order to reduce operational costs and improve the quality of their products and services.

  208. Fitsume Berhanu and Mekuria Abebe

    Background: In this research, the psychological adjustment of adolescent students to parental divorce is the main focus of interest. The research questioned whether parental divorce influences the psychological adjustment of adolescents. Method: Two groups (adolescents from divorced family and from intact family) were examined across three domains of self-reported adolescent psychological functioning. The study was conducted on 120 adolescents of both sex (60 from each study groups) attending 10+1 and 10+2 grade level at Jimma, Agaro and Mizan town preparatory schools. Socio-demographic details and responses to questionnaires assessing the psychological adjustment (depression, anxiety, and stress) of adolescents were recorded. Results: The data of the two study groups was analyzed, and compared using computer based statistical measures (SPSS) of correlation and t-test. The comparison analysis, which was measured by independent sample t-test, at α = 0.05, found that adolescents from a divorced family scored a higher mean in the psychological measure of depression (M=2.66 mean score), anxiety (M=3.13 mean score) and stress (M=2.79 mean score) as compared to the lower mean score of adolescents from the intact family. Discussion: The finding indicated that adolescents from divorced family performed poor in psychological functioning (i.e., were more vulnerable to depression, anxiety and stress) as compared to adolescents from intact family, suggesting that differences can be attributed to parental divorce and its accompanying socio-demographic factors.

  209. Krishna Prasada Lashkari and Rajana Raghunath

    In this innovative era of material science, newer methods and materials which were facilitated to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional methods have been articulated for the restoration of grossly destructed teeth. As such a material is Customizable fiber post, Everstick post. Two clinical case reports ofrestoring form and function using this novel material are documented here. In the first case minimal preparation was carried out without enlarging the canal and in the second case an anatomic post was fabricated in a wide and flared root canal. These techniques can be used as substitutes to conventional methods of rehabilitation.

  210. Dr. Shika Swaroop Alva, Dr. Rajaram Naik, Dr. Shruthi Bhandary, Dr. Aftab Damda and Dr. Sharath Pare

    Dental Ethics is an ever-growing collection of online courses, resources, and materials related to dental ethics a type of ethics resource clearing house. The purpose Dental Ethics is to heighten ethical and professional responsibility, promote ethical conduct and professionalism in dentistry, advance dialogue on ethical issues, and stimulate reflection on common ethical problems in dental practice. There are various aspects in dentistry to practice what is preached and maintain the ethics while treating patient.

  211. Rashmi Kandukuri, Dr. Suresh Phatak and Dr. Phani Krishna Sagar

    Computed Tomography plays a major diagnostic role in evaluation of patients with neoplastic sinonasal diseases and determines the mode of management. The purpose of the present study is to assess the role of CT in diagnosis of neoplastic sinonasal diseases by correlating CT diagnosis with final histopathological diagnosis and evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of CT. This study was a retrospective hospital based study executed in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, Acharya Vinobha Bhave Rural hospital (AVBRH) attached to Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha. Study included 175 patients with symptomatic sinonasal diseases who were evaluated by 16 slice MDCT and final diagnosis was obtained. Out of 175 patients 38 had neoplastic histopathological diagnosis in ehich the findings were correlated with CT diagnosis. Then sensitivity and specificity of CT was evaluated. Statistical analysis was done by descriptive and inferential statistics using Test statistics (sensitivity, specificity, ppv, npv and accuracy) and Z test for single proportions (Z value > 1.96 is considered significant). Software used in the analysis was SPSS 17.0 version and graph pad prism 6.0 version and p < 0.05 is considered as level of significance. On correlating CT diagnosis with final diagnosis, Benign neoplasms had sensitivity of 95.24% and specificity of 99.35%, positive predictive value 95.24%, negative predictive value with 99.35% and accuracy of 98.86%. Malignant neoplasms had sensitivity of 88.89% and specificity of 99.36%, positive predictive value 94.12% and negative predictive value 98.73% with 98.29% accuracy. P value in all instances was < 0.05 i.e. <0.0001, indicating the significance of the findings.

  212. Dr. Hema Keswani, Dr. Yogesh T Lakkasetty, Dr. Hemavathy S. and Dr. Sarvesh Dave

    The pathology has extended its wings in the past few decades and has contributedgreatly in understanding the pathogenesis of genetic disorders and in diagnosis of several undifferentiated malignantneoplasms. Molecular techniques are being used in clinical field. There are various techniques which are introduced in the field of pathology like brush cytology, velscope, confocal microscopy, tumor markers, microarray etc. New emerging technologies, including robotics, humanoid technology, lab-on-chip devices, nanodevices and patient ‘smart’ implants, will in the future offer unique opportunities for laboratories to develop. In present article few of the various techniques have been discussed which when used optimally by the pathologist have improved the quality of life of patients and newer future diagnostic techniques which could be boon in the field of pathology.

  213. Matheus Santos de Sousa Fernandes, Gabriela Carvalho Jurema Santos and Érika Rabelo Forte de Siqueira

    Among them, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), consists of a stage of greater severity and is characterized by the presence of hepatic steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, micro and macro vesicular steatosis, with inflammatory response, and hepatic fibrosis, has emerged as a cause of chronic liver disease that may lead to severe clinical conditions, which include cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Still in the present moment there is no pharmacological treatment for NAFLD and NASH. However, changes related to the lifestyle of these patients appear as an alternative to generate health benefits of these patients, the RPE and diet modification, as the only way to set this disease. Recents studies have demonstrated that the regular practice of physical exercise associated with a macronutrient intake management causes benefits related to weight loss, body mass index, improve of lipogenic imbalance, inflammatory response, and histological profile in patients. However it is not known fully what the role of RPE and diet modification remaining unclear. The objective of this review is to investigate the role non-pharmacological treatment strategiesin path physiological process in NASH.

  214. Dr. Yash Pankaj Merchant, Dr. Rajshekhar Halli, Dr. Bidisha Gang and Dr. Jee-Hun Kim

    Introduction: Engineering of craniofacial tissues will have a profound impact on treatment strategies and surgical modalities in the future. Millions of patients across all ages are affected annually by sequelae of aberrant development, trauma and disease. Tissue engineering is a relatively new interdisciplinary field that seeks to provide a unique solution to tissue loss or deficiency. This involves implanting specific population of autologous living cells that have been isolated, expanded in tissue culture and introduced into scaffolds like a polymer framework. The concept of conscripting patients' own cells to rebuild lost or damaged tissue is the basis of several novel tissue engineering techniques. The future will see rehabilitation strategies shift from prosthetic to regenerative. The paper discusses the scope and applications of tissue engineering in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery along with its utility in clinical dentistry. It reflects on how close partnerships between basic and clinical scientists are imperative to revolutionise our field.

  215. Dr. Shreyas S. Mohile, Dr. Gandhali Limaye, Dr. Shaliki Wadhera, Dr. Pranav Sathe, Dr. Pratik Suthar and Dr. Pushkar P. Waknis

    Oral fibroma is a common benign scar-like reaction to persistent long-standing irritation in the mouth. It is also known as traumatic fibroma, focal fibrous hyperplasia, fibrous nodule or oral polyp. Oral fibroma presents as a firm smooth lump in the mouth. The surface may be ulcerated due to trauma, or become rough and scaly. This case report is a documentation of a 60 year old female. On examination 6 fibroma lesions were present in relation to lower right and left buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth. It was managed by surgical excision under general anaesthesia and was closed with local buccal advancement flaps. Histopathology report showed Multiple Irritation Fibroma. 1 year follow-up showed no recurrence.

  216. Dr. Aji Markose

    Restoration of carious teeth presents the dentist with the dilemma of selecting a suitable restorative material. Dentist must make this selection with great care because, in future years, those restorations needing replacement will result in the loss of increasing amount of tooth structure. This sets up a cycle where the increasing cavity size limits the choice of the materials that may be used effectively.

  217. Swati S. Pakolu, Amruta O.Kamble and Rajkiran P.Lokhande

    Objective: To compare changes occurring in the soft tissue profile with orthodontic treatment after extraction and non-extraction cases, and to determine soft tissue parameters that show significant correlations to understand the factors influencing the response to tooth movement. Methodology: Pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalographs of 16 subjects were assessed. For half of the patients (n=8), treatment included the extraction of 4 premolars, whereas the other half(n=8) were treated by the non-extraction approach.Soft tissue changes by treatment were analyzed and compared between both groups using the independent sample t-test to assess the degree of change with orthodontic treatment. Mean and S.D values before and after extraction and non-extraction treatment were also evaluated. Nasolabial angle, Labiomental angle, H angle, Lip chin submental angle, upper and lower sulcus depth to H line as well as upper and lower lip to E line were evaluated for study. Results: Although the premolar extraction group showed greater soft tissue changes with treatment, post-treatment comparisons showed that both extraction and non-extraction groups finished within the almost same soft tissue parameters. Conclusion: The effects of the two types of orthodontic treatment (i.e. extraction and non-extraction) on the facial soft tissues were very similar, indicating that treatment, involving the extraction of premolars, does not have a detrimental effect on facial aesthetics provided the decision to extract is on sound basis.

  218. Dr. Shaffy and Dr. Geetha Prakash

    Background: Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis is an established risk factor for development of lymphoma in thyroid and because of florid lymphocytic infiltrate it becomes difficult to distinguish it from lymphoma thereby posing a diagnostic challenge. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the demographical and morphological profiles of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and to ascertain the importance of B cell and T cell population using CD20 and CD 3 monoclonal antibodies for differentiating Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis with extensive lymphoplasmacytoid infiltrate from MALT Lymphoma. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Meenakshi Medical College and Research Institute Hospital from September 2011 to July 2013. A total of 40 cases were studied. The specimen consisted of partial as well as total thyroidectomy specimens. Specimens were received in formalin and sections were processed and embedded in paraffin after gross examination. Haematoxylin and Eosin staining were done as routine in all the cases. Immunoreactivity with CD20 and CD3 was graded according to the scoring system and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 19.0 software with regression modules installed. Results: Correlation between cytological and histological diagnosis revealed autoimmune thyroiditis to be the most prevalent lesion followed by adenomatoid goitre with lymphoma to be least prevalent (1%). Immunohistochemical profile showed all cases (30) of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis to be positive for CD20 and CD3 positive in 29 of the 30 cases, all cases of Adenomatoid goitre (9) were negative for CD20 with single case of Lymphoma showing intensely positive for CD20 and negative for CD3. Conclusion: Strict morphological and immunohistochemical criteria are required to differentiate Hashimoto’s thyroiditis from lymphoma. Cases with florid lymphocytic proliferation and any focus of atypical lymphocytes that masks earlylymphomatous transformation should be confirmed by CD20 & CD3 as well as Kappa and Lambda immunostaining.

