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January 2019

  1. Niyomigisha, I., Kasharu, A.K., Sekandi, J. and Mwine, J.

    This paper presents findings of a study undertaken to analyze the influence of socio-economic factors on the extent of women’s willingness to pay back microcredit loans in Uganda under the women guaranteed loans scheme. The study was undertaken between April and June 2018 in central Uganda within the Zirobwe Brac micro finance branches. A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data from a random sample of 75 respondents who consisted of 40 women guaranteed clients and the rest being non WGL clients. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression models were used to analyse the factors that influence women’s willingness to pay back the guaranteed microcredit loans. The results show that majority (98%) of the surveyed respondents were willing to pay back the women guaranteed microcredit loans nevertheless, over 70% were not satisfied with finance services such as interest rates paid and the loan term duration. The results indicate that actually women are paying interest rates of 36% per year, yet would be willing and able to pay 6.5% per year, the loan term duration given is 10 months yet the appropriate one would be 24 months. The results further show that willingness to pay back women guaranteed microcredit loan product is statistically and significantly influenced by increasing total family income, experience in business and frequency of credit officer visits in a month as well as frequency of trainings conducted in a year. However, willingness to payback women guaranteed microcredit loans is statistically and significantly decreased by increasing the number of people living in the household, total annual household expenses, loan owed to other credit providers and distance between residence and bank. Overall, the respondents were willing to pay back women guaranteed loans and thus there is need to promote and scale up access to women guaranteed loans in the communities at an interest rate that is affordable. Also, the duration of the loan should be given much focus as it affects loan recovery. Lastly, the socio economic characteristics like education, number of trainings and visits to clients should be given priority so as to improve recovery and proper utilization of women guaranteed loan.

  2. Engku Nor Kamilah Engku Hassan, Ahmad Shuib, Shazali Johari and Puvaneswaran Kunasekaran

    This paper presents the findings on the development of key attributes that form the local community’s perceived impacts scale of ecotourism development in Tasik Kenyir, Malaysia. The study was guided by the specific objective: to develop a measurement scale that captures the local community’s perceived impacts on ecotourism development in Tasik Kenyir. Attributes from previous researches on perceptions of local community towards ecotourism impacts were combined with newly found factors obtained through initial exploratory investigation on the local community to produce a new set of measurement scale. Questionnaires were distributed to 260 heads of household in three villages in Tasik Kenyir. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to reduce the 46 attributes on perceptions of the communities. The findings of the study indicate that 25attributesare identified to have significant relations on the local community’s perceived impacts scale in ecotourism development; that selected attributes are regrouped into 7 factors. These factors account for 68% of the variances in the data set. The findings of this study can be used to conduct further studies on empowerment of communities in ecotourism development.

  3. Kasharu, A.K., Kizito, E. B., Masanza, M., Jjagwe, J. and Namutebi, A.

    This presents the results of a study that was conducted in central Uganda to expound on the issues of Solanum aethopicum (Nakati) value chain, perception of losses in the supply chain and the consequent solutions to overcome the challenges. The specific objectives of this study in central Uganda were to; (i) identify and map the value chain actors of S. aethiopicum (Nakati) vegetable production and marketing and (ii) evaluate farmers’ perception on issues of vegetable losses in S. aethiopicum supply chain. A PRA was conducted at Namulonge, Kabanyoro, Busukuma and Zirobwe villages on 7th August 2016, 9th August 2016, 10th August 2016 and 12th August 2016, respectively with the farmers to understand the S. aethiopicum actors’ perception of Nakati vegetable losses and mitigating solutions. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to generate the appropriate. The results of value chain actors mapping revealed that there were on average, 60 input suppliers, 41 Nakati farmer groups, 45 wholesale traders, 48 retailers, 3 processors and 63 transporters. On the other hand, during group discussions, members listed a number of vegetables grown in their communities which include Spider plants, Cabbage, Ntuula, Tomatoes, Nakati, Okra, Egg plant, Green pepper, Bugga, and Katunkuma. On an ascending scale where 1 is the most important 10 least important, participants ranked the importance of vegetables. Nakati emerged as the number one vegetable, followed by Ntuula in the second position. The third position is occupied by vegetables Bugga while cabbage are ranked number four. The participants further ranked Katunkuma in a position five and while Aubergine was put in position six. Nakati is a popular vegetable because it grows very fast and is fairly tolerant to water stress situations. Consequently when all other leafy vegetables have dried due to draughts, Nakati fresh leaves are still available for household consumption and sale in local markets. A sizeable number of constraints were highlighted by vegetables producers. The four most highly ranked and reported constraints by farmers include; high inputs costs (34.8%), high post-harvest losses (15.8%) erratic weather (15.6%) and pest and diseases (11.4%). Overall, high post-harvest losses combined with occurrence of pests and diseases are recognized as the major limiting factors in vegetables production. Farmers suggested several solutions to overcome vegetables production constraints. Some are of policy and institutional nature. Worth noting are the four mentioned solutions namely; increase in agro input support system (12.5%), increase availability of improved vegetables varieties (25.3%), subsidy on inputs (10.2%)and request for more training on vegetables husbandry /more extension agents (11.3%).

  4. Kabirdas Ghorpade and Sharda Shinde

    Poor solubility characteristics of curcumin limits its biological application though it possess various activities such as antioxidant, anti inflammatory, antifungal , antibacterial. This study describes the development of the curcumin loaded nano structured lipid carriers for the enhancement of solubility of the curcumin. Particle size is found to be 153.8 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.234 and entrapment efficiency 91.86± 12 and zeta potential 31.1 Mv. Besides the solubility enhancement and increased in vitro dissolution of the nlcs as compaired to drug curcumin is observed. The results of this study promises the curcumin nlcs enhance the drug solubility as well as biloavailability.

  5. Rasha Khalid Abbas and Fatma S. Elsharbasy

    The antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera Aqueous and alcoholic leaf extract the highest concentration of extract is (100 mg/m l) and the lowest one is (12.5 mg/ml) against different four pathogenic organisms Bacillus cereus pseudomonad aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium were carried out by using a disc diffusion technique. In aqueous leaf extract of Moringa the highest antibacterial activity was detected against Escherichia coli in all different concentration of Moringa and the lowest inhibition zone against pseudomonad aeruginosa), In alcoholic leaf extract the highest antibacterial activity was detected against pseudomonad aeruginosa and Escherichia coli and the lowest inhibition zone against Salmonella typhimurium). The antibacterial activity of the synthetic antibiotics, (Ciprofloxacin, Tetracycline Ceftriaxone, Chloramphenicol and Gentamycin, were tested by the disc diffusion method, and by measuring zones of inhibition, shows that the highest activity of antibiotic against bacteria was due to the action of ciprofloxacin,. among all antibiotic and the lowest activity was due to the action of Tetracycline, the highest inhibition zone among the bacteria by antibiotic against Salmonella typhimurium and the lower inhibition zone against Bacillus cereus, all Aqueous and alcoholic leaf extract of Moringa have high activity against Escherichia coli, .so that there was no different between antibiotic and Moringa leaf extract against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus in this study.

  6. Ayşen Melda Çolak and Hakan Çulha

    Rapidly increasing population and industrialization, pollution of the earth's atmosphere, underground and aboveground sources, chemicals that are added to and accumulated in the consumables, unnecessary and overuse of medical drugs disrupt human health, adversely affect the quality of life and shorten life-expectancy. In recent years, societies, with the effect of the research done on the usefulness of the foods they have found tasty, have started to enrich their diets with fruit species that will protect them from harmful environmental conditions and substances and help them to control and stop these harmful effects and have raised their awareness of natural diet and quality life. This awareness has lead peoples of the world to the consumption of particular fruit species. These fruits are popular fruits. It is possible to define the popular fruit species in the world as fruit species which are known by the majority of the world nations, which are appealing to their tastes, which are produced by many countries in the world and which have the greatest amount of production and export. In the current study, it is aimed to determine which fruit species are popular and are in the way of becoming popular, their features and the reasons that make these fruit species popular; thus, to reveal their spreading patterns and potentials.

  7. Tomoyuki Nishizaki

    In the earlier study, the newly synthesized anticancer drug HUHS1015 decreased pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) in MKN45 human gastric cancer cells due to autophagic degradation. The present study was conducted to gain further insight into the mechanism underlying HUHS105-induced autophagic degradation of PKM2. HUHS1015 phosphorylated at Thr172 and activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). HUHS1015, alternatively, phosphorylated at Thr180/Tyr182 and activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). HUHS1015-induced decrease of PKM2 was cancelled by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C or combination of the MAP kinase kinase (MAP2K) inhibitor PD98059 and the p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Taken together, these results indicate that HUHS1015 activates AMPK and the effector p38MAPK, which triggers autophagic degradation, to decrease PKM2 in MKN45 cells.

  8. Rahul S. Patil, Laxmi H. Shetty, Satvic C. M., Vijaykumar J. R., Raghu T.R., Manjunath C.N., Jayashree Kharge, Nataraj Setty, Sathwik Raj, Geetha B. K., Vikrant Vijan and Tony Raj

    AIMS To study the uniqueness of Premature coronary artery disease in Indians with respect to clinical behaviour, risk factor profile, and treatment response. METHODS Registered under Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI/2018/03/012544). This is a Prospective Multisite Descriptive Observational study of young Indians (≤ 40yrs) with CAD from index admission till 5yrs follow-up. The clinical presentation, line of management, angiographic profile, Hospital course, and clinical follow up for next 5yrs will be documented All patients will be provided Integrated cardiology care starting at hospital admission and continued during follow up. CONCLUSION Findings may be used to form risk-prediction models for young Indians and provide longitudinal clinical follow-up data of long-term outcomes of different treatment strategies

  9. Christopher Immanuel, W., Paul Mary Deborrah, S., Inbanathan, S.S.R. and Nithyaa Sree, D.

    The polycrystalline chalcogenide semi-conductors play a vital role in solar cell due to their flattering optical properties. Among the chalcogenide semi-conductors, CdZnS is one of such kind of materials, which is an imperative for applications in various modern solid state devices such as solar cells, light emitting diode, detector etc. Due to their applications in assortment of electro-optic devices, group II-VI semiconductors have been studied extensively. In recent years, major attention is given to the study of electrical and optical properties of CdZnS thin films. In this work, Cd1-xZnxS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique. Phase purity and surface morphology properties were analyzed using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Chemical composition was studied using energy dispersive spectrophotometer (EDAX). Optical band gap property was investigated using UV-Spectroscopy. This work reports the effect of Zn on structural, optical properties of these films.

  10. Bhaskar Jyoti Das

    The Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), is primarily bounded to the north-eastern parts of India. Formerly the animal dwelled along the Gangetic plains but now more than 70% of the Indian Rhino population is mainly confined to Assam. Kaziranga National Park, being the largest protected site and home for Indian Rhino in Assam, witnessed terrifying poaching cases in the early years, despite its top-notch security. A distressing sum of 239 Indian Rhinos were killed by poachers from the year 2001 to 2016 due to which the Indian Rhinoceros fell into the category of vulnerable species. Rhino horn is usually considered as an aphrodisiac in the neighbouring countries and could fetch a large sum of money from the international black markets. Beside the poaching cases, many Rhinos get drowned in the yearly floods occurring in Assam almost every year after the monsoons. Assam government took many rigid steps for safeguarding the Rhinos such as appointing more forest guards, setting up surveillance cameras, creating special task forces and joining hands with IRF and IRV 2020 for translocation of Rhinos to safer places. As a result of the rigorous conservation practices, the Rhino count saw an uplift of 2413 Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park in the year 2018. Now Assam counts for 2645 Rhinos, with Kaziranga National Park holding highest number of the animal followed by Manas National Park, Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary and Orang National Park.

  11. Gitanjali Devi

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are the most damaging pest in agriculture throughout the world. Biological control offers a striking alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Nematophagous fungi are one of the biocontrol agents for suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes. Among the nematophagous fungi, Beauveria bassiana has shown some promise of the use of fungi. This review updates about the recent progress in biocontrol of plant-parasitic nematodes through the utilization of Beauveria bassiana and their possible mechanism of action to further enhance our understanding about the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  12. Kiffôpan B. M’BARI, Biégo G. GRAGNON, Dofara SORO and Julien DOANNIO

    This study was conducted in northern Côte d’Ivoire to investigate pig gastrointestinal parasites infections. For this purpose, a total of 210 faecal samples were collected from 5 localities of Korhogo’s department to inventory gastrointestinal parasites species and to determine their infections prevalences taking account risk factors as sex, age group and locality. Out of 210 faecal samples, 75 animals were found to be positive with various gastrointestinal parasites infections contributing an overall prevalence of 35.71%. The results revealed that eight parasites taxa were prevalent during the study period including Hyostrongylus rubidus (17.14%), Globocephalus urosubulatus (10%), Eimeria sp (8.10%), Ascaris suum (6.13%), Strongyloides spp (3.33%), Oesophagostomum dentatum (3.33%), Stephanurus dentatus (2.38%) and Trichuris spp (1.43%). Among sampling localities, the highest overall pigs gastrointestinal infection prevalence (44.44%) was observed in Tioro subprefecture while the lowest (27.66%) were noticed in Sohouo’s one. Those results showed that Gastro-intestinal parasites are widely spread in the studied areas of Korhogo region during dry season.

  13. Deorankar, A. V. and Tejaswini V. Deshmukh

    Cloud computing is modifying the way many organizations are managing their data, because of its robustness. Privacy concerns come up whenever sensitive data is transferred on to the cloud. A simple method for protecting data privacy of data is to apply certain privacy techniques on data, and then uploading the modified data on cloud. The privacy methods used in existing research shows that privacy violation of data for cloud computing happens by external or internal attackers. In proposed system such issues are solved using various privacy protection methods also this system has three models, which initially have zero trust among them. Multi-level image fusion technique is used for generating a strong and secure key that will be given by the transaction manager to the user whenever required. In this way proposed system will provide much better privacy and security of the data in cloud and provide a better secure access of data.

  14. Mahmood Kahtan Salih

    Candesartan (CV-11974) is the active compound of the prodrug candesartan cilexetil (TCV-116) used in treatment of hypertension by selective blockade of Angiotensin II receptors and thus inhibits the effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system. Chemical modification of the hit compound (CV-11194) yielded the lead compound (CV-11974) which passed through series of in vitro and in vivo studies successfully. The preclinical studies of CV-11974 and its prodrug shown that it was safe and did not cause serious adverse effects therefore TCV-116 was eligible for clinical trials which was firstly done in healthy individuals then involved wider group of patients with different cardiovascular conditions.

  15. Yohannes Tadesse Asnakew, Shibru Temesgen and Kasim Mohammed Yesuf

    This paper focuses on the environmental determinants of child mortality in Ethiopia. The data for this study were obtained from the demographic and health survey conducted in 2014. It specifically examines how child mortality is related to the household's environmental characteristics, such as mother's education, source of drinking water, type of toilet used, type of cooking fuels, antenatal visit and place of delivery. A survival analysis was used to analyze the determinants of child mortality. As expected the Kaplan-Meier estimation show that most of the deaths occurred at first birth day of life. As the result of this we employed Cox proportional hazard and weibull regression models to select factors affecting child mortality in Ethiopia. According to the Cox proportional hazard and weibull regression models, mothers' education, source of drinking water, type of toilet used, antenatal visit, place of delivery and type of cooking fuel were found to have significant impact on child mortality in Ethiopia. Child's mother who had primary, secondary and above educational level were lower risk of mortality than mothers' who had no education level and children whose parents use non-improved source of drinking water have less survival chance than those who use improved source of drinking water. With regard to source of cooking fuel, children born in households using high polluting fuels (fire woods and charcoal) as their main source of cooking fuel have higher mortality rates as compared to those using low polluting fuels (electricity). Children born in households with either flush toilets or pit latrines have lower mortality rate than those born in households without any toilet facility. Policies aimed at achieving the goal of reduced child mortality should be directed on improving the household’s environmental status if this goal is to be realized.

  16. Madeeha Malik, Anina Qureshi and Azhar Hussain

    Personality has become a major focus in organizational research, leadership development, derailment, and particularly employee selection. All pharmacists are not possessing personalities that are favorable to field being practiced and may not perform their best in and ultimately fail to perform their expected role in health care system. The present study was designed to assess the relationship between personality traits and job performance of pharmacists working in different fields in twin cities of Pakistan. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Sample size was calculated to be 382 pharmacists to achieve 95% confidence level with 5% margin of error. A pre-validated data collection tool Big Five Inventory questionnaire was self-administered to the respondents while the performance of these 382 selected respondents was evaluated by using Performance Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) requested to be filled by their respective reporting managers. After data collection, data was cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results showed that relationship exists between all personality traits including extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, consciousness and openness with job performance. The present study concluded that a significant association exists between personality traits and job performance among pharmacists in Pakistan. Although, neuroticism a negative trait was found high among pharmacists but it was encouraging to notice that pharmacists also possessed positive traits including extraversion, consciousness and openness in their personality which was reflected as their good performance.

  17. Amanuel Alameyehu, Vellinigir Anusuya and Kitata Adunga

    The major system providing lateral load resistance in steel telecommunication towers is bracing system. There are different types of bracing systems for steel towers. The heights of these towers in Ethiopia vary from 20 to 102 meters, based on the practical requirements. This study has focused on identifying the economical bracing system for a given range of tower heights. Towers of height 35m, 45m and 50m have been analyzed and designed with different types of bracing systems under seismic and wind loads. Based on the seismic zones and worst wind speed of Ethiopia the optimal bracing system has been identified and reported.

  18. Ms. Anjali Singh, Dr. Ghanshyam Tak and Dr. Suman Bala sharma

    Background: According to World health Organization (WHO) Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity. Rajyoga Meditation is a simple and scientific technique to elicit physical and mental relaxation response to change one’s attitude and transform life style. Regular practice of it brings transformation in overall wellbeing of individuals. Aim: This study is aimed at to evaluate the outcome of Rajyoga Meditation on the wellbeing status of individuals practicing Rajyoga Meditation in selected Certified Rajyoga Meditation centers of Punjab. Methods: A quantitative research approach, non experimental exploratory research design was used to evaluate wellbeing status of 150 individuals attending certified Rajyoga Meditation centers of Punjab were selected for this study with Multi- stage sampling technique by using Standardized Singh &Gupta Well-being scale. Results: The study results depicted that out of 150 individuals practicing Rajyoga meditation at certified Rajyoga meditation centers i.e 134 (89.3%) have high level of wellbeing status with mean score of 203.13 and SD 19.73 followed by 16(10.7%) have average level of Wellbeing and Level of Well-being status was significantly (p<0.05) associated with selected demographic variables such as Duration of practice of Rajyoga meditation and shift of practice of Rajyoga meditation. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Individuals attending Rajyoga meditation at certified Rajyoga meditation centers have high wellbeing status.

  19. Ayele Elias Gebeyehu, Zhao Chunju, Zhou Yihong and Zhongyong Yang

    Temperature change isn’t a new phenomenon in the world history. In developing countries like Ethiopia, climate hazards are high due to low adaptation capability. This study predicts future temperature change scenario by using statistical downscaling model (SDSM) and the second generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2) General Circulation Model (GCM) output. For SDSM calibration and validation, the baseline period was divided into two: 1988-2003 and 2004-2016 respectively. The validation and calibration result of coefficient of determination for all meteorological stations are between 0.53-0.83 and 0.55-0.86 for maximum temperature and minimum temperature respectively. This result showed that the SDSM model was performed well. Maximum temperature downscaled by RCP-2.6, RCP-4.5 and RCP-8.5 scenario showed an increasing projection in all months. The mean monthly increasing temperature up to the end of 2099 will be from 0.3oC to 3.4oC. Minimum temperature downscaled by RCP-2.6 and RCP-8.5 scenario showed a decreasing projection in March and April but by RCP-4.5 decreasing in April. The increase in temperature due to climate change might have a negative impact on the future natural resources of the study area.

  20. Ardhendu Kumar Mandal

    Many people suffer and demise from chronic, recurrent, drug-resistant or biofilm-developing infections such as leishmaniasis, colitis and carcinogenesis throughout the globe annually. Despite the progress in medical treatment, drug resistance, adverse side effects, inadequate therapeutic index, poor bioavailability, insolubility and toxicity have hampered the disease curing process. Recently, nanotechnology-based metal nanoparticles have emerged as nanomedicine for the treatment of various diseases. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), owing to their unique photocatalytic characteristics, high chemical stability, excellent biocompatibility and low toxicity have attracted interest for disease-treatment. TiO2 NPs generally acts through metal ions liberation inducing oxidative and non-oxidative damages of the infected cells and micro-organisms. The attachments of pharmaceutics and ligands to TiO2 NPs may improve their targeted delivery to specific sites for sustained release of active ingredients with insignificant side-toxicity overcoming the biological barriers. The review focuses TiO2 NPs for the consideration as delivery system in combating diseases.

  21. Miraji Hossein and Asha S. Ripanda

    Background: Regional landscapes createnatural barriers which restrict movements of groundwater within tectonic plates. This forms a vague groundwater containment which is likely affected by evaporations, fissures, and mineral dissolution. The effect is localized in such it accumulates certain kinds of chemicals resulting in a temporal build-up of unique contaminants. The unique or landmark contaminants destabilize the physicochemical and microbial composition of groundwater, resulting in the considerable risks upon consumption of such water. Methods: In order to establish spatial landmark contaminants, physicochemical, heavy metals and microbial content of selected water wells from Temeke and Nkuhungu wards were analyzed according to EPA Ireland methods. It was then, followed by bivariate correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) for data analysis. Results: It was observed that Temeke had a strong association between electrical conductivity and hardness while Dodoma had slightly higher alkalinity, pH values and coliform counts as compared to Temeke. A perfect linear relationship between electrical conductivity and total dissolved salts was further observed in Dodoma. The first principal component was electrical conductivity followed by dissolved salts merely from Temeke. The third and last principal components were respectively alkalinity and hardness from Dodoma.PCA proved to be a perfect tool for regional solicitation of landmark contaminants. Conclusions: The overall findings of this study identified that slightly high alkalinity and pH values were unique properties of Nkuhungu ground water as compared to low pH values and high electrical conductivity of Temeke ground water.

  22. Bhumika Banjara, Prof. Singh, R.K. and Dr. Banjara, G.P.

    Contamination of insecticides of different groups were evaluated in the fish species Mystus seenghala in Kharun river (near Atari village Nandanvan Raipur), Chherikheri pond (rural pond) and Navagaon pond (urban pond) of Raipur district collected during the two years months of March to June 2017 and March to June 2018. Sample collection time is 6.00 am. The fish organs- gills, brain, stomach, intestine and gonads from fish were carefully dissected for determination of insecticides. The insecticidal residues were analyzed by using AAS (atomic absorption spectrophotometer). The selected fish organs of the Mystus seenghala insecticides are not detected.

  23. Samuel Bekele, J.

    Urban spatial expansion is very common and principally increasing in fast economic growing developing countries. Ethiopia is not only least urbanized, but also most urban areas in the country are predominantly unplanned. Currently, Ethiopian cities are experiencing unprecedented growth and Mekelle a regional capital city of Tigrai province is one of the fast growing city which engulfing the nearby suburbanized fringe kebelles like Debri-Dingur area. The objective of this paper is to assess and evaluate the spatial changes in the newly developed local development plan (LDP) of Debri-Dingur area in Mekelle city. The main research method applied here is qualitative, quantitative analysis besides spatial analysis was done using aerial photo and GIS computation and field observations, survey, questionnaires and interview was done to collect the primary and secondary data from dwellers and different relevant sources. The results indicate that in Debri-Dingur area urbanization is growing in population, lack regularization, poor infrastructure development and unplanned squatter housing construction as a leap-frog is common, unless the newly developed LDP is implemented in a revised way as fast as possible. The local development plan (LDP) has recommended a fancy spatial neighborhood design with higher land use coverage of mixed residence, excluding pure residence areas, though economically unfeasible to the local administration and the dwellers unless it is implementation in phase based approach with pure residence as an alternative land use and also the proposed and implemented spatial coverage has discrepancy with the main structure plan of Mekelle city.

  24. Olabode, V.B., Gberikon, G.M and Barde, I.J.

    Investigations were carried out to ascertain the prevalence of Salmonella species in raw chicken and quail eggs isolated from selected farms in Jos Plateau state. One hundred and eighty egg samples each from chicken and quail were randomly collected from five poultry farms from the three Local Government Areas namely, Jos north. Jos south, and Jos east making a total of 360 samples. Samples were examined for the presence of Salmonella species using standard microbiological techniques. Isolates were confirmed phenotypically using biochemical characterization. Results showed that out of the 360 samples, only 3(1.7%) were positive for Salmonella species from chicken eggs. Negative result for Salmonella species from quail eggs was recorded. There was no significant difference of Salmonella species among quail and chicken eggs sampled. Results from five farms in Jos South LGA showed among the different locations sampled, Bukuru and Zawan were the only locations that recorded the prevalence of Salmonella species, with 1(8.3%) and 2(16.7%) respectively in Chicken eggs. Quail eggs recorded a prevalence of 0(0.0%) among all the locations sampled. From the egg shell and egg contents sampled, chicken eggs recorded a prevalence of 3(1.7%) from the egg shell and 0(0.0%) from the egg contents. Quail eggs recorded a prevalence of 0(0.0%) from both the egg content and shell. There was no significant difference between prevalence of Salmonella species isolated from quail and chicken eggs sampled. Infections caused by Salmonella species is of great public health importance. Adequate measures should be taken to eliminate Salmonella in Poultry products so that infections arising from contamination of poultry products with this organism will be reduced to a minimal level.

  25. Edmund Baffoe-Twum and Mughees Aslam

    Background: The construction industry is one business sector where time is of affluence. For this reason, most construction projects have well-stipulated timelines in the schedules to control and manage all sections of the project. Conversely, there are possible expectations beyond reasonable control where the extension of time in construction is necessary. However, extensions do not come cheap. The cost implication which could be very devastating is dependent on the size of the project, the intended project purpose, as well as the new scheduled completion date. Objective: The aim is to determine the causes and cost impact of construction delays leading to time extensions.Furthermore, to suggest guidelines for claim preparation. Methods: This paper reviews severally outlined reasons for project completion delays and cost implications from the various literature on the causes of delays which otherwise triggers time extensions. Results: Time extension are as a result of delays causing time overrun during the execution phase of projects. The literature suggest several factors play a role in triggering time extension, thus the need to identify each of the contributing factors at every phase of execution. These are either excusable (compensable and non-compensable) and nonexcusable (non-compensable). Conclusions: The analysis of the factors and the resulting impacts proves to burden stakeholders sometimes with high financial constraints, triggering confusion and prolonging project completion times. The causes of time extension though vary from project to project; the underlying impacts are similar. Consequently, there is the need to document and use appropriate means to evaluate requested time extension for appropriate resolution of dispute during the project execution.

  26. Edgar Julius A. Lim

    The study was conducted to find the effects of different evaluation strategies – Multiple Choice Test, Constructive Response Test, and no test given to the three group of students. It also tried to find if there is difference in the performance of students given the three different evaluation strategies. It further discovered if there is difference between the pretest and posttest of each group as well as the difference in the posttest results of the three different groups. Experimental research design was utilized. Purposive sampling was used to determine the subjects who were purposively assigned to the three groups exposed to the three different evaluation strategies based on their midterm grades. Statistics showed that there was no significant difference in the pretest result of the three groups, implying that at the beginning of the study, members of each groups have more or less similar level of readiness. It further revealed that there was significant difference on the posttest results of the three different groups implying that there was a significant effect in the performance of students based on how they were evaluated during the classroom discussion.

