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January 2018

  1. Dr. Gangadhar and Dr. Nindra Armugam

    Introduction: Esophageal carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy acNumbering for approximately 1% of all malignancies, 6% of all GI malignancies ( oesophagus.asp). Its distribution across the world is variable. Esophageal cancer is the 8th most common cancer worldwide & 6th leading cause of death world-wide Aim of the study: To determine the outcomes of the definitive management of thoracic esophageal cancer using chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy, at our institute during the period between 20011 and 2014. Material and Methods: This is a Retrospective study done at our institute from January 2011 and May 2012 patients who received radiotherapy (RT) alone or chemoradiotherapy (CT+RT) for the treatment of carcinoma esophagus. Conclusion: Our study shows that chemoradiotherapy yields significant survival benefit over the radiotherapy alone in the definitive management of patients with T1-3 N0-1 esophageal tumor, who did not undergo surgery. While the overall survival of the entire cohort (N=185) was 13.9 months, chemoradiotherapy offered a survival advantage of 11.6 months over radiotherapy alone (median survival in the CT+RT versus RT alone groups was 19.1 and 7.5 months, respectively). The overall survival rate (OS) at 1 year following treatment was significantly better in the combined chemoradiotherapy group when compared with RT alone group (56% versus 24%).

  2. Dr. Nindra Armugam, Dr. Rajesh, P. and Dr. Pavan Kumar Lachi

    Introduction: Esophageal carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy acNumbering for approximately 1% of all malignancies, 6% of all GI malignancies (1). Its distribution across the world is variable. Esophageal cancer is the 8th most common cancer worldwide & 6th leading cause of death world-wide. Aim of the study: To determine the outcomes of the definitive management of thoracic esophageal cancer using chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy, at our institute during the period between 20011 and 2014. Material and Methods: This is a Retrospective study done at our institute from January 2011 and May 2012 patients who received radiotherapy (RT) alone or chemoradiotherapy (CT+RT) for the treatment of carcinoma esophagus. Conclusion: Our study shows that chemoradiotherapy yields significant survival benefit over the radiotherapy alone in the definitive management of patients with T1-3 N0-1 esophageal tumor, who did not undergo surgery. While the overall survival of the entire cohort (N=185) was 13.9 months, chemoradiotherapy offered a survival advantage of 11.6 months over radiotherapy alone (median survival in the CT+RT versus RT alone groups was 19.1 and 7.5 months, respectively). The overall survival rate (OS) at 1 year following treatment was significantly better in the combined chemoradiotherapy group when compared with RT alone group (56% versus 24%).

  3. Unamba Norbert Ndubuisi and Akpa Maclean Romokere

    Background: Atherosclerosis is a primary cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Atherosclerosis is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells from circulating blood. Blood cell activation could play an important role in subclinical atherosclerosis. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is an established tool for the detection and assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis. We analyzed the relationship between blood cellular markers and quantitative measures of carotid wall atherosclerosis as determined by CIMT in hypertensive patients attending the cardiology clinic of the UPTH. Methods: 144 Hypertensive subjects and 72 age- and sex- matched controls were recruited. Their waist circumference, body mass indices and fasting lipid profile were determined. The complete blood count of the entire study population was also determined. Diabetics were excluded. CIMT was measured in all study subjects using standard protocol. Results were subjected to linear, multiple, and logistic regression analyses. Results: The mean white cell count among the hypertensive subjects was significantly higher than that of the control group (p=0.029). The mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of the hypertensive subjects was also significantly higher than that of the controls (p<0.001). The subjects with elevated CIMT had significantly higher white cell counts than their counterparts with normal CIMT (p=0.005). The individuals with increased CIMT had significantly lower monocyte count than those with normal CIMT (p=0.004). Univariate linear regression showed that total white cell count and monocyte count were associated with increased CIMT. Binary logistic regression showed that the monocyte count was predictive of carotid atherosclerosis. An ROC curve analysis showed that a cutoff value for WCC of 3.55x 109/L yielded a 93% sensitivity and 94% specificity for predicting the presence of carotid atherosclerosis in these hypertensive patients. Conclusion: A significantly positive association between white cell count and atherosclerotic changes in the vascular walls of a hypertensive Nigerian adult population was observed.

  4. Dr. Abhishek Somani, Dr. Pramod, J., Dr. Raghu Shrinivasan and Dr. Teena D'souza

    Objectives: To evaluate and compare the defects produced on root canal walls during the use of H-files, Pro Taper retreatment files and M-two retreatment files in removal of gutta-percha and also to evaluate the time required for complete removal of gutta-percha. Method: Root canals of 60 single-rooted mandibular premolars were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta-percha and AH plus sealer. The teeth were then randomly divided into four main groups. The group where retreatment was not carried out served as the control group. Gutta-percha was removed in the other three groups using either H-files, ProTaper retreatment files or M-two retreatment files. The roots were sectioned horizontally at 3, 6, and 9mm from the apex with a diamond disc. The root slices were viewed under a stereomicroscope for presence of cracks. Total time required for complete removal of gutta-percha was recorded for each sample. Results: Cracks were observed in all the groups. Total number of cracks present in ProTaper retreatment group, M-two retreatment group, H-files and control group was 44.4%, 35.6%, 13.3% and 4.4% respectively. H-files took significantly more time for removal of gutta-percha when compared with rotary files. Conclusion: Use of rotary Ni-Ti retreatment files leads to increased chances for dentinal defects and cracks. ProTaper retreatment files, though faster than M-two retreatment files or H-files, produced the most number of defects and cracks in the canal walls.

  5. Nasser K. Abd-Elaal, Osama A. El Kelani, Ibrahim A. Saif-Elnasr and Amr M. El khyat

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there was an association between abdominal striae gravidarum and intra-abdominal adhesions in pregnant women with a history of cesarean section. Background: Intra-abdominal adhesions that develop because of prior abdominal or pelvic surgery may cause complications during surgery such as damage to the urinary bladder, uterus or small intestine; difficult intra-abdominal entry and hemorrhage. Methods: The study was a prospective observational study. Patients in the study were 210 pregnant patients with a history of at least one cesarean section divided into 3 groups: A (70 patients with no striae), B (70 patients with mild striae) and C (70 patients with severe striae). Preoperatively patient`s abdominal striae were assessed using the Davey score; the severity of adhesions were evaluated intrao-peratively using the modified Nair score. Result: No adhesions were found in 87 patients (grade 0), while 102 had grade 1–2 (filmy adhesions) and 21 had grade 3–4 (dense adhesions). Patients with no striae, there were no adhesions in 19 patients (21.8%), filmy adhesions in 36 patients (35.3%) and dense adhesions in 15 women (71.4%). Patients with mild striae, there were no adhesions in 27 patients (31.1%), filmy adhesions in 39 patients (38.2%) and dense adhesions in 4 patients (19.1%). Patients with severe striae, there were no adhesions in 41 women (47.1%), filmy adhesions in 27 patients (26.5%) and dense adhesions in 2 patients (9.5%). (sensitivity 81.2%; specificity 54.02 %; positive predictive value 67.14%; negative predictive value 67.14 %; Accuracy70%)(p value < 0.001). Conclusion: The adhesion score decreased significantly when the striae score was high (p < 0.0001) denoting statistically significant value with negative correlation.

  6. Ashwini Jangamashetti, Siddesh Shenoy, Krishnakumar, R. and Husna Patel

    Cleidocranial dysplasia is a rare congenital disease. It is characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance pattern with equal sex distribution which is caused due to mutations in the Cbfa1 gene (Runx2) located on chromosome 6p21. It primarily affecting skull, jaws, teeth, clavicle along with other skeletal abnormalities. It presents with skeletal defects of several bones, like partial or complete absence of clavicles, late closure of the fontanels, presence of open skull sutures and multiple wormian bones. This rare syndrome is of utmost importance in dentistry due to presence of multiple supernumerary teeth, facial bones deformities and deranged eruption patterns .We are reporting a classical case of cleidocranial dysplasia in 12 year old patient.

  7. Ruchira Bhamare and Dr. Sarvesha Bhondwe

    Scientific advances in the creation of restorative biomaterials, in vitro cell culture technology, tissue grafting, tissue engineering, molecular biology and the human genome project provide the basis for the introduction of new technologies into dentistry. Traditionally, apexification has been used to treat immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This technique promotes the formation of an apical barrier to close the open apex so that the filling materials can be confined to the root canal. Because tissue regeneration cannot be achieved with apexification, a new technique called regenerative endodontic treatment was presented recently to treat immature permanent teeth. Regenerative endodontic treatment is a treatment procedure designed to replace damaged pulp tissue with viable tissue which restores the normal function of the pulp-dentin structure. After regenerative endodontic treatment, continued root development and hard tissue deposition on the dentinal wall can occur under ideal circumstances. Restoration of vitality of non-vital tooth is based on tissue engineering and revascularization procedures. The purpose of this article is to review these biological procedures and the hurdles that must be overcome to develop regenerative endodontic procedures.

  8. Hisham Al-Hammami, Yaser Fawaz, Mhd Nezar Alsharif, Walaa Saada, Nour Khattab and Tasnim Alkaderi

    Objective: This research aimed to determine the efficacy of Crown Rump Length (CRL) by ultrasound in estimating the Gestational Age (GA) compared to GA by Naegele’s rule using Last menstrual period (LMP) date. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of women with a normal spontaneously conceived viable singleton pregnancy, a regular menstrual cycles, andspontaneous onset of labor at term. The LMP was considered certain in all cases. We used ultrasound to scan 2067 fetuses (894 healthy women) and we had 500CRL measurements. Data were collected prospectively and used for statistical analysis. We used Descriptive Statistics to calculate the Mean, Standard Deviation (SD), Median and Percentiles values (3rd, 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th, 95th, and 97th) for CRL measurements on gestational age. We found a regression equation to estimate the GA using CRL measurements. The results of the current study were compared with different studies using the Paired Differences (t-test analysis). The results were represented as tables & diagrams. Results: The best-fit equation for the estimate of GA from CRL (in mm) was: = 6.254 + 0.151 (CRL)i – 9.5*10-4(CRL)i2 + 4.12*10-6(CRL)i3 The Mean Sum of Squares of regression deviations of the GA regression model using (CRL) was 1546.8and this value is significant at P <0.001. The standard error of the Estimate (Std.Error)was 0.67 and the standard deviation (SD)was (0.65, 0.71, 0.69) weeks when the GA were (≤12, 12-18, 18-22), respectively. Conclusion: In this study, we presented diagrams and tables for the estimation of GA using CRL measurements in a group of pregnant Syrian women. These results can be useful in women who cannot recall their last menstrual period (LMP). Our criteria will provide useful references for estimating gestational age and fetal care. A larger study might be needed to include a larger sample of the population.

  9. Emriye Hilal YAYAN, Serpil PEKDOĞAN and Ayşegül ULUTAŞ

    This research was conducted to analyze the effect of activity-based self-care education on pre-school children's self-care skills. It was conducted with 56 children aged 5 or 6 (27 of them in the experimental group, 27 of them in the control group) in the city of Malatya. The Self-care Skills Evaluation Form developed by the researchers was used to collect data. The evaluation form consists of two parts including one for personal information and one for children's self-care skills. An experiment was implemented using a pretest and posttest control group model. SPSS 22 software package was used to analyze the data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. Since the data did not have a normal distribution, the Mann-Whitney U Test was used for the inter-group comparison of variables, and the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was used for in-group comparisons of variables. The research determined that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups’ average pretest and posttest scores on self-care skills. This difference (p<0.05) was in favor of the experimental group.

  10. Noldy Pelenkahu, Sri Supeni

    This classroom action research aims to find out the implementation of Visual, Auditory, Somatics, and Intelectualy Instructional Approcah on improving Elementary school students’ English vocabulary mastery. It using two cycles of Kemmis and McTaggart’s Model. Each consists of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The data about Parts of Body of English vocabulary was collected by using observation sheet of teacher acts, transcription and document analysis applied for VASI Instructional Approach.The Elementary school students’ English vocabulary mastery of Parts of Body proved with students’grade of 56% in the first cycle to 87% in the second cycle. The students’ English vocabulary mastery improve 31%. The study implicated that VASI Instructional Approach impacts on Elementary school students’ English vocabulary mastery of Parts of Body, and so it can be one ofEnglish instruction alternative.

  11. Dr. Manmeet Kaur, Dr. Sarita Nibhoria, Dr. Kanwardeep Kaur and Dr. Arshpreet Kaur

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma is the second most common thyroid cancer after papillary carcinoma. At the time of initial diagnosis,1-3% of patients with thyroid cancer may have distant metastasis. Follicular thyroid carcinoma may present as an occult primary with bone metastasis and should be considered amongst the potential differential diagnosis; as highlighted in this case.

  12. Sarah Emerald

    Background: The latter part of the twentieth century saw a transformation in both general health and oral health unmatched in history. Yet, despite the remarkable achievements in recent decades, millions of people worldwide have been excluded from the benefits of socioeconomic development and the scientific advances that have improved healthcare and quality of life. Inequalities in oral health persist worldwide, with mainly affected being the deprived population such as the tribals. Assessment of the oral health status and associated behaviours is an essential part of the process of planning appropriate and acceptable health services and dental health education programs in order to improve the dental health status of this population. Hence, an integrated multidisciplinary approach is required to study the tribal health problems. Aim: To provide baseline data about oral health of Yanadi tribe inhabiting Gonepalli village Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the month of December 2014. The data of all the tribal people in the village present during the time of examination was collected by a door to door survey. The data was collected using WHO proforma 1997 by Type III clinical examination. Significance between the variables was determined using Fisher’s exact test. P<0.05 was taken as statistically significant. The data was analyzed using The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, (SPSS) version 20. Results: In a total sample of 233 (100%), males constitute 37.34% (87), females constitute 62.66% (146). Majority of the participants belonged to 35-50 year old age group, 31.3% (73). Decayed teeth (100%) and total DMFT scores (100%) were highest for the 16-24 year age group. Missing teeth were highest in the >50 year age group (56.4%). There were no filled teeth in all the age groups. Calculus was highest in the 25-34 age group (78.2%), shallow (46.2%) and deep pockets (33.3%) were highest in the >50 age group. As the age increased the number of missing teeth and loss of attachment increased. A significant correlation was seen with the method of cleaning i.e., if they use brush, finger or datun, with the material used for cleaning teeth, type of tooth paste used or if they aren’t using tooth paste, with the frequency of changing brush and how often they rinse their mouth after eating (P<0.05). Conclusion: Yanadi tribal population of Gonepalli village, Nellore district are characterized by lack of dental care and poor oral hygiene practices. There was high prevalence of periodontal diseases in adults and old people, decayed component of DMFT is high in children and adults whereas missing component of DMFT is high in older population.

  13. Ambaga, M. and Tumen-Ulzii, A.

    The creation of normal condition of translocation of electrons and protons produced during glycolysis to mitochondrial matrix, owing to the full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance (Ambaga and Tumen-Ulzii, 2016) have been played a more important role in the general bioenergetic processes of organism by participating to formation of proton gradients and thereby increasing the ATP generation and heat energy. In such way, any forms of deficiency of generation of the high-energy molecules as NADH, in which have been contained electrons and protons produced during glycoly sis would be lead to decrease of proton gradients, thereby limitation of cellular energy sources as ATP and heat energy. The normal condition of translocation of electrons and protons produced during glycolysisis connected with malate-aspartate shuttle is a biochemical system for translocating of protons with electrons across the semipermeable inner membrane of the mitochondrion for oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes. We came to conclusion that one of very useful condition of prevention of shortage of cellular energy sources, in which have been participated NADH molecules produced during glycolysisis the stimulation of the full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance (Ambaga and Tumen-Ulzii 2016), thereby making the possibility to the intensification of anaerobic respiration and paralleled intensifying of aerobic respiration with oxygen, which would be appeared as increasing of the translocation of a electrons and protons from cytosol (contained in the NADH molecules) to mitochondrial matrix through inner mitochondrial membrane with involvement of intensified malate-aspartate shuttle.

  14. Dr. Sujoy Kundu

    Distal femoral fractures account for about 6-7% of all femoral fracture and often are unstable and comminuted. They have a potential for long term disability. Impaired healing of such fractures further delays the rehabilitation process, thus impacting quality of life. Teriparatide is not an approved drug for treating osteoporosis in India, unlike other countries. Intermittent administration of teriparatide has anabolic effects that stimulate bone formation and activate bone remodeling. The purpose of this case report is to elucidate the Indian experience of 5 cases of use of teriparatide for fracture of distal femur with non-union. In our experience teriparatide therapy was beneficial to bone healing after the fracture of distal end of femur. Further, it may lead to an early return to activity and vocation for patients undergoing fracture distal end femur.

  15. Ahmed Mohamed Elmarakby, Yasser Refay Sror, Abdallah A AbdAlhady, Mobark Bakhit Aldawsari, Abdulaziz Serar A Alyami, Marwan BanderAldossary, Mohammed Ali Alathri and Waleed Mohammed Mudabbish

    Objectives: This research was designed to investigate the effect of rewetting the dry dentin with two different desensitizing agents on the shear bond strength of resin composite to dentin. Material and methods: A total of 120 freshly extracted, sound human molars were used in this study. They were divided into three main equal groups (n=40) according to the type of solvent used either water/ethanol, ethanol or acetone based. Each group was further subdivided into four subgroups, 10 teeth each (n=10), according to the condition of dentin substrate, either dry, moist,rewetted by Seal and Protect or rewetted by VivaSens desensitizing agents (total subgroups were 12). A Flat dentin surface was prepared, different surface treatments previously described were applied. Composite was bonded to the treated surfaces and shear bond strength testing was done using universal testing machine. Results: For water/ethanol based adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2 ) , the highest mean shear bond strength value was recorded in case of dry dentin surface, dry dentin rewetted by Seal and Protect desensitizer, Moist dentin substrate, andthe specimens of dry dentin rewetted byVivaSens desensitizer showed the lowest shear bond strength value.For both ethanol based adhesive (Excite) and acetone based adhesive (Primeand Bond NT), the highest mean shear bond strength values were recorded in case of dry dentin rewetted with Seal and Protect desensitizer, moist dentin, dry dentin substrate, and the specimens of dry dentin rewetted with VivaSens desensitizer showed the lowest shear bond strength value. Conclusion: Seal and Protect desensitizing agent was effective as a rewetting agent and can render the bonding procedure asless technique sensitive. On the other hand, using VivaSens desensitizerreduced the effectiveness of dentin bonding agents to thedentin surface.

  16. Fofana, Z., Yohou, K. S., Coulibaly, A., Boni, S., Oga, S. and Kouassi, D.

    Chronic diseases such as diabetes and eye complications are a public health problem in the world and in developing countries such as Côte d'Ivoire. A study was conducted at the National Institute of Public Health with the aim of measuring the extent of blinding ocular diseases in diabetic patients. This was a cross-sectional study of patients followed at the Abidjan Antidiabetic Center of the National Institute of Public Health from June to December 2015. The data were collected from patients using pre-tested questionnaires and from an interview and acomplet eophtalmological examination. The collected data were entered on the EPI data software and processed on the SPSS 12.0 software. 376 patients were recruited during this period. It was a population with an averageage of 54 years predominantly female (sex ration H / F of 0.67). The average duration of diabetes reported was 10 years and type II diabetes predominated. The prevalence of low vision (28.5%) and blindness (5.3%) were high. The most common blinding ocular conditions in diabetic patients followed in our study were cataract (32.7%) and diabetic retinopathy (15.4%) and glaucoma (14%). Given the socio-economic weight of this public health problem, the consideration and implementation in the health system of mass screening interventions and programs coupledwith the early management of diagnosed cases becomes a priority.

  17. Anan Udombhornprabha, Naowarat Kanchanakhan and Pichai Phongmanjit

    Background: Chronic venous disease (CVD) was a high incidence meanwhile patients did not seek treatment at early stage. Relevance leg symptoms spotted for primary screening remains clinical challenges. Method: The medical outcomes study (MOS) with health-related quality of life, a12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (MOS SF12) and a 14-Item Health Short-Form Health Survey for Chronic Venous Insufficiency (MOS CIVIQ14) were employed in hospital-setting together with physical examinations for an interventional study.A cross-sectional analysis was performed to assess reliability and correlation of the questionnaires with specific implication of leg symptoms. Result: Overall 120 patients were screened, out of this 48 patients clinically diagnosed CVD. For inter-scale correlation and internal consistency reliability interpreting with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, the MOS CIVIQ-14 Thai version were reliable with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.914(for 14-item global score), 0.867(for 7-item physical and pain score) and 0.787(for 7-item psychological score), whereas the MOS SF-12 were reliable with the above 0.810(for 12-item for global score), 0.939(for 7-item physical and pain score) and 0.661(for 5-item mental score). The two questionnaires were well correlated for physical score, interpreting with bivariate Pearson correlation coefficient, with a 95% CI of 0.713(0.663 to 0.790), p<0.001 and for global score, 0.745 (0.640 to 0.819), p<0.001). No significant correlation of psychological score of -0.062(-0.197 to 0.091), p=0.501. The major leg symptoms significantly have rendered impacts on the raw score of physical components and global score but not for mental component. Patients with MOS CIVIQ-14 score lower than 75.7 would be more likely to have been diagnosed CVD. Conclusion: Both the MOS CIVIQ-14 and the MOS SF 12 were highly correlate for scoring on physical function, useful for primary screening of chronic venous disease. Should the procedures be use in a larger population, the majority of leg symptoms and adjustment of appropriate threshold scores may be a useful tool for screening CVD. The MOS CIVIQ-14 was useful but larger heterogeneous patient exploration confirmation is suggested.

  18. Jayson, C.J., Vaishnavi, G., Tharani, G., Kamatchi, K.and Kirupa, K.

    Background of the Study: Acapella an oscillatory positive expiratory pressure device used for the clearance of secretions in the COPD patients. It sends the vibratory signals into the lungs, shaking the mucus plugs that the patient cough and improve cough effectiveness and push out secretion. The diaphragm is the most efficient muscle of breathing and the diaphragmatic breathing helps to strengthen the diaphragm, decrease the work of breathing, useless effort and energy to breathe. Methodology: It is an experimental and comparative study done at ACS MEDICAL HOSPITAL using 20 subjects of age group 40-60years only male sex included for about 8 weeks for those who had RR>30respiratory fatigue or failure. Materials Used couch, chair, foot stool, stopwatch, acapela device. Procedure: 20 subjects were selected randomly by lottery method. Chits odd number in group and even number in group B. Group A- Acapella device Group B-Diaphragmatic breathing. Outcome Measures: Pulmonary function test (PFT) Result: The result was based on the statistical analysis of data collected and it revealed that both the groups showed improvement while group A comparatively better than group B on the basis of PFT.

  19. Dr. Thomas Mathew, Dr. Meghana Srinivas, Dr. Amrutha Avati, Dr. Arun HShastry, Ms. Manjusha, T. and Dr. Hansashree Padmanabha

    The mutations in TOR1A or DYT1 genes are commonly known to be associated with primary dystonia in childhood and rarely with benign essential blepharospasm and head tremors.1 However, the association of TOR1A gene mutation with chorea has never been described in the literature. Here we describe a 5-year old boy with an infantile onset generalized chorea, with normal cognition, whose genetic analysis revealed a known pathogenic mutation in the TOR1A gene (c.646G>T). Thus, we report a novel association of TOR1A gene (c.646G>T) mutation with infantile onset chorea and expand the phenotypic manifestations of the same.

  20. Dr. Lalit Raj Singh, Dr. Karan Singh and Dr. Dhirendra Singh

    This paper deals with focussing on multidimensional effect of Cyperus rotundus Linn. in curing no. of ailments. It is found at tropical and temperate climate throughout the country up to an altitude of 800 m. Aim of this study was to review the efficacy of plant in curing various ailments such as Ulcerative colitis, Dental disorders, Vomitting, Uterine contraction, Bad breath, Wound Healing, Diarrhoea, Indigestion, Cholera, Dyspepsia. Ethnomedicinal uses of the plants also helps in curing various health problems in human. In animal studies it shows a number of activities in various disorders or diseases such as Antiarthritic activity, Anticonvulsant activity, Antidiabetic activity, Antifungal activity, Antihistamine activity, Antihypertension activity, Antiinflammatory activity, Analgesic activity, Antimalarial activity, Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant activity, Antipyretic activity, Hepatoprotective activity, Smooth muscle relaxant activity, Wound healing activity. It may prove to be source of good molecules for new drug design.

  21. Dr. Manish Kumar, Akash Vashisth, Dr. M. Srinivasa Raju and Dr. Nishant Kumar

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is also known as Franceschetti-zwahlen- klein syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterised primarily by craniofacial abnormalities such as deafness, hypoplasia of facial bones (malar, maxillary and mandibular bone), antimongoloid slant of palpebral fissure, coloboma of lower eyelid. It was first reported by Allen Thomson in 1846than in 1899 by George AndreasBerry, Edward Treacher Collins in 1900 and in 1949 by Franceschetti-zwahlen- klein. Here we present a case report that describes a clinical and radiographic characteristic of TCS in a 27 years old patient who had reported to our Oral Medicine & Radiology Dept.

  22. Hema Nagpal, P.K. Sharma, Jyoti Chopra and Anit Parihar

    The present study was conducted in Department of Anatomy and 64-slice CT center of Department of Radio diagnosis, King George’s Medical University, U.P. Lucknow. Morpho metric data of the aortic arch can be of help for conceiving, designing and optimizing all types of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions involving the aortic arch. We measured aortic arch diameters at following levels: Aorta just proximal to the innominate artery, Proximal transverse aortic arch, Distal transverse aortic arch and Aortic isthmus. Diameter of major branches of arch of aorta at their origin was also measured. All the parameters were corelaed with age and gender. Aortic diameters were 25.02 ± 5.76 mm proximal to the in nominate artery, 22.48 ± 5.14 mm at the proximal transverse arch, 20.60 ±4.81 mm at the distal transverse arch and 18.26 ± 4.49 mm at the isthmus. Mean diameter of brachiocephalic trunk in female subjects was 11.35+2.87 and in male subjects was 12.39+3.02.Left common carotid artery diameter in males had a mean value 7.2±1.3 mm as compared to females who had 7.0±1.7 mm diameter. Left subclavian artery diameter in females was 8.2+2.6 mm and in males was 10.5±3.1 mm We observed that among all these parameters only diameters of arch of aorta at different levels and left subclavian artery diameter were associated with age and gender. Diameters of arch of aorta were significantly higher in male subjects as compared to female subjects. Diameter of arch of aorta at various levels in age group 0-15 years was found to be significantly lower than that of other age groups. It gradually increases with age till 60yrs then it decreases. Significantly higher left subclavian artery diameter was found in male subjects as compared to female subjects.

  23. Shahin Hadadian, Artin Assadi, Hadi Hejazina and Mohammad Zahedi

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme which involves in purine metabolism and catabolism of adenosine and deoxyadenosine into inosine and deoxyinosine. There are three isoenzymes; ADA1 and ADA2, ADA1+cp. Total ADA is very important in the tumor cell growth. In the present study the activities of ADA, its isoenzymes (ADA1 and ADA2) have been examined in the serum ovarian tumors of 30 patients and 30 normal serums. with autoanalyzer HITACHI 912 byspectrophotometry method by or presence or absence of erythro-9-2-hydroxy-3-nonyl Adenosine (EHNA). We found the mean values for tADA، ADA2 and ADA1 in healthy controls 14.35 U/L and 8.44 U/L and 5.91 U/L respectively and in Ovarian patients 29.56 U/Land 19.23 U/L and 10.39 U/L respectively. When compared to the healthy controls, serum total ADA and ADA1 and ADA2 levels were significantly higher (P<0.001) in Ovarian cancer, can be proposed that when we compared to the healthy controls serum total ADA and ADA1 and ADA2 levels with ovarian cancer patients like other Parameters of disease activity like tumor marker CA-125, it could be diagnostic value of the Pathophysiology. Also in this research molecular weight of ADA Isoenzymes was investigated ADA1=35KD and ADA2=110KD.