  219. Dr. Shanmugavadivel, G., Dr. Vasantha kumari, A. and Dr. Vivek, K.

    The oral manifestations of HIV disease in children are well described, although occasional descriptions of new lesions make their way into literature. HAART generally reduces the frequency and/or security of most oral lesions associated with HIV disease. Fissured tongue is one of the nonspecific tongue lesions rarely observed in HIV patients under HAART. This paper presents a rare case report of fissured tongue in HIV patients of 11 year old under HAART.

  220. Yasser Helmy, Ahmad Taha, Tarek El-Banooby, Abdel Nasser Khallaf and Mahmoud Moawad

    Background: Dorsal hand injuries or defects in diabetic patients are usually complicate by skin loss, tendon exposure, then aggressive hand function loss. They are less common reports about this subject in literature. Objectives: This study was designed to providea clinical report and outcome observations about the use of RRFF in the reconstruction of dorsal hand defects associated with tendons exposure. Results: All flaps, were survived, but each case of the ten cases of the study had developed recipient and /or donor complications, but fortunately there is no complete flap loss or another major complication. Conclusion: Our observations are recommending the use RRFF as it is a reliable option in the reconstruction of the dorsal hand defects in diabetic patients, although it has higher incidence of flap and donor site complications.

  221. Dr. Nidhi Garg and Dr. Akhil Jain

    Dysmenorrhea itself is not life threatening, but is found to have a profound impact on the daily activities and may result in missing work or school; inability to participate in sports or other activities and it may accentuate the emotional distress brought on by the pain (Andrew, 1999). Acharya Charaka has mentioned that Yoniroga can’t occur without vitiation of Vata (Agnivesha, 2004). Again pain is the main feature of Kashtartava, so it has strong relation with Vata. In classical text it is explained that due to Vega Dharana of Vata, Mutra and Purisha the Apana Vata gets vitiated and it gets Udhravagami i.e. normal Anulomaka Gati of Apana Vayu changes to Pratiloma Gati and this vitiated Vata lifts the Yoni upward and causes obstruction to flow of Raja and Raja comes out with great difficulty with severe Shoola (Charakasamhita of agnivesha, 2007). Several herbs are described in Ayurvedic literature for management of kashtartav. There is a need to solve this emerging problem. Panchakarma therapy offers a rayof hope for udavartini. Also ayurvedic herbals offer potential management which is proved beyond doubt in solving theproblem successfully. The aim of the posture is to focus the management of this problem in present scenario. Ayurveda recommends rutucharya and dinacharya, diet modulation and yoga in the form of asanas, pranayam and meditation on a regular basis so as to alleviate dysmenorrhoea effectively. Similarly, Uttarbasti, Garbhashaya balyaaushadhi, anuvasan or matrabasti can also be administered if necessary.

  222. Getrude Cosmas, Walton Wider and Kailon Jakim

    This study examines the effects of positive and negative emotions on students’ self-motivation. Participants' emotions were stimulated with music, lyrics, and inspirational event. There were 259 participants taking part in this study; 56 males (21.6%) and 203 females (78.4%) with a mean age of 20.16 (SD=.95). We predicted that both positive and negative emotions contributed to self-motivation. We measured emotional levels using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) scale and motivational levels using a self-motivation scale. Participants were divided into two groups; experimental (141) vs. control (118). Both groups watched videos of runners in the Olympic Games. In the experimental group, all three elements (music, lyrics, & an inspirational event) were presented to the participants; in the control group, only two elements (music & an inspirational event) were presented. In the experimental group, positive emotions (i.e., being alert, active, determined, inspired & attentive) contributed to 16.9% of the variance in self-motivation, β=.41, t(134) = 5.12, p=.00), whereas, in the control group, positive emotions contributed only 7% of the variance in self-motivation β = .41, t (110) = 2.88, p=.00. In both groups, negative emotions (i.e., feeling upset, hostile, ashamed, nervous, & afraid) did not show any contribution to self-motivation. The findings showed that emotions stimulated by combined music, lyrics and an inspirational event contributed more significantly and positively to self-motivation than music and an inspirational event alone. Therefore, we suggested that music, lyrics and inspirational events could be used to stimulate students’ self-motivation. However, a follow-up study needs to be conducted to examine the sleeper effect on self-motivation to determine whether the effects are maintained over time.

  223. Petrov, P.

    The objective of this study is to present our experience with the use of infrared laser with (ƛ) 904 nm, for treatment of bone resorption in dental implants in process of osseointegration. Material and methods: we present a clinical case of treatment of bone resorption around the apex of an implant in process of osseointegration. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the infrared specter with (λ) 904 nm was used for the treatment. Six procedures were performed, every other day, with a dose of 3-4 J/ cm2. Results: The radiography performed about three months after the treatment showed recovery of the bone resorption. Conclusion: The use of laser in the infrared specter with (λ) 904 nm, for treatment of bone resorption in dental implants in process of osseointegration, following a protocol of six sessions every other day with dose of 3-4 J/ cm2 per session, leads to recovery of the bone structure.

  224. Jones Ndubuisi Nwosu and Ethel Nkechi Chime

    Background: It was observed that many young adults were presenting with hearing loss secondary to trauma. The rate appeared increasing as the days pass by as seen in a tertiary health facility in the heart of the town. Objectives: To determine the aetiology, presentation, treatment and outcome of patients with ear trauma managed in a tertiary hospital at a central location in the city and suggest ways to reduce the frequency. Methodology: Clinical case review and observation of patients presenting with ear trauma were studied over three years in the urban city. Patients’ clinical records were studied to generate the data required for the study. The data so generated were analyzed using descriptive statistics and results presented in tables and text. Results: Seventy seven patients, males 46(59.74%), females 31(40.26%), ratio 1.5:1 were studied. Their ages ranged from 0.67 to 51years with an average of 24.4059±12.3762 years. Assault 55 (71.42%) was the most popular aetiology with the left ear 49(63.63%) more affected than the right ear 25 (32.47%). Hearing loss 44.16%, noise in the ear 33.77% and bleeding from the ear 32.47% were the most frequent presentations. They were managed conservatively and outcome was uniformly uneventful except for 13(16.88%) cases who defaulted for follow up and whose outcome one cannot categorically talk about. Conclusion: Assault was the leading cause of ear trauma in our locality. This can be checked if the fundamental human rights were respected both at governmental and societal level. It is submitted that this be enforced to stem the tide and save the society from turning deaf.

  225. Betty SarabiaAlcocer, Luz Virginia Pacheco Quijano, Betty Mónica VelázquezSarabia, FajimeCúQuijano, María Eugenia López Caamal, Ana R. Can Valle, Sarid Selene Queb Briones, Celicia AlejandraMelken Lara, Carlos Alfonso Calan Cob and Sofia Didier Uc Murphy.

    Depression in the third age obeys the etiopathogenic factors that condition the disorders Objective: To identify the prevalence of depression in the Elderly, a prospective, transversal, descriptive study was performed, participating 76 People over 60 years old Material and methods: Se Applied the DSM-IV survey to determine the depression in the Elderly people of the town of Candelaria, Campeche during the period of April to October of 2016. Results: they presented depression, 79.3% had a primary school education or less, 17.2% were illiterate, 3.4% had a higher secondary schooling, had depression 27.5% were unable to work formally because they had a disability, while 62% worked in the household and 9.4% worked in a formal way. Conclusion: This study revealed a prevalence of 38%, higher than the national average

  226. Dr. Parveen A. Lone, Dr. Tahir Ahmad, Dr Vivek Prasad and Dr. Javaid Ahmad Wani

    The newest tragedy that has surged the death toll in past few years is deaths due to Road traffic accidents. RTA has now evolved to be major cause of deaths in our state. Hundreds of accidents occur every month in every nook of our state, needless to say, have culminated in unfortunate deaths of thousands of our young boys. Mostly the motor accidental episodes involve sheer negligent driving, rash driving especially by motorcycles, in and around city outskirts, truck collisions on the highways, overloaded passenger vehicles. In far flung districts that finally end up in Road Accidents. Aim of the study was to study demographic variables and epidemiological determinants associated with Road Traffic Accidents as reported in the tertiary care dental college and hospital of Jammu province.

  227. Kumar, R., Chaudhuri, S.J., Deotale, V., Jain, J., Gangane, N., Mendiratta, D.K. and Narang, P.

    Introduction: The identification of the clinical consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection is certainly one of the major discoveries within the past 20 years in medicine. H. pylori was the first formally recognized bacterial carcinogen and is one of the most common human pathogen. It has been etiologically associated with gastritis and gastric associated diseases, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric carcinoma. Dyspepsia is a very common group of symptoms referring upper gastrointestinal tract for which patients consult the physician, accounting for about 4% to 14% of their consultations. Annual Incidence of Helicobacter pylori is 6%-14% in developing countries with faeco-oral route of transmission. In this context this study has been undertaken to look for the association of H. pylori in adult patients of dyspepsia with evaluation of diagnostic test for detection of H. pylori in dyspeptic patients visiting in a tertiary hospital in a rural setup of central India. Material and Methods: It was a cross sectional studies involving 52 patients. After obtaining history and written informed consent, 4 antral mucosal biopsy specimens were collected along with 5 ml blood sample. Biopsy specimens were subjected to Rapid urea test (RUT), Culture, Gram staining and Histopathological examination. Subculture from Brucella broth was done on Brucella chocolate agar with & without antibiotics. Identification was done by standard tests. Serum was separated and used for ELISA test for H. pylori IgG antibody. Results: Out of the 52 patients studied, 25 (48.07%) were positive by Rapid urease test, 20(38.46%) by Gram staining, 17(32.69%) by Culture, 21(40.38%) by Histopathology and IgG 28(53.84%) by ELISA test. RUT had 100% sensitivity and 77.14% specificity, while histopathology had 94.11% sensitivity and 85.14% specificity and IgG had 94.11% sensitivity and 65.71% specificity in reference to culture. Conclusion: In our study, we have revealed that for diagnosing H. pylori either one can use RUT for rapid diagnosis in the endoscopic room itself and confirm diagnosis by culture or histopathology.