  27. Dr. Rajesh Chandra Kar, Dr. (Col) Sandeep Gupta, Dr. Amitabh Chakraborty, Dr. Sumit Kumar Singh and Dr. Debarshi Jana

    This was a hospital based prospective, comparative study in which we compared the safety and efficacy of single intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) (1.0 mg) and single intravitreal dexamethasone implant (IVD) (0.7 mg) in treating macular edema (ME) dueto retinal vein occlusion (RVO), including both Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion (BRVO) & Central Retinal Vein Occlusion(CRVO). 40 patients with ME having central macular thickness (CMT) >300µ on optical coherence tomography (OCT) were randomised to two groups. One group received single 1 mg IVTA and other group single 0.7 mg IVD. Log MAR best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), CMT by OCT, intraocular pressure (IOP) by Goldmann’s applanation tonometer (GAT) & cataract status were evaluated before injection and at 1, 3 and 6 months after injection. There was no significant difference in change in BCVA between IVTA and IVD groups (p=0.231).There was no significant difference in change in mean CMT between IVTA and IVD groups (p = 0.095). There was no significant difference in change in IOP between IVTA and IVD groups (p = 0.653).About, 50% patients showed cataract progression in IVTA group while in IVD group cataract progression observed in 45% of patients. Following the injection, at all stages IVD was superior in terms of vision improvement and CMT reduction. However, this superiority was not statistically significant. Progression of cataract was comparable in both the drugs.

  28. Dr. Atheer A. Fadhil Dr. Wassan M. Abd Alzahra Dr. Nameer H. Abduljabbar Dr. Warda S. Laso and Dr. Haider B. Al Shama,a

    Background: Placenta previa accreta is a morbidly attached placenta villi to the uterine wall with absence of the decidua basalis. Objective: to evaluate the diagnostic value of sonographic criteria in placenta accreta and to develop screening tools for antenatal evaluation. Patient and Methods: sixty pregnant women beyond 28 weeks of gestation having placenta previa in their current pregnancies underwent obstetrical ultrasound & gray-scale and Doppler sonographic criteria for the diagnosis of placenta accreta were recorded, all cases were followed up until end of pregnancy & the final diagnosis was confirmed by surgical and histopathological reports. Results: Disruption of the placental–uterine wall interface and the presence of vessels crossing these sites were the only two high significant individual criteria that could distinguish placenta accreta from non-accreta Conclusion: Color doppler ultrasonography had a higher overall accuracy (95%), in diagnosis of placenta accreta compared to lower but still valuable gray scale ultrasonography (90%).

  29. Dr. Aritri Lahiri, Dr. Paridhee Jalan, Dr. Shabnam Zahir and Dr. Gautam Kumar Kundu

    Early childhood caries (ECC) causes premature loss of primary maxillary anterior teeth that hampers the child’s growth and adversely affects psychology. Aesthetic restoration of the lost primary tooth aids in speech, mastication and in overall well being of the child. Fixed functional space maintainers, Groper’s appliance does not need the cooperation of the child patient and hence more successful in maintaining the aesthetics as well as preserving the arch length. Minimum amount of palatal coverage by the appliance also increases its acceptance. The main purpose of the article was to restore the speech and appearance of a 4 year old child due to aesthetic rehabilitation of maxillary anterior teeth thereby restoring the confidence

  30. Dr. Manoj Bhaskaran, Dr. Joseph Lijo, Dr. Arjun Shenoy, Dr. Yash Chadha and Dr. Himanshu Soni

    ZMC fractures are fairly common in a trauma setting. A maxillofacial surgeon deals with them day in and day out. They are fairly easy to diagnose with modern investigative methods like CT scan, however in the absence of CT it can be diagnosed with a PNS x-ray combined with the clinical status of the patients. Treatment methods for the same have evolved over the years, and in spite of all the literature available, ZMC fracture treatment varies from no intervention at all, to elevation of the fractured segment alone, or sometimes an extensive ORIF with one, two or three point fixation according to the preferences of the surgeon. A case of minimally displaced anterolateral and postero lateral wall of maxillary bone fracture with excruciating pain reported to the casualty with a history of 14 days old trauma. To relive pain nerve block was administered which subsided the pain. Following which there was appearance of vesicles which were unilateral, the nature of the pain and the appearance of the vesicle led to a diagnosis of Pre Herpetic Neuralgia, with classical herpes zoster infection. Although the patient in this case presented with a history of trauma, it was the detail to attention and the involvement of the multidisciplinary approach that the correct diagnosis was made, the patient treated appropriately and discharged.

  31. Manisha Kala, Nupur Hooja, Lata Rajoria, Rajani Nawal, Aarzoo Mallik, Surabhi Arora, Kritika Tulani, Kavita Arya and Kisnaram

    Background: Pain post caesarean is discomforting and drives the mothers to seek help. It would be useful to know if any change in surgical technique could have effect on the post-operative pain which affects the woman’s activities. Hence, the study was undertaken to note the difference in postoperative pain on performing lower segment caesarean section by Pfannensteil Kerr and Misgav Ladach method. Method: It was an interventional study done over one year in a tertiary care hospital. Detailed history, investigations, operative details and postoperative pain was recorded and analysed. Results: Women in the Pfannensteil Kerr method group had more postoperative pain P value was highly significant at 2 h (<0.001), 8h (P<0.001), 16h (P<0.001), 24h (P=0.014) and 32h (P=0.005), 40 hour (P=0.027) and 48h (P=0.032).Conclusion: Misgav Ladach method was a better technique than Pfannensteil Kerr in terms of postoperative pain and comfort. Hence, it results in considerable reduction in maternal morbidity and better patient satisfaction level and thus should be the preferred method to perform caesarean section.

  32. Dr. Vishakha W. Ugale and Dr. Yadnit S. Bhosale

    Dental implant is an artificial tooth root that is placed into your jaw to hold a replacement of missing substitute. The use of dental implant for replacement of teeth has provided many treatment options for both patients and clinicians. As a result of recent advancements and newer implant designs, materials and techniques the use of dental implants has increased tremendously over the past decades and is expected to expand further more in the future. The patients present with bone deficiency represent clinical complexity and often requires additional biomaterials and surgical procedures in order to ensure successful treatment planning. This review outlines the various graft materials used in bone augmentation in order to achieve predictable long term prognosis of dental implants and on the recent advancement in the bone regeneration.

  33. Dr. Raja, A.

    White spot lesions or enamel demineralization around fixed orthodontic attachments affect the esthetic outcome of a successfully completed orthodontic case. The purpose of this article is to review the evidence regarding evaluation, prevention and treatment of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients and to provide clinical recommendations useful for both the general dentist and the orthodontist. Apart from routine oral hygiene instructions additional measures including fluoride varnish, xylitol chewing gum, chlorhexidine mouth rinse, dietary modifications and calcium containing remineralisation products are effective in the prevention and treatment of white spot lesions. Treatment of white spot lesions can range from the most conservative to the most aggressive procedures involving tooth reduction and porcelain veneers.

  34. Saurav Paul, Aakrati Raina, Asheesh Sawhny and Sridevi Nandamuri

    Sodium hypochlorite is a globally used irrigant in dental practice during root canal treatment. Although, generally regarded as being very safe, some potentially severe complications can arise when it comes in contact with soft tissues, skin or even clothing. Unintentional extrusion of sodium hypochlorite beyond the root apex results in widespread soft tissue or nerve damage. Its chief shortcomings in dentistry are the noxiousness of its action to vital tissues. In this article, we review the possible difficulties that can arise with sodium hypochlorite use during endodontic treatment, discuss the appropriate management and actions that can be taken to lessen danger, and provide specifics of suitable management in the rare cases of alleged tissue injury and damage.

  35. Narmada Devkota, Shishir Subba, Nandita Sharma and Anup Raj Bhandari

    Background: ADHD is a neuro-developmental childhood disorder that is characterized by three core symptoms; inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity 1. ADHD has been diagnosing and treating in Nepal, but we have no valid ADHD diagnostic tool to fit Nepalese culture and language till date. Current study is intended to develop and validate the ADHD scale for children in Nepal. So, initially pilot study was done as a part of tool development and validation. Methods: Items generation, scale development and scale evaluation were the three consecutive steps followed to develop and validate the scale. Pilot study was done for items clarity, assessing content validity and sampling adequacy. The total pilot study sample included 202 participants i.e.60 parents of ADHD children, 40 mental health professionals and 102 parents of school aged children from general population (GP). Results: The investigators developed an ADHD diagnostic scale with 21 items to diagnose ADHD for Nepalese children. It has been developed in Nepalese culture and Language. Pilot testing revealed strong content validity. Three sub-scales (Inattention, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity) were identified by using Principal Axis Factor Analysis. Sampling adequacy for factor analysis was tested by using Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) analysis which indicated that minimum of 100 sample was adequate for this study. Conclusions: The pilot study explored the feasibility of the development of proposed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnostic scale to fit in Nepalese cultural context and language.

  36. Nancy Ajwa, Fatimah Al-Abdulbaqi, Zahra Almusa, Fatimah Alalwi, Ghadeer Alghanim, Maryam Al –Safar and Zahra Alabduljabbar

    Background: Scuba diving is associated with certain dental complications, with which a majority of the scuba divers and dental practitioners are not familiar. Knowledge of these two groups has been found to be on the lower side as far as the barotraumas are concerned. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the knowledge of dental practitioners and scuba divers regarding management and prevention of dental complications during, before, and after scuba diving activities in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a dual survey-based study. Respective surveys were prepared and sent to scuba divers and dental practitioners in different regions of Saudi Arabia. Dental professionals were divided into further groups based upon their work experience and designations. Questions related to their demographics and knowledge of dental complications related to scuba diving were included in the survey. Results: A total of n=268 dental practitioners and an equal number (n=268) of scuba divers responded to the survey. The total number of study participants was N=536. We found some statistically significant results, where consultants exhibited better knowledge (59%) as compared with general practitioners having more experience (31%) regarding the relationship between scuba diving and dental complications (p value=0.011). As far as dental complications were concerned, the results revealed mixed responses from different educational levels in both dental practitioners as well as scuba diving group. Although the comparisons were statistically significant in the two groups (pvalue= 0.000), varying levels of knowledge were found among all educational levels. Conclusions: Dental professionals having more experience and training exhibited improved knowledge and attitude towards the relationship between scuba diving and dental complications. Scuba divers must be presented with special instructions related to several types of dental complications whenever seeking dental treatment.

  37. Filoteo B. Franco, RL, MLS., William Taala, RL, MLS. and Parisa H. Sta. Teresa, RL, MLS.

    The used of world wide web and social media platforms in Saudi Arabia is in sky rocketing and one of these many areas of research, readings and sharing is in the field of medical information for awareness, education and services. Such experience has contributed to the development of social phenomenon specifically on the behavioral dynamics among Saudis. The internet became a significant tool in shaping medical education and research development among Saudi in seeking medical information to provide them substantial data on their study is a behavioral indicator. It definitely affected their mental, emotional and physical wellbeing as far as education is concern. The public is making use of internet to educate them of possible medical services that they can avail; it may be in the form of health insurance, hospital services and medical consultations. This area form part of the growing social phenomenon among Saudi that describes their behavioral dynamics towards health services in the country and abroad. This paper is like a compendium of researches and discovered that the substantial amount of data is concentrated on the application of health sciences but the areas of medical psychology (behavior) and health services is neglected.

  38. Bachif, M., Ofkir, M., Aissaoui, H., Ismaili, N. and El ouafi, N.

    The Pregnant patients with a prosthetic mechanical valve are at high risk for valve thrombosis and the optimal treatment strategy in the pre-pregnancy period and during pregnancy itself is a matter of debate. Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) thrombosis is a rare condition with serious life-threatening complications diagnosed optimally by TOE followed by a radio-cinema; and which needs to be revaluated frequently by echocardiography transthoracic in case of an increase in trans valvular gradient. We report here a case of a 37-year-old woman, pregnant at 31 weeks of amenorrhea, with a double mitro-aortic mechanical replacement suspected dysfunction in front of an increase of trans-valvular gradient and confirmed on the radio cinema. The patient was treated with a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH); acetylsalicylic acid 160 mg daily; and oral anticoagulation (Acenocoumarol) with great clinical and biological results. In some cases; Pregnant patients with prosthetic valve thrombosis may be treated surgically, or with prolonged infusions of low-dose TPA. Repeated doses of low TPA can be administered at low doses.

  39. Sergio Fasullo, Giorgio Maringhini, Sebastiano Scalzo and Filippo Ganci

    Aims: Thrombolysis and anticoagulation were the main treatment methods for acute pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulation therapy is recommended in the guidelines for patients with intermediate-low and low-risk PE, and emergency thrombolysis is recommended for high-risk or massive PE, in order to stabilize hemodynamics and reduce early mortality. Warfarin has been the anticoagulant of choice for pulmonary embolismHowever, there remains controversy about the treatment of acute intermediate-high-risk PE.Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are increasingly used as an alternative. The study was aimed at assessing efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) after thrombolysis versus warfarin treatment on echocardiographic parameters and clinical outcome during hospitalization and in six mounth after admission, in patients with acute intermediate-high-Risk Pulmonary Embolism. Although the use of thrombolysis has been investigated in these patients, anticoagulation remains the standard treatment approach. Rivaroxaban and apixaban have shown similar efficacy and, in some cases, reduced major bleeding compared with standard approaches for acute treatment. The direct oral anticoagulants do not require regular coagulation monitoring. Methods: Consecutive patients (study court: age 42-85 years), with a episode acute pulmonary embolism,with onset of symptoms since no more than 6 hours, normal blood pressure ( >95 mmHg), right ventricle dysfunction (RVD) at echocardiography and positive lung spiral CT were in double blind fashion randomized: a group received 100 mg of alteplase (10-mg bolus, followed by a 90-mg i.v. infusion over a period of 2 hours) and warfarin after 48-72 h in according with INR target , and a group received 100 mg of alteplase (10-mg bolus, followed by a 90-mg i.v. infusion over a period of 2 hours) and NOACs (rivaroxaban or apixaban on randomization 1:1) after 48-72 h. In addition to alteplase , both groups received unfractionated heparin treatment for 48 h. Echocardiogram was performed at entry and 48 or 72, discharge and 6 months after randomization. Results: 44 patients were included in the study, 22 assigned to warfarin and 22 to NAOCs. The 2 groups were well matched with regard to features and clinical presentation. NAOCs group showed an safety and a reduction in clinical events during hospitalization and follow up was also observed. Conclusions: Our data suggest that NOACs after thrombolysis a favorable trend in clinical outcome and could merit consideration in patients with acute intermediate-high-Risk Pulmonary Embolism. The new anticoagulation have been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism when given for 6 months. This use after thrombolysis, at this time, is off‑label and should could be considered and included in the new guidelines.

  40. Deepika Jamwal and Dr. Preeti Jamwal

    Background: Pre-eclampsia accounts for the majority of referrals in a tertiary care centre as it stands one of the major causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to study the maternal and fetal outcome in patients with severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in a tertiary centre over a period of one year. Methods: Total 150 women with severe eclampsia and eclampsia after 20 weeks of gestation were included. Women with medical complications like anemia, preexisting hypertension, epilepsy, diabetes, vascular or renal disease, multiple gestation, polyhydramnios were excluded. Patients were managed as per existing protocol after proper history, examination and investigations. Anti-hypertensive of choice was alphamethyl-dopa, labetalol and oral nefidipene. Magnesium sulphate was used as anti convulsant. Results: Out of 150 cases of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, majority (69%) were between 20-30 years of age and 47% were primigravida. We had 75 patients with convulsions on admission and 75 with severe pre-eclampsia of whom 11 had convulsions. Headache was most common complaint. Common mode of delivery was caesarean section in 66 (44%) women, majority in view of failed induction or non-progress. Maternal complications were noted in 59% attributed to renal dysfunction, postpartum hemorrhage, DIC, placental abruption, HELLP, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism and renal failure. 4 maternal deaths were recorded. Conclusions: Maternal and perinatal complications are more in patients with eclampsia. The incidence of eclampsia can be reduced by better antenatal care, early recognition and prompt treatment of severe pre-eclampsia.

  41. Dr. Pradnya Gawai

    Introduction: There is variation in the in vitro efficiency of antibacterial agents against bacterial pathogens causing conjunctivitis. Thus, the current trends in the aetiology of conjunctivitis and its antimicrobial susceptibility must be updated to make a rational choice of initial antibiotic therapy. The study aim to identify bacteria causing conjunctivitis in children less than 2 years age and to analyse their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Method: A study was conducted among 40 patients with conjunctivitis less than 2 years of age. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected. Conjunctival swabs were collected using sterile swabs; gram staining was done and inoculated on MacConkey’s agar, chocolate agar and blood agar culture media. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates was determined. Result: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae amounted to 90%. Overall 90% were susceptible to gentamicin, 80-85% to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Conclusion: Coagulase positive staphylococcus aureus were the most frequent bacteria isolated from the conjunctiva of the patient and most of them sensitive to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones.

  42. Akash, A. R., Subhodha, H. R., Adarsh, K. M. and Gangadhara Somayaji

    Aim: To find the correlation of preoperative ultrasonography (USG) and post operative histopathology report in thyroid disease. Objective: To correlate pre-operative USG and post operative histopathology report in benign and malignant thyroid diseases. To study the incidence of benign versus malignant lesion of thyroid disease in our setting. To determine the sex predilection among benign versus malignant thyroid disease in our setting. Methods: It was a prospective, descriptive, cross sectional study. Patients presenting with thyroid swellings and undergoing thyroid surgery were included in this study. Patients underwent USG neck using GE VOLUSON E8 scan machine and Linear probe 9L Frequency and were reported regarding the shape, size, echogenicity, calcifications, margins, vascularity, and lymphnode status. After the surgery thyroid specimen was sent for HPE analysis to confirm the final diagnosis. Histopathology report were collected and correlated with pre op USG findings. Results: 45 patients were included in this study out of which 11 patients turned out to be malignant and 34 benign. Out of 45 patients 37 were female and 8 were male. USG features. Conclusion: Malignant thyroid nodules demonstrated ultrasonography characteristics of hypoechoic texture, micro calcifications, shape of taller than wider, internal vascularity, irregular margins, size >3cm and presence of lymphnodes. The ultrasonography test has 93.5% diagnostic accuracy to differentiate malignant from benign lesions. In this region thyroid lesions were predominantly benign and more common in females.

  43. Saindhya Tora Sonowal, Swarga Jyoti Das, Gokul Chandra Das and Pawan Kumar

    Context: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a special form of diabetes mellitus (DM) that begins or is first detected during pregnancy. Periodontal disease has been found as a risk factor for different systemic conditions, among which DM has been widely studied. Though some studies show the association between periodontal disease and GDM, others fail to observe such correlations. Aims: The present study was planned to determine the association of maternal periodontal disease and GDM. Methods: The study comprised of 40 pregnant women, of which 20 were cases and 20 were controls. All subjects underwent a laboratory screening test for GDM between 24 to 30 weeks of gestation based on the recommendation of the Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. The subjects were divided into two groups: Group A (control) and Group B (case) based on the blood glucose level of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), as per the criteria of ADA (2004). For the periodontal status, a full mouth periodontal examination was performed assessing the gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), relative attachment level (RAL) and plaque index (PI) using a UNC -15 probe by a single examiner who was blinded on the diabetic status of the pregnant women. To compare the means, student’s t-test was performed. Results: GI score in women with GDM was 2.60  0.66 (range 1.05 - 3.00) whereas those without GDM 1.94  0.77 (range 1.07 - 3.00), (p<0.01). The mean PPD of control group was 2.50 ± 0.70 (range 1.38 - 3.71) mm and of case group was 3.91 ± 0.96 (range 2.42 - 5.05) mm; (p<0.001). The mean RAL of control group was 8.23 ± 1.83 (range 3.57 - 11.14) mm and of case group was 9.82  0.76 (range 8.71 - 11.25) mm; (p<0.01). The mean PI of control group was 1.42 ± 0.48 (range 0.69 - 1.97) and in case group was 2.09  0.90 (range 0.04 - 2.63); (p<0.001). Conclusions: GI, PI, PPD and RAL were more in subjects with GDM than those without GDM. Hence, GDM is associated with periodontal disease.

  44. Susila, A.

    A study was conducted “to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Assisted Teaching (VAT) on Practice of Diabetic Foot Care among diabetic patients receiving Insulin Therapy in selected Health Centers, Puducherry”. The objective of the study were to assess the existing and post test level of Practice regarding Diabetic Foot Care among the diabetic patients receiving Insulin Therapy, to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Assisted Teaching on Practice of Diabetic Foot Care among the diabetic patients receiving Insulin Therapy, to associate the post test level of Diabetic Foot Care Practices with selected demographic variables.A total of 100 samples were selected and grouped by simple random sampling and data were collected by using Structured Foot Care Practice Checklist. The post test practice scores in the experimental and control group was 7.90 ± 1.11 and 5.52 ± 1.75 respectively. The calculated t- value is significant at p<0.001 level. So the VAT on Diabetic Foot Care Practices was found to be effective.

  45. Dar Abdul Waheed, Saba Sumera, Dar Ishtiyaq Ahmad, Sheikh Owais Ahmad, Gupta Parul, Wani Shahid Bashir, Akhter Mansoora and Dar Sajad Ahmad

    Objectives: The main aims of study were to compare toxicity profile of IMRT with conventional Radiotherapy (2D RT) in head and neck cancer. Methods: The Study was a prospective one in which we included Eligible patients known case of head and neck cancer like oral cavity, nasopharaynx, oropharaynx, and hypopharyanx to received either definitive chemoradiation alone or adjuvant. Eligible patients in conventional group randomized to receive radiotherapy with parallel opposed lateral fields and one direct anterior lower neck. In IMRT group patients received either 7 fields or 5 fields or parotid sparing radiation. Patients Toxicity pattern (grades of mucositis, skin reaction, xerostomia, odynophagia) of both groups was noted down. Toxicity of Radio-Therapy (RT) developing within 90 days and more than 90 days from the beginning of RT assessed according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria. Results: A total of 30 patients were available for the analysis, 15 patients were in conventional group and 15 were in IMRT group. Patients who developed toxicity was compared both groups. Acute toxicity as well as late toxicity is concern in present study, it has been found that in conventional group toxicity is more common other than skin toxicity as compared to IMRT group. Conclusion: Although for some side-effects, the benefit of IMRT on conventional RT cannot be easily proven, the majority and present study show a reduction in toxicity when using IMRT in head and neck cancer. IMRT should be used in all head and neck cancer patients, in order to try to reduce the devastating side effects. Continuous prospective data collection on toxicity and outcome will provide us more data in the future, supporting this technological progress.

  46. Swathi Pichika, Manjunath C., Archana Krishnamurthy, Shilpashree KB., Madhusudhan S. and Shruti Vandakudri

    Dental trauma in sports is the major linking channel between sports and dentistry sports dentistry is the prevention of oral facial atheletic injuries and related oral diseases and manifestations. The most important aspect in preventing sports-related orofacial injuries is wearing basic protective devices such as properly-fitting helmets, facemasks and/or mouth guards. The dentist can play an imperative role in informing athletes, coaches and patients about the importance of preventing orofacial injuries in sports. Dentist should play an important role in educating the public and the use of protective equipment. This review is based on need for sports dentistry, prevention of orofacial injuries, role of dentist in sports team and the legal considerations in sports dentistry.

  47. Pradnya Dhutmal and Dr. Varsha S Zanvar

    A study was conducted to assess the dietary intake of 300 women of Nanded district of Marathawada region of Maharashtra state. Socio-economic status was assessed pre tested questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by 24 hour recall method. Nutrient intake was calculated on the basis of food intake. Percent adequacy of food and nutrient intake was calculating using RDA. The study revealed that majority of women were joint families in (52.33 percent). More percent of families were vegetarian 64.33 percent. Maximum women were belonging to income group 10,000-15,000/- per month. The mean food intake of i.e. cereals, pulses, green leafy vegetables, root and tubers, other vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products, fats and oil and sugar and jaggary was ranged between 277.58±25.80 to 290.64±63.00, 38.29±9.97 to 41.22±9.12, 20.15±13.2 to 30.85±13.27, 21.47±8.09 to 22.52±9.33, 39.38±15.13 to 40.86±14.04, 2.46±8.48 to 11.16±14.64, 57.5±14.87 to 68.87±17.82, 17.26±2.74 to 20.33±1.21 and 20.00±00 to 20.45±1.43 respectively. Fruits intake was very low than the other food groups. Percent adequacy was more in cereals and sugar and jaggary (77.10 to 88.73 and 80.00 to 81.92 percent). Whereas minimum percent adequacy was noted for fruits 2.46 and 3.10 percent among both the group. Whereas mean intake of different nutrients were energy (1975.23±222.18 to 2053.11±164.27), protein (44.99±4.89 to 46.84±6.70), fat (24.26±8.87 to 35.30±11.65), β-carotene (1422.85±637.59 to 1553.13±931.03), ascorbic acid (36.97±6.02 to 39.10±6.93), calcium (390.79±83.07 to 441.22±61.93) and iron (19.78±2.06 to 21.34±61.96) respectively. Percent adequacy for iron, fat, ascorbic acid and energy showed in the ranged of 89.97 to 99.76 percent. Lowest percent adequacy was reported by β-carotene that is 30.13 to 31.85 percent.

  48. Kotyal B. Mahendrappa and Nandakishore Reddy

    Introduction: Acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Acute LRTI is known to affect the pulmonary pressure. Noninvasive early diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and intervention in infants with acute LRTI may reduce the progression of disease to advanced stage and improves the survival rate. Objective: To determine hospital based incidence and association of pulmonary hypertension in infants aged 2 months to 1 year with severe acute lower respiratory tract infections. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of south India. The study included 80 infants aged between 2 months to 1 year, admitted in PICU with severe acute lower respiratory infections (diagnosed as per WHO criteria). Majority of cases included under acute LRTI were Bronchopneumonia (58), remaining 14 cases had bronchiolitis and 8 cases had wheeze associated lower respiratory infection (WALRI). Infants with congenital heart diseases, infants with PPHN, with portal hypertension and familial pulmonary hypertension are excluded from the study. Pulmonary pressure was measured using 2D Doppler Echocardiography once within 24 hours of admission in all study subjects. Repeat 2D Doppler ECHO was done after treatment of acute LRTI at the time of discharge in infants with pulmonary hypertension to know the degree of decrease in pulmonary pressures and outcome. Appropriate statistical methods were used to calculate the incidence. Results: There was a direct correlation between severe lower respiratory tract infections and pulmonary pressure. Hospital based incidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in severe acute LRTI was 56.3%. Infants between age group of 2-4 months had higher incidence of PAH, which contributes to 47.5%. Incidence of PAH in males was 58.3% and in females was 50%. Incidence of PAH in bronchopneumonia was 53.4%, in Bronchiolitis it was 64.2% and in WALRI it was 62.5%. Repeat 2D Doppler ECHO after treatment of severe acute LRTI revealed decrease in pulmonary pressure. Conclusion: This study revealed a direct correlation between severe lower respiratory tract infections and increase in pulmonary pressure. Treatment of severe acute LRTI has resulted in decrease in pulmonary pressure. 2D Doppler Echocardiography may be a simple non invasive tool to diagnose pulmonary hypertension in children with severe LRTI.

  49. Zulkarnein Nashiru, Yussif Mijirah Dokurugu and Ellen-Grace Ananga

    In today’s tourism and hospitality business, training and developing tourism students’ for management role has been the focus of many institutions of higher learning. With explosion and competitive related course for the past several decades, the importance of tourism and hospitality landscape cannot be overemphasized. The purpose of this research is to explore the assessment of student’s perspective on recent campus job fair and its effectiveness. The data on this qualitative study was based on the information gathered from the five participants who took part in the study.