  24. Dr. Manish Goyal, Dr. Dheeraj Khetwal, Dr. Akshita, Dr. Syed Amaan Ali and Dr. Ridhi Chawla

    Pain is a common experience in orthodontic patients,and fear of pain and discomfort is a concernfor many. Orthodontic pain usually beginsat 2 hours after force application and reaches its maximumintensity at bedtime or at 24 hours, and lastsapproximately 5 to 7 days.The aim of this study was to investigate the intensity of pain experienced by orthodontic patients following the insertion of separators and to compare the efficacy of ibuprofen and chewing gum in pain reduction during the placement of initial archwire. A total number of 60 patients seeking orthodontic treatment were included in this study between age group of 12- 24 years. The subjects were divided into three groups: placebo group (G1), ibuprofen group (G2), chewing-gum group (G3). They were asked to answer the questions based on visual analogue scale and to quantify the level of pain.Pain during placement of separator as per VAS scale- Majority of the participants (59.3%) reported mild pain with mode value of 2. Pain after placement of separator as per VAS scale- Overall 50 % of participants reported moderate pain with mode value of 3 and 4. 73% of participants reported pain on chewing food while 82.5% modified their dietary pattern.30% of participants reported intake of analgesics due to pain from elastomeric separator.Ibuprofen is most effective in reducing the pain. Chewing gum can also be recommended for orthodontic patients to reduce pain at chewing function.

  25. Sounder Raj, K., Dr. Divya Chandra, S., Prema and Manisha Minz

    The most common cause of masticatory muscle pain is displacement of the mandible to a position dictated by maximum intercuspation of the teeth. Displacement of the mandible always results in displacement of condyle-disk assemblies, which in turn can lead to progressive changes in condyle disk alignment. The misalignment along with connective tissue changes that can occur within the articular components, may make it difficult to determine the correct position for condylar axis. Injury to the intracapsular tissue may also make it difficult to ascertain the physiologic seated position for the condyle. There are exceptions, but it is generally improper treatment to directly alter an occlusion until it can be altered to confirm to a condylar axis that has been verified as correct.

  26. Freddy Andrés Barrios Arroyave and Eduardo Rodrigo Henao Flórez

    Background: Preeclampsia is associated with higher prevalence of abnormal global left ventricular function. So present study was designed to compare these changes in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies using echocardiography. Methods: In present study, 96 patients with pre-eclampsia with singleton pregnancy between 20-30 years (study group) were compared with 96 age matched healthy pregnant women (control group). They were non-invasively analysed for cardiovascular hemodynamics using echocardiography. The data was analysedusing student’s t- test. p value <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Mean stroke volume in pre-eclampsia group was 72.4±5.1 ml v/s 67.7±5.6 ml in control group and the difference was statistically significant. Mean Cardiac output inpre-eclampsia group was64.2±3.4 lt/min v/s 5.69±0.47 lt/min in control group which is statistically significant.Mean Systemic vascular resistance (dyne.sec cm-5) in pre-eclampsia group was 1468.22±5.7 v/s 957.7±131 in control group which is statistically significant. Mean Ejection fraction (%) in pre-eclampsia group was 68.31±5.1 v/s 66.54±4.7 in control group which is statistically significant. Conclusions: Doppler echocardiography provides an excellent non-invasive method for evaluation of hemodynamic changes during pregnancy. Therefore if it is introducedinto antenatal protocol, could help to identify subset of preeclamptic women who are at high risk to developing complications and thereby can do early intervention.

  27. Dr. Marvi Malik, Dr. Wishah Urwatil Wusqa, Dr. Maimoona Anwaar and Dr. Alishba Malik

    Background: A number of evaluations (at small and large scale) regarding selfmedication have been carried out but very few of them reflect the opinions of the medical students. Objectives of the Study: To find out the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding selfmedication among students of 4th year MBBS NMC, Pakistan Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Setting: The study was carried out among 4thyear MBBS students of NMC, Multan and data was completed and analyzed in the department of community medicine NMC, Multan, Pakistan. Duration: Study was conducted from 30th May, 2014 to 21st June, 2014. Study Population: Students of 4th year MBBS NMC, Multan. Inclusion Criteria: Students of 4th year MBBS. Exlusion Criteria: Students of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and final year MBBS are excluded from the study. Sample Size: Sample size was 210. Results: • Age of 4thyear students ___3.33%(16-18 year), 30.95%(19-21), • 60.48%(22-24), 4.76%(25-27) & 0.48%(28-30) • Gender distribution of 4th year students__28.57% male students and 71.43% female students. • Self-medication among 4th year students__ 45% male and 36% female students self-medicate while 55% male and 64% female students do not self-medicate. • Educational status of Parents of 4th year students __30.14% are master, 35.17% are graduate, 7.66% are intermediate, 15.55% are matric and 11.48% are under matric. • Frequency of self-medication__ 12.34% students always, 66.67% off & on while 20.99% very rarely self-medicate. • Reasons for self-medication __ 92.59% students self-medicate for convenience while 7.41% for cost savings. • Common complaints for self-medication __ 40.15% complaints are of Headache, 36.50% are of fever while 23.35% are of common cold. • 2 • Commonly used drugs for self-medication __ 44.67% panadol, 19.38% dispirin, 12.92% ibuprofen, 12.08% metronidazole and 10.95% augmentin are used. • Adverse reaction by self-medication __ 93.83% students did not observe adverse reactions while 6.17% observed adverse reactions. • Conclusion: From the study we concluded that self-medication is commonly practiced in 4th year students of the institute. There is a dire need to create awareness and educate the students about the dangers of self medication.

  28. Shweta Sao and Saurabh Dubey

    India has a vast variety of medicinal plants. Medicinal plants synthesize variety of phytochemicals that help to defend against wide variety of microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, helminthes, and viruses. Use of plants as a source of medicine has been an ancient practice and is important component of health system in India. General public, academic and government interest in traditional medicine is growing rapidly due to increase side effects of the adverse drug reactions and cost factor of modern system of medicine. The present study focuses on comparison of nine Indian medicinal plants extracts for their Antibacterial, Anti-fungal, and Antioxidant activities.

  29. Apoorva, M., Vijay K Raghava, Sarita Joshi Narayan, Dr. UmeshYadalam, Sheetal, S. and Fakeha Hareem

    Interdental papillary recession has been esthetical as well as an oral hygiene maintenance problem for the patients. Abnormal tooth shape, improper contours of prosthetic restorations, and traumatic oral hygiene procedures may also negatively influence the outline of the interdental soft tissue. There are very fewer surgical techniques to create interdental papilla, which has been very technique sensitive and less predictive in treatment outcome. In this article, a review is attempted to illustrate various causes, classification, and management of interdental papilla.

  30. Dr.Vidya Arjunwadkar, Bhagyashri Jadhav and Dr. Renu Bharadwaj

    Introduction: There is a high degree of similarity between Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in terms of routes of transmission, associated risk factors and their presence in the body fluids. Thus the co-infection of these two viruses is a common phenomenon. HIV accelerates the natural course of HCV infection and facilitates faster progression of liver disease to cirrhosis and heap tocellular carcinoma. Co-infection of HCV with HIV infection results into substantial impairment of cell mediated responses, faster progression of HIV to AIDS-defining illness. Progression of liver related pathogenicity in HIV-HCV co-infection leads to increased risk of drug related hepatotoxicity when Anti-retroviral Therapy (ART) is initiated in these patients. Material and Methods: A study was carried out in a tertiary care Hospital to determine the sero-prevalence of HIV-HCV co-infection. 200 randomly selected newly diagnosed HIV patients were enrolled. From each of the patient, 3-5 cc venous blood was collected and Anti-HCV by ELISA was performed on obtained serum samples. Recent CD4 T cell count, Liver function Tests and WHO staging of the co-infected patients was noted. Results: A single HIV-HCV co-infected case was found with its sero-prevalence of 0.5%. The co-infected case had lower CD4 T-cell count, deranged ALT level and presented with WHO clinical stage-II. Summary and Conclusions: We recommend screening of all HIV positive patients for Anti-HCV to know HIV-HCV co-infection. In HIV-HCV co-infected cases, liver function tests, CD4 T-cell count and WHO clinical staging should be regularly monitored.

  31. Dr. Hemant Baonerkar and Dr. Mukul Padhye

    Radicular cyst is the most common cystic lesion in the jaws. In the past, there were many different treatment option mentioned in the literature, but total cystectomy i.e enucleation of cyst is gold standard treatment of radicular cyst. After enucleation of cyst, generally surgical bone defect were left as it is, but for accelerated bone healing, bone grafting is advised. This case report presents Surgical Management of Large Radicular Cyst with Enucleation and bone grafting of Demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA).

  32. Dra. María Isabel Santos Quintero, Dr. Jesús Roberto Garay Núñez, Dra. Maria Araceli Félix Amézquita and Dra. María del Carmen Beltrán Montenegro

    The teaching and use of formative research within academic programs are greater than at any time in educational history. The formative research process of construction of knowledge, associated with learning and teaching. Objective: to analyze formative research as a learning strategy in leveling nurses, the theorists were developed: Demo with Research in learning, and Freire with problematizing and liberating education Díaz tummy with meaningful learning; Methodological design. Qualitative study, descriptive method carried out in 8 Leveling students, in-depth interviews were used. The thematic analysis was carried out using the Minayo technique. Results and discussion: 3 categories were selected 1. Generation of knowledge 2.- Research through problems 3. Linking practical theory Final considerations: they use strategies for formative research.

  33. Vinay Kharsan, Madan, R. S., Saurabh Sharma, Pankaj Rathod and Usha

    The haemorrhagicbone cyst (HBC) is an uncommon nonepithelial lined cavity of the jaws. The lesion is mainly diagnosed in young patients most frequently during the second decade of life. The majority of HBCs are located in the mandibular body between the canine and third molar region. Clinically, the lesion is usually asymptomatic in majority of cases and is often accidentally discovered on routine radiological findings as aunilocular radiolucent area with "scalloping effect". The definite diagnosis of haemorrhagiccyst is invariably achieved during surgery. Since material for histologic examination may be scant or non-existent, it is often very difficult for a definite histologic diagnosis to be achieved. In this article, we are reporting an unusual case of Haemorrhagic bone cysts involving the mandible, accidentally discovered during routine radiographic evaluation for orthodontic reason. The literature is briefly reviewed.

  34. Dr. Mahalakshmi, N. K. and Dr. Shanthi, C.

    Objective: To study the maternal and neonatal outcome in multifetal gestation in a tertiary care centre Method: A retrospective observational analysis of 152 twin pregnancies admitted and managed at Govt. Rajaji Hospital, Madurai from May 2016 to april 2017 was done. Patients were studied for any adverse antenatal complications, mode of delivery and pregnancy outcome both maternal and perinatal. Results: Most common indication for admission was threatened preterm labour, Anaemia, Non severe preeclampsia. Out of the 152 patients 77 delivered at GRH(50%), others delivered at their native places, out of which 44 delivered by vaginal route (57%) whereas 33(42%) had to undergo caesarean section. Malpresentation of the first twin was the commonest indication (42%) for caesarean section. Out of the 77 women of twin pregnancy giving birth to 142 live-born babies, out of which 3(2%) were single fetal demises, and 9(6%) died due to complications related to prematurity: hyaline membrane disease, hyperbilirubinemia. Conclusion: The risk of pregnancy related complications in twin gestation are definitely more than a singleton pregnancy. Early detection and proper management of twin pregnancies can reduce the complication rates thereby improving maternal and neonatal outcome

  35. Prof. Yan Vares and Dr. NazarYaremchuk

    The problem of maxillofacial injuries and improvement of treatment of fractures of facial bones of different localization does not lose its relevance. At the present stage of development of maxillofacial surgery, the preference is given to minimally invasive techniques of surgical treatment of mandibular fractures, which allow to restore the aesthetic and functional status of the maxillofacial area in shortest terms compared to the prolonged methods of conservative treatment. Availability of a wide range of fixing devices of a variety of designs, including miniplates, allows for adequate fixation of bone fragments, regardless of the localization and number of fractures. At the same time, given the functional peculiarities of biomechanics of the mandible, fixation of bone fragments by miniplates does not always provide the necessary "rigidity" of fixation, which may be accompanied by complications of a diverse nature. This providesbasis forthe elaboration of alternative methods of bone fixation, in particular using lag screws, the popularity of which has been increasing recently, as evidenced by the large number of publications in the professional literature. The proposed study presents a clinical case of a traumatic bilateral fracture of the mandible treated by the method of functionally stable osteosynthesis, when bothminiplates and lag screws were used for fixation. A brief historical note on the application of lag screws is provided, the advantages and disadvantages of lag screw fixation are compared with traditional miniplates.

  36. Nitin Yadav, Pranav Pandoh, Seema Rohilla, Roomi Yadav, Himanshu Pruthi and Rohtas K Yadav

    Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is a multisystem disease caused by mutations of the VHL gene. In patients with family history of this syndrome, the diagnosis is usually easy to establish and these patients require screening for various lesions. However, diagnosis of this syndrome, in the absence of family history, is challenging. We present a case of VHL syndrome in a young female, with no family history. The case highlights the significance of high degree of clinical suspicion and close follow up, for lesions of VHL syndrome, in patients with cerebellar hemangioblastoma.

  37. Ashwini, H. V., Suhas Rao, K., Pranav Mody and Amitha, G. L.

    Aim and Objectives: The objectives was to find the correlation between the cervico-incisal length of Maxillary right central incisor (MxRCI) to Nasal Height (NaHt) and the correlation between the cervico-incisal length of MxRCI to the Anterior Facial Height (AFHt). Methodology: 100 individuals was selected among the students of Indian origin from the educational institution in and around sullia, based on defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. NaHt was measured between Na (Nasion) and SN (Subnasale) using digital Vernier caliper. AFHt was measured between Na (Nasion) and Me (Menton). Crown length was measured from the highest point on the cervical line to the midpoint of the incisal edge. Readings was taken thrice and average was recorded. The results were statistically analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis. Results: The mean cervico-incisal length of MxRCI was 10.301 mm .NaHt was 54.255mm and AFHt was 113.8mm. There was no significant correlation (p=0.061 & r= -0.188) between cervico-incisal length of MxRCI and NaHt and no significant correlation ((p=0.508 & r= -0.067) between cervico-incisal length of MxRCI and AFHt.

  38. Dr. Sanjay P. Gadre and Dr. Asif Sayeed

    Background and objectives: The pain of childbirth is the most severe pain, most women will endure in their lifetimes. Women in pain don’t need an “indication” for pain relief in labour. According to the American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) “in the absence of a medical contraindication, maternal request is a sufficient medical indication for pain relief during labour” A prospective study was conducted with the approval of the hospital Ethics Committee. 60 parturient in labor were enrolled in the study after signing written informed consent. This study is descriptive case series study which was conducted in department of obstetrics and gynecology, from January 2017 to July 2017. Methodology: The inclusion criteria were • Nulliparity • Age 18-35 years • Gestational age >37 weeks • Single foetus with vertex presentation. Exclusion criteria included • Multigravida • Abnormal presentations :Breech,Transverse • Infection at the site of epidural • Coagulopathies • Any spinal deformities • History of allergy to local anesthetics, fentanyl or tramadol. All parturients were counseled on admission to the labor ward and those who were desirous of epidural analgesia were allocated to the epidural group (study group). Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS) was used for quantification of pain at the peak of uterine contractions (0mm = no pain and 100mm = worst pain). Results: Parturient recruitment and data collection occurred over a period of two consecutive years. Out of the 60 parturients who participated, 50 completed the study. 10 patients from the epidural group were excluded as epidural analgesia was ineffective in 3 cases, data was incomplete in 4cases and in 3 cases caesarean was done before full cervical dilatation. Conclusion: Epidural analgesia, prolongs the first stage of labor, but is not associated with adverse maternal or neonatal outcome.

  39. Dr. Mariya Qadir, Dr. Mohammad Mushtaq and Dr. Sneh Kalgotra

    Introduction: Determination of growth pattern in a vertical dimension is of utmost importance to orthodontist. Various analyses and parameters are present but they do pose shortcomings of variability even in same individual. Hence this study was aimed at determining reliability of various parameters and find which of the parameters can be used singly and which can be used in combination to aid in diagnosis and treatment planning. Materials and methods: Cephalometric radiographs of 90 individuals were examined and comparative analysis using all ten parameters was done. Statistical analysis including mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variance were used to describe the distribution of all these parameters in the entire sample. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to find correlation between various variables. Results: Ramus/FHP angle showed the most homogenous distribution while as Steiner’s mandibular plane angle showed most variable distribution in the entire sample. Among the linear parameters total anterior facial height showed most homogenous distribution. Also strong correlations were found between Ramus/FHP angle and basal plane angle, basal plane angle and articulare angle, basal plane angle and saddle angle. Conclusion: Among angular variables Ramus/FHP and among linear variables total anterior facial height could be used reliably to assess the growth pattern.

  40. Nilotpol Kashyap, Rashi Dubey, Alok Avinash, Brij Kumar, Vijayendra Pandey and Dharmen Bhansali

    Introduction: - It has been reported that the over-prescription of antibiotics in children is leading to increased fatal diarrheal cases and a drastic change in the sensitiveness of gut flora. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) has published guidelines for antibiotic use, recognizing the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. Objective: The objective of this survey is to compare the antibiotic prescription pattern and the awareness of antibiotic resistance among Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) practitioners and Pediatric Dentists. Materials and methods: 100 BDS practitioners and 100 Pediatric Dentists were included in the study and a questionnaire were given to each practitioner which is comprised of information regarding antibiotic prescription for most common oral conditions, their dosage, etc. Results: The majority of the practitioners prescribed antibiotics for managing oral diseases. On comparing the prescription patterns between the BDS practitioners and Pediatric Dentists, it has been found that an over prescription in the BDS group for many conditions, which was statistically significant. Amoxicillin was the most commonly prescribed drug in both the groups. In the presence of an anaerobic infection, the most preferred drug was a combination of metronidazole. With regard to the duration of antibiotic prescription, 74% BDS practitioners prescribed antibiotics for 3-day course and 36% Pediatric Dentists has given it for 5 day or 1 week course which was statistically significant. The awareness regarding antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic resistance was found to be adequate in the pediatric practitioner groups. However, there was a general lack of awareness with regard to the guidelines for antibiotic prescribing in BDS practitioner groups. Conclusion: Practitioners should prescribe antibiotics in accordance with the guidelines to curb antibiotic resistance, for an emerging health problem.

  41. Dr. Vivek Bhasker, Dr. Barun Ram, Dr. Sharma, R.S. and Dr. Anil Kumar

    Introduction: Our study is about effectiveness of 0.5% bupivacaine soaked absorbable gelatin sponge placed in gallbladder bed, on postoperative pain management after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and methods: 60 cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy were divided in two groups. In one group 0.5% bupivacaine soaked absorbable gelatin sponge was placed in gallbladder bed in other group normal saline soaked absorbable gelatin sponge was placed in gallbladder bed. Postoperative pain was assessed using VAS scale. Result and conclusion: placement of absorbable geltin sponge soaked with bupivacaine at the gall bladder bed and infiltrating bupivacaine at the trocar insertion sites helps in reduction of immediate postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  42. Dr. Sachin Agrawal

    Ocular trauma resulting eye injuries are a frequent threat to vision worldwide. The causes of eye injury are diverse, but the risk and type of injury is often correlated with age, gender, and race. While a focused history and prompt ocular examination are essential to immediate management, patient education regarding safety precautions and risk reduction help to prevent future recurrences. This article describes a case of penetrating eye injury in a 25-year-old male. The case discussion will review the initial examination and management decision. A suggested approach to the management of patients with ocular trauma will be discussed.

  43. Bindu Kaipparettu Abraham and Suhair Salah Mohmmed

    Adolescents are an important resource for any country. Adolescent girls are the future mothers of the society. Their health plays an important role in determining the health of the future population because adolescent girl’s health has an intergenerational effect. The cumulative impact of the low health situation of girls is reflected in high maternal mortality rates and consequent high fertility rates. Pelvic inflammatory diseases are largely due to risk factors, which are preventable. adolescent girls are more prone for reproductive health problems amongst which Pelvic inflammatory diseases are common among sexually active girls and results in complications such as infertility ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain, which ultimately leads to social stigma in the society. Purpose of this study is to examine the knowledge of adolescents girls about pelvic inflammatory disease

  44. Dr. Kulvinder Singh and Dr. Digish U. Vaghela

    Introduction: Ultrasonography has proved its accuracy in orbital imaging by virtue of its high frequency probes and b mode imaging. The CT extends privilege of perfect anatomical images and better delineation using intravenous contrast. The current study evaluated clinical and radiological presentation of various orbital lesions; and compared diagnostic accuracy of USG and CT. Material and methods: A prospective observational study was planned at a tertiary teaching institute on 100 patients referred to radiology department for ultrasonography and computed tomography of orbit. Patients with lesions arising primarily from orbit or spread from adjacent structures were included in the study. Observations: Majority of patients were pediatric; common etiology being retinoblastoma and infection. The central orbital space was most predisposed in inflammatory and vascular lesions: and, peripheral orbital space in neoplastic, trauma, congenital, lacrimal gland and fossa lesions. The diagnostic sensitivity of USG in evaluation of orbital lesions was found to be 93.6 % as against 100% with CT. Diagnostic specificity of CT was higher than USG when single specific diagnosis was given (93% vs 68% respectively), as well as when final diagnosis was given as second differential (96% vs 78.7% respectively). Conclusion: Orbital vascular lesions and Retinoblastoma can be diagnosed easily on both USG and CT. Both USG and CT failed to differentiate between aspergillosis, mucormycosis and sino-nasal malignancies extending to orbit. CT is more sensitive and specific than USG and should be the preferred modality for suspected orbital lesions.

  45. Mohamad Aslam Baidar Gull and Mohammad Mushtaq

    Transverse maxillary deficiency is one of the frequently observed entities in patients who seek orthodontic treatment and is often characterized by crossbite which may be unilateral or bilateral as well as anterior crowding. Rapid maxillary/palatal expansion (RME/RPE) is able to eliminate posterior crossbite and the transverse discrepancy between the dental arches due to maxillary constriction. Increase in arch perimeter appears to be the important effect of this treatment. Evidences indicate that rapid palatal expansion may be used without surgery in young adults. The purpose of this paper was to report a case of the RME without surgery in an 18-year-old female adult. The palatal expansion was accomplished by means of a Hyrax device. Good results were achieved after the treatment completion.

  46. Mirza Aumir Beg, Shafia Nissar Kakroo and Junaid Ahmed Gilkar

    Dental problems being the most common health problem that affects children. Most traumatic injuries to the teeth and their supporting structures constitute a true dental emergency and because teeth have the lowest potential of any tissue for returning to a normal healthy state following injury, most injuries require urgent evaluation and treatment. Due to lack of awareness and knowledge among parents/mothers most of children with dental trauma present late for treatment that result in unfavorable long-term prognosis. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of parents regarding dental avulsion and its emergency management using a questionnaire. Materials and Methods: The study included 500parents who accompaniedtheir children, aged between 5 years and 14 years, to the Dental Section Sub District Hospital Damhal,Kulgam, J&K. Chi-square test was done to evaluate the association between the results and the genders, educational level, and geographical status of the respondents. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 Results: This study showed 90% of parents knew that saving an avulsed permanent tooth is important but majority of parents thought ice water was the best media to transport avulsed teeth. The data showed that there was lack of knowledge regarding the preservation and management of avulsed tooth amongst parents. Conclusion: This study showed lack of lack of awareness among the parents regarding the emergency management of dental trauma, This warrants the need of an effective communication between dental professionals and parents for better handling of dental traumas and thus preventing the physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences of trauma by appropriate assessment, education, and referral of children to the dentist.

  47. Shafia Nissar Kakroo, Mirza Aumir Beg and Basit Kakroo

    Background: Pityriasis Versicolor (PV) is a cutaneous pigmentation disorder caused by a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia sp. It is a superficial mycosis characterized by well-defined, slightly scaly skin lesions of variable color. Pityriasis versicolor is a very common, easily treatable superficial fungal infection, and is neglected by many patients. Aim: To determine the quality of life and psychological impact in patients with pityriasis versicolor. Methods: Forty patients diagnosed clinically pityarisis versicolor were selected for the study and were asked to complete a questionnaire form. The questionnaire was prepared in house. There were 21(52%) females and 19 (47%) Males. Results: Analysis of the questionnaire showed that 90% of females and 52% males were psychologically affected. Conclusions: Pityriasis versicolor, though innocuous and common, may lead to psychosocial issues in predisposed people. In such cases, prompt and adequate treatment helps a lot to restore the confidence and quality of life.

  48. Shafia Nisar Kakroo, Mirza Aumir Beg, Sadia Wani and Junaid Ahmed Gilkar

    Background: The term “aphthous” is derived from a Greek word “aphtha” which means ulceration. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common painful oral mucosal conditions seen among patients. These present as recurrent, multiple, small, round, or ovoid ulcers, with circumscribed margins, having yellow or gray floors and are surrounded by erythematous haloes, present first in childhood or adolescence. Many studies have reported that stress and anxiety have a role in the onset and recurrence of aphthous ulcers. We aimed to do a study on association between apthous ulcer and stress.s Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was done on 100 medical students in Hamdard Institue of Medical sciences, New Delhi. Questionnaire contained questions about aphthous ulcers and questions on perceived stress by modified perceived stress scale. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 20. Student t test and chi square test were used and a p value of <0.05 was taken as significant. Result: The prevalence of aphthous ulcers among medical students was high (60%). Majority participants (81.6%) showed high level of stress due to exams or some other reasons. Only 26.6% of participants showed positive history. Conclusion: The study revealed that there was a significant association between stress and apthous ulcer as was observed in medical students who are under constant pressure as compared to other professional students.

  49. Mrs. Sathiyakala, K. and Dr. Danasu, R.

    Stress is not always negative. It may also bring out the best in individuals at times. It may induce an individual to discover innovative and smarter way of doing things. This positive dimension of stress is called as eustress. But usually, the term stress has a negative implication and this negative aspect of stress is termed as distress. For instance - When a subordinate is harassed or warned by his superior, unhappiness of unsuitable job, etc. We can say that “Stress causes some people to break, and other to break records.”The Quantitative Research approach was used in this study. Descriptive research design was selected for this study. The study population consists of all the employees working in Information Technology Centers. Among the IT employees 137(27.4%) were affected with severe stress and 363 (72.4%) were affected with very severe stress. The overall mean value is 4.05 in the test as per the factor wise analysis. There was a significant association found between the level of stress and the selected demographic variable such as “education”, “shift hours” and “working shift”.

  50. Xiaohui Song, Jinbo Xue, Weichang Xu and Cuicui Liu

    The research on synthesis of hollow silica structures in the nanoscale has flourished in recent years because of their importance in the development of catalysis1 and biomedical applications2. In this work, a novel “worm-like” silica nanostructure holding Ag particle and nanocavities in the same shell was first reported. Studies on this interesting structure discovered a facile one-pot method to construct cavities-containing silica nanostructure using Ag+ salt and ligand 11-MUA. Variation of the key reaction factors such as metal salt, thiol ligand, water concentration and TEOS hydrolysis rate, along with the characterization experiments on the initial Ag+/11-MUA composite implied that a metal ion/thiol ligand coordination polymer had formed under the experimental condition. Furthermore, the unstable coordination polymer could possibly act as the template for silica coating/growth. This new method is significant as it does not require any complicated pre-synthesis or post-treatment procedures. Beside the potential applications of the cavity structure, combination with Ag NP in the “worm-like” nanocomposite may provide new opportunity for hybrid nanostructure development.