  228. Dr. Shamendra Kumar Meena and Dr. Pawan Kumar Meena

    Human negligence is a factor responsible for the development of antibiotic resistance. As soon as symptoms subside many patients stop taking antibiotics before completion of therapy and allow partially resistant microbes to flourish. Such practice should be condemned strongly and people should be educated to avoid the same. The increased rate of isolations of pseudomonas aeruginosa has its own implications as this organism is an important cause of nosocomial infections and has developed resistance to even many potent antibiotics. Pseudomonas infections are mostly seen where there is replaced by its due to constant use of topical antibiotics. The easy availability of the over the counter topical antibiotics drops and their rampant use breeds an environment where organism like pseudomonas can grow and cause serious intra and extra cranial complications.

  229. Remmiya Mary Varghese and Dr. Aravind Kumar, S.

    Aim: To Predict the Maxillary Lateral-Incisor Root Resorption of Potentially Impacted Canine Using Sector Analysis Material and Methods: OPG of 20 patients were included in the study. All patients had fully erupted maxillary permanent lateral incisors adjacent to the impacted canines. Each impacted canine was assigned to sector I-IV according to Lindauer and colleagues. Results: In our study, none of the 10 impacted canines in sectors I and II had adjacent lateral incisors with any root resorption. Of the three canines in sector III, however, one had adjacent lateral incisors with root resorption; of the 7 canines in sector IV, 3 had adjacent lateral incisors evidencing root resorption. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the more severe the impaction of a canine, the more likely it is that the adjacent lateral incisor will show some level of root resorption.

  230. Ujwal Yeole, Bhagyashree Gurav, Gaurai Gharote, Rasika Panse, Pournima Pawar and Shweta Kulkarni

    Introduction: The frequency of falls in elderly may be correlated to the reduced muscle strength and ineffective balance strategies.The present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of progressive resistance training in improving balance amongst elderly. Materials and Methods: The interventional study was carried out on elderly individuals selected from senior citizen groups across Mumbai and Pune cities, India. The individual surveyed were categorized using simple random sampling method into subjects receiving progressive resistance strength training (n=20, mean age 69.25±2.863) and control group (n=20, mean age 69.45±2.704) receiving conventional balance exercises. The intervention was carried out for 4 weeks and balance was assessed using berg balance scale (BBS) and Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) score Pre and post treatment. Results: Berg balance score in PRT group improved from 49.9±3.30 to 54.6±1.72 (p= 0.001) as compared to control group that improved from 49.2± 2.28 to 51.4 ±1.81 (p= 0.005). POMA score in PRT group improved from19.6±4.07 to 25.35±3.11(p=0.001) as compared to control group that improved from 18.3±4.39 to 22.2±4.11(p= 0.005) Conclusion: Progressive resistance training was significantly effective in improving balance thereby reducing the risk of fall amongst elderly.

  231. Fanthome, Bernard, Patankar, Suresh Balakrishna, Padasalagi, Gururaj Ramappa and Pathak, Gayatri

    Introduction: Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder is an extremely rare disease. Symptomatically this tumor usually presents during the 5th and 6th decades of life with hematuria. It needs to be distinguished from mucinous adenocarcinoma metastasizing to the bladder from other primary sites. We report this case in a young man whose disease progressed to an advanced stage with minimal, irritative lower urinary tract symptoms and needed an extensive resection to achieve locoregional control. Case Report: This 30 yr old male patient had been having irritative lower urinary tract symptoms for one year and had been under symptomatic treatment from traditional medicine practitioners. On evaluation he was diagnosed to have mucinous adenocarcinoma of bladder with extensive nodal metastases and a nonfunctioning right kidney secondary to uretero vesical junction obstruction caused by the tumor. He has been managed with radical cystectomy along with nephrectomy, ureterectomy and a super extended lymphnode dissection. Conclusion: Adenocarcinomas of the bladder can present surreptitiously with minimal symptoms and no significant signs. A high index of suspicion is to be maintained while evaluating lower urinary tract symptoms. There should be a low threshold for ultrasound evaluation to avoid late diagnosis and morbidity. Mucinous Adenocarcinoma has an aggressive behavior and responds poorly to radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  232. Zhu Qing-yun, Wang Hong-qiao, Yu Ning, Wang Zheng-bin and Pan Xin-ting

    Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a rare malignancy, and constitutes about 0.016% of all cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Primary hepatic lymphoma most commonly affected middle-aged males. Presenting symptoms and physical findings were non-specific. Ultrasonography and computed Tomography (CT) can help in the diagnosis, which can be confirmed only by histological examination of a liver biopsy specimen. In this article, we retrospectively reviewed the imaging features of 19 pathologically proven cases of primary hepatic lymphoma.

  233. Dr. Abdullah Alzahrani, Dr. Mohammad Mahfouz and Mohammad A. Alzahrani

    Objective: To determine functional outcome of anterior cervical decompression and fusion early than 6 months from the symptoms or more than 6 monthes from the symptoms for degenerative cervical spondylotic myelopathy with modified Japanese orthopedic association score (MJOA). Materials and Methods: 40 diagnosed cases of one level cervical myelopathy at king abdulazaiz hospital in Taif between 2008—20013 were retrospectively analyzed at, 1 year using MJOA. Results: 20 patients underwent Single level ACDF within 6 months from the start of symptoms with C5-C6 the commonest level to be affected. and 20 patient 20 patients underwent Single level ACDF after more than 6 months from the symptoms but less than one year .The correlation between Duration of Symptoms to Preoperative and postoperative MJOA was statistically significant. We noted statistically significant improvement in symptoms of axial neck pain, radicular arm pain, and gait disturbances post operatively at one year in both groups but was more improvement in group 1. Statically significant difference was noted between the two group while comparison. Conclusion: Functional outcomes in operated patients at 1-year follow up are better if ACDF surgery is done early within 6 months from the symptoms. Symptoms of axial neck pain; radicular arm pain, clumsy hand and gait disturbances show significant improvement at one year follow up. While bladder and bowel involvement showed the least recovery. Significant improvement in function occurs 1 year postoperatively.

  234. Reena Sinha, Shadan Rabab and R.V.N.Singh

    Cutaneous metastasis occur infrequently and are rarely present at the time the cancer is initially diagnosed (1). In majority of cases, cutaneous metastasis presents late, having a poor prognosis. The definite diagnosis of cutaneous lesions can differentiate between primary and adnexal or recurrence of malignancy and this can prevent further unnecessary surgical interventions. Such a result requires high degree of suspicion since the clinical signs and symptoms of skin metastases are difficult to analyze. Cutaneous metastasis occur in 0.6% -10.4% of all patient with cancer and represent 2% of all skin tumors (2).

  235. Ranjeet Singh, Narkeesh Arumugam and Shefali Gambhir

    This paper reports the benefits of therapist assisted sensorimotor task specific training (TASTT) and electrical stimulation in the rehabilitation of Wrist drop. Wrist drop is caused by damage to the radial nerve, which travels down the arm and controls the movement of the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm, because of several conditions. An intervention of 20 days (5 days per week for 4 weeks) was given to the patient & prognosis was observed on various outcome variables like Chedoke arm and hand inventory scale and strength and duration (SD) curve before & after the intervention. A poor prognosis was seen in both the variables which may be because of Neurolysis.

  236. Dr. Sumathi, N.

    Pancreatic neoplasms, both benign and malignant, are uncommon during pregnancy. There have been only eight reported cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Aden ocarcinomas of the pancreas during pregnancy present a unique treatment challenge. In all cases the goal is to minimize both maternal and fetal risk. In this article we discuss about a 25 yrs old G2P1L1, Previous LSCS, a case of pancreatic carcinoma. Oncologist opinion was obtained, planned to continue pregnancy with explained risk of fetal anomaly. Serial USG, LFT, Serum amylase level monitored. The size of lesion in pancreas was not increasing. Elective repeat LSCS was done and delivered an alive term male baby wt 3kg with no anomaly and good apgar. Patient is now on follow up with oncologist. This case has been presented for its rarity.

  237. Dr. Sai Krishna, K., Dr. Appala Naidu, R., Dr. Eswar, G. and Dr. Venkata Madhav, M

    Background: This study was aimed to evaluate various clinical presentations of lacunar infarcts and correlating their localization with Radiological imaging Method: This Cross sectional study was conducted on 100 patients who admitted and attended at Dr. PSIMS & amp; RF which is a rural tertiary health care centre from July 2015 to November 2016. Patients presenting with various clinical Lacunar syndromes, were evaluated for etiopathogenesis, confirming the lesion localization with radiological imaging. Results: 100 patients were studied out of which 83 were hypertensives and 63 were smokers, 56 were diabetics. 63 patients were asymptomatic and 37 were symptomatic pure motor hemiparesis was seen 22 in symptomatic patients, most of them located in internal capsule region on radiological localization. Sensorimotor lacunar syndrome was seen in 10 patients, half of them having a thalamic lesion. 3 patients with ataxia hemiparesis had lesion at cortical and capsule ganglionic regions. 6 patients have lesions at multiple sites’ had lesions mostly located in cortical regions with different presentations. Conclusion: In our study, Hypertension and smoking were two most common risk factors for Lacunar infarct. Many of launar infarcts were asymptomatic. Pure motor hemiparesis is the most common type of lacunar syndrome with lesions commonly localized in internal capsule region.