  50. Anagha Prashanath Rao and Ashalatha Neeravari

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the platelet profile of pregnant women with gestational diabetes and normal pregnancy and to assess the changes in the platelet profiles of gestational diabetes patients before and after 8-10 days of their treatment. Methods: A prospective study was performed on 70 pregnant women between 24 – 28 weeks of their pregnancy: 30 cases with gestational diabetes and 40 healthy controls. The two groups were compared in terms of demographics and platelet parameters derived from complete blood counts and the effect of treatment on platelet parameters of gestational diabetes. Results: A significant difference was observed for mean platelet volume values between the gestational diabetes mellitus and normal pregnant groups (p<0.0001) and also between the mean platelet volume values in the gestational diabetes mellitus group before and after their treatment (p<0.0001). Conclusion: Elevated mean platelet volume can be used as an effective marker for the assessment of glycemic control in gestational diabetes mellitus.

  51. Sepideh Moghaddas Jafari and Tengku Sepora Tengku Mahadi

    This study is proposed to explore, inspect, scrutinize, and discuss about how the home environment can be very effective and crucial in the improvement of youngsters’ literacy proficiencies. In effect, this study is planned to shed light on the impact of home environment on the children’s literacy development. To achieve the aim of the study, some of the principal subjects, topics, theories, and points which can be connected to the objective of article are introduced, clarified, and discussed. Afterword, they are followed by a precise discussion and conclusion. On the whole, this paper attempts to highlight the importance of the home setting on the youngsters’ literacy improvement. For the most part, this article detects and uncovers the gains and advantages of the issue, or to be more precise, it tries to illuminate the consequences and advantages that the mentioned setting can have for the development of youngsters’ literacy proficiencies. The findings highlight the significance of the home setting on the children’s literacy improvement as well as the benefits which this context can make in children’s education.

  52. Gaitanidou, A., Laios, A., Derri, V. and Bebetsos, E.

    Over the last three decades, empirical research has been conducted on examining the relationship between transformational leadership and the improvement of school units. Under that context, leader characteristics have been found to be important factors in explaining the implemented leadership style. The purpose of this empirical study is to examine (a) the impact of gender on transformational leadership, (b) the impact of gender on five main personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, openness and conscientiousness), (c) the impact of these personality traits on the implementation of transformational leadership. The population of this study consists of primary school leaders. The survey included a final sample of 165 school directors from different regions of one country, namely Greece. The appropriate statistical analysis revealed that the implementation of transformational practices by women is higher than the implementation of transformational practices than men, but these differences were not found to be statistically significant. Moreover, differences between male and female directors were observed in all personality traits, while statistically significant differences were only identified in two of these traits (openness and conscientiousness). Additionally, regression analysis revealed that the five personality traits can explain 27.6% of the variance in the factor “transformative leadership”. The most significant dimensions of personality, when examining their impact on “transformative leadership”, were conscientiousness, agreeability and neuroticism. The present study can significantly assist in the appropriate selection and training of school directors.

  53. Aysar Yaseen

    Variation in language-use exists in everyday interactions and in all societies. This variation is real and cannot be overlooked. It is worth noting that this variation is systematic, i.e. it is done intentionally and to serve particular purposes. Status, solidarity, authority, power, control, and hegemony are goals served by language use. They are established and inculcated through economic and military supremacy and other formal governmental institutions. In referring to language-use as discourse, discourse is preferably perceived as a form of social practice and as a carrier of ideology. Viewing language-use as social practice implies, first, that it is a mode of action (Austin, 1962; Levinson, 1983) and, secondly, that it is always a socially and historically situated mode of action, in a dialectical relationship with other facets of 'the social' --it is socially shaped, but it is also socially shaping, or constitutive, Fairclough (1993). This paper argues that president Donald Trump’s political and diplomatic capabilities are euphemized in a form of entrepreneurial and hegemonic discourse. In his repertoire, the language of threat, the romanticizing of military actions, jingoism, and falsification of historical events function to divert public attention away from his lack of knowledge of foreign policy.

  54. Emmanuel O. Oyemomi

    Christ the telos of the Law is an examination of what Paul meant when he says Christ is the end of the law in Romans 10:4. Literature researchers reveal that scholars generally cast their vote for the fact that the coming of Christ spelled the eclipse of the law e.g. C. H. Dodd, O. Michael, Paul Athans, E. Howard, J. Lagiange etc. Paul meant to say that the pursuit of righteousness through works of law is lapsed, because righteousness comes only by faith in Christ, who was instrumental in God’s hand to acquit sinners, since it is Christ alone that met the demand of the law. I agree with scholars that Christ spelled the eclipse of the law, but then the submission of this work is that the coming of Christ is like a declaration of amnesty to those who were in the prison of the law and also to the lawless. When amnesty is declared, prisoners don’t remain inside the prison. They go home free. That is the import of Paul’s statement in Romans 10:4.

  55. Nguyen Thi Lan Anh and Nguyen Thao Ninh

    Hanoi zoo is a place to display animal species serving the people and foreigners to visit, play and entertain. At the same time, the zoo is also a place for scientific research into animals, contributing to the preservation and education of the preservation of the natural environment. The zoo has been constantly upgraded and renovated to meet the needs of entertainment, education for people both of the capital and the country. With the number of millions of visitors every year, it is said that the park is attractive and effective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the parasite infection in the monkeys at Hanoi zoo and integrate these results for biological teaching in secondary school students in Hanoi. 48 fresh fecal samples were collected from six primate species and examined using Willis method, as a standard parasitological technique. There were 28 samples infected with parasites, accounting for 58.3%. The prevalence of parasitic infections in adult females (67.9%) was higher than that of adult males (44.4%). Results showed that there were three genera of parasites such as Trichuris, Strongyloides and Entamoeba. The hookworm was found only in Macaca fascicularis and mild infection. Six study species were infected by Entamoeba protozoa. It could be concluded that, there was gastrointestinal parasite infection among six species of Cercopithecidae family examined in Hanoi zoo. With the research results obtained, we integrated into biological teaching for some secondary school students in Hanoi to raise awareness of environmental protection at Hanoi zoo as recommended some solutions for visitors.

  56. Dr. Gazanfer Ali Shah, Dr. Suhail Majid Jan and Dr. Reyaz Ahmad Mir

    The purpose of this research is to highlight the current etiological and therapeutic concepts of aggressive periodontitis which is rapidly progressing and aggressive in nature with photographic depiction. It leads to destruction of periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. The need in present time is requirement of advanced diagnostic techniques to learn about current disease activity and rate of progression. It also requires strategies to keep the disease under control with proper maintenance regime and prevent tooth loss, because it can result into complicated prosthetic rehabilitation in a very young patient. The evidence suggests that aggressive periodontitis is influenced by microbiological, genetic, and host factors. This paper presents clinical, microbiological, immunological, and genetic aspects of pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis, as well as diagnostic criteria of the disease and appropriate nonsurgical and surgical treatment options.

  57. Stan Zenovia

    This study aimed to provide those interested, details about a new method of improving the quality of life by relieving the back pain. For this purpose, we combined several physical and technological methods. In parallel with the implementation of certain evaluation tests regarding the back pain and the quality of life (Visual Analogue Scale and Nottingham Health Profile) we used specific gymnastics techniques in combination with solutions offered by two devices of great complexity (Ceragem Massage Bed and Mind Sinergy). There is a significant relationship (r = -0.71%) between the first evaluations. We proved that the pain, at any level, has a direct effect with significant impact on the quality of life. We studied eleven subjects over a period of twenty months, and we noticed a visible improvement in the quality of their life, due to the significant amelioration of the existing back pain. Respiratory gymnastics, correctly applied and simple exercises like "homework" had a decisive contribution in the effectiveness of the application of this innovative method.

  58. Dr. Pooja Desai and Dr. Bhavesh B. Airao

    Introduction: A 'high risk' pregnancy (HRP) state has been associated with an adverse perinatal outcome. There is so much data on the occurrence of HRP in Gujarat. Such information is critical for planning interventions in the state to reduce the maternal mortality rate, infant mortality rate and the incidence of low birth weight babies. Objective: The objectives of the study were to investigate the incidence of HRP at a tertiary care referral hospital, and to study the short term in - hospital' outcomes of these HRP, using the 'normal risk' pregnancies as a comparison group. We also examined the relations of select predictor variables to maternal and fetal outcomes. The objectives of the study were to: • Determine the perinatal mortality and assess perinatal morbidity of the fetuses of high-risk mothers. • Study the effect of current obstetrical intervention on perinatalmortality and morbidity on fetuses of high-risk pregnancies. • Assess the admission to NICU among neonate delivered to high risk pregnancies.

  59. Utku Murat KALAFAT and Serkan DOGAN

    Background: There is still debate about the effects of daylight saving time (DST) on both energy saving and social activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of extension of DST on the frequency of road traffic accidents. Methods: This cross-sectional retrospective study involved 1.548 road traffic accident patients who were referred to emergency departments from December 2015 to February 2016, and from December 2016 to February 2017. The type and time of the accident, as well as the demographic characteristics of the patients involved, were recorded. Results: A total of 1.548 patients, comprising 1.071 (69.2%) males and 477 (30.8%) females, were enrolled in the present study. There were no significant differences in the number of road traffic accidents according to DST (p > 0.05). Of the patients, 773 (49.9%) were referred due to a motor vehicle accident, 554 (35.8%) due to a motor vehicle-pedestrian accident, and 221 (14.3%) due to a motorcycle accident. Conclusions: We conclude that DST had no effect on the frequency of road traffic accidents.

  60. Angel M. Dávila and Erika V. Espinoza J.

    This qualitative phenomenological study investigated the types of knowledge and skills that 10 Nicaraguan English teachers applied in the EFL classroom. Data were gathered using one-shot semi-structured interviews. Findings revealed English teachers’ knowledge and skills were contextualized and changed over time due to students, the teaching milieu, the curriculum, learning goals, and so forth. The results showed that 100% of participants agreed that English teachers should possess native or native-like English proficiency, content knowledge, knowledge of learners, assessment knowledge, teaching skills, communication skills, lesson planning skills, material development skills, knowledge to evaluate learning materials, and academic writing skills. Another interesting finding was that 50% of participants, non-native English speakers, believed that a powerful tool that allowed them to be better teachers was their own experience as language learners. This research suggests that pre-service teachers and novice teachers have to learn to learn and get used to adapting and transforming their knowledge based on where they get to teach, what they get to teach, and to whom they get to teach. Also, universities should offer professional development opportunities for in-service teachers taking into account findings of current research to further develop their knowledge to provide high-quality teaching and learning processes.

  61. Dr. Sakib Arfee, Dr. Abdul Ghani, Dr. Mudasir Rashid, Dr. Imran Yousuf Bhat, Dr. Omeshwar Singh and Dr. Mohammad Azhar Ud Din Darokhan

    Introduction: Infected wounds irrespective of their location are such a burden to the patient and the healthcare which is beyond any description we can make. Presence of infection is a complex problem especially in extremities, which leads to spectrum of complications such as soft tissue loss, exposure of sensitive structures like tendons, nerves, bones etc and even amputation. Infections have always been a matter of worry for the surgeons and especially orthopedicians. Wound healing process can be at times complicated by infections resulting in prolonged hospitalization and even death. Negative pressure therapy was described in 1993 by Fleishmann et al, and was then introduced in clinical setting in 1997 by Argenta and Morykwas. It is currently a preferred method of wound management especially in infected wounds, diabetic foot ulcers etc due to its ability to reduce healing time, promotes wound healing, wound bed preparation for skin grafting, reduction of bacterial load and early development of granulation tissue by angiogenic stimulation etc. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome and benefits of negative pressure therapy (NPWT) in patients with infected wounds of lower limbs. Methods: After taking proper clearance from the hospital’s ethical committee data records of 30 patients (mean age 49 yrs (18-80 yrs), 25 Males and 5 Females) treated at Govt. Medical College for infected wounds of lower limbs using negative pressure therapy during the time period of 1 year (1st September 2017 to 31st August 2018) were taken for analysis. This is a retrospective study and after analyzing the hospital records a final inference was made regarding final outcome and presented in suitable tabular and descriptive form. The negative pressure therapy (NPWT) was applied to the infected wound after proper Wound wash and debridement, in continuous mode for 5 days with a negative pressure between 50 to 200 mmHg. Results: As per our analysis the mean hospital stay was 30 days (20-40 days), mean intravenous antibiotic therapy was 10 days (5-15 days) and mean use of negative pressure therapy was 12.5 days (5- 20days). Use of negative pressure resulted in gross reduction in wound size and infection. Only 4 patients required a 2nd revised NPWT, 1 patient required 4 NPWT dressings but all the patients showed a positive outcome with respect to wound healing, complete eradication of infection. Conclusion: This analysis revealed that although the cost benefit ratio of using Negative pressure therapy for infected wound remains a debatable topic, still it has proven its worth by treating all the wounds and infections associated with them without causing the pain and discomfort to the patient which the patients with regular daily dressings experience.

  62. Angel M. Dávila and Erika V. Espinoza J.

    This exploratory sequential mixed methods study investigated the effects of using sentence structure formulas to teach EFL university students basic academic writing skills. Thirty level B2 EFL students from an Ecuadorian university participated in this research. Two types of data were collected and analyzed, namely, qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data were gathered through semi-structured interviews. Quantitative data were collected through opinion academic essays administered both at the beginning and at the end of a pedagogical intervention using sentence structure formulas. Findings revealed that assisting academic writing with sentence structure formulas helps EFL students write more well-structured academic essays. Three major positive effects were found: 1) use of more varied sentence types and sentence patterns in academic essays, 2) less errors with complements of main verbs, and 3) less punctuation errors. The results showed that pedagogical interventions focused on sentence structure can be applied as a first stage in the process of teaching academic writing. Participants said that they felt more confident to write academic essays after they were taught the different sentence structure formulas, both based on punctuation and on the six types of verbs that constitute the essence of sentences in English. This study suggests that EFL learners may benefit from focusing on sentence structure formulas when they are at the onset of their academic writing learning process.

  63. Mohammad TariqueJamali and Prof Poonawala, S.N.

    This study shows that how we clean the covered land area from old/damaged car/ auto vehicle. We develop the dis assembly line to remove the auto parts from the cars/ auto vehicles and if it is recycle and reuse we recycle and reuse and if it is not recycle or reuse we dumped it properly into the earth. We also developed the formula to find out the disassembly rate and cost estimation formula to find out the this strategy is profitable or not

  64. Azhar M. Al-Turaihy, Ahlam Azeez Baqer and Noor Modafer Mohammed

    Background: Low birth weight is a crucial and substantial factor contributing to infant mortality. Zinc deficiency can lead to clinically relevant disturbances in tissue functions and may affects birth weight of neonates. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between maternal serum zinc concentration and the low birth weight (<2500g) of their newborns. Design: Cross sectional, case-control study. Patients and methods: A total of 70 women were enrolled in this study. Thirty five women as case and 35 women as control. Women who gave birth to low birth weight infants (< 2500g) were regarded as the case group while those who gave birth to infants with weight ≥ 2500g were regarded as the control group. Maternalserum zinc was measured by spectrophotometry method in both groups soon after delivery and the results were compared in both groups. Mothers with twin and multiple pregnancies, per-eclampsia, eclampsia, uterine and cervical abnormalities, APH, oligo and polyhydramnios were excluded from the study. Results: Seventy women were enrolled, 35 of them were with LBW newbornswith a mean birth weight 2385 gram of whom the serum zinc level was 63.8±23.8 µgand the other 35 were controls with a mean birth weight with a serum zinc level was 71.6±19.4. There was no significant association between low maternal serum zinc level and low birth weight. Conclusion: Maternal zinc concentration was shown to slightly affect birth weight but the effect did not reach a statistical significance.

  65. Mellese Madda Gatisso and Wodajo Begna

    This article investigates the multifaceted impacts of refugees on the host communities in south Eastern Ethiopia. Throughout the world, the UNHCR engaged in hosting, feeding, sheltering, clothing and educating the refugees and addressing the impacts on the host communities. In hosting refugees, many communities face various forms of socio-cultural influences and economic challenges. Many hosting governments have restricted refugees to camps because they consider long-term refugee presence to be un economic burden and social challenge. This article examines the socio-cultural, economic and environmental impacts of the Somali refugees on the host Ethiopian Somali communities in a remote arid area of Bokolmanyo, in the Ethiopian Somali Region, Liban Zone, Dollo Ado Woreda, near the border with Somalia. The inhabitants of Bokolmanyo belong to the agro-pastoralist Degodia sub clan of the Hawiye clan. Unlike many other communities, where refugees are restricted to the camps, in Bokolmanyo, Dollo Ado the refugees move freely among the host communities and even to other parts of Ethiopia, and Somalia. There is a good social relation between the host community and the refugees and have been intermarriages between refugees, and the host communities and even Ethiopian soldiers. The hosts and the refugees also attend social events like weddings, funerals, mosque services, festivals and other communal occasions. Despite this, there are visible negative impacts on the host communities including environmental degradation, poor sanitation, scarcity of land, and security issues. On the other hand, the provisions of telecommunication service, schools, solar power, health posts, clinics, pharmacies, restaurants, riverbank irrigation schemes, and potable water, police post, are some of the positive impacts of the refugees in the area. Bokolomanyo turned from a small agro-pastoral settlement into an urban centre. The host communities benefited better modern infrastructure including access to transportation, market and expansions of small businesses run by both refugees and local communities in comparison to the pre-refugee era.

  66. Dr. Bhavesh B. Airao (Professor) Dr. Hardipsinh T. Parmar (Resident Doctor) and Dr. Ranjeet V. Chaudhary (Resident Doctor)

    Aim: This study was conducted to know the factors associated with acceptability of immediate post placental IUCD insertion in women and to know the level of safety efficacy and expulsion of post placental insertion of IUCD. Material and methods: This study was conducted in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of C.U.SHAH medical college, surendranagar over period of 8 months. Women admitted and delivered at CUSMCH were counseled regarding IUCD like its advantage side effects and complications. CuT 380A was inserted within 15 minutes of delivery of placenta and membranes in women who had no contraindication for post placental IUCD and gave consent for this. All these women were followed up to 6 months post insertion period. Results: Total number of counseled women was 440 over the period of 8 months from january 2016 to august 2016 . Out of these only 100 women gave consent for PPIUCD insertion, 340 denied. 8 Lost follow-up only 0 women were followed-up. Among followed-up women 30 women had expulsion, 20 women had only bleeding problem, 20 women had only pain in abdomen, bleeding and abdominal pain together in found in 60 women, thread problem in 5 women and, 70 women discontinued IUD because of bleeding, pain in abdomen, missing thread, family pressure etc. Conclusion: On the basis of our results it may be concluded that insertion of CuT 380A within 15 minutes after placental delivery has high retention rate, expulsion rate was not very high and it can be reduce with practice. Acceptability of this contraceptive method is high with proper counseling despite of low awareness level.

  67. Roba Huka Dido

    Background: The livestock sector in Ethiopia is the largest in Africa. Livestock production and marketing is a major livelihood in the pastoral areas of Ethiopia. The pastoralist community like Borana, livestock marketing development covers enormous scope for their socio economic development. Although few studies are available in the areas of livestock marketing, an in-depth analysis on the marketing practice, challenges and opportunities in livestock marketing is found to be scanty in Borana Zone. Therefore, the research was conducted to assess the livestock marketing practices, examining the factors/challenges affecting livestock marketing and to identifying challenges and opportunities in livestock marketing in Borana zone. Methods: The research was conducted by taking 112 sample traders from pastoralist area of Borana zone on simple random basis. Primary and secondary data were collected and used for analysis. Data collected through semi structured interview were analyzed quantitatively using descriptive statistics with the help of SPSS version 20. Moreover, data collected through focus group discussion and key informant interview were organized and analyzed qualitatively to supplement/substantiate with survey data. Besides, multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the factors affecting livestock marketing. Results: The existing market for livestock in the study area is unregulated. The major factors affecting livestock marketing are credit sale due to few cash buyers, poor access to credit, and poor linkage with high land and export markets, drought and weak institutional support since all these factors have positive significant influence statistically. On the other hand, highly demanded Borana breed of cattle, high livestock population, and increased number of livestock market centres, improved veterinary service and favourable government policy were identified as major opportunities for pastoralist traders’ efficiency and of Borana. On the basis of the findings, recommendations are forwarded.

  68. Dr. Parminder Kaur, Dr. Tejinder Kaur, Dr. Amneet Sandhu, Dr. Ramandeep Singh Bhullar, Dr. Amit Dhawan and Dr. Sarika Kapila

    Introduction: Mental foramen is an important anatomical landmark situated on the antero-lateral aspect of the body of the mandible and transmits mental nerves and vessels. Knowledge regarding the position of the mental foramen is important when administering regional anaesthesia, performing periapical surgery, dental implant surgery and open reduction of the mandible fractures as the mental nerve bundle can be traumatized during surgical procedures resulting in the paresthesia/ anesthesia in the area innervated by the mental nerve. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the position of the mental foramen using panoramic radiograph. Material and method: This study was undertaken using panoramic radiograph of 200 patients who reported to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The location of the mental foramen was recorded with respect to the longitudinal axis of the mandibular premolar and evaluated on the basis of gender and symmetry. Results: The most common location of the mental foramen was observed between the first and second premolar followed by that in line with the second premolar. Conclusion: It was concluded that since the position of mental foramen is variable hence it should always be assessed radiographically before the surgical procedure so as to reduce unwanted surgical sequel.

  69. Dr. Karan Shah, Dr. Janak Khambholja, Dr. Supriya Malhotra and Dr. Pankaj R. Patel

    The most common cause of anemia is deficiency of iron. A number of intravenous iron formulations have been developed. One of the recent addition to the list of available parenteral iron preparation is Ferric carboxymaltose. It is still relatively new in India and is yet to find its place in India for routine use. One clinically important but less common adverse reaction of Ferric carboxymaltose is increase in the Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) as well as Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) levels. In our patient we encountered significant increase in the ALT and AST levels after receiving Ferric carboxymaltose therapy.

  70. Dr. Kushnareva, M.V., Ezhkov, A.A. and Bulavskaya, E.N.

    Aim: To determine the adhesive properties of strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum 791, Bifidobacterium bifidum LVA-3, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and the effect of egg lysozyme on their adhesive activity in vitro experiments on human erythrocytes. Material and Methods: The bacterial adhesion and the effect of lysozyme in the concentrations range from 3.13 to 1500 μg ml is determined on human erythrocytes I (0) Rh (+) blood group. The average adhesion index (AAI) was determined - the average number of bacteria adhered on one erythrocyte, "K" - the percentage of erythrocytes adhering the bacteria. Results: B. bifidum 791 is highly adhesive (AAI = 4.1 ± 0.113), B. bifidum LVA-3 is low-adhesion (AAI = 2.43 ± 0.073) and B. animalis BB-12 is medium-adhesiv (AAI =3.16 ± 0.053). The "K" was 65.4 ± 3.13%, 51.6 ± 2.16%, 47.0 ± 2.28%, respectively Lysozyme was enhanced the adhesion of these strains by 21-80.4% in a wide range of concentrations and with different intensity, individual for each strain. "K" was increased with concentrations of lysozyme from 6.3 to 1000 μg / ml, and AAI was increased for B. bifidum 791 at 100 - 1500 μg / ml, the increase of "K" was for B. bifidum LVA-3 at 100-1000 μg ml and the increase of AAI was at 25-1500 μg ml of lysozyme, and for B. animalis BB-12 was "K" at 50-1000 μg/ml and AAI at 12.5-1500 μg/ml. Conclusions: Inclusion of lysozyme in the composition of probiotics can enhance their pharmacological effect.

  71. Chun-shuo HUANG and Jian-hong YU

    The objective of the case study is for the treatment ofAngle Class I with lower central incisor congenital missing case by ISW (Improved Super-elastic Ti-Ni alloy wire, developed by Tokyo Medical and Dental University).A young female (16 years old) came to our clinic with a chief complaint of maxillary protrusion and mild crowding. Clinical examination revealed lower central incisor congenital missing, large overjet, and anterior crowding. In order to relieve crowding and to correct large overjet, extraction of #14 #25(due to large decay) was performed. ISW Active tie back was performed to correct anterior tooth inclination and to reduce large overjet. Inter-maxillary elastics (IME) were also used for inter-digitation during the treatment.

  72. Dr. Paridhee Jalan, Dr. Prof. Shabnam Zahir, Dr. Prof. TamalKanti Pal, Dr. Prof. Abhijit Sengupta, Dr. Shibendu Biswas and Dr. Shyamal Bar

    Extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plants is an important first step in preparing different formulations. Various modern methods have now come to the forefront which preserve the phytochemicals and prevent their degradation as compared to the ancient methods. This article focusses on elaborating the principles of different extraction processes with their pro’s and con’s and different factors influencing the process. It is of utmost importance for researchers working with plant extracts to have thorough knowledge of different processes and select the most suitable one to ensure high quality of extracts.

  73. Dr. Rabiyathul Basariya, S. and Rahim Jafar Mohammad

    Many research studies have been conducted in the area of retailing services, but there has been no research that takes into account both service quality and retail store features and identifies the factors that lead to customer satisfaction in nigiris supermarkets. Customer satisfaction is defined as the extent to which a product or service meets or exceeds the customers’ expectations. The importance of such a study is immense in one of the fastest growing retail markets like India, where the impact of service quality and retail store features on customer satisfaction from the retail customers’ point of view is a very crucial field of discussion. After extracting different variables of service quality and retail store features from studying a body of literature on services in nigiris supermarkets, this study aims to identify the main factors that lead to customer satisfaction in nigiris supermarkets. The main factors are extracted from the independent variables using factor analysis. Then regression analysis is done taking the extracted factors as independent variables and customer satisfaction as dependent variable. Likert scale and multiple choice questions are used in the questionnaire. There are 17 independent variables which by factor analysis are reduced to 5 main factors which are found to significantly impact customer satisfaction in nigiris supermarkets.

  74. Dr. Sadhna Sharma, MD (PROF.), Dr. Rakesh Nukasani (JR) and Dr. Khwaja Mohammed (JR)

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammation of pancreas of variable severity and variable etiology. The severity varies from mild to severe attack like necrotising pancreatitis which portends bad prognosis on the patient and it is associated with complications which may lead to death. Many prognostic indicators were developed to prognosticate the patient. C-reactive protein is an inflammatory mediater synthesized in liver and it is rised in Acute Inflammation of Pancreatitis.CRP levels are correlated with contrast CT findings and cutt off value is estimated so that above that value one can predict pancreatic necrosis.CRP test is cheap and is easier to do. Hence in this study, CRP is tested as a tool to prognosticate the patient.25 patients admitted in the medical wards of NRI General hospital were included in the study and the study showed that CRP levels peaked at 5th day of illness and cut off 150mg/dl value can be taken, above which pancreatic necrosis can be predicted with high probability. It has specificity of 80 %. CRP values of more than 200 mg/dl had specificity of 100%.