  51. Alemu Ayele

    Microenterprises have great role for socio-economic development in developing countries. In spite of these benefits, the role of these businesses in our country is very much insignificant. Moreover, in Gambella specially in Nuer and Agnwa communities are not actively participate in microenterprises. Thus, this research focused on analyzing the determinants of the households’ willingness and ability to participate in micro enterprise. The results of the study with nominal log it model revealed seven variables were significant at less than 10 per cent probability level. Age of the household is significant and positively associated with willingness to participate in microenterprise activities. Education level had negative impact on probability of being participant in microenterprise activity, which is significant at less than 5 percent probability level. This means more educated households have negative interest in the involvement of microenterprise activities. Access to factors of productions and households’ business ability are significant at less than or equal 5 percent probability level. These variables are positively correlated with the dependent variable. Moreover, dependency ratio and willingness-ability combination are significant that are negatively associated with households’ willingness to participate in microenterprise activities. Variables like having willingness, being male family and dependency ratio are positively related with dependant variable business ability. Having land and having willingness-having ability are negatively associated with dependent variable business ability. Therefore, governments, regional state and university should play their role to intervene and to transform the societies to producer and commercial class.

  52. Nazrul, M. I.

    On-farm verification trial was conducted with lime and soil test based fertilizer application for improving the yield of potato in acidic soils under the Surma‐Kushiyara Floodplain soil of Bangladesh. The trials were laid out in a factorial randomized complete block design with six dispersed replications. The treatments were, M1: soil test based (STB) recommended fertilizer and M2: farmers practice (FP) and dolomite levels (L0: 0 t ha-1, L1: 1 t ha-1 and L2: 2 t ha-1). The result showed that average yield of tuber (24.04t ha-1) was higher in STB fertilizer (M1). Lime application gave significantly superior tuber yields of potato in all three years. The average tuber yield of potato increased in treatments L1 and L2 by 6.73 and 19.75%, respectively over non- lime control. The STB fertilizer dose (N151 P29 K116 S14 Zn1 kg ha-1) along with 2 t ha-1 of dolomite (M1L2) performed better and produced the highest average tuber yield (25.46 t ha-1) of potato. Economic analysis revealed that maximum gross return (Tk. 305520 ha-1) and gross margin (Tk.170852 ha-1) was obtained from treatment combination M1L2 followed by M2L1 (N160 P50 K130 S0 Zn0 kg ha-1 and 1 t ha-1 of dolomite lime). The maximum marginal benefit cost ratio (MBCR) 9.06 over non-lime control was also observed in treatment combination M2L1. Considering the results, the fertilizer nutrients practice by farmers (N160 P50 K130 S0 Zn0 Kg ha-1) with 1 t ha-1 of dolomite lime was found more profitable and viable among the treatments for cultivating potato under strongly acidic soil of Sylhet in Bangladesh.

  53. Arpandeep K. Tuli, Lipika Singhal, Varsha Gupta and Jagdish Chander

    Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is a common but dreadful problem faced by neonatologists and is responsible for approximately 25% of all neonatal deaths in the world. Neonates are at increased risk of contracting infections due to immature immune system. It is difficult to clinically diagnose sepsis in these babies because the clinical features of sepsis are subtle in these neonates. Culture and sensitivity remains the gold standard test to diagnose and treat neonates in this situation. Moreover knowledge of prevalent bacterial flora and its susceptibility patterns in a particular neonatal intensive care unit is essential for empirical antibiotic therapy because the treatment of sepsis needs to be immediately started and any delay in starting appropriate antibiotic therapy can prove fatal. For this reason it is important to determine bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of blood isolates from every neonatal intensive care unit. We conducted this cross sectional study to determine bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility pattern from blood cultures collected from neonatal intensive care units of our institute. Aims and Objective: To determine bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of blood isolates from neonatal intensive care unit. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out in microbiology department. The blood samples were processed by conventional blood culture and identification of the organism was done by standard bacteriological techniques. Antibiotic sensitivity was performed by Kirby Bauer disc-diffusion method in accordance to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2016 guidelines. Results: A total of 1521 blood samples were received from NICU. Of these, bacteraemia could be confirmed by culture in 12.3% (187/1521) cases. In the present study, Gram-negative organisms predominated being responsible for 76% (142/187) of cases of septicaemia followed by the gram positive organisms in 24% (45/187) cases. Conclusion: Establishing bacteriological profile and susceptibility patterns of isolates from a particular neonatal intensive care unit is a critical step in managing neonatal sepsis. Such knowledge is critical in deciding empirical antibiotic therapy by treating neonatologist. Our study identified the prevalent organisms and provided with sensitivity patterns of the organisms prevalent in neonatal intensive care unit.

  54. Selvakumar, C., Senthilkumar, S., Aravazhi, S., Chandrasekaran, G. and Sagayaraj, R.

    A system of ferrites with formula Ni0.5+xZnxCu0.5Fe2-2xO4 (x=0.0,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5) synthesized through ceramic route. As a special consideration for optimisation the material is quenched from 1137 K to 77 K by dropping it in liquid nitrogen bath in the final stage. XRD patterns present that the crystals formed are in the polycrystalline nature. The structure of ferrite is confirmed as Face Centred Cubic (FCC) phase. The particle size of the ferrite system varies from 20 nm to 40 nm and they are nano particles. Thermal study helps to infer completion of reaction of formation of ferrite. FTIR and Raman Spectroscopy measurements confirm the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral coordination of atoms in spinel structure of ferrite. However a dominating impact of defect states intruded in the structure of ferrite is visualized through FTIR and Raman Spectra. The presence of defect states is attributed to mainly to the quenching of the ferrite by a large range of fall of temperature. The existence of defect states is expected to contribute a big variation in electrical and the magnetic properties.

  55. Dr. Shilpa Avarebeel and Dr. Prathiba Pereira

    The ageing population is steadily expanding, with associated increased use of medications. polypharmacy (>4 drugs) is observed on regular basis causing untoward effects Beers criteria given by American geriatric society is widely used and guides in preventing adverse drug reactions. This study ‘Assessment and analysis of medication appropriateness using beers criteria in elderly’ Was conducted at JSS hospital Mysore as a pilot study with a sample size of 826 .data regarding number of medications was collected from the inpatient files and was assessed for poly pill and medication appropriateness using Beers criteria. Statistics was analysed using SPSS software- Results Total 826 inpatient files were analysed.510 were males, polypharmacy was noticed in 600 patients. Majority of the prescriptions were as per Beer’s criteria, However incidence of ADR was significantly high in those who did not follow Beers criteria .Using Beer’s criteria is very much faesible. Pocket card is widely available and a mobile app is available for a nominal amount of Rs 600 per year Conclusions: Awareness about the Beers criteria in medical schools and conducting workshops for the same would definitely improvise the quality care for the geriatric group.

  56. Senthilkumar, S., Selvakumar, C., Aravazhi, S., Chandrasekaran, G. and Sagayaraj, R.

    A system of Ferrites with formula Ni0.5-x Znx Cu0.5 Fe2O4 (x=0.0,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5) synthesized through solid state route. During the second sintering the material is quenched from 1137 K to 77 K by dropping it in liquid nitrogen bath. The solid material is ground in agate pestle, mortar and made as powder. The powder form of ferrite is subjected to structural studies using XRD, thermal, FTIR and Raman measurements.XRD patterns present that the crystals formed are in the polycrystalline nature. The structure of ferrite is confirmed as Face Centred Cubic (FCC) phase. The particle size of the ferrite system varies from 262 to 427 Å and they are bulk particles. Thermal study helps to infer completion of reaction of formation of ferrite. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy measurements confirm the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral coordination of atoms in spinel structure of ferrite. However a dominating impact of defect states intruded in the structure of ferrite is visualized through FTIR and Raman spectra. The presence of defect states is attributed to mainly to the quenching of the ferrite by a large range of temperature. The existence of defect states will contribute a big variation in electrical and the magnetic properties.

  57. Dr. Subramanian, S.S.

    An increasing of type II diabetic coupled with global prevalence an increased longevity is an alarming health care. Physical exercises with good adherence improves glycemic control and quality of life of diabetic subject. Aims and Objectives of this study was to analyse the impact of NIE resisted exercises on PPBG and WC in a one year follow up Materials and Methodology: 61 year old male engineer on 20 units of insulin therapy for 15 year (Type II Diabetic) was treated with HIE exercises during the period from 23.12.2016 to 20.12.2017 with weekly twice frequency Results of pre and post PPBG and WC were recorded and analyzed statistically with P<.001 Conclusion: An improved glycemic control with HIE using PPBG was the core outcome of this presentation.

  58. Desh Deepak Chaudhary and Omkar

    Post copulatory mate guarding in insects is a major means of securing paternity. It is explained as a male adaptation to avoid sperm competition by excluding rivals from mating with the guarded female. The present experiments were designed to investigate the effect of single mating and subsequent or interval based second mating with same or different male on mate guarding duration, fecundity and percent egg viability of a ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius). For this study second mating was given with same or different male. Statistical analysis revealed significant difference between mate guarding duration of first and second matings. Maximum mate guarding duration was recorded for interval based double mating treatment with different male and same was recorded for the fecundity and percent egg viability. Present results clearly indicate that in interval based second mating is sufficient duration to the female for the preparation of second mating and female trying to diversify own offspring by the high mating duration with the different male. This may occurs due to highly diversify population of any species have high survival rate by the natural selection. Such condition may be very use full for the improving the biocontrol activity of this ladybird against to aphid pest population.

  59. Goutam Bhakta and Nabanita Bhakta

    The agriculture is the most important basic needs of the population. For better production and pest control farmers use different types of chemicals in agricultural fields which have hazardous effects on the population. To produce healthy crops and organic farmer needs to manage the soil well considering soil life, soil nutrients and soil structure. The organic farming specially vermicomposting is a modernization in agriculture to minimize the effects of hazardous effects of chemicals of population. Vermicompost is an odorless finely divided peat-like substance having good structure, moisture holding capacity, porosity, aeration, drainage, relatively large amount of available nutrients and microbial metabolites produced by interaction between Eisenia foetida and micro organization by the breakdown of organic wastes that may act as plant growth regulators. An experiment on influence of vermicompost and chemical fertilizer on variation in growth and reproductive parameter of Lycopersicon esculentum L (Tomato) revealed that plant supplied with vermicompost produced excellent vegetative growth with better yield and the vermicompost was superior over chemical fertilizer in all respect.

  60. Freddy Carlos Gavilánez Luna, Ahmed El Kotb El Salous, Pedro José Andrade Alvarado and Renato David Proaño Triana

    In order to improve the quality of CCN-51 cocoa beans, this study was developed in which 5 concentrations of total sugars, defined by the Brix degrees (° Bx) and adjusted by pre-drying, were evaluated prior to the process of fermentation. A completely random distribution was used in the allocation of the treatments, which were defined by 1 ° Bx (T1), 1 - 5 ° Bx (T2), 5 - 10 ° Bx (T3), 10 - 15 ° Bx ( T4) and more than 15 ° Bx (T5). The selected grains came from healthy cobs of the same farm, which after the pre-drying were subjected to the fermentation process in jute bags for three days; exposing them later to natural drying, until leaving them with 7% humidity. The proportion of fermented, violet and slate grains was evaluated, making the longitudinal cut of the grains and comparing them with a visual scale. Likewise, sensory acceptance was valued through a paste, using 5 trained judges and a hedonic scale of 6 points, in categories ranging from undesirable (0) to excellent (5). In addition, the temperature was evaluated in the 3 days of fermentation and the initial and final pH of this process. Properly fermented grains were obtained in more than 80% in the first 4 treatments; reducing the violet and slate grains below 10 and 5%, respectively. The highest acceptance was established for the T2 treatment, defining it between very good and excellent. In conclusion, the pre-drying favors the quality of cocoa beans CCN-51.

  61. Hala Ahmed Abd-Alhadi, Mohammed Elimam Ahamed Mohammed and Mohammed Ahmed Eltayeb

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the imunohistochemical staining of four receptors and the metastasis of breast cancer to the lymph nodes and the age. The investigated receptors were estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER and PR), human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF). Material and Methods: This study was retrospective study. One hundred and twenty one breast cancer tissues were retrieved from the radiation and isotope centre in Khartoum (RICK). The expression of the receptors was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results: Forty eight samples (39.7%) were with negative lymph nodes and 73 (60.3%) had positive lymph node metastasis. Regarding the immunohistochemical staining of the ER was positive in 23 (47.9%) out of the 48 lymph node negative tissues and it was positive in 33 (45.2%) tissues out of the 73 lymph node positive tissues. The PR positive staining results in the negative and positive lymph nodes tissues were 17 (35.4%) and 22 (30.1%) respectively. Thirty breast tissues (62.5%) were positive for HER-2 out of the 48 negative lymph node tissues compared to 57 (78.1%) HER-2 positive tissues out of the 73 tissues with lymph node involvement. Concerning the VEGF, it was positive in 17 (35.4%) of the lymph node negative tissues and in 25 (34.2%) of the tissues with positive lymph node metastasis. The spearman correlation showed that there was a weak, negative and insignificant correlation between ER, PR and VEGF and the lymph node involvement while there was positive and insignificant correlation between HER and the lymph node metastasis. There was significant positive correlation between the collective results and the lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: Collective staining results of ER, PR, HER and VEGF were useful as predictors for lymph node metastasis.

  62. Wenxi Tang, Hui Gao, Hongchao Li, Xin Guan, Yuguang Huang and Aixia Ma

    Background: Incidence rate of intra-operative hypothermia during surgeries is estimated to be around 40% in China, causing damages as cardiovascular complications and also increase costs due to treatment for adverse reactions and prolonged hospital stay. However in current stage, hypothermia and effective warming measurements are attached with relatively low importance in aesthesia procedures. This study aims to compare the potential economic benefits for patients using active warming system during major surgeries. Methods: A randomized controlled open-label trial was design in Beijing, China. Target population were patients undergoing surgeries. A total of 240 patients receiving Pancreatectomy and Esophagectomy were randomized into active warming group (using forced air warming system) and passive warming group (using cotton blanket). Health outcomes as incidence of intra-operative hypothermia and adverse clinical events including surgical site infection would be observed, and costs following these events would be measured. Economic benefit would be analyzed using cost-consequence analysis and cost-utility analysis between two groups. Incremental cost-utility ratio would be used for decision-making. Discussion: Economical evaluation evidence application in insurance entry for pharmaceuticals and medical devices is in its early stage in China. This study may help to provide as a template for trial-based economical evaluation for medical devices. We also hope to promote discussion on proper use of cost-consequences analysis which is less often applied but with high appropriateness in economical evaluation studies for medical devices. Trial registration: Trial registration: This trial was registered on the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) on 2017/4/9. ChiCTR is one of the primary registries in the WHO Registry Network. Trial registry number: ChiCTR-IPR-17011099. n/edit.aspx?pid=18892&htm=4

  63. Sokrou Adélaïde GAKOUE

    Difficulties related to the active management of complex assets and the risk of high insolvency in the event of credit granting by the institutions led the Ivorian legislator to legislate in matters of trust. As a named contract, the trust is beneficial both in the active management of complex assets and in the individualized and specific management of certain assets or liabilities. A trust specializing in the creation, management and financing of national parks and nature reserves exists and has been the subject of a thorough analysis. Finally, whether it be the trust contract, the security agent or the cash transfer, all help secure financing transactions while guaranteeing the repayment of debts.

  64. Jefry Bemba, Irham and Amirul Karman

    Geographically, Bacan Island is truly strategic due to its position that situated at the center of skipjack fishing ground. The fishermen who are based in coastal fishing port (PPP) Panamboang using pole and line to catch this economist pelagic species in this site assisted by Fish Aggregate Devices (FADs). This fishing operation particularly requires live baits. However, the problems that are being faced by the fishermen are not having their own FADs. Additionally, live baits depend on the coastal dynamic such as tides and current. To solve these problems, this work prioritized on the strategy of pole and line development with FAD-basis. The objectives of this work are to evaluate the performance of pole and line and to formulate the priority and strategy of pole and line FAD-based in Bacan Island. This research was conductedin Bacan Island Waters during 30 days. Data collection was carried out using survey method to the object of the fishermen as the subject. Fishing gear used to catch skipjack was pole and line and the fishing ground was at the FAD area. The production trend during 10 years (2007 – 2016) had been increasing. Whereas, the productivity trend of caught tripe underwent a decreasing in 2014. This fishery business is profitable and feasible to continue. One of the strategy to save pole and line that has been operating in Bacan Island and based in coastal fishing port (PPP) Panamboang. South Halmahera has established a cooperation which has been coordinating the fishermen needs such as facilitating FAD, the small fleet units to obtain live bait and license arrangement.

  65. Vikas Hugar and Sumana, M.

    Using Cloud Storage, customers can remotely save their information and revel in the on-demand high best packages and offerings from a shared pool of configurable computing sources, without the burden of local data storage and maintenance. However, the reality that users not have physical ownership of the outsourced statistics makes the statistics integrity protection in Cloud computing a formidable challenge, this is mainly for customers with limited computing assets. Moreover, users ought to be able to simply use the cloud storage as if it is neighborhood, without worrying about the action of its integrity. Thus, enabling public audit ability for cloud storage is of importance in order that customers can resort to a third party auditor (TPA) to check the integrity of outsourced data and be worry free. To securely introduce an effective TPA, the auditing method need to deliver in no new vulnerabilities closer to person facts privateness, and introduce no additional online burden to person. This paper advocates a secure cloud garage system helping privateness-retaining public auditing. In addition results are extended to allow the TPA to perform audits for a couple of customers concurrently and efficiently. Extensive security and performance analysis display the proposed schemes are provably secure and highly efficient.

  66. Mahoo Fatael, Mtei Kelvin and Njau Karoli

    The low level of common beans production in Tanzania has been attributed partly to low levels of soil plant-available phosphorus. In view of that, a screen house experiment was conducted to recover phosphorus from treated wastewater and to assess its effects on growth parameters of common beans. Three irrigation treatments (T0: freshwater, T1: freshwater and fertiliser, T2: treated wastewater) were used. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design with 20 replications. Results showed that Treated wastewater significantly (P < 0.05) improved days to 50% flowering and maturity compared to other treatments. Beans irrigated with treated wastewater also had significantly higher (P < 0.05) height, number of branches, number of pods and number of leaves than in T0 and T1. Maximum dry weight was also obtained from treated wastewater treatment compared to the other treatments. The study indicated that treated wastewater could be used in common beans production.

  67. Saddam Hussain Shaik, Rama Krishna Reddy Guduru and Aurelijus Domeika

    Cloud computing stands asan extensively used technology. The world is associated with the web.The on-request benefits gave by the cloud are a database, network, web servers, email, virtual desktop, client relationship administration, and so on.Due to which the vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET) are enforced to move from traditional vehicular ad-hoc networks to VANET-Cloud. There are some security issues with a cloud. Numerous cryptographic strategies are intended to defeat these issues.For which the cloud storage is increasing day by day, due to this reason, the time for encrypting and decrypting the data is increasing. VANET’s are made to deliver the information timely and precise without conceding the security to fulfill the desired requirement. Any delay in vehicle communication leads to disaster (accidents), traffic jam, etc., to overcome these problems the hybrid technique is proposed by means of elliptic curve cryptography, Diffie-Hellman, and quantum AES. The proposed technique will boost the security and reduce the storage and data transmission time in VANET cloud.

  68. Vladimir M. Zemskov, Konstantin N. Pronko, Andrey M. Zemskov and Veronika M. Zemskova

    On the basis of published data and results of our own research, we are discussing classification, properties, side effects, indications, contraindications, principles of administration of antmetabolites, cytostatics, antlymphocytic serum and immunoglobulins, antibiotics, enzymes, corticosteroids and other hormones, salicylates, other pharmaceuticals, surgical methods, radiation in autoimmune treatment, malignant and other diseases.

  69. Abílio António Freitas Belo

    The present article aims at underlining epistemological and political view point on the Timor LestePresidential Election 2017 by highlighting the conceptual and dynamic preparation toward the election itself in providing ways to analyze and scrutinize more profound about the dynmics and perceptions on the Emergence and Ideological Formation of Political Parties in East Timor; ThePreparation for Elections;Electorate and voting trends; The political and electoral debate;and finally looking at the challenges of the future.

  70. Hosien Ali Taghi Tehrani, Amir Mahmood zadeh and Kamran Yeganegi

    In Ancient Greece numerous mathematicians managed to gain global fame. Figures such as Archimedes and Euclid presented new thoughts to the scientific society and contributed to growth of mathematics. Sometime later, the Roman Empire defeated the Greek empire and replaced it in the world. Despite all the attempts that the Roman Empire made to develop science, it failed to progress as much as the ancient Greek empire did in mathematics. One reason was the fact that the Roman Empire was deprived of famous talented mathematicians that boosted the scientific capabilities of the Greek empire. For instance, the numerical system in Roman Empire was so primitive that it failed to define numbers, equations and many other simple relations. This weakness and complexity in the numerical system prevented them from doing advanced mathematical operations and, eventually, making progress in the field. Roman society and mathematicians were so submerged in their numerical system that they did not even feel the complexities. As an example, since they could not work well with their accounting and banking systems, they attributed this weakness to the accounting system itself not to the numerical system or mathematics. Today's world is much different from the age of Roman and Greek Empires. However, we are still entangled in our own systems such as measurement, balance, accounting, banking, logistics, traffic management and the like. We are much similar to ancient Roman scholars in this respect. As we are submerged in these systems, we refuse to acknowledge their basic shortcomings. At the same time, we are stubborn enough to refrain from reviewing processes, presuppositions, structures and hypotheses.

  71. Dr. Abdul Roof Rather

    Mental illnesses are the diseases of prolonged duration and mostly slow in progression. Low-income and lower middle income countries currently faces the burden of mental illness, greater loss of lives and economy of the country. Mental illness is recognized as major contributor to adverse health conditions, poverty and thus a barrier to economic development. At least 13.7% of India's general population has been projected to be suffering from a variety of mental illnesses; and 10.6% of this requires immediate intervention. This article explores the burden of mental illness in India (a lower middle-income country). It also discusses the role of physical activity as prevention and treatment measure for mental illness. After reviewing different articles and reports from World Health Organization and other national and international organizations, it was found that in India health care system is not yet fully re-oriented to address the mental illness burden. Hence, physical activity must be promoted and recommended as a cost-effective intervention to address this burden.

  72. Gururaj V Moktali and Dr. Shetty, P. B.

    In the recent past, there has been many research works going on to examine performance of airfoils, on their aerodynamic characteristics. There is no definite airfoil, which can define aerodynamic characteristics more precisely. This paper is an attempt made to fabricate, define and compare aerodynamic characteristics by MH and KFm airfoils. Fabrication of said airfoils MH and KFm airfoils as per requirements and specifications airfoil’s can be manufactured using composite material in two halves and providing tapings on it for pressure measurement over airfoil surface with the help from multi-tube manometer. This experiment was conducted in open circuit, low speed wind tunnel for velocity up to 25.3m/s and Reynolds number of 3.56*10^5. Corresponding manometric head readings noted and graphs Cp vs X/C plottedlift and drag coefficient, calculated along with graphs as CL and CD vs AOA.

  73. Guipié Gérard Eddie Marc

    La question de l'influence des réseaux socionumériques sur l'activité politique a déjà fait l'objet d'une abondante littérature. La présente étude se focalise sur la Côte d'Ivoire, pays majeur de l'Afrique de l'Ouest sorti d'une longue guerre civile et disposant d'une économie en pleine croissance. Cette croissance profite au secteur des technologies de l'information et de la communication où le pays à l'instar de nombreux Pays africains semble refaire son retard. L'utilisation accrue des réseaux sociaux dont l'utilisation était initialement ludique semble se déployer dans le domaine politique. Dans un contexte de paix précaire, les réseaux socionumériques se sont mués en véritables tribunes politiques épousant les contours partisans de la société politique ivoirienne. L'utilisation politique des réseaux sociaux en Côte d'Ivoire a déplacé les antagonismes partisans des espaces physiques que sont les Sorbonnes et les Grins vers les groupes Facebook et Twitter. L'usage de l'internet a entraîné une multiplication des acteurs politiques mettant ainsi fin au monopole de l'activité politique jusque-là dominée par les professionnels. L'activité politique fait désormais l'objet d'une sorte de ménage à trois. Entre d'une part les journalistes mués en cyberjournalistes, l'opinion publique qui assume désormais ses positions politiques et son cybermilitantisme et in fine les politiques. Mots-clés: Réseaux sociaux, Facebook, Twitter, espace politique, cyberjournalistes, cyberpoliticiens, Côte d'Ivoire."

  74. James Kigen

    Sustainable development is a difficult concept to define, because it is a continually evolving, which makes it difficult to define. Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987, pg.43). Sustainable development has three major components: environment, society and economy. The wellbeing of these three areas is intentioned, but not separate e.g. a healthy, prosperous society relies on a healthy environment to provide food, and resources, safe drinking water, and clean air for its citizens. The sustainability paradigm rejects the contention that casualties in the environmental and social realms are inevitable and acceptable consequences of economic development. Thus, this paper considers: economic growth, social equity and environmental protection.

  75. Hernando Avilez Pineda, Ma. Elvia Chavarría Solís, Teresa de J. Rivas Pérez and Ángel de J. Jaimes Compeán

    The tourism sector is characterized by a specialization and permanent segmentation to meet the increasingly sophisticated demands of target groups and recipients. Classification schemes, quality certifications and online sales have become an integral part of the system of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), causing the potential tourist to face the growing number of micro entrepreneurs who seek to be in the mind of the consumer through web pages and technological tools. In addition to the differentiation, aspects of commercialization that are also used for the construction of the small-scale image of the product offer of hotels and tourist companies. Innovation and sales initiatives are promoted at the regional and national levels of SMEs that know the relevance and effectiveness that can position them in competitiveness scenarios that make their long-term equilibrium viable.

  76. Moumita Chattopadhyay

    Childhood is the most critical and important phase of human development. Children learn to move, communicate, and interact with the world, and develop a sense of personal and cultural identity. Early childhood offers the greatest opportunities for positive human development, but is also the period when children are most at risk. Nearly half of all deaths in children under 5 are attributable to under nutrition. The study analyzed the beneficiary of ICDS according to different social dimensions of India. The prime objective of the present study was to find out the determinants of child beneficiary under ICDS scheme. To explain the indicators of the child to participate (or not participate) in the benefit of taking supplementary food from ICDS by fitting a logistic regression, with consideration of a number of independent socio-economic variables. The study reveals that social category, years of schooling of the mother, mother engagement, decision making power of the mother, locality of the household as well as asset holding of the household have significant influence on children participation in ICDS programme.

  77. Vladimir M. Zemskov, Konstantin N. Pronko, Maria N. Kozlova, Alexander А. Barsukov, Nadezhda S. Shishkina, Andrey А. Alekseyev and Valentina S. Demidova

    An overview of stem cells, their populations, properties, functions and various antigen markers used in stem cell differentiation. A demonstrated analysis of circulating hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in humans, specifically in burn patients along with data showing significant rise in absolute and relative quantities of HSCs in burn patients as compared to healthy individuals, an event triggered presumably by the tissue hemopoietic regeneration needs.

  78. Dr. Saravanamutthu Jeyarajah

    The present study aims to determine the food security status of marine fisheries households in Batticaloa district of Sri Lanka and to analyse the impact of socioeconomic and demographic variables on the food security status of households in the district. This study was entirely depended on the primary data which was collected from a sampled questionnaire survey. The questionnaire survey was administered in the form of face-to-face interviews. Batticaloa district was selected and the sample was selected from seven fisheries inspectors division in the district. Marine fishing households were randomly selected as sample for the study. Five points Likert scale method was used in the study to calculate the index. The study confirmed that around half of the sampled marine fisheries households were in a moderate level of food security status in the study area. Using the logistic regression model, the study analyzed gender, age, marital status and education of household head, family size, fishing experience, household income and the household population in employment influencing the probability of household food security. The implication of the results highlights that the probability of a food security of the marine fisheries household in Batticaloa district of Sri Lanka depends on various factors such as Gender, Age and Level of Education, Fishing Experience of head of the households, Household Income and the Household Population in Employment. Introducing of alternative livelihood options has been the standard policy to uplift the income and food security conditions of the fishers.