  238. Dr. Piyush Kumar Sengar, Dr. Smita Priyadarshini, Dr. Manish Raj and Dr. Pratibha Rai

    Introduction: Dexmedetomidine being a highly selective & potent α2a agonist has a wide therapeutic actions. Dexmedetomidine was used as a sole analgesic & sedative agent in day care surgeries. Methods: The study was conducted on 40 patients divided in 2 groups, A & B of ASA-I & ASA-II. In group A patients received inj. Dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg i.v slowly & in group B received inj. Fentanyl 1 µg/kg i.v slowly prior to induction. Following preoxygenation induction done with inj. Propofol i.v 2mg/kg & maintained with 33% O2, 66% N2O & 0.6-0.8% of Isoflurane with patient breathing spontaneously. Patients were evaluated in post operative recovery room with help of visual analogue scale for pain, Ramsay score for sedation & Standard Aldrete score for recovery. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in both group’s demographic profile. Comparison of pulse rate in Dexmedetomidine group shows significant fall immediately after premedication but remained equivalent to baseline throughout surgery & significant fluctuation of pulse rate seen in Fentanyl group and this significant difference remain throughout the surgery. Similar results were seen in systolic blood pressure. Statistically highly significantly fall in saturation was observed in fentanyl group. The post operative analgesia duration was more with Dexmedetomidine than Fentanyl. The sedation was highly significant in fentanyl group & the quality of recovery with Aldrete was highly significant in Dexmedetomidine group at 15, 30, 60 minutes. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine used as a sole sedation / analgesia is not only very effective but produces excellent hemodynamic stability, minimal side effect, prolongs post operative analgesia, early recovery and has no residual CNS depressant effect.

  239. Jaykumar Gade, Neha Khodaskar and Vandana Gade

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different concentrations (1wt%, 3wt % and 5wt %) of MA-POSS (methacryl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane) on flexural strength of heat cured denture base resin (PMMA). Material and Methods: Total 40 test specimens were made of heat cured denture base resin (DPI, Dental Products of India) with dimensions of 65 mm x 10 mm x 3 mm. Methacryl POSS (MA-POSS) was added in 1wt%, 3wt% and 5 wt% concentrations by physically blending in polymer matrix. All the specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 370 C for 10 days in a universal incubator and tested in universal testing machine at cross head speed of 0.5mm/min. Results: The mean flexural strength of control group specimens was 72.25 Mpa which increased to 85.17 Mpa on reinforcement with 1 wt % POSS and further increased to 99.85 Mpa on reinforcement with 3 wt% POSS. However the flexural strength declined to 50.45 Mpa on reinforcement with 5wt% POSS Conclusion: Concentration of POSS upto 3 wt % improved flexural strength of denture base resin however when concentration increased to 5 wt % the strength decreased drastically.

  240. Dr. Bhavana, C., Dr. Nagarathnamma, T and Dr. Ambica, R.

    Objective: Candida albicans is generally considered the major pathogen among the Candida species. An increase in the prevalence of non-albicans Candida species has been noted during the last decades and also azole resistance is seen more commonly in non-albicans Candida species compared to Candida albicans. The objective of the study was to identify, isolate and speciate Candida and perform antifungal susceptibility testing from various clinical specimens which has a direct impact on choice of empirical antifungal treatment. Methodology: A total of 100 Candida isolates from various clinical specimens were processed for speciation using standard mycology methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines M44-A2. Results: The present study had a male preponderance, with an overall male: female ratio being 1.4:1. Isolation of Candida was highest among the extremes of age group i.e., neonates followed by 50-70 yrs. The various species of Candida isolated in the study were C.tropicalis (39%), C.albicans (35%), C.krusei (13%), C.glabrata (7%) and C.parapsilosis (6%). There was variation in the susceptibility pattern of Candida spp. to frequently used antifungal drugs. The Candida species showed highest sensitivity to Nystatin (98.92%) and Amphotericin B (84.95%) followed by Fluconazole (42.53%), Clotrimazole (30.12%) and Ketoconazole (25.8%). C.tropicalis, C.albicans and C.parapsilosis were 100% sensitive to Nystatin. C.krusei was 100% sensitive to Clotrimazole and 92.3% sensitive to Amphotericin B and Nystatin. The susceptibility of C.albicans to fluconazole was only 60%. Conclusion: Non-albicans Candida is gaining clinical significance. Hence identification of species will be helpful in selection of antifungals for the earlier and cost effective treatment. CHROM agar serves as a primary isolation and differentiation medium for clinical specimens that could allow laboratories to rapidly identify Candida spp, enabling clinicians to choose appropriate antifungal agents, thus decreasing patient’s morbidity and mortality.

  241. Motaz G Helali and Riham H Abdelrahman

    Background: Multiple Sclerosis is the commonest immune mediated inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. It is usually relapsing remitting and presents with focal neurological deficit. On the other hand ADEM (Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis) also known as postinfectous encephalomyelitis is a rare CNS demyelinating disorder which is typically monophisic and presents with encephalopathy. Objective: We would like to report a rare case of MS that present with ADEM like clinical and radiological picture. Material and Methods: A 16 year female presented to the emergency room with progressive deterioration in consciousness over five days. Results and conclusion: MRI Brain and Cervical spine was suggestive of ADEM while CSF examination and brain biopsy was suggestive of MS.

  242. Dr. Samia Perwaiz Khan and Dr. Muslim Abbas

    Background: Influenza virus causes outbreak of influenza which causes sickness and kills thousands of people each year, also may cause outbreaks of devastating worldwide epidemics. There are three human pathogens; Influenza A that causes worldwide epidemic, Influenza B virus that causes influenza and Influenza C virus causes mild respiratory tract infections. The lack of awareness among people or medical professionals, shortage of sufficient epidemiological information or due to inaccessibility of current vaccine of general population for prevention of flu virus and related illness. In this study we aimed to analyze level of awareness regarding influenza vaccination along with benefits among general population of various age groups. Method: We performed a descriptive survey-based study to analyze awareness among general population in Karachi about availability and accessibility of flu vaccine and its cost effectiveness. There were 100 participants were divided into four age group who were asked to fill the questioner regarding the awareness of influenza vaccine. Also if they were vaccinated and its effectiveness. Results: Out of 100 the persons in general population were aware about the vaccine availability and benefits in population of Karachi. The episode of influenza and complication even after vaccination in elderly patients, medical practitioners and paramedics. Conclusion: We concluded that even though vaccine is available yet, there is a dire need of awareness among general population as majority of the people didn’t know about its benefits.

  243. Dr. Manikya Shastri, Dr. Sunil Dhaded and Dr.Subashani

    Patients with facial defects avoid social contact. The reason behind this may be functional problems or serious psychological problems. Plastic surgery and prosthesis are the treatment option for the patients who are wishing to disguise the absence of all or missing part. The maxillofacial prosthesis constructed by prosthodontists is an alternative treatment when the facial defects cannot be surgically treated. There are various retentive aids to enhance retention. This article gives a brief review on auricular retentive aids which are used to enhance retention.

  244. Dr. Shivani Singh, Dr. Vivek Singh Dahiya, Dr. Raghvendra Narayan and Dr. Ashwanti Devi

    Background: Variations in structure, maturation, and arrangement patterns in odontogenic lesions, affect clinical and biological behavior. Aim: The aim was to assess arrangement and distribution of collagen fibers in Odontogenic lesions histochemically using Picrosirius Red Stain and observed under Polarizing Microscopy. Materials and Methods: Samples included formalin fixed-paraffin embedded tissue from 10 dental follicular tissue, 30 odontogenic cysts: 15 Radicular cysts; 15 Dentigerous cysts; 30 benign odontogenic tumors: 15 keratocystic odontogenic tumors, 15 ameloblastoma and 5 ameloblastic carcinoma. Sections stained with picrosirius red stain were examined under polarizing microscope (40x) for thickness, birefringence and orientation patterns. Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed using chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and Student’s t-test for ‘pair-wise’ comparisons. P-value ≥0.05 was considered significant. Results: Dental follicular tissue and odontogenic cysts showed thick fibers with orange red birefringence and reticular pattern. Radicular cysts showed higher percentage of thick collagen fibers, orange red birefringence and reticular pattern. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor and ameloblastoma showed thick collagen fibers and parallel pattern. Ameloblastic carcinoma showed thick fibers with orange red birefringence and reticular pattern. Conclusion: Collagen fibers as studied by picrosirius red stain and polarizing microscopy may be a useful tool in assessing the nature, aggressiveness and growth potential of these lesions. Clinical significance: The nature of collagen fibers in the connective tissue stroma may be evaluated by picrosirius red stain and polarizing microsopy, may be a useful tool in assessing the nature, aggressiveness and growth potential of these lesions.

  245. Dr. Roshni Maurya, Dr. Shabnam Zahir, Dr. Gautam Kumar Kundu and Dr. Jayanta Bhattacharyya

    Bite force is recognized as one of the factors indicating the masticatory system’s functional state resulting from jaw elevator muscle action, modified by cranio-mandibular biomechanics. Many studies have been performed to determine the relationship between bite force and masticatory efficiency, as bite force is one of the key determinants of masticatory performance. The prime aim of the present study was to determine the mean maximum voluntary bite force of Bengalee children of Kolkata in the mixed and permanent dentitions and to assess different influencing factors on the magnitude of children’s bite force in order to advance knowledge in relation to bite forces and their interplay in children.

  246. Dr. M. K. Gupta, Dr. Jaykumar Gade, Dr. Monica Mahajan and Dr. Neha Khodaskar

    Replacement of mandibular teeth in an edentulous mandible with resorbed ridges and localized alveolar ridge defect is a challenge for the Oral surgeon as well as the Prosthodontist. Various soft and hard tissue procedures have been proposed to correct alveolar ridge deformities. Many new techniques have evolved in treating these ridge defects to improve function and esthetics. The present case reports a novel technique of alveolar ridge onlay grafting using hydroxyapetite crystals admixed with Platelet Rich Fibrin used as a barrier membrane. This technique resulted in a good reconstruction of the ridge defects with encouraging results prompting the efficacy of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) membrane as a barrier material in various hard and soft tissue surgeries.