  75. Andre Freitas do Rego, Claudino Ninas Nabais and Edmundo Viegas

    Plant a purple Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) on dry land is one type of vegetable plants that are favored by the community because in addition to having a delicacy also contains a lot of vitamins and nutrients. But so far the public is still constrained by the increased crop production. One alternative is the awarding of organic fertilizer to the soil can influence and improve soil properties either physics, chemistry or biology of the soil. The purpose of the research was to know the influence of dosing of chicken manure and water washing rice against growth and crop yield of eggplants and to know the influence of the interaction between a dose of chicken manure and rice water washing against growth and crop yield of eggplants then to find out the optimum dose of chicken manure and rice water washing against growth and crop yield of eggplants. This experiment using Randomize Block Design (RBD) consisting of two factors. The chicken manure factor consists of 4 levels, namely: P0 = (without the chicken manure) P1 = (250 g chicken manure), P2 = (500 g chicken manure) and P3 = (750 g chicken manure). Factors of water washing the rice which consists of 4 levels, namely: A0 = (not use water washing rice), A1 = (250 ml rice water-washing), A2 = (500 ml rice water-washing) and A3 = (750 ml rice water washing) are combined into 16 treatment and repeated 3 times so that the retrieved 48 swath the experiment. Observation is only performed on four plant samples at each of the six treatment plant population in the swath of the experiment. The principle parameter in this research are available on the observation such as plant height, number of leaves, root growth and weight of fruits. The results of the research shows carry, granting chicken manure and water washing rice can increase growth and crop yield of eggplants. The real interaction occurs on plant colonization eggplant in treatment doses of chicken manure with a dose of water washing the rice. At doses of chicken manure 750 gr/plant showed a dose of chicken manure with optimum results and maximum dose 750 ml rice water washing/plants shows the optimum dose with maximum results. In treatment (P3A3) is the best treatment for giving the maximum yield that is 2,81 and 9,21 g/swath.

  76. Pathipati, V.L., Vijaya Lakshmi, T., Rajani, Ramana C.V. and Naram Naidu, L.

    Field experiments were conducted from 2010 -11 to 2011-12 to evaluate the different colored traps to monitor and trap the chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood) population at Horticultural Research Station, Dr YSR HU, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh. In 2010-11, among the five traps blue traps were early and effectively monitored the thrips population from September IInd FN to February Ist FN than others. Population trap-1 ranged from 2.9 to 922.72. Early detection of population was recorded with blue traps, i.e September IIndFN (79.22), highest no. trap-1 was recorded in the November-Ist FN (922.72), lowest (2.9) and population was terminated in the February Ist FN. similar trend was observed during 2011-12. About the trapping, based on weekly data in 2010-11, among the traps, blue traps were effectively trapped thrips population, highest population (588.7) was recorded in the last week of October and lowest population (5.99) in February second week. Next best traps in trapping thrips population were, Yellow (hanging and delta shape). Yellow (Hanging) trap was trapped from September third week to February second week (0.77).Blue traps were effectively monitored and trapped the greater thrips population throughout the crop period than other colored traps.

  77. Mrs. Manasa Godati, Mrs. Lavanya Uriti, Dr. Ghada Abd El Raoufyoussif, Dr. Mervat Moustafa Arrab and Dr. Eva Lobelle Sampayan

    The aim of the study was “To assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on Care of Children with Febrile Seizures among mothers of under five’s at selected Urban slum areas, Suryapet”. A Quasi -experimental single group pre-test, post-test design was adopted. The study was conducted in Rajiv Nagar and Ambedkar Nagar (Urban slum areas), Suryapet, Telangana, India. The population were mothers’ of children under five years numbered 50. Convenient sampling technique was adopted for the study. The study was carried out by using a structured interview schedule and structured teaching programme on care of children with febrile seizures among mothers having under-five’s. A pre experimental one group pre –test, post –test design was adopted. Fifty mothers were selected by using purposes sampling methods at selected Urban slum areas, Suryapet to assess the knowledge and practices on care of children with febrile seizures by using this structured questionnaire. Structured teaching programme on care of children with febrile seizures was conducted. After 7 days of the structured teaching programme, the post –test were conducted by using the same pre-test questionnaire. Major findings of the study are: • In pre-test, out of fifty mothers of under fives regarding knowledge, 22% (11) had inadequate knowledge, 70% (35) had moderately adequate knowledge and only 8% (4) had adequate knowledge. Regarding knowledge on practices, 2% (1) had inadequate knowledge, 84% (42) had moderately adequate knowledge and 14% (7) had adequate knowledge. • In post-test, 44% (22) had moderately adequate knowledge, only 56% (28) had adequate knowledge and none were having inadequate knowledge on care of children with febrile seizures. Whereas 4% (2) had moderately adequate knowledge 96% (48) had adequate knowledge and none were having inadequate knowledge on practices. • There is a significant improvement in knowledge and knowledge on practices regarding care of children with febrile seizures at p<0.0001 level. • In pre-test, there is a significant association between the demographic variables and level of knowledge regarding type of family, number of previous attacks of seizures, family history of seizures and number of times admitted in the hospital for treatment at p<0.01 (1%) level, seizures accompanied with fever and family history of seizures were p<0.0001 and p<0.001% level respectively. In post test number of times admitted in the hospital for treatment of febrile seizures at p<0.01 (1%) level. • In pre-test, there is a significant association between the demographic variables and knowledge on practices regarding care of children with febrile seizures with family history of seizures at p<0.05% level. None of the variables were significant in post-test. The effectiveness of structured teaching programme on care of children with febrile seizures was significant at p <0.0001.The study concluded that the data proved that the structured teaching programme was a primary measure which markedly improve the knowledge and practices on care of children with febrile seizures among mothers of under-fives. Irrespective of demographic variables mothers improved their knowledge and practices on care of children with febrile seizures.

  78. Tayo, G. O., Idiage, P. A. and Taiwo, E. A

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of heavy metals present in the feed and faecal samples of layer birds from commercial poultry farms at I kenne Local Government area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Feed and faecal samples were collected by random sampling from bags of feed and farm dumpsite respectively at seven commercial poultry farms with bird population of 2,000 and above. Collected samples were analysed for heavy metal concentration with atomic absorption spectrometer AAS model 210GP after wet digestion. Data analysed by descriptive statistics showed that both feed and faecal samples contained varying levels of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr) and Arsenic (As).The mean concentration (ppm) values of heavy metals obtained in poultry feed from all the farms falls within the National Research Council and European Union reference values. However, the concentration of Cr in all feed samples was below the NRC recommended value. In all the faecal samples collected, the concentrations (ppm) of Cu and As were lower than the concentrations obtained in feed samples. This could either mean that birds absorbed some of the metals in their diets or some of the metals in the faeces had been eroded off because the faeces were dumped in the open. Adequate incorporation, not exceeding the maximum required value of metals into poultry diet, is therefore recommended so that birds will not be deficient in having access to minerals required for their optimum growth, development and productivity. Also, chickens are nourished by the feed they consume and if the feed is excessive in heavy metal concentration, there will be a deposition of the metals in their body tissues. This will pose a poisonous and detrimental effect to the health of the human population that consumes such birds. Furthermore, it is recommended that faecal wastes should be properly dumped or recycled to avoid accumulation of heavy metals in soils or run off.

  79. Kusuma, M. V., Venkatesha, J., Ganghadarappa, P. M., Hiremath, J. S., Mastiholi, A. B. and Manjunatha, G.

    A field experiment was conducted at experimental block of the Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops, Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, Belagavi district, Karnataka during Rabi-2015-16 and 2016-17 to study the effect of growth regulators at different stages on growth and yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The experiment consisted of two main plots - stages of application [S1: Vegetative stage (45 DAS) and S2: Reproductive stage (Flowering stage)] and seven subplots-growth regulators [G1- GA3 -50 ppm, G2- NAA -25 ppm, G3- Ethrel-50 ppm, G4- Benzyl Adenine (BA)- 10 ppm, G5- Ascorbic acid- 50 ppm, G6- Salicylic acid- 0.5 ppm and G7- Cycocel (CCC)- 50 ppm]. Plants received GA3 50 ppm at vegetative stage recorded significantly higher seed yield (32.12 g plant-1 and 2.38 t ha-1), number of umbels (27.73), number of umbellets per umbel (21.20) and dry matter production (187.34 g plant-1 and pooled data of 2 years) over other treatment combination. Among the growth regulators plants treated with GA3 50 ppm at vegetative stage registered maximum plant height (220.14 cm) compared to other treatments and it was on par with NAA 25 ppm at vegetative stage (217.11 cm). The minimum plant height (192.43 cm) was found with Cycocel 50 ppm at flowering stage.

  80. Muhammad Yanis Musdja, Chadidjah and Ira Djajanegara

    Sea mango leaf and fruit (Cerbera manghas, Linn) are very toxic, therefore some people in Southeast Asia and South Asia use them as fish poisons and rat poisons, besides that some people have also used them to treat several diseases, such as, diabetes, digestion, fever, malaria and infectious diseases. This study aims to determine the potential of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts of sea mango (Cerbera manghas, linn) leaf against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The leaves of Cerbera manghas, Linn was obtained from Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Plants (BALITRO) Bogor, Indonesia. Sea mango leaves were extracted by multistage extraction using dichloromethane and ethyl acetate solvents. The obtained extracts were prepared with concentrations of 10 mg/ml, 20 mg/ml, and 30 mg/ml. Test preparation activity were carried out against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by using paper disc and dilution methods, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined and ampicillin antibiotic was used as a comparison. In this cases was obtained the MIC values of ethyl acetate extract against E coli and S aureus was 5 mg/ml and 2,5 mg/ml respectively and for dichloromethane extract was 2,5 mg/ml and 1,5 mg/ml respectively, while the MBC values of ethyl acetate extract against E coli and S aureus was 10 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml respectively and for dichloromethane extract was 5 mg/ml and 2,5 mg/ml respectively. Equality value for 10 - 30 mg/ml extract of ethyl acetate was same with 26,12 - 36,20 µg/ml ampicillin in against E. coli and 10,37 - 15,55µg/ml in against S. aureus respectively. Equality value for 10 - 30 mg/ml extract of dichloromethane was same with 20,55 - 34,98 µg/ml l ampicillin in against E. coli and 5,17 - 13,4 µg/ml in against S. aureus respectively. Based on the results of this study was obtained, that extracts of ethyl acetate and dichloromethane sea mango (Cerbera manghas, Linn) leaves have antibacterial activity against S aureus and E coli, where, extracts dichloromethane leaf of sea mango has antibacterial activity a little stronger than the extract ethyl acetate sea mango leaf.

  81. Rahmiye F Ceylan, Metin G Akpınar, Mehmet Guven, Okan Ozaydin and Ana-Maria Cherciov

    Background: By the second half of 1980s, health sensitivity had started to rise in food and agricultural product consumption. In addition to health consciousness, rising environmental awareness and emphasis over achieving sustainability of agriculture, the definition of organic product was set forward and markets for both production and consumption of these products had started to emerge. Development of any sort of market can be achieved with evaluation of consumer expectations in developing countries. Objectives: Consumer valuation provides insights to producer markets and marketing organisations in terms of determination of marketing policy mix. Accordingly a brief survey was undertaken in selected provinces of Turkey and Romania to understand the acceptance of organic products and forecast the tendency to increase market share for those products in these two developing countries. Methods: The relationship between preferential factors and gender, education level, age, income level and occupational status of participants were assessed in the scope of the study. Results and Conclusion: The specialities and value of organic products were appeared as marketing mix components to be emphasized for the sample selected in two countries. It was understood that female consumers are more open to advertising efforts. Yet, alternative promotion tools should be developed for consumers with higher income and education levels. This situation is valid for both of these two developing countries.

  82. Leena Abraham

    Assessment of Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of selected 10 tree species found in vicinity of quarrying area in Thelliyoor (Pathanamthitta dist., Kerala) was done. Based on the selected dominant trees from disturbed site, same tree species were spotted from a undisturbed area of St. Thomas College, Kozhencherry Campus. Present study showed the impact of air pollution on ascorbic acid content, chlorophyll content, leaf extract pH and relative water content. These separate parameters gave conflicting results for same species. However the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) based on all four parameters has been used for identifying tolerance levels of plant species. The order of tolerance was as follows: Mangifera indica Linn. < Cinnamomum iners Blume. < Polyalthia longifolia Sonn. < Syzygium samarangense Blume. < Hevea brasiliensis Willd. < Psidium guajava Linn. < Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. < Garcinia gummigutta (L.) Roxb. < Swietenia macrophylla King. < Tectona grandis Linn.

  83. Saba Aziz, Nazia Ali, Swati Srivastava and Mohd. Asif Ansari

    Background: Child resembles a white paper. Which you can draw on it, his personality and conduct. A child is accepting any external impact and information affecting his character in the future. Since any behaviour or activity the child sees may influence his individuality. Television is what attracts the children most and shapes their behaviour. Usually most of the shows that children’s watch is cartoons. Kids shows are one of the everyday propensity for our children, yet animation impacts the kids decidedly and adversely both. So to realize that how an animation influences kids, we choose this topic for research. Aim: The present study aimed to know positive and negative effects of cartoon on behaviour of school going children. Methodology: A survey based descriptive research design was used to main aim of study. Location: This study was conducted at area of Bareilly, city of U.P. Sample size: For these study 100 parents of children in the age group of 6-12 years was selected. Results: This study revealed that children are highly influenced by the cartoons and parents are not satisfied by positive effects of cartoons on their children.

  84. Rafiuddin and Maisara

    This research aimed to improve student mastery of chemistry learning of the colloidal system by integrating Science Technology Society (STS). A pretest-posttest control group design was used which involved three year XI secondary school classes. The students engaged with different issues using STS principles. They used different sources from the environment which linked with the Colloid concept. A concept map was used as the research instrument along with multiple-choice test items. The results show that (1) there are three fundamental concepts in the Colloidal Systems in the curricula consisting of 12,50% abstract concepts with concrete examples, 4,17% of concepts that state the nature of properties, and 70,83% concepts that describe the process; (2) the comparison of the highest mean of posttest score of 93,89 for the experimental class with the Tyndall effect concept, meanwhile, for the control class with a score of 82 in Colloid concept. The lowest score for the experimental class was 68,89 in the Liofil Sol concept while in the control class it was 24,58 in the Gel Concept; (3) the comparison of the average score of N-gain for increasing mastery of the concept by the experimental class students was higher than for the control class with an average score of N-Gain 0,78> 0,53 which entered the high category for the experimental class while the control class in the category of being; (4) The model of science learning technology communityimproved students' mastery of the concept for high ability groups with th 63> 2,91, the ability of being with th 37,15> 1,72, low ability to th 9,8> 6,3 on the subject of Colloid Systems, which was reinforced by the results of different test t 'intergroup ability of students showed no difference, with t' high ability and being t'h 0,259<1,753,high and low ability t'h0,270 <6,313 and the low-skilled and t'h0,342 <6,313; (5) the response of students qualify as well to the application of science learning model community technology with a percentage of 77,9% while the response of students qualify as sufficient to direct learning model with a percentage of 36,84%.

  85. Shakthi, R. and Venkatesha, D.

    Background: The emergence of Vancomycin resistance Enterococci (VRE) is a cause of concern. They have become important nosocomial pathogen, which is very difficult to treat and control. So it is necessary to prevent their spread by early detection and monitor continuously such infection in hospital. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the two different methods - Epsilometer test (E- test) (Himedia, India) and HiCrome VRE Agar, Modified (Himedia M195, India) in detecting VRE. Methods: A total of 100 Enterococci isolated from various clinical specimens were speciated and antibiogram was done by using standard protocol. The efficacy of E- test (Himedia, India) and HiCrome VRE Agar, Modified (Himedia M195, India) in detecting VRE was evaluated .Results: In the present study, all the isolates were sensitive to Vancomycin. No VRE was isolated in my study. Hicrome VRE media and E-test showed sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Conclusion: In the present study VRE was not isolated. Identification of VRE by chromogenic media is rapid, easy to perform with reliable visual detection and cost effective compared to time consuming, technically demanding and expensive conventional method. Hence, HiCrome VRE Agar, Modified (Himedia M195, India) can be used as selective medium for isolation and differentiation of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from clinical specimens.

  86. Mahmood Kahtan Salih, Ali A. Kasim and Dhulfiqar Nidhal Alhilali

    CD28 and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) co-stimulatory signals are required for recruitment and expansion of naïve T-cell, CD28 regulates both the development of T-regulatory cells in the Thymus and their peripheral homeostasis. These T-regulatory cells (CD25+ and CD4+) constitute 5-15% of the peripheral T-cells these cells are involved in the autoimmune disease as they act as immunosuppressant, studies shown that targeting of CD28 with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) produces as significant increase in CD4 cell count in peripheral blood, spleen and the lymph nodes. In case of CD28, stimulatory mAbs act as artificial ligand that mimic the effect of natural ligands and cause co-stimulation of the T-cells and some of these mAbs have super agonistic activity. TeGenero, a German company, developed a recombinantly expressed humanized super agonist anti- CD28 mAbs (TGN1412). TGN1412 produced T-cell expansion in the absence of stimulation by T-cell receptor in the ex-vivo studies without provoking proinflammatory response; hence, TGN1412 shown to have the ability to activate regulatory T-cells therefore TGN1412 thought to possess a therapeutic effect in autoimmune disorders, and after extensive preclinical studies, TGN1412 approved for clinical trials. Unfortunately, the clinical trial does not went well as six of the volunteers suffered from severe adverse effects of the drug as discussed in this review.

  87. Shweta Singh Tutor, Shiv Akshat, Sayan Bhattacharyya, Dhirendra Kumar, Nahid Anjum and Asim Sarfraz

    Introduction: Biofilms formation plays an important role in bacterial and fungal pathogenesis. Biofilms have been considered a virulence factor contributing to bacterial infections. Therefore, a reliable method for their diagnosis is necessary. Materials and Methods: In this study, biofilm formation of 86 isolates of bacteria and yeasts were detected by Test tube method, polystyrene petri dish method and glass slide method and the results were compared. Results: Slide method and Petri dish method were found better than the test tube method for studying biofilm formation with better sensitivity but poorer specificity. Conclusion: Slide method and Petri dish method can be safely used to find out pattern of biofilm formation by bacterial isolates and yeasts.

  88. Dhanvijay, P.V., Varma, S.K., Gupta Anurakshat and Manwatkar, S.K.

    Background: Antiplatelet drugs are the cornerstone in the management of acute coronary syndrome. Recent studies suggest variability in response to aspirin and clopidogrel. A few patients on preventive therapy with aspirin and/or clopidogrel got recurrent attacks of thromboembolic episodes, further pointing towards an uncertain response. Method: A cross sectional, observational study was conducted in a tertiary care rural hospital in central India. 102 patients with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome who were prescribed aspirin and or clopidogrel for at least 7 days as antiplatelet therapy were included in the study. The samples were tested for platelet function by a test which was an adaptation of plateletworks kit. Results: On evaluation, the prevalence of aspirin resistance was 45.09%, of which 21 % were non responders while 24% were semi responders. Clopidogrel resistance was found to be 76.13%, of which 29% were non responders while 47% were semi responders. Conclusion: Our study shows an upsurge in aspirin and clopidogrel resistance. Standard yet less expensive, affordable, specific and sensitive platelet function assays are needed to see the antiplatelet aggregation activity to assure the drugs activity to the fullest.

  89. Lakshmi R Nair and Vinil Upendrababu

    Every day, every minute, experts in the health care fraternity and scientists are learning something new about the Alzheimer’s disease as the incidents of the same is on the rise, Globally. As per the research evidences it is proved that the knowledge about the disease and it’s preventive measures among common people can reduce the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease to an extend. Hence the main aim of this research was to assess the existing knowledge on Alzheimer’s disease among patients and to develop an informational booklet regarding prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. Non-experimental descriptive design was adopted to assess the knowledge regarding Alzheimer’s disease among the samples. With the use of non probability convenient sampling technique100 patients attending medical OPD of selected hospitals were used as samples. After getting consent from the samples knowledge was assessed from the samples with the help of a structured knowledge questionnaire. The result of the study had shown that the knowledge about the Alzheimer’s disease among samples were inadequate and their knowledge were effectively strengthened with the help of information booklet. Also, it is proved that there was significant association between knowledge score of patient and selected demographic variables such as age (χ 2= 6.47) gender (χ 2=5.59) marital status (χ 2= 15.33) occupational status (χ 2=14.49) family income (χ 2 = 6.32) ,source of information (χ 2 =6.51),mode of information(χ 2 =15.94).

  90. Raghavendran, M.

    Introduction: Exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute positively to reducing surgical risks and strengthening the immune system. Objectives: The objectives of the study is to assess the pre test knowledge and practice of post operative exercises, to evaluate the effectiveness of video assisted teaching, to associate the selected demographic variables with the knowledge and practice of post operative exercises and to correlate the knowledge and practice of post operative exercises among abdominal surgery patients. Methodology: A pre experimental research with one group pre test and post test design was chosen. All the male and female patients who are undergoing abdomen surgery are selected. The sample size chosen is 40 by purposive sampling technique. Results: In post test knowledge out of 40 patients 1 of them had moderately adequate knowledge, 39 of them had adequate knowledge. The level of practice on post operative exercises among abdominal surgery patients was increased from day 1 to day 5. The relationship between overall knowledge and practice score on post operative exercises shows positive correlation. Conclusion: From this study the finding shows that video assisted teaching is effective way to teach patients and help them to understand about health maintenance.

  91. Dr. Mukesh Kumar Napit

    All the 18 lakes and ponds in Bhopal District, were studied. The pollutants and drastic environmental variation have also adversely effected and changed water qualities i.e. color, hardness, turbidity , alkalinity, PH. COD, BOD and TDS etc. Aquatic life, thus, also is affected. Changes in morphology of amphibian, like- color, pigmentation, length, weight mass, etc. may occur. This can not be ignored that the afore-mention variation may be responsible to develop new varieties or sub species. Unfortunately, negligible work is done in relation to amphibian fauna of the area in recent-past. Though, appreciable limnology work is done, yet the amphibian fauna remained unexplored. The fauna study is of tremendous significance in determining population density and calculating sub specific diversity and conservation of ecosystem in Bhopal District.

  92. Maha M. Al-Madani

    Background: Student feedback about the effectiveness of teaching strategies that are aligned within the curriculum can be an effective approach to help improve the quality of teaching material. Objectives: the purpose of this paper reports on a case study that explored how teaching and learning can be enhanced through engagement with student feedback. Design: Qualitative research methodology used, and data were collected in the form of open-ended questionnaire for each participant. Settings: The study was conducted in the College of Nursing in Saudi Arabia. Participants: 90female nursing students enrolled in the third year Obstetrics and Gynecology nursing course were participate in the study. Methods: Open ended questions given to the participants at the end of the course study. Findings: The findings showed that most of the students were highly appreciative of what they believed to have been significant effort made to improve the course teaching methods. Conclusions: The research suggests that students recognize the values of different teaching approaches and specifically the use of video. The development and implementation of an assessment rubric was particularly valued as a way of enhancing objectively and transparency.

  93. Harsh Chaudhari, Dr. Anita Kumari and Womesh Bhole

    Nitrogen has been the most essential element that directly affects the growth of plants. It is present in the soil in insoluble form which cannot be used by the plants. The plants require soluble form of nitrogen in soil to grow and sustainability. One such important compound that provides the plant with required nitrogen is Amino Acid (protein). It can be extracted from different plant or animal matter. Soya bean is one such source of protein and due to its high protein yields, it can be used to extract protein by three different methods such as acid hydrolysis, alkali hydrolysis and with the help of enzymes. Protein can be used to regulate the Carbon-Nitrogen ratio of the soil. This C-N ratio if present in 24:1, is optimal for the soil microbes to convert nutrients like Nitrogen, Potassium and Zinc in usable form for the crops.

  94. Guehi Zagocky Euloge, Dago Dougba Noel, Tehoua Lazare and Yangni-angatekoffi Hervé

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlations between obstetrical and anthropometrical parameters of women in labor and the anthropometrical features (weight, height, and cranial perimeters) of their newborns instantly after deliverance at a tribal health center in the northern Côte d’Ivoire. Methods: It is a descriptive prospective and analytical study carried during five months at the maternity department of the tribal health center of Tioroniaradougou in the rural area of Korhogo, including 201 women in labor and their 202 newborns. Data were collected by the help of the medical team of the maternity of the center through an anthropometrical survey with two of the subject categories and structured individual interview with the mothers. Then, collected data were submitted to a multivariate statistical analysis with the purpose to link mother obstetrical and anthropometrical features with the newborn anthropometric characteristics. Results: findings exhibited an apparent correlation on the one hand between (i) newborn cranial perimeters, newborn weight and mother weight as well as between (ii) mother weight and newborn weight (p˂0.1). Results also revealed a significant correlation between mothers’ age, number of living-born children and pregnancies’ number (p<0.05). Multiple linear regression model as well as Chi squared test exhibited a significant predicting relationship between both newborn cranial perimeter and height parameters (p<0.05) and excluded the combination of both mother weight and height features as an acceptable factors in predicting child anthropometrical status (p = 0.45) as opposed to mother correct vaccine status and as well negative HIV/AID Sstatus (x-squared = 168, p = 0.01). Conclusions: as a whole, this survey suggested that maternal medical, obstetric and anthropometric parameters are reliable factors in explaining and predicting anthropometric status of newborns. Indeed, it shown that mother’s age, height, weight and number of contracted pregnancies and as well correct mother vaccine status are satisfactory predictive parameters on the outcome of the pregnancy.

  95. BitarJarmas

    The differences between the academic achievements and motivation level of 10th grade students in solving word mathematical problems with different solution methods were examined in this research, as the examined solution method is using tables versus solving by linear solution, solution through graphs and solution through series. The research rational is to clarify that the table method solution is preferred better than the other methods in academic achievements. The main research goal was to examine the differences in the academic achievements of the students, and in the student's level of motivation in mathematical studies, in the context of solving word mathematical problem in different ways (linear solution, table solution, graph solution and series solution). The central research question was: how does the method of solving word problems with different ways (linear solution, table solution, graph solution and series solution) on 10th grade student achievements and motivation. The comparison is between the tables solution methods versus other methods (linear, graphs and series). 100 10th grade students from Arab schools in northern Israel that learn the subject of mathematics participated in this research. The research sample is composed by four classes: class number 1 solved the tests according with the linear problem solution; class number 2 solved the tests according with the table solution method; class number 3 solved the tests by the graph solution method; and class number 4 solved the tests by using the series solution method. The research used a general mathematical test and an examination of word problems involving six verbal problems questions regarding traffic and three questions regarding percentage. The research findings indicated that distinct differences in the students' academic achievements were found while using the table solution method versus the different solution methods of linear solution, solution using graphs and solving by series, it was found that solving using tables is preferable to other methods. The research contribution indicates that the table solution method improves student achievements versus the other solution methods in solving word problems. The table solution method has been found as the most efficient way to improve student achievements. However, not the table solution method or any other solution method showed an effect on student motivation.

  96. Snehanjana Chatterjee and Dr. Suchita Sinha

    Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere. The concept of monitoring of air quality by plants is a well-established fact. It is known that some plants are very sensitive to air pollutants; they are thus used as indicator species for bio monitoring of air quality. The use of lichens and moss for air pollution level mapping in urban and industrial area are the finest examples of plant bio monitoring of air quality. The use of higher plants for monitoring of air pollution is, however, a recent development. A number of plant parameters either simply or in combination may be used for evaluating the pollution stress. Monitoring and detection by instrument cannot be possible everywhere however, indication from plant species by their alterations in morphological and biochemical parameters may be a suitable and easy screening measurement. The present study aims to detect morphological and biochemical changes in leaves of Alstonia scholaris found in Kolkata city area that are exposed to vehicular emission. The results clearly indicate that vehicular load brought significant changes in foliar morphology, numbers of gall formation and biochemical parameters such as pigment content, enzyme activities etc of leaves of A. scholaris. It is concluded that increased Air Pollution Index and gall formation in A. scholaris can be used as early monitoring parameters for air pollution by vehicular emission.

  97. Solomon Kebede

    In this Modeling and analyzing the water flow rate between two tanks, the mat lab simulink were used to analyze the water flow rate between them and level the tanks heights. The differential equation in terms of the water tanks heights and state space equation were derived and the simulink model was constructed for two water tanks reach its steady flow at the heights of 3m. At is level, the velocity flow of water is not changed and the flows of water in two tanks were the same.