  79. Michael Kimeu Kamwana, Dr. Ariemba Jared, Dr. Jared Ariemba and Anne Christine W Kabui

    Voluntary disclosure can be influenced by several factors thus this study sought to find out the effect of selected board characteristics on voluntary disclosure of manufacturing listed companies in Kenya. The general objective of the study was to examine the effect of selected board characteristics on voluntary disclosure among manufacturing companies listed in Kenya. The study specifically, sought to find out the effect of board size, board independence, board ownership, gender board diversity and audit committee on voluntary disclosure. The study is significant to current and potential investors, government and policy makers and academicians. The study was guided by agency, signaling and stakeholders theory. A census approach was used to select ten companies which are listed in manufacturing sector and have continuously traded in Nairobi Securities Exchange in 2012 to 2016. The researcher used readily available secondary data from 2012 to 2016 for the listed manufacturing firms. In particular, secondary data was extracted from NSE Hand Books available from CMA libraries and audited financial reports. E-views 9 statistical software’s were used to analyse the data collected. Data was analyzed quantitatively by the use of descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and panel regression analysis. Results of the study positive and significant relationship between board size, independent directors, audit committee, gender diversity and board ownership on voluntary disclosure. It was recommended that every manufacturing listed should optimize its board size, independent directorship, audit committees, gender diversity and board ownership as such to enhance voluntary disclosure.

  80. Adedayo, A.G.

    This study examined the perception and involvement of major forest stakeholders in the protection of forest reserves in Ondo state, Nigeria. The forest estate in the country has continued to diminish very fast through deforestation and over exploitation of forest resources. There is however the need to stop this ugly trend through proper protection of the forest by involving other forest stakeholders in forest protection. To achieve this objective four forest reserves were randomly selected Three communities close to each forest reserve were randomly selected to make a total of 12 communities. 20 household heads were randomly selected in each of the selected communities to make a total of 240 respondents. 20 forestry personnel working in each of the selected forest reserves were randomly selected. In addition seven timber contractors in each of the selected forest reserve were purposively selected. The results of the study showed that 52.3% and 71.3% of local community dwellers and timber contractors respectively perceived that the forests are not well protected. 63.5% of the forestry personnel perceived that the forest is partially protected. The results further showed that forestry personnel are involved in the protection of the forest by being involved in forestry extension, monitoring of timber contractors and through constant patrol of the forest reserves. Chi-square test (p>0.05) shows that economic status of forest community dwellers and timber contractors do not have any significant association with their involvement in the protection of the forest in the study area. The State forestry Department will do well by organizing training programmes for forest guards and workshops for forest community dwellers and timber contractors in order to improve their involvement in forest protection in the study area.

  81. Rohim, Ardiyanto, Sasongko and Zarah Puspitaningtyas

    Optimal employee performance is influenced by several aspects that exist within the organization, such as organizational restructuring and leadership. This study aims to determine the effect of organizational restructuring and leadership on the performance of employees in Mayangan Sub-District, Probolinggo, Indonesia. This research type is the explanatory quantitative. Population amounted to 98 people, sampling technique using random sampling technique so that the respondent obtained amounted to 79 people used as respondents. Data collection techniques used observations, questionnaires and literature studies. Data analysis technique used is multiple linear regression analysis. The results show that partially organizational restructuring and leadership have positive and significant effect to employee performance. In addition, organizational restructuring and leadership simultaneously affect the performance of employees.

  82. Mrityunjay Kumar and Shachee Mishra

    Agile software design and development methodologies have been gaining heavy-handed attention in the field of the software engineering in the research community and additional to being highly adopted by the software development industry. Basically, Innovative industry needs an agile concept to rapidly respond and changing conditions until encourages customer satisfaction by early incremental delivery of software. A great number of notable methods have been proposed and various surveys have been presented by many researchers. People and interactions are emphasized rather than process and tools. Customers, developers and testers constantly interact with each other.

  83. Dr. Seema Mallik

    The 21st century with its waves of globalization and liberalization, is also witnessing growing tensions-political, social, economic and cultural, in several parts of the world. Ethnicity and nationalism, interethnic conflicts, and secessionist movements have been major forces shaping the modern world and the structure and stability of contemporary states. Today, this is evident from a wide variety of multiethnic situations around the world, particularly in South Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Russia. Most states, marked by high level of diversities and differences based on race, religion, culture are facing the growing threats of ethnicity. States try to resolve this crisis as per their own socio-economic and political setup. Therefore it becomes all the more important to understand the term ethnicity, and the reasons for growing ethnic violence and movements of self-assertion. This paper is an attempt to highlight on these growing concerns of ethnic identity and violence with special reference to India.

  84. Zahra Moradgholi and Dr. Srivastav, O. P.

    One of the human attributes is the production of the images, in fact, they are the earliest human art evidence, The types of animal and human specimens expressing thoughts, beliefs and knowledge of human life in ancient times, Among which, women's bodies were worshiped as a symbol of blessings and goddesses, and in every civilization a woman has a special place of social value. In the history of Iran, we have also witnessed the brilliance of women in different parts of the country, so many women's specimen in many civilizations have been discovered in ancient Iran. One of these civilizations is the ancient hill of Shahr-i sokhta inSistan (Iran), with the age of 2500 years, in which a large number of figures and goddesses were gained during its exploration and showed the high status of women in different editions of Iranian history. Therefore, in the present research, we study the social status of women in ancient history in order to express the value and importance of the role of women in the society of that time and To prove this, we examined samples of women's bodies in the Shahr-i sokhta (Iran), comparing it with comparable examples of women's sample in northern India (Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa civilizations) to express the connection between civilizations of Iran with other civilizations. The main goal is to express the high value of women in the community throughout history in order to maintain its place in the new era.

  85. Dr. Sharmista

    Education, normally one of the largest employers in any country, is one of the industries which has not undergone a technological revolution. We must help to move it out of the handicraft stage. With the terrible and growing shortage of qualified teachers all over the developing world, we must find ways to make good teachers more productive. This will involve investment in textbooks, in audio-visual materials and above all the use of modern communication techniques (radio, television and film) for teaching purposes.” This is remarked by Robert F. Me Namara, former President of the World Bank addressing the Board of Governors in 1968.What is the nature and scope of this Technological revolution” to be brought about in the industry of education as visualised by the world famous economist? Why has he emphasized the use of modern communication techniques for teaching purposes? In what way will this contribute to community education or solve the problems of the community? These are the questions that have to be pondered upon. The importance of educational broadcasting cannot be overemphasized for accelerating the pace of national development in general and bringing about qualitative as well as quantitative improvement of education in particular. This is more significant in developing countries like India where the socio-economic condition is yet to reach a take-off stage and universalization of elementary education is still to be realized as per the Constitutional Directive. Therefore, there has been an imperative need for furthering national development in all facets of life and for providing increased access to education, both through formal and non-formal systems and reducing the massive wastage and stagnation at all stages of education. Educational broadcasting is required to be a potential instrument of educational advancement and an integral component of educational inputs in traditional as w^ell as distance or other alternative learning systems for different categories of learners

  86. Mr. Ngunyu D. Mutinda and Dr. Michael Wahome

    Savings and Credit Co-operative is a financial institution that is owned and controlled by its members and operated for the purposes of promoting thrift, providing credit at low interest rates and providing other financial services to its members. Over the years the SACCOs expanded financially and even started banking like services which were called FOSA in attempt to increase efficiency in services delivery but instead led to illiquidity, capital inadequacy, poor credit management and low confidence among members. The rapid growth and such failures in the SACCO Sub-sector created the need for SACCO Specific legislation hence the enactment of the SACCO Societies Act (2008) to specifically regulate and supervise their operations. The purpose of this study is to establish the effects of Prudential Regulatory Standards on Financial Performance of Deposit taking SACCOs in Kenya. More in detail the study ought to establish the effect of liquidity management regulatory standards; loan provisioning requirements and core capital regulatory standards on Financial Performance of DTS. The relevant literature was reviewed to ascertain the knowledge gap left by earlier scholars. The target population of the study will be all 175 DTS registered and operate in Kenya which will be obtained through random sampling using Comparative research design. Secondary source of data will be used and data analysis will be done using both descriptive and inferential statistics with the aid of SPSS. The study findings indicated that Liquidity ratio as recommended by SASRA had the highest effect on financial performance of DTS in Kenya in Pre PRS era. Liquidity ratio and Loan allowance both had a high effect on financial performance of DTS in Kenya in Post PRS era. Further research should be conducted in the areas relating to risk management framework because DTS like any other financial institution are affected by risk factors and expound on other measures of performance.

  87. Teferi Girma Bekele and Getamesay Bekele Meshesha

    This study provides empirical suggestion listed effect of transaction cost on cereal and pulse crops producer farmer households in Salale (North Shewa Zone), (Ethiopia). The purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence on the transaction cost effects on farmer house hold in the area.To select sample size respondents multistage sampling technique is used. In addition to this, 2 Salale Union worker, 15 government employee and 15 merchant respondents were included on focus group discussion. To make the result more fruitful mixed research method was employed. To describe the data some descriptive statistic and probabilistic regression were used as econometric part. The result of the probabilistic model shows that transaction cost negatively affected the profitability of the farmer. Transaction cost happened because of malmarketing of agricultural products merchants on the small house hold farmers. Farmers use agricultural inputs from market cooperatives and buy their crops to the cooperatives have less transaction cost, highly productive and more profitable. Minimizing transaction cost and increasing road access to farmer by concerned local government institution and nongovernmental organization is recommended.

  88. Jeremiah Musyoka Muli and Dr. Jared Mogaka Ariemba

    The study examined the effect of working capital management on profitability of small and medium sized hardware stores in Mavoko Municipality, Machakos County. Working capital management components used were:-inventory management; payables management; receivables management and cash management which were measured using inventory conversion period; average payment period; average collection period and Cash Conversion Cycle respectively. Profitability was measured using return on assets. Data collected for measuring both dependent and independent variable included total assets, net profit, net sales, accounts receivables, cost of sales, accounts payables and inventory outstanding for each store. Analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. The analysis found that working capital management had significant impact on profitability since all independent variables had significant relationship with profitability except receivable management. A conclusion was made that working capital management affects profitability of small and medium sized hardware stores in Mavoko Municipality.

  89. Dr. Hariprakash, G.

    In the field of research, the study about fuzziness in the classes of regular semigroups becomes very important in the recent days. The fast and intensive development of the subject fuzzy relations has been continued from the twentieth century. In logical algebra using fuzzy tools many definitions related to fuzzy algebraic structure are established recently. In the paper “On Green’s Fuzzy Orthodox semigroup” (G Hariprakash, 2016) and “On Green’s fuzzy generalized inverse semigroup” G Hariprakash, 2017) characterizes orthodox semigroups and generalized inverse semigroups using fuzzy property. This work is a follow up of these studies. Mainly the work concentrated on classes of Green’s Fuzzy Orthodox semigroups and classes of Green’s Fuzzy Generalized inverse semigroups. In particular the study is about the quotient classes of Green’s Fuzzy Orthodox semigroups and quotient classes of Green’s Fuzzy Generalized inverse sEmigroups. The text includes two lammas in Green’s Fuzzy Generalized inverse semigroup and two lemmas in Green’s Fuzzy Orthodox semigroup. The conclusion of the work is to find out a necessary and sufficient condition for quotient classes of Green’s Fuzzy Regular semigroup to be a Green’s Fuzzy Orthodox semigroup. This work endeavors the opening of a new area of study Green’s Fuzzy Idempotent Separating, Krenal of Green’s Fuzzy relations and other related notions.

  90. Dr. Saloni Dalal, Dr. Omkar Shetty, Dr. Gaurang Mistry and Dr. Shahen Sidhwa

    Dental implants have become a mainstay for restoring teeth that have been lost over the last few decades. Eventhough suc¬cess rates in implant dentistry are well above 90 percent, complications do occur. Most complications are preventable with proper diagnosis, treatment planning and execu¬tion. Other complications are inherent to the risks of surgery and may require intervention. The purpose of this paper is to classify the possible complications that may occur and to discuss their prevention and management.

  91. Mokhtar Karami, Majid Ebrahimi and Javad Dawoudian

    This was across - sectional study that was conductedin 2014. The purpose of this study was to characterize the quality and quantityof recyclable waste in Mashhadcityin terms of the economic value and environmental impact. On the other hand, the energy from burning them and the resulting benefits were studied. The results show an average of 1,656 tons of waste is produced in the city of Mashhad; the per capita waste production per person is 630 grams per day. Based onthe physical analysis of waste in Mashhad, during 1389, 1390, and 1391, there were 630,650, 700 put rescible materials, 209, 208, 230 Paper, 198, 212, 230 Metal, 235, 223, 240, plastics, 160, 190, 187glass, and 98, 110, 99P at respectively. If we dofull recycling of solid waste per dayin 2278 to 91 million Rialsprofit, it only resultsinan economic benefit of recycling that shows in the great city of Mashhad. The amount of energy derived from burning materials will reach to 21224050GJ in 1391.

  92. Deeksha Naik, Kasturiba, B. and Usha Malagi

    Nomads are the a group of communities who travel from place to place for their livelihood. They do not have a fix settlement. Socio-demographic profile of the nomadic tribes who migrated from different states to Karnataka. Sample size of 30 families from 6 districts of North Karnataka have been taken. General information regarding socio-demographic was collected by pretested structured questionnaire. Majority of them were migrants from Rajasthan. Excreta disposal was open. They resided in tents. Overall socio-demographic characteristics of these tribes were found to be very poor.

  93. Musa Ndaloh Agumba

    This study examined the use of interactive pedagogical approaches on learner academic engagement in social studies in Kenya’s primary schools. The study was conducted against the background of declining educational standards partly emanating from pedagogy. Pedagogy is an integral component of curriculum implementation in the education sector. Yet, the literature reviewed revealed that very little research has been undertaken in the area on use of interactive pedagogical approaches in learner academic engagement, especially in social studies. Of the previous studies in social studies, non, the researcher came across, specifically examined the topic. The study followed the qualitative approach and took the relativist interepretivist philosophical paradigm. Its objective were: establish whether teachers cater for interaction in planning for instruction, determine the contribution of interactive pedagogical approaches to learner academic engagement and lastly establish whether the learning environment is conducive for interactive pedagogical approaches in social studies. Data was collected through observation, interviews, focus group interviews and document analysis. The data was analysed qualitatively whereby it was coded and interpreted along themes based on the objectives and findings of the study. The findings generally show that use of pedagogical approaches by teachers has an influence in learner academic engagement in social studies. In view of the findings thereof, suggestions have been made towards the use of interactive pedagogical approaches on learner academic engagement in social studies to various stakeholders. For teachers, it was recommended that they apply interactive pedagogical approaches during the instructional process, they pay attention to differentiation in social studies lessons and explicitly incorporate interaction in the planning process. To the teacher education institutions, they pay more attention during the training programme to use of interactive pedagogical approaches in various stages of the lesson planning and implementation, and that they educate the student teachers on how to cater for differentiation and inclusion in classroom settings. To policy makers in education, they should increase time allocated for social studies instruction, scale down the social studies curriculum and introduce in-service programmes to teachers on use of pedagogical approaches in the subject.

  94. Nithya Priya, S., Jothi Vani, B., Anushya Menon, K. C. and Kousalya, P.

    Ready-to-serve beverage of grapes are a product with severe shelf life problems. Alcoholic fermentation, Quality loss, color changes and mould contamination are greatly influenced the quality of grape beverage. Limiting or preventing the growth of undesirable microbial flora in grape juice for the inhibition of alcoholic fermentation is one of the main goal of preservation. The present work was to investigate the effects of preservatives such as sodium benzoate, potassium meta bisulphite and combination of both (potassium meta bisulphite + sodium benzoate) in grape juice preservation. Initially various pulp concentration (8%, 10%, 12%, 14%,16%) of grape juice was taken and preserved with sodium benzoate of 140mg/l. Then sugar content was optimized to 15ºBrix and preservatives of sodium benzoate (140mg/L), potassium metabisulphite (120mg/L) and combination of both 60mg/L + 60mg/L) were used for preservation and storage studies were conducted. The Organoleptic studies of preserved grape juice such as alcohol estimation indicates that sodium benzoate alone and combination of sodium benzoate and potassium meta bisulphte showed significant preservation effect in grape juice. This study nuances the application of the above mentioned.

  95. Nyongesa, L. K.

    Group testing involves more than one unit with simple-test for cost effectiveness. The study constructs a maximum likelihood estimator of a rare disease in plants based on group testing framework. The properties of the estimator, bias, MSE, and asymptotic variance are also discussed. The procedure is viable if the group size is relatively small but as the group size increases the estimator is relatively poor.

  96. Dr. MadhanaRekha, B.

    Chennai floods 2015 show the vulnerabilities that arise from the neglect of urban planning. The sights have taken residents of the city to devastating times when boats plied on the roads. It may have evoked memories of the river’s channels-and other water bodies. Ironically, Chennai has lost most – if not all of the water bodies of old. Media reports quoting the National Institute of Disaster management pointed out that Chennai had about 650 water bodies, including lakes, ponds and storage tanks till about two decades ago; today it has less than 30. In the recent floods, the city paid a heavy price for the loss. Mudichur in Chennai and the surrounding areas of Kanchipuram district of Tamil Nadu was badly hit during Chennai Floods, 2015. Many areas like GST Road, CTO colony were badly affected It was mainly due to uncontrolled developments of concrete spaces, shrinking of marshland, improper housing, subsequent embankment breaches and water overflowing from the Chembarambakkam lake which flooded Mudichur main road. The present research study was undertaken to find out the policies which were formulated and implemented by the State Disaster Management during Chennai Floods, 2015 and its impact.

  97. Padmini, T. and Dr. Satyanarayana, L.

    A simple, precise, rapid and accurate reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the estimation of alvimopan in bulk and capsule dosage form. A column of Altima 150mm x 4.6 mm, 5µ was used. The mobile phase comprises of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio of 60:40 (v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the effluents were monitored at 260 nm. The retention time was found to be 4.001. The detection concentration was linear over 30-180ppm.Regression equation of alvimopan was found to be y = 6065.6x + 795.43with regression co-efficient 0.999. The developed method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines. Hence, this method can be conveniently adopted for the routine analysis in quality control laboratories.

  98. Noreen Quddus and Seemab Abid

    Parental conflict distracts the task of parenting. Tribal family system involves with biological parents in parenting. The study is conducted in Quetta, Balochistan in order to find out the behavior of parents, the role of family and the behavior of female child influenced by parental conflict. Total hundred girls from twelve to eighteen years old are taken to find the response or data from two towns. The data reveals that traditional system of paternal in-laws involved in the mother’s role of familial taskscauses parental conflict. Female child is ignored as well as scolded by their parents therefore feels sadness and develops ignoring attitude towards her parents that leads to less parent child attachment.

  99. Dr. N. Jaya Prakash and Dr. G. Ramesh Babu

    Standardization is the process of developing and agreeing upon technical standards. A standard is a document that establishes uniform engineering or technical specification, criteria, methods, processes or practices. Many drugs are described in Ayurvedic classical texts for the treatment of various disorders. Kapha Ketu Rasis one such Kharaliya Rasayana mentioned in Rasa Yoga Sagara indicated in Pinasa1. Shankha (conch shell), Tankana (Borax), Vatsanabha (Aconitum Ferox), and Pippali (Piper longum) are the main ingridients. Shodhana (Purification) Bhavana (Soaking with liquid and triturating till drying) and Mardana (Trituration), Churna nirmana (Preparation of powder) are the important steps involved in the preparation of Kapha KetuRas. Shodhana of Shankha, Tankana and Vatsanabha was carried out by classical method to remove the impurities. Churna of all the above ingredients were prepared by subjecting it to grinding in Khalwa yantra and filtered through cloth. All ingredients are mixed properly to make homogenous mixture; later on it was triturated with Ardraka Swarasa to obtain 125 mg tablet in tablet compression machine. The present study has been planned to standardize the method of preparation of an important Herbo-mineral formulation i.e. Kapha Ketu Ras.

  100. Erick López Vázquez, Francisco Prieto García, Martha Gayosso Canales, Elena María Otazo Sánchez José Roberto Villagómez Ibarra

    The present work describes the chemical and nutraceutical study of Ramaria flava, a wild and edible mushroom collected inHidalgo state, Mexico. Reductive power, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds content, ß-glucans, phenolic acids (cinnamic, gallic and chlorogenic) in microwave-assisted methanol-water extracts as well as in acidic and alkaline extracts are described. Isolation and identification of sterol as a secondary metabolite of R. flavais reported, not previously described for this species in Mexico. The Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Pb concentrations were determinedin extracts as well as the soils of the study area in which the mushroom was collected.The highestvalueswere found for Cu and Fe, in agreement with the literature reporting levels of these metals in the region.An inverse relationship was foundbetween the antioxidant power of the mushroom extracts with the Fe, Cu, Mn and K concentration. The R. flava metabolite extraction and chromatographic separation were notreported before on this species in Mexicoand showed up the presence of ergosterol, demonstrated by spectroscopic characterized.

  101. Ibemenuga K. N., Uche N. A., Nwosu M. C. and Arazu V. N.

    This study investigated the fish fauna and species abundance of Oguta Lake in Imo state, Nigeria. Three sampling stations were selected based on factors such as depth, volume of water, accessibility and the various activities taking place in and around the lake. Fish samples were collected from three sampling stations for seven months. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in the piscifaunal overall density in the three stations. Six families composed of eleven species were recorded. Cichlidae (52.1%), the most abundant family dominated the samples in the three stations. Cyprinidae (0.5%) was the least family encountered in the study. Tilapia zilli, the most abundant species occurred highest in station 3 (13.8%). The highest general diversity (0.885) occurred in station 3 while the least value (0.859) was obtained in station 1. Six fish families collected in this study compared to previous report of Nwadiaro (1989); and the low species abundance reveals that Oguta Lake is experiencing loss of biodiversity in terms of its fishery resources due to anthropogenic activities which affect the composition and structure of fish resident in lakes.

  102. Razika Djouani Xu Qian

    Nickel deposition has been widely studied and much work has been devoted to the mechanism of the deposition process.In the present paper, we review studies of the electrode position of nickel and nickel based alloys in aqueous solution over the last two decades, which have built on the extensive pioneering work of DiBari, Evans, Bockris, Matulis, Heusler, Weil, and Ives and many others. The aim is to highlight new, and interesting, developments in nickel electrode position.

  103. Mohamed Sihabudeen, M. and Arulnangai, R.

    Ariyalur is an administrative in the state of Tamil Nadu. Many industries like cement and mining industries are located in and around this area. A total ground water samples were collected in and around Udayarpalayam Taluk in Ariyalur district. The samples were analysed in order to find out pollution impact. The Physico-Chemical parameters analyses pH, EC, TDS, TH, Ca, Mg, Cl, CO3, HCO3, DO, COD and BOD were determined and the results were compared with the World Health Organisation (WHO 2011) standard values. It was found that the some of the ground water quality parameters were above the limit.

  104. Dr. Kshetrimayum Rojeet Singh

    To assess the level of mental toughness and to compare the factors of mental toughness among the athletes of different sports like, water polo, swimming and diving. Methodology: For the purpose of the study 33 swimmers (both and male and female), 31 water polo players (male) and 22 divers (both male and female) from All India Inter-University held at Amritsar, Punjab, 2013 were selected. The age of the athletes were ranging from 17 to 25 year of age. For the assessment of the data on mental toughness of the selected athletes the questionnaire “Mental Toughness Questionnaire” developed by Dr. Alan Goldberg was used to assess the mental toughness level of the athletes. Descriptive statistics was used to find out the mental toughness level of the selected athletes and to examine the significance differences among the athletes of different sports on mental toughness One Way ANOVA was used and the hypothesis was tested at .05 levels of significance. Results: The mean and standard deviation of the factors of mental toughness for shooters and archers are Rebound Ability (4.52 ± .85), (3.88 ± .93) and (3.77 ± 1.45), Handle Pressure (4.65 ± 1.05), (4.18 ± 1.24) and (4.45 ± .80), Concentration Ability (4.13 ± 1.06), (3.91 ± 1.23) and (4.77 ± .61), Level of Confidence (4.13 ± 1.45), (4.45 ± 1.12) and (4.45 ± 1.53) Motivation (4.32 ± .94), (4.12 ± 1.17) and (4.27 ± 1.32) and Total Mental Toughness Scores (21.74 ± 3.32), (20.55 ± 3.82) and (21.73 ± 3.63) respectively. To compare the mental toughness of the selected sports athletes, the one way analysis of variance was applied. The ANOVA result shows that the p-value of the factors of the sports motivation of the selected athletes is less than 0.05 and hence the F - value is significant at 5 % level. In order to determine which groups differs significantly, the post hoc mean comparison was obtained by applying LSD Test. The Post hoc Comparison of Means results shows that there exists a significant difference in the different factors in between Water Polo and Swimming (p = .018), Water Polo and Diving (p = .014) on Rebound Ability and Water Polo and Diving (p = .029), Swimming and Diving (p = .003) on Concentration Ability as their obtained p–values were less than 0.05 (p ˂ .05). This implies that in spite of similarities in nature of events there exist differences, or there are special requirements for participation in these sports. The existence of similarities in between these groups is prevalent in Swimming and Diving (p = .717) on Rebound Ability, Water Polo and Swimming (p = .088), Water Polo and Diving (p = .525) and Swimming and Diving (p = .358) on Handle Pressure, Water Polo and Swimming (p = .401) on Concentration Ability, Water Polo and Swimming (p = .341), Water Polo and Diving (p = .392) and Swimming and Diving (p = 1.00) on Level of Confidence, Water Polo and Swimming (p = .480), Water Polo and Diving (p = .875) and Swimming and Diving (p = .629) on Motivation, and Water Polo and Swimming (p = .187), Water Polo and Diving (p = .988) and Swimming and Diving (p = .236) on Total Mental Toughness Scores as their obtained p-values were greater than .05 (p ˃ .05). Conclusion: The present study shows that the significant differences in between athletes of Water Polo and Swimming, Water Polo and Diving. The Additional research is needed to find out the real reason of similarities and difference exists in the present study. The efficacy of proposed methods of enhancing mental toughness such as environmental manipulations, and mental skills training approaches need to be evaluated if the gap between theoretical research and practice is to be bridged.

  105. Leif Kullman

    Elevational treeline change for different subalpine species over the past 100 years was assessed in the Kebnekaise-area of northern Swedish Lapland. The concerned species were mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), aspen (Populus tremula) and bird cherry (Prunus padus). The methodology relied on older published field measurements, checked for reliability by tree ring analyses, and compared with present-day assessments of uppermost tree growth at the same locations. All species showed various degrees of up shifts. Betula and Sorbus displayed maximum advances by 200 m in elevation, with smaller displacement for other tree species. A common pattern for all the concerned species was that treeline advance was achieved by phenotypic responses (rapid height growth) of old-established individuals, which had prevailed as krummholz prior to the temperature rise in the 1920s and 1930s. Age structure analyses evidenced a striking correspondence between summer temperature and the initiation of birch stems, which have gradually attained tree stature up to the present day. As a consequence, substantial densification of the upper birch forest took place, although without perceivable advance of the forest-limit. Overall, the results comply in detail with the outcome of analogous studies of the same and other species, further south in the Swedish Scandes. This inter-regional conformity contrasts with earlier claims of differential response between north and south, and support the contention that the ultimate reason is secular climate warming, common for the entire Swedish Scandes. There is little reason (as sometimes claimed) to invoke strictly local factors, e. g. reindeer grazing as superior driver of mountain birch population dynamics at the treeline. The finding that a subalpine clonal population of Populus tremula has existed for more than 6500 year, casts some doubt on recent claims that this species has recently expanded its elevational range in these mountains.