  247. Dr. KumariKhushboo, Dr. Harsha T.R., DrAmbica and Dr. Jyothi S Kabbin

    Colistin is a polymyxin with bactericidal activity against most strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The recent increase in multidrug-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa has prompted renewed interest in the use of colistin. Rapid and reliable colistin susceptibility testing (ST) is needed in routine clinical laboratories to allow appropriate therapeutic decision-making. The present study aimed to study the efficacy and reliability of disc diffusion method to test the susceptibility of colistin. Materials and Methods:A total of 50 clinical isolates of carbapenem non-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from various clinical samples was identified using standard microbiological procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by means of agar disc diffusion and E-test method. Results: Around 82% isolates showed the sensitivity zone between 11-15mm (sensitive). The comparison between the Colistin Disks and E- strip showed 6 isolates to be sensitive by E-Strip method but found to be resistant by colistin disk method. Discussion: In this study most cases were found to be sensitive by both methods (86%). Nevertheless, 7 cases (14%) were resistant to the Colistin disk method. These were further tested for the Etest and 6/7 were found to be sensitive by the Etest. Conclusion: The above study showed the disk diffusion method to be equally efficacious as the Etest with 86% of the isolates showing susceptibility by both the methods.

  248. Satish Patil, Santosh Patil and Soumya S. Patil

    Vertebral collapse is the breakdown of a vertebra resulting in a decreased height of its body. The collapse may occur to a variable extent. Vertebral collapse is associated with an increased width of the body with possible bulging of the posterior wall towards the spinal canal and consequent spinal cord or nerve root compression in severe cases. While the diagnosis of vertebral collapse is easily accomplished with plain X-ray films, etiology & in particular differentiation between benign osteoporotic vertebral collapses from tumoral replacement is difficult. Objectives: Evaluate the accuracy of various magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in differentiating malignant from benign vertebral collapses. Analyse the sensitivity & specificity of MR imaging in differentiating causes of vertebral collapse. Methods: The study is basically a prospective observational study conducted from December 2014 to June 2016. The group comprised of patients who attended Department of Radiodiagnosis & orthopaedics with complaint of back pain, lower limb weakness & generalized body ache. A detailed clinical history was obtained from all patients. Detailed examination and findings were recorded. Results: Accuracy of pedicle involvement (96%), convex posterior border(90%),homogenenous replaced marrow (74%) and paravertebral spinal mass (86%) was found to be high in cases of malignant vertebral collapse, which helps in accurately differentiating it from benign vertebral collapse. Conclusion: MRI is well known useful method in evaluating diseases of bone and bone marrow and one of the reliable method to differentiate between benign and malignant etiology Thus, it was concluded in our study that the MRI helps 1.differentiating between benign and malignant etiology 2.deciding in surgical and nonsurgical treatment options which are available to achieve the goals of preservation of neurologic function and restoration of spinal stability.

  249. Sarmishtha De, Kamal Kachhawa, Arun Gambhir, Rajesh Kumar Jain, Seema Tamrakar and Sanjay Kumar Diwan

    Introduction: Secretory Otitis Media (SOM) is the commonest clinical condition that can cause conductive deafness, especially among school going children. The outcome of hearing loss in children, include, speech problems, behavioral problems, and poor academic performance. Management of SOM therefore remains crucial. Here, comparative study between antibiotics Vs surgical therapy in treatment of SOM has been done. Materials and Methods: The study was started with enrolling fifty patients. A detailed history with ENT examinations was done and documented in a validated proforma. Routine investigations like CBC, urine examination, audiological investigation like impedance audiometry etc., was done in all cases. Observation and results: About 70% of the patients presented with symptoms of ear block with mouth breathing. Increased incidence was found in the 2-6 years of age group. The study shows that, surgery can fasten the rate of recovery, shorten the duration of therapy, and prevent the recurrence of SOM as compared to treatment with antibiotics. Conclusion: However, both the treatments have complications associated with them. Large, well-controlled studies could help resolve the risk benefit ratio by measuring SOM recurrence, functional outcome, quality of life and long term outcomes.

  250. Satish Patil, Soumya S. Patil and Santosh Patil

    Aim: 1. to determine significance of intervertebral disc fluid sign in differentiating benign and malignant vertebral collapse. 2.Accuracy of intervertebral disc fluid sign in determining osteoporotic vertebral collapse. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in department of radiology and orthopedics .Study subjects belonging to all age groups, those who attended radiology and orthopedics department were included in the study.Detailed clinical history was taken and subjects were subjected to imaging and statistical analysis was done. Results: Presence of intravertebral fluid sign was found to be statistically insignificant for malignant etiology (P>0.05). Presence of intravertebral fluid sign was found to be statistically significant for osteoporotic collapse (P= 0.002). Conclusion: MRI is the reliable method to differentiate between benign and malignant compression fracture.MRI characteristics presence of fluid sign which allow early differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral fractures were studied. Presence of intravertebral fluid sign was found to be statistically significant for osteoporotic collapse. As fluid sign is one of the feature in acute vertebral compression fracture which is depicted as bone marrow edema .Fluid sign is one the additional feature most commonly seen in osteoporosis and rarely seen in vertebral fracture in metastatic etiology.

  251. Marwah S. Almarwan, Faika Y. Abdelmegid and Fouad S. Salama

    Purpose: The purpose of this survey was to assess the perceptions and knowledge of caregivers who provide oral health care for persons with special needs (PSN) and person with medical conditions (PMC) with regards to the persons with special needs and medical conditions overall oral health care and the factors that affect provision of such care. Methods: This 33 items item survey consisted of questions to determine the perception and knowledge of the parent/caregivers with regards to the overall oral health care of PSN and PMC. Two-hundred and thirteen parent/caregivers for PSN and PMC and currently treated at King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh participated in this study. This survey included information such as gender, age and number of years helping PSN and PMC. Responses to the questionnaire were tabulated and percent/frequency distributions for responses to each item were analyzed. Results: The tested knowledge of parents/caregivers was moderate but the majority rated their knowledge as minimal (41.78%) and moderate (35.21%). There was correlation between the gender of caregivers and their self-rating knowledge of oral health care of PSN and PMC (p=0.0012). No correlation between how long a parent/caregiver has been helping PSN and PMC and their self-rating knowledge (P=0.09). There was no correlation of the medical conditions and tested knowledge of caregivers of oral health care of the PSN and PMC (p=0.15). Person's behavior and the level of person’s disability/disease were reported as the major reasons why it is difficult to provide care for them. Conclusions: The knowledge of parents/caregivers was moderate and most individuals who care for PSN and PMC have no formal or informal training and rated their knowledge as minimal. Reported barriers to care should be addressed by continuing education and further training.

  252. Louis Cojandaraj, A. and Dr. Viji, M.

    The Protocols followed for the isolation of genomic DNA from Portieriahornemannii have certain limitations due to the presence of polysaccharides and polyphenols in the sample. DNA isolated by these protocols is contaminated with a sticky and viscous matrix. In our modified DNA isolation method polysaccharides and polyphenols are removed prior to the precipitation of the DNA. Then the genomic DNA was precipitated using isopropanol. This protocol yielded a high molecular weight DNA isolated from fresh as well as dry leaves of Portieriahornemannii, which was free from contamination. Isolated DNA can be used for restriction digestion and PCR amplification. The main objective of the present protocol is to provide a simple method of isolation of DNA, using in house prepared reagents.

  253. Sarika Saxena, Jadala Shankaraswamy and Shikhar Tyagi

    Here we report the thermodynamic analysis of glucose interaction on conformational transitions on DNA duplex with different base compositions and lengths by using Circular Dichroism, UV thermal melting and native gel electrophoresis. CD results revealed that three duplexes Duplex 1 “D1” and Duplex 2 “D2” folded into B-form while Duplex 3 “D3” folded into mixed A and B like forms in the presence of different cations and glucose. We monitor the interaction between DNA duplex and glucose over a range of temperatures. Thermal melting data revealed that these duplexes are more stable without glucose under all cationic (Na+, K+, Na+ + Mg++ and K+ + Mg++) conditions tested and calculated the enthalpy “∆H”, entropy “∆S” and free energy “∆G”. Moreover, these duplexes are marginally destabilized at high concentration of glucose. In this study, glucose was considered as an essential model for understanding interactions between interfacial water molecules at hydrophilic surfaces of DNA duplexes.

  254. Emilio Ghisleni Arenhardt, José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva, Lorenzo Ghisleni Arenhardt, Henrique Pasquetti Carbonari and Antonio Costa de Oliveira

    While promoting yield gains, nitrogen can bring huge losses by lodging. The work aimed to analyze the behavior of oat elite cultivars pattern of resistance and susceptibility to lodging the use nitrogen for grain yield and effects on lodging in favorable and unfavorable years of cultivation in Augusto Pestana and Capão do Leão on Rio Grande do Sul. Propose the recommendation of high grain yield cultivars with reduced lodging, independent of the agricultural year and indicate the breeding programs potential genotypes for advances in grain yield with resistance to lodging. The study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 in Capão do Leão and Augusto Pestana, RS, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications, following a factorial model in the use of three nitrogen doses (30; 90 and 150 kg ha-1) and eight elite cultivars with contrasting patterns of resistance and susceptibility to lodging.The grain yield and lodging were strongly influenced by year of cultivation. Brisasul showed high grain yield with greater resistance to lodging at the conditions of fertilization with nitrogen, independent of years and location of cultivation. The Brisasul cultivar, of reduced plant lodging and URS Corona of high grain yield, look promising in the development of segregating populations simultaneously adding favorable alleles for these traits.