  98. Nripesh Trivedi

    The trend of anonymous messaging, social networking, and general communication applications (e.g. Whisper, Secret, etc.) has been gaining traction recently. This stems from a growing need among internet users for speaking and communicating freely, without associating their content with their identities. However, in all the existing applications, anonymity is guaranteed by the server managing the network, where the users’ messages have to go directly through the server before they are anonymously shared with the selected audience. In the light of the recent revelations on mass surveillance, the general trust in servers to guarantee users’ privacy has been diminishing. Hence, we develop a technique for making such types of communications anonymous to both the server and the intended audience. Such a technique guarantees that the server would not know that a certain message came from a specific person. We term the technique, Scheme of Trusted Users. The scheme is implemented using Java SE.

  99. Aymen Awad, Khalil Al- Manasir, Feras Al Adday and Omar Shadid

    As the number of world’s population continues to increase, the amount of solid waste that people produce is increased. Definitely, disposable products required high engineering technology. Solid waste varies such as plastics, soda cans, polyethylene bags plastics or bottles of water…etc., but the accumulation of these products has led to increasing amounts of plastic pollution around the world. As plastic is composed of major toxic pollutants, it has the potential to cause great harm to the environment. This research will be focused on utilization of polyethylene and plastic wastes for asphalt bitumen modification. Procedures are aimed to determine of optimum asphalt content of pure bitumen asphalt and concerned on tested the asphalt samples prepared with different percentages of polyethylene and waste plastic as an additives to pure asphalt with the following percentages of (2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6%). The physical properties of the prepared specimens were tested for their stabilities, specific gravities, flows and air void ratios according to Marshal Method procedures. It was founded that the optimum asphalt content (OAC) is (7%) of the weight of specimens for pure asphalt samples. While the optimum values of additives to asphalt content were found as (4.1%) and (4.6%) for polyethylene and waste plastics, respectively. Results shown that for pure asphalt sample, the stability is (1367 kg), specific gravity is (Gmb) (2.182), the flow is 11.9 and the voids ratio is (3.89). Hot mixed asphalt with polyethylene additives gives that the following results of (1817 kg), (2.270), (10.4) and (4.3%) for the properties of stability, specific gravity, flow and voids ratio, respectively. on the other hand asphalt with waste plastic additives gives the results as follows (1745 kg), (2.257) and (10.2) and (5.1%) for the properties of stability, specific gravity, flow and voids ratio, respectively. It was concluded that a significant modifications in Marshal Properties of the tested control samples were achieved. In addition, the recycling of polyethylene waste and waste plastic for paving asphalt mixtures helps alleviate an environmental problem and saves energy and costs.

  100. Ayansa Tolesa and Solomon Kebede

    In this work we study the the energy of particles transfer through the finite the square well potential. Derive the wave function particles from finite the square well potential. Employing the approximation of linear variation method,I calculate the energy of particles transfer through the finite the square well potential.

  101. Mahmoud Abdelrahim Abdelgiom and Tarig Mahgoub Mohamed

    The core of this paper is to integrate between a Geo-database model and detector instrument (version-XTpc pipe and cable locator, and HWg-WLD detector ) for monitoring the network operation; breakdowns, leakages, flow and pressure variations can be adopted and linked directly from cable telephone line(or wireless internet service) to a control room. HWg-WLD detects water leaks or water floods along the entire length of the sensing cable. The sensing cable detects even the smallest volume of water; HWg-WLD features a built-in web server. In case of an alarm, the device sends an e-mail to the manager of the control room. The computerized model of the Khartoum Center Water network is established have a lot of benefits of an automated system, i.e. high capacity storage; easy retrieval, easy plotting the breakdowns and leakage location for quick maintenance. This model also has a benefit of updating are gained. This Geo-database model of the study area consists of different diameter sizes of pipes, valves, detectors, and flow control valves. Finally, this paper highlights the importance of GIS techniques for water utility monitoring and management. Besides the open source tools of GIS (ArcGIS10.1) can be effectively utilized for the creation of an online water information system which can provide necessary input at all levels for effective decision making.

  102. Krishnaveni, R.

    In recent years, credit inter-mediation is shifting, with the traditional dominance of the banking sector yielding ground to non-bank intermediaries, including the asset management industry. In addition, mutual funds play an important role in equity, debt and money markets as efficient allocates of resources. The debt portfolio of mutual funds mainly comprises corporate debt instruments, which include floating rate bonds, non-convertible debentures and public sector undertaking bonds. In the money market segment, mutual funds are the major lenders in the collateralize borrowing and lending obligation segment, accounting for over 60 per cent of lending in this segment. As major domestic institutional investors, they operate in both primary and secondary segments of the capital market, providing a buffer against market volatility. AUM of MFs in India has registered a compound annual growth rate of 25 per cent over the last five years, outstripping the compound annual growth rate of only 11 per cent registered by aggregate bank deposits of scheduled commercial banks. With growing formalization and financialisation of the Indian economy, household savings have been shifting from physical assets to financial assets and within financial assets, from bank deposits to securities.

  103. Nasiya, PM., 2Priya, K.V. Dr. Rajeswari, M. and Krishnadas, J.

    Breast Cancer serve as one of the diseases that make a high number of deaths every year. It is the common type of all cancers and the main cause of women’s deaths worldwide. Due to the vital role of the aberrant DNA methylation during the disease development such as cancer, prediction mechanism had become essential in the recent years for early detection and diagnosis. The high-dimensionality and noisiness of the DNA methylation data may lead to the reduction of the prediction accuracy. Thus, it becomes more important in a wide range to employ robust computational tools such as feature selection and extraction methods to extract the informative features amongst thousands of them, and hence improving cancer prediction. This paper aims at predicting cancer with a hybridized feature selection and feature extraction (HFSE) techniques. The suggested approach shows a filter feature selection method called (F-score) to overcome the high-dimensionality problem of the DNA methylation data, and proposes an extraction model which employs the peaks of the mean methylation density in order to exact cancer classification and reduce training time. To evaluate the reliability of our approach, machine learning algorithms such as The naïve base and support vector machine, knn algorithms are introduced to predict cancer. The results show that, the classification accuracy improves in all cases and it also proves the reliability indirectly.

  104. Heidi A. Salinas-Padilla, Mario Saucedo-Fernández, Juan José Díaz-Perera and Santa del Carmen Herrera-Sánchez

    This article is the result of the first stage of a project named Digital Learning Project registered in the Postgraduate and Research Office in the Universidad Autónoma del Carmen. This project has a specific objective of promoting environmental education through technology, and it presents the diagnostic obtained by the application of surveys, to know what knowledge do middle school students have about the sustainable development. Focusing in the possible ways of improvement those zones where a high level of contamination exists. The population were students from two technical industrials middle schools with a public characteristic in different areas, the most relevant results are that 48% of the students surveyed mention that urbanization as the main reason of the problems of biodiversity and sustainable development in Carmen City, Campeche, Mexico.

  105. Sangita Mishra, S. and Chauhan Mohd Shuaib

    Drought is a creeping and recurring hydro-meteorological event, which originates from reduced precipitation, high temperature, and high evaporation over extended period of time. It is normal in any climatic region and, perhaps the most complex natural hazard, because it develops slowly, is difficult to detect and has many facets in any single region. Drought preparedness and mitigation depends upon timely information on drought onset, development in time and spatial extent. This information may be obtained through continuous drought monitoring, which is normally performed using drought indices. This paper describes drought assessment, using two different meteorological indices, RAI (Rainfall Anomaly Index) and SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index). The Marathwada region of Maharashtra was chosen as the study area and this region is characterized as a ‘frequently drought prone area’, where drought can be expected every 6 to 10 years. A comparison of RAI and SPI values were done for determination of drought severity and temporal extension of drought for planning of mitigation measures for farmers. Using the SPI and RAI as indicators of drought severity from 1901-2002, the characteristics of drought were examined. The maximum annual SPI was -2.61 in the year 1920 similarly the RAI values also showed the same results which was -4.748. Whereas in the month of June the SPI value was -2.09 in the year 1941 and the RAI value was -3.29, in the month of July the SPI value was -2.34 in the year 1971 and the RAI value was -3.85. The overall study shows that RAI is highly correlated with SPI for determining the characteristics of droughts in the study area. The overall outcome of this study demonstrates that extreme and severe droughts were experienced in the year 1920, 1972 and 1911, 1912, 1918, 2000, 2001 across the study area leading to unfavorable results on agricultural practices and water resources in the area.

  106. Saeed Hameed AL Dulaimi and Marwan M. Abdeldayem

    This paper debates the Islamic perspective on the organizational design. It aims to explore the fundamental design of organization that derived from the main sources of Islam, Quran and Sunnah. The rational of this research lies in the fact that there is a major need to develop an organizational design in light of Quran and Sunnah, and to the best of the authors’ knowledge there is no previous studies dealt with this issue before. The findings of this research effort revealed a fine model contains seven phases as the basic features of organizational design as follows: (1) analyzing the external environment, (2) formulating strategy, (3) building the appropriate structure, (4) arranging and mobilizing resources in a specific culture and system with the appropriate style of leadership. Consequently (5) selecting people in some manner that helps the organization achieve the desired goals. Furthermore, (6) leadership is found to be essential to maintain values and beliefs and enforce the fairness, equity, cooperation and empowerment within the organization. Finally,(7) performance assessmentis considered vital for our proposed model in order to improve and measure individuals' commitment to institutional culture and objectives. The significance of this study is that it addresses the gap in the management literature and suggests a group of features from fundamentals of Islam which can help in developing an organizational design model.

  107. Rana Nagendra Prasad Singh, Suma, B. S., Sadananda, L.D. and Veeranna Ramesh

    Introduction: Permanent first molar is the first tooth to erupt in the oral cavity when the child is about six years old. It stays in the mouth for longer period and plays an important role in the growth and development of the jaw and occlusion which subsequently maintain the overall health of the dentition. Loss of this tooth due to either caries or periodontitis at the very early stage of life leads to progressive destruction of remaining teeth. Materials & Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted at Department of pediatric dentistry Buddha institute of dental sciences & hospital in Patna, Bihar (India) to find out the demographic pattern and reasons for the loss of permanent first molar tooth in children. The data were procured from hospital records of all children aged 6 to 14 yrs who had visited the Paediatric dentistry department between the year 2013 and 2015. Results: A total of 292 first permanent molar were extracted among children over a period of 2 years (2013- 2015). It is found that majority of the mandibular left 1st permanent molar (155 or 53.08%) were extracted followed by mandibular right 1st permanent molar (64 or 21.92%) where as only (40 or 13.7%) upper right 1st permanent molar & 33 (11.3%) upper left 1st permanent molar were extracted. The results showed that the mandibular arch is more prone to tooth loss due to caries. Conclusion: It was concluded that Left mandibular permanent first molar is the most common tooth among the first molars to show high mortality rate. Majority of the permanent first molar tooth loss is seen after the age of 10 yrs. The percentage of permanent first molar tooth loss increases with increasing age.

  108. Dr. Sandipan Mukherjee and Dr. Samiran Misra

    Russell's Vipers cause vasculotoxic features resulting in acute kidney injury, bleeding manifestation. In our case a 50 years old man with history of snake bite was presented in casualty. He was unconscious; 20 minute whole blood clotting time was deranged, and renal function was abnormal. CT scan of head showed large area of infarct in left hemisphere. Though cerebral hemorrhage is much common, cerebral ischemia following viper bite is an uncommon feature. Despite treatment, anti snake venom and supporting measures the patient could not regain consciousness and eventually succumbed to death.

  109. Dr. Naina Swarup, Dr. Gaurang Mistry, Dr. Padmapriya Puppala, Dr. Mishal De Souza, Dr. Pratik Shah and Dr. Ankita Chitnis

    Background: As osseointegration is now considered highly predictable. Conventional techniques of reflecting a flap for first and second stage surgeries have been routinely carried out. The current trend is to develop techniques that can provide function, aesthetics, and comfort with a minimally invasive surgical approach. Objective: To achieve these goals, flapless implant surgery using a tissue punch technique has been suggested. It maintains the tissue integrity, minimizes time for healing and also provides a clean site without the need for a second stage surgery. This paper presents an outline of the principles of treatment planning and surgical procedure for flapless implant surgery.

  110. Dr. Supriya Mahajan, Dr. Ashutosh Ajgaonkar and Dr. Freni Shah

    Introduction: Infertility is a bane of modern living. It inflicts devastating emotional trauma on the individual for being unable to fulfill the biological role of parenthood. In India, 10-15% of the couples are infertile. There is an increased demand for diagnostic and therapeutic intervention for management as infertility is a social stigma. This study is aimed to assess the role of hysteroscopy in workup of female infertility and analyze if this is the primary method in evaluation of infertility after hormonal profile and semen analysis. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 100 infertile patients was carried out for a period of 1 year at Santati IVF centre, Thane. Various factors such as cervical, tubal and endometrial were analyzed as post hysteroscopy findings as the cause of infertility. Results: Hysteroscopy was performed in 100 infertile women, out of which 56(56%) presented with primary infertility and 44(44%) women were with secondary infertility. Normal intrauterine finding were found in 43 women (43%). Abnormal hysteroscopic findings were found in 57 women of which maximum women were primary infertility (39%). Cervical factor abnormalities were found in 17% of women either in form of erosion (9%) or internal Os stenosis (8%). Most common finding in primary infertility group was uterine septum (10%) followed by endometrial polyp, small uterine cavity, intrauterine adhesion, T-shaped cavity and sub septate uterus. However, in one patient finding of anunicornuate uterus was achieved. In secondary infertility group, abnormal Intrauterine Findings Were Detected In 23/44 Women, The Most Common Finding Being Endometrial polyp. In primary infertility group, 10 women had undergone septoplasty and 7 metroplasty, 4 had polypectomy, 3 had adesiolysis and ostia opened for 2. In secondary infertility group, metroplasty was the most common interventional procedure done (9%) followed by polypectomy, septoplasty, adhenolysis and opening of blocked ostia. Conclusion: Hysteroscopy is effective in not only evaluation of infertility but also in correcting the causal factors. In view of above findings of the study, it seems worthwhile to consider hysteroscopy as the first line of investigation for evaluation of female infertility after the initial investigations are within normal limits.

  111. Bachrif, M., Laachach, H., Aissaoui, H., Ismaili, N. and El ouafi, N.

    The the peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM), is a rare cause of cardiomyopathy occurring at the end of pregnancy or during the months following the birth. This condition can be life-threatening and is characterized by significant left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure It’s a diagnosis of exclusion, which must be confirmed by the measurement of systolic function nearly always less than 45%. It is a rare pathological entity whose pathophysiological mechanism in question remains poorly understood. Clinically, it is a sudden heart failure with unpredictable evolution and a hight risk of refractory cardiogenic shock justifying management in cardiovascular resuscitation. The treatment is essentially symptomatic, the prognosis is closely related to the complete recovery of cardiac function.

  112. Neha Sharma

    Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to adulthood. Mother is the first teacher for a child and her occupation play a great role in the development of a child. Loneliness is a feeling which mainly grows in the hearts of adolescence due to ignorance felt by them tn their childhood. Loneliness is a feeling which isolates an individual from social groups even when he is present in the crowd. Aim the primary of the study is to compare the level of loneliness among the adolescents of working and non-working mothers. Material and method non- experimental approach was adopted to compare level of loneliness among the adolescents of working and non-working mothers in the selected school of Yol Cantt, District Kangra. Comparative design was used, total of 60 adolescents were included in equal strength from working and non-working mothers respectively. Pilot study was conducted on 12 subjects and feasibility and sample size was determined, where study was found to be feasible. Inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Result: Findings of the study revealed that mean+SD score of working and non-working mothers 48.6+3.34 and 47.6+6.08 respectively, there is no significant difference between the level of loneliness among the adolescents of working and non-working mothers. Conclusion: The study concluded that working pattern of mothers does not affect the level of loneliness among the adolescents of working and non-working mothers.

  113. Neha Sharma

    Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to adulthood. Mother is the first teacher for a child and her occupation play a great role in the development of a child. Loneliness is a feeling which mainly grows in the hearts of adolescence due to ignorance felt by them tn their childhood. Loneliness is a feeling which isolates an individual from social groups even when he is present in the crowd. Aim the primary of the study is to compare the level of loneliness among the adolescents of working and non-working mothers. Material and method non- experimental approach was adopted to compare level of loneliness among the adolescents of working and non-working mothers in the selected school of Yol Cantt, District Kangra. Comparative design was used, total of 60 adolescents were included in equal strength from working and non-working mothers respectively. Pilot study was conducted on 12 subjects and feasibility and sample size was determined, where study was found to be feasible. Inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Result: Findings of the study revealed that mean+SD score of working and non-working mothers 48.6+3.34 and 47.6+6.08 respectively, there is no significant difference between the level of loneliness among the adolescents of working and non-working mothers. Conclusion: The study concluded that working pattern of mothers does not affect the level of loneliness among the adolescents of working and non-working mothers.

  114. Dr. Dawood Ahmed Dawood Sulaiman

    Background: Vomiting is one of the postoperative complications of tonsillectomy. Aim of the study: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of preoperative intravenous dexamethasone on postoperative emesis, starting oral intake and shorten the period of intravenous fluid. Methods: In a double – blind, placebo - controlled clinical trial,112 patients aged 5—12 years, ASA classes I were randomly selected to receive 2 mg / body weight (wt.) IV dexamethasone ( n = 56 ), as study group or an equivalent volume of saline preoperatively, as control group. The anesthetic regimen and surgical procedures were standardized for all patients. The incidence of early and late vomiting, the time to first oral intake and duration of intravenous hydration were compared in both groups. Results: Data analysis showed that the overall incidence of early and late vomiting was significantly lesser in dexamethasone group than the control one. The time to first oral intake and duration of IV therapy were also significantly shorter in dexamethasone group. Conclusion: A single dose of dexamethasone at induction of anesthesia significantly decreased the incidence of postoperative vomiting in early and late recovery phase and shortened the time to first oral intake and the duration of intravenous therapy.

  115. Bachrif, M., Laachach, H., Aissaoui, H., Ismaili, N. and El ouafi, N.

    The Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare and serious condition due to its complications classically by hematogenous spread of septic emboli to different organs. Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare and potentially blinding ocular infection of the innereye. that occurs in the blood. We report the case of a diabetic 50-year-old woman with endogenous endophthalmitis as the first clinical manifestation of native mitral valve infective endocarditis that rapidly progressed to death. Endophthalmitis is still a rare complication but can quickly compromise the functional and vital prognosis, requiring an extremely fast and strict management.

  116. Dr. Asima Banu, Dr. Akshata Uppar, Dr. Balaji Pai, Rinitha and Mohammed Faizaan

    Introduction: Health care associated infection or hospital acquired infection is one of common problems faced by hospitals in all countries. Ventilator-associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a major healthcare burden in terms of mortality, escalating healthcare costs, increased length of ventilator days and hospital stay. Despite advances in antimicrobial therapy, better basic care of ventilated patients on mechanical ventilation and a wide variety of preventive measures. Aims and objectives: To assess & compare knowledge of health care workers (doctors and nurses) on ventilator care bundle in ICU before and after a structured training programme. Materials and Method: It is a Cross-sectional study Conducted at Intensive Care unit in a tertiary care centre Bengaluru, over a period of three months. Interventions were through an educational module which consisted of lectures on VAP prevention. The lectures were preceded by a pre-test and followed by a post-test, held aseries of 60-min training sessions covering VAP definition, risk factors, aetiology, and importance and components of care bundles. Questions included were specific to definition and cause of VAP, route of intubation, position of patient, suction system, humidifier, components of ventilator bundle care, role of Culture in diagnosis of VAP, change of ventilator circuits. Statistics: Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the results. Results: The mean total scores of physicians, nurseswere 90%, 69.7% pretest and was increases to 96% and 85% respectively in post test, there was significant increase in score of nurses in post test. Conclusion: Knowledge on recommended guidelines does not necessarily reflectappropriate practices but it is important for implementing evidence-based guidelines for preventing VAP. The study was intended to assess knowledge of ICU health care providers (physicians, nurses) knowledge of evidence-based guidelines for preventing VAP and not to evaluate the practices.

  117. Dr. Puneet Sharma, Dr. Ishata, Dr. Neeraj Yadav, Dr. Charu Maini and Dr. Pradeep Yadav

    In the recent times, with the increasing expectations of the patients to an esthetically good and functionally stable treatment result, the practice of dentistry is changing from a single specialist practice to that of a team approach involving general dentist and various specialists. In orthodontic treatment, the endodontic procedures (like root canal treatment and restorations) and periodontal procedures (scaling and root planning) must be carried out before initiation of orthodontic treatment. The oral surgery procedures can be carried out at any stage of orthodontic treatment whether before treatment (corticotomy procedures), during treatment (exposing impacted tooth, extractions) and after treatment (frenectomy, orthognathic surgery). The prosthodontic procedures to replace the missing teeth must be carried out after completion of orthodontic treatment. During orthodontic treatment extraction space either can be maintained for prosthesis or can be closed orthodontically to prevent a lifelong prosthesis. An interdisciplinary dentofacial therapy is the effective and efficient utilization of the skills in the various disciplines of dentistry. Its key is the combination of diagnostic, treatment planning and therapeutic procedures with extensive communication among all team members. The present paper briefly describes an interdisciplinary approach for the management of complex dentofacial problems produces consistent optimal results.

  118. Mate, A. A. and Aher, V. D.

    The present study was conducted to compare and evaluate the intravenous dexmedetomidine-butorphanol and dexmedetomidine-midazolam as preanaesthetic with propofol anaesthesia in dog. The study was conducted on 14 (fourteen) clinical cases of canine of either sex, irrespective of age presented to the T.V.C.C., COVAS, Parbhani for various surgical interventions randomly divided into two groups each consisting of seven dogs. All the dogs in study were administered with inj. Atropine sulphate @ 0.04 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously. In group A, after administration of inj. Atropine sulphate, 10 min later combination of Inj. Dexmedetomidine HCL (10 µg/kg body weight) and Inj. Butorphanol tartarate (0.2 mg/kg body weight) mixed in single syringe was administered intravenously whereas in group B, combination of Inj. Dexmedetomidine HCL (10 µg/kg body weight) and Inj. Midazolam maleate (0.2 mg/kg body weight) mixed in single syringe was administered intravenously. Quality of sedation was assessed followed by inj. Propofol was administered till the effect to get the surgical stage of anaesthesia and required amount was calculated as induction dose. Intermittent doses of propofol were given for maintenance of anaesthesia when required. The study was comparatively evaluated on the basis of clinical parameter, evaluation of reflexes and physiological parameters. It was found that all the dogs resumes lateral recumbency immediately after administration of drug combination (DB/DM) in both groups. Evaluation of various reflex revealed profound sedation with excellent jaw relaxation, moderate to completely abolished palpebral and pedal reflex and rostroventral eyeball position making pupil invisible during sedation and anaesthesia. From the present study it was concluded that intravenous administration of dexmedetomidine-butorphanol (DB) and dexmedetomidine-midazolam (DM) as preanaesthetic combinations produced profound sedation, rapid onset of action and excellent degree and depth of analgesia along with muscle relaxation extent of which is comparatively more in group DM than DB. Dexmedetomidine-butorphanol and dexmedetomidine-midazolam with propofol produced better quality and degree of basal an aesthesia for the minor and major surgeries in canine patients.

  119. Binu Gigimon Varghese, Pankaj Punjot and Capt. Valsa Thomas

    Introduction: Patient call bell generated from the patient room is an alert sign to the health care professionals about patient need. Attending a call bell by nurse should be immediate and if it delays safety and emergency intervention required can be at stake. Many a time patient call bell response delayed is directly proportional to patient satisfaction and patient outcome. Call bell is a communication key for the patient when hospitalized and nurse should always give priority to attend call bell. Aims & Objectives: The primary aim of the study is to identify the time taken by nurse to attend the call bell. The secondary objective is infrastructure contribution to minimize the time duration for attending the call bell. Methodology: A total of 16543 call bells were monitored by call bell monitoring system for 3 months from June to August 2018. The call bells were monitored for 2 floor which were 9th floor and 10th floor. Each floor is of 18 rooms and two nursing counter to each floor thus 9rooms to each nursing counter. The call bells respond time duration was monitored for each of the call generated by patient in Dr L H Hiranandani Hospital, Powai, Mumbai, India. Result: 36 rooms were monitored for 3 months for the patient call bell response by nurse. Each floor is of 18 rooms and distance was taken from the nursing counter. The highest distance is room no 9001 and 1001 that is 82 feet and nearest room are 913 and 1013 which is 35 feet. Total of 16543 calls were generated in 3 months from all rooms. 94.88% of total calls were attended by nurse in 1 minute, 3.65% calls were attended in 2 minutes, 0.88% calls were attended in 3minutes, 0.27% of calls were attended in 4 minutes where as 0.12% of calls were attended in 5 minutes and only 0.18% of call were attended in more than 5 minutes. The study has proved that nurses are active and alert to address the call bell and infrastructure of the hospital is one of the factor to minimize the time duration for call bell response. Conclusion: Call bell is the primary key for patient to communicate in the hospital and responding to call bell generated by patient is also priority of nurse. The study has proved that 94.88% of calls were attended with in 1 minute which evidenced nurses priority for attending the call bell. Infrastructure of the hospital helped the nurses to attend the call in minimum time. Call bell response by nurses in minimum time remains our primary goal.

  120. Sukumar Balakrishnan, Karthi, M. and Raja, A.

    Aim: To evaluate the incidence and amount of periapical root resorption of maxillary and mandibular canines during fixed orthodontic treatment using friction and frictionless mechanics. Materials and Methods: The study population included patients aged in between 14 to 20 years undergoing orthodontic treatments in the Dept. Of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics. Twenty samples were selected by convenience sampling method and were divided into two groups namely, Group A (n=10): Segmental canine retraction using frictionless mechanics .Group B (n=10): Segmental canine retraction using friction mechanics. The group A and B patients underwent first pre molar extraction, 0.022 MBT brackets were bonded. The pre retraction radiographs and post retraction radiographs of maxillary and mandibular canines was obtained by standardized technique and external apical root resorption was evaluated using SOREDEX DIGORA imaging software. Result: The between group comparision i.e pre retraction and post retraction of frictionless mechanics and friction mechanics showed Z value of -1.250 and P value of 0.211 for pre retraction values and Z value of -1.402 and P value of 0.161 for post retraction values. The comparison of pre retraction values of two groups showed there is no statistically significant difference between two groups and hence they can be compared after intervention. The comparison of post retraction values of two groups showed there is no statistically significant difference between two groups. In within the group comparison the mean difference, Z value and P value of frictionless mechanism is 0.5, 0.00 and 1.00 respectively. The mean difference, Z value and P value of friction mechanism is 0.5, -1.0 and 0.310 respectively. Conclusion: Segmental canine retraction using friction and frictionless mechanics produces the same amount of apical root resorption.

  121. Dr. Muna Mahmood Daood, Dr. Khawla Natheer Hameed Al Tawel and Dr. Noor Al _Huda Abd Jarjees

    The causes of female infertility are multifactorial and necessitate comprehensive evaluation including physical examination, hormonal testing, and imaging. Given the associated psychological and financial stress that imaging can cause, infertility patients benefit from a structured and streamlined evaluation. The goal of such a work up is to evaluate the uterus, endometrium, and fallopian tubes for anomalies or abnormalities potentially preventing normal conception.