  106. Rajapakse, R. M. G., Senarathna, K.G.C., Wijesinghe, W.P.S.L., Gamagedara, T.P., and Dunuweera, S.P

    Chassis and other body parts of sports cars must be rigid, strong but made of light-weight materials. Chassis in modern sports cars are designed with Computer Aided Design (CAD) Technology which aids in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design to obtain highly specialized curvatures capable of running stress simulations. Frameworks of the modern sports cars utilize monocoque structural skin which is a structural system in which loads are supported by the external skin. Use of stainless steel in constructing car frameworks makes the vehicle heavier and hence search for light-weight but strong and corrosion- resistant materials are desirable for constructing frameworks or chassis of sports cars. Use of aluminium alloys in place of stainless began to reduce weight and magnesium alloys were found to be even better in terms of weight reduction. One such material is the new steel made of Fe-Al-Ni which is much cheaper than other light-weight materials such as titanium alloys used in constructing airplane bodies and comparable in price to conventional steel. As opposed to metal alloys, other viable alternatives are carbon fibers and polymer-mineral nanocomposites. Then came the carbon fiber era where very strong carbon fibers are used in many parts of automobiles. Inorganic particle-polymer composites present the latest developments where nanoparticles of inorganic materials. In this review, we discuss clay-polymer nanocomposites which we developed using montmorillonite clay and poly (vinyl alcohol) polymer. These novels, low-cost and light-weight yet very strong materials can replace stainless steel in constructing body parts of sports cars.

  107. Maheshbabu, N. and Basawaraj Bappan

    The present study aimed at assessing the level of mental alertness and self-esteem among underprivileged Students. The sample consisted of 100 underprivileged students selected purposively from secondary schools of Kalaburgi and Bidar districts of Hyderabad Karnataka. A set of questionnaires of mental alertness and self-esteem was used. The data analyzed using paired t-test. The result revealed that there was a significant difference in mental alertness and self-esteem i.e. before and after intervention. The interpretation and summary pertaining to the study were discussed.

  108. Ronak N. Modi

    The study focused on the town where the traffic congestion occur due to the railway crossing and other alternative to minimised problem. Chhapi is a main town surrounding area so the approach road which connect the SH 41 is only the way where railway crossing is there. So, the many people have problem occur due to crossing likewise traffic congestion, pollution, delay, fuel consumption etc. For this research will carry out the survey likewise Delay survey, traffic volume count, accident survey so that will be done for mitigate present scenario of the condition and to find other alternative to suggestion. In the town all types of vehicles likewise two-wheelers, three-wheelers, four-wheelers, loaded- unloaded vehicle, trucks, buses etc. are travelled in the day or night time so congestion of the traffic. People are used public and private vehicle also to connect with different areas of the town also the state highway. Chhapi is the main business district centre of around all town so the all localities are coming to town for some work and the chhapi is connected only state highway 41 so the around area no connectivity of them and only connectivity and in that one big problem of railway crossing in the 24 hours railway crossing more than 50 times closed so that big problem of traffic congestion, delays, fuel consumption and also the bad pavement condition so that will be direct effect to the vehicle maintenance and operation cost.

  109. Dr. Nilanjana Bairagi Paramita Sarkar

    The tribal communities are known for its conformity in dressing. In absence of authentic documentation on the textile and costume of each tribe of Tripura, not much has been written on this subject. An ethnographic research is done on to study the traditional and contemporary textiles and costume of the tribal women of Tripura. The tribal women weave their traditional textiles on a loin loom and drape their costume in similar ways. There are about nineteen different tribes living in Tripura. The Tripuri and Reang is the most primitive tribe of Tripura and has the largest tribal population in the state (Govt. of Tripura, 2007). The uniqueness of the tribal community is expressed in the hand-woven textiles, woven on backstrap or loin looms. The costumes of different tribes may look similar to an outsider, but each tribe has their own unique motifs, stripes and colour combination, important for social interaction within the tribal community in which one tries to maintain standards set by the group. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations and photo-ethnography. The research paper focuses on a comparative study of the costume of the Tripuri and Reang Tribe of Tripura, in terms of yarns, looms, weaving, colour combination, motif and the choices of traditional and contemporary clothes of both the tribes are also discussed.

  110. Mr. Robin Chettri

    Climate change is a serious environmental concern not only at global level but regional and local level too. It is primarily caused by the increasing up of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere due to increase negative human interference to the environment which cause impact on the changes in temperature, precipitation, increase the rate of melting glaciers, increase in sea level is an emerging issue. Water is an essential resource to maintain ecological balance, sustain livelihood and economy. It serves as the fundamental link between the climate system, human society and the environment. Depleting prime recourses, frequently drying up natural spring, lakes and ponds are the serious concern of local communities. Climate change has substantial impact on both water resources demand and availability. Adaptation is an adjustment in human and natural systems in response to actual or expected climate stimuli or their impacts that moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities (IPCC 2007). Sustainable Adaptation techniques are the only weapons to cope up potential impact of dynamic behavioural challenges caused by the climatic elements.

  111. Azad, M. A. K.

    Dairying in Bangladesh is generally characterized by small scale, widely dispersed and unorganized milk animal holders, low productivity, lack of assured year-round remunerative producer price for raw milk, inadequate basic infrastructure for provision of production inputs, services and above all lack of professional management practices. Milk Vita – the largest pioneering dairy cooperative venture in Bangladesh deals with 300,000 lt./day liquid milk production, collection, processing and marketing with a diversified set of dairy products nation widely & relentlessly proving the myth of successful rural prosperity as a model of least developed countries. In Bangladesh year round (January – December) rate of milk production took place as 9.97%, 10.01%, 9.20%, 8.59%, 8,17%, 8.37%, 7,27%, 6.50%, 6.46%, 6,86%, 8.73% and 9.88% respectively (Azad, 2001). Nowadays, Tropical Asia stands as the largest milk producing region of the whole world & its efficiency as an integrated smallholder production system provides financial, health and social benefits to millions of rural dwellers (Falvey and Chantalakhana’2001). Dairying may therefore serve as a powerful instrument for the rural prosperity in the least developed countries. Devising a viable dairy development strategy for the rural smallholder calls for detailed analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats posed by the external environment (Hemme and Otte, 2010). In Bangladesh milk vita has successfully developed a cooperative milk production model like AMUL, India beyond existing traditional or informal systems as well as combating all sorts of identified challenges. Milk Vita covers annual growth rate about 17% in raw liquid milk production for the whole nutrition thrust folk in hectic mode augmenting smart synchronization of year round milk production (6.07 MMT), requirement (14.48 MMT) & deficit (7.51 MMT) (4 DLS: 2015) in Bangladesh. Estimation suggests that in Bangladesh milk production increases 5.98% per year where demand increase about 10% due to increase of purchasing capacity and food habit change of consumers. Therefore, the potential plenty requirements for dairy entrepreneurship development / business opportunities in Bangladesh awaits and it may be synchronized by the establishment of small scale dairy enterprises and processing plants through Milk Vita a lot providing appropriate national & international dairy policy and institutional support services forwarding rural prosperity, In this paper the picture of successful dairying in Bangladesh as a least developed country through Milk Vita has been displayed accordingly.

  112. Suresh Babu, T V., Saritha and Manjula Shantaram

    Introduction: Thalassemia is one of the heterogenic groups of inherited anemia which occurs mainly dueto mutation in the gene related to the synthesis of hemoglobin beta- chains. Objectives: The aim of our study was to evaluateserumlipid profile andferritin levels in β- thalassemia trait (BTT) and compare them with that ofage and sex matched controls. Methodology: Totally 120 young adults were selected for the study, in which 60 wereBTT and other 60 were healthy controls. Serum lipid profile was analyzed using ERBA kit and serum ferritin was estimated withMeril Diagnostic kit. Results: Total cholesterol and LDL values were lower in BTT when compared to controls and TG and HDL values were higherin BTT with that of controls.Serum ferritin values were found to be higher in BTT than that ofcontrols. Conclusion: The presentstudy revealed that there were significant changes in serum lipid profile and ferritin levels in BTT when compared to controlswhich should be a cause for anxiety of better assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in the patients.

  113. Jadhav, B. P., Patil M. B., Patil S. Y., Halakude, I. S. and Rajput, J. C.

    Development of hybrids in bitter gourd is expensive because of hand-pollination but utilization of gynoecy is economical and easier for exploiting hybrid vigour. The study aim to develop gynoecious line of Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) by isolating, selfing and evaluating selfed progenies from original population and to maintain the line by chemicals like Silver Nitrate (AgNO3), Gibberellic Acid (GA) and Silver Thiosulphate (Ag(S2O2)2) to induce male (Staminated) flower for selfing. Chemicals mainly silver nitrate (AgNO3) performs well as compared to GA and Silver Thiosulphate (Ag(S2O2)2) for induction of male flowers in gynoecious line. Open pollinated population only express gynoecious sex type. Gynoecious line development through progeny row method takes four consecutive selfing generations (S4) for obtaining complete gynoecious lines. The lines isolated from naturally occurring plants among that, Nirmal Gy-1 and Gy-14 are with medium long fruit type and Nirmal Gy-15 and Gy-34 are with long fruit type. The highest sex ratio M/F = 0.05/100 observed from chemical Silver Nitrate with 300 ppm applied twice at two leaf stage and 7 days later from first spray, which confirms highest possibility of flower synchronization. These lines were maintained by using Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) and Gibbrelic acid (GA).

  114. Nandanwar, L.M., Dr. Das Sarit Prava Dr. Nandanwar, M.V.

    Framing Human Resource policies based on the career stage of an employee is one of the challenges for the policy makers. This study intends to understand the career stage of an employee along with understanding impact of career stage of an employee with respect to the sectors in which they are working.Do employees aspire differently depending on the sectors they are working? For this propose two mutually exclusive and different sectors were selected to carry out the study. The study shows the perceived career stage of an employee differs significantly in Mid carrier stage which is the most productive age of an employee across two different sectors.

  115. Chandrashekar, Siddaraju B.P. and Shivakumara, K. C.

    The kinetics of oxidation of Niacin by sodium-N-chlorobenzenesulphonamide (CAB) has been studied in HCl medium with Ru (III) as catalyst at 303 K. The reaction rate shows first order dependence on both [substrate] and [oxidant], fractional order dependence on [Ru (III)] and inverse fractional order on both [HCl] and [BSA]. Addition of halide ions, variation of ionic strength and dielectric constant of the medium do not have any significant effect on the rate of reaction. The activation parameters of the reaction have been computed from the Arrhenius plot. A derived rate law and mechanisms consistent with obtained experimental results.

  116. Feleke Eriso and Girma Deneke

    Background: Fasciola hepatica is a parasite of herbivorous animals (sheep, goat, and cattle), living in the biliary passages of the liver and it also infects humans. Fasciola gigantica is the largest of human liver and lung flukes. Both of these parasitic flat worms cause the disease termed fasciolosis or fascioliasis in herbivorous animals as well as in humans. The prevalence of Fasciola gigantica does overlap with that of Fasciola hepatica. The key objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence rate of bovine fasciolosis and dealing with the consequences & the associated issues of interest. Method: Information from the sample animals was collected by observation and palpation during antemortem examination of each slaughtered animal. Date that the cattle entered the Debre Birhan municipal abattoir, age, sex, breed, and body condition of each individual cattle was recorded. Postmortem examination of liver and associated bile ducts were carefully accomplished by visualization and palpation of the entire organ followed by transverse opening of the organ across thin sections. The livers of 400 randomly selected cattle were examined. Result: Out of 400 cattle examined 261 (65.25%) cattle were confirmed positive for Fasciola species. Conclusion: Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were the causative agents of bovine fasciolosis in and around Debre Birhan. Poor nutrition & resistance of the livestock, types of nonproductive breed and seasonal occurrence of these infectious parasites together with nonproductive husbandry practices worsen the effects of fasciolosis. Assessment of human fasciolosis must be executed in & around Debre Birhan.

  117. Yashika Mahajan, Mrunalini Pachpande, Ruchita Sonje, Swati Yelapure and Manisha Navale

    In this work we present the prototype and proof of concept of automated water distribution system in irrigation. The system is capable of displaying greenhouse and irrigation scheduling parameters. Irrigation can wirelessly be automated by the sensor node by activating irrigation based on sensor values and predefined irrigation parameters. Our Irrigation system try to make the use of water efficiently. Use of IoT will help us to automate the system and Machine Learning will help system to decide amount of water needed depending upon various factors.

  118. Alekha Kumar Jena

    Situated on the south-eastern coast of Indian subcontinent the district of Kendrapara occupies a prominent place in the history of folk dances of India. It is the cradle of many folk-dances of Odisha. Folk dances were generally patronised by the rulers, Zamindars as well as by the affluent sections of the society. Even today most of the villages in the district have Akhada Ghars which maintain the musical instruments and equipments and serve as the place of rehearsal organised by the locally recruited Gurus (teachers).

  119. Vaidehi V. Chandorkar, Namrata G. Shukla and Ashok V. Gomashe

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when consumed in sufficient amounts are beneficial for human health. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a type of beneficial bacteria that has been studied extensively, for its beneficial properties. The survival and viability of probiotic bacteria is often low under simulated conditions of gastrointestinal tract which increases the chances of potential pathogens to dominate and cause infection. Among several methods that increase the survival of probiotics, Encapsulation serves the most rational technique. Hence this investigation reports the effect of microencapsulation using sodium alginate and starch on the tolerance or survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus to selected processing conditions and stimulated gastrointestinal environments. Microencapsulation provided better protection at stimulated conditions of gastric pH (1.0 and 2.0) and at high bile salt concentrations (1.0% and 2.0%). The release of the microencapsulated organisms at pH required 3 h. These studies demonstrated that microencapsulation of probiotic L. acidophilus in sodium alginate is an effective technique of protection against extreme processing conditions and under stimulated gastrointestinal environment.

  120. Xueqing Zhang

    Two artificial methods, which affect the ionosphere, including physical and chemical, are studied in this paper. In this paper, we summarize the physical methods and the chemical methods of chemical ionization, such as the influence of different nuclear explosion types on the ionosphere, the ionospheric thermal effect of rocket launching, the influence of high-power radio heating on the ionosphere. World scholars’ researches on the human impact ionosphere research process and progress is systematically summarized too.

  121. Bastiurea Eugen Stan Zenovia

    Objectives: This study aims to determine the correlations between the muscle strengths of the trunk and the balance in handball players. Methods: We tested forty-one female athletes divided in three age groups. Ten subjects were 16 years old, seventeen subjects were 14 years old and fourteen subjects were 12 years old. We measured the weight, muscle strengths of the trunk (frontal and sagittal) and the overall balance. For the twenty-four correlations between these variables by age group, the values of r were between 0% and 0.57%. Conclusions: In the 16-year-olds weight is not a determining factor for maintaining the balance, as the somatosensory, visual and vestibular systems being sufficiently developed. Instead, in the 14-year-olds and in the 12-year-olds, weight is significant for maintaining the balance. These conclusions must be accepted with caution as they only target this group of subjects.

  122. Daimon Kambewa, Charles Masangano, Mayamiko Kakwera and Frank Tchuwa

    This paper synthesizes the data gathered by the IDRC- funded Agri-Food Systems Project; and the McKnight Foundation-funded Scaling Up Project implemented by Bunda College of Agriculture to examine leading ideas underlying efforts to improve productivity of the agro-ecosystems in Malawi. The political ecology framework has been used to locate the actors, their power and interests that underlie resource allocation, extension and research on agricultural productivity. The results have revealed that farmers and all actors agree that agro-ecological systems in Malawi are degraded and productivity is declining. There are two leading ideas informing the strategies to deal with declining agricultural productivity. These are what we call “modernizing smallholder farmers” and “making smallholder farmers go local”. These ideas are two extremes and powerful. They are ‘boxing’ smallholder farmers into either modern technologies such as chemical fertilizer and hybrid seeds or local technologies such as compost manure. By being so powerful the farmers believe that the only solution to declining agricultural productivity is modern or traditional technology. The actors have vested economic and intellectual interests in boxing smallholder farmers. Approaching agricultural productivity this way has created a dilemma, whereby, on the one hand few farmers can afford modern technologies and on the other hand adoption of local technologies is low. Amidst the dilemmas farmers are combining local and modern technologies to improve productivity of their agro-ecosystems. We call this idea a ‘combined technology’. With this third idea farmers look for principles with which they can generate technologies to be used to reverse the decline in agricultural productivity. However, the ‘combined technology’ lacks support and investment from extension and research. It is our critical and professional extension argument that unless extension, research and investment supports the combined technology idea, efforts to build agricultural productivity and make agro-ecosystems work will make less impact.

  123. Abbasov Sakit Hasan and Aliyeva Sevda Yaqub

    It has been determined that when mass forces at plane deformation state aren’t considered strain situation at any one-communication area of initial strain viscous –elastic medium depending on the given boundary conditions and its form doesn’t depend in mechanical properties of the material. Plane strain situation of viscous-elastic medium has been determined when boundary conditions obviously depend on time.

  124. Dr. Bhagabana Sahu Dr. Siba Prasanna Pathy

    Ganjam is the largest district of Odisha. According to the British administrators it was the most beautiful district of Madras Presidency. Being the meeting place of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, with delightful assimilations from the fascinating life style of the tribals, the district serves as the cultural bridge between the Dravidian culture of South and Aryan culture of North. The tourist spots of district are full of scenic beauties. But many of them have not yet received the publicity they deserve. An humble attempt has been made in this paper to highlight the tourist potentiality of the district.

  125. Deepa Sathish, N. and Thirumani Devi, A.

    Food fortification and food value addition with functional foods are continued to be an important tool, not only to promote a general state of wellbeing in different populations, but also to prevent diseases. Time dependent optimal nutrition support and energy production after severe illness becomes increasingly protein dependent (1.5g–2.0g/kg of body weight), also prevents malnutrition and specific nutrient deficiencies. Keeping these factors the investigator carried out this study with the objective of formulating and evaluating health mix and value addition and incorporation of high quality protein isolates such as Soy protein isolates, Whey protein, Egg white and Skimmed milk powders. The sensory evaluation showed that the health mix incorporated with soy protein isolate variation III was highly acceptable with the overall acceptability score of 4.8±0.4 even though the health mix incorporated with whey protein powder varition III had higer score of 4.8±0.5. The overall acceptability increases with the proportion of protein isolates The nutrient analysis showed that the health mix incorporated with soy protein isolate powder variation III had the higer amount of protein of 25.4g and energy (450.6 Kcal) and supplied less amount of carbohydrate of 76g among the other mixes with the iron content of 6 mg. The health mix with Whey protein powder variation III(15g) showed the minimum microbial content and cost of all the health mixes also low. It is also evident from the study that Health mix is one of the most significant products and with the incorporation of functional foods like soya protein isolates which is used widely in the Medical Nutrition therapy due to its high biological value and many preventive health benefits.

  126. Priti Shukla, Bharat Gupta, Kruti Shukla and Satakshi Tiwari

    Carbon nano materials are superb materials for photovoltaic solar cells: they are Earth-abundant, possess high optical absorption, and better-quality thermal and photostability. Carbon, one of the few elements recognized since antiquity, holds outstanding potential as a material for solar cells. It’s abundant in the Earth’s crust (~0.2 wt. %), it can be found in Nature in its fundamental form as graphite, diamond and coal, and it is extensively used technologically with a production on documentation among other elements of 9 Gt/year. Nanostructured carbon allotropes have been intensively investigate in the history, including single–walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), fullerenes, grapheneand their chemical derivative. These materials grasp record values for physical properties essential for PV such as carrier mobility, mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and optical absorption, and are attractive for PV as they can be dissolve in organic solvents to deposit thin solar cell active layers from solution. Extra carbon allotropes such as amorphous carbon, nanodiamonds and graphene can be deposit in thin film form on flexible substrates using chemical vapor deposition.

  127. Obeid, H. A., Saeed, A. E. M. and Khalid, H. S.

    Sonchus oleraceus is a wild herb that grow after the rainy season in Sudan. Chemical analysis of the herb led to the isolation of two antioxidant compounds. The ethyl acetate extract showed 89% RSA with DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl). 30 gms of the ethyl acetate extract were separated into 12 -fractions with column chromatography. Purification of fraction 1 led to isolation and identification of two compounds. The solvent mixture for fraction one separation was (chloroform: ethyl acetate) 40:60. Purification solvent mixture was (toluene: ethylacetate: formic acid) 9:1:1.The two isolated compounds were a lignan and a chalcone. Their structures were elucidated with NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) technique.

  128. Vishakh M. Premkumar and Rageena Joseph

    In terms Indexing refractionis an important parameter in studying the characteristics of liquids. In this study the characteristic variation in the indexing of refraction of homemade pure virgin coconut Oil is done with a spectrometer and a hollow liquid prism, when locally available palm oil is added to it as an adulterant. Expected value is calculated at an interval of 5% and Graph is drawn giving regression to the mean value R² = 1. Different samples of coconut oil are collected from the local market. The refraction of these sample is indexed, and Graph is drawn which gives a regression to the mean value R² = 0.9643. This Graph is compared with the graph drawn with the standard calculated value. Comparison Graph shows considerable adulteration as reported in the local news during festive season in September 2015 in state Kerala, India, when coconut oil was in high demand. Low cost palm oil was widely available, and the state produces no other cheaper oil other than palm oil to be used as an adulterant. Nonetheless, Simple laboratory experiments still plays an important role in bringing equally important outcomes as that of more expensive and sophisticated instruments in the expensive laboratory settings.

  129. Tirtha Raj Rijal, GovindaBahadur Hamal, Jiban Shrestha, Roshan Basnet Nutan Raj Gautam

    The selection of genotypes with disease resistant and high grain yield is the most important task for successful adoption of wheat varieties in Terai regions of Nepal. Among the major foliar diseases, spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sarokiniana is the most destructive disease affecting from seedling to maturity stage of the wheat crop. The objective of this study was to identify spot blotch disease resistant and high yielding wheat genotypes. Various replicated field studies namely Initial Yield Trial (IET), Coordinated Varietal Trial (CVT), Wheat Varietal Display (WVD) and National Rainfed Nursery (NRN) were conducted under irrigated environments at Agronomy research field of National maize Research Program (NMRP), Rampur, Chitwan in 2014/15 and 2015/16 using 193 wheat genotypes received from National Wheat Research Program (NWRP), Bhairahawa. Disease scoring was applied using double digit (DD) system with first numerical digit stands for disease height and second numerical digit stands for percent leaf blighted from the test entries. The wheat genotypes evaluated in advanced trials (IET & CVT) namely NL-1244, NL-1249, NL-1272, NL-1264, NL-1258, NL-1254, BL-4406, NL-1211, Gautam, BL-1022, NL-1164 and WK 1204 reacted moderately resistant against spot blotch disease and also produced higher grain yield in both the years.

  130. Wama, B. E., Naphtali, R. S. Houmsou, R. S. and Joseph, J.

    Intestinal parasitic diseases have remained endemic in rural communities of developing countries with significant economic and public health consequences. The study determined the prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites infestation of fruits, in Jalingo markets of Taraba State, Nigeria. Five (5) different types of fruits from five markets were sampled. A total of four hundred and fifty samples (450) were examined using sedimentation method. The results showed 19.8% prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites in fruits with Ananas comosus (44.0%) the most infested among fruits while Psidium guajava (2.0%) had the least infestation of protozoan parasites. Entamoeba histolytica (36.0%) was the most common protozoan parasite implicated on fruits from the various markets; Bera-Koffai market (24.7%) had highest infestation of intestinal protozoan parasites on fruits while Sabon-gari (16.9%) market had the lowest infestation, with no significant difference between the infestation of protozoan parasites on fruits among the markets (χ²=7.848, p>0.05). The results showed that fruits sold in Jalingo markets harbor intestinal protozoan parasites and there is the need for proper cleaning and handling of fruits by growers, sellers and buyers.

  131. Sumitra Sudharkodhy and Balan, K.

    Background: The graduate medical students often get less opportunity for clarifying their doubts and to reinforce their concepts after lecture classes. Students forget much of what they learn, therefore students could benefit from learning strategies that yield long-lasting knowledge. In this study we studied the value of multiple choice tests with no test (control) to determine their value as aids to retention learning. Aims and objectives • To assess if post lecture multiple choice question test helps retention learning. • To compare the effect of post lecture MCQ tests with no test (control) on delayed retention learning. Method: The study was conducted on 60 medical undergraduate students. 30 study group and 30 control group. The investigation involved initial testing at the end of the lecture (post instruction), followed by an unannounced delayed retention test on the same material three weeks later. The delayed test scores were statistically analyzed using SSPS (Version 16). Results: Mean delayed retention score of MCQ group is 10.97 and the control group is 6.71. The MCQ group had a higher mean delayed retention score compared to control group.

  132. Manisha A. Bhusa

    Actually, how long have people been active in science? The answer is the same for both women and men as long as we have been human. One of the defining marks of humanity is our ability to affect and predict our environment. Science, technology, and mathematics all have been part of our human progress, through every step of our path to the present. Women and men together have researched and solved each emerging need. Women Symbolize 'Prakriti' means 'Nature' in Indian Philosophy. She creates and nurtures the creation to bloom. She signifies 'sakti' - the power that drives the system. True, that the status of Indian women has eroded significantly since the vedic times. Nevertheless, 20th century saw reawakening and a steady upswing, which is largely attributable to spread of Education and social reforms. In this paper I covered few latest developments in Science and Technology by women.

  133. Akram Amro, Anthea Rhoda, Jose Frantz, Ziad Abdeen Haneen Dhaidel

    Background: The incidence and risk factor profile of stroke patients are known to differ for different populations. This information is important in order to address the impact of stroke. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and risk factor profile of a Palestinian stroke sample from Hebron - Palestine. Methods: A descriptive, case-controlled study was used to collect the data from a consecutively recruited sample of 139 first-ever stroke patients and from a randomly selected sample of 153 controls. Data were collected from medical records for the cases, as well as information collected during a community-based campaign and interviews for the controls. Data collected included age, gender, socio-economic status and risk profile. The crude incidence was calculated based on the projected population of the research setting, while the age-adjusted stroke incidence was calculated using the direct method. Logistic regression analysis was employed to investigate the stroke risk factors that might predict stroke. All the relevant ethical considerations were adhered to during the study. Results: The mean age of the total sample was 66.39 years with median age of (69 years). The crude incidence rate was 24.48/100 000. The age-adjusted stroke incidence was 77.95/100 000. The strongest predictor of a stroke was diabetes, with an odds ratio of OR = 5.95. This was followed by hypertension; with an odds ratio of 2.069.The risk factors most associated with incidences of strokes were heart failure and diabetes. Those less likely to have a stroke were males who were younger than 60 years old Conclusion: The age-adjusted incidence rate was less than what has been reported in a number of other developed and developing counties. Diabetes was a stronger predictor of stroke when compared to hypertension.

  134. Dr. Manmeet Kaur, Dr. Sarita Nibhoria, Dr. Kanwardeep Kaur and Dr. Arshpreet Kaur

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the bone is an uncommon neoplasm that accounts for about 4% of all primary bone tumors. GCT most frequently occurs at the end of long bones. GCT in spine (above sacrum) is a rare presentation. We present here a case of 30 years old female who presented with complaints of progressive weakness in bilateral lower limbs with the involvement of bladder and bowel. MRI showed collapse of D4 vertebral body. Biopsy was taken from thoracic vertebra. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of Giant Cell tumor in thoracic spine, which is a rare presentation.

  135. Dr. Sujatha, K.

    Arundhati Roy, a Booker Prize winner for her first novel The God of Small Things, has occupied a place among the contemporary literary prominent figures like Salman Rushdie, Bharti Mukherjee, V.S.Naipaul, Amitav Ghosh, Vikram Seth and Rohinton Mistry. Roy as a social activist and reformer depicts our degenerated present – a reflection of our political corruption, Dalit subjugation and complexity of women’s situation, hollow promises and fractured vision. Roy has profound social concerns and she depicts this crude reality with extraordinary linguistic inventiveness. This paper examines Roy as a novelist who analyses the most problematic contemporary issues of Indian middle class life sex, exploitation, violence, caste- politics, power- politics, hollow conventions and rituals. She shows how the patriarchal system of marriage unleashes a reign of terror, misery and violence palpable in Pappachi’s wrath beating Mammachi with a vase. Mammachi, Baby Kochamma, Ammu are oppressed by patriarchy. There is Chacko, a self- proclaimed Marxist, who flirts with the women working in the factory. Estha and Rahel are unwelcomed guests at Ayemenem. Rahel grows up to be a disillusioned adult.