  255. João Carlos Ferreira de Melo Júnior and Maria Regina Torres Boeger

    Variation in the functional traits of plants stem from evolutionary and environmental drivers that operate on different scales. Such traits are linked to growth, survival, and reproduction of organisms and tend to vary less in harsh environments. This study evaluated the variation in leaf and wood traits of dominant plant species of different types of restinga vegetation to answer (i) which traits respond most to edaphic conditions and (ii) in which vegetation type are species more functionally redundant. The functional attributes considered were height of individuals, leaf inclination angle, leaf area, leaf dry matter content, specific leaf area, wood density, tangential vessel diameter, vessel frequency, conductivity index, and vulnerability index. The analyses of functional attributes, diversity, and functional redundancy in association with the edaphic parameters of organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, and gravimetric moisture used SYNCSA software. The relationship between edaphic and functional attributes was determined by linear regression. ANOVA revealed variations in the morphological and anatomical attributes of the species. The optimal subset of leaf attributes that maximize species convergence include leaf inclination angle and specific leaf area. Convergence was expressed by all of the attributes of wood measured. Strong correlations appeared between optimal attributes and soil variables. Functional diversity progressively increased towards the forest formation, while functional redundancy was higher in herbaceous formations. There is evidence of a directional environmental filter that acts with a greater selective force on the herbaceous formations, since species growing in resource-limited environments tend to develop more convergent morpho-anatomical adjustments.

  256. Shakeel Ahmed Wagan, Waseem Ali Vistro, Nasir Rajput, Syed Khurram Fareed, Noreen Mehmood, Muhammad Farooq and Mashhood Ahmed

    The study was designed to find the effect of light duration on overall production of Japanese quails such as weight gain, feed consumption and egg production. Total one hundred and twenty Japanese quails were grouped into three and each group was intended forty birds. Group-A with a light duration of 12 hours, group-B has 16 hours and group-C was fixed for 20 hours of light duration. The experiment was designed for two months (60 days). Obtained data was statistically analyzed by using the significant difference. The useful and valuable output of this study was gain in a very low-priced and contracted experimental design that is imperative for the poultry farmers in respect of light significance. The results revealed that the final body weight of birds was higher in group-C (143.17±4.44gram) followed by group-B (136.12±3.91gram) and group-A (133.72±6.81gram). Similarly, feed intake shown increased in group-C (1358±278.77gram) followed by group-B (1092±218.68gram) and group-A (882±169.45gram). Moreover egg production percentage was recorded high (68.7±0.54) in group-C and Puberty time was recorded less in group-C where light duration was increased. Overall net profit was also seen markedly higher in group-C. In each group light duration was provided during 1-5 weeks was variable. Regarding the data on initial body weight (gram) in all experimental groups showed negligible variation. It is concluded that the prolong energy source (light) increase the productivity, reproducibility and economical performance of the Japanese quail.

  257. Fulya TAN, Savas DALMIS, I. and Fıgan DALMIS

    Chopped maize have to be compressed in bunker silos for high quality silage. High losses can occur if the compaction is too low. The main objective of this research was to determine the compaction force at the ensiled material in bunker silo. A pressure measurement method was developed. This method is based on the compaction force determination. Mesens 500 series 4-20 mA of the 4 bar capacity pressure sensor was used. Sensor capacity was determined by the tractor tire pressure. In bunker silos were identified measure points to characterize the silage compaction profile. The experiment was organized in a 3 layer thickness (0.5 m, 1 m, 1.5 m) x three lateral positions (left near the wall, right near the wall and centre) x three areas (A, B and C). Sensors were located during filled the each layer in the bunker silos. Results indicate that a higher compaction force was measured by decreasing layer thickness and by increasing compaction time. The highest pressure was measured in C area due to the higher compaction time.

  258. Nazia Khatun, Taibur Rahman and Rita Mahanta

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of 2, 4 D on gill and liver tissue of Heteropneustes fossilis in order to understand its toxicity. The experimental fishes were exposed to two sublethal concentrations 3.00 ppm (1/10th of LC50) and 0.60 ppm (1/50th of LC50) doses of 2, 4 D for duration of 30 days. Histopathological analysis showed damage to liver and changes in gill architecture which were characterized by vacuolation, hepatic necrosis, disruption of gill lamellae. Alternation or change in gill structure could impair oxygen intake which eventually might cause death of the fish. The damage in liver tissue might be an indication of poor physiological activity as different important enzymes are secreted by it. Hence the application of herbicides in agricultural field and aquatic body should be monitored as it can reach humans through food chain.

  259. Abhishek K. Mishra and Vijay S. Wadhai

    This review presents a critical analysis of the various aspects of producing antimicrobial textiles. The microbes involved their mechanism of adherence on natural and synthetic fibers, effect of microbial growth on textiles, principle and mechanism of antimicrobial activity and the compounds being used for this purpose have been covered.

  260. Deshmukh, S. G., Deshmukh, N. P. and Dr. Ghorpade, P. B.

    The present study was undertaken to determine the expected genetic gain for seed yield and its components from half-sib selection method, to assess the effect of intermating on genetic correlation and to assess the frequency of half-sib families significantly superior over Bhima and A1. The 200 half-sib families were developed and evaluated in rabi 2008, along with five check varieties. Expected genetic advance was 39.68 per cent and 45.68 per cent at 10 per cent selection intensity over population mean and Bhima respectively for the seed yield per plant. Days to 50% flowering and maturity exhibited negative correlation with seed yield per plant indicating breaking of positive correlation to negative correlation. Therefore, selection of high yielding families with early maturity is possible. This indicate that the half-sib recurrent selection is effective for increasing population mean and extraction of superior recombinant lines better than check varieties. There are ten half-sib families significantly superior over Bhima and eight half-sib families significantly superior over A1.

  261. Haram Hassan Abbas Bakhiet, Raian Omer and Alaa Hashim

    Tilapia fish, Oreochromius niloticus were exposed to different sublethal concentrations (30 mgll and 50 mg/l) of chlorine to observe behavioral alterations and histopathological alterations in liver. The fishes showed marked changes in their behavior when exposed to the test solution of different concentrations. The fishes showed rapid swimming than in control, hyperactivity, loss of balance, increased surfacing activity. The lives showed marked alterations, the focal areas of necrosis vacuolation and dilation and thrombosis formation in central vein, rupture in the hepatocytes, Cell damage, Moreover, pyknosis (PY) and hemorrhages was seen.

  262. Gandhiyappan, K.

    The methanol extract of four seaweeds collected from Mandapam coast were determined using phytochemicals of total phenolic activity, carotenoids, flavonoids and antioxidant potential assay The methanol extract of brawn seaweed Sargassum weightii showed higher phenolic content than all green seaweed Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa taxifolia. Higher antioxidant activity was also observed in mathanol extract of Sargassum weightii. The minimum values were observed in Ulva lactuca In the present study, the extract of Sargassum weightii and Caulerpa taxifolia was found to possess strong antioxidant activity.

  263. Venkataraman, Dr. Anandavelu, K., Mahabubadsha, A. and Thiruvasagamoorthi, K.

    Solar still, which converts available brackish or impure water into potable water, can be used to supply drinking water for the people living in arid and remote areas. But, this still is not popular because of its lower productivity. This research work presents the theoretical and actual performance of the single basin double slope solar still and explores the different methods to improve the efficiency. A single basin double slope still with overall size of 2.5 m x 1.5m x 1 m was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions (still – laboratory) and in actual solar radiation conditions (still – solar) at Chidambaram (9o11’N, 77o52’E), a city in southern India. Experiments were conducted for different depths of water up to 0.2 cm and with different basin materials. Different wick materials like light cotton cloth, jute cloth and light sponge sheet were used. Aluminium rectangular fins arranged in length and breadth wise covered with cotton cloth and jute cloth were also used in the basin. The solid materials like quartzite rocks of different sizes, naturally washed stones, cement concrete pieces and, brick pieces and iron turnings were used in the basin. The above said solid materials were not used so far. Experiments were conducted using different glass thickness with different inclination and orientation and the variations in transmittance were studied. A regression equation was established, to calculate the transmittance of the given thickness glass plate at any place and at any time for given radiation conditions. The variations of energy losses at cover plates were studied.

  264. Tahseen Jahan A. and Maragatham, M.

    This paper studies the production manager’s preference for economic production quantity of his single item inventory to avoid the escalating prices of the different cost like setup cost, holding costs and ordering costs. We also introduce a fuzzy inventory model under safety stock based on fuzzy total annual safety stock cost and annual holding cost of safety stock out and fuzzy total stock out cost. We apply the function principle and Graded Mean Integration representation method for computing the optimal production quantity and fuzzy total annual inventory cost. A numerical example is illustrated to derive the optimal solutions for fuzzy annual costs for both regular and safety stock model.

  265. Rekha, G. and Leema Rose, A.

    The extraction and characterization of crude oil of Moringa oleifera oil found in India, Tamil Nadu has been carried out. Normal hexane was used as solvent for the extraction process. The oil produced was refined through transesterification process using methoxide and magnetic stirrer local. The characterization analysis revealed that tested parameters, which include specific gravity, refractive index, viscosity, density, acid value, saponification value and iodine value for both crude and refined Moringa oil produced, were within the ASTM standard specifications. The oil is of good quality and could be recommended suitable for industrial usage.

  266. Mohammed Salah Abdalaziz Khaleel, Saif Eldin Fattoh Osman and Hiba Ali Nasir Sirour

    Web cache replacement plays important role in increasing the performance and speed of browsing web sites using internet. This paper highlights a new proposed Average Least Frequency Used Removal (ALFUR) and compares it with web cache replacement techniques like (LFU, LRU, SIZE, and PCCIA). Hit Ratio (HR) and ByteHit Ratio (BHR) were used to measure the performance of these algorithms, and it was found that ALFUR technique has the bestHit Ratio and ByteHit Ratio since it has the highest values for HR &BHR when cache size was started from 1Mb,6Mb,500Mb,800Mb.

  267. Mesfin Bibiso

    A study was conducted on agricultural soils in Kindo Koysha District, Southern Ethiopia, with the objective of evaluating soil physico chemical properties. Physical and chemical characteristics of soils were evaluated using standard methods. Soil properties varied according to the sites. pH varied from strongly acidic (4.7) to slightly acidic (6.5). The levels of organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (N) were 1 to 1.83% and 0.086 to 0.157%, respectively. The soil OC contents were in low to moderate range. The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) in all the studied sites was greater than 10. The available phosphorus (P) contents of the soils in all studied sites were qualifying very low range. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soils ranged from 3.4 (low) to 21.5 Cmol(+) kg-1 (moderate). The textural classification was sandy loam in all sites. Therefore, researchers, local farmers and investors give due to attention for site specific fertilizer management and selecting varieties which resist soil acidity.

  268. Mesfin Bibiso

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is an important pulse crop which resists drought. It has more protein contents and better digestibility than any other pulse crop. It can be grown under drought stress conditions, where, the short time is available for growth. The residues of mung bean are also used as feed for animals and enhance the soil fertility as well. Therefore, it is important to enhance the productivity of the agronomically valuable food grain legumes to meet the nutritious food demand of the geometrically increasing population by exploiting scarce natural resources more efficiently by selecting variety which resist salt tolerance, using soil test results and applying effective management practices.

  269. Uossif Mohamed Matoug and Dr. Pratibha Tiwari

    This paper proposes a direct control strategy for an interior permanent magnet synchronous generator-based variable speed by using fuzzy logic. In this scheme, the requirement of the continuous rotor position is eliminated as all the calculations are done in the stator reference frame. This scheme possesses advantages such as lesser parameter dependence and reduced number of controllers compared with the traditional indirect vector control scheme. Fuzzy logic adds to bivalent logic an important capability—a capability to reason precisely with imperfect information. Imperfect information is information which in one or more respects is imprecise, uncertain, incomplete, unreliable, vague or partially true. In fuzzy logic, results of reasoning are expected to be provably valid, or p-valid for short. The direct control scheme is simpler and can eliminate some of the drawbacks of traditional indirect vector control scheme. The proposed control scheme is implemented in MATLAB/ Sim Power Systems and the results show that the controller can operate under constant and varying wind speeds. Finally, a sensor less speed estimator is implemented, which enables the wind turbine to operate without the mechanical speed sensor.

  270. Akesh, T.G., Bibin K. Francis, Devika R. Nair, Nithila Sabu, Sadina Hussain, Silpa S. Prasad and Shreekrishna Kumar, K.

    A new technology for sensing LPG by combining the properties of GFET, Graphene and HBN is reported in this work. It is reported that the use of organic semiconductor material can decrease the cost of the sensor substantially. The limited carrier mobility of OFET is improved by the addition of Graphene and HBN. Pentacene is also used in the expectation of enhancing carrier transport capabilities. An added advantage is that the same sensor can be used for the selective detection of sulphur dioxide and n-butane.

  271. Bolong Jiang, Thorben Muddemann, Ulrich Kunz, Dennis Haupt, Hinnerk Bormann, Michael Niedermeiser, Ottmar Schläfer, Michael Sievers and Sebastian Hofmann

    Two single microbial fuel MFCs with different roughness (roughened and without roughened) were firstly constructed and the effect of the roughness on optimal power density was studied. It was found that the power density of MFC with roughened electrodes (50 mW•m–2) was two times as high as that of MFC with unroughened electrodes, showing that roughness plays an important role in improving power density. Four series stack MFCs with roughened electrodes were then constructed to further improve power density and long-term performances of the MFCs were studied over 160 days. The effect of K3Fe(CN)6, which added to catholyte, on power output of the MFCs was also investigated. A maximum power density output of 126.5 mW•m–2 was achieved at 62th day with the four series stack MFCs during the long term test. The optimal powers of the MFCs tend to become closer to each other after 160 days, which ranged from 52.0 mW•m–2 to 73.4 mW•m–2, showing a considerably stable power output was maintained during the period of 160 days. The output power densities of each MFC in the four series stack MFCs increased rapidly with increasing K3Fe(CN)6 concentration, and a maximum power density output of 560 mW•m−2 was observed by injecting 15 mL 200 mM K3Fe(CN)6 solution into cathode container. This value is 10.8 times of that without adding K3Fe(CN)6 solution at the same conditions, showing that K3Fe(CN)6 solution has a significant effect on improving the MFC powers. This study provides a foundation for further development of an industrially relevant MFC for water treatment.

  272. Muhammad Waqas Akhtar, Aalia Nazir and Zahida Batool

    In lower limbs the femoral artery carries the oxygenated blood to the thigh region and hence leads the blood to the popliteal artery around the knee in human leg. This research was carried out to evaluate the blood flow through the popliteal artery in those cases in which the femoral artery shows monophasic type of waveform in ultrasound examination. Such five cases were chosen whose femoral artery showed monophasic pattern of waveform in ultrasound procedure and same cases were also diagnosed again for the blood flow through popliteal artery using a different ultrasound machine. Popliteal artery surrounds the knee portion and hence directly supplies the energy of the blood to the tissues of the knee. In obtained results it was observed that the Popliteal artery of such cases also showed monophasic type of waveform which lead this research study to the conclusion that the blood flow through the Popliteal artery depends upon the blood flow through the femoral artery of that particular case.

  273. Vynatheya, S. Chandra Sagar, L. and Bheema Raju, V.

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is an escalating concern in the modern era of electronics. As such it has become a critical area to study while designing and packagingelectronics. With the growing volume of electronic devices and increasing processor frequencies, the electromagnetic environment is becoming ever more congested resulting in need for adequate EMI shielding. Further, due to the steady growth of communication technology and adverse effects of electromagnetic radiations on human body and electronic devices, it is essential to reduce the Electro- Magnetic Interference (EMI) and its impact. The desire for high performance, combined with reductions in size, weight andmanufacturing cost suggests that polymers could be ideal material especially for electronic housings. Unfortunately polymers generally do not provide shielding fromelectromagnetic waves because of their insulating nature. In this context, Electroless Alloy (Ni-P-W) Coated Nanocenosphere in and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)and Poly methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) composites have been investigated for their EMI shielding effectiveness. The strategy is to render the polymer conductive by dispersing Nickel-Phosphorous-Tungsten alloy coated Nanocenospheres along with Conductive fillersin the polymer (PMMA/ABS) which promotes wave absorption. All the studies have been made on polymer composite sheets with electroless alloy coated Nano-cenospheres. In the present study, EDX (Energy Dispersive X-Ray) analysis confirmed the presence of Ni, W and P on the coated Nanocenosphere particles substantiated by Phase analysis using XRD (X-Ray Diffractometer). SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) analysis was conducted to study the size, shape of the coated particles and to observe the distribution of these particles along with conductive fillers in polymer matrix in the composite sheet. This paper discusses theprocessing methods, electrical surface resistivity and its correlation with EMI shielding. In the current formulation, shielding effectiveness of approximately 35 dB at a frequency of 1GHz wasachieved for Electroless alloy coated Nanocenospheres in ABSpolymer, which is higher than that of PMMA polymer. Further, the effects of coated Nanocenosphere particle size and distribution in polymer matrix have been discussed.

  274. Chhanda Islam and Mi-Hwa Park

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the methods and findings of a study that examined how early childhood educators enrolled in an undergraduate literacy methods course learned to implement guided practice, as a research-based approach to literacy instruction, to support and nurture early literacy. The results of the study suggest that the literacy methods course helped pre-service early educators understand the advantages of developmentally appropriate guided practice strategies designed to promote children’s literacy and development of vocabulary, oral language abilities, and print-related knowledge. The results of the study also strongly suggest that the literacy methods class was very effective at providing rigorous pre-service training and experiential opportunities involving guided practice. Based on the results of the study, college-level literacy methods courses for pre-service early educators should teach those educators to use guided practice strategies that help children solidify thinking a fundamental skill for literacy development and all future learning.

  275. Salim Massoud Msabah, Mohammed Ali Sheikh, and Abdallah Hamad Bakar

    Clove industry supports significantly Zanzibar economy and leading sector for foreign exchange earning in Zanzibar. The objective of this study was to examine social vulnerability (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity) of the clove farmers in Pemba Island to the impacts of climate change and variability. The study covered four districts of Pemba Island (Mkoani, Chakechake, Wete and Micheweni). The livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) and LVI-IPCC scores were used to assess components of vulnerability of the households. A total of 360 households were surveyed during this study. The main assessed parameters were socio-demographics profile, livelihoods, social networks, health, food and water security, natural disasters and climate variability and energy resources. The overall LVI index for Mkoani, Micheweni, Wete and Chake chake were 0.5261, 0.5148, 0.5061, and 0.5016 respectively. Likewise, LVI-IPCC scores were 0.0770, 0.0729, 0.0602 and 0.0269 for Micheweni, Mkoani, Chake chake and Wete districts, respectively. The results showed the sources of vulnerability differed within and between the four districts. The overall LVI-IPCC scores indicate that the level of vulnerability varies the sampled districts based on the degree of the dependence of clove industry for their socioeconomic activities.