  122. Dr. Aparna Kodre, Dr. Dileep Mane and Dr. Anshul Mehta

    This is a case of a younge female who presented with b/l lower limb weakness and then paralysis. Loss of sensation of both lower limbs and loss of bowel and bladder control. On examitaion and tests patient was found to have paraplegia and csf was positive for anti nmo antibody called as neuromyelitis optica. The patient was treated with iv steroids and then with oral steriods and supportive treatment

  123. Dr. Shamaila Ayub, Dr. Syeda Jabeen Almas, Dr. Aun Ali, Dr. Summaya Saeed, Dr. Farhan Zaheer and Dr. Shafaq Naseer

    Background: Appendectomy for acute appendicitis is the most common urgent abdominal surgical procedure. Closure of peritoneum tends to cause ischemia, necrosis, inflammation and foreign body reaction to the suture material resulting in more post-operative pain. This study aims to evaluate the role of no peritoneal closure technique in reduction of post-appendectomy pain. Objective: To compare the postoperative pain levels on visual analogue scale in closure versus non-closure of peritoneum in open appendectomy. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized control trial conducted at department of Surgery, Creek General Hospital Karachi, Pakistan during March 2016 till July 2018. A total of 32 patients diagnosed as having acute appendicitis presented to emergency department were included in study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Post-operative pain after appendectomy was measured by visual analogue score after 48-hours. Results: Mean pain scores were significantly low in group with non-closure group as compared to peritoneum closure group (p<0.005). Conclusion: Not suturing the peritoneal layers together at appendectomy has beneficial effects on post-operative pain.

  124. Dr. Muwafaq Mustafa Abdul Razzaq, Dr. Abdulkarim Hamdoun Ahmed Hassan Al-Tai, and Dr. Bassil Saleh Abdul Qader Ashour

    To compare small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) versus LASIK for post-refractive dry eye disease. Its Prospective, comparative, nonrandomized clinical study. thirty patients scheduled for bilateral myopic SMILE and 30 age-, sex-, and refraction-matched patients scheduled for bilateral myopic LASIK were enrolled and followed for 6 months after the surgery. Complete evaluation of dry eye disease was performed at 1 and 6 months postoperatively, which included vision-related quality of life (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI]), clinical examinations (tear film breakup time [TBUT]), Schirmer I test, corneal staining), and tear osmolarity measurements, together with an overall severity score. Function and morphology of the corneal innervation were evaluated by corneal esthesiometry and subbasal nerve imaging using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM(. High incidence of mild to moderate dry eye disease was observed in both groups 1 month postoperatively, which remained significantly higher in the LASIK group than in the SMILE group 6 months after surgery (overall severity score [0–4]: 1.2±1.1 vs. 0.2±0.4, respectively, P < 0.01), leading to more frequent use of tear substitutes over the long term. Corneal sensitivity was better in SMILE than in LASIK eyes 1 month postoperatively (3.5±1.79 vs. 2.45±2.48, respectively, P < 0.01) and then recovered to statistically similar values at 6 months. Corneal nerve density, number of long fibers, and branchings as assessed by IVCM were significantly higher in the SMILE group compared with the LASIK group 1 and 6 months after surgery. Corneal sensitivity was negatively correlated with dry eye-related corneal damage (R² = 0.48, P < 0.01), and the long fiber nerve density was independently correlated with the OSDI score (R² = 0.50, P < 0.01) and the Schirmer test (R² = 0.21, P < 0.01) 6 months postoperatively.

  125. Ratobimanankasina, H.H., Raobelle, E.N., Rahanitrandrasana, E.O., Rasolonjatovo, J.D. L.C., Raharivelo, A. and Rajaonarison, B.H.

    Our study highlights the alarming rate of cannabis misuse prevalence (23%) in the department of Psychiatry in Toamasina Hospital during the first half of 2017. Men between 20 and 30 years old are the most consumers (32%), followed by those between the ages of 30 and 40 (31.82%). There is the presence of women consuming (4.55%). The criteria for cannabis addiction by the DSM-5 of American Psychiatrist Association was used. Thus, most cannabis users in our study (40.90%) develop medium dependence with score between 5 and 6. However, 27.30% are dependent with a score higher than 6. Even our numbers remain less important compared to the literature, it is important to raise awareness of population to prevent its consumption. Furthermore, the sources of income of cannabis users of our research come especially from their families or friends in 40.90%. 31.82% of our patients are in joblessness and 9.09% depended on social assistance. Thus, the fight against idleness and the encouragement of young people to not to stay in joblessness would constitute strategies to keep them away from this drug use. Finally, for the treatment of cannabis addiction, we should also take care off, at the same time, the underlying depression (31.80% in our case) and psychiatric comorbidities as alcoholism (13.63% in our case), schizophrenia (9.09%) and borderline and psychopathic personality disorders which would constitute cannabis use perseverance factors.

  126. Babita Kumari

    Introduction: A diabetic foot infection is one of the leading causes of the hospitalisation among diabetic patients. Many studies have reported on the bacteriology of diabetic foot infections over the past 25 years but the results have been varied. Diabetic foot wounds are commonly infected, and hence infection leads to the formation of microthrombi causing further ischaemia, necrosis and progressive gangrene. Material and methods: Samples were collected from 90 cases of diabetic foot ulcer by using sterile swabs and they were processed as per the clinical and laboratory standard Institute guidelines. Results: Out of 90 cases of diabetic foot ulcer 50 cases (62. 5%) were monomicrobial and 30 cases (37.5%) were polymicrobial. In our study gram negative bacilli were isolated in preponderance than gram positive cocci. Among gram negative bacilli the commonest isolate was pseudomonas spp (36%), followed by E. coli (28%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20%). The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the bacteria were also studied. Conclusion: This study showed raised incidence of multidrug resistance isolates from the diabetic foot ulcer cases. Hence knowledge of antibiotic sensitivity pattern is essential for determining appropriate treatment of diabetic foot ulcer.

  127. Sahly, A., Hssan A. Suwaydi, Saif, W., Ali. Mohammed, Mubarky, A. 6Ssiri, A.A., Enas. A. Khalil and Dr. Siham A. Habeeb

    Background: TB is one of the most infectious diseases resulting in considerable mortalities especially in low income countries. World health organization estates that About one-quarter of the world's population has latent TB, which means people have been infected by TB bacteria but are not (yet) ill with the disease and cannot transmit the disease. In KSA, the National tuberculosis program was established more than 30years ago in all regions of the kingdom following World health organization guidelines for the program. Methods: The study is a quantitative survey research deduced for secondary data of contacts of primary cases registered by the program in Jazan region. The data included demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory evaluations of the cases. Findings: The targeted population in this study are tuberculosis contacts of primary cases in the period Jan1st-Dec 31st .2013.All contacts nationals and non-nationals, males and females with median age 15-49 years old were included in the study. The study included (2308) contacts for 198 primary cases of which 98% were screened for latent TB which turned to represent 26% of the screened cases in this study. All the cases received treatment on time in accordance with World health organization guidelines. For those who were initially tuberculin skin test negative (1688), the test was repeated in 61.79% revealing 10% of them have changed to positive cases. While those with an initial positive result, 25% had chest xray done showing abnormal findings in 2.04% and for those who repeated the smear test (0.39%), 40% came out positive for tuberculosis. Conclusion: The key finding in this study proves that the national tuberculosis programm of Jazan region is adherent to the guidelines of the national program which goes in alliance with World health organization regulations and guidelines, nevertheless, raising awareness among the population is a must. Further studies are recommended to reveal the causes of investigation and treatment refusal.

  128. Dr. Manu M Kochupurackal, Dr. Robina Rose Mathew and Dr. David WT

    Obstructive sleep apnea, cessation of breathing during sleep, is potentially life threatening and requires prompt intervention. Despite the numerous advancements in our understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical consequences of the disorder, amajority of those affected remain undiagnosed. Simple queries of the patient or bed partner for the symptoms and signs of the disorder, namely, loud snoring, observed apneas, and day time sleepiness, would help identify those in need of further diagnostic evaluation. The orthodontic approach is intended to provide patients with immediate relief from OSA, as well as changes to the airway that may address an underlying cause. It can be treated using surgery, continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliances therapy. This article review some of the basic aspects of this sleep-related disorder, its diagnosis and treatment modalities.

  129. Trinain Kumar Chakraverti, Ranjan Kumar Srivastava, Ratnesh Kumar and Nandkishore

    Introduction: Urinary tract infections are among the most common infectious diseases in humans. The incidence of candidiasis is on the rise in hospitalized patients. The incidence of Candida has been on the rise worldwide. Urinary tract infections as a result of Candida species are becoming common in hospitalized patients. The species identification of Candida is important, as non-albicans Candida species are increasing in number and more resistant to antifungal drugs. The present study was aimed to speciate, characterize and perform antifungal susceptibility testing of the Candida spp. isolates from the urine samples. Material and methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Patna Medical College, Patna) from october-2017 to December 2018 over 1 year 3 months period. A total of 2251 urine samples were analysed and isolated Candida species were subjected to speciation and antifungal susceptibility was performed according to standard procedures. Results: A total of 2251 urine samples were screened and 100 Candida spp. were isolated The incidence of Candiduria was 4.44 %. Female predominance (71%) was noted in the present study. In cases of females, the maximum number of patients was in the age group of > 60 years. The most common predisposing factors responsible for candiduria was Foley’s catheter (87%) followed by diabetes (71%), IV catheter (53%), and frequent use of antibiotics (53%). C. albicans was the most common species isolated (58%). It was observed that all species showed maximum susceptibility to Caspofungin (100%), Amphotericin (97%), Voriconazole (92.94%), Posaconazole (93.72%) followed by itraconazole (80.20%). Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that, candida albicans was the most common type of candida isolated from Candduria. NAC species have emerged as common cause of UTI. UTI is more common in female in >60 years age group, catherterized patients, diabetes and systemic antibiotic use. For treatment of candiduria, antifungal drugs like Voriconazole, Posaconazole and itraconazole can be given judiously while Caspofungin and Amphotericin B keep as reserve drug.

  130. Dr. Babita Kumari, Dr. Ranjan Kumar Srivastava and Dr. Shweta Singh

    Introduction: Otomycosis is an acute, subacute or chronic superficial fungal infection of external auditory canal, commonly seen in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is a common problem in the warm and humid areas and among Rural community. The commonly found causative fungi include Aspergillus and Candida species. Proper identification of causative agent is mandatory in order to prevent recurrences and complications. Material and methods: A total of 50 cases of symptomatic patients suspected to be of otomycosis were studied. Samples were collected on two sterile cotton swabs. Direct examination of the specimen was carried out by Gram’s stain and 10% KOH mount. All samples were inoculated on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. Identification of fungi were done as per the standard protocol. Results: Mycological examination yielded fungal isolates from 35 samples (70%) from a total of 50 clinically diagnosed cases of otomycosis. 9 cases were found to have contamination or bacterial isolates. Aspergillus species was the predominant fungi followed by Candida spp and Penicillium. In our study male preponderance was seen with 52% cases than female with 48% cases. Incidence of otomycosis was high in age group of 15-35 years followed by 35-55 years of age group. Conclusion: Otomycosis commonly presented with decreased hearing, itching, earache and otorrhea. Higher practice of self cleaning and using home remedies and ear drops to get relief from sensation of blocked ear has raised incidence of otomycosis.

  131. Syed Besina Yasin, Dr. Meesa Zargar, Dr. Kanika Gupta, Dr. Hilal Abdullah and Dr. Naheena Bashir

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence and growth of ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterus, with caesarean scar endometriosis being a rare entity reported in 0.03% to 0.5% of women following caesarean section. The diagnosis of endometriosis is usually established by a biopsy. However, we present a case of abdominal wall scar endometriosis in a woman who presented as a swelling on abdominal wall, diagnosed by FNAC and confirmed by cell block preparation with PR and CD 10 positivity on IHC.

  132. Dr. Deepa Swamy

    The role of women is a fundamental question for the development of all societies. Development means total development in political, social economic, cultural and other dimensions of human life as well as the development of economic and other resources. The Objective of the study was to find out the existing entrepreneurial competencies among service class women. Purposive random sampling was done in order to meet the purpose of the study. Fifty service class women of different categories were selected to study the knowledge of the entrepreneurship. For the purpose of data collection from the service class women, investigator developed the close ended questionnaire. The tool was administered on fifty on service class women selected randomly by investigation. Administration of tools was done through field study. Results indicates that even service class women don’t have clear concept about entrepreneurship

  133. Dr. Marwa Khalid Taha Al_Ameen

    Early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis is important. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. However, its invasiveness and sampling bias limit the applicability of the method. Basic imaging for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis has developed over the last few decades, enabling early detection of morphological changes of the liver by ultrasonography (US), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They are also accurate diagnostic methods for advanced liver cirrhosis, for which early diagnosis is difficult. There are a number of ways to compensate for this difficulty, including texture analysis to more closely identify the homogeneity of hepatic parenchyma, elastography to measure the stiffness and elasticity of the liver, and perfusion studies to determine the blood flow volume, transit time, and velocity. Amongst these methods, elastography using US and MRI was found to be slightly easier, faster, and able to provide an accurate diagnosis. Early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis using MRI or US elastography is therefore a realistic alternative, but further research is still needed.

  134. Babita Kumari, Anita Sundi, Ranjan Kumar Srivastava

    Introduction: Neonatal septicemia is the commonest cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. To reduce the mortality caused by Neonatal septicemia, it becomes essential to diagnose it as soon as possible and treat with administration of appropriate antibiotics. Material and methods: The study was done on neonates coming to Patna Medical College and Hospital, Patna. About 100 neonates were screened in the study for a time period of 6 months. Results: Out of 100 clinically suspected cases of neonatal septicaemia 68 (68%) were blood culture positive and 32 (32%) were blood culture negative. The commonest organism isolated was Escherichia coli (26.47%), followed by Klebsiella spp (23.52%). Among Gram positive organisms Staphylococcus aureus (19.11%) was the commonest isolate followed by CONS with 14.70% cases. Positive blood culture is the gold standard for the diagnosis of septicaemia. Conclusion: Neonatal septicaemia is more common in males, low birth weight and preterm neonates. A positive blood culture is the only definitive method of confirming a case of septicaemia which helps in prompt and timely administration of antibiotics which could be life saving.

  135. Dr. Venkatesh Babu, Dr. Ambika.G, Dr. Pooja M Gowda and Dr. Ishadeep Kaur

    Purpose of study: The aim of this study is to compare the antiplaque efficiency of chlorhexidine mouthrinse and cacao bean husk extract mouthrinse in children. Materials and methods: This study conducted on 50 children of both sexes aged 6- 10 years.The group of 25 children were given 10 ml of 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouth rinse,and another 25 children were given 10 ml of 0.1% Cacao Bean Extract mouth rinse,to rinse the mouth twice daily for 30 seconds. The plaque samples were collected in Dentocult SM vials on pre rinse and after seven days, 1 month and 2 months. In the same intervals plaque index were recorded. The readings were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Results of the study showed that there was significant reduction in streptococcus mutans count in plaque in all follow up intervals for both mouthrinse group and also reduction in plaque index readings for both the mouthrinse groups. But there was no significant difference in reduction of streptococcus mutans count in plaque, and also plaque index between chlorhexidine mouthrinse group and cacao bean husk extract mouthrinse group. Conclusion: It was concluded that cacao bean husk extract mouthrinse can be used in children alternative to chlorhexidine mouthrinse as it has same antiplaque property and avoids the side effects of latter.

  136. Minati Malide, Mouayadi Said Ali Madi, Iqtida Ahmed Mirza and Li Mingbao

    Background: The pregnancy outcome in Chinese women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been controversial. Research looking at predictive factors in this population is sparse in China. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of abnormal pregnancy outcomes in a Chinese cohort and to identify clinical factors predicting adverse fetal and maternal outcomes in Chinese women with SLE. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 122 pregnant women with SLE diagnosed patients from 2011 to 2017, regarding the association of the clinical features including lupus nephritis, pre-eclampsia and the adverse outcomes in Qilu Hospital of Shandong University. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the predictors of maternal and fetal outcomes. Results: The Mean age of pregnant women with SLE was29.15±3.99years and mean average SLE duration was 5.03±4.64 years. Of 122 pregnant women, 83.6% women had live births and the preterm live birth was 32.0%. Average mean of baby weight was 2254.79±1114.51 grams. The most common maternal complication was premature rupture of membranes 18.0%, followed by pre-eclampsia or eclampsia 17.2%. Conclusion: Age group, SLE duration, hemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) were independent predictor of fetal loss for pregnant women with SLE. Further studies were needed to investigate the predictor factors of Chinese pregnant women with SLE.

  137. MiljenkoCvjetičanin, TajanaPolovina-Prološčić, Svetislav Polovina, Andrea Polovina, Timon Cvjetičanin and Irena Fučkar

    By the one of genetic method, quantitative analysis of digitopalmar dermatoglyphics, we have made research in thirty female have made research in thirty female cerebral palsy children, in the prevention purpose. We have found statistically signific. We have found statistically significant differences to control in totally fifteen variables, in nces to control in t significance the sense of increased number of epidermal ridges: on the right hand and finger: the fifth finger finger (FRD5), on all five fin finger (FRD), on all five finger together (TFRCD), between triradii c-d (c-d rcD), triradii ((TFRCD), between triradii c-d (c-d a-b, b-c and c-d, all together (TPR rcD), and in Atd angle increased in degrees. Then, in together (TPF rcD) and in Atd angle seven variables on the left hand and fingers: first (FRL1), second (FRL2), and five all to- fingersal gether (TPRCL), between triradii b-c (b-c rcL) and c-d (c-d rcL), between triradii a-b (a-brcL)and c-d all toge- rcL), b-c (b-c rcL) and c-d (c-d rcL) all together (TPR cL) and Atd angle in degrees (AtdL) And on the end, in threeon both han And on the end, in three on both hands an fingers: ten fingers all together (TFRC), be- tween triradii a-b (b rcL), b-c (b-c rcL) and c-d (c-drcL) all together (TPRC) and Atd an- gles in degree both palm (ATDDL).The obtained data indicate a hypothetical genetic impact that simultaneously damaged brain and changed dermatglphic drawing, which c seems quite possible due to common ectodermal origin of both system.

  138. Dr. Sharath Kumar Shetty, Dr. Mahesh Kumar, Y. Dr. Chandrima. A. Sreekumar and Dr. Brijit Alphonsa Gervasis

    Objective: To evaluate the profile changes following treatment in adult female patients with bimaxillary protrusion of Dakshina Kannada region. Materials and Methods: Twenty five Class I bimaxillary protrusive adult female patients treated with MBT appliance after first premolar extraction were included in the sample. Pre and Post treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated and the obtained data was compared using Paired t test or Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Nasolabial angle showed significant increase of 7.560 post treatment (p value 0.001*) Upper lip thickness and lower lip thickness increased by 0.84mm and 0.12mm (P values 0.030*, 0.478* and respectively). Upper lip angle decreased by 7.080(p value 0.001*) Conclusion: Significant changes in nasolabial angle, upper lip angle and upper lip thickness were noticed post retraction in bimaxillary protrusive adult female patients of Dakshina Kannada region.

  139. Dr. Chandulal D. Dhalkari, Dr. Sayali C. Patil and Dr. Maya S. Indurkar

    Pyogenic granulomas and hemangiomas of oral cavity are well-known benign lesions. The gingival occurrence of capillary hemangioma is considered relatively rare. The purpose of this article is to report, the clinical diagnosis of such an uncommon occurrence can be quite challenging as they sometimes mimic benign as pyogenic granuloma & in reality, it could be a more serious lesion such as malignancies. Dentists should therefore be aware of these lesions when making diagnosis and attempts at excision of apparently innocent lesions may result in serious bleeding.

  140. Dr. Poonam Singh, Dr. Braj Bhushan Mall and Dr. Robindro Singh, W.

    Mimicking can be done by using either by natural substitutes or Synthetic substitutes. Biomimetics is defined as the study of the formation, structure or function of biologically produced substances and materials and biological mechanisms and processes especially for the purpose of synthesizing similar products by artificial mechanisms which mimic natural ones. A material fabricated by biomimetic technique based on natural process found in biological systems is called a biomimetic material. Why synthetic materials are preferred? Age, disease and traditional restorations can cause further problems to the existing tooth structure. As teeth have no natural method of repair, biomimetic principles should be used to artificially repair the tooth to its natural functions and aesthetics. Biomimetics is an emerging inter disciplinary field that combines information from the study of biological structures and their function with physics mathematics chemistry and engineering in the development of principles that are important for the generation of novel synthetic materials and organs. Calcium hydroxide is one of the biomimetic material in dentistry.

  141. Benjamin Kiffôpan M’BARI, Mathurin Koffi KONAN, Gatien Konan Gboko BROU and René Yadé SORO

    A study was conducted in Korhogo Department to evaluate the reproductive and growth performance of pig riders. To achieve this, a survey was conducted in four localities namely Karakoro, Tioro, Napié and Sohouo, chosen at random. In each locality, six farms were selected at random. A total of seventy-two (72) piglets were weighed for two months with 12 piglets in each farm. In addition to this follow-up, a questionnaire was administered to forty (40) farmers distributed equally in these different localities. The results showed that the reproductive performance of multiparous sows is better than that of primiparous sows. Similarly, the growth performance of piglets from multiparous sows was higher than those from primiparous sows. In these same piglets, females gained better weight gains than males. The breeding of pig runners is still traditional or extensive type in the Korhogo department. Like all growing farms, the breeding of pigs runners must be valued.

  142. Kh. Jitenkumar Singh, Sunita Sharma, Subhash Gautam and Jeetendra Yadav

    The present study to estimate the childhood mortality, i.e., neonatal mortality rate (NMR), infant mortality rate (IMR) and under-five mortality (U5M) among Schedule Castes, Schedule Tribes, Others Backward Classes and Others social group; and assess the Childhood mortality differential in social-religious stratification i.e., Schedule Tribes, Schedule Castes, Others Backward Classes and Others social group in northeast state, India. Data & Methods: Using data from National Family Health Surveys 4 (NFHS-4) conducted during the years 2015-2016, measures of mortality during infancy and childhood i.e., Neonatal mortality: the probability of dying in the first month of life, Infant mortality: the probability of dying before the first birthday and Under-five mortality: the probability of dying before the fifth birthday, were computed. All women age 15-49 year asked to provide a complete history of their births including for each live birth, sex, month and year of birth, survival status, and age at the time of the survey or age at death. Age at death was recorded in days for children dying in the first month of life, in months for other children dying before their second birthday, and in years for children dying at later ages. This information was used for computation of various mortality rates. The unit of analysis in this study is the child, considering more than one child may have the same mother. One aim of this study is to estimate the childhood mortality, i.e., neonatal mortality rate (NMR), infant mortality rate (IMR) and under-five mortality (U5MR) among Schedule Castes, Schedule Tribes, Others Backward Classes and Others social group; and investigate differential in childhood mortality by social status that is, Schedule Castes, Schedule Tribes, Other Backward Classes and Others social group. Results and conclusion: NMR, IMRand U5MR among schedule Castes were found to be 25.7, 39.1and 47.5, among schedule Tribes were 17.1, 32.7 and 41.2. This study analysed childhood mortality differential in social-religious stratification i.e., Schedule Castes, Schedule Tribes,Other Backward Classes and Others social status. The findings highlight the need for addressing socio-cultural norms towards eliminating discrimination among schedule Castes and schedule Tribes and need-based programmes focus on delaying the age at first birth for younger women among others social group other than the schedule castes and schedule tribes in Northeast states. Results shows that children born to SC and ST families have lower risk of dying than those from non SC&ST in Northeastern states, India.

  143. Bhagyashree S. Dange, Vikas Vartak, Ajay Mootha

    Background: Esthetic and Cosmetic dentistry is gaining attention of both common man and dental professionals in 21st century. An important aspect of this branch is selection of proper dental shade. Aim/Objctives: To evaluate the reliability of two commonly commercially available shade guides for the shade selection of maxillary central incisors in the local population of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. Material and methods: A single examiner evaluated shades of maxillary central incisors in 200 subjects using Vita Classic and Vita3D Master shade guides. All the samples belonged in the age group of 19 to 25 years. Results: Variations in the shades of maxillary central incisors were examined related to gender and age using two different shade guides. In relation to Vita Classic shade guide, out of 16 shades, only 6 shades were recorded in our study sample. Total of 76 samples could not be matched using this shade guide. On the other hand, with Vita 3D Master shade guide, all but two samples could be correctly matched. Out of these 26 shades, only 10 shades were recorded in our study sample. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that there is a need of special shade guide which enumerates all the colour spectrum of the local population. There is need to improve communication between dentist and dental technicians using newly available softwares and spectro-colourimeters for proper shade duplication in dental laboratory.

  144. Priyanka Singh, Dr. Sushma Pandey, Dr. Amrita Sharan

    Plants Magnesium is very important in health and medicine. Magnesium deficiency affects every system of the body. Magnesium is a crucial element for mediating the vital functions of the nervous and endocrine systems. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve functions, keeps heart rhythm steady, supports a healthy immune system and keeps bones strong. Aims and Objectives: The present study was undertaken: 1. To determine the level of serum magnesium in non-pregnant women of child-bearing age.2 .To determine the level of serum magnesium in pregnant women in different trimesters of pregnancy.3. To compare serum magnesium level of non-pregnant women with serum magnesium level of pregnant women in different trimesters of gestation. Materials and methods: The present study was carried out in the Deptt. Of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Patna Medical College and Hospital, Patna during September2006 to September2008. Estimation of Serum Magnesium Level: by colorimetric method using “Titan Yellow”. A significant lowering of the serum magnesium level has been observed on comparing the mean values of first and second trimesters. A significant decline was also noted between the second and third trimesters. The decline in serum magnesium level when comparing the first and third trimester values was highly significant.

  145. Scott Arockia Singh and Mosaed Abdul Aziz Mohamed

    We report here a case of black fly bite on the face of a middle-aged Arab lady. She presented with a fairly large-sized, painful swelling of size 7*5 cm on her left cheek of 3 days duration. She visited a picnic spot on the mountains of Dhofar two days prior to the hospital visit and developed a large abscess on her cheek. Incision and drainage done under local anaesthesia. Black flies infection was rampant in the monsoon season, on the mountains of Dhofar region in Oman. These flies are hematophagous flies and affects cattle, wild animals, birds and humans. Death from mass attack reported in cattle, due to release of toxin from its saliva. It bites humans and causes significant lesions like abscesses on the face and the public be informed about the precautionary measures. Dangerous black fly infection in humans is not ever reported from Oman in the medical literature. We would like to draw attention of the practicing doctors and public about this infectious disease.

  146. Sonali Sharma, Sudesh Sharma, Ghanshyam Dev Gupta and Shashi Sudan

    Background: MRI load of low back ache patients is quite high. Nearly 75% of populations suffer from low backache (LBA) with or without sciatica at some or the other time during adulthood. Majority of these patients, after a clinical diagnosis of Prolapsed intervertebral disc, are referred for an MRI, primarly not only for the confirmation of the diagnosis but also for the patient satisfaction (demand) and medico legal reasons. The study was conducted to understand the significance of MRI findings in the production of LBA with Sciatica and its role in its management. Material and Methods: 130 patients of LBA, with sciatica unilateral 78 (60%), bilateral 40 (37.6%) and without sciatica 12 (9.23 %) diagnosed clinically as prolapsed intervertebral Disc, underwent MRI and were evaluated on a uniform pattern by double blind method. The clinical findings of pain distribution dermatomes, sensory loss, motor loss, deep tendon reflexes, local tenderness and straight leg raising tests (SLR) were recorded. MRI evaluation noted the Grades of Disc Degeneration, Level & Type of prolapse, Neural foramina compromise, root impingement and other miscellaneous findings. All the variables of clinical presentation and MRI findings were compared to find out their significance. Inter and intra observer variations were calculated for significance by Kappa coefficient. Results: MRI levels of disc prolapse, impingement, foramina compromise and disc extrusions correlated well with clinical picture in 109 (83.8%) patients. Disc bulges single or multiple were mostly (88%) asymptomatic. Small impingements with effacement did not correlate with neurological/ dermatome level clinically. There was insignificant inter or intraobserver variation in interpretation of most of the MRI observations (Kappa score 0.56), however a minor intraobserver variation of (Kappa 0.34) was observed in labeling various types of disc prolapses. Conclusions: Not all cases of LBA with or without sciatica are prolapse disc and vice versa. Paracentral protrusion or extrusion with moderate to severe foramina impingement correlate well with clinical presentation whereas, central bulges and small disc protrusions show poor relation to clinical findings. The management of LBA & sciatica should depend upon the severity of pain, its distribution, response to conservative treatment and importance of neurological deficit and MRI help should be sought only in cases not responding to conservative treatment, doubtful diagnosis, important neurological deficit (Bowl Bladder involvement) and in cases where surgery has been planned.