  136. Manikandan, M. and Sheeja, B. D.

    Impatiens are commonly known as ‘Balsams’ (Jewel weeds). Impatiens L. is one of the largest genera of flowering plants. Among 850 species found in the tropics and north temperate regions. 86 species reported from the Western Ghats, 76 are found to be endemic. Bryophyte, wild Impatiens and some Pteridophytes are more sensitive environmental indicators. They survive well in adjoining fresh water seeping habitat. Endemic plants association depend one another to maintain their micro climate and ecosystem. So neighborhood population study helps to conserve endemic plants. This study shows Bryophyte population also helps to impatiens levingei succession in untainted environment. 13 endemic species placed in the study area.

  137. Dr. Sujatha, K.

    Today’s classrooms are often equipped with computers, access to the internet and projectors that allow the role of teachers to move from a traditional one to that of facilitator in the classroom. Teaching no longer centres around the transfer of knowledge from teacher to student; learning comes from student inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving based on information accessed from a variety of sources. Increased demand is therefore being placed on educational institutions to use ICT to teach the skills and knowledge that students need for the 21st century. Historically the concept of information and communication technology integration as an approach evolved as a reaction to early computer-in-schools programmes where the emphasis lay on developing computer literacy or technical knowledge of computers and the use of various computer applications. More recently information and communication technology integration has been recognized as using computers to learn, rather than learning to use computers. Technology integration is a complex phenomenon that involves understanding teachers’ motivations, perceptions, and beliefs about learning and technology.

  138. Paulo Nuno Martins

    The teaching of medicine in Portugal began in Monastery of Santa Cruz in Coimbra, in the 12th century, through the teaching of members of religious orders. In the 13th century, the medical education started to be carried out in Lisbon, in EstudoGeral, until the construction of the Hospital of Todos-os-Santos in the 15th century. Almost at the same time, it was created the brotherhood of NossaSenhora da Mesericórdia. In the 16th century, the theoretical teaching(medicine) was carried out at the University of Coimbra, while practical teaching (surgery) was carried out at the Hospital of Todos-os-Santos, in Lisbon.

  139. Abiyot Negash Terefe, Dr. Yehenew Getachew and Belay Birlie

    Background: The chances of developing diabetic may depend on a mix of genes, lifestyle and environmental factors. The objective of this study is modeling time-to-recovery of adult diabetic patients in a comparison of Cox-proportional hazard and shared gamma frailty models. Methods: A retrospective data was obtained from Jimma University Specialized Hospital diabetic patient clinic. All diabetic patients 18 years of age and who are under treatments in between September 2010 and August 2013 are included in the study. Time of fasting blood sugar level to reach the first normal range, 70-130 mg/dl, of blood since time of treatment or intervention were the response variable. Due to the impact of residential places and unmeasured shared similarities in a cluster, district (Woreda) is used as a random effect (frailty) term in the survival models. In this study, Cox-PH and shared gamma frailty model were used. Results: Types of diabetic, bodyweight at baseline, fasting blood sugar at baseline, sex and age of patients are significantly associated with time to recovery of diabetic patients. These variables are important factors that should be considered during the selection phase a treatment (combination of treatments) for diabetes. Conclusion: The Cox-PH with shared gamma frailty model is the most powerful one in predicting recovery time of diabetic patients when there is significant difference among districts.

  140. I Jane Austen and Mr. Immanuel, V.

    The paper intends to throw light on critical analysis in detail and its effect on slavery, racism and feminism. The paper will also examine the contribution of the novelist, Alice Walker in her works "The Color Purple" and "Meridian." This paper is a brief survey of the selected texts of Alice Walker from the entire canon of Afro-American. The objective of this survey is to bring to light the psychological aspects which explore the real agony in the minds of the people under slavery, racism and women’s struggle. The sufferings they undergo each and every minute of their life which makes them feel unfit to live in the world. They don't have the chance of being loved by someone and so they hate themselves and are being disturbed psychologically. They are always subjugated by upper class people or men in all aspects. They feel traumatic which is an emotional wound that leads to psychological injury. The novels, "The Color Purple" and "Meridian" by Alice Walker pictures the issues of slavery, racism and women's struggle which involves the readers in, while reading it.

  141. Dr. Diego Santos Vieira de Jesus

    Based on the neo-realist approach developed by Joseph Grieco, the aim is to explain the strategic interests of Brazil, Germany, India and Japan with the creation of the G4 and the main obstacles to the group’s success. The main argument indicates that these states defend the preservation of the UNSC’s effectiveness and functionality to deal with challenges to international security and peace, not the Council’s effective democratization. They saw in G4 the opportunity to pressure for a common interest of the four states: the UNSC reform. With permanent seats at the UNSC, they all want to have greater participation in international decisions related to international security and peace and delay, frustrate or undermine policies by P5 states that damage their specific interests. However, the two intermediate powers want to enhance their voice opportunities in their relations with the two G4 richer and more powerful states, while these states want to rationalize the exercise of their power towards the G4 emerging nations and the developing world.

  142. Bianzeube Tikri, Nadjitonon Ngarmaim, DJonglibet Wel-Doret and Jean-Louis Robert

    In the context of a study on multiaxial criteria for aluminum alloy welded structures 6000, biaxial tests are carried out on equivalent structures (simulated ZAT) in the field of fatigue with a large number of cycles. Critical plan criteria and global criteria are verified using the Castem 2000 code. The predictions compared with the experimental results show that some criteria work better for certain types of loading. Global criteria seem to give better predictions than critical plan criteria.

  143. Dr. Rashmi Rani Agnihotri, H.R. Prof. Dr. Malipatil, K.S.

    Beti Bachao Beti Padhao is a government social scheme launched by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi in order to address the gender imbalance and discrimination against girl child in the Indian society. This scheme was launched by the Prime Minister on 22nd of January in 2015 at Panipat, Haryana on Thursday. This scheme is to aware people about the importance of girls in the society. It is to increase awareness among common people to save the lives of girl child by completely removing the female foeticide. People should celebrate the birth of their girl child and educate them with full responsibility as they do for their boy child. This programme is launched by the Modi government regarding safety and protection of the girl child all through the country. This scheme was the urgent need of today’s time as without saving and empowering women of the country, development is not possible at all. Women cover around half population of the country so they are half power of the country. That’s why they need equal rights, facilities and opportunities to go ahead and contribute to the development of India. This scheme is regarding girl safety, protection and better education in the future without much load on the parents. In order to support this campaign, the government of India has started another programme named as Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana. This scheme involves in reducing the burden of parents at her young age. Because, according to this scheme, parents have to deposit some money in the bank on monthly basis for which they will get benefited in future at the young age of their girl child whether for the education or marriage. Such ambitious approach of government in the form of Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao scheme will surely bring positive changes in the status of women in India. It is launched by the government with well planned objectives, strategies and action plan to make it really effective. It is to save the lives of the down trodden girls and give them opportunity of higher education so that they can be empowered and participate in all the working areas. According to this scheme, around 100 districts (having low CSR) have been chosen to take necessary actions first. This scheme is to improve welfare of the girl child by creating awareness about gender discrimination in the society. The proposal of big amount of Indian rupee has been passed for the women safety in urban and large cities of the country. This scheme alone can support only however cannot completely solve the problem of girl child, it needs to be supported by all the citizens of India. Rules and regulations, made to reduce crimes against girl child, should be followed strictly and there should be strict punishment on violation. The Study is Purely Theoretical. The Study is based on secondary data sources. The necessary information about the Brief information about Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme and its various components are collected from Books, Journals, Internet Source or related topic. The Researcher study about the. Brief information about Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme. The Research Work includes I. Introduction II.Methodology III. Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme. IV Conclusion.etc.

  144. Kiran Chiluwal and Anjay Kumar Mishra

    Construction is a complex industry and its performance determines profitability. Performance of any construction project refers to attainments of its construction within specified time and cost with maintaining safety and quality. The objective of this research is to assess the impact of performance on profitability of small hydropower projects in Nepal. Two projects namely, Upper Hugdi Khola Hydropower Project and Bijaypur Khola Hydropower Project were considered for detail cost performance, schedule performance and profitability analysis. Time management, cost and safety in construction enhance the performance of the construction and increase the profitability of the project. It is clear that the performance management enhances the profitability of project; however other factor such as social issues as well as internal management plays the vital role in overall profitability of the company. Even though, Upper Hugdi Hydropower Project had completed on time and less than estimated cost but the financial indicators of the projects has been decreasing because of other external factors. The IRR of the project had decreased from 15.18 percent to 13.42 percent. The construction organization should incorporate the identified factors in practice for enhancing the performance to increase the profitability.

  145. Yeboah Evans

    This paper evaluates and provides an integrated literature review of the flow of investment and the analysis of the distribution and allocation of the inflow of FDI in Ghana’s economy. By considering FDI growth, export and import of merchandise trade, it was realized that, Ghana’s international trade contribution to the world’s development seems to be insignificant and majority of the country’s export goes to the European market. The inflow of foreign direct investment in Ghana has grown rapidly since 2006, as a result of much effort done by the government to attract potential investors into the country. There are reasonable conditions and rights an investor enjoys for investing in Ghana. However, the result indicates the Greater Accra area receiving most of the registered projects compared to the other regions in Ghana. The rate at which investment was allocated to service sector has changed and much attention being focused on the manufacturing sector. Therefore, since the continuous expansion of investment in Ghana demonstrates to be favorable and beneficial to investors, the need of other factors to attract many substantial investors into the country are recommended.

  146. Wildan

    This study is aiming to find the assessment process implemented by Islamic Education Teacher in Islamic Junior High School Darussalam Bermi Babussalam, Gerung, West Lombok. The study concentrates on; How do Islamic education teachers develop and implement assessment instrument on cognitive, psychomotor, and authentic aspect? The qualitative approach in this study covers some of data collection method; (1) pre-fieldwork, (2) fieldwork, and (3) intensive analysis. Includes: observation, questionnaire, interview, and documentation. All data were analyzed by data reduction, data presentation and data verification. The findings indicated that (1) Islamic education teachers have not implemented assessment instrument on affective, cognitive and psychomotor aspect, only12.5% teachers implemented it while 87.5% did not. (2) The Islamic education teachers have not applied authentic assessment aspects comprehensively.

  147. Dr. Sushma Tiwari Sunil Kumar Tiwari

    Human resources have become the key source of competitive advantage for the organizations that strive in challenging environments. In order to retain and satisfy their employees, organizations should design their human resource (HR) functions and practices consistent with the expectations of their employees. In this sense, organizational commitment of employees has become very important for especially retaining the employees in the organization. Human resource managers can increase the organizational commitment levels of their employees by designing HR functions and practices according to their expectations and by that way employees can feel that they are the most important assets of the organizations. The purpose of the research is to investigate the relationship between organizational commitment dimensions and HR practices. Also determining the perceptions of employees for organizational commitment levels and HR practices is another purpose of this research. According to the results of the research it will be possible to give insights that can contribute to develop organizational commitment by HR practices in organizations.

  148. Sujata Kumari Behera

    The best type of salt are manufactured in Odisha. It has a flourishing tradition of salt manufacture during the British period. Its soil, impregnated with the saline particles as far as the spring tides reach during the dry seasons was singularly well fitted for the manufacture of salt. The salt lands in the calciferous tract of Odisha possessed unique natural qualities for salt production. The methods of salt manufacture prevalent in Odisha can be classified under two main processes viz. panga and karkatch. In the panga process salt was obtained by boiling concentrated sea water. The karkatch process meant the solar evaporation of sea water. As Odisha is proned to frequent rains and thunderstorms during the manufacturing season. Salt manufactured in the karkatch had to be abandoned panga process is only suitable for Odisha.

  149. Vanvisa Sresumatchai, Surasak Taneepanichskul Suporn Apinuntavech

    The randomized control trial was conducted at Autistic Center Nonthaburi, Nonthaburi province. From both the Sensory Features for treatment in Autistic Spectrum Disorder Questionnaire in statistical improvement was detected for conduct problem in social-emotional reciprocity such lack of showing and directing attention, lack of offering to share, and use of other’s body to communicate. The Sensory Features for treatment in Autistic Spectrum Disorder Questionnaire revealed an improvement only for Directing Attention (p=0.002) in the healing touch massage group, whereas the Likelihood ratio test present the fitting model process provided -2Log Likelihood was goodness of fit model which was an effect of independent variables showing and directing attention (p=0.000) and LR for improvement behavior with healing touch massage (sig=0.00) was found.

  150. Dr. Subramanian, K.R.

    Organizations exist on the basis of continuing businesses and they do so because of their ability to serve customers and find solutions to their problems. This is a dynamic situation because the organizations go through the vicissitudes of the changing business environment making them more and more demanding. The organizations cannot remain static and so they continuously evolve to face the realities of the environment. This depends on the organizational resources and their approach to problem solving. Organizational posture and behavior will determine how successful they are on this effort. Present research paper will attempt to examine how organizations approach such problems and their effectiveness on solving them. Organizations need to reorganize, reinvent and streamline the operations so that business is as usual and continues to make an impact in the market. Present focus of research through this paper will be to find out the key result areas and how various companies succeed in their efforts. This process will involve the changes in strategy, structure and business plans. May be the organizations need to reinvent themselves to be more relevant and successful.

  151. Abdelhalim E. El-Farouk Salma Magdi Saeed Osman

    This study attempted to evaluate social progress in a rural setting taking Alkumur as a case study. This study used both scenery and primary data. The secondary data obtained from (UNDP) study for all countries of the world in 2016. The SPI was estimated as 46% from Alkumur data. This is higher than Sudan national Figure by 16 points. The SPI was also calculated from primary data through questioner conducted in Alkumur village 2017. Fifty-three indicators were used and proxied to provide an interval estimate of SPI in the range (22, 54) which includes the point estimate of 38%. The conclusion of the study reveals that from secondary data, Alkumur SPI amounted to 46.93% versus 30.55% for whole of Sudan. The difference is 16.38%. The SPI in Alkumur is approximately 38% which represents the mean of the secondary and primary data, exceeding that for Sudan by 7.45%. The test of association reflects a statistically significant association between SPI at the household level and all other prediction. From the discussion with many of the elderly and the youth of the village, including males and females, it appears that villagers are full of optimism and enthusiasm to promote their village in all aspects of life. The coherence the population of the village represents a driving force that makes the potential of social progress very promising and reliable. The only one recommendation suggested by the study is to establish a vocational training center for both sexes.

  152. Dr. Satendra Kumar Singh

    Child labour has become a big problem in India. It is no doubt a socio-economic problem. A national survey had shown that more than 16 million children between eight to fourteen are largely appointed in the informal sector, like restaurants, tea stall, motor garages etc. The main objective of the paper are: 1. To find out the factor of motivation for being engaged in such occupation, their prior status. 2. To explain the co-relation between their Socio-economic characteristics and their nature of the job and their working and living conditions. 3. To make an indepth study of their work situation income potential, employer-employee relationship, job satisfaction and exploitative tendencies. The study purpose 100 case sample has been selected purposive randomly of the different restaurants, tea stalls, tailoring, motor garages and scissor work in Meerut city which is scattered in entire city. The Guardian/Parents and employers also too were covered of the selective sample. The primary data of the study was collected through observation and interview schedule. The main finding of the study are: • The poverty was the most important reason for non-schooling of the child labour. • The main reason behind the employers preference for children were suitability for odds job and create less trouble. • The tea stalls, tailoring, motor garages and Scissors work relatively, serve and entry jobs for the child labour in those occupations. • More educated child labour were doing odds jobs and working in tea stalls, in comparison to other occupation. Here is negative co-relationship. • The majority of working children were employed before the got into their present job. • The educated child get employed much later than the illiterate child who gets employed earlier. • The general observation is that the children are put to long hours of work more than adults. • The majority of children work more than 8 hours a day. The decreasing the working hours with increasing of literacy. • The working children do not have fixed time of recess and relaxation it depend Marcy of employer. • The ill-treatment by the employer of the children are decreases with increasing age. It show positive co relation between the employers relation and age. • The majority of the child labour are maximum paid up to 2000/- per month and other are nominal allowances unpaid learner. • The wages of child labour and their educational background do not have positive relationship between the variables. • No discrimatory reason in tailoring, motor garages and scissors work against the low wages. • The mode of payment of wages varies according to the nature of activity. • The shop & commercial establishment act do not follow by the employers. • The majority of the child laborer were dissatisfied with their jobs. • The majority of the child labour have the health problem due to heavy work. • Most of the child labourers were have faced several problem like ill treatment by the employers as well as customers. The greedy employer do not care the existing law like employment act 1973 and the child labour (Prohibition and regulation)8 act 1986. etc.

  153. Moussavou Guy Kounounga Yimbou Lemba Frédérique

    Remediation is a device that consists in providing the learner with new learning activities to enable him / her to fill the gaps diagnosed during a formative evaluation. The study we conducted aims to analyze the added value of this educational remediation in reading in the consolidation of academic achievements in spelling. It is based on the assumption that teacher remediation in reading as it is done by teachers, does not consolidate the achievements in the spelling of learners. To carry out our investigation, we used as instruments of data collection, maintenance and participatory observation. Our study took place in the Madibou school district. Our sample is made up of seventeen (17) pedagogical supervisors, seven (7) teachers, holders of CM2 classes and 70 learners of CM2 At the end of this work, the results obtained are as follows: notes obtained during the test organized, reveal us that they are not always satisfactory. The scores obtained in reading do not correspond to those of spelling. The assessment is done without grid, the notes are subjective. The low spelling marks show the weaknesses of the method used and the mistakes are orthographic. To this end, we have suggested some approaches to solutions including: - instead of traditional pedagogy, put into practice differentiated pedagogy; - harmonize teaching / learning programs with hierarchical recommendations, since curative pedagogy was introduced without reference to official curricula, and without a note or decree

  154. Syomane S. Felix, Dr. Michael Wahome Dr. Jared M. Ariemba

    The Small and Medium sized enterprises are considered as the power driving many countries’ economies. It has been argued that SMEs are the lifeblood of most economies around the world and any government cannot afford to ignore the sector. Access to financial capital can be a critical factor for the success of SMEs, particularly in their early years. A recent Central bank of Kenya (CBK) survey shows these SMEs topped the list of biggest loan defaulters in the first quarter of 2015. The objective of this study is to assess financial factors influencing loan defaulting by the SMEs operating in Kitui central Sub-county. It is an extension of empirical work on the loan default. The target population in this study was all the registered SMEs operating in Kitui central Sub-county. This study adopted simple random sampling method to select reasonable number of firms to represent the target population. Data for this study constituted the primary data. Primary data was obtained by use of a structured questionnaire which was administered to the chief executive officers of each specific enterprise. The data was edited, coded and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Descriptive analysis was also done and the respective statistics computed. The study employed multiple correlation and regression analysis. Correlation was used to investigate the association between the variables under study. Multiple regression analysis was used to measure the effect of financial factors on loan default by SMEs. The findings of this study revealed that there was a medium positive correlation and a significant relationship between the mode of loan payment and loan default. There was also a strong positive correlation and a significant relationship between the structure of interest rate and loan default. The research findings also revealed that there was also a weak positive correlation and a significant relationship between the size of loan and loan default. There was also a weak correlation between the loan repayment interval and loan default. There was a significant relationship between the type of financial institution and loan default. The study concluded that the mode of loan repayment, the structure of interest rate and the type of financial institution were highly associated with loan default. The study therefore recommends that the non bank commercial banks should revise their lending policies so that they can reduce loan repayment problems arising from lender, loan, and institutional characteristics.

  155. Dr. Hari Krishna. Kommanaboina, Dr. Koya. Samyuktha, Shaik. Abdul Saleem Shaik. Munwar

    Aim of study: The objective of the study was to assess the retrospective observational comparative study on drug utilization of proton pump inhibitors Vs H2 receptor blockers. Methodology: 150 patients are included in this study. All the patients were undergoing Proton Pump Inhibitors and H-2 receptor blockers therapy and/or co – morbidities were included in the study. The study was conducted in the General Medicine Unit (IPD), Intensive Care Unit, Surgery, Orthopedic and all other departments in a multispecialty tertiary care hospital. The patient’s demographic status like name, age, gender, occupation, address, IP number and date of admission of patients. Etc., were collected. The patient’s lifestyle profile was collected by individual patients by direct interaction with the patients or with their care takers for any lifestyle modifications. The patient’s Proton Pump Inhibitors and H-2 receptor blockers medication prescribed by the physician, along with the dosage was recorded. The appropriateness of Proton Pump Inhibitors and H-2 receptor blockers drugs like Dose, Dosage form, Duration of treatment, Route and frequency of administration with standard guidelines was also recorded. Results: Results of patient population included in the study are out of 150 males 98(65%) and females 52 (35%) are using Anti-Ulcer drugs. Based on hospitalization condition in total study population for fever and pain condition Pantoprazole (9%) given in 14 prescriptions and Ranitidine (11%) given in 16 prescriptions. In total study population based on dose and dose frequency Pantoprazole (PPI) 40mg O.D is prescribed in 17% of prescriptions and Ranitidine (H2RA) 150mg B.D is prescribed in 14% prescriptions. Based on use of Anti-Ulcer drugs in NSAID prophylaxis in total study population Pantoprazole (PPI) is prescribed in 17% prescriptions and Ranitidine (H2RA) is prescribed in 13% prescriptions.

  156. Dr. Muzafar Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Shafia Nisar Kakroo and Dr. Mirza Aumir Beg

    Aim: The purpose of this randomized spilt mouth clinical trial was designed to compare the effectiveness of non-surgical periodontal therapy through plaque control, scaling and root planing with the surgical one using Modified Widman’s flap, in reduction of periodontal pockets 5 - 8 mm in depth. Material and Methods: Seventeen patients males and females with advanced periodontal diseases who were recruited. Full mouth scaling, polishing and root planning applied to all patients followed by oral hygiene instructions. One month later, Modified Widman’s flap procedure applied to one sextant which was randomly selected. Periodontal parameters measurements were taken again at days 1 month, 3 month and 6 months. Results: For both surgical and non-surgical treated sites, the Mean and Standard deviations of periodontal Parameters, Plaque index (PI), Gingival index (GI), Probable pocket Depth (PPD) and Gingival recession showed significant reduction. Conclusion: Both Surgical therapy using Modified Widman’s Flap and Non-surgical treatment by scaling and root planing are equally effective in the reduction of periodontal pockets (5 - 8 mm) depth.

  157. Dr. Muzafar Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Shafia Nisar Kakroo and Dr. Mirza Aumir Beg

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a controlled release biodegradable chlorhexidine chip when used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the treatment of periodontitis Materials and Methods: In the present study, patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis of age group, 25-60 were included. Local drug delivery of chlorhexidine chip (CHX) was administered after SRP (scaling and root planing). Test sites received CHX chip while control site received placebo. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, Relative attachment level & gingival margin position were assessed at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. Radiographs were taken at baseline 6 and 9 months. Statistical Analysis: Mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test, “t” test for equality of means and paired samples correlations were used. Results: There was significant difference (P value < 0.001) of PI and GI scores in CHX group. The gain of attachment and reduction in pocket depth was found statistically significant at 6 and 9 months in CHX group. No radiographic bone fill found at 6 months and 9 months in both groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study, favor the use of CHX chip as an adjunct to SRP in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

  158. Dr. Muzafar Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Shafia Nisar Kakroo and Dr. Mirza Aumir Beg

    Aim: The aims of the study are to compare two graft procedures for the amount of root coverage. Material and Method: Thirty patients with Miller’s class I or II gingival recession were treated with either lateral pedicle flap or subcutaneous connective tissue graft. The percentage of root coverage and the esthetic appearance of the flap post operatively were checked after 1 & 6 months. Result: Statistical analysis of the data (students t-test) shows that the difference in root coverage between the two methods is not significant (p>0.05). For esthetics, though the relation is statistically non-significant, patient treated with SCTG showed better esthetics than patients treated with LPG. Conclusion: The post-treatment assessment showed complete root coverage and an excellent aesthetic outcome of lateral pedicle graft and sub-epithelial connective tissue graft root coverage procedures of an isolated gingival recession.

  159. Achiammal, B.

    DC-DC converter is used to stabilize or control the DC output voltage. Many optimization techniques have been developed to turn the PID parameters. In this paper, deals with the Genetic Algorithm based Optimization technique for DC–DC Buck converter. Genetic algorithm is proposed latest method for PID controller optimization to develop the dynamic performance of the voltage regulator. The result of simulation show GA- PID controller provide better performance of the Buck converter than the conventional PID controller.

  160. Achiammal, B.

    DC-DC converter is used to stabilize or control the DC output voltage. Many optimization techniques have been developed to turn the PID parameters. In this paper, deals with the Genetic Algorithm based Optimization technique for DC–DC Buck converter. Genetic algorithm is proposed latest method for PID controller optimization to develop the dynamic performance of the voltage regulator. The result of simulation show GA- PID controller provide better performance of the Buck converter than the conventional PID controller.

  161. Dr. Illia, R., Dr. Biedak, E. and Vartabedian, R.

    In developing countries, women at reproductive ages neither receive the appropriate assistance from the Health Systems and in some countries nor during pregnancy. One of the most important points, is the lack of reliable information about the origin and number and cause of death that would allow to design strategies to their decrease. There were analyzed the Statistical Informs of Hospital Admission of all the female death into reproductive age defined as between 10 and 49 years old. The analysis of the informs was classified and lead to the investigation of the clinical record of the patient. In this way we tried to avoid the under report of female death in Services no related with Obstetrics & Gynecology. Evidently, is clear that the method to search for the rate and cause of deceased female in reproductive ages should be revised. On other way and thinking that the rate is 1/10.000 obviously the proposals to control female mortality should be different that if we assume that the real rate is 14/10.000. We think that is urgent that the Buenos Aires city Government focus about a project to build a Permanent Commission to detection and vigilance of mortality of women in reproductive age, in the same way it is doing in developed world.

  162. Dr. Anuradha, S.

    The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge regarding first aid management among 30 Zilla Parishad High school teachers. In pre-test knowledge scores of teachers is Mean, 18.27 and Standard deviation 4.544037397. in post-test knowledge score of teachers is Mean 28.67 and Standard Deviation was 3.744728.. The comparison of pre-test and post- test parameters showed significant improvement of knowledge regarding first aid management Paired t value in pre-test and post-teat knowledge of teachers is 1.01836, which is significant at 0.05 levels. Thus it can be concluded that Planned Teaching is effective in increasing knowledge of teachers. There was no significant association of knowledge with demographic variables.

  163. Dr. Saloni Dalal, Dr. Omkar Shetty, Dr. Gaurang Mistry and Dr. Shahen Sidhwa

    Dental implants have become a mainstay for restoring teeth that have been lost over the last few decades. Eventhough suc¬cess rates in implant dentistry are well above 90 percent, complications do occur. Most complications are preventable with proper diagnosis, treatment planning and execu¬tion. Other complications are inherent to the risks of surgery and may require intervention. The purpose of this paper is to classify the possible complications that may occur and to discuss their prevention and management.

  164. Dr. Maithili Milind Karanjkar

    Ayurveda is one of the most ancient medical science among the world. It describes the conceptual study of different disease with reference to its own principles and approaches. According, to the Ayurveda ‘sthoulya’ is described by different acharya’s in their own way and charakacharya has described sthoulya among the ‘ashtaninditiyapurusha’, ‘santarpanjanyarogas’. Obesity is the most common metabolic disorder found in the recent years.Commonly the obesity due to lack of exercise and excessive intake of fatty foods. Madhavnidankar, charakacarya and other samhitakaras comment on sthoulya that this disorder is caused due to ‘medodhatavagnimandya’.So depending upon the told factors therapy and treatments should be carried out. So looking upon the importance of this disorder the selected articleis presented.