  276. Konstantinos Famisis, Maria G. Grammatikopoulou, Aggelos Kyranoudis, Ioannis Ispirlidis, Athanasios Giannakos, Christos Galazoulas, Polyxeni Thoma and Athanasios Zakas

    Flexibility is considered as an important factor of physical fitness among all athletes, which can be improved via static or dynamic type, muscle elongation. Although the ideal duration of static muscle elongation has been extensively researched, no one has examined the effect of dynamic muscle elongation and more precisely the proper duration of mat Pilates exercises required for flexibility improvement. The aim of the present study was to assess the acute effects of a low number of repetitions of mat Pilates exercises, performed in a single training session, on the joint flexibility of female amateur soccer players. The sample consisted of 16 volunteers, female amateur soccer players, with a mean age of 26.2±3.8 years old, height of 169.0±3.0 cm, body mass of 67.2±5.8 kg and 14.2±2.8 mean training years, all familiar with Pilates. Participants performed two distinct mat Pilates protocols on non-consecutive sessions, in random order. The first protocol consisted of initial flexibility measurements, selected mat Pilates exercises repeated 5 times (1x5)in a full range of motion (ROM) and final flexibility measurements. The second protocol was similar to the first, expect for the number of repetitions which were double (2x5) and the break intervals between sets lasted for 5 sec. ROM was measured passively during hip flexion, extension and abduction, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion on the right side of the body, with a flexometer. A 2x2 Analysis of Variance with repeated measures was applied to assess differences in the flexibility pre- and post-measurements, for both Pilates protocols. The results revealed that the selected mat Pilates exercises produced significant improvements on joint flexibility, whether performed 5 or 10 times with a 5 sec interval. Additionally, improvements in joint flexibility did not appear to be dependent on the number of repetitions, but most likely on the joint ROM. Thus, mat Pilates exercises, when performed in a full ROM, even in a low number of repetitions, could consist of an effective alternative training method for improving flexibility among amateur soccer players.

  277. Wakgari Deressa Agemso and Gemechu Bekana Fufa

    This study tried to examine the relationship between teachers’ feedback and the influence level of its explicitness on students’ self-correction ability in writing at Gore Preparatory School. To find out this, one shot experimental research design using quantitative research method was employed. Data were collected from 60 students who were selected by simple random sampling technique using lottery method. Participants were assigned to one control group and two experimental groups randomly. Data collecting instruments were an in-class writing essay test and correction exercise, and grammar knowledge test. The first drafts and the second drafts of essays, which were written by students, were compared by counting number of errors before feedback and by counting number of corrected errors after feedback. The grammar knowledge test was given to measure students’ grammar knowledge and to examine whether there was an influence on their self-correction ability. The data from writing essays were normalized using the procedure of Ferris et al. (2001) and analyzed using one way ANOVA, Turkey’s post hoc t-test and correlation. The finding of this study indicated that teachers’ feedback had strong effect on students’ self-correction and its level of explicitness had also an influence on students’ self-correction ability. The grammar knowledge did not have an influence on students’ self-correction among the groups. Based on the finding it was suggested that teachers should help the students revise their own drafts and edit their own grammatical errors by providing more explicit error feedback.

  278. Soltanova Nazila Baghir

    The article provides information about the great Avicenna (Ibn Sina). We study his life and work. He was born in Bukhara (980) and died in Hamadan (1037). The article examines this way.

  279. Ashish Mishra and Brijesh Kumar Yadav

    In the present paper an effort has been complete to throw light on obtainable personal income tax structure in India. The paper briefly investigation the issues involving to high tax load on people lessening under low and medium income group. Researcher conclude that there is still a want to bring additional improvement in the personal income tax structure in the form of development the exemption limits, lowering the tax tariff, reorganize the dissimilar income tax slabs and make simpler overall tax process so that people could be positive for obedience of tax laws.

  280. Ni Luh Gede Astariyani

    In Bali province, tourism is one of the leading sectors in addition to agriculture as well as small and medium industries. Tourism in Bali has grown and developed in such a way hence makes big contributions to regional development and Balinese people. Provincial Government develops tourism in the form of cultural tourism which constitutes the delegation to regulate in the form of Regional Regulation and Governor Regulation. The delegation to regulate in the Governor Regulation on cultural preservation and environmental protection for Balinese cultural tourism is based on Balinese culture specifically the Hinduism teachings and the philosophy of Tri Hita Karana. In relation to that, such bases are used to actualize tourism in Bali furthermore creates a reciprocal dynamic relationship between tourism and culture that makes them evolve in synergy, harmony and sustainable in order to provide welfare to the society as well as cultural and environmental sustainability.

  281. Dorcas Wanja Mwaura and Jagongo Ambrose (PhD)

    The study sought to investigate the effects of credit policy on financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. Specifically the research sought to examine the relationship between loan terms and conditions and financial performance, and to determine the relationship between credit information and financial performance. The problem of the study was that some commercial banks use stringent credit policy thus losing customers to other banks with lenient credit policy, this has led to decline in performance of such banks. The study was carried out using descriptive research design. The population for the study was all the forty three commercial banks headquarters located within Nairobi CBD. Primary data was collected through the use of close-ended questionnaire, drop and pick procedure was used to collect the instrument. The target population was credit officers of the commercial banks in Kenya. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. . The results shows that the nature of loan terms and conditions has a large effect on the bank’s competitiveness, the study also found that most commercial banks rely to a large extent on the borrower’s credit history in awarding loan amounts. The results shows that credit policy positively affect the performance of commercial banks.

  282. Amit Chauhan and Akanksha Verma

    In the modern era of advancement and technology, a lot of investigative technologies have emerged. Now a day, when crime rate is increasing very highly at the same time, new investigative technology has take over the traditional practices and plays a credential portrayal in nabbing the actual culprits. In an investigation, law enforcement agencies rely on the diversified evidences and correlate them as a link between the culprit and victim. Cheiloscopy, which is understand the finger prints (unique, perpetual and universal) of any culprit in an investigation establish the conclusive identification of culprit. Identification relies on the numerous elevations and depressions that form patterns on external skin of lips like fingerprints. In this study, we collected 100 samples including male and female of age-group (15-30) years and established identification on the basis of their individual characteristics. From the resultant, it was concluded that the presence of prints vary on the time and if successfully. The minimum 12 individual characteristics were observed for male category, while for female the individual characteristics were obtained at 95% of confidence of level.

  283. Manju Sahu, Anjali Yadav and Isukapatla Arjun Rao

    Handwriting is a unique identity of every individual which can neither be copied nor be recreated. This uniqueness of handwriting in every individual is the product of variation which one makes either consciously or unconsciously but this uniqueness is the foremost requirement for handwriting analysis. An attempt was made to examine and analyse the various minute features possessed in handwriting and to classify them into macro and micro features. These features were further used to discriminate and divide handwritings on the basis of its capability of determining or predicting the gender of the writer. Over 130 samples of handwriting were examined and a promising result were observed proving the handwriting features to be gender identifying, further hypothesis testing of the same showed positive results up to some extent leading to rejection of null hypothesis that “ there is no significant difference in handwriting of male and female”. The results observed in the examination may be said to be the great breakthrough in the field of graphology as well as forensic science if it became possible to predict the gender of the writing by examination of his/her handwriting and thus by knowing the gender, the suspect list for a particular case can be shortened, which will facilitate the examination / investigation.

  284. Dr. Nanda Kumar, E.

    This paper proposes an approach for optimal power flow (OPF) problem in order to improve the power system stability because Stability is one of the important constraints in a power system operation. Often trial and error heuristics methods are used to improve the stability of the power system, but that can be costly and imprecise. A new methodology that eliminates the need for repeated simulation to determine a transiently secure operating point is presented. The methodology involves a stability constrained Optimal Power Flow (OPF). Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is adopted to realize the OPF process. The method is programmed in MATLAB and implemented to a fourteen-bus test power system. The results show the ability of the proposed method to find optimal (or near optimal) operating points in different cases. This paper proposes this novel approach to solve OPF problem with improvement in the power system stability also.

  285. Dr. Varsha S Zanvar and Aruna R Kharwade

    In Maharashtra an overwhelming number of women have been a part of the active work force due to their total involvement in agriculture. Present study was undertaken to know the health status of selected female farm labourers from urban slum and rural area of Parbhani District of Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. The study involved survey to find socio-economic background of selected 500 female farm labourers i.e.250 each from urban slums and rural. Equal number of 21-30 and 31-40 years i.e. 125 each in all groups were covered for study. The results indicated that majority of female farm labourers were from nuclear families in urban slums (76.8 per cent) and in rural (67.2 per cent). More per cent of rural families (79.2 per cent) were vegetarian whereas urban slums (69.2 per cent) were non-vegetarian. Maximum numbers of farm women were belonging to income group Rs. 6001-10,000/- per month. The per cent adequacy of food intake of selected female farm labourers as per different socio-economic categories was ranged between 174.88 per cent (sugars and jaggery) to 17.06 per cent (fruits).Whereas per cent adequacy of nutrient intake was ranged between 27.05 per cent (β-carotene intake, urban slum) to 140.52 per cent (fat intake, urban slum). The haemoglobin values were ranging from 9.83 ± 1.48 to 10.22 ± 1.32. Near about 75 to 80 percent surveyed respondents were suffered with one or other grade of anaemia.

  286. Dr. Sarmita Guha Ray

    Previous empirical studies on inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and economic growth generate mixed results. This article suggests that the ambiguous results might be caused by the use of total FDI. We study the heterogeneous effects of different sector-level FDI inflows on host country’s economic growth. Data from 12 South Asian economies over the period of 1987 to 2015 are employed. Strong evidence shows that FDI in manufacturing sector has a significant and positive effect on economic growth in the host economies. FDI inflows in nonmanufacturing sectors do not play a significant role in enhancing economic growth. Furthermore, without the decomposition of total FDI inflows, the effect of manufacturing FDI on host country’s economic growth is understated by at least 58%.

  287. Dr. Muzafar Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Shafia Nisar Kakroo and Dr. Mirza Aumir Beg

    Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the plaque and gingivitis reducing effect of a dentifrice containing chlorhexidine and compare with control toothpaste during the course of 3 months. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind study looked prospectively at participants over a 3 month period. Plaque score and gingivitis score was assessed in 40 participants, who were divided into two parallel groups. The participants used either chlorhexidine containing toothpaste (test group) or commercially available fluoridated triclosan containing toothpaste (control group). Parameters were assessed at baseline and again after 1and 3 months. Results: After 3 months of product use, both groups had less gingivitis compared with the baseline evaluation (p=0.001). At this time point, the test group showed a statistically significant lower gingival index values compared with the baseline (p=0.001). No statistically significant difference between either of the groups at various time points was detected with regard to plaque index score. Conclusion: Although there was a statistically significant difference at 3 months between test and control groups in reduction of gingival index values, this difference was too small to be considered clinically meaningful.

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