  147. Amit Agarwal, Sarvjeet Kaur, Ayan Manna, Pragnajyoti Das, Divya Parmar and Soumendu Bikash Maiti

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a technique used in cranio-maxillofacial surgery to achieve high bone volume gain in all spatial dimensions based on the biological principle of bone callus mechanical elongation through slow and progressive separation under tension of two bone fragments surrounding the callus to achieve new bone formation. It falls under reconstructive techniques of correcting the orofacial defect. Current literature is an effort for an easy understanding about concepts and fundamentals of distraction osteogenesis and also understanding the alveolar distraction osteogenesis along with it’s current scope.

  148. Dr. Varun Viswanath V., Dr. Ramesh K Nadiger, Dr. Lekha K, Dr. Sitalakshmi P.T. and Dr. Adarsh V Hegde

    Introduction: Endodontically treated teeth are at higher risk of fracture than vital teeth due to the decreased moisture content in dentin and most of the times, compromised structural integrity. The cast post and core technique has been advocated as the gold standard restoration for decades, but the traditional technique is time consuming and involves great laboratory and material costs. Introduction of prefabricated metallic post systems and esthetic post systems such as fiber-reinforced and zirconia ceramic posts have improved the results significantly. A dental ferrule is an encircling band of cast metal around the coronal surface of the tooth. The availability of 2.0 mm of coronal tooth structure between the shoulder of the crown preparation and the tooth/core junction has been shown to enhance fracture resistance and preventing fracture and dislodgement of the post. Objective: To assess the effect of ferrule on the fracture resistance of teeth restored with Parapost XP and Parapost Fiber Lux under tangential load. Methodology: Forty Human maxillary central incisors extracted within three months were stored in saline solution. Coronal sections of teeth to be restored were sectioned with carborundum discs 2mm occlusal to cementoenamel junction. Forty maxillary central incisors specimen collected were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 20 central incisors without ferrule and were further divided into two subgroups, ‘a’ with Parapost XP and ‘b’ with Parapost Fiber Lux. Group 2 included 20 central incisors with 2mm ferrule and were further divided into two subgroups, ‘a’ with Parapost XP and ‘b’ with Parapost Fiber Lux. The teeth were then endodontically instrumented and root canals were obturated using gutta percha. After root canal treatment, teeth were prepared for post space by means of preparation drills. Self adhesive resin cement was used to cement these posts. After removal of excess cement, resin cement was allowed for 5 minutes to polymerise followed by core build up using Paracore, followed by full coverage crowns. Finally, all the specimens were embedded in the acrylic resin block to a depth of 2mm below the cementoenamel junction. The mounted specimens were secured in a universal testing machine and a force was applied at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min until fracture occurred. The fracture load was recorded in Newtons. Results: When tangential loads were applied to the samples, it was seen that the teeth restored with posts having ferrule withstood higher amounts of force before fracture when compared to those without ferrule. Conclusion: Within the limitation of the present study, it can be concluded that the ferrule effect plays a key role in increasing the fracture resistance of teeth restored with post and core.

  149. Dr. Peeyush Pathak and Dr Rinku Shanklesha

    Advances in dentistry, as well as the increased desire of patients to maintain their dentition, have lead to treatment of teeth that once would have been extracted. Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) is an autologous biologic material created by centrifugation of blood. Choukroun and his associates were amongst the pioneers for using PRF protocol in oral and maxillofacial surgery to improve bone healing in implant dentistry. Autologous PRF is considered to be a healing biomaterial and presently, studies have shown its application in various disciplines of dentistry. Advantages of PRF alone include less surgical time, elimination of techniques and potential healing difficulties associated with membranes, and less resorption during healing, as compared to guided bone regeneration procedures. Hemisection of a mandibular molar may be a suitable treatment option when the decay or resorption is restricted to one root and the other root is healthy. This article describes a simple procedure for hemisection in mandibular molar by vertical cut method, followed by faster regeneration of bone using PRF and bone graft and its subsequent restoration. Hemisection along with latest regenerative protocols and prosthetic rehabilitation yielded a satisfactory result.

  150. Ambaga, M. and Tumen-Ulzii, A.

    It can be say that there are more close relationship between common descent of all life on Earth and long time formation of membrane - redox potentials three - state line system like structures from the cyanobacteria to Homosapiens during last 4,5 billion years, which generated ATP and NADPH. “Phylogenetic relationship” refers to the relative times in the past that species shared common ancestors. We are proposing the new suggestion about close interrelationship, formed during evolution development of life, demonstrating that all organisms on earth are descended from a single common ancestor by following law full processess, as at first: common descent of all life on Earth from the universal common ancestor, through 16s rRNA gene, 18S rRNA, a set of 355 genes, comprising the three domains of life, archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes, at second: all living cells have arisen from a single common ancestor that lived 650 million years ago in the Precambrian, at third: 6,331 genes common to all living animals have been identified., at fourth: the genetic code is nearly identical for all known life forms, from bacteria and archaea to animals and plants. at fifth: identical pathways for the biosynthesis of purinenucleotides with participation of ATP generated within membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent -full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance of widely divergent organisms as E.coli, yeast, pigeons, and humans, demonstrating the biological unity of life in the level of ATP/ADP cycle and also in the level of membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance, at sixth: some 23 proteins are found in all organisms, serving as enzymes carrying out core functions like DNA replication. All living organisms have the same kinds of monomeric subunits and the identity of each organism is preserved by its possession of many sets of nucleic acids and of proteins, which formed with participation of ATP/ADP cycle functioned as one of members of membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance. It can be say that the continuity of proton conduction depended biosynthesis of ATP and NADPH using the membrane - redox potentials three - state line system like structures from the cyanobacteria to Homosapiens during last 4,5 billion years had been carried out by general principle as common descent of all life on Earth from the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), through 16s rRNA gene, 18S rRNA, , a set of 355 genes, comprising the three domains of life, archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes, agenetic code is nearly identical for all known lifeforms, from bacteria and archaea to animals and plants. The universality of this code is generally regarded by biologists as definitive evidence in favor of universal common descent owing to membrane - redox potentials three - state line system like structures from the cyanobacteria to Homosapiens during last 4,5 billion years. In such way the membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance have been formed as final results of phylogenetic relationship of life during last 4,5 billion years.

  151. Deshmukh, O.S. and Makode, K.U.

    A large number of medicinal plants are used as alternate medicine for diseases of man and other animals since most of them are without side effects when compared with synthetic drugs. Each plant whether it may be shrub, herbs, algae have its own significance in pharmaceutical, medicinal, agricultural, industrial, biochemical and chemical sciences. The present investigation was focused on the preliminary phytochemical and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectral analysis and Antimicrobial Studies of solvents extracts of Spatholobus purpureus Benth. ex Baker results were clearly revealed that the plant contained different bioactive compounds such as of Alkaloids, Anthoquinones, Coumarins, Steriods and Flavonoids compounds were rich in the extracts of Spatholobus purpureus Benth. ex Baker are connected with defense mechanism against many microorganisms.

  152. Abeyratne, R.M.T.B., Senaratna, B.C.V. and Perera, P.P.R.

    Background: Body Mass Index, isoften used in clinical practice as well as in epidemiological studies.However, it is not clear how strong the relationship between BMI for age Z score (BMI – Z) and body fat percentage (BF %) among children.The study determined the (BMI – Z) and (BF %) relationship, in a group of South Asian adolescentsand to examined the influence of age, gender in this relationship andassessed its’ linearity or curvilinearity. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1374 adolescents. BF% was estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance analysis (BIA) and Skinfold thickness (SFT).Pearsons’ correlation coefficient(r) was calculated to see the relationship between (BMI – Z) score and (BF %). Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of age and gender in the relationship and polynomial regression was carried out to see its’ linearity. Results: Of the total sample 50.3 % (690) were girls. A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI – Z and BF% by SFT (Boys -r =0.87, p < 0.01; SEE = 4.42, Girls - r =0.78, p < 0.01; SEE = 4.17) and between BMI – Z and BF% by BIA (Boys -r =0.74, p < 0.01; SEE = 4.33, Girls - r =0.88, p < 0.01; SEE = 2.71). Effect of age and gender in the BMI – Z and BF%, relationship was significant (p < 0.001). Curvilinear relationship between BMI – Z and BF%, was found. Conclusion: BMI - Z is strongly correlates with BF % estimated by BIA and SFT in this study group. The both relationships studied were curvilinear in nature. The effect of the age and gender of an individual were significant.

  153. Dr. Paramjeet Kaur, Dr. Suman Chawla, Dr. Bavneet Kaur and Dr. Sarabjit Singh

    Gallbladder removal is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Gallbladder removal surgery is usually performed with minimally invasive techniques and the medical name for this procedure is Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC). Gallstones occur worldwide, however it is commonest among North American Indians and Hispanics but low in Asian and African populations. Increased experience and improvements in the application have proved LC to be safe and feasible in patients with acute cholecystitis, and LC has been shown to be preferable to open cholecystectomy. LC not only reduces the operation time, but also duration of symptoms and length of hospital stay, as described in the Tokyo guidelines.

  154. Dr. Manoj Samantaray and Dr. Makrand A. Sonare

    Sneha Kalka is one of the primary wastes generated in Ayurveda pharmaceutical industry. This is because Ghrita and Taila (Sneha) are an important dosage form used in practice, thus widely prepared. The so generated Sneha kalka is discarded as a waste or at the most used as fuel (for Puta in teaching pharmacies). In an attempt to use this Sneha Kalka and up cycle it to another useful dosage form, this study was designed. Here Dhoopa Varti was prepared by using the Sneha Kalka, and adding a few Dhoopana Dravyas to it. The resultant product was up to the mark and served the purpose of Dhoopana efficiently. Subject Area: Rasashastra and bhaishajya Kalpana

  155. Adil Farooq, Vijay Vithal Katti and Dayanand Gurubasappa Talikoti

    Background: Hemodynamic stability during peri-operative period is of vital importance. The anaesthesiologist’s conventional approach to provide anaesthesia for laparoscopic procedures has been the emphasis on maintaining hemodynamic stability by avoiding hypertension, hypotension and tachycardia. Objectives: To study • Hemodynamic responses associated with Intubation and Pneumoperitoneum. • Associated adverse effects like Bradycardia and hypotension. Methods: Prospective double blinded randomized clinical study was conducted in the department of Anaesthesia. Ethical Committee permission- Taken Informed written consent- Taken Total of 90 patients scheduled for Laparoscopic surgeries were allotted into two groups. Group D (Dexmedetomidine): IV Dexmedetomidine loading dose 1mcg/kg and maintenance dose of IV Dexmedetomidine infusion at 0.4mcg/kg/min. Group S (Normal saline): IV Normal saline 0.9% (1ml) loading dose and maintenance IV infusion at 1ml/min. Statistical Tests used were Chi square test, unpaired t test and Mann-Whitney test. Inclusion criteria • Age 18-60 years of age. • ASA grade I and II. Exclusion criteria • Patients with heart blocks • Morbid obese. Results: Conclusion: Perioperative IV Dexmedetomidine was found to be effective in providing Hemodynamic stability during laparoscopic surgeries without any significant adverse effects.

  156. Sonali Sharma, Sudesh Sharma, Ghanshyam Dev Gupta, Shashi Sudan

    Aims of Study: Pelvic injuries in elderly patients are usually missed because osteoporotic cancellous bone fractures of Pelvis are poorly visualized, especially with poor quality portable X rays and this becomes a bigger problem, not only from treatment angle but due to medico legal and consumer forum implications. So, this study was undertaken to compare the results of clinical, radiological, computed tomographic and MR imaging of pelvic injuries. The fragility of bones due to senile osteoporosis, makes the elderly population vulnerable to fractures of the pelvis, following minor trauma. Majority of these fractures are minimally displaced or undisplaced and likely to be missed on clinical and routine conventional radiography (wet films) by junior residents in busy emergency department. A prospective study on various diagnostic modes like clinical, radiographic, CT and MRI, was conducted in elderly patients with low energy pelvic injuries attending emergency department of GMC Jammu from June 2015 to June 2017. Out of 131 patients of low energypelvic trauma, 86 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and consented for the study. The clinical and investigative parameters were evaluated in all the cases by a senior orthopedic surgeon and two senior radiologists. There were 6 5 (75.5%) females and 21 (24.5%) males. Mean age was 72.7(50 – 90) years. Commonest mode of trauma was domestic falls in 62 (72%) of cases. There were 146 fractures and 14 soft tissue injuries. The clinical examination was sensitive in 80.8% cases with low specifity of (58.6%). Plain X rays Pelvis AP view was diagnostic in 69 (80.2%) cases.Computed tomography had an accuracy level of 94.1% and MRI was effective in 97.7% of fracture cases and 85.7% in soft tissue injuries. Posterior ring fractures were missed in 2.3% by MRI, 11.5 by C T scan, 68.6% by Conventional X rays and 14.3% by clinical examination. There were 12 false positive cases clinically, 10cases radiologically, 6 cases in CT and 2 cases of MRI. The false negative cases were 8 in clinical, 12 radiological, 2 in C T and 1 amongst MRI. Conclusion: C T scan of pelvis is highly accurate in picking up most of pelvic fractures (94.1%) in the present study and the study proves that C T scan being easily available in most of the secondary and tertiary care hospitals, should be the investigation of first choice. Its 3D pictures are very useful for the surgeons to understand the spatial displacement of fragments, especially in cases requiring surgical intervention. Contrast enhanced C T is also helpful in delineating soft tissue collections, extravagation of urine or hematoma / pus and can assist aspirations. MRI certainly gives better results than C T in the diagnosis of occult bony as well as soft tissue injuries. MRI is better in efficacy highly sensitive investigation especially in undisplaced fractures in osteoporotic patients but is costly, time consuming and not available in most of secondary care centers in developing countries, hence should be reserved for patients associated with soft tissue injuries or in cases where C T has failed in picking up a fracture.

  157. Dr. Yamuna, V., Dr. Roseline Meshramkar, Dr. Lekha, K., Dr. Ramesh K. Nadiger and Dr. Nagarajan Chidambaram,

    Missing anterior teeth is common in children and adolescents. This will impair esthetics and function. The choice for replacement is in wide range from removable prosthesis to fixed prosthesis with more preference for fixed prosthesis. Fixed prosthesis include fixed partial dentures and implants. They are time consuming and require multiple visits. Fiber reinforced composite-fixed partial denture is a good alternative for immediate replacement of missing teeth. This case report is on replacement of missing anterior teeth using fiber reinforced composite-fixed partial denture.

  158. Vijeta Angural, Sandhya Jain and Neetu Sharma

    Aim of distalization is to move molars distally so as to gain space. This procedure has gained popularity due to the fact that by distalization of maxillary molars, many Class II molar cases can be treated without extraction. Traditional upper molar distalization techniques require patient co-operation with the headgear or elastics. Recently, several different intraoral procedures have been introduced to minimize the need for patient co-operation. This article reviews and describes the various methods of molar distalization.

  159. Zelalem Abera, Tadele Kabeta and Dereje Abera

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2015 to December 2016 in eleven (11) peasant associations (PAs) randomly selected from three purposively chosen districts (Gimbi, Lalo Assabi and Nedjo) of West Wollega Zone, Oromiya Regional State, Western Ethiopia to estimate the prevalence of donkey trypanosomosis and to identify the trypanosomes species involved and their relationship with the mean PCV. Blood samples were collected from the ear vein of randomly selected 384 donkeys and examined by Buffy coat technique. The overall prevalence of trypanosome infection in donkeys was 18.8% (n=72) and different prevalence rates of donkey trypanosomosis were recorded in Gimbi (11.3%), Lalo Assabi (8.4%) and Nedjo (32.7%) in which highest prevalence was observed. However, the disease was statistically significant among animals from Gimbi (P=0.000, OR=3.807, CI=1.947-7.44) and Lalo Assabi (P=0.000, OR=5.3, CI=2.5-11) districts as compared to those animals sampled from Nedjo district. Highest (43.1%) and lowest (8%) prevalence of the disease was recorded in Waligalte Adda PA of Nedjo district and Gimbi 01, respectively. However, prevalence of donkey trypanosomosis was statistically significant (p<0.05) in only two PAs (Werego Arsema and Enango 01) of Lalo Assabi district. Higher prevalence rate was observed in adult (21.1%) than young (11.6%) age groups and in male (27.4%) than in female donkeys (12.3%). Also highest prevalence was seen in animals with poor body condition. Age, sex and body condition showed a significant association with the prevalence of donkey trypanosomosis in the areas (p<0.05). Trypanosoma vivax (37.5%) was the most predominant trypanosome species encountered during the study period followed by T. congolense (26.4%), T. brucei (26.1%) and mixed parasites (13.9%). High distribution of different species of Trypanosoma parasites was detected in Nedjo district. The overall mean PCV values were 21.2% and 43.2% for infected and non-infected animals, respectively. Statistically significant difference (P<0.05) was observed between the overall mean PCV values of infected and non-infected animals and the mean PCV was found to be dependent on PAs, Sexes, Ages and body conditions of donkeys. In conclusion, the result obtained in this study is an important disease of donkeys in the study areas where donkeys are extensively kept and used. So, further longitudinal study should be conducted in the areas to generate a complete data of the disease in the study areas.

  160. Dr. Alaga Venkatesan, V.N., Anandhi, P.G., Shridharan, P. and Manikandan

    Context: Ratol is a rodenticide (rat killer paste) ,it contains yellow phosphorus, a severe local and systemic toxin causing damage to gastrointestinal, hepatic, cardiovascular, and renal systems. Among these liver is the most commonly affected organ and acute liver failure with coagulopathy is the most dreaded complication. These toxins damages the liver by depleting glutathione stores. NAC acts by stimulating the glutathione synthesis and enhances glutathione transferase activity.Therefore, treatment with NAC, which is inexpensive and relatively safe, would be a viable treatment option for patients admitted with yellow phosphorous consumption with ALF but those who are not eligible for liver transplant. Aim of The Study: 1. To study the prevalence of yellow phosphorus poisoning in our hospital 2. To evaluate the usefulness of N-Acetyl cysteine in yellow phosphorous poisoning 3. Postmortem findings in liver and kidney. Settings and Design: Prospective cross sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 25 patients with history of yellow phosphorous poison (ratol) consumption who fulfill the inclusion and exclusion criteria getting admitted at Government Rajaji Hospital & Madurai Medical College during the period of June to September 2017. • The control group patients are taken from retrospective data obtained in year 2016 at GRH, who had similar management protocol except for NAC. Results: Morbidity and Mortality was reduced to 50% in the study group who was admitted early and treated with NAC, even though they consumed lethal dose of Ratol. Conclusions: Most patients admitted with history of suicidal consumption of ratol (yellow phosphorous) were young and belonged to poorer socio-economic sections. Therefore treatment with NAC, which is inexpensive and relatively safe, would be a viable treatment option for patients admitted with ratol consumption.

  161. Gulalai Rehman, Allauddin, Shabir Ahmed Lehri, Muhammad Samsoor Zarak and Hajra Ahmad

    Aim: This study aimed to compare the eating habits of the children from lower socioeconomic status and higher socioeconomic status. Introduction: Nutrition is the intake of food, considered in relation to the body’s dietary needs. Good nutrition an adequate, well-balanced diet combined with regular physical activity – is a cornerstone of good health. It is beneficial for the physical, neurological and cognitive development of individuals. In the larger perspective, good nutrition defines the quality of health in a community. On the other side of the spectrum, poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the district Quetta. A sample of 100 students was selected and divided into two groups i.e. group 1, and group 2. Group 1 was taken from government school located in the slums of Quetta, while group 2 was taken from a public school located in a posh area of Quetta. Students were interviewed about their food pattern of the last 2 days and their input was recorded. Results: It is evident from this study that the main food children having during school time is junk food irrespective of socioeconomic status. Children in good socioeconomic status were skipping more frequently than in the lower class. Kids in lower class were having food insufficiency and there was no variety in their food. In the 2nd group, although they were having milk and fruit. The food they were used to eat were mainly junk food. Conclusion: Intake of junk food in higher socioeconomic status is more prevalent than in lower socioeconomic status due to unaffordability.

  162. Arshad Hussain

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the FF (AMH) levels and quality of oocyte and embryo, fertilisation and pregnancy. The process of in vitro fertilization depends on many factors.The failure of oocyte morphological assessment to predict in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome has led the researchers to examine biochemical criteria of follicular fluid (FF). Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), an important marker of ovarian reserve, is secreted by the granulosa cells. Materials and Methods: The FF (AMH) levels of 60 patients (mean age: 33.72 ± 4.82 years; range: 21 to 42 years) were analyzed. The FF (AMH) levels were measured by the quantitative auto-analyzer with an electro-chemiluminescence assay. Results: The FF (AMH) levels in patients under 35 years of age were higher in pregnant women than non-pregnant ones (P<0.01).Conclusion: Our study results showed that the FF (AMH) levels were correlated with the quality of oocyte and embryo and were the predictors of clinical pregnancy in patients younger than 35 years of age.

  163. Dr. Poonam Singh and Dr. Braj Bhushan Mall

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of different type of medicated and non-medicated gutta-percha points in reducing bacterial colonization in root canal system. Methodology: Three different bacterial strains were used Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia Coli, Enterococcus Faecalis .Disc was prepared from Whatmann filter paper. Then with the help of tuberculin syringe, 1 ml of the specific solution of gutta-percha points, was added on each disc separately. Then it was allowed to dry at room temperature to avoid excessive moisture accumulation and stored at 2 to 8˚C. Zones of inhibition were measured to nearest mm, and the results were interpreted with the assistance of diameter. Result: On the basis of zone of inhibition, it was maximum in group IV (Chlorhexidine GP) followed by group III (Calcium hydroxide GP) than group II (conventional GP).Conclusion: Roeko activ (chlorhexidine gutta-percha points) showed higher antimicrobial efficacy than Calcium hydroxide gutta-percha points against the microorganisms tested.

  164. Dr. Shamil Mohammed Al- Azawi, Dr. Maitham Mohammed Al- Khateeb and Dr. Hiba S. Raoof

    This is a continuous retrospective and prospective study which was planned and performed in Saddam Teaching Hospital in Najaf city for the period from the first of January 2001 to the thirtieth of August 2002 to study the correlation between the histological grading of breast cancer cells with the ipsilateral A.L.N involvement in relation to the size of the cancer to have an idea about the pattern and aggressiveness of the breast cancer in this city, with a note to the age and sex of the patient and the residence whether rural or urban. Breast cancer cases represent 34% of breast surgery in this hospital during the period of study. The commonest age groups was the 5th decade 36.9% followed by the 4th decade, 23% Urban cases more than rural area cases. (I.D.C) 81.5% and (l.LC) 18.5%. The histological grading grade ll came first 70.8% grade IlI, 20% and grade L.9.2%. ALN involvement 100% in grade Ill. 65.2% in grade l and 33.3% in grade I. Breast cancer size 2-5cm represents 63% of the cases, tumour size more than 5cm represent 30% and those with size less than 2cm 6.3%.

  165. Dr. Bhakti Desai, Ms. Mansi Kapadiya, Ms. Alpa Mer, Ms. Shilpa Nagapara and Ms. Krishna Viroja

    Introduction: Smartphone is one the developing information and communication technology capable of providing information services quickly and accurate so as to make the smart phone as a necessity for all most people today. Some of the positive impact on Smartphone is for students or learners include: accelerate access to information to widely and quickly increase knowledge insight, facilitate in communicating, especially if used to create discussion forum. Extensive use of Smartphone can be associated with physical health related problems, such as pain in the wrist and neck, and it also exposes thumb for intense stresses that may lead to pain and musculoskeletal disorder s of the hand and thumb. Aim of the study: To find the prevalence of de quervain’s tenosynovit is in Smartphone users by using finkelstein test and MRC scale. Method: According to the selection criteria all the subjects were selected for study. Selected subjects explain about study procedure and informed consent obtained from each participant.100 subjects taken. All the subjects had been examined for their thumb muscle strength according to MRC scale and finkelstein test. Data analysis: Data were analysed using Microsoft excel software. Result: Thumb abduction and extension MMT was normal but finkelstain test was positive 33% of prevalence of de quervain’s tenosynovitis. Outcome measure: MRC Scale, Finkelstein test. Conclusion: This study concluded that in smartphone users issue for thumb pain because of long time using smartphonein 100 sample size 33% prevalence of de -quervains tenosynovitis.

  166. Binu Mathew, Elizabeth A.M., Rajkumar Reddy, M., Adeena Balkees, Doddayya, H. and Antin, S.S.

    Background: Rational prescribing of insulin and improved patient knowledge, attitude and practice regarding insulin usage will optimise insulin therapy in diabetes mellitus. Objective: The study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, practice of insulin therapy. Study method: A cross sectional study was done in various in patient departments using KAP questionnaire. A total of 70 filled questionnaires were evaluated and analysed using Chi- Square test. Results: Knowledge, attitude and practice study found that better knowledge, Attitude and Practice among participants irrespective of their family history and educational status, towards insulin therapy. The relation between education status of participants and their knowledge about insulin discontinuation once the blood sugar levels normalize (p value=0.047) as well as their practice of checking blood sugar level in home (p value=0.025) were found to be statistically significant. This data suggests that mean knowledge score was more for illiterate (14.21) followed by high school and primary school. Conclusion: There is a need to educate the patient about various aspects of insulin therapy including dosing, storage, site of injection, common side effects and life style modifications. Clinical pharmacist can play a vital role in monitoring and optimization of insulin therapy.

  167. Gari Umeta Kenea

    This study attempts to investigate antecedents of workplace accident of six selected factories in Hawassa city. The objective of the study was to examine determinant of injuries at work. Primary Data was collected from 130 employees working in six factories. The study evaluated five elements of occupational health and safety management system as determinants to accident using logistic regression. Management commitment, employee participation and employee commitment were found to be strong predictors of workplace accident/injury. The result indicated that employee safety training and mandatory intervention were not statistically significant. It was recommended that strong and true management & employee commitment to occupational health and safety should exist in order to improve workers’ safety and reduce injury at work.

  168. Kunwar, B.K., Pathak, V, Chandrasekhar Tulasigeri and Apsangikar, P.

    A classic case study example of multidisciplinary approach where an expert radiologist superbly assisted cardiologist to do a rare difficult procedure is presented here. A 75 years old female referred for severe painful swelling in right groin showed a large soft tissue swelling filled with blood and communicating with femoral artery diagnosed as pseudo-aneurysm. Attempt was made to compress the neck which was not clearly defined, which failed. Hence, patient was taken for intra-lesion injection of fibrin sealant in Cath lab for guided usage of firbin sealant. The procedure was approached from left femoral artery using 6F long sheath and 6F Judkins JR catheter. A large 8x40 mm balloon was kept across the neck of pseudo-aneurysm and inflated to occlude the communication and simultaneously the fibrin sealant was injected into the pseudo-aneurysm under both ultrasonic and fluoroscopic guidance. Within few seconds, the whole pseudo-aneurysm was seen getting thrombosed with no flow from femoral artery as confirmed from post-procedure Doppler. The balloon was retrieved and check angiogram showed nicely flowing femoral artery with no signs of pseudo-aneurysm. The patient immediately improved with decrease in pain and swelling.

  169. Dr. Shabnam Zahir, Dr. TamalKanti Pal, Dr. Abhijit Sengupta, Dr. Shibendu Biswas, Dr. Debarshi Jana, Dr. Shyamal Bar, Tamalika Chakraborty and Dr. Vamsi Krishna Balla

    Back ground: Prevention of dental caries requires new researches utilizing experimental set up due to strict ethical issue. Aim: In vitro creation of monospecies (Streptococcus mutans) biofilm induced microscopic human enamel demineralization using a batch culture technique and evaluating it using scanning electron micrograph and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis. Study design: Human tooth enamel sections of Group 1 (control group n=nine), Group 2 (Study group n= Nine) were incubated in fresh BHI broth with 5 % sucrose for fifteen days. Test tube with Group 2 is only inoculated with streptococcus mutans every day for fifteen days. SEM-EDAX aided structural analysis for surface morphology and elemental analysis for calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and fluorine content of both control and study groups performed before and at the end of fifteen days. Result: A thick, whitish coating of biofilm was visible only on group 2 (Study group), at the end of fifteen days. SEM - EDAX of enamel surface of group 2(Study group) showed loss of superficial structure and decrease in the concentration of calcium, phosphorus ions indicating demineralization unlike group 1 which shows no change in structural and elemental concentration after the incubation period. ANOVA test showed that difference of mean in two groups (1&2) were statistically significant (p<0.0001) in calcium, phosphorus, content.

  170. Dr. Isa-Allean Blacksher, N.D., OMD

    It is known that within normal cells, genetic mutations don’t occur and normal cells don’t develop into cancer cells, but within abnormal cells if genetic mutations do develop, the p53 tumor protein should normally monitor this and guard the body from these dangerous cells developing or being replicated – like with cancerogenesis and tumorigenesis. This tumor protein known as the “guardian of the genome” or “cell cycle police” is normally extremely sensitive to cellular abnormalities - its true job is to protect the integrity, genetic growth and development of future daughter cells, thus protecting cellular development in the body overall. Policing, securing and preventing cells from carrying on dangerous genetic mutations with “cell-cycle arrest” and “induced apoptosis” is vitally the most important role of the normal p53 - but just as fraud and corruption is a regular occurrence with authority, these “gene police” can also mutate and become corrupt, immoral and start helping cancer cells progress instead of stopping them. When the p53 starts allowing cell mutation and supporting abnormal cell development this contradictory, reprehensible behavior becomes an obviously incriminating focal point within the genetic “cancer equation” for researchers to question. Asking why and how this change occurs is relevant because this specific moment is connected to “cancer’s start-up.” Detailing this occurrence and all of the pathomechanisms involved in this “switch of the p53” needs to occur so that it can be stopped! Just like with any form of fraud or corruption, exposing and elucidating this inconspicuous shrouded “moment” and identifying all causative factors involved is necessary but difficult for cancer researchers. Due to the striking similarities of this situation to interrogating a corrupt official – this issue similarly needs a non-biased “internal affairs” type of investigation – to dig down deep and bring out all relevant factors into the light. So far, this p53 investigation has been labeled as “difficult to understand” or as “having an unknown cause” but with honest appraisal, the true cause can be identified. Therefore, this article is about exposing the cause of the p53’s switch, examining the p53 from different perspectives and going beyond any traditionally occluded views to find the truth. The benefits of this interrogation will help in the development of new p53 based cancer treatments.

  171. Dr. Florence Nyamu, Dr. Leah Wanjama, Rose Irungu and Fred Kariuki

    Teachersplay an incredibly important rolenot only in imparting knowledge, but also in shaping students’ lives. Recent discourse on education considers gender equity and equality as crucial milestones for sustainable development. A gender equal society is one in which boys and girls, women and men have equal opportunities to realize expected educational and other forms of learning outcomes. There is evidence that for boys and girls to realize the same learning outcomes, it is important to consider different gender needs and address them appropriately. This can only happen if the teachers have the requisite knowledge, skills and attitudes.The purpose of this paper is to review literature on teacher education processes, teacher practices in the classroom, transforming and engendering teacher education. It is expected that the literature will provide lessons on ways in which teacher education and teaching practices may be transformed to become a strategy for the achievement of gender equity and equality for sustainable development. It has been observed that in most cases teachers treat boys and girls “equally” in classrooms (a common saying from teachers, here we do not discriminate, we treat boys and girls equally) and yet the needs, priorities, concerns and interactions of boys and girls are different. To achieve gender equity and equality requires transforming both pre-service and in-service teacher education to make teachers more gender-aware and responsive. Teachers also need to undertake continuous learning and self-evaluation, embrace gender-responsive methodology/pedagogy, create friendly, conducive and interactive environments and become empowered as positive role models.

  172. Larry Penaranda Gomez and Angie Delgado

    Reading comprehension represents a fundamental orientation for the development of linguistic skills on human beings: speaking, listening, reading and writing. The process is focused on English as a foreign language. Moreover, it is an approach that serves as a reference for developing the educative and formative short, medium- and long-term processes. Understanding how you read is related with the capacity of understanding students in a language, and knowing how to use it in a specific context. Restructuring of knowing “what” and knowing “how” plays a role in student’s learning process. Besides, the communicative competence: linguistic, pragmatic and sociolinguistic are required in that process. These ones settle on the meaning of words which are elements of a text and comprehension itself. Reading comprehension on mother tongue and a foreign language has got obstacles for administrative or cultural causes. Nowadays, consequences for education are not free. In fact, comprehension process directly or indirectly influences cognitive, social and personal performance. Although theories and concepts, the negative results are still appearing. Reading comprehension in English as a foreign language is inherent in the students’ education, its development is the result of a right action of didactics, pedagogy and curriculum. Therefore, the learning process is deeply affected. The most poignant is nobody does anything regarding it. Analysis and get answers might change this situation.

  173. Akeke, M. N. G.

    This study investigated the funding, utilization and secondary education effectiveness in Cross River State, Nigeria from 2006-2016. To achieve the study, two purpose of study and two research questions were raised to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted. The population is 246 Secondary Schools in the study area. Principals were used to answer the research questions and questionnaires. Census sampling technique was used since the population was manageable. The instrument used for this study is checklists known as state budgetary allocation trend (SBAT) and qualitative output trend (QOT) were used to elicit information from the respondents. The checklists were validated by two experts in Measurement and Evaluation. The statistical tool used for data analysis was descriptive statistics and standard deviation. The result of the analysis showed that funding determines the effectiveness of secondary education in Cross River State. It was recommended among others that the government should ensure that adequate budgetary provision is made to secondary education as investment in education is building the future economy of the nation as well as ensuring better output.

  174. Qhaliah Altherwe

    Integrating technology in teaching students is an effective tool to enhance students’ performance in the learning process. Most of the researchers and experiments prove that teachers who rely on technology devices on their teaching methods have positive attuited towards students. Also, it effects on the students' outcomes to be more interactive and engagement in the classroom. However, some teachers face a lot of barriers that prevent them to rely on technology tools. In this research, the researcher will focus on how teachers in Saudi Arabia can integrate technology as effective tools to teach youngest students different subjects, and how to overcome the common obstacles that face them while using this technology.

  175. Zafer Kiraz and Gulcin Taskiran

    One of the most important problems of employment in Turkey is the employment of graduates in fields other than they studied. In other words, it is understood that the bound between education and employment has been weakened. Although the individuals begin their undergraduate education with the anticipation and hope to be employed in the field they study, they encounter with a reality that is different from their anticipations and hopes when they graduate and become obliged to work at jobs they are able to find rather than the fields they studied. The most important reason behind this situation is the unemployment issue. High rates and duration of unemployment lead individuals to receive more education to postpone the job-seeking and unemployment process. Increasing unemployment in neoliberal process of capitalist system provides the capital with opportunity to satisfy its need for cheap labor with educated-skilled individuals and makes it possible to benefit from the skilled labor’s potential to learn the job more easily by reducing the costs of training employers on the job. Within the scope of this study, interview form consisting 25 items was administered to 22 volunteers who were working in at jobs other than they studied in Tokat. The participants’ opinions were taken in written forms, and they were analyzed using categorical analysis technique of content analysis method. In this study, it is seen that university graduates who work in jobs that are not related to the education they receive in higher education have to work in temporary and precarious jobs, and they have very low hopes for the future and hopes of doing a job related to their profession. In addition, it is seen that the state employment of university graduates and employment policies developed accordingly have not found any hope.

  176. Yesenia Aracely Zamora Cusme, Frank Angel Lemoine Quintero, María Gabriela Montesdeoca Calderón and Martha Elizabeth Álvarez Vidal

    In the present work, an investigation of the KPIs (performance indicators) was carried out, taking as a study object the fans page in the social network Facebook of the companies Toyota and Chevrolet in Ecuador, which allowed us to make an analysis of: the growth of The number of fans, the activity that both pages have, the interaction in the publications, level and services among others through the tool Fans page Karma which allowed us to compare both pages and to know which one has the most influence in The users as well as which works in the emgagement of its clients in the aforementioned social network. Using the deductive method as the fundamental form of reasoning. What is called social half propose a new phenomenon of global communication, as well as being the main instrument of communication between the customer and the brand. The consumer has a loudspeaker to communicate with any major company and with most of the rest of its customers through the use of this route.

  177. Kamal Bahadur Thing, Ramanand Pandit and Ashok Pandey

    The countries with special needs in the region continue to face daunting structural impediments to reducing poverty and achieving inclusive and sustainable development. These impediments have prevented them from harnessing their development potential and have kept them on the periphery of dynamic regional and global economic growth. People of Sunarpani VDC used maximum local resources such as human resource, physical resource and improved skills in programming. Greater priority was given to tackling social exclusion through supportive social protection measures and other efforts that complement the overall development of Sunarpani VDC. The local and improved technologies are vital for the community development. In order sustainable development, local resource identification and mobilization tasks play major roles.

  178. Dr. Egpal Mohammed Salih

    The study aimed to identify the concept of quality in general and the quality of university libraries in particular, and to identify the positive aspects and knowledge of the obstacles and difficulties in the application of quality university libraries. The study also aimed to identify the standards of library quality in terms of different buildings and services, with the link to obtaining institutional academic accreditation. The researcher used the analytical descriptive method to divide the case study to fit the study objectives. Several tools have been used to achieve this, such as data collection from paper and electronic sources, a checklist and a personal interview. The study reached a number of results, the most important of which were: All the library staff agreed that the library is concerned with applying the standards and specifications in all its activities and providing all its services. The library uses the Library of Congress standard to classify its collections. The University provides a suitable and suitable building for the university library to accommodate its future and future contents. The study made a number of recommendations, including: - To ensure the possibility of expanding the size of the library in the future, the establishment of a special budget for the library to reserve for disability if any. To conduct training courses and workshops on a continuous basis for staff and employees according to their specialization in order to raise awareness of the importance of quality and academic accreditation in order to ensure the quality of work and the provision of modern resources continuously.

  179. Joseph Mukubira, Martin Senyange and James Kizza

    The study investigated the relationship between marketing strategies and the growth of the insurance sector using a case study of Jubilee Insurance Company, Uganda. The research was guided by the following objectives: to establish the relationship between market segmentation and growth of the insurance sector; to find out the relationship between product differentiation and growth of the insurance sector and to find out the relationship between positioning strategy and growth of the insurance sector in Uganda. The study adopted a correlational research design. The study employed a mixed method research approach comprising of both qualitative and quantitative methods. Data was collected from 78 respondents through questionnaires, interviews and documentary analysis. Descriptive and inferential analysis was used in the analysis of quantitative data while content analysis was used in the analysis of qualitative data. The study findings revealed the existence of a strong, positive and significant relationship between: market segmentation and growth of insurance (r = 0.812); product differentiation and growth of insurance (r = 0.897) and brand positioning strategy and growth of the insurance sector (r = 0.960). The independent variables were found to significantly predict the growth of the insurance sector with an R2 = .925. It was concluded that the key factor for the growth of the insurance sector is brand positioning strategy (Beta = 0.290). The study recommends that insurance companies: reach out to the uninsured section of the population; open up to innovation; invest in training insurance agents and design utility based marketing strategies.

  180. Murat Son, Enis Çolak, Serap Çolak, Eyüp Uzuner, Ezgi Çetin, Servet Reyhan and Osman Arslan

    While Hope includes the belief that plans for achieving the aim, hopelessness includes negative perspectives for the future. If hopelessness can be defined as a state of losing hope, it is necessary to know what hope is supposed to be. For this purpose, we aimed to investigate, in amateur sports clubs, the levels of hopelessness of soccer players in reaching the goal of playing in an upper league. The population of our study, which deals with the level of sports and hopelessness, consists of 75 male athletes between the ages of 17-19. Gender, age, sport age and branch were examined in personal information. The effect of the football club on the level of hopelessness of athletes was found statistically significant. Furthermore, the effect of working with the same coach on in terms of training year was also found significant. The factors are determinative in achieving their goal in young players who get closer to the upper categories, For this reason, it can be ensured that the Amateur Clubs can be supported the correct orientation of our youth. Training programs of coaches can be updated periodically. This can help trainers to obtain more formative knowledge in the training of young athletes and to improve their quality of education. Such an organization can allow more young athletes to receive qualified education. Young athletes who want to continue their sports life as a professional should have a good education in the youth academies. For this reason, to be carried out the educational activities of young people in a healthy manner, the competence prerequisite of the coaches who will undertake the education of the youth can be imposed.

  181. Arnel Balbin

    The study aimed to find the influence of non-academic factors in the academic performance among education students. It was conducted at Eastern Samar State University main campus during the second semester of School Year 2017-2018 with 264 respondents. It utilized the stratified-random sampling method of selecting the samples. The study employed a descriptive-correlation research design. The descriptive method was used to identify and describe the non-academic factors that affect the academic performance of education students while the correlation design was used to know whether there was a relationship between the non-academic factors i.e. parent’s level of education; family size; family income; parental involvement and support; and self-esteem and the respondents’ academic performance. Findings of the study showed that of the variables considered only family income under socioeconomic factors was significant at 0.05 level while parental involvement and support and level of self-esteem in relation to the academic performance of respondents were not significant. The findings, which has policy implication, the researcher recommended that faculty and school management recognize the importance of strengthening collaboration between home and school as a vehicle in promoting academic achievement for its students. Empowering parents, particularly in the lower socioeconomic status background with a sense of proactive participation particularly in the decision-making process of some relevant issues. It is assumed that this initiative can increase parental involvement and support in their children’s academic performance.

  182. Habtamu Menber

    The aim of the study was to investigate the school principals’ leadership behaviors and its impact on teachers’ job performance in secondary schools of East Haraghe Zone. Descriptive survey design was employed. Questionnaire also employed to collect data from 72 school-based supervision committee members who were selected using availability sampling technique, and 172 teachers were selected using stratified random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and inferential statistics such as independent sample t-test, and Pearson Correlation. The findings indicated that the most leadership behavior currently practiced by secondary school principals of East Hararghe Zone was directive leadership. Teachers’ job performance was found to be at a low level in the schools. There was no significant difference between the responses of the two groups. The research reveals that the level of teachers’ job performance was at low level. There is significant and positive relationship between leadership behaviors and teachers’ job performance.

  183. Vijaya Lakshmi Devi, G.

    Healthcare has become one of India’s largest sectors - both in terms of revenue and employment. Healthcare comprises hospitals, medical devices, clinical trials, outsourcing, telemedicine, medical tourism, health insurance and medical equipment The Government, public healthcare system comprises limited secondary and tertiary care institutions in key cities and focuses on providing basic healthcare facilities in the form of primary healthcare centers in rural areas. The private sector provides majority of secondary, tertiary and quaternary care institutions with a major concentration in metros, tier I and tier II cities. India's competitive advantage lies in its large pool of well-trained medical professionals. India is also cost competitive compared to its peers in Asia and Western countries. The cost of surgery in India is about one-tenth of that in the US or Western Europe. The healthcare market can increase three fold to Rs 8.6 trillion (US$ 133.44 billion) by 2022. India is experiencing 22-25 per cent growth in medical tourism and the industry is expected to double its size from present US$ 3 billion to US$ 6 billion by 2018. There is a significant scope for enhancing healthcare services considering that healthcare spending as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product is rising. The government’s expenditure on the health sector has grown to 1.4 per cent in FY18E from 1.2 per cent in FY14. The Government of India is planning to increase public health spending to 2.5 per cent of the country's GDP by 2025.

  184. Sanath Divakara

    The concept of intrapreneurship was evolved from the North American business lexicon and it has become a fast- growing concept in the organizational growth. Successful intrapreneurship in an organization, enables a unique competitive advantage to the small and medium scale manufacturing enterprises. Innovation, strategic renewal and ventures are the main focused fields of the intrapreneurship orientation that foster organizational growth. SMEs are developing sector under a huge number of constraints in Sri Lanka. Intrapreneurship is more visible in manufacturing SMEs than the large organization which is needed to be properly identified. As a result, studying on intrapreneurship has become a growing field of interest during the past three decades. Therefore the case study conducted on indentifying intrapreneurship skills and behaviour in a medium scale polymer based products manufacturing organization in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature along with empirical evidence to understand the concept of intrapreneurship and development within the manufacturing organization. The paper examines intrapreneurial orientation and three complexities of antecedents individual, organizational and environmental on the development of intrapreneurship within the context of the manufacturing organization. The study was focused only on middle and upper echelons of the organization where the intrapreneurship is prominent for primary data collection and secondary data collected from the organizational artifact and published documents for ensuring the performances. The author further proposes few propositions at the end for the purpose of future researches.

  185. Dr. Jyoti Syal

    English language has become a world language. It is the official language not only of the native countries (U.K., U.S.A) but also of almost all the countries across the globe. The number of people who use English as a means of communication exceed much more than the number of people who speak it as their mother tongue. If we talk about India, English has been used directly or indirectly for almost two centuries. Teaching of English language in India as a second language is affected by many factors. Environment and family background play a vital role in the success of teaching - learning process of English. Moreover, the infrastructure i.e. the classrooms, lab facilities are not as adequate as required. The importance of English can be guessed by the fact that every latest information and the text books of almost every subject are available in English language only. India is a multilingual nation, there is no single language which can unite the whole country. No doubt, Hindi is our mother tongue, but it is not widely spoken throughout the country. That is the reason, we have to borrow a new non- Indian language, English. English has become the official language of India, as it is spoken and understood not only across the country but across the globe. It is the language which is required by the world for greater understanding. Considering the above facts, teaching and learning English language has become indispensable and unavoidable in India. The present paper is an attempt to discuss the importance of English as a second language and various factors which effect the teaching- learning process of English language in India.

  186. Jane Austen, I.

    The paper intends to throw light on the critical analysis in detail and its effect on women characters. It will also examine the contribution of the novelist, Jane Austen in her work, 'Pride and Prejudice'. It is a brief survey of the selected text of Jane Austen from the entire canon of British literature. The nucleus of this survey is the portrayal of women in the 19th century. Their recognitions were little during the Victorian age. Women were subordinated to men during the 19th century. This novel picturises women who were dependent on men.

  187. Andi Febri Herawati, Jenny Ratna Suminar, Edwin Rizal and Ninis Agustini Damayani

    This Research Discusses Problems in Forms of Deradicalization Communication of the Indonesian National Police as an effort to prevent terrorism Cases in Poso Regency. Data of this qualitative research was collected throguh observation, in-depth interview (Indepth Interview), and documentation study. Research Informants was selected due to considerations that the informants engage directly to the deradicalization programs. Target of this research were formerprisoner, family and sympathizer. The results of this research shows that "The Police Deradicalisation Communication as an effort to prevent terrorism Case in Poso Regency conducted through: 1) Open and Inclusive Inter-Human Communication, on problems faced by former terrorism after leaving the prison both economical and social problems as well as national insights, 2 ) Persuasive communication related to the understanding substance of former Terrorist Prisoners of beliefs in promoting nonviolent dialogue, and not violating individual rights or degrading the dignity of someone (human) who is suspected committing crimes / terrorists, 3) Supporting the involvement of former terrorist prisoner onderadicalisation program through the making of Short Films. 4) Interaction carried out through door to door system, where the Indonesian National Police directly visited homes of former terrorist prisoner to establish friendships so that they could be more open to the Indonesian National Police until the Police make an efforts to deradicalizationin aim of helping former terrorist prisoners not to be affected again by radicalism and acts of terrorism.

  188. Ramasesh, C.P., Nanjundaswamy, L. and Dhruva Kumar

    Paper deals with the analysis of citations of research papers covered by the Web of Science database. The period covered is for 30 years; citations depicted by Web of Science for the period January 1989 to December 2018. Study projects the research performance of six well established universities in the state of Karnataka with regard the number of research papers covered by scholarly journals and number of scholars who have cited these research papers. Also projected is the average citations per research paper and h-Index of authors. Paper also shows the performance of top faculty members in India who are involved in publishing research papers. Collaboration with authors of foreign countries in doing research work and publishing papers are also comprehended in the study, including the trends in publishing research papers which depict the decreasing and increasing trends of research.

  189. Dr. Reena Khanooja

    Child labour by definition refers to engaging children in work, thereby depriving them their childhood and their right to education. This has been a major issue of concern in developing countries for a very long time now. In India, child labour is now being recognized as a grave and enormous problem that has a long term social and physical impact on children. Working children are denied their right to survival, development, education, standard of living and opportunity for developing their personality and talent This paper aims to analyse the scourge of child labour in India, by identifying its effects on the Indian Society. After due identification, the aim is to find ways to curb this social evil and to restrict it to bare minimum The methodology of this research will be to visit hubs of child labour in and around Kota City like restaurants, dhabas, tea stalls, factories, repair shops etc to find the extent of penetration of child labour in our society. The objectives are evaluating reasons forcing children to work at this age, effect of child labour on their physical and social development and ways to curb child labour and suggesting solutions at all levels of society Results indicates that child labour can be found in nearly every industry. The persistence of child labour is due to the inefficiency of law, administrative system, lack of wage regulation, corruption, family size and condition, urban migration and opportunity cost of education. Education is a solution at all levels Strict Judiciary and political system can go a long way nipping this evil in the bud.

  190. Shreyas. Sumesh. Menon, Inbaraj. P., Suryadarshan B., Bharath Singh H. and Lakshmi H.

    Digital analytics basically consists of the collection, analysis, visualization and interpretation of digital data which explains about the behavior of the user in a website, or a mobile site and mobile application. The wide range of use of modern gadgets has helped the marketers to monitor and collect engagement information at the touch points of the purchasing funnel. Digital analytics are the major part if digital intelligence which helps the brands and website owners to understand how their sites and apps are searched and used. By applying digital analytics the companies are able to create user experience that will help in their overall business performance. Digital analytics have various advantages such as it helps in measuring the data which can be be used by the company to frame their futher policies effectively and efficiently. They provide a platform for continuous improvement . In future of all most all business polices and business decision will be taken by the data collected through the digital analytics.

  191. Lakshita, V., Piyush Vaswani, Kiran Kaur and Prof. Mithun Kumar, S.

    Crowdfunding is a united effort by people who connect and fund collectively for a personal, societal cause or a business idea. Though it sounds very similar to the traditional concept of charity or social support, funding here is done with an objective of earning some return either monetary or intangible. The present day crowdfunding is connected with internet and the use of social media for fundraising. In India crowdfunding is still in its embryonic stage even though the potential is incredibly high. The paper studies the select Indian online crowdfunding platforms, their functioning and focus area, CFPs not only support business activities but also social causes. E.g. Milaap (www.milaap.org) supports personal and social causes through the platform. The CFPs were selected to represent a diverse set of crowdfunding areas and the availability of data.

  192. Dr. Oyewobi Ifeoluwapo Adebimpe and Dr. Adetunji, Adeniyi Temitope

    This is a theoretical discourse of the misconception and discrepancy between auditors’ responsibilities on the one hand and shareholders, society and stakeholder’s perception of their responsibilities on the other. The study is aimed at assessing the duties expected to be performed by the auditors and the perception of their duties by the stakeholders. This study aimed at assessing the duties expected to be performed by auditors and prospects of shareholders on the responsibilities, which are expected to be carried out. For this study, interview data from a KPMG study and other published data from literature were analyzed to determine auditors’ duties and the stakeholders’ perception of same. From the analysis carried out that shareholders expected an audit report to be a high quality reporting and to convey a clean bill of health. This is contrary to the statutory requirement of an audit. The study further shows shareholders expectation of what an audit report should be has a great impact on the audit exercise.

  193. Harsh Chaudhari, Dr. Trupti Parag Dharmarao and Womesh Bhole

    Plants mainly require Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium for their growth and development. Secondary required nutrients like magnesium, calcium and sulphur are also required along with other micro-nutrients like zinc, copper, ferrous, manganese, boron and molybdenum. The micro-nutrients depend on the type of soil and hence their requirement differs with changing geology. For the purpose of this paper, the state of Maharashtra regulations have been followed (Iron-2.5%, Zinc-3.0%, Copper-0.5%, Manganese-1.0%, Boron-1.0% to be at-least present in the product formulation). These micro-nutrients can be mixed and turned into a single product (liquid/powder) for normal use in agriculture.

  194. Afroz Khan, Birjees Hakak and Rufaid-un-Nisa

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the success of levator resection in congenital ptosis. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective interventional study carried out at Postgraduate Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College Srinagar, a tertiary eye care facility in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. A total of 26 eyes with uncomplicated congenital ptosis of 20 patients were taken up for this study. During the study period, 20 patients (12 Male, 8 Female) underwent surgery. The age of operated patients ranged from 6-28 years with a median age of 12 years. 6 patients underwent bilateral anterior levator resections, whilst 14 underwent unilateral surgery. Results: Total of 26 eyes of 20 patients were operated upon. Out of 20 patients, 12 were males and 8 were females. The mean age of patients was 12 years (range: 6-28 years). Out of 20 cases, 6 had bilateral and 14 had unilateral ptosis. In majority (75%), results obtained were good to excellent with a well defined symmetry in lid height and shape. In four (20%), results were cosmetically acceptable and patients were satisfied and graded as fair. However residual ptosis occurred in 1 case (5%) and required further surgical procedure at a later date. Conclusion: Levator resection via anterior approach in congenital ptosis achieved good ptosis correction with cosmetically acceptable upper lid crease.

  195. Dr. Anita Keshav. Patil and Ms. Archana Rajendra Mane

    Integrating Internet of things with cloud computing having popularity in the recent trends. For adopting cloud services in IoT there are various considerations. Aim of the paper is to present the role of Cloud computing services in IoT implementation and focused on integration of cloud platform also how they are most suitable for Internet of Things concept. It explicitly defines those parameters from the point of view of IoT implementation, Integration and performance.

  196. Erenice Conceição de Almeida Barbosa, Suellen Loize Da Silva, Juscembery Fernandes Amaral Teixeira, Karoline Queiroz Martins Almeida de Araújo, Brunna Rafaella Do Carmo Silva and Paulo Francisco De Almeida Neto

    We conducted a short report on the topic: Superficial Tension (ST) and Icterycea Processes (IP). Basically the strength that acts on the surface of the liquids is named ST, the IP is characterized by the yellow coloration of the skin, and mucous membranes that occurs as a consequence of liver diseases (increased bilirubin level). The collected data expose how much ST is important to IP considering that the intermolecular forces on the surface can be broken by increasing the concentration of substances that lower ST, thus releasing more bilirubin in the current Blood.

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