  165. Dr. P. Shashidhar, Dr. M. Sunitha, Dr. D. Ramakrishna and Ms. Mariyam Ali

    In the present research work PROPAFENONE an anti-arrhythmia agent was selected for the formulation and preparation of transdermal patches as a model drug, using HPMC-15 cps and Methocel K100 as release controlling agents from patches along with sodium alginate are used. Transdermal patches were prepared using HPMC-15cps from trials T-1 to t-5, in which concentrations of HPMC-15 cps used in increasing concentrations. Similarly same in case of trials T6 to T10 was used with Methocel K 100. In-house films were taken for in-vitro evaluation tests and found to be 109 mg to 365 mg. whereas folding endurance test was found to be 56 times for TRIAL-1 and 126 times for TRIAL-10. In case of moisture content test TRIAL -10 showed less percent of moisture with 1.14 and TRIAL-4 Showed 3.54. For water uptake studies patches of TRAIL-10 absorbed 0.98 percent and TRIAL -2 of 1.63 percent. When comes to tensile strength of in-house prepared patches lease of TRIAL-6 with 63 and maximum of TRIAL-10 with 106. Release kinetics was also determined for optimized trial T10 and the drug release was found to be in following order, Zero order-0.995>Koresmeyer Peppas plot-0.972>First order>0.932>Higuchis plot-0.923. Based on the above R2 values it has been concluded that the release of PROPAFENONE was following Zero order rate kinetics with R2 value 0.995.

  166. Dr. Brahmbhatt Nilam, A., Dr. Bhavsar Neeta, V. and Dr. Vishal N. Sahayata

    Background: Serum albumin is negative acute phase protein and might be the practical marker of general health status of patient. Albumin concentration is associated with nutritional and inflammatory status of individual. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection of periodontium. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between periodontal health status and serum albumin levels. Material and Methods: Total 100 subjects irrespective of gender, with age range of 40–70 years were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I: clinically healthy Subjects and Group II: patients with chronic periodontitis and loss of attachment ≥5 mm. Serum albumin concentration was estimated by bromocresol green albumin method. Results: Mean value of serum albumin level for Group I was 4.710g/dL with standard deviation (SD) of 0.127 and for Group II, the mean value of serum albumin level was 4.125g/dL (SD 0.128). The difference between serum albumin level in Group I and Group II were found to be statistically significant (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: The findings of this clinical study suggest an inverse relationship and statistically significant correlation between the serum albumin concentration and chronic periodontal disease.

  167. Abhay Desai and Dr. Amit Mandhare

    The failure of testicular descent or crptorchidism is the most common defect in newborn boys. It often escapes attention of health workers & parents who probably notice it but fail to seek timely advice. We report a case of Bilateral undescended testis presenting as intra abdominal tumor a NSGCT in an adult fertile male. He was investigated, Tumor removed and referred for Chemotherapy. The case also establishes need for proper clinical examination while examining a case of intra abdominal lump.

  168. Krishna Mohan, Rohtash Singh, Bhuvnesh Kumar Singh and Neenalchal Trivedi

    Achyranthes aspera & Calotropis gigantean plant are used in folklore medicines for a number of ailments. The freshly collected leaves of above plants were screened. Shade dried & firstly defatted with petroleum ether & then ethanol respectively and the leaf extracts were subjected to various physicochemical studies. The percentage yield of both plant of extract was (5.1%) for Calotropis gigantean & (5.25%) for Achyranthes aspera obtained with ethanol. The obtained extracts separately & in combination were used to carry out anti-inflammatory action. Achyranthes aspera leaf extract also exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. The obtained result showed that the EE at dose of 300 mg/kg showed 28.74% inhibition in carrageenan induced paw oedema, 14.64% inhibition of granuloma dry weight & 11.11% inhibition against formalin induced paw edema. Calotropis gigantean leaf extract also exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. The obtained result showed that the EE at dose of 300 mg/kg showed 34.97% inhibition in carrageenan induced paw edema, 18.82% inhibition of granuloma dry weight & 15.77% inhibition against formalin induced paw oedema. Calotropis gigantean & Achyranthes aspera leaf extract in combination also exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. The obtained result showed that the EE at dose (300+100) mg/kg showed 43.62% inhibition in carrageenan induced paw oedema, 25.81% inhibition of granuloma dry weight & 20.77% inhibition in formalin induced paw oedema.

  169. Mishal, R.H. and Mishal, H.B.

    Oils may be animal, vegetable, or petrochemical in origin, and may be volatile or non-volatile. Fixed or volatile oil extracted from plants contain various phytochemicals that are used for treatment of various diseases. Physiologically fixed oils are emollients and demulcents and have nutritional value. Sometimes oils obtained from different plant species are also used for treating snake bite victims by the tribal people. In the present paper seed oils properties, their general extraction methods with reference to snake bite envenomation treatment is discussed.

  170. Smitha Mary Rockey and Muralidharan, S.

    Tuberculosis continues to be an important public health problem in India and globally. Drug resistance, especially multi-drug resistance to antituberculous drugs and co-infection of human immunodeficiency virus with mycobacteria are the two most important hurdles in the management of tuberculosis. In this study, we isolated and identified mycobacteria from clinical specimens of patients with tuberculosis using conventional methods and tested their drug susceptibility using the proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium. Of the 100 mycobacterial isolates from newly diagnosed cases, 3% were non tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Among the isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, primary drug resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin were 5.2% and 2.1% respectively. The initial anti tuberculosis drug resistance in this study is low and more studies with larger sample size are needed in future to ascertain the true prevalence of drug resistance.

  171. Nawal K. Mustafa, Abd Elkareem A. Rabo, Suhair A. Ahmed, Rimaz G.Alhaj and Safa Wdidi

    Chronic myeloid leukemia used to think as an old type of leukemia, but nowadays any age can get it, it has many reasons but all lead to colonial proliferation of white blood cells (granulocyte mainly) with translocation between chromosome 9 and 22 giving rise a new one called Philadelphia chromosome, which is responsible for abnormal proliferation of myeloid cells. In Khartoum state, an oncology and nuclear medicine hospital is considered as a main treatment center for all kinds of cancer. Ethical approval has been obtained from each of hospital administrator and co- patients to be involved in this study. Under hygienic conditions blood samples were collected anticoagulant free in order to obtain serum, which kept under -20Co, then analyzed for freeT3, freeT4 and TSH as evaluation plan for thyroid function tests while these patients diagnosed with CML and set for drugs anti to the proliferation called tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Thyroid dysfunction appeared to be related to the CML itself rather than be affected with anticarcinogenic drugs, as new case subjects showed significant difference more than those of under treatment, as variation revealed.

  172. Italo Giuffre

    Ibopamine is currently used in Ophthalmology. Its action is on both adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors. The adrenergic receptors cause a marked mydriasis without accommodative paralysis, while the dopaminergic receptors increase the production of aqueous humor. Ibopamine may be useful for diagnostic purposes in Ophthalmology. This review article focuses on presenting the most intriguing evidence on ibopamine.

  173. Kumari Nutan

    Background: Tobacco is the most important preventable cause of death among adults. The world health organization estimates that world wide 5 million deaths are caused prematurely by smoking every year. The number is expected to increase to 10 million by 2010. A total of 100 million lives were lost due to smoking in the 20th centaury and if the current trend continues about a billion deaths would occur due to smoking in 21st centaury Aim: To assess the prevalence of smoking habit among the undergraduate and post graduate male students in selected area of Lucknow. Objective: To assess the level of awareness regarding the effects of smoking among the undergraduate and postgraduate male students of selected area of Lucknow and to assess the factors contributing to prevalence of smoking among the undergraduate and post graduate male students of selected area of Lucknow. Methodology: A descriptive research design with cross sectional survey approach was used to assess the prevalence of smoking and the awareness level regarding the effects of smoking on health among the undergraduate and post graduate male students of selected area of Lucknow. Result: Findings revealed that the prevalence of smoking was about 83.33% among the undergraduate male medical students and the awareness regarding the effects of smoking was found to be about 58.33%.the overall mean score of the awareness level was 3.5±1.08

  174. Dr. Ajay R Kamath and Dr. Pooja Kandula

    Introduction: Cataract surgery incisions have been known to influence astigmatism. It has been found by keratometric measurement, the degree of induced astigmatism was significantly less in superolateral compared to superior incision and the variability of astigmatism was also less. In view of this, we have made an effort to compare the astigmatism following conventional superior scleral incision and superotemporal scleral incision with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. Objectives: Of the study were to compare and analyse the astigmatic profile produced by superior scleral incision v/s superotemporal scleral incision and its decay over a period of 6 weeks and the post- operative astigmatic profile in patients having pre- operative against the rule astigmatism Materials and Methods: It was a prospective cross-sectional study done on 96 patients who underwent suture less small incision cataract surgery during the period of 2 years (2014-2016) All patients with cataract were included. All the surgeries were performed by a single surgeon. Results: Most of the patients were in the age group of 50-60 years. Follow-up showed that 18.8% patients undergoing superior scleral incision had >2.5 D astigmatism at any given time, whereas none of the patients in superotemporal group showed such high induced astigmatism. On the contrary <1D astigmatism was seen in 37.5% patients undergoing superior scleral incision and in 85 % patients in Superotemporal group.6 weeks follow up of these patients showed significant difference in astigmatism. Conclusion: Surgically induced astigmatism in superotemporal incision is significantly less compared to superior incision in SICS. Superotemporal incision did not show significant post op against the rule drift. It has the added advantage of being the incision of choice in deep set eyes and in situations where filtration surgery may be required at a future date.

  175. Dr. Ajay R Kamath and Dr. Pooja Kandula

    Introduction: Cataract surgery incisions have been known to influence astigmatism. It has been found by keratometric measurement, the degree of induced astigmatism was significantly less in superolateral compared to superior incision and the variability of astigmatism was also less. In view of this, we have made an effort to compare the astigmatism following conventional superior scleral incision and superotemporal scleral incision with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. Objectives: Of the study were to compare and analyse the astigmatic profile produced by superior scleral incision v/s superotemporal scleral incision and its decay over a period of 6 weeks and the post- operative astigmatic profile in patients having pre- operative against the rule astigmatism Materials and Methods: It was a prospective cross-sectional study done on 96 patients who underwent suture less small incision cataract surgery during the period of 2 years (2014-2016) All patients with cataract were included. All the surgeries were performed by a single surgeon. Results: Most of the patients were in the age group of 50-60 years. Follow-up showed that 18.8% patients undergoing superior scleral incision had >2.5 D astigmatism at any given time, whereas none of the patients in superotemporal group showed such high induced astigmatism. On the contrary <1D astigmatism was seen in 37.5% patients undergoing superior scleral incision and in 85 % patients in Superotemporal group.6 weeks follow up of these patients showed significant difference in astigmatism. Conclusion: Surgically induced astigmatism in superotemporal incision is significantly less compared to superior incision in SICS. Superotemporal incision did not show significant post op against the rule drift. It has the added advantage of being the incision of choice in deep set eyes and in situations where filtration surgery may be required at a future date.

  176. Chunawalla Yusuf, Morawala Abdul, Jain Kapil and 4Naqiyaa Khandwawala

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by severe learning difficulties,ataxia, a seizure disorder with a characteristic EEG, subtle dysmorphic facial features, and a happy,sociable disposition and a behavioral uniqueness. Children with AS shows oral manifestations like tongue thrusting, diastema, mandibular prognathism, frequent drooling and excessive chewing behavior.This case report elaborates a child patient of 5 yrs old suffering from AS who reported to the clinics with a chief complain of pain and decayed teeth. The child was treated comprehensively with pulp therapy, Stainless steel crown, extraction and apt space management.

  177. Raghavendra, D. Dr. Chauhan, R.K. and Dr. Mallikarjuna Rao, T.D.

    Quality metricsare essential metrics for any pharmaceutical industry and assuring customers/patients are provided with safety/identity/strength/purity/quality drug products with zero defect. Pharmaceutical quality metrics identification is complex, involving numerous metrics that influence the performance of a pharmaceutical quality system. Pharmaceutical quality metrics are paramount established Real-Time Governance and visualization of deteriorated quality trends to the senior management. Through this management shall draw action points/corrective & preventive actions to the painful areas/area of improvements/non-compliances.Quality metrics display of the department’s information which need to achieve one or more objectives; consolidated and arranged in a single frame so that the information can be monitored effectively by management at a glance. Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the pharmaceutical quality metrics and bymonitoring the strategy of pharmaceutical industry which can check on department's activities in order to achieve service-level targets and operations. Methods: Interview with pharmaceutical industry employees has been used for primary source of data. And the exploratory method has been used for study through data available on regulatory websites and secondary data in articles of other researchers. Results: Total 68 quality metrics are determined as essential quality metrics for pharmaceutical industry. Conclusion: Through quality metrics visualizations pertaining to all departments can be monitored effectively & take necessary actions if needed and mitigate the quality risk .and achieve connect-communicate-collaborate with all stakeholders of organization.

  178. Raghavendra, D., Dr. Chauhan, R.K. and Dr. Mallikarjuna Rao, T.D.

    This paper describes and demonstrates pharmaceutical quality dashboard, is a visual display of the pharmaceutical industry critical quality metrics information to steer industry to meet quality vision and overall performance of your firm, set objectives, consolidated and arranged in a single frame so that the quality metrics can be monitored effectively by senior management at a glance and promoting transparence throughout the organization. Despite the availability of robust quality systems in-place and in-use, it does not mitigate quality risk and non-compliances. Therefore, this study proposes a research model that support management monitor and steer their quality metrics throughout the continuous improvement cycles. The exploratory method has been used for study through data available on regulatory websites, interview with pharma industrial personnel and secondary data in articles of other researchers for developing quality dashboard to be included in a measurement framework for systems strengthening. More than 83 participants, who represented 05 different organizations working to design and roll-out of quality dashboard. The quality dashboard framework and indicators will help guide pharmaceutical industry in ways that will have lasting results. Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the pharmaceutical quality dashboard which will give new level of comfort with their visualization of overall quality risk of firm and analytic abilities. The dynamic, interactive pharmaceutical quality dashboard have helped keep management and internal/external stakeholders about the time-to-time quality performance indicators. Methods: Interview with pharmaceutical industry employees has been used for primary source of data. And the exploratory method has been used for study through data available on regulatory websites and secondary data in articles of other researchers. Results: After several data pharmaceutical quality dashboards evaluation, finally prototype pharmaceutical quality dashboards designed and developed which is cost effective, feasible, no special training required for roll-out, customizable, easy to use, eye-catching and drive management to meet quality mission for pharmaceutical industry. Conclusion: Through pharmaceutical quality dashboards, overall quality risk shall be visualized, quantified and do qualitative analysis pertaining to all departments effectively & take necessary actions if needed and mitigate the quality risk with connect-communicate-collaborate with all stakeholders of organization.

  179. Pallavi Mishra, Dr. Anupama Patane, Pooja Parashar and Dr. Prashant Hisalkar

    Serum high sensitive – C reactive protein is a non specific inflammatory marker. Asthma and Coronary artery disease are associated with inflammation. In condition of asthma, oxygen level in the body decreases so heart pressure would increase to supply oxygen to all over the body. This heart pressure can lead to create heart disease. In this phenomenon, IL-6 releases which stimulate the production of hs-CRP. Thus this review discusses the Role of hs-CRP in Asthma and Coronary artery disease – a non-specific inflammatory marker.

  180. Dr. Ila N. Hadiyel and Dr. Vishnugiri Jayantigiri Goswami

    Objectives: To evaluate Clinical profile in H1N1 positive patients and effectiveness of Oseltamivir started within 48 hours and after 48 hours of onset of symptoms in H1N1 positive patients. Materials and methods: A retrospective study from Indoor cases of H1N1 positive patients (Total 141), were collected from the medical record section of Sir Takhatsinhji general hospital, Bhavnagar and scrutinized. H1N1 positive (category C; RT-PCR confirmed) patients admitted from June 2014 to April 2015 were included in the study. Data were collected in standard case record form like Demographic details, Duration of symptoms, Laboratory and X-ray findings, Treatment given, Various Complications after admission and Clinical outcome. Results: In this study total 141 patients were evaluated retrospectively among whom most of the patients were young adults like age group of 21 to 40 yrs, more residing in Urban area and gender affected was relatively equal, Total 23 patients died due to further complications and this study shows that 18 patients were with co-morbidities. Only 5 patients who died had no pre-existing history of co-morbidities. Most common symptoms were cough followed by fever, difficulties in breathing, sore throat and nasal catarrh. Other less dominant symptoms include Headache, Hemoptysis, Bodyache, Abdominal pain, Diarrheoa and Vomiting. There is significant association found between treatment (oseltamivir) given within 48 hours of symptoms onset and outcome among the swine flue patients. ( p value is less than 0.05 at 1 DF and chi square value is 108.10 at 95 % CI). There is significant association found between co morbidity and death among the swine flue patients. ( p value is less than 0.05 at 1 DF and chi square value is 12.064 at 95 % CI). Conclusion: In this study 141 patients were evaluated retrospectively among whom most of the patients, Most common symptoms were cough followed by fever, difficulties in breathing, sore throat and nasal catarrh. Death is more prevalent in those patients who have pre existing co-morbid conditions. Patients involved in this study have been treated with Oseltamivir and other supportive management, but patients who admitted within 48 hours of symptoms onset had better outcome and who were late after 48 hours of symptoms onset had developed complications more. And some patients died due to life threatening complications.

  181. Dr. Jyotsnarani Panda

    Aims/purpose: Adolescents are a rich human resource and an important part of the development process. Good health of adolescents will help in raising the health status of the community. Adolescents, especially girls, mostly from disadvantaged communities and families, are trafficked for the purposes of early forced marriages, domestic workers commercial sex work and are forced to work in inhospitable, unsafe and exploitative conditions are the main components for development of HIV/AIDS The present study was an attempt to assess need of knowledge based counseling among 13 to 17 year old adolescents adolescent girls who all were studying in class 9th,10th,11th and 12th in different high schools and women’s collage’s. Methodology of study: The total sample for the present study included 400 adolescents i e 200 from different girl’s high schools and 200 from women’s colleges which are the most of HIV prevalence blocks of the Ganjam district of Odisha state. By using exploratory and the descriptive study design, the researcher attempts to describe female adolescents’ knowledge and understanding regarding HIV/AIDS, a scheduled questionnaire was used covering all aspects of HIV/ AIDS and observation methods were also used to collect the data from the adolescent girls. To analysis data the researcher used frequency percentages and the t- tests were computed. Findings: Out of 400 respondents 258are from rural area and among the total respondents 62.3 per cent are belong to nuclear family. The majority of (86 per cent) are from local areas besides their parental status is very poor, as well as their educational status is very low only 13% parents have studied up to graduation and above. Conclusion and Recommendations: The present study will help to focuses of adolescents level of knowledge to import for better life for better future because adolescents are the really dormant state of mind regarding HIV/AIDS the need extra guide line to increase coping skills and need for adequate support system. Right knowledge right action right time can change the life of an individual as well as the society.

  182. Hisham Al-Hammami, Mhd Nezar Alsharif, Yaser Fawaz, Alnour Soliman, Hayat Abdulhadi and Nour Al-midany

    Objective: This research aimed to determine the efficacy of Bi-Parietal Diameter (BPD) by ultrasound in estimating the Gestational Age (GA) compared to GA by Naegele’s rule using Last menstrual period (LMP) date. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of women with a normal spontaneously conceived viable singleton pregnancy, a regular menstrual cycles, and spontaneous onset of labor at term. The LMP was considered certain in all cases. We used ultrasound to scan 2067 fetuses (894 healthy women) and we had 1586Bi-Parietal Diameter (BPD) measurements. Data were collected prospectively and used for statistical analysis. We used Descriptive Statistics to calculate the Mean, Standard Deviation (SD), Median and Percentiles values (3rd, 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th, 95th, and 97th) for BPD measurements on gestational age. We found a regression equation to estimate the GA using BPD measurements. The results of the current study were compared with different studies using the Paired Differences (t-test analysis). The results were represented as tables & diagrams. Results: The best-fit equation for the estimate of GA from BPD (in mm) was: = 7.567 + 0.236 (BPD)i – 1.02*10-4(BPD)i2 + 1.08*10-5 (BPD)i3 The Mean Sum of Squares of regression deviations of the GA regression model using (BPD) was 36939.5 and this value is significant at P <0.001. The standard error of the Estimate (Std.Error) and the standard deviation (SD) for the GA regression model (using BPD measurements) was 1.38 and (0.8, 1.1, 1.4, 1.6, 1.7) weeks when the GA were (12-18, 18-24, 24-30, 30-36, 36-42), respectively. Conclusion: In this study, we presented diagrams and tables for the estimation of GA using BPD measurements in a group of pregnant Syrian women. These results can be useful in women who cannot recall their last menstrual period (LMP). Our criteria will provide useful references for estimating gestational age and fetal care. A larger study might be needed to include a larger sample of the population.

  183. Siraj DA Khan, Nilotpol Kashyap, Brij Kumar, Purshottam Jasuja, Nupur Jain and Mukesh Kumar Kashyap

    Cherubism is a rare autosomal-dominant inherited syndrome and is usually self-limiting. It starts in early childhood and involutes by puberty. It is a benign fibroosseous disease, characterized by excessive bone degradation of jaws followed by development of fibrous tissue masses. The purpose of this clinical report is to describe a rare and aggressive form of cherubism on a patient that has been treated by gingivectomy and gingivoplasty to correct the gingival defects and the bone defect was allowed to correct by itself to increase the patient’s quality of life.

  184. Moumita Chattaraj, Sanchita Kundu, Sk. Abdul Mahmud, Mousumi Pal and Indrani Bhattacharya

    Background and Objective: The objective of the study was to identify the predominant oral microbes associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma in their pre and post radiotherapeutic status. Materials and Methods: A total no of 40 patients were selected, having squamous cell carcinoma and not receiving any treatment. Swabs are collected from the ulcerated area and microbiological evaluation was performed. Swabs were again collected from the same patient receiving radiotherapy as treatment modality just one month ago. The microbes were identified by gram stain and biochemical test. Results: The results suggested both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were colonized over the surface of the ulcer, but the distinguishing feature between these two groups that after radiotherapy the % of bacterial count (especially the anaerobes) markedly diminished. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results that, the diseased individuals suffering from Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in their pre-radiotherapeutic status showed the presence of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Klebsiella and Bacillus subtilis, Actinomycetes, Fusobacterium in higher concentration, whereas in post radiotherapy phase more or less the same group of microbes were found, but in a significantly reduced amount. This was because of the fact- the removal of the tumour mass as well as effect of radiotherapy.

  185. Dr. Ulhas E. Tandale, Dr. Jitendra J. Mete, Dr. Shankar P. Dange, Dr. Sonali S. Dahiwale and Dr. Vilas L. Rajguru

    Aim: Evaluation and comparison of the transverse strength of three provisionalfixed partial dental prostheses materials of different chemical composition with varying thickness. Material and Methods: Total ninety samples of three different sizes (35mm x10mm x1mm; 35mm x10mm x1.5mm; and 35mm x10mm x2mm) were fabricated in three provisional fixed partial dental prostheses materials of different chemical composition (Revotek LC, Protemp 3, and DPI PMMAresin). All the samples were stored at room temperature for twenty-four hours in artificial saliva before testing. All the specimens were subjected to three-point bending tests by using universal testing machine at cross head speed of 1mm/min to evaluate transverse strength. One-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls test was used for stastically analyzing the results. Results: Protemp 3 exhibited superior transverse strength at any given thickness when compared with the other two materials. DPI autopolymerising PMMA resin showed least transverse strength amongst the three groups. Conclusion: Protemp 3 can be usedfor provisional long span fixed partial dental prostheses in both anterior and posterior regions. DPI and Revotek LC materials should be restricted for temporization of anterior fixed partial dental prosthesis or posterior short span bridges where less forces are exerted.

  186. GNATO Sia Modeste

    ZadiZaourou and Jean-Marie Adiaffi are part of the new generation of Negro-African writers who use the subversion of the French language to found their existence. This generation proceeds by morphosyntactic distortion and lexical "hybridization" to convey their ideology. The study shows that the deconstruction of linguistic norms is characterized by a constancy, by a morphological and structural heterogeneity in the works. By voluntarily transgressing the rules of good usage and by "coloring" works with African terms, the two authors project the foundations of a new African identity, which must henceforth be characterized by the refusal of servile assimilation and to undo the inferiority complex.

  187. Dr. Bharti Sharma, Dr. Subhash Sharma, Dr. Avneet Kaur and Dr. Raman Toor

    Dengue is considered globally as the most concerning mosquito borne arboviral disease in terms of morbidity and mortality that places a significant socioeconomic and disease burden on many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Till date, there is no specific treatment which is accepted for dengue fever in Modern Medicine. In Ayurveda, dengue fever can be correlated with Visham Jwara. Various formulations have been mentioned in Jwara Prakaran and also tried, scientifically validated and documented by modern researchers, showing evidence of efficacy. A case study of dengue fever was done which was successfully managed with Ayurvedic medications. The patient showed marked improvement in symptomatology along with hematological profile. So it was concluded that dengue fever can be managed without any side effect in Ayurveda.

  188. Leila Mohammed Ahmed, Abubaker Ahmed Hamad, Mutaz Ibrahim Hassan and Ibrahim Mohammed Eisa

    Background: Some viruses, such as rubella and human cytomegalovirus, are known to cross the placental barrier and infect the fetus. In other cases of maternal viral infections, such as herpes simplex, evidence for transplacental passage is less convincing and fetal damage or neonatal disease may be coincidental or associated with prenatal infection. Certain cases of fetal or neonatal disease following maternal viral infections may be associated with disease in the mother which affects her metabolic processes or the placenta in such a way as to interfere with development of the fetus and infant (Neighbors and Tannehill-Jones, 2010). The possible effects of transplacental viral infections are several. Fetal loss may occur by means of abortion or stillbirth. There may be infection of the fetus, with clinical manifestations such as rash, or without clinical manifestations. The infant may be born with congenital defects, including such deformities as cataracts, cardiac anomalies, mental retardation or cerebral palsy. ( Huong Mc Lean, 2014) Objectives: the aim of this study was to assess the common viral infection as a causative agent in congenital babies in Khartoum state- Sudan. Results: The results of the study revealed presence of Rubella IgM in (10) cases and IgG in (90) cases, Cytomegallo virus IgM in (10%) of cases. HSV-1 IgM was detected in (20%) of cases. HSV-2 IgM is not detected in all cases while HSV-2 IgG is positive in 10 cases. All viruses in study Assimilation 40% of Congenital babies causative Agents. In 80% of positive cases related to Rubella (IgM) there were maternal Antibodies (IgG). In Cytomegallo virus IgM; (7) of (10) cases there were maternal Antibodies (IgG). In HSV-1 IgM all (20) cases there were maternal Antibodies (IgG); 100% of cases has maternal Abs). Conclusions: There were presumptive evidences that the maternal viral infection is considered as a common causative agent for congenital anomalies in Sudan.

  189. Waled Faris Abdulqader

    76 patient was included in this study, 48 female and 28 male, 62 patient was in phase 2 and 14 patient in phase 1. The age of the patients ranging from 43 – 71 year. All patients were idiopathic i.e (no associated disease). All the patients were examined by active and passive movements of the affected shoulder joint.The diagnosis of frozen shoulder was made depending on history, examination and X-Ray was taken to reveal out other pathology. Mean simple shoulder test (SST) score for 14 patients in phase 1 before cortisone injection and physiotherapy was 48.77% and after 4 month became 91.1%. Mean simple shoulder test (SST) score for 44 patients 27.2% and became 86.04% after cortisone injection and physiotherapy. Mean simple shoulder test (SST) score for 18 patients 27.2% and became 43.4% after cortisone injection and physiotherapy.

  190. Lakshmi Thakkalapally, Sagar Pamu and Balakrishna Vuyyala

    The availability of potent combination of antiretroviral regimens has resulted in a dramatic reduction in HIV-1 associated morbidity and mortality in the developed world. However, HIV infection and treatment has been associated with the development of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of raltegravir (antiHIV drug) on pharmacodynamic activity of sitagliptin (antidiabetic drug) in normal and diabetic rats with respect to insulin levels. Alloxan-induced diabetic model in rats has been used in this study. In normal rats and diabetic rats the levels of insulin were calculated at 3 hr and 8 hr. The insulin levels were found to be similar in the groups of sitagliptin control and after single dose and multiple dose treatment of raltegravir in normal rats. The insulin levels of diabetic rats did not reduce significantly in single and multiple dose treatment of raltegravir when compared to sitagliptin control. The results confirm the absence of pharmacodynamic interaction of sitagliptin with acute and chronic administration of raltegravir.

  191. Ngaujah Samuel, Chu Ran, Malide Minati and Koroma TheresaRuba

    Background: Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy (AFLP) is a rare but potently fatal complication that occurs in the third trimester or the immediate postpartum period. It is a sudden catastrophic illness hence an obstetric emergency that is associated with a higher maternal and fetal mortality if diagnosis is hampered. Objectives: The aim of this study is to explore potential risk factors influencing fetal outcome and survival. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of 33 patients with a diagnosis of Acute fatty liver of pregnancy between 2009 and 2014 in our institution (Qilu Hospital of Shandong University) was performed. Fetal outcome were analyzed under different variables using Windows Microsoft Excel 2010. Results: Average maternal age of these 33 women was 27.03 ± 4.85 years and average age of with mothers Intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) was 26.66±3.05 years. Mean gestational age was 35.5±2.8 weeks. AFLP was frequently seen in Gestational age less than 36 weeks, multigravids, primiparas, women carrying male fetuses and singleton pregnancies. Fetal death was frequent in nulliparous mothers and male fetuses. Conclusion: Gestational age less than 36 weeks, primigravidity, male fetus, singleton pregnancy might all be risk factors for fetal mortality, while multigravida, is a potential risk factor for AFLP onset. Nulliparity and male fetus might be potential risk factors for both AFLP onset and fetal mortality associated with AFLP.

  192. Bshayer N.Wali, Ibtesam K. Afifi Jihan F. Balata and Nadia A. Badr

    This study aimed atpreparation of an experimental mouthwash from Siwak sticks, and compare it with the gold standard mouthwash; chlorohexidine (CHX), regarding the effectiveness on some bacteria responsible for dental plaque formation qualitatively and quantitatively. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Makkah, Faculty of dentistry, Umm Al-Qura University. Twenty female patients with gingivitis and/or periodontitis, aged 20-40 years, systemically free were selected. An aqueous extract of Miswak was prepared by grinding Siwak sticks. The ground powder was soaked in distilled water for 48 hrs, filtered and dried. The filtrate was added in concentration of 10% to preservative, sweetener, freshness, surfactant, Co-surfactant and purified water. CHX was used as control. Plaque index (PI) was determined using modified Quigley-Hein plaque index and plaque samples were collected using sterile wooden toothpicks for microbiologic analysis using Caries Risk Test (CRT) for counting Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli. Then, the investigated mouthwashes were used twice daily for two weeks during which patients were instructed to perform regular oral hygiene measures. At the end of investigation period, PI was redetermined and bacterial plaque samples were collected again. For qualitative assessment of the mouthwashes, a subjective questionnaire was answered by the selected patients. Results: There is always substantial improvement of PI and significant reduction in bacterial counts after the use of both mouthwashes. Conclusion: An experimental Siwak mouthwash proved comparable effect in diminishing (PI) and reduction in counts of bacteria aid in dental plaque formation. The experimental mouthwash; Siwak, proved better patient's tolerance than CHX.

  193. Dr. Prashant Nahar, Dr. Deeptanshu Daga, Dr. Mohit Pal Singh, Dr. Bhuvaneshwari, S. and Dr. Bipin A. Ruva Annawar

    Cementoblastoma is a true cemental neoplasm characterized by proliferation of cementum-like tissue and in almost all cases tends to be associated with an erupted permanent tooth, most often the first molar. The lesion appears as a well defined bulbous periapical radiopacity with a well-defined radiolucent band with intact crown, external resorption of its roots and amorphous pattern of the trabeculae. Because of the characteristics of cementoblastoma, the CBCT images are a resource of fundamental importance for evaluation of pathognomonic features.

  194. Dr. Tushar Shah, Dr. Mehul Patel and Dr. Yamini Patel

    Aims and Objectives: To study the effects of Inj. LMWH and Progesteron given to improve the outcome in women with unexplained pregnancy loss irrespective of its etiology (luteal phase defect, endocrinopathy, immunological disorders) Material and Method: In this prospective observational study 60 pregnant women of reproductive age group with a history of two or more previous unexplained pregnancy loss before 20 weeks of gestation with live birth or no live births prior to reccurent losses coming at civil hospital Ahmedabad during study period of Jun 2016 to November 2017 who received LMWH; enoxaparin (n=30) and progesterone or nothing (n=30) were followed for the pregnancy outcome measures. 30 patients out of 60 were given inj.LMWH 60mg sc. Every alternate day till delivery and Tab. Micronised progrsterone in first trimester. Another 30 patients were given nothing except conservative routine antenatal treatment. Conclusion: Thromboprophylaxis with LMWH resulted in a improved live-birth rate in patient with 2 or more consecutive unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss irrespective of mode of delivery whether vaginal delivery or Cesarean delivery. Nevertheless these findings need to be confirmed in larger randomized trials.

  195. Savita More, Sarika Lokhande, Namita Phalke and Ashwini Khule

    The main objective of drug delivery system to the eye is to improve existing ocular dosage forms and exploit newer drug delivery system for improving the therapeutic efficiency. The present study was to prepare & evaluate Voriconazole Niosome using non ionic surfactant like Span 60, Tween 80 & Brijj 30 in the presence of cholesterol & a negative charge inducer dicetyl phosphate (DCP) in different molar ratios & by employing a thin film hydration technique & were investigated morphology, entrapment efficacy, zeta potential, particle size, in-vitro release, physical stability, antifungal activity The entrapment efficiency (EE %) & in-vitro drug release of all formulation follows decreasing order: Span 60>Tween80> Brijj 30.The formulation VN-2 (1:1:1) molar ratio of Span 60, cholesterol & DCP gave the most advantageous entrapment (84.08±1.00 %) & release rate(Q 8h = 84.34±2.09%) as compared to other compositions. The study concluded that the Voriconazole loaded niosomes to be effective in sustaining the drug release leading to decreased side effects & increased patient compliance.

  196. Dr. Jawahar Mehmood Khan and Dr. Jabreel Muzaffar

    Introduction: Congenital TalipesEquino Varus (CTEV) is a commonly seen complex congenital deformity of the foot, with an incidence of approximately 1 in 1000 live births. Over the past two decades, Ponseti management has become accepted throughout the world as the most effective and least expensive treatment of clubfoot. About 85% of the cases treated with the Ponseti technique require percutaneous sectioning of the tendoachilles for correction of residual equinus deformity. The sectioning of the tendoachilles is simple, effective and involves low risks. Originally, as described by Ponseti, tenotomy is performed using a tenotomy blade, such as a #11 or #15, or any other small blade, such as an ophthalmic knife. However, complications related to the procedure, such as excessive bleeding, formation of a pseudoaneurysm and neurovascular injuries, were described. To avoid these rare but serious complications, many modifications such as mini-open tenotomy and needle tenotomy, have been developed. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in the Department of Orthopaedics, Govt Medical College Jammu from November 2015 to October 2016. All the children with CTEV presenting during this period were treated by the Ponseti casting technique. Only the cases with idiopathic CTEV were included in the present study. Results: Between November 2015 and October 2016, twenty five patients with idiopathic clubfoot presented to department. Out of them, fourteen (56%) were male and eleven (44%) were females, sixteen (64%) have unilateral and nine(36%) had bilateral club foot. Out of these twenty five, twenty one (84%) were managed successfully. In case of two (8%) patients percutaneous needle tenotomy failed. Due to poor and faulty application of D-B splint and irregular follow up, (8%) patients developed relapse of the deformity. There were no cases of blister formation, excessive bleeding, psuedoaneurysm formation or neurovascular compromise. Conclusion: In this study we performed the modified technique of tenotomy with a wide bore needle, as described by Minkowitz et al, as we consider this technique easy, simple, cost effective, and with fewer complication rates.

  197. Ali Alsolami, Rachel Wagstaff, Shradha M Patel, Terilyn Viray and Jack Saddemi

    Objectives: The safety and walkability of a school neighborhood can influence the health of children, yet few studies have attempted to quantify and compare these objectively. This paper will assess safety and walkability using total crime indices and Walk Score in three areas within Miami-Dade County, Fl. Methods: Schools in Hialeah, Pinecrest, and Miami Beach were selected based on average income levels and assessed based on total crime index and Walk Score. Using Tableau 10.4, these measures were mapped. Results: Hialeah’s selected area represented the lowest total crime index of 96 and the median average Walk Score of 55. Pinecrest’s included the highest total crime index of 337 and the lowest average Walk Score of 32. Miami Beach’s area depicted the middle total crime index value at 215, with the highest average Walk Score of 86. Conclusions: The average Walk Score did not seem to have any relation to total crime index and areas were not more walkable nor safer in the highest income neighborhood.

  198. Hatim Mohammed A ALShareef, Ahmed Abdu A. Alharbi, Hajar Mohammed A. Halawani, 3Faiz Felemban and 1Mohammed Felemban

    Background: Bilateral posteriorfracture dislocation is a rare injury when compared to unilateral anterior dislocation. It was first described in 1971 by Shaw and most of the reported cases are secondary to seizures. Case presentation: We present a rare case of a 72 years old man who presented to the emergency department with bilateral posterior fracture dislocation of proximal humerus following a simple fall with no previous history of any seizures, CVA, previous falls or trauma to the shoulder, his ECG holter monitor showed intermittent profound sinus bradycardia that was thought to be the cause of his syncope prior the incidence. Patient was treated with bilateral shoulder hemi arthroplasty , a pacemaker was inserted andthe patients was discharged in a stable condition.Follow up after 4 weeks post operatively revealed gradual improvement in range of motion with no complications. Conclusion: Bilateral posterior dislocation of the proximal humerus complicating syncope are rare. Profound sinus bradycardia is the likely cause for the fracture dislocations in our patient and this had not been reported before.

  199. Balamurugan Ulaganathan, Anurag Ayachit and Rajagopal Kadavigere

    Context: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an advanced MR technique that describes the movement of water molecules by using two metrics, mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA), which represent the magnitude and directionality of water diffusion, respectively. We hypothesize that alterations in these values within the tissue surrounding brain tumours reflect combinations of increased water content and tumor infiltration and that these changes can be used to differentiate high-grade gliomas from metastatic lesions. Aim: To differentiate between vasogenic and infiltrative edema using FA and MD values. Settings and Design: This is a prospective study, conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal. Number of study subjects were 30 patients. Methods and Material: • Imaging was performed on a 1.5T Philips Achieva MRI machine using a head coil. • DTI images was then acquired to allow comparison of the results. Statistical analysis used: Student independent t-test. Results: For perilesional FA values, p-value is 0.003, statistically significant for differentiating glioma and metastasis. The cut-off value is 0.174, above which is high grade glioma and below is metastasis. Sensitivity is 78.6 % and specificity is 73%. For perilesional MD values, p-value is 0.138, not statistically significant for differentiating glioma and metastasis. Conclusion: The FA value changes surrounding gliomas, can be attributed not only to increased water content, but also to tumor infiltration.

  200. Ardhendu Kumar Mandal

    In spite of rapid advances in the development of pharmaceutical medicines, the targeting of drugs to host macrophage, the key cell responsible for body’s defense as well as immune response against invading Leishmania parasite, the causative agent for kala-azar or leishmaniasis, still remains unexplored. Perturbation of macrophage surface by parasites leads to activate oxidative burst and signal transduction for the interaction of host-parasite i.e. macrophage with Leishmania parasite. Amastigotes residing within macrophage phagolysomal compartment are the pivotal target for anti-leishmanial treatment. In general, free drugs cannot overpower main configurational barriers. Moreover, restrictions on ongoing therapy regarding toxicity, efficiency, cost, and duration of treatment may influence in enhanced parasitic resistance. Therefore, vesicular (liposomal and nanoparticulated) drug deliveries have emerged as alternative conventional approach for having not only their improved bioavailability, non-immunogenecity, reduced toxicity and higher carrier capacity but also for promoting encapsulated drug release in parasite-loaded intracellular macrophage cell in a sustained manner.

  201. Dr. Shristi Butta, Dr.Mallika Pal, Dr. Susmita Mukhopadhayay, Dr. Indranil Das, Dr. Rathin Hazra, Dr. Suman Ghosh, Dr. Rajib kumar Mondal and Dr. Anup Kumar Roy

    Background: Meningiomas are traditionally considered as benign tumours with an aggressive potential. Utilization of markers for proliferation and neoangiogenesis in combination with hormone receptor study can aid in the identification of a subset of biologically aggressive and morphologically benign tumours. Aim: The study aims at determining the potential role of Ki 67, PR and VEGF in assessing the tumour behavior. Material and Method: This observational study included 50 patients who underwent surgery for meningioma at our hospital during the period of February 2016 to July 2017. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks were prepared and subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining. Immunohistochemical staining was done for Ki-67, PR, VEGF and CD34 using standard immunoperoxidase techniques. Results: Ki 67 LI was higher in males as compared to females, in grade II and grade III as compared to grade I, in recurrent cases as compared to nonrecurrent cases and in PR negative cases as compared to PR positive ones. VEGF was also strongly expressed in high grade and recurrent meningiomas. However, few cases of grade I meningiomas revealed a stronger VEGF expression and a higher Ki67 LI as compared to the conventional grade I meningiomas, probably due to the increased likelihood of future recurrence and malignancy in such cases. Conclusion: Ki 67 and PR bear an inverse correlation with respect to the grading of meningiomas. Further, VEGF also has a potential role in assessing the aggressiveness of meningiomas and in instituting targeted management of meningiomas.

  202. Dr. Kumkum Rajawat

    This paper is discussed about the consortia and how it is providing a great effect on the libraries and its particular users. Journals and other E journals are though producing at high speed still for the insufficient budget a library cannot be able to procure their demanded resources. With the help of consortia it is able to disseminate the maximum information to the library users. The consortium has grown up due to budget insufficiency, demanding variety of information needs, better and effective utilization of resources. Consortia are all about sharing resources and improving access to information. We are sharing own library resources through inter library loan, but in this Information communication technology (ICT) age it has gained momentum even in the developing countries. When library consortiums are formed, the existing environment about users’ preferences and difficulties need to be studied. This Paper Describe the Library Consortia in India

  203. Jahnavi Bhagat, Harshal Modh, Sofiya Kapasi, Akshata Gailot and Dr. Gabriela Fernandes

    In recent times, probiotics have been brought to notice, by a lot of researchers. The paradigm has now been shifted from the elimination of specific bacteria’s to altering the bacterial ecology of the oral cavity, all of which can be achieved by probiotics. Live micro-organisms which are resident flora of the oral cavity act as probiotics in the treatment of periodontal diseases and even beneficial for extra-oral/general health. Hence the incorporation of probiotics in the daily diet may significantly aid in reducing or delaying periodontal disease initiation/progression.

  204. Manjunadh Muraleedharan and Junaid Nabi

    Despite rapid development in most medical branches, Psychiatry has been slow in adapting to changes and is gradually losing its footing. The areas which were previously considered under the domains of psychiatry are slowly been taken over by other branches of medical Science. This article tries to express the need of mental health professionals to be vigilant and adapting to periodic changes in medical science.

  205. Senthil Kumar Kannan, Dhachinamorthi Duraisamy and Yajaman Sudhakar

    The ocular conventional formulation shows poor ocular bioavailability due to the precorneal elimination of drugs that includes rapid tear turnover, poor permealibility of drugs into the corneal membrane, naso lacrimal drainage and less residence time in the conjuctival sac. This poor ocular bioavailability need to be improved by frequent instillation of dose to achieve the therapeutic effect. Nanotechnology is one of the better approaches to overcome challenges of conventional ocular drug delivery. The nanotechnology related ocular products available in the market are limited and nanotechnology is still in its earlier stage in drug delivery. Hence polymeric ocular nanosuspension is one of the strategies currently used to improve drug absorption across biological membranes. Nanoprecipitation technique (NPTN) is easy, less energy consuming, and widely applicable without any additives for the manufacture of desirable size nanoparticles. The Nanosuspension formed by diffusion of drug and polymer containing solvent into the anti solvent, the polymer droplets immediately precipitate or adsorbed with drugs. The rapid nanoparticle formation is described by marangoni effect, which is subjected to interfacial turbulences that occur at the interface of the solvent and the anti solvent. Nanosuspension can be further sterilized and subsequently evaluate for various parameters like particle size, drug release, zeta potential character. This review article mainly focused on conventional nanoprecipitation, modified nanoprecipitation technology and effect variables in nanosuspension preparation.

  206. Dr. Divya Devidas Naik, Dr. Nitesh Kumar Srivastava, Dr. Vasanta R Digole and Dr. Anusar Gupta

    An Andrews bridge takes the benefits of fixed and removable prostheses while doing away with their shortcomings. A reduced denture bulk and mucosal coverage with good retention ensures patient comfort. An Andrews bridge is also physiologically viable since it acts as a stress breaker and reduces harmful leverage forces on the abutments.The aim of the present article is to describe a case having multiple missing mandibular anterior teeth compounded by advanced horizontal and vertical bone loss, restored successfully by using fixed-removable Andrews's bridge system.

  207. Dr. Anuradha Kote, Dr. Ajinkya Deshmukh and Dr. Atul Deshmukh

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity. The prognosis and five year survival rate of OSCC has not improved over a decade. Many factors have been proposed which induce tumor formation, tumor progression and metastasis in OSCC. Mast cells have prominent role in tumor progression and metastasis. Mast cells contains proteases namely tryptase and chymase. These proteases degrade the extracellular matrix. This proteolytic activity promotes angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Thus, mast cells can be used as therapeutic targets to improve the prognosis and overall survival of the OSCC cases. We evaluated density of mast cells using anti mast cell tryptase antibody. The density of mast cells in OSCC is significantly greater in OSCC as compared to normal oral mucosa. Localization of mast cells is predominantly seen surrounding vascular channels and infiltrating tumor islands.

  208. Rashmee Chavan, Sandeep Kadam and Girish, I. R.

    Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation is integral part of anaesthesia, which is associated with sudden rise in heart rate, blood pressure, intracranial tension which is harmful in patients with poor cardiac reserve. We conducted study in 150 normotensive patients of ASA 1, 2 who are divided in three equal group of 50 each.Group C, Group E, Group D received normal saline, inj esmolol 2mg/kg, and inj diltiazem. 2mg/kg respectively 3 minutes before laryngoscopy. We measured heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean blood pressure as baseline before induction of anaesthesia,then after induction and 1,3,5, and 10 minutes after laryngoscopy and intubation. We observed for rise or fall in all parameters. Our results are calculated by paired, unpaired ‘t’ test and ‘chi square’ test. Result showed that there is maximum attenuation of all parameters in esmolol group followed by diltiazem group, control group demonstrated maximum rise in all parameters. Thus we can conclude that esmolol offers better attenuation of haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation than diltiazem without any side effect

  209. Dr. Sushma, K. N. and Dr. Santosh Kumar

    The pyogenic granuloma is a distinctive clinical entity originating as a response of the tissues to a non specific infection. It is of particular significance because of its common intra oral occurrence and because of its sometimes alarming clinical course. This article is a case report of such a lesion with its clinical and radiological features along with the treatment rendered with figures explaining the same.

  210. Gonçalo Sarmento, Beatriz Frutuoso, Andreia Seixas, Tiago Teixeira, Margarida Mota

    The Lyell Syndrome is a severe toxicodermy, rare, characterized by fever, cutaneous necrosis, and epidermal desquamation in over 30% of the body, including mucositis. It is a late anaphylactic reaction caused mainly by pharmacies. The authors present a case of a woman, aged 22, VIH positive at A1 stage, medicated during 5 days, the 15 days before admission, with carbamazepine (CMZ) for a trigeminal neuralgia, admitted to the emergency room (ER) with fever (40ºc) and a generalized cutaneous rash including hand palm, oral, genital and eye mucous membranes. Blood cultures and serology were negative. The rash kept evaluating despite the beginning of corticotherapy, with the appearance of skin detachment, Nikolsky sign and uncontrolled pain. At the 5th day of admission, the patient entered in Toxic Shock, with multiorgan dysfunction, and was transferred to a Burn Unit (IBU), where she died with a septic shock caused by Acinetobacter baumanni bactaeriemia.

  211. Dr. J. R. Gade, Dr. Ashish Naik, Dr. Vandana Gade, Dr. Prajakta Thool and Dr. Aushili Mahule

    Human quest for knowledge has led us to myriad of innovations in the field of science to that extent that the future era is of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science dealing with the research at the nanoscale. It has been shown that the performances of many biomaterials used in prosthodontics have been significantly enhanced after their scales were reduced by nanotechnology, from micron-size into nanosize. On the other hand, many nanocomposites composed of nanomaterials and traditional metals, ceramics, resin or other matrix materials have been widely used in prosthodontics because their properties, such as modulus of elasticity, surface hardness, polymerization shrinkage and filler loading were significantly improved after the addition of the nanomaterials. This article aims to review all the applications of nanotechnology in the prosthodontics.

  212. Sathvika, T.

    Background: The Mental foramen is an important landmark to facilitate local block, surgical and other dental procedures. The present study is aimed at the morphometric analysis of the mental foramen in dry adult human mandibles. Materials and Methods: Fifty dry adult human mandibles of undetermined age and sex, from the Department of Anatomy, JKKN Dental College were used for the present study. The location, shape and presence of accessory foramen were noted by visual examination. The measurements were taken using a Vernier caliper, ruler, thread and a marker. The SPSS 16 software was used for statistical analysis,to calculate mean, Standard deviation, minimum, maximum and incidence. Results: From the observation most of the mandibles showed the location of Mental foramen, opposite 2nd molar tooth, midway between upper and lower borders, with predominant oval shape on both right and left sides and accessory mental foramina were seen in five mandibles. Conclusion: The knowledge of Mental foramen’s position and variation is important for the dental surgeons especially in placing the dental implants.

  213. Dr. Amit Kumar, Dr. Shivani Parmar, Dr. Archana Nagpal, Dr. Eish Sethi and Dr. Ankur Gautam

    Bio materials are those materials that are accepted by living tissues and can be used for tissue replacements. Dental implants are the most improved treatment for teeth that have been either extracted or have been ejected as a result of periodontal disease. We have engineered a “bio-implant” that provides a living PDL connection for titanium implants. The bioimplant consists of a hydroxyapatite coated titanium screw, ensheathed in cell sheets made from immortalized human periodontal cells. Different biomaterials and various AM technologies can be used to create customized bioimplants to suit the individual needs. With the aid of 3D printing this could lead to new foam and design of bioimplants in the near further

  214. Dr. Rahul, S. and Dr. Kusugal, R. R.

    Background: Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) is a minimally invasive procedure for diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses like chronic sinusitis and polypus rhinosinusitis. Intraoperative bleeding causing poor visibility of surgical field is a major concern during FESS and this may result in many complications. Controlled hypotension is a technique wherein arterial blood pressure is lowered in a deliberate but controlled manner to minimise blood loss and enhance operative field visibility. Aim: To compare the hypotensive efficacies of Nitroglycerin (NTG) and Esmolol (ESM) in terms of changes in heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), duration of surgery and operative field visibilty assessment by surgeon using Average category scale (ACS) or Fromme scale, in patients undergoing FESS under General Anesthesia (GA). Methods: 80 ASA grade I and II patients aged between 18-60 years undergoing FESS under GA were divided into 2 groups of 40 each to receive either Inj. Esmolol 500 µg/kg over 30 seconds followed by infusion at 100-300 µg/kg/min or Inj. NTG at 5-10 µg/kg/min. All patients were premedicated with oral Alprazolam and Ranitidine on the previous night. In the operation theatre, all patients were premedicated with i.v. Glycopyrrolate, i.v. Midazolam and i.v. Fentanyl, and then induced with i.v. Propofol. Laryngoscopy and intubation was facilitated by i.v. Succinyl choline. Anaesthesia was maintained with Isoflurane vapour in balanced nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture and i.v Vecuronium for muscle relaxation. Heart rate, Systolic, Diastolic and Mean arterial blood pressure were assessed at 5, 10, 15 minutes and every 15 minutes from the start of infusion till completion of surgery. Visibility of the surgical field was rated by the surgeon using ACS with 0 being the driest and 5 making surgery impossible. Results: Intraoperative Heart rate was less in Esmolol group compared to NTG group. Both drugs produced desired hypotension but ideal operative conditions were achieved at a higher MAP of 80.5 ± 2.5 mm Hg in ESM group, while same operating conditions were achieved at lower MAP of 70.8 ± 1.2 mm Hg in NTG group. ACS scores were significantly low in ESM group compared to NTG group (p < 0.001). Mean duration of surgery was less in ESM group than NTG group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Both drugs are safe and effective in providing optimal operating conditions but Esmolol is a superior agent to NTG for controlled hypotension in FESS under GA, as it minimizes surgical blood loss, enhances operative field visibility and reduces duration of surgery with minimal reduction in MAP. Absence of reflex tachycardia was the added advantage of ESM over NTG.

  215. Dr. Ramya, K., Dr. Vijaykumar, T. and Kalyanappagol

    Background: Monitored anaesthesia care (MAC) involves administration of local anaesthesia in combination with intravenous sedatives, anxiolytic and/or analgesics, which is a common practice during ENT procedures that are superficial, less invasive and can be done under local anesthesia in well counseled patients. Midazolam has been in use for MAC because of a number of beneficial effects. Recent studies suggest that α2 agonists provide adequate sedation and analgesia and also improve surgical field visibility. Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective α2 agonist is emerging as a preferred choice for MAC. Aim: To compare the efficacy of Inj. Dexmedetomidine and Inj. Midazolam for Middle ear surgeries under Local Anaesthesia with Monitored Anaesthesia Care in terms of sedation, analgesia and hemodynamic stability in the perioperative period. Methods: 96 patients of either sex, aged between 18-60 years of ASA grade I & II undergoing Middle ear surgeries under local anaesthesia with Monitored Anaesthesia Care were divided into two groups of 48 patients each to receive either Inj. Dexmedetomidine (Group D) 1 µg/kg IV bolus over 10 minutes followed by continuous infusion at the rate of 0.5 µg/kg/hr. or Inj. Midazolam (Group M) 40 µg/kg IV bolus over 10 minutes followed by continuous infusion at the rate of 20 µ/kg/hr for sedation during surgery. Sedation as titrated to Ramsay sedation score of 3. Vital parameters like Heart rate, Blood pressure, SpO2, Respiratory rate were recorded every 5 minutes for up to 120 minutes in the intraoperative period and for 120 minutes in post operative period. The need for rescue sedation (Inj. Propofol), rescue analgesic (Inj. Fentanyl) and surgeon satisfaction scores were assessed. Results: Analgesic effect of Dexmedetomidine was better than Midazolam (p<0.001). Sedation was comparable in both groups (p>0.05). Fall in Heart Rate was significantly more in Group D compared to baseline value and compared to Group M. Blood Pressure was maintained within normal limits in both the groups but the fall in SBP, DBP and MAP from baseline value was significantly more in Group D than in Group M (p < 0.05). Surgeon satisfaction scores were significantly higher with Dexmedetomidine compared to Midazolam. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine is a safe and attractive agent for sedation in patients undergoing middle ear surgeries under local anaesthesia with monitored anaesthesia care as it provides a calm patient, causes better analgesia and rapid recovery.

  216. Dr. Amit Kumar Roy, Dr. Santosh T – Reader, Dr. Sanjeet Kumar Das, Dr. Sk Abdul Mahmud and Dr. Neha Shah – Reader

    Eagle’s syndrome is a condition where stylohyoid ligament gets calcified causing an elongation of the styloid process. In 1937, W. W. Eagle first summarised this disorder describ¬ing clinical findings related to an elongated styloid process. Review of literature suggests 4% of the adult population shows an elongated styloid process with 0.16% being symptomatic. It may develop inflammatory changes or impinge on the adjacent arteries or sensory nerve endings causing pain in the cervical region upon head movement. Other subjective symptoms include dysphagia, pharyngeal foreign body sensation and headache. It can be diagnosed with careful clinical evaluation and confirmed with radiographs showing an elongated styloid process. Severity of subjective symptoms dictates the need for surgical excision of the styloid process otherwise reassurance is the primary mode of management. Here, we report a rare case of elongated styloid processes bilaterally in a 52-year-old male.





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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari