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April 2015

  1. Robert, T., Babaji Maigari, Sarah D. Martins, Joshua C. Gandi, Tobiloba Rachael Adeogun and 6Sambo Danlami

    HIV as an illness affects the person first and foremost at the biological level in the form of an aggressive virus that compromises immunity. Every illness experience represents a unique and dramatic negative experience for the patient; it is associated with a profound and authentic psychological engagement of patients themselves and the significant people in their lives. Objective: The study assessed the impact of “felt” stigma on Subjective Well-Being when living with HIV among people living with HIV in Maiduguri Metropolis. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive survey design was adopted for the study, 100 clients were selected using systematic random sampling and data was collected through questionnaire. Analysis was done using frequency count, percentages and inferential statistics of chi-square was used to test the hypothesis at 5% level of significance. Result: findings of this study revealed that majority of respondents were within 26-45years of age. The respondents had good abstract feeling of satisfaction with their live as a whole, standard of living, health, achievement in life, personal relationship, safety, feeling of being part of the community and future security. However, there was a low cognitive judgment of satisfaction with life among the respondents. The study also revealed that gender (sex) has no influence on the subjective wellbeing of the respondents. Conclusion: The study suggests that Professionals in clinical psychology should be invited from time to time to the clinics for counseling of saddened and hopeless clients.

  2. Gaurav Tiwari, V.D Rane, R.Bansal, Sangeeta Sharma, Anjali Khare

    Background: As one of the great philosopher has rightly said "Old is gold", Touch imprint cytology is older technique than any other technique which gives a quick and promising results, also it is less expensive, technically easy and does not require additional infrastructure like frozen section. Aim: To evaluate role and efficacy of imprint cytology in early diagnosis of various lymphadenopathies, to correlate the imprint cytology findings with histomorphological diagnosis and to establish suitability of the procedure. Materials and Methods: Study comprised of 50 prospective cases of lymphadenopathy undergoing excision in minor and major operation theatres. Touch imprints were prepared, stained with different stains and findings were noted. These lymph nodes were then subjected for histopathological analysis to create a correlation between them. Results: The commonest age group came out to be 4th and 5th decade with a female preponderance. The overall accuracy rate of touch imprint cytology technique as compared to histomorphologic findings came out to be 98%, sensitivity 90.91% and specificity 100%. Conclusion: Thus, Touch imprint cytology should be as a protocol for every case of lymphadenopathy undergoing excision as it is proved to be extremely effective as a diagnostic tool, as well as safe, inexpensive and expeditious.

  3. Alicia Clarke and Philip Onuoha

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to document the nurses’ perceived benefits as well as their recommendations regarding mentoring at one at a major Caribbean hospital in Barbados. Methods: A descriptive qualitative case study was employed to answer the main questions of what the nurses perceive as the personal benefits gained from their mentoring that contributed to the professional growth of the new nurses. The sample (n = 115) consisted of graduate nurses between 6 months to 5 years employed at the hospital. Data was generated from participants’ responses using the Beecroft mentoring tool, and a demographic questionnaire. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze results. Items were summarized using, thematic analysis. Results: The thematic analysis showed that the nurses were able to transition into the profession due to confidence, socialization, guidance and trust. Findings from the study also suggest that the nurses recognized the importance of mentoring and the need for the institution to have a more structured program which extends over six months period.

  4. Taher Abd-El-Raheem and Ahmed Fathy Hamed

    Background: Chronic kidney disease is a multifaceted problem having both physical and psychological connotations on the patient. Depression, anxiety, sleep and sexual disorders are common complications observed in patients with renal failure under hemodialysis. Aim of the work: Recognizing the psychiatric complications of hemodialysis on end stage renal disease patients. Methods: A 2-year cross-sectional study at Sohage Governorate, Upper Egypt, in which 1191 hemodialysis patients were enrolled for detection of psychiatric disorders through application of semi-structured interview, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology [Self-Report] (QIDS-SR), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Arizona sexual experience Scale (ASEX). Results: Psychiatric disorders are common among hemodialysis patients particularly depressive (61.46%), anxiety (35.68%), sleep (67.34%) and sexual disorders (48.36%). Depressive, anxiety and sleep disorders are significantly more prevalent among female hemodialysis patients (58.61%, 70.82% and 60.22% respectively) than male hemodialysis patients (41.39%, 29.18% and 39.78%) while sexual disorders are commoner in male (60.59%) than female (39.41%) hemodialysis patients. Conclusion: Psychiatric sequels of hemodialysis include depression, anxiety, sleep and sexual disorders. They are more common among female patients except sexual disorders which are more common among male patients.

  5. Dr. Swathy Moorthy and Dr. Raja Mathangi

    The incidence of malignancies is on an increasing vogue and further is the increasing incidence of occult malignancies. The diagnostic implications in screening these occult malignancies pose a never ending problem to the treating clinicians. A strong suspicion in the presence of subtle clues of distant metastasis and their histopathology helps in empirical therapy of these patients thereby improving their quality of life. Here we discuss a case of metastatic carcinoma with unknown primary presenting as pleural effusion.

  6. K.C. Das, Sumeet David, Pardeep Kumar, Rohit Ronald and Rohit Massy

    Context: Patients with advanced cirrhosis commonly have reduced renal function. Renal failure is frequently related to cirrhosis and renal function is often compromised as a secondary consequence of heaptic failure, independent of etiology of cirrhosis, which is called the functional renal failure or hepatorenalsyndrome (HRS). Aims:To evaluate the causes of ARF in patients with cirrhosis of liver of any etiology and to study the outcome of treatment and prognosis of ARF in patients with cirrhosis of liver of any etiology. Setting and design: Hospital based prospecto-retrospective study, an evaluation of the causes (types) of acute renal failure in patients with cirrhosis, treatment of acute renal failure and its prognosis was done. Materials and Methods: The patients were selected from the gastroenterology and Nephrology unit Christian Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana. It included all patients admitted in wards who were diagnosed to have cirrhosis of any etiology complicated by renal insufficiency. A total of 131patients were included, 61 prospective and 70 retrospective. Results: Out of 131 patients, 51 (38.93%) had pre-renal ARF, 20 in the prospective group, and 31 in the retrospective group. The average age of patients in the study was 49.87+/-10.10 years. The mortality rate was maximum in the age group of 40 to 49 years. HRS was diagnosed in 44 patients (33.54%),of whom, 30 had HRS type1 and 14 had HRS type 2. ATN was seen in 36 patients (27.48%). FENa was found to be a good predictor of pre-renal ARF and ATN, however, it was not found to be very useful as a predictor of HRS in this study. Haemodialysis was done on 36 patients. Only 38 of the 131 patients had an improvement in the renal function. Of these, 25 had pre-renal ARF, 11 had HRS type2, one had HRS type1 and another one had ATN. In 43 patients, ARF was associated with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage, of which 29 (67.44%) died. Conclusion: About 35% of these patients have HRS, 40% have prerenal ARF and 25% have acute tubular nercrosis. An intravascular volume expansion should be given to all patients of ARF with cirrhosis except to those with fluid overload. Reversal of HRS is seen in a high proporation of patients treated with Terliperssin. There is a high mortality associated with these patients, especially so with HRS type1 and ATN.

  7. Dr. Rana K. Sherwani, Dr. Nadia Shirazi, Dr. Kafil Akhtar and Dr. Anjum Ara

    Tumor associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE), is characterized by the presence of eosinophils as a component of peri and intra tumoral inflammatory response. The present study on 92 cases of diagnosed malignant tumors was undertaken to assess the role of tissue eosinophilia as a prognostic factor in malignant tumors; to verify the association between tumor associated tissue eosinophilia, microscopic neoplastic characteristics as well as tumor tissue inflammatory response and to evaluate the role of blood eosinophilia on the prognosis of malignant tumors. The study concluded that tumor associated tissue eosinophilia is associated with absence of metastasis and has a protective role in the spread of squamous cell carcinomas, with a high grade TATE being a favourable prognostic indicator in squamous cell carcinomas.

  8. Vishnoi Jeewan, R., Kori Channabasappa, G., Dontula, Prashant Kumar., Madhu Kumar, Kumar Vijay and Gupta Sameer

    The Oncocytoma is the second most common solid tumor of the kidney after renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Exact etiology is not known. Majority of oncocytoma are asymptomatic and cannot be differentiated from RCC by clinical or radiographic criteria. Very few cases of symptomatic giant oncocytomas of kidney are reported in the English literature. The tumor was incidentally diagnosed, based on the preoperative clinical and radiographic findings; diagnosis of RCC was made. Here, we present a case of fifth largest symptomatic giant oncocytoma of kidney reported till date in the literature.

  9. Nasir A. M. Al Jurayyan, Sharefa D. A. Al Issa, Hanan I. O. Al Omran, Hessah M. N. Al Otaibi, and Amir M. I. Babiker

    Background: 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency is a rare type of congenital adrenal hyperplasia that impairs steroidegenesia. The clinical spectrum of this inherited disorder is heterogenous and ranges from the severe salt-wasting with or without ambiguous genitalia to the non-salt-wasting form. Design and Setting: A retrospective-hospital based study, conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period January 1990 and December 2014. Patients and Methods: During the period under review, 95 patients were diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, of these; only 4 (4.2%) patients were diagnosed with 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency and constituted the subjects for the study. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. This included age, sex, clinical presentation and important chromosomal, radiological and biochemical investigations. Results: Four Saudi patients, three from one family, were diagnosed with 3--hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, among 95 (4.2%) patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Their clinical and biochemical characteristics were presented. Conclusion: Although rare, 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia, should be considered in the 46XY individuals presenting with ambiguous genitalia, with or without salt-wasting, as well as a normal looking females with salt-wasting.

  10. Shreeram A Deshpande, Anbu. N. Aravazhi and Gnanaprakash, K

    The distribution of various bacterial isolates causing infectious diseases was evaluated in Karpagam Medical College Hospital, Othakkalmandapam, Coimbatore district, Tamilnadu. A total of 578 samples which included urine, pus, sputum, blood, eye swab, throat swab, ear swab, nasal swab, ascitic fluid, pleural fluid and C.S.F were analyzed. Out of total 578 samples analyzed in bacteriology laboratory, 216 were culture positive. The antibiotic susceptibility test of the bacterial isolate was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Majority of the bacterial isolates showed wide resistance to the antimicrobials employed. High rate of multiple antibiotic resistances was observed in isolates from I.C.U and Surgery Departments.

  11. Shree Krishna P. V. and Shailaja Shastri

    Parents play a vital role in nurturing and educating their children. In the process of rearing a child, parenting dimensions varies from one individual to another; and found to be different amongst ‘father’ and ‘mother’. Having come from different backgrounds, they are different in their belief system, mode of thinking, attitudes, childhood experiences, and perception which reflects in the child. The focus of the present study is to know the communication patterns among parents of tenth grade students and to identify the level of significance on negative dimensions of parenting over positive dimensions of parenting. It was hypothesized that there is no relationship between communication patterns of parents and dimensions of parenting. The sample comprises of one hundred and five adolescent parents, drawn from Bangalore city, using purposive sampling technique. The participants were administered Multi-dimensional Parenting Scale (1985) and a self-designed survey questionnaire on communication patterns of parents with respect to Themes and styles per se., to assesses parent-child communication. Data was analyzed using Correlation to establish the relationship between communication patterns and dimensions of parenting. The study indicates that enhancing positive dimensions of parenting is related to the capacity of the parents to communicate a variety of Themes with their children. This study would significantly contribute in understanding the dynamics of parenting and suggests methods to enhance positive dimensions of parenting.

  12. K. C. Das, Sumeet David, Pardeep Kumar, Sanatan Behera, Rohit Roland and Sana Grace

    Background: The gastrointestinal symptoms of anorexia, hiccups, nausea and vomiting are common early manifestations of CRF. Peptic ulcer disease is common in CRF patients, whether the high incidence is related to altered gastric acidity, hyper-secretion of gastrin or enhanced colonization by Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is still unknown. Aims: To study the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in chronic renal failure patients as compared to a group of control subjects with normal renal function and to correlate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection to upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings. Setting and Design: Hospital based prospective Case-Control study. Materials & Methods: The patients were selected from the gastroenterology and Nephrology units Christian Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana a tertiary care hospital to whom all subjected for endoscopy and for H. Pylori testing. Results: The presence of endoscopic antral gastritis showed significant association with H.pylori prevalence (57.6%) and (p<0.005), however, H.pylori infection was not related significantly to any other form of gastritis. Antral pattern of gastritis was the most common endoscopic lesion observed in both groups. The presence of duodenal ulcer or gastric ulcer did not show any increased prevalence of H.pylori. The combination of antral gastritis and duodenal ulcer showed 100 percent prevalence of H.pylori. There was no association found between H.pylori and reflux esophagitis. Gastric ulcer was seen in 3.2 percent cases and 3.6 percent controls. Duodenal ulcer was seen in 1.6 percent CRF patients and 20.4 percent controls. The commonest pattern of antral histology was active chronic superficial gastritis and was found in 33.3 percent cases and 44.9 percent controls. Both, controls and patients with CRF showed a similar pattern of histological gastritis. There was good correlation between endoscopic and histological gastritis. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with end stage kidney disease are due to multi-factorials, however high prevalence of H. Pylori infection is common in developing country like India where symptomatic patients need evaluation by doing U.G. I. Scopy where one should test and treat to alleviate the patients symptoms.

  13. Kola M. Owonikoko, Wakeel O. Muritala, Aramide M. Tijani and OluseyiAtanda

    Background: Sexual behavior among women of reproductive age group is characterized by erratic, infrequent and unplanned sexual activities, a trend that exposes them to unwanted pregnancy. While sexual activity among young women begins early, contraceptive knowledge and usage remain low. Objective: To determine the existence of myths and misconceptions regarding contraception among various women of reproductive age group in Ogbomoso. Methodology: It was a cross - sectional descriptive study among consenting women of reproductive age group atOra Market, General Outpatient Department of General Hospital, and LAUTECH undergraduates with the use of a structured, pretested, interviewer administered questionnaire. Result: The mean age range of respondents was 27.9 + 6.98 years. Majority of the respondents (53.3%) have never used any form of contraception. The most commonly used method of contraception was male condom. There was high level of existence of myth and misconceptions about contraception in general. Significant proportion of the participants 23.3% and 30.7% thought that pills causes cancer and weaken the ovaries respectively. More than half (57.6%) of the participants alleged that using injectables for long period makes one not to conceive in future. Conclusion: There exist myths and misconceptions on various methods of contraception in our environment even among students and hospital patients. It may explain the reason for the high prevalence of unmet need on contraception in this country.

  14. Sathiyanarayanan, J.

    Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is one of the dreaded complications encountered during management of chronic hyponatremia. Rapid osmotic shift of fluid during correction of hyponatremia results in osmotic myelinolysis of the pontine or extrapontine areas of the brain. Even gradual correction of hyponatraemia can produce myelinolyis, especially with pre-existing malnourishment, alcoholism, drug abuse and Addison's disease as noted in our cases. We report two cases of demyelination, one with pontine and extra-pontine myelinolysis in the presence of chronic kidney disease on haemodialysis, and a case of extra-pontine myelinolysis due to treatment of Adrenomyeloneuropathy presenting as Addison’s disease, with good recovery on treatment with steroids.

  15. Suresh, B., Sreedhar Babu, K.V. and Chandramouli, P.

    Background: ABO blood group has been found to be associated with the risk of several malignancies, including gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian epithelial and skin cancer. This work was therefore aimed at assessing the ABO and Rh blood group antigens and risk associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among blood donors. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional analytical study carried out in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care teaching hospital blood bank for a period of 6 years i.e. January 2009 to December 2014. All blood donors either voluntary or replacement were included in the study. Data retrieved from blood bank records included the ABO, Rh group and the result of HIV serology. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16, SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA. Results: A total number of 41652 blood donors were registered and screened during the study period. The commonest blood group was O constituting 41.5% followed by B (32.6%), A (19.8%), AB (6.1%) and Bombay (0.02%). Rh-D positive donors were 92.9% and remaining 7.1% were Rh-D negative. The overall prevalence of HIV was 0.66%. Among total HIV seroreactive donors 42.6% were O blood group, B-27.8%, A-22.2% and AB-7.4%. Among the total seroreactive group, 93.5% had Rh-D positive blood group and remaining 6.5% had Rh-D negative blood group. Conclusion: In this study conducted to determine the predominant blood group antigen and its association with HIV seroreactivity. The frequency of HIV among blood donors had maximum association with blood group O positive but not statistically significant. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect.

  16. Dr. V. M. Das

    Graham Fleming, the principal investigator for the study. “This wavelike characteristic can explain the extreme efficiency of the energy transfer because it enables the system to simultaneously sample all the potential energy pathways and choose the most efficient one.” is unnecessary explaining Biology- photosynthesis with QM –superposition (superposition of possible trajectories). Both are separate identity or phenomena and both are triggered by MIND the ToE (theory of everything). Neither excited electrons carry energy through a photosynthetic system by hopping at random from one molecule to the next (Physical conduction) nor electrons take advantage of the weirdness of quantum physics traveling in the form of a coherent wave that can try out different paths simultaneously so that the electrons could then choose the best route explaining photosynthesis’s high efficiency. Rather, excited electrons carry photon energy in form of charged energy through a well destined path of photosynthetic system by the phenomenon called divine conduction mechanics or life phenomenon where thought is trigging and controlling the path of excited electron explaining photosynthesis’s high efficiency. The effects of matter and energy are different in different branches of science. In physics the effects are classified as classical physics and quantum physics. While in life sciences the effects are not physical rather they are associated with thoughts also. What are the basis of physical sciences as well as of life sciences or how laws of physics as well as of life sciences are made that is to be discussed in a very simple way. One has to equip with structure of the matter, origin of the universe and atomic genes as taught by participatory science. The standard model not only modified rather it has been completed (Vijay Mohan Das, 2014) with introduction of energized gravitons, primary fermions, primary bosons, Basic Building Blocks, Mind and Tachyons.

  17. Dr. Lakshmi Nair

    Introduction: Meconium stained amniotic fluid during labor management possesses a dilemma to the obstetrician in an under resourced set up. The passage of meconium in utero is associated with significant perinatal mortality and morbidity especially meconium aspiration syndrome. Amnioinfusion can reduce the incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality in places with limited resources for peripartum surveillance. Methods: A prospective study of 50 women with thick / thin meconium stained amniotic fluid fulfilling the inclusion criteria, who underwent trans cervical amnioinfusion with normal saline . Periodic checking of underpads for clearing or thinning of meconium was noted. A maximum of 1800 ml of NS was instilled. The thinning of meconium, mode of delivery, APGAR score at 1 min and 5 min, meconium aspiration, MAS, NICU admissions were noted. Results: Out of 44 cases of thick meconium at the time of detection 13.64% became moderate, 54.55% became thin whereas 31.82% remained as such. 68.18% had vaginal delivery, 4.55% had forceps delivery and 27.27 % had LSCS for fetal distress. Apgar score at 1 min < 5 was seen in 34.09%, between 5-7 in 85.91% cases and Apgar score at 5 minute <5 in 6.82%, 5-7 in 50%, >7 in 43.18% cases of thick MSAF respectively. Meconium aspiration was seen 76%babies. NICU admission was 20%. X Ray abnormality was seen in 4.55% cases and MAS 2.27% cases. Conclusion: In institutions with limited peripartum surveillance, transcervicalamnioinfusion is effective in improving both maternal and neonatal outcome and preventing perinatal loss due to meconium aspiration syndrome.

  18. Natwarlal Patidar

    Background: Hypertension is a leading cause of mortality in the world and is ranked third as a cause of disability-adjusted life years. Epidemiological studies have shown that sedentary life-style and stress are important risk factors for hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in developing countries more in urban areas due to changing life style and increasing longevity. Materials and Methods: Prevalence of hypertension among adults from the previous studies was found to be 35%. Sample size of 600 was calculated using the formula 4pq/L2 with 10% allowable error. Systematic random sampling was used and after taking informed consent, participants were interviewed using a pre tested questionnaire. Diagnostic criteria were based on JNC VII guidelines, SBP ≥140mmHg and/or DBP ≥90mmHg. Data was analysed using Epi-info and SPSS proportions and chi square test were used. Results: Prevalence of hypertension was found to be 36.6%; significantly associated with smoking, salt intake, stress, family history of hypertension and obesity. There is no significant association with type of diet (vegetarian or non vegetarian) alcohol and physical activity. Conclusion: prevalence of hypertension among urban population is high. Life style factors are significantly associated with hypertension. So there is an urgent need for life style modification among urban especially among those with stress and positive family history

  19. Dr. Ganaraj Shetty

    Strong and healthy teeth forms the basis for beautiful and attractive smile and can be a reason for overall growth and good health of an individual. Missing teeth can cause drifting of existing teeth into the edentulous space that leads to the collapse of the bite, resulting in serious health complications including TMJ disorders, sleep disorders and muscle disorders. Over the years, dentists have evaluated many functional, comfortable, and affordable ways to replace the missing teeth. There are many options to replace the missing teeth, either with a removable partial denture, fixed partial denture and complete denture prosthesis. Recently, the dental implants the most resilient, metallic materials have been introduced that are more aesthetically pleasing and comfortable. Dentists must be implicated with the biological reactivity of the materials they use, as these materials can be allergic and toxic. The responses can be immediate or delayed. A wide variety of symptoms can occur including, chronic inflammation, cancerous conditions, and neurologic disorders, leading to generalized illness.

  20. Dr. Prasad Usha, Dr. R. Vidyarama and Dr. Prasad Uma

    Background: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is a common problem in women accounting for one third of all gynaecological consultations carried out for abnormal uterine bleeding. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and complex. Specific diagnosis of functional disorder can be achieved by histopathological examination of the endometrium. Aims: To study various patterns on histopathology in cases of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Material and methods: Consecutive endometrial curettings of 654 cases of dysfunctional uterine bleeding in the age group 20 to 60 years over a period of one year were included in the study. Organic lesions of the uterus were ruled out by ultrasonography. The tissue was routinely processed and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and the histological patterns were recorded. Results: Out of 654 cases of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, 53.51% cases presented with anovulatory patterns and ovulatory patterns in 38.53%. Endometrial hyperplasia was seen in 7.64% of cases and granulosa cell tumor of ovary in 2 cases. Endometrial hyperplasia was more common in the age group beyond 30 years. Conclusion: In cases of dysfunctional uterine bleeding a precise histological typing of lesions is very much essential in the management as it can predict the functional disorder by looking at the morphology of the glands and the stroma.

  21. Bhaskar Bhattacharjee, Ashish Kumar Singha and Debasish Maiti

    Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) is an enzyme which mediates cell function, growth, metabolism and apoptosis. The present work has an objective to evaluate the involvement of PTK activity on neutrophil population in the peripheral blood upon stimulation with G-CSF plus IL-15 in leukemic animal. N-N’-Ethyl-nitrosourea (ENU), a carcinogen was used to induce Leukemia in BALB/C mice where in combination with Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and Interleukin-15 (IL-15) were treated. To determine the PTK activity in normal and leukemic animal universal tyrosine kinase assay kit were used. Appearance of blast cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow smear confirmed the Leukemia. Neutrophils were isolated from spleen using percoll gradient method. Cell population was measured in both normal and leukemic animal before and after treatment of combination of cytokines. ENU induced mice model showed mixed type Leukemia dominating lymphoblastic in nature. The data indicated that treatment with IL-15 and G-CSF in combination to leukemic mice, increased the number of neutrophil population in periphery and under the regulated control of protein tyrosine kinase activity. Results may hint for cell based therapeutic approach to improve neutrophil population in Leukemia.

  22. Dr. Kondepagu Madhavi and Dr. JuvvalaRadha

    Snake bite envenomation is uncommon during pregnancy. We report a case of primigravida with term gestation presented with history of snake bite, patient had severe coagulopathy and she recovered after giving anti snakevenom, antibiotics and transfusion of blood products. In pregnant women with snake bite more fetal deaths were seen with mothers who received anti snakevenom injection than those who did not receive. Here is a case scenario.

  23. Machettira Bheemaiah Deepak and Konerira Aiyappa Anu Appaiah

    Toddy is a very well-known alcoholic beverage in south India and also knownin parts of Srilanka, Indonesia, Thailand, Africa, and South America. It is obtained through the natural fermentation of various palm saps like Cocosnucifera, Borassus flabillifer, Phoenix sylvestris, Sap is obtained by tapping the unopened spadix of the palm popularly known as neera. It is reported to be highly nutritive and a good digestive agent. However, it is highly susceptible to spontaneous fermentation, initially alcoholic, followed by acidic fermentation. The main products of fermentation are lactic acid, ethanol and acetic acid, and the fermented neera is known as toddy. The fermenting organisms are dominated by yeasts, particularly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, these organisms contribute to flavours, flavour is due to fatty acid, where in sap yeast utilise available sugars producing alcohol and fatty acids,which contribute flavour to toddy. In the present work toddy samples collected from the local area and the yeastswere isolated using chromogenic agar to eliminate to opportunistic candida species if present. The isolates were purified then identified through molecular and biochemical tests, the identified yeasts were Pichia manshurica-H4S7K13, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5-3, Saccharomyces cerevisiae MUCL-51248.They were analysed for fatty acid profiling using GC and MS analysis. The major fatty acids were 9-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester, 7-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester, Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, Hexanedioic acid, bis-(2- ethylhexyl)ester’, E -15 heptadecenal, 9- hexadecenoic acid methyl ester, 1-nonadecene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-methylpropyl) ester, these yeasts can be used in feed additives for aflatoxin binding and animal health improvement

  24. Sushil Gaur, Sunil Kumar Singh Bhadouriya, Vivek Kumar Pathak and Mamta Bisht

    Ganglioneuromas are extremely rare. Ganglioneuroma, of the parapharyngeal space of the neck was surgically operated in a 7 year old boy, presenting with a 5 year history of diffuse neck swelling. Sympathetic chain neck ganglioneuroma presents infrequently. The FNAC finding of mature ganglion interspersed with Schwann cells is also rare. It needs to differentiate ganglioneuroma from the rest of the tumours of primordial neuroblastic tissue. Although very rare, ganglioneuromas must be considered in the differential diagnosis of neck masses because pathology may not ring a bell in the doctor’s mind due to its rarity in presentation.

  25. Dr. Pulivarthi Sushma, Dr. Sowbhagya, M. B., Dr. Balaji, P. and Dr. Mahesh Kumar T. S.

    Maxillofacial traumas (MFTs) are gradually becoming common reason for presenting at Emergency Departments. Nowadays, these traumas formed a social disease because of an increasing frequency and magnitude of traffic accidents, as well as the growing incidents of violence in urban. In initial phase of trauma an efficient imaging assessment of patients with MFT is crucial. Once patient compensation has been achieved, to detect fractures and/or soft tissue damage require immediate therapy and preoperative planning with required imaging techniques for a proper assessment.

  26. Seirafi, H., Kamyab.Hesari Kambiz, Montazer, Fatemeh, Nikoo, Azita, Tavousi, Parvin, and Goodarzi, Azadeh

    Background: BCC is one the common skin cancers. There are controversies regarding the best margin. The goal of this study was to determine margins with H&E and cytokeratin 17. Method: medical records of 96 patients reviewed. Pathologic specimens were reviewed and cytokeratin 17 was applied. Lateral and deep free margins were measured and compared by H&E and IHC in different subtypes of BCC. The extent and intensity of CK17 staining were examined too. Results: mean age of all patients was 66.3 years. 61 were male and 35 were female. Nose was the most common site of involvement. The most common type of the disease was infiltrative. Mean free lateral margin in H&E and IHC were significantly different in infiltrative and micronodular types (p<0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Mean free deep margin in H&E and IHC were significantly different in infiltrative, micronodular and nodular types (p =0.002, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). The mean intensity and extent of CK 17 staining were not significantly different between various subtypes. (p=0.2 and 0.9, respectively) Conclusion: mean lateral and deep margins were not similar in two methods.

  27. Dr. Sameer Mehrotra and Dr. Sunil Basukala

    Background: Against 8.5 million units/year requirement, the availability is only 4.4 million units/year of which only about 52% is through voluntary donations. Aim and Objective: To establish motivational and socio-demographic factors for the development of a long-term commitment as a blood donor. Methodology: Questionnaire-based study collected from 310 participants containing 22 items, including socio-demographic information, donors' evaluation of blood bank service and 23 statements on motivation. Data on motivation was analyzed using factor analysis. Results: Representation of males (85.4%) for donation were much higher compared to females (14.6%).Unemployed individuals were found to be under-represented. The single, most important, recruitment channel was the influence of active blood donors. Conclusion: Most donors were recruited by other donors. Their continued involvement as blood donors was primarily linked to altruistic and empathic reasons.

  28. Dr. Sameer Mehrotra and Dr. Sunil Basukala

    Background: Stem cell based therapies have been hailed as futuristic medicine that holds promise of curing some of the currently untreatable diseases. As stem cells can be grown and transformed into specialized cells with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves through cell culture, their true use in medical therapies has been proposed. There are several medical, ethical and legal issues that need to be regulated by a national authority. Some countries have resolved this issue by drawing up National Guidelines and regulatory mechanisms for the use of stem cells for research. In India the Department of Biotechnology in collaboration with Indian council of Medical Research has come up with appropriate regulations and guidelines for conducting stem cell research.

  29. Dr. Sameer Mehrotra and Dr. Sunil Basukala

    Background: The medical store is one of the most extensively used facilities of the hospital. Approximately 35% of annual hospitals budget is spent on buying materials and supplies, including medicines and hence it is essential that health managers use scientific methods to achieve efficient management and patient satisfaction. Aim and objectives: To apply Selective Inventory Control techniques for the drugs used in Intensive Care Unit of Tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and methods: The annual consumption and expenditure incurred on each item of controlled drugs in Medical ICU for the year 2013-14 was analyzed and inventory control techniques, i.e. ABC, VED and ABC-VED matrix analysis, were applied. Results: It was observed that 14 medicines (43.33%) out of 30 were classified in the category1(AV+BV+CV+AE+AD) for stringent control. Conclusion: Scientific inventory control management to be applied for efficient management of medical stores.

  30. Sanaa Najeh Al-Haj Ali

    This article reviews the pulpotomy medicaments which were studied in the dental literature and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. Many of the newly suggested medicaments have shown promising results in vitro and in vivo in the short run; however, the evidence is still insufficient to identify one superior pulpotomy medicament. There is clearly a need for long-term studies with the highest level of evidence (randomised controlled trials) to identify the best medicament for pulpotomy of primary teeth .It is important to identify a novel, effective and preferably natural pulpotomy medicament to increase the therapeutic arsenal and successfully perform pulpotomy procedures.

  31. Padmalatha, C., Shivaram, N., 1Kiran Kumar, P., Naveen, R., Sarita, T. and Harishankar, N.

    Demineralization of enamel surrounding orthodontic brackets is a serious clinical problem and these conditions are treated by the use of remineralization creme. The effectiveness of the regimens can be determined by measuring the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Bone Mineral Content (BMC). In general these parameters are studied using polarized light, desktop micro CT. In the present ex vivo study, effectiveness of remineralization creme namely Casein Phosphopeptide Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP), and enamel surface of bovine anterior teeth treated with hydrogen peroxide was analyzed using dual X-ray absorbtiometry (DXA). 52 samples of bovine anterior teeth were collected from slaughter house and cleaned as per the standard procedures. The collected samples were subjected to demineralization using a demineralizing buffer solution. Subsequently, the teeth samples were remineralized with CPP-ACP or hydrogen peroxide treatment and curing with light cure unit, stored in artificial saliva. The BMD and BMC in control and experimental group samples were measured using non-invasive DXA at regular intervals. The BMC of the sample treated with hydrogen peroxide was more when compared to the sample treated with CPP-ACP. However, no significant changes in BMD contents were observed among the experimental groups. No significant changes were seen in terms of their lean body mass and total fat content among the teeth of control and experimental groups. The remineralization potential is more when teeth were treated with hydrogen peroxide and light cure when compared to CPP-ACP.

  32. Rasha A. Mohamed

    Metatarsus adductus is a common pediatric disorder related to intrauterine molding. Severe mid flexible metatarsus adductus may need a serial casting or special bracing to avoid the need for surgical intervention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare between the effects of the serial plaster casting and combined treatment program consisting of both rigid strap taping and selected exercise program in correcting metatarsus adductus of toddler children. Thirty children with bilateral severe mid rigid metatarsus adductus of both sexes whose age ranged from 2 to 3 years were included in the study. They were assigned randomly into two groups of equal number. The casting group was treated with serial plaster casting and the strapping group was treated with a combined treatment program consisting of both a rigid strap taping and selected exercise program. The exercise program lasted for 1 hour/ 5 times/ week. The functional activity by using Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-version 2 as well as weight-bearing anteroposterior and lateral view radiographs were evaluated before and after successive eight weeks of treatment. Significant differences were recorded when comparing the pre and post treatment mean values of the radiographic measurements in both groups (p < 0.05), without worsening of the heel valgus. Also, significant differences were recorded in the functional activity of strapping group (p < 0.05) while no significant differences were recorded in casting group (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in both groups when comparing their post treatment mean values of radiographic measurements (p > 0.05). Meanwhile, significant differences were recorded between both groups in favor of the strapping group when comparing their post treatment mean values of functional activity (p < 0.05). Based on the obtained results, a combined treatment program consisting of both a rigid strap taping and selected exercise program is an excellent decision for correcting metatarsus adductus in toddler children with severe mid rigid metatarsus adductus.

  33. Vijay Khare

    All human behaviour is based on multiple contributing factors. Terrorism though not a normal human behaviour is no exception. It is possible to understand the motivations behind terrorism through and understanding human behaviours. While aggression and personality both have biological bases behaviour. It is a common misconception to view terrorism as a syndrome that determines something mentally “wrong” with terrorist. The purpose of this paper is to analyze what has been reported from the scientific and professional literature about the “Psychology of terrorism” .Terrorism has changed over the time and so have the terrorists, their motives and the causes of terrorism.

  34. Mina Chandra and Kuljeet Singh Anand

    Background: Gender differences in Indian subjects with Vascular Dementia have not been studied systematically. Materials and Methods: Subjects with Vascular Dementia presenting to a tertiary care hospital over a period of 16 months were assessed for socio demographic factors, dementia severity using Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale and for the presence of four vascular disease factors namely Hypertension, Diabetes, Dyslipidaemia and Ischemic Heart Disease. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. Results: The 159 subjects (M: F = 54.7: 45.3 % p = 0.27) of Vascular Dementia (Mild: Moderate: Severe Dementia = 39.7%, 38.4% and 21.9%) had a mean age of 69.35 (±7.51) years and a mean education of 11.34 (± 3.76) years with females being less educated (p=0.000). More four- fifths of subjects had multiple vascular disease risk factors. The female subjects had a similar severity level of dementia (p=0.401) and vascular disease burden (p= 0.543) despite being significantly younger (p= 0.002). Conclusion: Female subjects of Vascular Dementia were significantly younger than male counterparts despite having a similar vascular risk profile as the male subjects though lower educational levels in females may have also contributed to the cognitive decline.

  35. Dasgupta Aparajita, BiswasDhiraj, SahooSanjayakumar, Kumar Amitava and Preeti, P. S.

    Background: Maternal exposure to wood fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth due to hypoxia and oxidative stress from smoke constituents. Objectives: Risk of low birth weight (LBW) and reduced mean birth weight in relation to use of high pollution fuel for cooking during the antenatal period, compared with low pollution fuel. Methods: The study was done among women with singleton live birth. Duration of cooking and type of fuel used during the pregnancies periods were ascertained by a survey. Effect of common confounders leading to LBW was adjusted with appropriate statistical methods. Results: Mean ± SD of birth weight (Kg) was 3.033±.25 in low-pollution fuel users, 2.688±.26 in medium-pollution and 2.668±.45 in high-pollution fuel users. Proportion of low birth weight among high-pollution fuel users was 78.3%, in medium-pollution fuel users it was 21.7% while there was no LBW among low-pollution fuel users. These differences were found to be significant. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 9.28, P = 0.00). Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel during pregnancy is modifiable risk factor associated with LBW as compared to use of LPG.

  36. Das, V. M.

    The effects of matter and energy are different in different branches of science. In physics the effects are classified as classical physics and quantum physics. While in life sciences the effects are not physical rather they are associated with thoughts also. What are the basis of physical sciences as well as of life sciences or how laws of physics as well as of life sciences are made that is to be discussed in a very simple way. The reason being one is not equipped with structure of the matter, origin of the universe and atomic genes as taught by participatory science. The standard model not only modified rather it has been completed [9] with introduction of energized gravitons, primary fermions, primary bosons, Basic Building Blocks, Mind and Tachyons. Almighty B.B.B could predict precisely whether Schrödinger’s cat is alive or dead without opening the box. The way is that every event (dead cat or alive cat) is being fed back to Highest center of the universe by first transcription (Quantum entanglement explained) (Fig 3.1)

  37. Sindhuja, K., Sreedhar Babu, K. V., Anitha, M. and Suresh, B.

    Back Ground: Blood can save lives but it can be a source of other problems like risk of immunological adverse reactions and transmission of blood borne pathogens. Malaria remains one of the most common transfusion transmitted infections and it has serious consequences especially with Plasmodium falciparum which is rapidly fatal. The present study was done to know the prevalence of malaria parasite among blood donors in our institute. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective cross sectional analytical study conducted at the blood bank of tertiary care referral teaching hospital from January 2010 to December 2014 i.e. for a period of 5 years. A total of 36,331 donors were included in the study. Pan Malaria card based on Immuno-chromatographic technique was used for detection of malaria parasite. Results: The prevalence of malaria among blood donors is 0.03% (n=10). Among the 10 malaria positive donors 80% (n=8) were voluntary donors and 20% (n=2) were replacement donors. All the 10 donors were males. Conclusion: Though Tirupati being an endemic area, the prevalence of malaria in blood donors of our blood bank is more or less comparable to other studies. Proper donor selection and screening prior to donation might reduce the transmission of malaria parasite through blood transfusion.

  38. Dr. Thaer Hameed Mohsin

    Sialolithiasis: is the most common disease of salivary glands. It is a condition characterized by the obstruction of a salivary gland or its excretory duct due to the formation of calcareous concretions, resulting in salivary ectasia and even determining the subsequent dilatation of the salivary gland. The sialolith usually measure from 1 mm to less than 10 mm. They rarely measure more than 15 mm. frequently and rare giant salivary gland calculi >15 mm. In this case male 42 years old have a giant stone in the right submandibular gland duct about 45mm which is represented one of the biggest submandibular duct stone reported in the literature with perforation of the wharthins duct, its diagnosed through the long history more than 20 years with pain, tenderness, dysphagia, difficult in specking. Clinical examination reveal extra oral bulginess of the submandibular gland with intra oral fistula in its duct , extra oral lateral radio graphical examination show large stone extended from the first right lower molar to the first right lower central, Its treated by very small trans-oral surgical incision under local anesthesia through the ductal oral fistula just extended anteriorly and posteriorly and the stone get out spontaneously by the action of the pressure of the discharge following the stone removal, No recurrence was seen on follow-up

  39. Satish Kumar, M., Thirupathi, L., Mangilal, T., Vijayakumari, T. and Kavitha, T.

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate and compare experimental toothpaste with commercial toothpastes. In the study, commercial toothpastes such as colgate, close up and pepsodent have been used and also can be evaluation studies were performed for their quality. All the marketed tooth pastes and experimental toothpaste which had been evaluated the complied with the standards specified by the Bureau of Indian Standards. The formulations were subjected to various evolution tests like pH, spreadability, abrasiveness, fineness, foaming ability, cleaning ability, moisture and volatile content, F, Pb, As, tube inertness and stability studies. All the Results of evaluated parameters showed that experimental formulation is comparably equal and rarely better in terms of results than marketed formulation. Hence, the selected experimental formulation was found to be of good quality.

  40. Syed Muhammad Imran Haider Zaidi, Nazia Yaqoob and Zia Razzaq Shaikh

    The current study was conducted to assess the marital satisfaction and stress among bipolar patients. A total number of 60 patients, 30 men bipolar patients and 30 women bipolar patients were selected through convenient sampling from different hospitals of Faisalabad and Lahore, Pakistan. The participants were administered ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale (Blaine and Olson, 1993) and Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale (Holmes and Rahe, 1967) to measure the level of marital satisfaction and stress among Bipolar patients. The score on ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale and Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale among men and women Bipolar patients was compared. Pearson’s Product Moment correlation and the t-test were used correspondingly to assess the relationship between marital satisfaction and stress among bipolar patients and gender difference on marital satisfaction and stress among bipolar patients. It was found that there was a negative relationship (r = -0.76, p < .01) between marital satisfaction and stress. Moreover a significant difference was found between men and women patients on marital satisfaction and stress score, which indicated that men patients scored high on stress and obtained low scores on marital satisfaction, on the other hand females obtained high score on marital satisfaction scale and low scores on stress. Implications of study results are discussed.

  41. George Ubong, Etim, Ini-Ibehe Nabuk, M.P. Ekanim and Otu, Ubong

    The Effect of Ariel detergent on hatchery-reared Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings obtained from University of Calabar fish farm was investigated in duplicates (A, and B ) using the water soluble fraction of the toxicant under laboratory conditions for 96 hours. Six concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5mg/l) were prepared from the water soluble fraction of Ariel detergent for the toxicity test. The experimental animals exhibited different percentage mortalities with toxicant concentrations. The 96 hours LC50 for O. niloticus in both batches (A and B) was 0.301mg/l. There was no significant difference in mortality between the both batches of O. niloticus (P>0.05), leading to the conclusion that the WSF of the toxicant had same toxic effects on the test organisms. However, it was observed that the WSF of Ariel detergent had severe impacts on the test water resulting in alterations of the Physico-chemical parameters. The results of the present study suggest that the water soluble fraction of Ariel detergent had severe impacts on the test organism resulting in mortality.

  42. *Meseret Mamo and Hailu Yetera

    The study was carried in Bisare watershed, south rift valley of Ethiopia. The total area drained by this watershed is around 547 square kilometers. Satellite image and GIS technologies in conjunction with data collected through field surveys, were used to analysis land use/land cover changes that took place in the area between the years 1973 and 2003. In this study, Landsat satellite images MSS (1973), TM (1984) and ETM+ (2003) data were used to identify the land use/land cover status of the area. Based on maximum likelihood classifier, the area was classified into five major land use/land cover classes such as cultivated land, wooded-grass land, shrub and bush land, grass land, and bare land. An increase of 11,596.4 ha (8.3% in the first period (1973-1984) and 12.9% in the second period (1984-2003)) of cultivated land was observed. It was found that much of the current cultivated land is established at the expense of shrub and bush land. A total of 3,993.1ha, 5,360.6 ha, and 5,251.2ha of wooded-grass land, shrub and bush land, and grass land were lost or converted to another land use/land cover type during the study period. More than a four-fold increase of bare land i.e. 3,008.5ha was observed during the study period.

  43. Yadav, S. G.

    A total of 12 taxa under 05 genera of tetrasporales were encountered during an extensive studies on algal taxonomy of Beed district in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra (January 2006-December 2008) The algal samples were collected from various habitats like pools, ponds, puddles, cisterns, talaos, streams, streamlets, dams, rivers, dipping rocks, polluted water passages, nursery ponds and moist soils. The recorded genera were Sphaerocystis, Gloeocystis, Tetraspora, Schizochlamys and Elakatothrix. Seasonal variation studies reveals that Tetrasporales were found dominant in winter season.

  44. Umesh, B.T. and Febina Ferose

    Aloe vera belongs to the family Liliaceae, commonly called as 'Burn plant'. In this study the basal medium used for the culture is Murashige and Skoog with sucrose 3% and 0.08% Agar, Growth hormones, 6-benzyl amino purine (BA), 3-Indole butyric acid (IBA), Kinetin (Kn), Adenine Sulphate etc. were added to the basal medium either singly or in various combinations. For shoot proliferation, BA (0-2 mg/L) and Kn (0-1 mg/L) at different concentrations in combination with IBA (0.2 mg/L), and agar (0, 0.8%) used. Aloe barbadenesis propagates vegetatively in its natural state, but propagation is too slow for commercial plant production. Shoot with young leaves was collected from the elite Micro shoots were inoculated on MS basal medium with different concentrations and combinations of BA and Kn (in combination of IBA 0.2 mg/L) for shoot proliferation. In both BA and Kn the plants were free from both fungal as well as bacterial contamination to some extent. After 15 days of inoculation, rooting was 100% in hormone- free medium. In case of hormone- free medium, roots were more thick and elongated, while the roots on hormone supplemented medium were thin and less elongated

  45. Lucía Paredes and Carlos Banchón

    The tannery industry worldwide not only represents economic growth, but is also a source of contaminants that are polluting rivers and groundwaters. Highly turbid and foul-smelling wastewaters are commonly discharged from this industry and their treatment by physical or chemical means is usually expensive. The goal of this study was to treat highly contaminated tannery wastewaters using plant extracts. Polyaluminum chloride and natural coagulants from Caesalpinia spinosa, Punica granatum, Eucalyptus spp. and Vitis vinifera were examined in their effectiveness of turbidity removal of tannery liming drum wastewater. The addition of these coagulants decreased turbidity to 99.5% using polyaluminum chloride and up to 99.1% using natural coagulants. Among these plant extracts, P. granatum had the highest phenol index (20 mg.L-1) and its extract removed turbidity between 97 and 99% by applying doses among 7.0 - 11.7 g.L-1peelextracts and 0.001- 0.03 g.L-1 polyacrylamide into 500 mL of tannery liming drum wastewater. Final clarification was obtained with a hydrogen peroxide 5% solutionwhich oxidized color residuals from treated water.The present eco-friendly remediation process enabled a remotion of chemical oxygen demand by 99.8%. Alum treatment of tannery liming drum wastewater could be replaced by an efficient remediation process with plant extracts and hydrogen peroxide in benefit of the environment.

  46. Mahimasanthi, A. and Prassana Kumar, S.

    The insect natural enemy interactions vary with the insect’s host plant species and understanding such variation is important to study the preference of natural enemies, which play a major role in biological control programmes. In the present investigation, pink hibiscus mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus – predator interactions were studied on six different hosts viz. Morus alba, Psdium guajava, Hibiscus rosasinensis, Abelmoschus esculentus, Gliricidia sepium and Mimosa pudica in different seasons to find out the most favourable host as well as preference of the predator, Nephus regularis. The host plants highly influenced the incidence and population build up of M. hirsutus and also the third trophic entomophage. M. hirsutus preferred H. rosasinensis and A. esculentus. M. alba was the third preferred host. P. guajava and M. pudica were the least preferred hosts. The highest population of the pest was recorded on A. esculentus (28.4no.s/shoot) in winter and by H. rosasinensis (16.05 numbers / shoot) followed by M. alba (12.33) whereas M. pudica (11.00) and P. guajava (3.4) in summer. M. alba recorded highest population of the predator, Nephus regularis recording average number of 1.23 individuals per infested shoot followed by H. rosasinensis (1.05) in summer. Though, A. esculentus recorded highest M. hirsutus population in winter season (28.4 / branch) the predator population was comparatively lower (1.25). From the study it is clearly evident that any biological control measures taken to control M. hirsutus in the agricultural fields will be heavily influenced by H. rosasinensis and G. sepium plantations in the surroundings. Hence while releasing coccinellids for biological control these plants if available in the surroundings also should be considered.

  47. Rajkumar Kandasamy, Keshavanarayan Puttaramaiah, Shubharani Ramnath and SivaramVenkataramegowda

    Plant flowering and breeding characteristics are important to understand the reproduction of plant populations. Garcinia imberti belongs to the family Clusiaceae is a critically endangered tree species of Agasthyamalai hills and endemic to Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Present study is to investigate the floral biology and breeding system during 2012-13. The tree species is dioecious. The peak of male and female flowering was observed in Feb-May, but the male flowers were observed one week before the female flower. Female flowers are significantly larger than the male flower. Both sexual morphs have four petals and four sepals in imbricated arrangement. Controlled pollination experiment showed that Garcinia imberti was a self-incompatible species that produced fruits through cross-pollination. According to the field observations after pollination treatments fruit setting was observed as 53.33%, 30.00%, and 36.67% in cross pollination, apomixis and open pollination respectively. This indicates a functionally dioecious mating system and pollination limited fruit set in Garcinia imberti. Female flower bear fruits with 1-2 seeds. Floral visitors observed in only in male flowers. These are not pollinators and they never observed on female flowers.

  48. Ramani, K. and Polonguzhali, T. V.

    Local medicinal plants and wild herbs are of great significance to the sustainable health of individuals and its geo-communities. The Alternanthera tenella Colla (Amaranthaceae) is one of the popular herbal drugs. It is also used as food by tribal and ethnic communities. The morphological characters were efficient tools for the authentication and identification of plants. The phylogenetic analysis was used to resolve relationships within family members and revealed that presence of precious unknown clade. The present study is to characterize the plant accurately and identify using barcode. It is used to enrich the literature on the systematic taxonomy and anatomy of this plant.

  49. Mohamed A. Hassan, Ehab A. Serour, Bakry M. Haroun and Amro A. Amara

    The Biotechnologists are interesting in the safe biotechnological products as an alternative to chemicals in many industrial applications. One of the interesting biotechnological products is the technical enzymes which can be used in textile industry. In this study, kertainolytic protease produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MA20 is applied to improve wool fibers surface, tensile strength and water absorption. The wool straight off sheep was washing with triton X100 and hydrogen peroxide for scouring and bleaching respectively to facilitate the enzymes diffusion. Enzymatic treatment of wool fibers with keratinolytic protease was carried out at 50°C and 60°C which act as the maximum activity and stability of the enzyme. The various enzymatic treatments have been conducted with intervals time as follow: 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) demonstrated smoother of wool surface in comparing with other untreated due to remove impurities. However, the tensile strength test proved increasing the tensile of wool. Water uptake techniques showed increasing in the wool water absorption and retaining after enzymatic treatment which have benefit for further application of dye on wool fibers. The best results of wool treated with keratinolytic protease produced by B. amyloliquefaciens MA20 were exhibited at 60°C and after incubation for 12 hrs. These results have important industrial applications of enzymatic wool finishing process which is environmental friendly in compared with chlorine treatment process.

  50. Zainab Yaseen Mohammed, KhuloodW.Alsamarrae and SubhiJawadHamza

    The discovery and identification of a new drugs, which can act as anticancer agents had an important goal of researches. Flavonoids from Iraqi wild type Lycium barbarum leaves were extracted and identified by the preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) technique which were had been shown in a previous study. The study employed to investigate the pathway by which the purified flavonoid extracted from Lycium barbarum leaves exerts its cytotoxic effect through cell cycle determination and detecting the target phase of cell cycle that affected by treating cells with different concentrations and determining mechanism by which the flavonoid acts. Result showed that the purified flavonoid affected HepG-2 cell line after 24 hours exposure with different manner for each concentration. At 50µg/ml the purified flavonoid cause significant (p≤0.05) increase in Phosphohistone-H3 intensity, causing cell cycle arrest in M phase. The higher concentrations (100µg/ml), indeed didn’t affect cell cycle at all. However the concentration (25µg/ml) did affect cell cycle of HepG-2 at G 1/S phase after 24 hours treatment but with no significance.

  51. Atikah Nurhayati and Agus Heri Purnomo

    This research is aimed to analyze acceleration development region capture fisheries economy oriented (A case at Coast South district Garut West Java Province). The research was background of condition of the coastal areas south of the is land of Java development is relatively slower compared to the coastal areas north of the islandof Java. Southern coastal area ofthe island of Java, particularly in Garut West Java has regional of capture fisheries development opportunities that have not been optimized, so it is necessary to do research on the extent to which production prospects and the economic value of capture fisheries in coast south district Garut West Java Province as well as how government policy n there giondo development f capture fisheries-oriented economy. The method used was survey method and sampling was done by purposive sampling. The analysis model used is the model hierarchy forcesting and analytical process. The results showed that fisheries production has decreased the economic value that needs to be done fast acceleration for the development of capture fisheries areas are oriented economy oriented.

  52. Ansari Iqbal Md. Anand Kumar and Khan Md. Imran

    In mining areas a huge amount of waste water is generated through coal based industries. It is very toxic in nature and contains non–biodegradable substances. On contamination with these water sources there is depletion in water quality, environmental flora, fauna and health hazards to mankind. This waste water is disposed off in the nearby water bodies without treatment. It creates a lot of problem for the aquatic life as well as for the nearby habitats. Many successful methods have been applied for the treatment of waste water. Waste water is needed to be treated through different techniques which enables it to make it potable and for multipurpose uses. Furthermore some biological treatments are also required for this. Biotechnology plays a vital role in reducing hazards of toxic materials and other harmful substances released during various mining processes. Micro-organisms have several uses in the environment in controlling water pollution and in the treatment of toxic wastes present in waste water coming from coal based industries. In mining industries microbes are used to leach metals from mine dumps and treat liquid and solid wastes. Hence this will be the most effective methods of treatment of waste water generated from different coal based industries and it will also provide a platform for sustainable development and an eco-friendly approach for the human kind. The present paper highlights on the different wastes generated by coal based industries and on their treatment through different methods and technologies used in coal mining.

  53. Bindhu, K. B.

    A protocol was standardized for the rapid propagation Kaempferia galanga using rhizome. The medium used was MS medium with auxin (IAA, IBA) and cytokinin (BA). Of these maximum shoots were produced when cultured with MS medium containing 1.0mg/l BA and 0.1mg/l IAA. Maximum shoots were produced by sub culturing in two weeks of sub culturing in the same medium. Regenerated plants were acclimatized and established on soil with eighty five percent success.

  54. Ajith Kumar, K. G., Sunil Kesavadeth, G., Pratheepkumar, V., Bindumole, V.R. and Aswathy, P. J.

    Eucalyptus tereticornis is a fast-growing, hardwood species commercially planted as a source of paper pulp and timber. The species has been introduced in India to meet the ever increasing demand for paper pulp and the species shows excellent adaptability in the Indian soils. There is large amount of variability exists in the species but only a few efforts have been made to assess the genetic divergence of this species using physiological parameters. The present study was undertaken to assess the genetic divergence, heritability and genotype clustering of thirty eight clones of Eucalyptus tereticornisin order to cluster elite clones for future hybridization programmes and to sort out inferior clones which need further genetic improvement. The results showed that significant differences in net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (E), intrinsic wue, instantaneous wue, intrinsic carboxylation efficiency and intrinsic mesophyll efficiency. All the selected parameters showed good heritability values. PCA showed that intrinsic carboxylation efficiency contributed maximum to the genetic divergence followed by intrinsic mesophyll efficiency. D2 analysis revealed seven clusters of which cluster II and III had elite clones while inferior clones in other clusters. The cluster analysis would definitely help the tree breeders for the selection of genetically divergent parents in order to achieve heterosis in hybrids.

  55. Emely J. Escala, John Carlo L. Abada, Rogie S. Baticados, Aladino A. Bermejo Jr. and Fatima Zamora

    Acidification of diets with organic acids found to decrease the colonization of gut microflora resulting to increase in feed consumption and weight gain of the animal thus, the search for alternative growth promotants with organic acids for poultry is on-going. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of kamias fruit extract as supplement to the drinking water to enhance the growth performance of broiler. It was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with 20% KFE in 80% drinking water, 40% KFE in 60% drinking water, and 60% KFE in 40% drinking water. Results showed that dilution of KFE lowered the pH in the drinking water of broiler. Inclusion of KFE in the drinking water promoted significant increase in average feed consumption of the basal diet and average weight gain of broiler.

  56. Hussein Mouawiya

    The molecular genetic analysis of microdissected cells by laser, a method for selecting a starting material of pure DNA or RNA uncontaminated. Our study focuses on technical pre-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) for the amplification of DNA from a single cell (leukocyte) isolated from human blood after laser microdissection and aims to optimize the yield of DNA extracted of this cell to be amplified without errors and provide reliable genetic analyzes. This study has allowed us to reduce the duration of cell lysis in order to perform the step of expanding genomic PEP (primer extension preamplification) directly after lysis the same day and the quality of genomic amplification and eliminate purification step of the product PEP, step with a risk of contamination and risk of loss of genetic material related to manipulation. This approach has shown that the combination of at least 3 STR (short tandem repeat) markers for genetic analysis of single cell improves the efficiency and accuracy of PCR and minimizes the loss of allele (allele drop out; ADO). This protocol can be applied to large scale and an effective means suitable for genetic testing for molecular diagnostic from isolated single cell (cancerous - fetal).

  57. Uma Bharathi, H., Lakshmi Kalpana, V. and Sudhakar G.

    Back ground: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory, autoimmune disease that causes pain, joint stiffness especially in the morning and loss of function. Although there are many forms of arthritis, of those commonly known, rheumatoid arthritis is the most serious and the second most common (after osteoarthritis). It can occur at any age but is more common in persons over the age of 30 years and affects women more often than men. It currently effects about 1-2% people worldwide. In India the prevalence of RA is approximately 0.75 - 1%. Very few studies have been focused on risk factors of RA in Andhra Pradesh therefore the aim of the present study was to find out the genetic and non-genetic factors responsible for the occurrence of rheumatoid arthritis in Andhra Pradesh. Methods: The study includes 125 RA patients and 110 normal age and sex matched individuals as controls from Eluru, West Godavari district. The epidemiological data was taken from the study and control groups in a pre-designed questionnaire and analyzed by online free calculator (quantpsy.org.). Results: In the present study age, gender, occupation, economic status, area of living, food habits, smoking, tobacco chewing, alcohol consumption, family history, height and weight shows association with RA, whereas community, religion, education, age of onset, symptoms, other abnormalities, treatment type, Body Mass Index (BMI), physical condition, ABO blood groups and Rh blood groups does not shows any association with RA. Conclusions: To conclude with, the results of the present study were in agreement with the literature in the field.

  58. Anusuya Devi, P. and Padmavathy, P.

    Ocean acidification is roughly emerged as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. Average global surface ocean pH has already fallen from a pre-industrial value of 8.2 to 8.1, corresponding to an increase in acidity of about 30%. Values of 7.8–7.9 are expected by 2100, representing a doubling of acidity. The ocean has absorbed between 24 and 34% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions during the past 5 decades. The massive input of CO2 generates sweeping changes in the chemistry of seawater, especially on the carbonate system. Acidification alters seawater chemical speciation and biogeochemical cycles of many elements and compounds. One well-known effect is the lowering of calcium carbonate saturation states, which impacts shell-forming marine organisms from plankton to benthic molluscs, echinoderms, and corals. Decreases in the availability of carbonate ions force marine organisms to spend more energy building and maintaining their shells or skeletons. For some organisms, spending more energy on shell formation may leave less en¬ergy for other biological processes like growing, reproducing or responding to other stresses. Many shell-forming marine organisms are very sensi¬tive to changes in pH and carbonate ion concentrations; conditions predicted for the coming decades may prove very stressful to these calcifying organisms. Corals, bivalves (such as oysters, clams, and mussels), pteropods (free-swimming snails) and certain phytoplankton species fall into this group. The biological impacts of ocean acidification will vary, because dif¬ferent groups of marine organisms have a wide range of sensitivities to changing seawater chemistry. Impacts from ocean acidification at any life stage can reduce the ability of a population to grow or to recover from losses due to disturbance or stress. Therefore ocean acidification will also impact various economic sectors (eg: fisheries, aquaculture, tourism and coastal communities) and may also have heavy indirect effects on much broader segment of the world economy and production. Ocean acidification represents yet another stress on marine environments that may endanger the flow of goods and services to marine-dependent communities. The atmospheric CO2 can be controlled by avoiding anthropogenic activities such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation. The mitigation approach for ocean acidification includes addition of lime and iron fertilization which could neutralize the acidity and increase the ocean productivity.

  59. Dr. Angsuman Chanda

    Burkenroad (1934) created two subgenus of the genus Trachypenaeus Alcock, 1901 viz., Trachypenaeus (Trachypenaeus) and Trachypenaeus (Trachysalambria). These two subgenus were raised to the status of genus by Pérez Farfante and Kensley (1997). The genus Trachypenaeus , s. s. was further divided into two genus namely Megokris and Rimapenaeus by Perez-Farfante and Kensley (1997). Therefore, the original Trachypenaeus Alcock, 1901is now divided into four established genus such as Trachypenaeus Alcock, 1901, Trachysalambria Burkenroad, 1934, Megokris, Pérez Farfante and Kensley, 1997 and Rimapenaeus, Pérez Farfante and Kensley (1997). Indian water represents two species under genus Megokris, Pérez Farfante and Kensley, 1997. Present study is an attempt to up-to-date the taxonomic status of the species recorded from Indian water under genus Megokris, Pérez Farfante and Kensley, 1997.

  60. Rajesh Kumar Munaganti, Vijayalakshmi Muvva, Krishna Naragani and Hima Bindhu, B. S. S. N.

    A study has been undertaken to optimize the production of antimicrobial metabolites by Rhodococcus erythropolis VL-RK_05 isolated from Mango orchards of Krishna District region by using basal medium as yeast extract malt extract dextrose medium. Five-day old culture showed maximum antimicrobial metabolite production when grown at pH 7.0 and temperature 30oC. The productivity of the strain was enhanced by amending the medium with sucrose and tryptophan each at a concentration of 1% (w/v) and 0.05% K2HPO4. The antimicrobial metabolites produced under optimized conditions exhibited broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against different Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  61. Galina Mepharishvili, Soso Mepharishvili, Nani Apciauri, Lia Koiava and Nana Jabnidze

    Maize is viewed as a productive crop in Georgia. Assessment of genotypes of maize showed that introduced hybrids maize were significantly more productive than the local varieties commonly grown in Georgia. Improvements in yield over local varieties were generally between 15-25%. However, all hybrids were susceptible to Exserohilum. turcicum, and yield gains were greatest when fungicide was applied.

  62. Subhash B. Pawar and Ashok M. Chavan

    An attempt has been made to identify and study the impact of environmental factors i.e. natural calamities on the onions crop. Severe storms with high winds, hail, rain, and under unprecedented hail storms and unseasonal rainfall. Hailstorms at the end of December 2014 injured onion (Allium cepa L.) late kharif crop as well as rabi onion nursery. The kharif onion ready for harvest was affected by 30-40%. Late kharif which was planted in September-October got affected by 15-20% and rabi nursery damaged by 20-25%. The hailstorm strokes showing optimum climate which caused damage to the onion crop in different stages. At that stages damage caused by the different fungi like, Alternaria porri, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Stemphylium vesicarium,, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp, Rhizopus stolonifer was found to be severe.

  63. Keithellakpam Ojit Singh, Oinam Avijeet Singh, Gunapati Oinam, Thingujam Indrama and Onkar Nath Tiwari

    Loktak Lake, the largest fresh water lake of North-east India supports a significant population of several species of flora and fauna. In the present study, a survey was conducted to know the cyanobacterial diversity of the lake. A total number of ninety (90) cyanobacterial species belonging to 11 genera were recorded from this wetland. Out of 90 species, 16 were in summer season, 21 in rainy season and 53 in winter season. The number of cyanobacterial strains was more in winter than in summer and rainy seasons. Heterocystous forms showed more frequency of occurrence than non-heterocystous forms. Out of the different habitats, hydrophytes (phumdis) were found to be supporting maximum number of cyanobacterial species whereas waterlogged soil supported the least. Majority of the dominant genera (heterocystous filamentous forms) were observed in winter and summer season. The highest cyanobacterial diversity, Shannon index (H’) was observed for Nostoc (H’=2.16) and the lowest for Limnothrix (H’=0.86). Highest species dominance (Simpson’s index, 1-D) was showed by Nostoc, 0.89 and the lowest found in Limnothrix, 0.5. The diversity of cyanobacteria in the Loktak Lake has not been studied except for a few sporadic reports. The study revealed that the Loktak Lake and its surroundings provide a suitable for diverse groups of cyanobacteria.

  64. Gayathri, V. and Anusuya, S.

    An experiment was conducted to study the influence of farm yard (FYM), chemical fertilizer (DAP), organic manure (neem cake) and leaf extract (Ocimum basilicum) on the growth and biochemical parameters of paddy (Oryza sativa L. var. IR 20). The paddy seeds soaked in water were transferred to petriplates containing cotton and filter paper. The germination was 100% in the plates. After transfer into pots, the growth of the seedlings was observed. The growth was evaluated on 30th and 45th day. The root length and shoot length were significantly higher in T3 and T4 on 30th day and 45th day respectively. The fresh and dry weight of the seedlings showed a significant increase in T4 plants on both 30th and 45th day.

  65. Janaki, S. and Mrs. Yamuna Devi, P.

    Moringa seed oil is a well-known oil for its physicochemical properties and so used in many industrial applications. Now, the functional properties of moringa oil made it has a good edible oil. The moringa oil extracted by traditional cold press method was a pale yellow colour liquid oil at room temperature with palatability and a nutty flavour. According to literature, it has natural antioxidant which keep it stable for many years. Hence the present study was designed in curiosity to analyse moringa oil prepared potato recipes both shallow fry and deep fry for microbial load, which was compared with olive oil, due to its similarity in property and with sunflower oil, which was most preferred cooking oil in Chennai city.

  66. Janaki, S. and 2Yamuna Devi, P.

    Due to diminishing resource of oil seeds and with increasing demand for oil in domestic and industrial applications, there is need for research to find out another resource of oil. Also, there is greater demand for healthy cooking oil for the community. Hence the present study was conducted to depict the oil content of moringa seed, which was a common and easily available resource in developing countries in Asia and Africa. The natural attributes of any oil is presented in the traditional extracted method and so, the oil extraction method decided to be cold press.

  67. Nagarkar Snehal, Pathak Suniti and Deshpande Neelima

    Background: Hospital acquired infections and wound infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The problem is complicated due to the sustained appearance of newer antibiotic resistant strains resulting in higher mortality rates. Herbal medicine offers a promising alternative to treatment of wound infections. The methanolic extracts of Triphala and its components are assessed for their antibacterial activity against antibiotic resistant pathogens, MRSA and VRSA. Material and Methods: Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of Triphala, amla, hirada and behada was tested against multidrug resistant bacterial wound pathogens isolated from pus samples. The eleven selected strains, MSSA, MRSA (confirmed by presence of mec A gene) and VRSA (based on MIC of Vancomycin) were used for testing antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Results: Methanolic extract of Triphala showed antibacterial activity against MSSA and all ten hospital isolates of MRSA and VRSA. Significantly, all VRSA isolates were also susceptible to methanolic extracts of individual components of Triphala- amla, behada and hirada. Out of the three individual components of Triphala, hirada showed maximum inhibition against one of the MRSA isolate. Conclusion: Methanolic extracts Triphala and its individual components contain active constituents which show potent antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus- MRSA and VRSA.

  68. Bharathiraja, S. and Ebanasar, J.

    This study focused upon the seasonal variation of physico-chemical parameters in Rockfort Thayumanavar temple pond, Samayapuram Mariaman temple pond, Gunaseelam Prasanna vengadajalapathy temple pond and Vayalur Murugan temple pond water. Water quality is assessed during September 2012 – September 2013 using standard procedures. Water samples were assessed by analyzing various physico-chemical parameters such Turbidity, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Tolal alkalinity, Magnesium, Chloride and Fluoride of the temple ponds water in Tiruchirappalli district. The highest value of the physic-chemical characteristics such as (EC – 2230 μmhos/cm, TDS – 1561mg/l, CaCO3 – 516, Mg – 48 mg/l, Cl – 380 mg/l) present in Rockfort temple pond. The lowest value of EC – 515 μmhos/cm, TDS – 361mg/l, Cl – 64 mg/l present in Gunaseelam temple pond and CaCO3 – 116, Mg –3mg/l present in Vayalur Murugan temple pond. There is no change in fluoride value (0.2mg/l) in every month of all the four temple ponds during the study period. Thus the present study reveals that the water of the temple ponds can be polluted moderately and unfit for human consumption. It needs sufficient treatment and management.antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus- MRSA and VRSA.

  69. Ismailova Larissa Yusifovna and Kosikov Sergey Vladimirovich

    Applicative approach for a getting means for a computer-aided conceptual visualization is presented. We use a term “conceptual visualization” for conceptual information which is intended for a visual graphical representation of data in a form of structured and unstructured descriptions of a domain objects and their relations. An analysis of wide classes of computer-aided tools for such conceptual information processing is given. The constructed model provides extensibility of modeling tools which is reached due to support of computational character of the model. Extensibility provides possibility of an introduction of schemes of typification of objects. They allow getting formalism for a description of data domain. A set of basic combinators representing basis units for creation tools for conceptual data processing may be so offered. An applicative character of the offered computational model allows to have a method of its further implementation by using applicative tools.

  70. Anu Paul and 2Varghese Paul

    Globally, e-Government (eGovt) Developments (EGD) of countries are still progressing. The developing countries like India with very large population and distributed administrative structure, has many challenges towards this progression. There are tremendous endeavors carried out by Government of India. The eGovt aims single-window e-services to its stakeholders and the countries are enduring efforts for this, India is in the formative stage. This paper explored the EGD scenario in India and benchmarked with the best performers and other similar countries based on EGD surveys carried out by the United Nations during 2003 to 2014. There are incredible efforts in India despite they faced many constraints than other similar developing countries, still India has low indices. The study analyzed the grounds for this squatter. This attempt helped to find the lacking of amenities in the e-Government system of India. The results benefits for the strategy development aimed at further developments towards interoperability and integration issues.

  71. Mandar J. Pawari and Sagar M. Gawande

    Water is one of the vital needs of all living beings. Humans need water in many daily activities like drinking, washing, bathing, cooking etc. If the quality of water is not good then it becomes unfit for drinking and other activities. Present work is analysis of ground water pollution in hadapsar region. This area has got many open wells which are connected by ground water table of surrounding area. As the water is used for drinking and irrigation purposes, it becomes essential to find the suitability of these open wells for drinking and irrigation purpose. In current work Open wells from study area were Selected and tested for various parameters. The hydro chemical analysis has been done by using piper diagram for both the seasons, i.e. pre and post monsoon. The groundwater quality is tested based on Sodium percent, Sodium Absorption Ratio and Residual Sodium Carbonate & suitability of water for irrigation purpose is examined. Thus from the overall analysis some suggestions & remedial measures are provided in the paper for the same.

  72. EdidiongOkon, HabibaShehu, Mohammed Kajama and Edward Gobina

    Ethyl lactate has played a major role in daily living and chemical industry including fragrance, lubricant, additives and plasticizers. The esterification process of lactic acid and ethanol is an equilibrium limiting reaction. The selective removal of the products from the reaction mixture can be enhanced using a membrane. This work presents the carrier gas permeation behaviour with silica membrane for ethyl lactate separation and VOC applications. The experiment was carried out at the gauge pressure of 0.10 – 1.00 bar and 100 oC (373 K). Helium (He), argon (Ar), nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were used as the carrier gases. The membrane dip-coating process was carried out twice. The carrier gas flow rate was found to increase with increase in gauge pressure. The order of the gas molecular weight with respect to the gas permeance at 0.5 bar was He >Ar> N2> CO2. The gas permeance was found to decrease with respect to gauge pressure confirming the mass transfer limitations. The order of the gas permeance with respect to gauge pressure was He > N2>Ar> CO2.

  73. Kalbande, A.G. and Choudhari, P.S.

    In the last two decades, many efficient algorithms and architectures have been introduced for the design of low complexity bit-parallel multiple constant multiplications (MCM) operation which dominates the complexity of many digital signal processing systems. On the other hand, little attention has been given to the digit-serial MCM design that offers alternative low complexity MCM operations albeit at the cost of an increased delay. In this paper the design of a digital-serial N tap FIR filter with programmable coefficients is presented. The design considers the general case of W-bit sample word and M-bit coefficient word. The processing of the data within the filter takes place with full precision. The output data is truncated to W bits. also in this paper we address the problem of optimizing the gate-level area in digit-serial MCM designs and introduce high level synthesis algorithms, design architectures, and a computer aided design tool.

  74. HabibaShehu, EdidiongOkon, Mohammed Kajama, NgoziNwogu, IfyOrakwe and Edward Gobina

    Gaseous hydrocarbons that are prevalent under increased pressure include solute ion gases that are found in oil reservoirs. These hydrocarbon gases are usually conserved but in some cases exploration are considered uneconomical and thus they are flared. The impact of flaring on the environment cannot be over emphasised and therefore to increase the capacity for transporting a higher volume rather than flaring, an efficient separation of the gases is essential. Although the composition of natural gas varies extensively from one gas field to another, the major component of natural gas is methane with inert gases and carbon dioxide. Hence, all natural gas must undergo some treatment with about 20% of total reserves requiring extensive treatment before transportation via pipelines. There is on-going research on the use of composite mesoporous membranes to separate gaseous mixtures hence making it one of the emerging technologies that is growing fast. The question is can a zeolite membrane have a transport mechanism that will be highly selective for methane and be used for the treatment of natural gas? A methodology based on the use of dip-coated Y-type zeolite membrane was developed. Nitrogen physisorption measurements were carried out which showed the hysteresis isotherm of the membrane corresponding to type IV and V that is indicative of a mesoporous membrane. The surface area and the pore size was determined using the Barrett, Joyner, Halenda (BJH) desorption method. Single gas permeation test using a membrane reactor was carried out at the ambient temperature of 298 K and a pressure range of 0.01 to 0.1 MPa. The permeance of CH4 was in the range of 1.44 x 10-6 to 3.41 x 10 -6 mols-1m-2Pa-1 and a maximum CH4/CO2 selectivity of 2.04 at 293 K and 0.2 MPa.The results obtained have shown that it is possible to use a zeolite membrane to selectively remove carbon dioxide from methane to produce pipeline quality natural gas. There is a need for further study of the ambient conditions needed to achieve capillary condensation through the membrane as this is essential for the separation of other hydrocarbons that could be present as impurities.

  75. Sudharshan, K. and Prof. Sudhakar, K.

    Kyoto Protocol, after which the CO2 Sequestration (one of the CDM methods) that has been identified as valid Necessity for all growing Nations. The GDP grows through Industrial/ Technological Exploitations. Here the evaluation Terrestrial methods of CO2 sequestration by Solar Energy utilization in Bio-Algae growth, which in turn fixes the CO2 in various form such as less Emissive Bio-fuels. And the Yield of Biomass that fixes the Carbon is varying by the variation of the light energy incident on the algal culture.

  76. Anierudh, V.

    This paper suggests a new design of the crankshaft system that would help to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle as it will enable the usage of a low revving engine for applications requiring the use of a high revving engine operating at the same power by converting the extra or unnecessary torque obtained from a low revving engine into angular velocity of the crankshaft of the engine. This paper also shows how the proposed design will improve the fuel economy of the vehicle. This will be achieved by changing the design of the crankweb in such a way that it functions both as a counterweight as well as a helical gear and incorporating another gear shaft in the crankshaft system which will be operating at an overdrive ratio. This paper also analyses the proposed crankshaft design for safety against fatigue failure in accordance to the guidelines given by Germanischer Lloyd. Finite element analysis of the crankshaft has been done using ANSYS 14.0 and the resultant stresses have been tabulated.

  77. Abdulrahman, A. S. and Haruna, V. N.

    This paper focused on the effects of ESP loading on the properties and microstructure of RLDPE and ESP composite. Polymer composite samples were fabricated by compounding the composites using two roll mill and compressing them in the mould using hydraulic press. 5 to 25 wt% ESP of size 75µm were added at intervals of 5 wt% to the polymer as reinforcement. The results showed that the tensile strength increases to a maximum value of 19.43 MPa at 10 wt% ESP; the Young’s modulus has a maximum value of 100 MPa at 20 wt% filler content; The density of the composite increases with increase in filler loading while the water absorption rate increases with time of exposure and the flame propagation rate decreases with increase in filler content. Hence the achieved composite will be relevant in civil, electronics and automobile industries.

  78. Tamilselvi, B., Savitha Karpagam, S. and Dr. Sundarambal, M.

    Watermarking is a technique to embed extra information into the content directly. Digital watermarking is embedding various information in digital content which are to be protected from illegal copying. Digital watermarking finds applications like fingerprinting, owner identification apart from the copyright protection. To embed the data into an image both SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) and DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) have been used. In this research, a new robust watermarking scheme is proposed based on the Transform domain techniques of DCT and SVD. The DCT coefficients are mapped in a zigzag order into four quadrants after applying the DCT to original image, and SVD is applied to each quadrant. By modifying the singular value of Discrete Cosine Transformed host image then the watermark is embedded, subsequently it is modified in each area with the G quantizing value using Particle Swarm Optimization to increase the robustness and the visual quality. Watermark extraction is performed by the inversion of watermark embedding process. Experimental result is to illustrate that the proposed work able to withstand a imperceptibility as well as variety of image processing attacks.

  79. Eusèbe Agoua, Clément Ahouannou, Elisabeth Allognon-Houessou, Alexis Medehouenou and Aimé Audran Koupkemedji

    The present work gives the current situation of the methods developed to measure the thermal conductivity of building materials used in Benin, country of Western Africa. Modus operandi, basic theories and experimental results of the case of cement mortar were explicitly reminded. The thermal conductivity of the cement mortar is obtained on average at the value of 1.15Wm-1K-1. Then, the study focused on the influence of the simultaneous heat and mass transfer on these measures. Indeed, the methods of measurements participate, during their implementation, to a discrete but real drying of the material. To go further, a model of answer to one level perturbation was then proposed and has predicted the value of thermal conductivity of the cement mortar about 0,799Wm-1K-1.Therefore the double transport of heat and mass during the measurement of the thermal conductivity has an important influence about 30 %. The final analysis of this paper has justified relationships between properties and performance of materials.

  80. Mr. Dhanorkar, A. D. and Mr. Choudhary, P. S.

    Many developers have intended their models in binary and quaternary logic using 0.18µm CMOS technology. In Binary logic, circuit has limitations of increase interconnections giving rise to complexities and their by impact on size. Some authors concentrated on put back in place of binary logic with MVL or quaternary logic to prevail over the limitation of size. Second is that for half and full adder (for addition/ arithmetic operations) the quaternary logic method required the conversion of quaternary logic level into binary level for implementation. Our aim is to intend and develop MVL or quaternary logic for full adder without converting these levels to binary logic. It will reduce the one additional step and improve the performance offer less chip size, saving more power. MVL or quaternary logic can be implemented in three different modes. From that mode, voltage mode type model is beneficial to design and give high performance with less dynamic power dissipation. The design is targeted for the 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Design tool for simulation will be ADS [ADVANCED DESIGN SYSTEM] software. We will estimate area, power and delay of the design HAq / FAq without any need of conversion, and compare to existing binary circuits [HAb / FAb].

  81. Deshmukh Deepika, D. Satya Bhavani , D. Ashritha and D. Hemanth Kumar Reddy

    The class imbalance problem emerged strong as it extended more into real domains. A dataset is said to be imbalanced if the classification categories are not approximately equally represented. Accuracy, which is considered as the major performance measure of classifier is not appropriate for imbalanced datasets as the cost of errors vary markedly. This paper proposes an efficient oversampling technique based on SMOTE (Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique) which is used for generating synthetic samples in the process of balancing the dataset along with an editing technique for efficient feature extraction based on Rough Set Theory. Performance measures which are more appropriate for imbalanced datasets such as ROC curves and cost curves are considered along with accuracy.

  82. Shraddha Shantinath Kavathekar and Shamala R. Mahadik

    Glaucoma is a chronic eye disease in which the optic disc becomes progressively cupped, as axons die off. Curiously, this is the only optic nerve disorder in which severe cupping takes place. Vision loss takes place due to progression of the disease. Very few signs or symptoms are present in progression of disease and the vision loss from glaucoma is irreversible. Detecting the disease in time is important, as it cannot be cured. Current tests using intraocular pressure (IOP) are not sensitive enough for population based glaucoma screening. A more promising and superior method for glaucoma detection than other current methods is Optic nerve head assessment in retinal fundus images. Optic nerve head assessment can be done by a trained professional. However, manual assessment is subjective, time consuming and expensive. Therefore, automatic optic nerve head assessment would be very beneficial.

  83. Ms. Shirisha, K., Sarika, P. and Sushmitha, M.

    Personalized web search (PWS) has improved various search services on internet. Now a days, as the reluctance of the users has been increased to hide their private information while searching. This has become the major problem for the wide proliferation of PWS. Here, we study how to protect PWS applications, so that user preferences can model as hierarchical user profiles. In this we are proposing a PWS framework known as UPS which can generalize user profiles by using queries with some privacy requirements. During run time generalization, it aims a balance between two predictive metrics which evaluate the use of personalization and privacy risk ij exposing their generalized profile. In run time generalization, we are presenting two greedy algorithms, Greedy DP and GreedyIL. Moreover, we are using an online prediction mechanism to decide whether personalizing a query is beneficial or not. This results the GreedyIL significantly outperforms GreedyDP in terms of efficiency.

  84. Jacob P. Muhondwa, Marion Martienssen and Marko Burkhardt

    Nutrient recovery through composting of biowaste stands for many years as promising strategy for replenishing nutrients to barren lands and soil conditioner. Unfortunate, microbiological safety of the resulting compost has been of great concern owing to higher pathogens contamination levels in the biowaste. This study aimed at investigating performance of In-vessel composting technology (ICT) at providing complete inactivation of pathogens from biowaste with higher moisture content. E. coli and S. senftenberg were spiked on Potato peels waste (PPW) having 77.1% moisture to simulate contamination in biowaste. Five sample formulations: 1:0, 1:1, 3:2, 7:3 and 0:1 (PPW: Compost soil) were aerobically composted at laboratory scale based on ICT. Except for moisture, other physicochemical attributes in PPW were within acceptable composting ranges. The moisture content in the peels turned composting process anaerobic, hampered the composting process and discharged more leachate in composting vessels which affected both temperature-time patterns and pathogens hygienization in the finished compost. Air drying of PPW for 36hrs reduced moisture to 67.7%. This improved temperature-time pattern from 48˚C for 2hrs to 59.2˚C for 4days in 3:2 formulations thus confirming moisture as critical factor.

  85. Gunjan Shukla

    There has been a lot of work on dual, triple and quadruple series equations involving different polynomials. Due to the importance of these series equations in finding the solutions of various mixed boundary value problems of elasticity, electrostatics and other fields of mathematical physics, a number of researchers took interest in finding the series solution as well as developing and investigating new classes of series equations. There was almost no research work on five series equations until Dwivedi and Pandey taken it into consideration. They solved certain five series equations involving generalized Bateman K-functions, series of Jacobi and Laguerre and the product of ‘r’ generalized Bateman K-function. In the subsequent years Dwivedi and singh [5, 6], Dwivedi and Chandel [1], obtained the solution of five series equations involving generalized Bateman K-function and Jacobi polynomials respectively. In the present paper, we have considered five series equations involving series of Jacobi polynomials, which are extensions of quadruple series and untouched till date.

  86. Gunjal Shrikant Uttam, Gaurav Dinkar Sonawane, Ashok Dharmaraj More, 4Bhushan Jivan Vispute

    Machining is a major part of metal working that plays an important role in metal cutting and forming. In machining, the machine tools especially cutting tools play an important role in effective metal cutting. This is because of their roles in producing different shapes and forms. The importance of machining in modern automated manufacturing systems has, in fact, increased due to the significant increase in the production time and the need to offset the high capital investment. The need for improving the technological performance of machining operations, as assessed by the cutting temperature, cutting force, tool life and surface finish has long been recognized, to increase the economic performance of the machining operations.

  87. Dharmesh M. Patel, Ashishgoud Purushotham and Usha Rani, G.

    Recently multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is very popular in long term evolution (LTE) plan. Advancement is done in GPRS and UMTS technology at physical layer by introduction of multiple antennas at either receiver or transmitter. This has increased the reliability of the link to great extent compared to conventional coding techniques. This paper discusses and compares methods related to different combinations of MIMO. Comparison has been done among the system having one transmit and multiple receive antennas and one receive and multiple transmit antennas. It is found that multiple antennas provide diversity gain and as the number of antennas increases either in transmitter or in receiver side, it provides diversity gain. This greatly improves the performance of wireless communication channel in Rayleigh faded environment.

  88. Nico P Swartz and Odirile Otto Itumeleng

    The doctrine of vicarious liability has reached its pinnacle during the 19th century at the clarion call of economic and technological advances. During this time span, the English model for testing vicarious liability on the conduct of theftuousemployees, was the so-called “close connection” test. The latter test suggests that where an action is closely connected with an employee’s duties, an employer can be found vicariously liable. South Africa, influenced by the English laws of tort, jettisoned its own test, the standard test in favour for the “close connection” test. The standard test for vicarious liability is expressed as whether the employee was acting in the course and scope of his or her employment at the time the delict was committed. The latter test, as adumbrated later in the text, makes the theftuousemployee the focal point for liability as per case law ABSA Bank v Bond Equipment, Ess Kay Electronics, Phoebus Apollo and Columbus Joint Venture. Such approach is not economically feasible. The impracticability of the standard test actuated the South African Courts and particularly the Constitutional Court to adopt and emulate the English “close connection” test. The Constitutional Court in addition to the close connection test, developed the principle of vicarious liability to be in sync with the fundamental constitutional rights of the citizens. By doing so, the Courts make the pendulum swinging against employers in favour of third parties - a dichotomy to the standard test. Examples of the decisions in which the “close connection” test reign superior are thecase laws of Gore, TFN Diamond Cutting Works and Greater Johannesburg Transitional Metropolitan Council. The Courts by following the “close connection” test have also been influenced by the fact that an employer is usually more able than an employee to satisfy claims and is in a better position to pass the burden of liability by way of insurance. Because of the similarity between the two tests, a transition would be seemed smooth. But, one can also conclude that although the acceptance of the close connection test, the South African law does not rule out an employer’s liability for wilful delicts of theftuousemployees committed in the course and scope of the latter’s employment.

  89. Prakasa Rao, D. S. and Mohammed Usman Darasa

    This article has explored and analyzed some of the key similarities and dissimilarities between Federal systems of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and India. In doing so, it found out that both Ethiopia and India are countries of diverse people with diverse culture, Religion, history way of life etc. Their respective constitutions are federal in character, which is compatible with societal nature of both countries- Indian as well as Ethiopian societies are essentially federal in character. By assuming that, countries like Ethiopia and India with vast diversities in terms of culture, language, religion, history, way of life etc cannot be administered and ruled from the single political centre. Keeping these factors in mind, the makers of the constitutions of India and Ethiopia rightly opted for Federal forms of governments. In spite of their out outstanding similarities, there are also differences between them. This article tried to compare and contrast some of the key principles of federalism under their respective constitutions. , it does not consider factual situations and only looks into or and descries the constitutional landscape. It covers, Inter alia; the principle of separation of power, supremacy of the constitution, the principle of check and balance, the principle of parliamentary system and parliamentary democracy, Judicial independency and judicial review adaption of federalism and accommodation of diversities, fundamental rights and freedoms, etc. In spite of substantial similarities, there are also dissimilarities or divergences’ between the Indian and Ethiopian Federal systems. The key dissimilarities include: Unitary tendencies of Indian Federalism, Judicial review etc. Courts are not given the power of judicial review in Ethiopia; rather this power is given to house of Federation. This is one of an innovative and home grown approach introduced and adapted by constitution of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Allocation of the powers to the presidents is another area of dissimilarities between Ethiopian and Indian Federalism. Unlike Ethiopian president of the state, Indian, president has three veto powers in the union legislative process which include that he/she can refuse to agree to a law, which would mean an absolute veto. He can also send the bill back to the parliament for changes, or he could take no action on the bill. In the case of Ethiopia, the president has no role in the law making process of the country. The writer of this article would argue that Ethiopia should draw lesson from India and amend its constitution so as give meaning for to the role of the president. Therefore, the country would have convincing reason to keep the Presidency.

  90. Ushie, E. M., 2Agba, A. M. D., Ingwe, R. and 4Igbaji, P. M.

    The quest for increased productivity at firm level up to (sub) national (city and regional scale and country) is a challenge that has attracted the interest of academics from multiple disciplines: from management to administration of publics in both private, governments, civil society and non-government, community and faith based organizations. The issues have been examined theoretically through prisms of the classical management administration propositions to the modern (human relations and human capital) perspectives. In addition to clarifying underlying concepts and factors considered as drivers of enhanced productivity in this article. We employ the descriptive case study method to empirically study the mentorship scenario in the University of Calabar, Faculty of Social Sciences’ journals published from the early 2000s to the early 2010s. Our findings show that there was neither a discernible trend indicating increase nor decrease of mentorship over the study period. However, mentorship of junior academics by their senior colleagues was poor throughout the study period with marked variation by years. Gross abdication of mentorship responsibility occurred in June 2009, coinciding with issuance of two issues of the faculty’s existing journal. Serious abdication of mentorship responsibility occurred in three episodes (June 2009, and January 2010 and 2002), respectively, very serious abdication of mentorship twice: 2012 and January 2005. Mentorship was not reflected in the publications of 2011 and 2004. The implications of the foregoing findings for policy in the studied University’s Faculty is that mentorship planning and management must be undertaken as an urgent and imperative strategy of imparting academic research skills, knowledge and experience for contributing towards enhancing productivity in the faculty, university wide and beyond – where similar failures are likely to be occurring.

  91. Rafiq Ahmad Hajam, Ghulam Mohmad Rather and Tasawoor Ahmad Kanth

    The present research work was an attempt to investigate the geo-ecology of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) deficiency diseases in the foot hill settlements of Pir Panjal range in Anantnag district of Kashmir valley. The study revealed that the diet of the people in the area is determined by their financial status which forces them to rely mostly on locally cultivated food items. More than 62.4% households comprising low (Rs. <5, 000 / month) and medium (Rs. 5, 000-10, 000 / month) income status households have inadequate income to afford proper food, health and other services. It was found that the Zn and Cu content in all the soil samples (Zn: 0.570-1.972 mg kg-1; Cu: 0.930-3.968 mg kg-1) are less than the average values in the world soils (Zn: 64 mg kg-1; Cu: 20 mg kg-1). The Zn and Cu content in drinking water sources (Zn: 0.016-0.217 mg L-1; Cu: 0.012-0.018 mg L-1) were found more than the average concentrations of Zn and Cu in world fresh water sources (Zn: 0.0006 mg L-1; Cu: 0.002 mg L-1) but less than required and acceptable limits (BIS: Zn: 5 mg L-1; Cu: 0.05 mg L-1). Study revealed that about 3.1 percent and 2.3 percent of the population in sample villages suffered from zinc and copper deficiency diseases respectively. These deficiency diseases can be attributed mainly to the deficiency of the Zn and Cu in soils and drinking waters (and hence food), high dependence on local foods (67.89%) and inappropriate cooking methods and lifestyle.

  92. Dr. JeelanBasha. V,

    The study used sample of public-sector sponsored & private- sector sponsored mutual funds of varied net assets to investigate the differences in characteristics of assets held, portfolio diversification, and variable effects of diversification on investment performance for the period May, 2002 to May,2005. The study found that public-sector sponsored funds do not differ significantly from private-sector sponsored funds in terms of mean returns%. However, there is a significant difference between public-sector sponsored mutual funds and private-sector sponsored mutual funds in terms of average standard deviation, average variance and average coefficient of variation(COV).The study also found that there is a statistical difference between sponsorship classes in terms of e SDAR(excess standard deviation adjusted returns)as a performance measure. When residual variance (RV) is used as the measure of mutual fund portfolio diversification characteristic, there is a statistical difference between public-sector sponsored mutual funds and private-sector sponsored mutual funds for the study period. The model built on testing the impact of diversification on fund performance and found a statistical difference among sponsorship classes when residual variance is used as a measure of portfolio diversification and excess standard deviation adjusted returns as a performance measure. RV, however, has a direct impact on Sharpe fund performance measure.

  93. Namrata Singh, Dr. Rajlaxmi Srivastava, Dr. Rajni Rastogi

    The banking sector is considered the backbone of an economy and the performance of the sector is a measure for the performance of the whole economy. Apart from the basic banking services now a day’s banks are also involved in the social services and these services are termed as Corporate Social responsibilities. All the Public and Private Banks have their own priority sectors for spending the CSR amount such as healthcare, disaster relief, financial literacy , education and vocational skills and many more are there. A new act has been made for the Corporate Social Responsibility under section 135 of the company’s act 2013. In this paper 19 banks are selected for the study. This paper mainly focuses on the key provisions of this act and giving emphasize on the actual spending on CSR by Banking Sector in financial year 2013-2014.The study also tries to cover the gap between public sector banks and private sector banks with respect to CSR spending.

  94. Nidhi Khandelwal

    The India operates one of the most complex and inefficient consumption tax regimes in the world. There are a number of taxes, including: • Indian VAT levied on goods separately by most of the 29 Indian states; • Indian Service Tax which is charged on services • CENVAT a VAT on the supply of goods charged by the central government • Professional Tax The taxes often overlap, resulting in double taxation, and impose a heavy administrative burden on taxable persons. There is also limited scope for the recovery of VAT, resulting in spiralling compound tax. It is estimated that the consolidated tax burden on the economy is over 30% compared to the OECD average of less than 20%.All of these factors act as a drag on the Indian economy – certainly costing the country 1% GDP growth per annum. There is also a narrow and unstable tax base with the current regime, which leads to unpredictable variations in government revenues. Other emerging countries have also introduced plans to reform their tax systems, and are much further down the line than India like Chinese VAT reform and Malaysia introduces GST.

  95. Pushpendra Kumar and 2Abha Gupta

    Despite being a signatory to Millennium Declaration which also aims to improve maternal and child health care, India’s performance remains unacceptably poor with large regional disparities. The wretched state of maternal and child health conditions in Jharkhand are blighting India’s hard earned efforts to combat high maternal and child death rate on global platform. This study aims to explore linkages of poor maternal and child health conditions from a regional perspective along with other socio-economic dimensions. Findings of the paper show that Dhanbad, Bokaro, Hazaribagh, East Singhbhum and Ranchi districts bask high utilization of maternal and child health care services compared to Pakur, Godda, Shahibganj, Giridhih, West Singhbhum districts which have high rural poverty and concentration of scheduled caste and tribe population. Logistic regression analysis highlights region, wealth, religion, caste, education as important covariates of full antenatal care, safe delivery, contraceptive use and child immunization.

  96. Dr. M. Venkata Rao and Dr. K. Kanaka Raju

    The main objectives of this paper is to examine the theoretical approaches of employment position during the financial crises period and also identify the employment position in different sectors of the industry in India. This paper also highlights the different schemes which are contributed by the Government of India along with the suitable suggestions to overcome the future constraints by the economic slowdown on employment. The data collected from the midterm appraisal of the eleventh five year plan with the title of the estimated job loss/gain (in lakhs) during three years of various industries or groups along with the plan of provisions of the various schemes. The SPSS 16.0 Version was used to derive the results. The paired sample correlation technique was applied to derive the results. The study found that the higher number of jobs lost in the textile industry during the financial crises period. The study also found that there was a significant difference between each other regarding various schemes which were implemented by the Government of India. The study also found that there was no significant association from job loss of one sector of industry and job loss of another sector of industry. It is suggested that there should be a formulation of skill development strategies and coordinated action by all concerned to meet the various challenges of skill development to meet the future uncertainty economic slow down. There should be a strategy regarding reducing mismatch between supply and demand of skills, diversifying skill development programmes, ensuring quality and relevance of training ,create an effective linkages between school education and skill development, provide a mobility between education and training, promote a Public Private Partnership model(PPP Model) in skill development, strengthening the physical and intellectual resources, mobilizing investments. The governance of a skill development system that promotes initiative, excellence, innovation, autonomy and participation.

  97. Ali Sayed, Tripura Amit, Kikhi Savinuo, Thungon, L. T., Deka, J. and Tripathi, O. P.

    This study was conducted in Sepahijala Wildlife Sanctuary, West Tripura, India to assess the plant diversity, community characteristics and population structure in buffer and core areas using random sampling procedures. Altogether 74 woody species were recorded from selected forests and revealed that species diversity and density increases with decrease in disturbance. Other community parameters such as basal cover and indices did not showed much variation among the stands. Forest canopy was composed mainly of Shorea robusta, Schima wallichii, Aporosa dioica. Majority (84% to 88%) of species showed low frequency making community heterogeneous. Basal cover was slightly higher (39.82 m2 ha-1) in disturbed forest than the undisturbed forest (37.54 m2 ha-1) in spite of low stand density. Greater proportion of contagiously distributed species made the community highly patchy in nature. Similarity between the stands was high mainly due to being part of same land cover. Diversity indices for woody species was higher in undisturbed forest than the disturbed forest areas, however, dominance index reveals the reverse trend to that of woody species. The overall population density of seedlings, saplings and adult trees formed a pyramidal structure indicated that the period between saplings to adult stage was critical stage in the life cycle, as the maximum mortality occurred during this period. Based on the results of the above study it can be concluded that forest degradation leads to reduction of forest areas, isolation of smaller patches, habitat loss and increased ground growth. Grazing and other anthropogenic activities in the forest areas should be restricted by the authority to check further degradation in the wildlife sanctuary.

  98. Rajendran, S. and Ramachandran, R.

    The December 2001 report of United Nations Commission on Macroeconomics and Health makes explicit connection between development (macroeconomics) and health. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic have emerged as a serious public health problem all over the world. While addressing the problem of HIV/AIDS among the economically productive and sexually active sections of population, specific emphasis needs to be given not only to high risk groups like commercial sex workers and injecting drug users, but also to general population like students, youth, migrant workers in urban and rural areas, women and children. Such target group needs to be given adequate care and proper counselling to bring them into mainstream population and present study is a moderate attempt towards this direction. The present study was undertaken in Sivakasi Government Public Hospital in Virudhunagar district with secondary data. The study is confined to Integrated Couselling and Testing Centre (ICTC) Services, covering a period from 2006 to March 2011. ICTC service centre has been functioning under the control of (Tamil Nadu State Aids Control Society) TNSACS. Of total screening cases for HIV/AIDS of 21014 cases and infected with HIV/AIDS were 338 cases from 2006 to 2011. Prevention strategies must continue to be given primary focus through awareness campaigns and conuselling facilities with local languages, which leads to behavioral change. Specific partners or migrant workers need specially packaged awareness progammes on the risk and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS.

  99. Murat Kurt, Aysel Temelli and elif Göksu

    This study, in our country purposed to analyse contextually thesis committed on multiple intelligence theory and to reveal general trends in this field. In the study has been done analysis of content of doctoral thesis committed between years 2000-2013. Scanned thesis database of general directorate of higher education institution (YOK); reached to total 46 thesis in database. For to analyse of thesis is used classification system developed by Ciltas, Guler and Sozbilir (2012). At the end of study has been detected that relative to multiple intelligence theory before year 2001 didn’ t do any study in doctoral field. After year 2003 number of thesis prepared in doctoral field increased and was determined that reached to the highest number in 2010. In the study detected that most of prepared thesis according to multiple intelligence theory so an education appeals to a lot of intelligence field academic success of student, the subsistence of learned knowledge and to search effects of attitudes towards the lesson. When analyse thesis from the point of working group detected that most studied groups are students. In committed thesis is used more often experimental research model, was determined that test and scales often preferred in data collection. More than 50% of thesis analysed used predictive analysis method taking part parametric statistical analysis and sample size ranged from 31-100. In conclusion, can be said that study remains limited with thesis published and allowed to Access in center of national thesis of general directorate of higher education institution. But even this limited study showed that will contribute big to teaching education based this theory contributed important to knowledge subsistence, attitude and student success in education. This study will help on subject to researchers who want to use multiple intelligence theory in which areas they have to be required necessity. Also will reveal in our country general trends of doctoral thesis committed with multiple intelligence theory.

  100. Joseph K. Kandie, Esther J. Chepkok and Kiptek Edward

    The purpose of the study was to determine the implications of gender streaming on the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education performance by students in Baringo County, Kenya. The study employed a descriptive survey design with a sample comprising 48 principals and 240 teachers. Data was collected using questionnaires and analysed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics. Based on the study, this paper discusses the factors that influence gender streaming on performance of Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) in Baringo County. The findings indicated that gender streaming influenced students’ performance in KCSE. The findings also revealed that there was no significant relationship between gender streaming and performance across all categories of schools. The findings further revealed that teachers had a positive perception towards gender streaming and students’ academic performance. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that much emphasis on girls’ education had improved their performance. It was also concluded that there was no significant relationship in gender streaming and performance in various categories of schools. Majority of the head teachers stated that the performance of girls, compared to boys, in mixed classes was better. Correlations for gender streaming and academic performance indicated a very strong positive relationship between gender streaming and student performance in secondary schools. The study also concluded that teachers had a positive perception towards the influence of gender streaming and students’ academic performance. The study recommended that the government, through the Minsitry of Education, should seek for ways to enhance secondary school administrators to improve students’ performance. Taking the limitations and delimitations of the study, it was suggested that a study on why the boy child lack of empowerment is consistent cause of poor performance among them should be carried out.

  101. Dr Mamta Mohan and KavitaTandon

    With rapid advancement being made in the technology, the cost of accessing Internet from remote corners is drastically coming down. This is a chief push factor for adopting Internet. Coupled with high levels of Internet literacy than ever before, a lot of retail transactions are happening over internet. Not to miss the fact that consumers can browse and compare the entire assortment with minimal effort, inconvenience or time investment. Also, internet provides a level of anonymity needed in purchase of certain sensitive items. This must translate into increased sales, however Indian shopper embraces shopping as a family activity and also looks for personalized attention when purchasing something tangible–which he wants to see, feel and try. This paper attempts to capture consumer psychographics of the online shoppers and the issues consumers face while shopping online.

  102. Natália Pinheiro Orti, Vivian Bonani de Souza Girotti and Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    The development of depression has been attributable to issues such as interpersonal difficulties and social skills deficits. The current study, developed as a single subject design, aimed at evaluating the effects of social skills training in group behavior therapy with depressed students, comparing the results obtained before and after the intervention and in a follow up, making use of validated instruments for depression and social skills. Among the main results are the remission of the depression diagnose and the increased frequency and diversity of social skills. The sessions’ analysis reaffirmed the importance of obtaining reinforcement concerning friendship, love and family relations. The most developed social skills were to express positive and negative feelings, asking for behavior change, dealing with criticism, defending ideas in disagreement situation and self-control of aggressiveness. The categorization of the therapists’ behavior showed high frequency of asking for contemplation, recommendation and establishing explicative relations. Such variables in the therapeutic process are discussed with regards to the results and suggestions for future researches are provided.

  103. Bisini, P. S. and Dr. Muhammedunni Alias Musthafa, M. N.

    The Changing nature of the society and reconstruction of youth aspirations and impact of technology makes teaching complicated today. It demands broad and heterogeneous knowledge of subject matter, curriculum and standards, enthusiasm, a caring attitude and love of learning, knowledge of discipline and classroom management techniques, a desire to make difference in the lives of young people etc. To attain all these qualities, teachers have to sustain professionalism .They must also need tolerance, healthy mind set up and positive attitude. When should they attain all these? They have to internalize these from their pre service training period itself. Do our prospective teachers have the right mind set up to become a great teacher? Even though so many traits are involved in good mental set up two traits rationality and tolerance for ambiguity are considered to be most important. These qualities regulate their behavior, thoughts and emotions and help them to pursue their most complicated job effectively. So the researchers were interested to know the level of rationality and ambiguity tolerance of our prospective teachers and conducted a study to examine these qualities. It is found out that our teacher trainees possess only an average level of rationality and ambiguity tolerance. It is also found that there was variation on these traits when cross compared with their optional subject of study. The result revealed there is a positive relationship between rationality and ambiguity tolerance of our prospective teachers. The study projected the need of mental health training programmes among teacher trainees.

  104. Dr. Manoj Kumar Gupta, Dr. C. P. Mishra and Ms Chandra Prabha

    This study was conducted to pinpoint the correlates of psychosocial status of adolescent girls adopting comprehensive scoring system of WHO’s ‘HEEADSSS’ approach. Psychosocial status of 400 rural adolescent girls of Varanasi District, India, who were selected by multistage sampling, was assessed by interviewing them with the help of predesigned schedule. For inferential decisions t-test and ANOVA were applied. In order to pinpoint precise correlates logistic regression analysis was done. Majority of the adolescent girls were at risk of developing psychosocial abnormalities, and nearly one out of ten were at severe risk. Several factors were found significant in univariate analysis. However, logistic regression identified subjects from SC (OR=3.520, CI=1.829-6.773) and other caste category (OR=3.493, CI=1.843-6.623), as well as joint family (OR=3.207, CI=1.330-7.728) at higher risk of psychosocial abnormality. Findings of this study calls for community based interventions directed to adolescents and their families having higher vulnerability for psychosocial abnormality.

  105. Robert Mizo

    Climate Change has emerged as an international problem warranting policy responses from all countries, rich or poor alike. Developing countries face the dual burden of securing ecological health and pursuing economic development. China as one of the leading developing economies today has instituted an elaborate climate change policy. Given China's predisposition towards economic growth and developmental concerns, this paper seeks to analyse the various factors that has helped in determining its climate policy. The paper argues that China's climate policy is not governed by ecological concerns alone. It is rather an array of economic and developmental concerns and opportunities that has provided the leadership with the incentive to initiate climate change policies.

  106. Marina Sabalberino-Apilado

    This study determined the strengths and challenges of non-instructional services offered to both graduate and undergraduate students. Three hundred twenty six (326) randomly selected students served as the representative samples of different academic programs of the university. Results revealed that most of the respondents seldom availed or utilized the different non-instructional services. The study proved that students got high satisfaction of most non-instructional services namely; scholarship, publication, guidance, socio-cultural, co curricular, academic advising, library, food and housing services. They too were moderately satisfied with the following non-instructional services: health, sports, internet and communication as well as tutoring services. Considered two extremely important student services were library and scholarship. Other non-instructional services were highly important to the respondents. This study discovered that all non-instructional services offered to students were considered challenges. A higher level of students’ satisfaction was posted in this recent evaluation. Students were highly satisfied with non instructional services provided by the school where they considered these to be highly important.

  107. Nurmahmud Ali, Sidharth Srivastava and Vikrant Kaushal

    Responsible tourism finds its trace back in the early seventy’s where it was contemplated as a solution to negative consequences of tourism. Destinations located in the lap of nature provide tourists a perfect escape from bustling cities and towns. It offers them a good break from mundane chaos of daily life. On the destinations’ front, tourism flourishes when visitors flock in their pristine surroundings. However, researchers, locals and environmentalists tend to gauge the impact of tourism in the sensitive areas. It is essential that the hedonic activities in the attraction region do not impact negatively due to the presence of tourists and usage of the destination facilities. The paper draws on responsible tourism to further understanding of the concept and related implications on destination image formation. The study can be further developed to associate with the tools to effective marketing of a destination and may have implications in destination planning.

  108. Hazarika, Purabi Bora, A. K. and Kakati, Bulen

    Flood has always been considered as the dominant natural hazard since long past, as most of the major river valleys of the world have the experience of high magnitude of floods. But recently, due to over population on the river valleys and various human activities including manipulation of river courses have caused this natural hazard to occur frequently and even with alarming magnitude. It has become a significant and common feature causing severe flood hazard in the monsoon regions like India. The North Eastern part of India is also being affected by monsoon floods. The Noa-Mangaldoi river basin located between 26021/ N to 26058/ N latitude and 91056/ E to 92005/ E longitude covering an area of 745 Km2 is a part of Brahmaputra system in N.E. India experiences monsoon floods which calls for due flood protection and management strategies. The dominant impact of flood is on the agricultural sector and economy. In view of the gravity of the flood problem in the basin the present study has been carried out covering assessment and development of probable strategies for flood hazard management. The aspects like flood occurrence pattern, flood causing factors, flood frequency and probability analysis and geo-environmental impacts of floods has been analysed and discussed in this paper with the help of both primary and secondary data.

  109. Sita Lama and Pravat Kumar Kuri

    Although Agriculture plays an important role in rural livelihood, agriculture on its own is increasingly unable to provide a sufficient means of survival in rural areas. Of late, there has been a built in bias in the choice of economic activities towards non-farm sectors. Livelihood diversification towards non-farm sector is associated with greater income opportunities and reduction in rural poverty. This paper has attempted to explore the nature and pattern of livelihood diversification in Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Based on a field survey in Darjeeling district of West Bengal, this paper intended to look at the degree of livelihood diversification and its impact on the extent of poverty and inequality of income distribution. Further, examined the determinants of employment diversification and explored the nexus between poverty, inequality and employment diversification in the district. Interestingly, the relationship between diversification index and the level of household per capita income depicted an inverse U-shaped curve indicating that at lower level of income, the diversification index increased with the level of income, reached maximum at medium level and then fell down as income increased further. The results also showed that there was a significant variation in average diversification across villages and among APL and BPL categories of households in the study area.

  110. Misbah Jahan and Dr. Mamta Mohan

    A culturally rich and vibrant country like India is renowned for its artistic impressions. Every little object that touches the magical hands of its master craftsmen becomes an object d’art. The handicrafts produced in the country are of such high quality and craftsmanship that they enjoy immense popularity across the globe. They adorn the living spaces of both the masses and the classes. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the Indian handicrafts sector, especially the handmade carpets. The importance of this sector, in terms of contribution to GDP and socio-economic development, cannot be overlooked. However, this sector faces its own set of challenges. This paper focuses on the scope, opportunities and challenges faced by this sector. To give a better understanding about handmade carpets, two case studies-Bhadohi Carpets and Jaipur Rugs-have been taken up in this paper.

  111. Dr. Ganapathy, S. and Mr. Maury Marie Emmanuel

    The history of Teacher Education (TE) in modern India is less than 200 years old. It is a very important sector today for the demand of state-wise and central requirement of teachers to meet through the sector of Teacher Education and (ii) in generating good employment opportunities for the youth. The method used for designing this article is a Survey. The objective is to find out the shortcomings which block the Teacher Education for its Professionalism. The shortcomings related to various issues are analyzed as follows: Lack of coordination between regulating bodies and its decentralization, real model schools, regular interaction of Teacher Educators with school environment, training of pupil teachers in teaching skills, teaching methods and evaluation practices, Absence of accounting between supply and demand of teachers and requirement of new institutions, Poor infrastructural facilities and human resources, Shortcomings in Evaluation of Pupil Teachers, Lack of professional associations of Teacher Educators with motto of professionalism, research base in Teacher Education and Teacher Educators with professional touch. The solution to the listed shortcomings is a real challenge before teacher educators. Nobody else except Teacher Educators can resolve these problems. The need is to reconstruct the system of Teacher Education for Professionalism.

  112. Caldeira, S. N., Silva, O., Mendes, M. and Botelho, S. P.

    Hazing practices in higher education institutions are perceived controversially. This study looked at the perception towards hazing practices of students from the University of the Azores in first cycle (n=247). It analyses if their perception was positive, emphasizing the integrative aspects of hazing practices, or if it was negative, inclining to define those practises like being violent and humiliating. The applied questionnaire measures 3 factors to define individual’s perception with hazing practices (positive relation with hazing practices, negative relation and the social dimension of the practices). This study used descriptive analyses to observe the level of agreement with hazing practices and non-parametrical statistical test to analyse the relationship between their levels of agreement with hazing practices and socio-demographic variables. Results emphasised balanced proportion of students perceiving positively and negatively those practices and incline to define hazing practices with the same components in both perceptions. It didnot highlight a strong mandatory integrative component in students’ perception. Also, results stressed a large part of students disinterested in hazing practices. Additionally factors of hazing practices’ perception showed significant relationships with respondent’s sex, age and academic degree. Hazing practices in this study did not seem to meet their main objectives of welcoming and integrating freshmen in higher education institutions.

  113. Ms Rekha, K. G.

    There are a number of labels to describe the young people currently studying at school, college and university. They include the digital natives, the net generation, the Google generation or the millenials. All of these terms are being used to highlight the significance and importance of new technologies within the lives of young people (Gibbons, 2007). The development of technology is the denominator which determines the growth of this generation. The revolutionary growth in technology happened in India after the 1980’s. But the actual strength of the technology was noticed only after 1990’s with adoption liberal and global economic conditions. The generation born at that time is privileged with various mass communication and technology gadgets and methods. The study aims to recognize a new generation emerging in the country with access to the world wide network from the beginning of their lives. It is necessary for the marketer to adapt to the changing market. There is a community which is connected to the world through internet and spends every woken time staying connected. This group is not online only for professional or educational purposes; they have a separate life through the networking communities. Every routine activity of daily life is affected by the digital world. The aim of the study is to identify the special characteristics of a digital native as a customer. The factors that influence the decision making of a person to select or not to select a product or service vary from person to person. The paper here is an effort to highlight the significant changes in the importance given by a person to factors influencing purchase decision if he is a digital native.

  114. Prof. Dr. Seema Mahant, Dr. C. M. Reddy, Miss Supriya Mahant Dr. Upasana Shobhane and Prof. Dr. P. D. Mahant

    This Forgotten Baby Syndrome (FBS) is a term refers to unintentionally leaving a baby or young child in a locked car, often with heartbreaking results. Every year, at least a dozen children die in overheated cars and that incidence increases day by day, somewhere 15 to 25 times a year in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that our stressful, busy lifestyles are causing more forgetfulness. The main reasons behind the FBS is car-safety rules, in that experts recommendation that child seats be moved to the back of the car, so most parents now put their children in the backseat, with babies facing the rear, means that parents may not interact with their children during a car ride and that they may not even be able to see their children. Children left in a MV for even short time periods in moderate ambient temperatures (210C) are at risk for hyperthermia. The greatest increase in temperature happens in the first ten minutes. Many studies have shown that there can be up to 55% rise in temperature in the first five minutes and up to 90% rise in temperature in the 15 minutes even if the car windows are partially open. Excessive heat (usually temperature > 42.2° C [108 ° F]) denatures proteins, destabilizes phospholipids and lipoproteins, and liquefies membrane lipids, leading to cardiovascular collapse, multi-organ failure due to cellular death, and, ultimately, death.

  115. Khursheed Javed, Nadeem Afzal, Faheem Shahzad, Saleem-u-Zaman, Saba Khaliq, Shah Jahan, Waqas Latif, and Shaguftta Khalid

    Background: Throughout the world, there are more than 300 million people of asthma and its prevalence in Pakistan is 3.7%. In Pakistan, there are studies on association of HLA with different diseases but data about HLA association with bronchial asthma is limited. An Iranian study described increased frequency of DRB1*12 allele in asthmatic patients. Therefore, present study was designed to determine frequency of HLA-DRB1*12 allele in patients of bronchial asthma. Material and Method: Fifty clinically-diagnosed bronchial asthma patients between 18-40 years with the history of allergy and 30 healthy subjects were selected. HLA-DRB1*12 allele and total serum IgE level was determined by PCR and ELISA technique respectively. Student-t test was applied to observe group mean difference. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Frequency of HLA-DRB1*12 allele in asthma patients was high (42%) compared to controls (20%) and on comparison there was statistically significant difference (p=0.04). Mean ± SD of total serum IgE level of bronchial asthma patients was high (861.6 ± 559.2 IU/ml) compared to controls (204.7 ± 237 IU/ml) and on comparison there was statistically significant difference (p = <0.001). Mean ±SD of total IgE level in HLA-DR B1*12 positive asthma patients was high (607.9 IU/ml) compared to HLA-DR B1*12 negative asthma patients (518.4 IU.ml) and on comparison there was no significant difference. Conclusion: Frequency of HLA-DRB1*12 was increased in bronchial asthma patients but this allele did not confer susceptibility to the raised total serum IgE levels.

  116. Ijioma, S. N., Nwankudu, O. N. and Nwankwo, A. A.

    The anti-ulcer activities of Loranthus miranthus leaf extract (LOME) and Acalypha wilkesiana leaf extract (AWLE) were investigated in rats in which ulcer was induced with indomethacin (40mg/kg). Results obtained indicate significant (p<0.05) reduction in ulcers indices in all animals treated with the extracts. LOME at 200 and 400mg/kg lowered ulcer index from 9.17±0.32 in the control group to 0.74±0.55 and 0.52±0.35, with % protections of 91.93% and 94.32% respectively, while same doses of AWLE yielded ulcer indices of 0.95±0.0.64 and 0.88±0.45, with percentage protections of 89.64 and 90.40 respectively. The observed effects of LOME and AWLE compared favourably with that of Cimetidine (32mg/kg), which lowered ulcer index to 6.06±0.09 and presented a percentage protection of 33.91%. LOME also inhibited charcoal transit in experimental rats in a manner similar to that of atropine (1mg/kg), while AWLE did not significantly affect charcoal transit when compared to the control. The results suggest that both LOME and AWLE may contain active agents with anti- ulcer and cytoprotective activities. The observed anticholinergic function of LOME also suggest that the extract may have achieved its effect by inhibiting parasympathetic induced gastric secretions in addition to local mucosa protective effect exhibited by both extracts. Loranthus micranthus and Acalypha wilkesiana leaves could be harnessed into safe and potent treatment agents for ulcer and could serve as templates for the development of new anti-ulcer drugs.

  117. Dr. Dibakar Ray, Dr. Asik Iqbal Dr. Writtik Porel, Dr. Biswajit Biswas and Dr. Mandal, P.K.

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign solitary bone lesion of unknown etiology. ABCs mainly occur in the long bones but only rarely in the bones of the feet. Few cases of ABC involving the calcaneum have been reported.We report an unusual case of ABC in calcaneum in a 23 year old male, as only 1% of this type of tumour is found in the calcaneum. This article discusses the etiology, clinical presentation, radiological features, histological features and preferred examinations of aneurysmal bone cysts.

  118. Rashmi, R., Ambica, R. and Nagarathnamma, T.

    Malaria is a major health problem in India, as well as in Karnataka, accounting for sizeable morbidity, mortality and economic loss. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for diagnosis from decades. Recently, many new microscopic and non microscopic rapid diagnostic tests are being widely used. The present study was done to compare the sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value and Negative Predictive Value of Quantitative Buffy Coat examination and antigen detection test using HRP 2 and pLDH by taking Giemsa stained peripheral smear as standard reference. 150 clinically suspected cases were studied by Giemsa stained peripheral blood smear examination, QBC examination and antigen detection test. Out of 150, 56 (37.3%) cases were positive and 94(62.6%) were negative. Males were predominantly affected. P. vivax was the major parasite species causing malaria. 56 (37.3%), 53 (35.3%) and 49 (32.6%) cases were positive by PBS, QBC and antigen detection test respectively. Sensitivity of QBC was high (94.6%) followed by antigen detection (87.5%). QBC missed 3 cases and antigen detection test missed 7 cases which were positive in microscopy. PBS examination still remains the “Gold standard” for diagnosis of malaria. However, QBC and antigen detection test can be used for rapid diagnosis.

  119. Nwankudu, O. N., Nwankwo, A. A. and Ijioma, S. N.

    The acute toxicity and parasympatholytic effects of a powder made from the stem bark of Pausinystalia yohimbe, popularly called Burantashi was evaluated using carefully designed in vivo charcoal meal transit in rats and in vitro isolated tissue models. Results obtained revealed an acute toxicity value of about 1000mg/kg body weight. All doses of Burantashi ethanol extract (BEE) also elicited a significant (p< 0.05) relaxation effect on the smooth muscles of the rabbit jejunum. In the in vivo work, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg of BEE inhibited the movement of charcoal meal in the rat’s gastrointestinal tract by 8.61±0.89, 12.30±1.06 and 25.06±1.30% respectively and compared favorably with the effect of atropine (1mg/kg) which yielded a mean % inhibition of 34.27±4.15%. On isolated rabbit jejunum, BEE significantly inhibited rhythmic contractions at all final bath concentrations (FBC) administered. BEE also significantly blocked the contractile effect of acetylcholine but did not significantly affect that of propranolol (a non selective beta receptor blocker). The results obtained suggest that excessive and habitual consumption of burantashi could be deleterious to health, but mild to moderate use/consumption could be of medicinal value. The extract may contain substances with potent parasympatholytic properties which may be of value in the management of diseases associated with excess activity of the parasympathetic arm of the autonomic nervous system, and may yet serve as template for the development of more synthetic parasympatholytics of clinical significance.

  120. Maria Pavlova, Tatiana Vinogradova, Anna Starshinova, Nadezhda Sapozhnikova, Irina Chernokhaeva and Ludmila Archakovaand Piotr Yablonskii

    In accordance to international classification Tioureidoiminomethylpyridinium perchlorate (Perchlozon) belongs to thioacetazone group. In vitro Phz demonstrated significant inhibiting effect on viability of drug-resistant mycobacteria strains of TB. In the reported clinical study, which was performed in 2013-2014, 49 patients with MDR lung tuberculosis were enrolled. The patients were divided in two groups: Group I (main) 25 patients were administered Phz in addition to 6 other anti-tuberculosis drugs; in Group II (comparison) 24 patients received 6 anti-tuberculosis drugs. Efficacy of treatment (which was assessed by cessation of bacterial excretion in sputum) was higher in Group I vs. Group II after 3 months (72.4 % (21) vs. 52% (13)) and by 6 months (86.2% (25) vs. 68% (17). Efficacy of treatment with Phz was 72.4% in complex with other anti-tuberculosis drugs.

  121. Tanveer Abbas, Adil Anwar Bhatti, Asma Saeed, Farhana Tasleem, Iqbal Azhar and Zafar Alam Mehmood

    Drugs are the basic requirement to ensure the better quality of life thus various natural products from different sources has played an essential role. Plants including their different parts and exudates have been also used as natural antimicrobials as well as natural medicines to treat various medical problems, more than this, plants are the cheapest source of antimicrobials. With the passage of time microorganisms are getting resistance to various previously effective antibiotics. Pure, ethanol, and hexane extracts of Peltophorum roxburghii (copperpod) has shown significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus feacalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosaand Escherichia coli in agar well diffusion method as well as micro titer broth dilution method, which contributes to use plant extracts as initial material to design drugs effective to the organisms used in the study.

  122. Tanveer Abbas, Adil Anwar Bhatti, Asma Saeed, Najma Shaheen, Iqbal Azhar and Zafar Alam Mehmood

    Many natural products including medicinal plants have been contributed in the development of drugs or antimicrobials thus spices retaining medicinal particularly antimicrobial potentials have also played a great role in this field. Carum carvi (black cumin), Elettaria cardamomum (green cardamom), and Cinnamomum zelanium (Cinnamon) has shown their beneficial effects against some of the clinical isolates including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Acenatobacter sp., Proteus sp., and Escherichia coli that are becoming extremely disappointed problems in present days and have failed to respond the previously active drugs. So it is important to explore various natural products to find new of this type as preventive measures. In this regard spices can be correctly said to natural antimicrobials.

  123. Dr. Hari Babu Ramineni, Pravallika, E., Kumudini, V. and Dr. Vidhyadhara, S.

    Delusional Parasitosis (DP) is characterized by the unshakeable conviction that small organisms infest the body despite the absence of confirmatory medical evidence. DP can occur in a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. Rarely DP can be drug-induced. A 35-year-old HIV positive woman with a history of epilepsy and tuberculosis is on ART regimen with first line ART combination Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine but found to be ineffective and Nevirapine is replaced with Efavirenz. She developed pruritus and believes that beneath her skin parasites are present. Based on physical and psychiatric examination, she was diagnosed as Efavirenz induced delusional parasitosis. Consequently Efavirenz was stopped and she was treated with felt normal Risperidone 1 mg to control delusions. Efavirenz causes psychiatric symptoms as adverse effects, but this is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of Efavirenz induced Delusional parasitosis.

  124. Navdeep Kaur, Mrs. Meenakshi, Dr. Mahesh Satija, Mrs. Sandeep Kaur and Dr. (Mrs.) Jasbir Kaur

    Background of study: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is critical to the development of children’s full human potential. Poor infant and young child feeding practices coupled with high rates of infectious diseases are the proximate causes of malnutrition during the first two years of life. Ensuring optimal complementary feeding practices for young children living in developing countries is a global public health priority. Objective: to assess the knowledge and practices of complementary feeding among primary caregivers of children aged 6-24 months in a selected area of Ludhiana city, Punjab. Methodology: Descriptive research design was used in the study. 100 primary caregivers were selected by convenience sampling technique. Structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and checklist to assess the practices of complementary feeding. Results: 75% primary caregivers had average knowledge and 79% had satisfactory practices regarding complementary feeding. Education of father of the child and no. of siblings of the child had impact on knowledge while age of the child had impact on level of practices of complementary feeding among primary caregivers of children aged 6-24 months. Conclusion: Primary caregivers of children age 6-24 months had average level of knowledge and satisfactory practices regarding complementary feeding

  125. Sameera Mohammad Ali, Bina Nasim, Zafar Khan, Zulfiqar Ali, Tanvir Yadgir, Ahmed Sajjad, Omer Sakaf and Anis Sheikh

    Patients with typical cardiac chest pain and electrocardiographic evidence of an Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), new left bundle branch block or a true posterior Myocardial Infarction are all eligible candidates for timely reperfusion by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (ACC/AHA/SCAI, 2005). According to the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association and European Society of Cardiology it is recommended that procedure should be performed in a timely manner (balloon inflation or stent placement or both within90 minutes after the first medical contact. Aim: Purpose of review is to evaluate strategies to reduce door to balloon time by activation of cardiac catheterization laboratory by emergency physician and to evaluate the false alarms activation. Methods: A comprehensive computerized search was conducted using Cochrane, Pub Med, Ovid and EBSCO to identify relevant studies. Results: 11 studies were found which examined the relationship between activation of Cardiac catheterization laboratory by Emergency physician to reduce the Door to Balloon time. One (Bradley et al., 2006) was a multivariate analysis surveying 365 hospitals, which showed that having emergency medicine physicians determine whether a myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation is present and activate the catheterization team without involvement of a cardiologist was strongly associated with a reduced DTBTbut was used in only about 23% of hospitals during weekdays and in 27% of hospitals at night or on weekends (Bradley et al., 2006). Two (Bradley et al., 2006, Bradley et al., 2005) were qualitative studies which showed that the best practices to reduce the DTBT includes assigning the emergency physicians the responsibility for deciding to call in the catheterization team. Eight (Khot et al., 2007; Kurz et al., 2007; Thatcher et al., 2003; Zarich et al., 2004; Jacoby et al., 2005; Singer et al., 2007; Kraft et al., 2007 and Lipton et al., 2006) were pre and post cohort studies conducted in single hospitals, which showed reduced DTBT when Emergency physicians activated the Cardiac Catheterization laboratory without a cardiology consultation. Conclusion: The activation of the cardiac catheterization laboratory by the Emergency physician in cases of ST-elevation AMI shortens the DTBT and does so without using additional resources or costs. This study that has reviewed all relevant literature, supports the development of systems that enable and promote early Emergency Physician activation of cardiac catheter laboratories when patients with ST-elevation MI’s present to the ED.

  126. Abd Alla A. Mohamed, Mustafa E Yassin and Elfatah M. Elnifro

    Background: The detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA is essential to diagnose acute and chronic hepatitis C infection, therapy administration and follow up of treatment, and for the HCV genotype characterization. Materials and Methods: In current study fifty HCV infected patients were included; blood samples were collected from each and RT-nested PCR for HCV RNA detection were done. Results: out of 50 patients 29 were males (58.0 %) and 21 were females (42.0%). Their age range was from 5 to 67 years, and they were distributed into four groups 1. 1-20 years, 2. 21-40 years, 3. 41-60 years, and 4. >61 years), three of them were in group 1 (6.0%), 30 in group two (60.0%), 14 in group three (28.0%), and 3 in group four (6.0%). All samples were subjected to Qualitative HCV RT-nested PCR, and all of it were positive (100.0%). Conclusion: Molecular diagnosis of HCV is important for HCV treatment and genotype detection, in current study HCV RT-nested PCR was successfully applied for HCV detection in Libya.

  127. Dr. Karunakar Kota, Dr. Jarinabanu Tahashildar, Dr. Sandeep Kumar, K., Dr. Jameela Tahashildar, Dr. Narapogu Venkatanarayana and Dr. Syed Yaseen Ahmed

    Background: The incidence of hypertension increases with progression of age, making it the most dominant and common morbid condition in the elderly (> 65 years). Objective: The main objective of the present study was to analyze the drug prescribing pattern for anti-hypertensives in geriatric patients. Methodology: A retrospective observational study was conducted in our institution, from 1st July 2012 to 31st December 2013. Elderly patients who have been diagnosed with hypertension as per JNC-7 guidelines and patients prescribed with antihypertensive drugs were included. The case files of Indoor and Outdoor patients were retrieved from Medical Record Department and data was collected according to the proforma. Results: In our study, the total numbers of patients with hypertension were 300. The incidence of disease was more common in males. In our study 78% of the patients were Pre-Hypertensive systolic (120-139 mmHg) and Diastolic (80-89 mmHg) followed by Stage-I and Stage-II Hypertension. The most common drugs involved in the study were calcium channel blockers 43% followed by angiotensin II receptor blockers 18%. The most commonly prescribed drugs in the study population were amlodipine 43%, losartan 10% and telmisartan 8%. The most common FDC therapy involved in the study was telmisartan + hydrochlorthiazide 17%. The most common two drug combination therapy involved in the study was amlodipine + atenolol 5%, followed by metoprolol + amlodipine 2%. Conclusion: Study indicates that calcium channel blockers and angiotensin II receptor blockers were commonly prescribed. Use of anti-hypertensive drug combination was significant.

  128. Rama, R., Rajalakshmi, R., Georgi, A., Devi, P. and Sangeetha, R.

    The current scenario of global burden of diseases comprise of a triple burden of diseases of which non communicable diseases form a huge proportion. Among the non communicable diseases, chronic kidney disease has emerged a major threat in terms of complications, accessibility and availability of treatment, especially in developing countries like India. There are a few studies done on prevalence of kidney disease and our programme targets early detection of kidney disease in the form of screening programmes directed at different segments of the society. The screening programme consists of brief history of medical illness, followed by measurement of body mass index and blood pressure and urine examination to look for proteinuria. Our programme identified prehypertension in 38.7% of the population screened and 24.% were identified with proteinuria. Individuals who were above 45 years of age, and those with proteinuria were found to be significantly associated with abnormal serum creatinine and eGFR. Our screening programme has proven to be efficient in early detection of kidney diseases in the population and has also proven to be cost effective in a country like India where diverse economic conditions exist in the society.

  129. Nagwa S. Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Abdelmoaty, Tahia H. Saleem, Ghada M. Galal and 1Amira Morad

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is endemic in Egypt. Over 15% of populations of the people in Egypt are infected, this is ten times greater than in any other country in the world. To validate a simple, inexpensive, non invasive markers (Fib-4, APRI, syndecan-1 and apolipoprotein A-1(ApoA-1) for detection of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV and thereby reduce the need for liver biopsy. Estimation of serum syndecan-1 and apoA-1 by ELISA were done on 20 normal healthy persons and 57 chronic hepatitis C patients, the patients were staged according to liver biopsies (Metavir fibrosis staging) (stage f1=15, f2=15, f3=14,f4= 13). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of syndecan-1=(0.72), the mean level of plasma syndecan-1 was significantly higher in chronic HCV patients when compared to control subjects (P=0.0008), but the mean level of ApoA-1 was not significantly different from that of controls (p=o.65), and it had significant negative correlation to the stage of fibrosis (AUC=0.57). Moreover the APRI and Fib-4 were proved significantly directly correlated with fibrosis stage of the studied patients. This study not reveals putative biomarkers of liver fibrosis (syndecan-1, ApoA-1 APRI, Fib-4) but also proves the differential expression of those markers in different stages of fibrosis. It is expected that combination of these novel biomarkers could be applied clinically to predict the stage of liver fibrosis without the need of liver biopsy.

  130. Maya Grigorievna Lyapina, Maria Dencheva – Garova, Assya Krasteva – Panova, Mariana Tzekova – Yaneva, Mariela Yaneva – Deliverska and Angelina Kisselova-Yaneva

    Bisphenol a is xenoestrogen synthesized in large quantities worldwide for production of polymers (polycarbonates, epoxy resins) and thermal paper. This determines its universal presence - in everyday products (packaging, containers and bottles), food and drinking water. Food is considered to be the most important source of population exposure; however, in overall exposure assessment consumption of drinking water, inhalation of dust and dermal contact with thermal paper must be taken into account. Exposure to BPA and its derivatives from dental composites and sealants is possible. High levels of BPA in saliva (especially immediately or one hour after dental treatment), decreasing over time have been found. No BPA in the blood samples of dental patients have been detected, as reported in the available studies. High urinary levels of BPA after treatment with dental composites and sealants have been reported. The degree of exposure to BPA from dental materials and the possible adverse health effects are insufficiently investigated. No data were found in the available literature concerning the urinary levels of BPA among occupationally exposed dental professionals, in comparison with those among dental patients after treatment with composites and sealants.

  131. Lokare P. O., Dr. Karanjekar V. D., Dr Deotale M. K. and Dr. Jawarkar A. K.

    Introduction: Worldwide, the proportion of people age 60 and over is growing faster than any other age group. As people age, their quality of life is largely determined by their ability to maintain autonomy and independence. Objectives: To assess the quality of life among elderly population residing at old age homes and its association between the socio-demographic factors. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted in old age homes of Amravati city, Maharashtra in India among elderly people with age greater than 60 years. Total 102 participants were included in the study. The participants were interviewed with questionnaire for Quality of life including four domains, that is, physical, psychological, social relationship and environmental. Results: The means and standard deviations for environmental domain score of Quality of life was 42.1569 ±19.28. which was lower as compared to physical, social and psychological domain scores. Conclusion: There is need age-friendly communities that provide their citizens with more opportunities for social activities and worthwhile leisure time pursuits.

  132. Sandeep Krishna Nalabothu, Pajanivel, R., Surendra Menon, K. and Varunn Malathy Dhanapal

    Introduction: Suboptimal management of asthma during pregnancy by medical professionals can lead to poor health outcomes. The present study was done to assess knowledge of asthma and its management during pregnancy among general practitioners and obstetricians. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between march and may 2014 among general practitioners and obstetricians in and around puducherry. A simple questionnaire was designed and handed over to participants in their clinics through medical representatives and were requested to hand over the answered questionnaire on the same visit. Results: A total of 130 participants returned the questionnaire, out of which 79(60.7%) were general practitioners and 51(39.3%) were obstetricians. In 130 participants including both general practitioners and obstetricians 25(19%) participants answered less than 50% answers correctly, 69(53%) answered 51-75% answers correctly and the rest 36(28%) answered more than 75% answers correctly. Among general practitioners 16(20%) answered less than 50% answers correctly, 47(60%) answered 51-75% answers correctly and the rest 16(20%) answered more than 75% answers correctly. In obstetricians 9(18%) answered less than 50% answers correctly, 22(43%) answered 51-75% answers correctly and the rest 20(39%) answered more than 75% answers correctly. Out of 130 participants only 56(43%) are following GINA guidelines for management of asthma in pregnancy. In case of deteriorating asthma in pregnancy only 55(42%) of participants have answered that they will refer to pulmonary physician for expert opinion. Conclusion: In spite of participants having adequate knowledge and attitude towards asthma in pregnancy, when it comes to the point of practice, only less than 50% are practicing GINA guidelines for management.

  133. Prabhanjan Kumar Vata, Akine Eshete, Eshetu Molla and Yohannes Addisu

    Community based training programme has been central to medical education in spite of theoretical knowledge of the students. The programme is designed to enable the students to exercise independent patient care and community health intervention at health center level and catchment area. It enables them to develop adequate skill and confidence and increases their competence in how to diagnose, Prioritizes and intervene the health and health related problems of the community. Present study focuses on students approach and insight towards Community based training programme during their final stage of study of that particular course. The current study was carried out in the Department of public health, college of health sciences, Dilla University. The numbers of study participants were 120 students who were attending this community based training programme. The study was Quantitative and Investigatory in nature by self assessment questioner. The present study has shown that most students found their visit to the CBTP found interesting. Students also inferred interesting in serving people during this programme and it also found from students that CBTP is the best way for learning and understanding community based health problems. It is also found that lot of difference in this CBTP with teaching hospital practice. It is also inferred with the current study that teachers should assist students for more betterment during this CBTP.

  134. Omar Abdelraheem, Osama Ismail and Ahmed RH Ahmed

    Aim of the work: To identify the pattern of clinical manifestation and surgical outcome in relation to timing of presentation and surgical interference. Patients and methods: This prospective study was carried out in Surgery Department, Sohag University Hospital from July 2010 to April 2014. Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) was diagnosed clinically and confirmed by intraoperative findings and routine postoperative histopathological study. Clinical criteria in association to laboratory values e.g. total leucocytic count; band leucocytes percentage and serum Na were recorded. According to these criteria, patients were classified into 2 groups: group A; 26 patients with objective criteria of NF and group B; 136 patients with criteria of non-NF (control group). Results: There were a statistically significant differences between NF and non NF patients with respect to pain, tense edema, bullae, skin discoloration and crepitation (P= 0.04, 0.01, 0.032, 0.023, and 0.045 respectively). Elevated WBCs >15.4 ×109 /L was found in 69% of group A patients and 8% of group B (p=0.0001). Band form leucocytes percentage >10% was observed in 23.08 % of group A and 6.61% of group B (p=0.0001). Serum Na<135 mm/L was observed in 85% and10% of group A and B respectively ((p=0.0001). Repeated wide surgical debridement was done to 22 patients of group A and the remaining 4 cases were subjected to major extremity amputations. The overall mortality was 27% (7 patients) for group A (NF group) versus zero% for group B (non-NF group) (p<0.0001). Among patients underlying early debridement within 12 hours of admission (n=17), there was 3 deaths (18%) versus 4 deaths out of 9 (44.4 %) were recorded in patients with delayed operation (P< 0.05). Conclusion: NF is a potentially fatal disease. Early diagnosis remains the cornerstone in achieving reasonable surgical outcome. In patients with clinical suspicious, laboratory parameters include WBCs >15.4×109/L , serum Na < 135 mmol/L and band form leucocytes percentage > 10% may be helpful in early diagnosis.

  135. Petrova, J., Manolov, V., Vasilev, V., Tzatchev, K. and Marinov, B.

    Aim: Increased hypoxia inducible factors leads to an oxidative stress, which plays an important role in neuronal injuries caused by cerebral ischemia. The free iron in human organism increases significantly during ischemia and is responsible for oxidative damage in the brain. We aimed to evaluate serum hepcidin levels in patients with ischemic stroke and connect expected levels to interleukin-6 concentration. Data: We quantify serum hepcidin levels using ELISA assay in 43 patients with acute ischemic stroke. The samples were taken in the “Aleksandrovska” hospital, Department of Neurology for a period 2013 – 2014 year. We measure serum iron levels (AAS), IL-6 (CLIA) and ferritin (ECLIA) concentration. Results were compared to a control group from previous studies. Results: We found significant elevated serum hepcidin levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke 79.8 ± 10.9 μg/L compared to the control group 22.4 ± 3.9 μg/L (P < 0.001). Serum IL-6 levels showed significant differences between the groups: control group: 2.6 ± 1.1 ng/L to patients with ischemic stroke 19.9 ± 2.1 ng/L (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results indicate that serum iron and hepcidin levels are a part of etiology of cerebral ischemia.

  136. Nidhi and Muntazir Maqbool Kermane

    The problem of adjustment is of gigantic importance for all the people especially to the students who should be helped in developing good adjustment besides the intellectual progress. This study investigates the adjustment problems of the college students in relation to their gender, socioeconomic status and academic achievement. The objectives of the study were; 1.To evaluate the adjustment problems among male and female college students. 2. To evaluate the adjustment among low and high socioeconomic college students. 3. To evaluate the adjustment among low and high academic achievement college students. 4. To evaluate the relationship between adjustment problems and academic achievement. The sample consists of 80 college students 40 male and 40 female from Dehradun district of Uttarakhand. The sample responded to the reliable and valid instrument. Adjustment inventory for college students (AICS) by Sinha and Singh were used to assess the adjustment problems. Socioeconomic status was assessed by socioeconomic status scale developed and standardized by Gyanendra P. Srivastava and marks obtained in 12th class were taken as a measure for academic achievement. Coefficient of correlation and ‘t’ stat was used to test the relationship and significance of difference between the variables. Findings include that college students have average adjustment; there was no significant difference in the adjustment problems of male and female college students. The students having low socio-economic status have more adjustment problems than that of high socio-economic college students. No significant difference was found in adjustment problems of high academic achievement students and low academic achievement students. There exists a negative relationship between adjustment problems and academic achievement.

  137. Sheela Joice, P. P., Maruthy, K. N. and Kannappan, R.

    Background: Motivation is an internal driving force to create the circumstances that influence students to do work hard. Besides, memory is an ability to recall past events or previously learnt information and utilize the skills for practical purpose. Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the effects of yoga module on global motivation and memory in relation to perceived stress of medical students. Design: Pre - post design was used to measure the effects the module. 120 female students who had 60 low stress and 60 high stress on the stress scale (PSS) and were selected and randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was exposed to yoga module- consisting of yoga asanas, for 12 weeks covering a total of 40 sessions. The control group was not exposed to the training for the entire period. Materials: The global motivation scale (GMS) Frédéric Guay, Geneviève A. Mageauet Robert J. Valler and 29:8, 2003, and (PGI) memory scale by Pershad, Dwarka and N.N Wing were used to the groups at before and after assessments.

  138. Teena Lal, Anand Moses, Dorairaj, V. S., Prathipa, A., Leena, P., Anandarajan, B., Muthukumar, S. and Kouser Banu, K.

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with chronic low grade inflammation. (Pickup et al., 1998) C-reactive protein is a classic marker for inflammation. (Naveed et al., 2009) Materials and Methods: Study was conducted on 96 diabetic patients attending the diabetic clinic of government medical college, Trivandrum and on 96 non-diabetic controls. Serum hs-CRP, HbA1c, FBS, lipid profile, Waist: Hip ratio, systolic and diastolic BP was measured in cases and controls and the results compared. Results: Mean serum hs-CRP was significantly higher in cases than in controls (p=0.009). Conclusion: The new pathogenetic vision of diabetes mellitus includes inflammatory pathways playing pivotal roles its development and progression.

  139. K. C. Das, Clarence J. Samuel, Sumeet David, Rohit Masih, Nikhil R. and Milred L. Piyush

    Context: Bile duct stricture (biliary stricture) is an uncommon but challenging clinical condition that requires a co-ordinated multidisciplinary approach involving gastroenterologists, radiologists, and surgical specialists. Most benign distal bile duct strictures results from operative causes, chronic pancreatitis, trauma. Aims: To describe the risk factors and demographic data in patients with symptomatic distal CBD stricture and papillary stenosis associated with significant opium intake. Setting and design: Hospital based prospective study Materials and Methods: The patients were selected from the gastroenterology unit Christian Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana a tertiary care hospital in Northwest India to whom all subjected to ERCP. Results: From a total of 373 ERCP of which 15 male patients were included who consumed significant amount of opium over a long period and developed clinically CBD stricture with papillary stenosis. Post procedure ALP levels were significantly decreased as compared to pre procedure. The length of the stricture in our study showed a strong correlation with the levels of the ALP. Conclusion: Opium can cause distal CBD stricture and associated papillary stenosis which are multiple pathophysiologic mechanism, however symptomatic CBD stricture need to treat in time to prevent feared complications. In patients presenting with distal CBD stricture a history of opium consumption is vital along with supportive services and counseling to deal with the addiction.

  140. Gurbachan Singh Gindha, Tejinder Pal Singh and Sidharth Sankar Maharana

    Identification of human skeletal remains is a critical problem and is very important in medico legal and anthropological work. The determination of sex of an individual is important and necessary both in the living and the dead for medico legal and anthropological study purpose. Bones often survive the process of decay and therefore provide the major evidence of human age and sex after death. The mandible is the strongest bone of facial skeleton and the best preserved after death. The mandible is the best suitable bone for the study to determine the sex and age of the human remains. This study based on the known sex of 100dry human mandibles. Various measurements will be taken. The difference between measurements of male mandibles and female mandibles will be calculated by taking the mean value of measurements taken, which will help in determination of sex of the mandible. The mandibular index will be calculated from the measurements between right and left mandibular foramina and mean of measurements betweenmandibular foramen and genial tubercles. All these measurements will help in determining the sex of the mandible, even from fragments we can calculate and determine the sex of human mandible. This is the aim of our study.

  141. Dr. Ahmad Mohammadipoor and Nasrin Fatahi

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) is an uncommon nevus in newborns which defined as a predisposing factor for malignancies such as melanoma. Other malignancies such as rhabdomyosarcoma rarely have seen in a giant CMN. We have some reports about rhabdomyosarcoma arising from CMN. Rhabdomyosarcoma presents with nodules, pedunculated lesion, ulcers and skin tags in these patients. Except an adult case, other cases are children. Our case is second patient with alveolar type which have poorest prognosis. According to these reports serially examination, parental education and serious investigation for any changes in integrity of CMN is recommended.

  142. Minakshi Kalita and Prabhat Chandra Sarmah

    Examination of faecal samples of young stray dogs from the locality around a cattle abattoir situated in the Meghalaya-Assam border near Guwahati showed 48% animals positive for Sarcocystis in mixed infection with Ancylostoma (32%), Toxocara (24%) and Isospora (16%). Similar examination conducted in captive carnivores of Assam State Zoo revealed 50% hyenas positive to Sarcocystis in mixed infection with Ancylostoma (62.5%). Of the zoo felines, Sarcocystis infection combined with Isospora was revealed in leopard cats (33.3%) only. The other parasites recorded in felines were Toxascaris in Royal Bengal tiger (50%), Toxocara in leopard (25%), Isospora in clouded leopard (12.5%). The pattern of Sarcocystis infection in stray dogs was comparable with that of hyenas having access to bovine musculatures. The findings were discussed in the light of available literature.

  143. Abu-Hussein Muhamad, Abdulgani Azzaldeen, Watted Nezar and Zahalka Mohammed

    Implantology has become an established part of overall dental treatment strategies and is also increasingly being integrated into orthodontic treatment concepts. Recent publications have reported upon the use of osseointegrated implants for orthodontic anchorage and to replace of missing teeth after creation of sufficient space by orthodontic means. This paper describes the therapeutic use of osseointegrated implants to replace congenitally missing upper lateral incisors. Highlighting the importance of the Orthodontic/Restorative interface.

  144. Dr. Alampally Hari Shanker, Dr. Deepthi Pankaj, Dr. Pratik Patel, Dr Ankur Kaur Shergill Dr. Chetana Chandrashekar, Dr. Sunitha Carnelio and *Dr. Monica Charlotte Solomon

    Oral sub-mucous fibrosis is a chronic, insidious, debilitating, precancerous condition affecting oral cavity, caused by the habitual use of areca nut. A variety of mediators determine the deposition of collagen that include hormones cytokines and lymphokines. Collagen fibres have been the main focus of study to understand the pathogenesis of the lesion. Picrosirius has the propensity to stain thin fibres also so it has been the most opted stain for study. The main aim of the study here is to compare and correlate the role of collagen fibres and their role in determining the transformation of Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). A total of 40 formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE) blocks were retrieved from the department archives. They comprised of OSMF cases, cases of OSMF associated with OSCC and OSCC. Fresh sections were cut and stained with Picrosirius red to identify the collagen fibers. The content, pattern and distribution of collagen fibers were compared between the different groups. An observable change in stroma was evident as OSMF progressed to oral malignancy

  145. Kulkarni Aditya A. and Thakur Sanjeev, S.

    Gastro-intestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST) are common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a patient presenting with massive hematemesis, malena, hypotension and severe anemia. There was 7x7cm ulcerated bleeding gastric polyp on posterior gastric wall on endoscopy. Laparoscopic excision of polyp was performed successfully with anterior gastrotomy approach. Histopathology revealed a benign spindle cell tumour (GIST) with clear margins. This case is being presented due to the peculiar mode of presentation with massive UGI bleed (rare mode of presentation of GIST) and peculiar morphology of the GIST which presented as a polyp rather than a submucosal mass. This case report highlights the necessity of early surgical intervention in such cases to avoid mortality due to bleeding and to raise the awareness of rare causes of upper gastrointestinal bleed and their management.

  146. Vikas Soloman, Triveni Rajappa and Sapna D. Malviya

    Background: Phlebitis is inflammation of the vein wall that is the most common complication of intravenous infusion therapy. The incidence of phlebitis in hospitalized patients receiving IV therapy has been reported to be as high as 80%. Aim: To find out the most effective applicant for reduction of phlebitis in comparison of Heparinoid and Ichthammol glycerine. Setting and Design: Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab and Non-experimental comparative research design with quantitative approach. Material and Methods: Total 60 subjects (30 with Heparinoid and 30 with Ichthammol Glycerine application-age, gender and type of disease condition- matched). The participants were selected from critical care areas of Christian Medical hospital, Ludhiana. Data was collected with using Modified Visual Infusion Scale and Standardized Numerical Pain Intensity assessment scale. Result: In Heparinoid group mean phlebitis score before application was 10.14 and after 48 hours it decreased to 2.37 but on the other hand in Ichthammol glycerine application group mean phlebitis score was 10.51 which decreased to 1.50 after 48 hours of application. Before application, after 24 hours and after 48 hours of application ‘t’ value between Heparinoid and Ichthammol application group was 0.71, 0.63 and 1.68 respectively, which were not significant at p<0.05 level of significance. Conclusion: Both the applications were effective in reducing IV induced phlebitis.

  147. Omar Khursheed, Syed Baasit, AnsarulHaq Lone, Shakir Rashid, Nazeefa, and AzherMaqbool

    Objectives: Aim of this study was to determine the pattern of thoracolumbar fractures due to fall from walnut trees in Kashmiri population. Patients and methods: 60 patients with history of trauma to spine following fall from walnut trees were included in this study. On arrival to the emergency ward of our hospital the patients were assessed and resuscitated as per ATLS protocol. After admission, the patients were subject to detailed history, thorough physical and neurological examination. X-rays of Thoracic & Lumbar spine were taken to know the level and extent of injury. CT scan was done to know the exact site of injury, fracture geometry and to classify the fractures. Results: All patients in our study were males with mean age of 37.5 years. The commonest level of vertebral involvement in thoracolumbar junction was L1 (53.33%) followed by D12 (21.67%) and L2 (16.67%) . As per McAfee classification 32 (53.33%) patients had unstable burst fractures, 14 (23.33%) patients had flexion distraction injuries, 10 (16.67%) patients had wedge compression fractures and 4 (6.67%) patients had stable burst fractures. Although most of our patients were neurologically intact, the patients withneurodeficit comprised a good amount of 30% of the cases.Among 60 cases of thoracolumbar spine fractures 27 patients had associated injuries. Conclusion: Fall from walnut trees constitute a major cause of morbidity in people engaged in this occupation. Proper education, training and newer methods of walnut harvesting should be adopted by Kashmiri people involved in such occupation.

  148. Aydoğmus S., Tanrisever, G. G. G., Guven, C., Aydogmus H. and Kelekci, S.

    To report a case of vaginal cuff dehiscence with bowel evisceration after total abdominal hysterectomy and discuss the risk factors, prevention and treatment alternatives of this unusual gynecologic emergency. A 79-year-old woman presented to the emergency clinic with vaginal cuff dehiscence with bowel evisceration, developed 5 years after total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateralsalping ooophorec to my for post menopausal adnexalmass. Approximately 130 cm bowel loops with mesentery from the cecum was torsioned and herniated from eviscerated vaginal cuff. The patient was taken to emergency laparoto my and was prepared in lowlitho to my position. The bowelloops were detorsioned, inducted into abdomen from median inferior incision and vaginal vault was sutured continuously with No.1 vicry l. Second line interrupted sutures of vaginal vault were made with 2.0 polydioxanone sutures. As a result VCD is a rare but serious complication that can be seen in any time after hysterectomy. Further investigations need for its prevention and ideal method of repair.

  149. Muneer Bhat, Ashfaq ul Hassan, Syed Amin and Reyaz Rangrez

    Keeping in view the importance of referral system and centrality of outpatient department in a health care unit the present study at SKIMS will be undertaken to assess profile of patients attending outpatient department, their rationale for referral and thereby forming a policy of referral for health care institutions.

  150. Vipan Kumar, Charanjeet Sarangal, Gagandeep Bangar, Wadhawan, V. M., Parveen Kumar, Heigo Pal, Bikram Singh, Hanish Sharma and Parvinder Kaur

    Brucellosis is an important re-emerging zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. It is still a serious problem in many developing countries including India. Brucellosis in India is yet a very common but often neglected disease. A total of 100 sera samples were collected from sheep and were tested for presence of Brucella specific antibody by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) as screening test and the RBPT positive samples were further confirmed using indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep was recorded as 5.00% in RBPT and 5.00% in indirect-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis in male sheep (7.14%) was higher than female (4.65%). The higher rate (8.33%) of Brucella antibody was recorded in sheep of more than three years of age.

  151. Lakshmi Kalpana, V., Sowjanya, P., Gowri Sairam, P.V.V. and Sudhakar, G.

    Background: Mental Retardation (MR) (also called mental handicap) is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (“milestones”) during childhood, and a significantly below normal global intellectual capacity as an adult. Down syndrome is the most first and common genetic cause of mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the frequency of Down syndrome in mentally retarded people of North Coastal Andhra Pradesh. Methods: This study was carried out an approximately on 100 mentally retarded children from North Coastal Andhra Pradesh and a control group consists of 100 normal individuals of same age group. The blood sample was collected from mentally retarded children and controls for the evaluation of the chromosomal abnormalities. The karyotype of all mentally retarded cases were assessed by conventional cytogenetic techniques (GTG –banding). Results: Out of 100 mentally retarded people analyzed, 88 (88%) had normal karyotype and remaining 12 (12%) were Down syndrome. Among them regular free trisomy constituted 8 (8%) cases, Robertsonian translocations in 2(2%) cases and mosaicism was recorded in 2 (2%) cases. Conclusions: The study confirmed the findings of earlier studies carried out in India and other countries. It emphasizes free trisomy 21 was found to be the most frequent autosomal aberration of Down syndrome when compared with Robertsonian translocations and mosaics.

  152. Jauhari Richa, Pathak Smita and Vaidya Meera

    Introduction: Childhood obesity is a condition in which body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health leading to various diseases. It was seen that 10% of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years are obese. Micronutrients are commonly referred to as “vitamins and minerals”. They are vital to the proper functioning of all our body systems. Micronutrient deficiency can lead to some serious health problems. The obese children with micronutrient deficiencies can suffer from iodine deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency etc. Objectives: The above study was carried out with the following objectives: 1. To calculate BMI of 7-9 years of children. 2.To check the tiffins of the children.3.To study micronutrient deficiencies in 7-9 years of obese children. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Jabalpur city of Madhya Pradesh. The BMI of children from five affluent schools were calculated and those who had BMI greater than 95th percentile were considered to be obese. Their tiffins were checked out and the nutrients were calculated. Results: Observations in children from different schools revealed that the mean BMI in 7, 8, 9 years of children was 22.1 ± .92, 21.1 ± .03, 23.1 ± .27 respectively. The mean energy intake of 7 years of children was 713.0 ± 32.10, 8 years was 700.0 ± 29.28, 9 years was 698.36 ± 36.58. The mean protein intake in 7, 8, 9 years of children was 19.3 ± 2.9, 18.6 ± 3.44, 18.8 ± 3.2 respectively. The mean calcium intake in 7 years of children was 94.1 ± 24.9, 8 years was 89.4 ± 23.84, 9 years was 91.7 ± 23.4.The mean iron intake of 7, 8, 9 years of children was 5.27 ± 1.85, 5.00 ± 1.37, 5.07 ± 1.19 respectively. The mean vitamin A intake was found to be 376.39 ± 117.6 in 7 years, 340.82 ± 111.37 in 8 years and 352.46 ± 131.88 in 9 years of children. Conclusion: Thus, it was found that the children were deficient in calcium, iron and vitamin A which lead them to various nutritional problems like anaemia, goitre, vitamin A deficiency etc. The values of micronutrients were found to be very low when compared with recommended dietary allowances. Hence, the children were advised to include more of calcium, iron and vitamin A rich foods in their diet and for this a standardized booklet consisting of thirty nutritious tiffin recipes was distributed and requested to follow the necessary dietary guidelines. Puppet show, animated movie, leaflet, pamphlet, booklet and poster were also developed to enhance their nutritional knowledge and to improvise the status of their livelihood.

  153. El Bergadi, F., Laachari, F., Sadiki, M., 2Megzari, A., El Abed, S., 1Iraqui, H. M. and Ibnsouda, K.S.

    Plant extracts have a long history of applications as antimicrobial agents, but their use as wood preservatives has rarely been reported. This study deals with the antifungal activity of the Lawsonia inermis extracts against four cellulolytic wood fungi, in order to find new bioactive natural products. The methodology used is based on a measuring the inhibition halos produced by discs impregnated with the extracts and establishing their Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC). The extracts, object of the survey, showed a strong antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves against all tested fungi. These results suggest the possible exploitation of the Lawsonia extracts as potential botanical effects in ecofriendly control of wood biodeterioration by fungi.

  154. Dr. S.C. Prof. Abdu Kadir Ergashev

    The results of our research provided during the many years with plant, animal and human cells based on the scientific evidences, it is possible to argue that the application of billions of tons chemicals asxenobiotics, espesially high doses of nitrogen pollutions in soil, water and environment as a new factor of the biosphere evolution can be considered one of the triggers of mutations and tumour cells in eukaryotic organisms - in plants, animals and humans.

  155. Megha Singh and JaqulineChinna Rani, I.

    Annona squamosa L. is a multipurpose plant in which the fruits, leaves, bark, roots and the cotyledons are reported to have medicinal properties. Folklore has it that this plant is endowed with numerous properties namely anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-lipidimic, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal. Numerous reports are available on the phytochemical and antimicrobial and therapeutic properties on the different parts of this plant using different solvents. In this preliminary report, the phytochemical properties of the rind of custard apple was studied which confirmed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids in different concentrations. The antimicrobial activity against different pathogens showed good activity as seen by the zone of inhibition to the different extracts.

  156. Dr. Ajith Kumar, K.G.

    Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm is an exotic fast growing arborescent species, commercially planted as a source of paper pulp and timber. One of the objectives of clonal forestry programme is to obtain better return for a given investment and this can be achieved only by planting with suitable clones. Several clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis have been raised by ITC Bhadrachalam and IFGTB, Coimbatore but a clonal comparison for physiological traits have not been carried out. The major objective of the present work was to screen the juvenile clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis for the photosynthetic traits such as photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and rate of transpiration (E). The clones were also assessed for photosynthetic ratios such as intrinsic WUE, instantaneous WUE, intrinsic carboxylation efficiency and mesophyll efficiency in order to identify elite clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis for clonal forestry programmes and also for planting drier areas so as to reclaim the waste lands. The results showed a significant variability for the physiological parameters such as Pn, gs, E and Ci and the derived ratios such as intrinsic WUE, instantaneous WUE, intrinsic carboxylation efficiency and intrinsic mesophyll efficiency in the clones of Eucalytus tereticornis. Clones were categorized based on their photosynthetic efficiency and some clones such as Et 130, Et 242, Et 008 and Et 027 were identified as superior clones as they had efficient stomatal regulatory capacity combined with better carboxylation efficiency and are ideal planting stock especially for drier areas. The superior clones which are identified based on photosynthetic efficiency could be considered as choice materials for further tree breeding programmes.

  157. Aljanaby, M. S. Ibrahim, 2Hayder Hasan, R. G. B. and Kiran kumar, V.

    In the present study, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from hospital samples and tested it for antibiotic sensitivity test. On antibiotic sensitivity testing Staphylococcus aureus showed resistance to three antibiotics out which two are β-lactum containg antibiotic that is for Methicillin and ampillicin. PCR analysis for mec A gene in Staphylococcus aureus shows that the gene is nearly 310 bp in length. Ammonium sulphate precipitation and sephadex G-100 were used to purifying the PBP2a enzyme. An increase in PBP2a activity showed after purification of crude enzyme by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-100. Molecular weight of the PBP2a from Staphylococcus aureus was determined by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and it was found to be a single protein band with 41 kDa molecular weight.

  158. Veeresha, B. A., Rudra Naik, V., Suma S. Biradar, Desai, S. A. and 2Chetti, M. B.

    The germplasm is often exploited to develop improved crop varieties for changing needs and environments. The vast amount of genetic variation present in the germplasm can be exploited to the best when the economically important traits have been mapped with molecular markers using specially designed mapping populations. Most of yield contributing traits are controlled by many loci and their molecular characterization and genetic mapping is called quantitative trait loci mapping (QTL-mapping). However, it is always not possible or convenient to construct such mapping populations in all crop plants. For example, in many tree species, pure lines or inbred lines, it is difficult if not impossible to construct mapping populations. Under such situations and in order to achieve higher level of resolution and precision in QTL analysis the association mapping technique is used. In the present review, we define and distinguished between linkage analysis based mapping association mapping and linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping, and then described the technique of association mapping used to dissect the genetic basis of complex traits for crop improvement. This paper will be a key reference for the beginners and research scholars who are involved in association mapping in crop plants.

  159. Gunjan Singh and Boswal, M. V.

    The present study was spread over investigation concerned with the effect of Fe and Zn singly or in combination on morphological characteristics of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)” var. K-125 (Azad) was performed during Nov. 2009 to April 2011 at Christ Church College, Kanpur. The most effective treatment of Fe + Zn in form of inorganic salts FeSO4 and ZnSO4 was compared with its chelated form (Fe – EDTA + Zn + EDTA). Seeds of Hordeum vulgare L. were soaked in 20, 40 and 60 ppm of Fe, Zn, their combinations i.e. Fe20 + Zn20, Fe20 + Zn40, Fe40 + Zn20, Fe40 + Zn40 and Fe + Zn (chelated) and three sprays at intervals of 14 days, the first spray being 20 DAS (days after sowing). The observation revealed that vegetative morphology and growth parameters were highly promoted by all treatments of Fe and Zn. Among the three concentrations of Fe applied alone Fe20 ppm was the best dose for inducing maximum growth parameters. When Zn was applied alone it was Zn40 which promoted the better growth except height. A comparison of Fe and Zn showed that effect of Zn was always better in increasing all the vegetative morphology and growth parameters except biomass duration. Treatments of Fe60 and Zn60 were less effective in increasing all growth parameters. Among the combined treatments of Fe and Zn it was Fe20 + Zn40 which shows maximum favourable effects on vegetative morphology and growth parameters this combined form (Fe20 + Zn40) was then compared with the chelated form of Fe and Zn i.e. Fe-EDTA and Zn-EDTA. The promotory effect with the latter application was significantly more than the former application. On the basis of the results one can conclude that soluble inorganic salts in low doses are generally as effective as synthetic chelate in foliar sprays.

  160. Rolli, N. M., Gadi, S. B., Mulgund, G. S. and Taranath. T. C.

    Anthropogenic activities have contributed huge quantities of industrial and domestic waste water which contains large quantities of xenobiotics that leads to undesirable changes in the physico-chemical environment. The aquatic plants have the potential to accumulate heavy metals, were tolerant and able to withstand on the pollution stress. They serve as a tool for the study phytoremediation of xenobiotics from the aquatic ecosystem. Phytoremediation is an emerging “Green Bioengineering Technology”. Bioengineering is a green, cheaper alternative that hardly cost civil engineering works for environmental reconstructions. The present investigation focuses on morphological and biochemical toxicity and accumulation profile of heavy metals in Salvinia molesta Mitchell to the various concentrations of sewage (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) at regular interval of 4 days. Salvinia showed visible symptoms like chlorosis, stunted growth and withering of roots at higher concentrations, however, the test plant shows luxurious growth at lower concentration (25%) of sewage. The estimation of biochemical parameters viz, total chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrate of test plants shows significant increase at lower concentrations but decreased with increased concentrations of sewage and exposure durations. The plant accumulation profile of heavy metals is directly proportional to sewage concentration and exposure duration. The accumulation potentiality in Salvinia was maximum at 4 days exposure irrespective of concentration. However, at remaining duration of exposure it remains marginal.

  161. Rukshana Irani and Kazi Layla Khaled

    Acacia nilotica gum is an exudate obtained from stems and branches of acacia nilotica tree. It is a natural, water soluble hydrocolloid which has been claimed to possess several physiological, nutritional and therapeutic beneficial properties due to the presence of various bioactive phytochemicals. It has been increasingly recognized as a potential commodity having diverse pharmacological and industrial applications. Gum Acacia is a closely related gum which has commercial significance and has been used from ancient times. This extensive review aimed to study the previous literature which focuses on plant description, ethno medical claims, physicochemical properties and protective activity of acacia nilotica gum and other similar gums of acacia species on several organs and organ systems.

  162. Zainab A. Hasan, Amin A. Al-Sulami, Asaad M.R. Al-Taee and 3Dheyaa B. Al-Rubeai

    Objective: To determine associated bacteria from sputum of tuberculosis suspected patients in Basra governorate. Methods: 150 TB suspected patients sputum clinical specimens were collected at The Advisory Clinic for Chest Diseases and Respiratory (ACCDR) in Basra Governorate, Iraq. They were subjected to cultural, microscopical and biochemical tests. Results: Out of 150 sputum samples thirty seven samples (24.6%) revealed associated bacteria, of which 13 (35.1%) was Pseudomonas spp., 11 (29.7%) Bacillus spp., 5 (13.5%) Vibrio spp., 4 (10.8%) Staphylococcus spp. and 4 (10.8%) as Klebsiella spp. Conclusion: The association rate of gram-negative bacteria were significantly higher than that of gram-positive bacteria. They belong to five genera, three gram negative and two gram positive bacteria, which potentially may cause complications to TB patients.

  163. Biswajit Pal, Arunasis Goswami and Subhasish Biswas

    The present study about socio-economic status of four different tribes of West Bengal was conducted with the objective to know the present socio-economic status of different Tribal sub castes. The study was conducted in four Blocks in two purposively selected districts of West Bengal. In each Block data were collected from one Tribal sub caste. From each tribal sub caste 100 numbers of samples were collected so the total sample size were 400. After the collection of data it was analyzed statistically to get the result. In the result it, was found that the four tribal sub castes under study were very much different socio-economically. Santhal and Toto had multi dimensional livelihood options where as Sabar and Oraon basically worked as labor. Among all the tribal sub castes under study, Sabar had low socio-economic status among them as well as their literacy level were also very low. They their life style, livelihood, habitat had so much differences which reflect and behavioral pattern.

  164. Mahreen Mahajan

    Spider’s web from Nephila antipodiana has been identified for producing a significant repellant activity against pests and ants. In order to investigate the repellant activity, screening of various compounds in the web was performed by GC-MS. An alkaloid namely, 2-pyrrolidinone was observed to act as a predator deterrent in species of moths, caterpillars and ants. For analyzing the feasibility of this alkaloid as an anti microbial action, antimicrobial studies were performed. The evaluation was done by well diffusion assay on two species of bacteria and fungi plant pathogens. Different concentration of 2-pyrrolidinone were loaded into the wells and the zone of inhibition was measured. Inhibition curves were compared, to check the effect of 2-pyrrolidinone between the bacterial and fungal species.

  165. Pranab Dutta, Himadri Kaushik, Bhowmick, P., Puzari, K. C. and Hazarika, G. N.

    Plants in natural ecosystem appear to be symbiotic with fungal endophytes. Metarhizium anisopliae is a fungal entomopathogen with the ability to colonize plants endophytically. In the present study we evaluated the effect of artificial inoculation of M. anisopliae on growth parameters of aerial and underground parts of tomato plants and also to determine its endophytic activities. M. anisopliae was applied as seed treatment, substrate treatments, foliar spray alone and in combination with other and comparison was made with the control. We observed significant increase in seed germination, shoot and root length and biomass production of 35 days old tomato seedlings. We could also recover the inoculated M. anisopliae from leaves, stem, roots and rhizosphere with highest per cent recovery of 55.55%, 77.77%, 33.33% and 106.66 cfu/g from leaves, stem, roots and rhizosphere respectively. The present experiment reveals some new information on the endophytic interaction between M. anisopliae and tomato plants but needs more research for understanding the actual mechanism of M. anisopliae by which the fungi cause growth promotion of plants.

  166. Suri, K. S., Khetrapal, V. and Sangha, M. K.

    The whitebacked planthopper, (Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) is a major threat to rice crops throughout Asia, damaging plants both through its feeding behavior and by acting as a vector. Due to high insecticide pressure, it is becoming resistant to many insecticides. Many enzymes are known to be involved in providing resistance to these planthoppers against insecticides. Fewer research investigations have been conducted on insecticide resistance in relation to WBPH The objective of this paper was to evaluate the biochemical basis of resistance probably by evolving new isoforms of insecticide detoxifying enzymes. Biochemical profile of esterase, acetylcholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) was assessed. No difference in the glutathione-S-transferase activity was seen in buprofezin and quinalphos, however significant increase in GST activity was seen in chlorntraniliprole resistant insects. Buprofezin was highly toxic as compared to quinalphos and chlorntraniliprole. Esterase (30.82 µg of napthol formed/min/mg of insect) and acetylcholinesterase (17.23 µg of glutathione formed/min/mg of insect activity) was higher in quinalphos. The results indicate the potential development of esterases as detoxification mechanisms responsible for resistance to buprofezin and quinalphos. Esterase isozyme profiling using native PAGE shows dark bands in Buprofezin and quinalphos however diffused light bands were observed in case of chlorntraniliprole, indicate GST as the principal enzyme for detoxification of chlorntraniliprole.

  167. Chellachamy, V., Dinakaran, S., Ragu, B. and Paranthaman, R.

    The present investigation was carried out on leaf litter bags in on intermittent pond .The leaves were studied in on intermittent pond at Pullamuthur village in Thirumangalam Taluk of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu. Investigation also focused on the aquatic insects in artificial leaf litter packs, colonization consisting of two plant species viz, Ficus bengalensis and Thespesia populenea and their break down. Chirenomus sp and Melanoids sp was abundant in leaf bags during the experimental period.

  168. Fergala, A., Ibrahim, M. S., Ahmed, S. I. A. and El Nadi, M. H.

    The objective of this paper is to study the effect of blending process as a method for increasing the efficiency of the gravity thickener on its retention time. The problem is that in Egypt in many wastewater treatment plants, the gravity thickener efficiency is lower than expected, the solids outlet is lower than expected especially when the primary and secondary sludge mixed. In this paper, we study the effect of using dilution water (effluent water from Al Gabal Al Asfar wastewater treatment plant) on the retention time of the gravity thickener. The results explained that it is not suitable to increase the retention time in the gravity thickener when mixing the primary and secondary sludge and when adding the dilution water.

  169. Ganapathi Naik, M. and Gangadhara Gowda

    Oysters are ecosystem engineers that influence ecological processes such as maintenance of biodiversity, population and food web dynamics, nutrient cycling and water quality maintenance. Changes in oyster abundance and distribution can be used as indicators of environmental changes. Documentation of the currently existing oyster beds may enable the future researchers to evaluate future changes to the oyster population.

  170. Ganesh R. Bartakke and Hanmantrao V. Deshmukh

    Traditional fossil fuels having limited availability causing energy crisis all over the world. This leads to increasing trend toward the use of cheap and readily available biomass for renewable energy production. Biomass is best source for renewable energy mainly used for biogas production. Sugar cane is a tropical grass of the having stout, fibrous, jointed stalks, the sap of which is source of sugar. Sugar industry mainly produces bagasse, press mud, spent wash and molasses as their byproducts or wastes. Sugar cane bagasse is by product remained after crushing of the stalks that constitutes short fibers and polysaccharides. It is produced comparatively higher in amount than any other agricultural waste. Study was made to see the biomethanation potential of Sugar industry waste mainly sugar cane bagasse, along with cow dung, press mud, spent wash and molasses. 1L capacity digesters were used in batch process for biomethanation studies. Measurement of biogas was done by water displacement method and qualitative analysis was done by gas chromatography. The biogas was recorded up to 30 days. Admixture of bagasse and cow dung yielded 111.75 mL of biogas per day while bagasse and press mud, spent wash, molasses yielded 278.37 mL, 220.37 mL, 250 mL of biogas per day respectively, Out of the four different combinations used for biogas production bagasse and press mud was the best, which produces 278.37 mL of biogas per day with 77.66 percentage of methane.

  171. Tiryak Kumar Samant

    Field experiment was carried out in Instructional farm, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Angul of Odisha during rabi seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 to study effect of mulching and nutrient management practices on growth, yield, nutrient uptake of Indian mustard and soil moisture content. The experiment comprised of three main plot treatments viz. no mulching, soil mulching, straw mulching and four subplots viz RDF, RDF+Sulphur, 75% RDF+FYM, 75% RDF+vermicompost in split plot design with three replications. The results revealed that application of straw mulching@ 5t ha-1 recorded significantly higher dry matter accumulation plant-1 (28.43 g) , no of siliquae plant-1(171.58), grain yield(14.17 q ha-1), stover yield (47.75 q ha-1), harvest index (22.93 %), soil moisture content at harvest( 14.8 %) with maximum uptake of N, P, K and S by both seeds and stovers than no mulching. Among the nutrient management practices, application of 75% RDF+ vermicompost 2 t ha-1 recorded maximum dry matter accumulation plant-1 (30.85 g), grain yield(18.83 q ha-1) with moisture content at harvest(13.67 %). Thus, application of straw mulching @ 5t ha-1 and 75% RDF+ vermicompost 2 t ha-1 can be practiced for maximizing yield, improvement of growth, nutrient uptake of Indian mustard and soil moisture content.

  172. Devendra N. Kage, Vijaykumar, B. Malashetty and Seetharam, Y. N.

    In this study, regeneration of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var. cucumerina via somatic embryogenesis was investigated. Four different types of explant (Leaf, cotyledon, epicotyl and hypocotyl) from six-eight days old seedlings were used. Growth regulator treatments were one levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (0.3 mg/l) and three levels of 6-benzyl aminopurine (0.25, 0.5 and .75 mg/l). After seven weeks, cotyledon explants showed the highest potential in somatic embryo induction and the combination of 0.3 mg/l 2,4-D and 5 mg/l BAP had significant effect on somatic embryogenesis of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var. cucumerina.

  173. Ramesh Edamula, Deecaraman, M., Vijayalakshmi, M., Santhosh Kumar, D. P., Krishnamurthy, H. N. and Krishnappa, H.

    The postnatal developmental toxicity of Crocus sativus (saffron) was evaluated in a mammalian species taking Wistar rat as the model. Saffron administered as an oral gavage from implantation (day 5 post coitus) through lactation up to lactation day (LD) 20 at the doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day did not elicit any effects on maternal/lactation body weight gains, food intake and fertility. The mean number of pups born and weight of male and female pups and pup’s survivability were unaffected. The results obtained conclude that saffron did not induce any maternal toxicity or any toxicity on the developing fetus/pups including its survivability and hence saffron is considered to have no postnatal developmental toxicity potential.

  174. Rolli, N. M., Gadi, S. B., Mulgund, G. S. and Taranath, T. C.

    The present study focuses on cadmium toxicity on morphology and biochemical parameters of Salvinia molesta (Mitchell) to the cadmium stresses and its accumulation. The laboratory experiments were conducted for the assessment of morphological index parameters (MIP), biochemical parameters and accumulation of cadmium in plants at its various concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm) at the regular interval for 12 days exposure. Salvinia showed visible symptoms like withering of roots, chlorosis and necrosis at higher concentration (2.0 ppm), however, the plant showed normal growth at lower concentration (0.1 ppm). The estimation of biochemical parameters (Total chlorophyll, Protein and Carbohydrate) of test plants showed a significant increase at lower concentration (0.1 ppm) of cadmium. The biochemical parameters decrease with increase in exposure concentration and duration. The toxic effect of cadmium is directly proportional to its concentration and duration. The accumulation of cadmium by Salvinia molesta was maximum at 4 days exposure duration and marginal at subsequent concentrations and exposure duration. With respect to biochemical parameters the concentrations are significant. However, metal accumulation is significant at concentrations and exposure duration.

  175. Qazi Najeeb, Aga Syed Sameer, Ruqaya Aziz and Sajad Hamid

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease globally. Epidemiological studies suggest prevalence of NAFLD in around 9% to 32% of general population in India. A variety of studies have suggested that there is an apparent mild elevation in levels of AST and ALT enzymes which may serve as markers for NAFLD. Therefore we carried out the present study to find out the association between laboratory data and NAFLD and to evaluate and confirm non-invasively the usefulness of serum biochemistry for the diagnosis of NAFLD.

  176. More Onkar Vijaykumar, Gaje Singh and Mange Ram

    Regarding the side effects of synthetic pesticides on food commodities, an experiment was designed to determine the biological activity of nine spices namely Turmeric, Chilli, Coriander, Garlic, Fennel seeds, Black pepper, Ginger, Fenugreek and Cumin against Tribolium castaneum. All the spices showed significant effect on adult mortality and germination viability among which highest adult mortality (9.67) as well as germination viability (95.67%) was recorded with black pepper (0.5g) treated seeds (50g). Whereas lowest adult mortality (1.00) was counted in untreated control and minimum germination viability (86.00%) was reported with ginger treated wheat grains. While all rest of spices varied significantly in their reaction to test insect. Furthermore, the sequence of toxic effect of spices as followed black pepper > cumin>chilli> coriander> garlic> fennel seeds> ginger>fenugreek>untreated control.

  177. Husain Alsamamra

    Solar radiation is a primary driver for many physical, chemical, and biological processes on the earth’s surface. Solar energy engineers, architects, agriculturists, hydrologists, etc. often require a reasonably accurate knowledge of the availability of the solar resource for their relevant applications at their local. In solar applications, one of the most important parameters needed is the long-term average daily global irradiation. For regions where no actual measured values are available, a common practice is to estimate average daily global solar radiation using appropriate empirical correlations based on the measured relevant data at those locations. These correlations estimate the values of global solar radiation for a region of interest from more readily available meteorological, climatological, and geographical parameters. The present study aimed to calibrate existing models and develop a new model for estimating global solar radiation data using available measured meteorological records such as precipitation or temperature. Fifteen empirical global radiation models based on meteorological variables were generated and validated using daily data in the period of January 2007 to December 2011 at Hebron city meteorological station in Palestine. Validation criteria included coefficient of determination, root mean square error, mean bias error, mean absolute bias error, mean percentage error, and mean absolute percentage error. The best result was derived from the model proposed, which uses extraterrestrial solar radiation, saturation vapor pressures, transformed rainfall data and daily minimum relative humidity as predictors. The new multiple regression relation giving accurate estimates of daily global solar radiation was suggested. It has a high coefficient of determination R2 = 0.94. The results showed that the suggested model can estimate the global solar radiation with acceptable values of RMSE, MBE and MABE (2.38, 0.08, 1.75 MJ m-2 day-1, respectively); and MPE and MAPE (-6.49%, 19.32%). Temperature based models provided less accurate results, of which the best one is the Bristow and Campbell model (R2 = 0.89). The Hargreaves and Samani model is simple and are recommended to estimate the daily global radiation when only temperature data are available and when the coefficients cannot be determined. Based on overall results it was concluded that the meteorological based method provides reasonably accurate estimates of global solar radiation, for the site where coefficients of the model were developed.

  178. Syed Tariq Ali, Syed Kashif Ali, Muneera Naz Baloch, Abdul Wahab and Syed Abdus Subhan

    Withania coagulans, a medicinal plant traditionally use for the treatment of a variety y of human ailments particularly in diabetic. Investigation of the phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activity of non-polar fraction of ethanol extract of Withania coagulant twigs is discuss in present report. The phytochemical constituents of non-polar fraction of ethanol extract of twigs were studied through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/GCMS). A total of eleven compounds were identified which include sterols, fatty acid and their methyl esters. The Kovat’s Retention Indices were also used to support the identification of these compounds. Significant antimicrobial activity of the n-hexane fraction has been observed against several bacterial strains. The distinctive chemical composition of W. coagulans twigs along with substantial antimicrobial activity not only authenticate their traditional medicinal uses but also indicate their potential as a source of natural antimicrobial compounds.

  179. Olayiwola, O. A. and Uthman, B. O.

    Animal fat (chicken and beef fat) and vegetable oil (ground nut oil and palm oil) were gotten commercially, treated, combined to know their characteristic physico-chemical properties, ASTM and AOCS methods were used. Parameters with highest results for raw oils include GOCF- Acid Value (15.70±0.01mgKOH/g), GOCF- Free Fatty Acid (7.90±0.07%), PO- Saponification Value (208.40±0.06 mgKOH/g), POCF- Peroxide Value (52.00±0.35mEq/Kg), GOPO- Iodine Value (64.50±0.03 gI2/100g), GOPO- Relative Density (0.93±0.01), GOCF- Flash Point (242.80±0.12oC), GOPO- Pour Point (5.70±0.10oC), CFBF- Kinematic Viscosity (5.70±0.04mm2/s) GOBF- Cloud point (7.50±0.10oC). The transesterification products with highest values were PO- Acid Value (2.90±0.02mgKOH/g), PO- Free Fatty Acid (1.50±0.07%), POBF- Saponification Value (259.10±0.24 mgKOH/g), POBF- Peroxide Value (18.00±0.35mEq/Kg), GO- Iodine Value (41.20±0.01gI2/100g), GOPO and GOCF - Relative Density (0.89±0.00), GOPO- Flash Point (158.80±0.31oC), CF- Pour Point (4.4±0.17oC), GOCF- Kinematic Viscosity (4.40±0.15mm2/s), GO- Cloud point (8.7±0.21oC). Transesterification of combined oils and fats is a new trend in the production of biodiesel, percentage yield of biodiesel were significant, with GOCF giving a high yield of 82.40% among the combinations. The availability and sustainability of sufficient supplies of less expensive feed stocks will be a crucial determinant in delivering a competitive biodiesel for commercial uses.

  180. Indrajeet A. Vidhate, Vikram S. Khatavkar, Vijay M. Katare and Sanjay. B. Waykar

    In the medical field the term ‘telemedicine’ getting attention from researchers around the world. This paper introduces system which focuses on real time image/video streaming of medical reports with the help of internet. Microsoft window’s WM encoder is used for data compression and transmission. Data from server machine can be transported easily to the client machine with the help of UDP/TCP protocol. In this paper it is tried to introduce features so that a streaming solution for medical reports canbe designed which will be able to function satisfactorily across all network speeds starting fromas low as 128 kbps. Experimental results show that the image is clear in normal network conditions, and the delayis less than three second. High performances of definition and real-time of the DSA video are both achieved in this scheme.

  181. Mustafayev V. A., Mammadov J. F. and Atayev Gh.N.

    The modeling of dynamic interacting processes is considered describing the operating of complex objects under uncertainty. Models of dynamic processes are presented in the form of fuzzy algebraic and fuzzy Petri networks. On the example of the flexible manufacturing module stripping card surface is shown that the accepted transition activating rules completely describe the operating process of fuzzy Petri networks.

  182. Mohammed H. Abdul Latif, Mohammed A. K. Alsouz, Taghreed M. Musa and Kawther A. Sadiq

    Removal enhancement of Schiff base (4-hydroxy-6-methyl -2H-pyrane -2-one)-ethylidiimine (ligand) on the surface of initiated calcined Iraqi montmorillonite has been investigated from an aqueous solution via columnar method. The Schiff base removal found to be dependent on initial conc. of the Schiff base, adsorbent dosage, and contact time. All columnar experiments performed at three different pH values (5.5, 7and 8) using buffer solutions at flow rate of (3 drops/ min.), at ambient temperature (25±2) °C. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations. The monolayer adsorption capacity is 3.0349 mg Schiff base ligand (L) per 1g calcined montmorillonite. This study revealed that highest removal rate 86.89% for Schiff base ligand at pH 5.5. The kinetic data for the adsorption process obeyed pseudo-second-order rate equations.

  183. Pinky Soni and Dr. B. L. Heda

    In the financial system,banks play a very crucial role in mobilizing financial resources and adding value to those resources through their various activities. Risks are inherent in all business activities, more particularly in banking business as it is concerned with money, demand & supply and the factors influencing them. Liberalization and its deregulation brought the drastic changes in the Indian Banking System, which was earlier working in a highly regulated environment. This paper sets out to examine the appropriateness for emerging market economies toimplement a new set of capital requirements as recommended by the Basel Committee onBanking Supervision. The main objective of research paper is to study the three pillars of Basel accreditation and investigate the impact of Basel II on the Indian banking system. It also explains why the transitionfrom Basel II to Basel III norms has become necessary to bring in measuresand safety standards which would equip the banks to become more resilientduring the financial crises and prevent the banks being subject toliquidations.

  184. Majdouli Karima, Soro N’Dédianhoua K., Elazzouzi Hanane, Benmaachou Joihara, Drioiche Aziz and Zaïr Touriya

    Bacteria are often involved in cases of food poisoning and the abusive use of chemical antibacterial agents in medication leads to selection of resistant bacterial strains. Indeed essential oils appear to be a good alternative to antibiotics’use. Empirically known for centuries, their anti-infective efficiency has been now scientifically demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. This work aims to study chemical composition and antibacterial power of Artemisia herba alba hugueii’s essential oils (EO). EO are obtained by hydrodistillation of A. herba alba hugueii buds harvested in June 2012 from TATA region (southern Morocco). EO content is about 4.2 ml per 100 g of dry matter. Chemical composition of A. herba alba hugueii’s EO was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC / MS). Forty-five compounds were identified with cis-thujone (35.06%), camphor (32.79%) and trans-thujone (6.83%) as majority ones. Oxygenated monoterpenes (85%) constitute the most abundant group among the whole identified compounds (91.72%). Phytochemical screening of A. herba alba hugueii’s leaves was performed by staining and precipitation reactions. These tests revealed the high content of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins), sterols and triterpenes. These secondary metabolites have a wide range of biological activities and they probably are at the basis of A. herba alba’s medicinal properties. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was tested in vitro on five clinical bacterial isolates. Evaluation of antibacterial power was performed by disk-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by macrodilution method on liquid medium. The study of antibacterial effect showed that A. herba alba hugueii’s EO has an inhibitory effect against nine of the fifteen tested strains. This bioactivity is mainly due to the richness of this essence in cis-thujone and camphor known to be effective against microbial agents.

  185. Nishanov Akhram Khasanovich, Kalimbetov Nietbay Iskenderovich and Babadjanov Elmurad Satimbaevich

    This article is devoted to the building mathematical models of the system of intellectual interactive services (IIS) in information environment for satisfying user demands.

  186. Deepa, R. and Dr. M. P. Indra Gandhi

    In this paper, image segmentation is based on hybrid correlation clustering. Correlation-clustering is a graph-partitioning algorithm used in natural language processing, document clustering and image segmentation. In this proposed method the hybrid correlation clustering improves the performance and accuracy of the existing higher-order correlation clustering. First apply the higher-order correlation clustering over Hypergraph, S-SVM, and combine the difference of existing and proposed algorithms. Experimental results on SBD dataset shows that the proposed method allow to archieve state-of-the-art results with a simpler and efficient model than the previous work.

  187. Rudina Trikshiqi and Mimoza Rexha

    The object of this study is to determine and compare level of heavy metal in the leaves of vascular plants. The study was conducted in Durres area, Albania. During March 2013 these leaves were collected with different anthropogenic impact in the city. Concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Fe, Na, K, Mg, Ca and Hg present in leaves samples have been detected using furnace AAS. To study the level of accumulation of each element in leaves sample was carried out by statistical analysis. The trace metal contents were expressed as arithmetic means and standard deviation. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using EXCEL and MINITAB-15 Package Programs. The trend of the distribution of each element is: Hg< Pb< Cu< Zn< Mn

  188. Shivesh Dwivedi, Rahul N. Dabhade and Vishal S. Dabhade

    In today’s era of highly developing manufacturing field, there is always requirement of time and cost saving equipment for metal working. Considering this need, we have developed this clutch operated gear driven power hack saw to cut the metal effectively in short span of time. The time required for previous power hack saw to cut the material having large thickness was very much also for all metal workers & the manual labor involved in cutting operation, it is tedious when a great deal of cutting has to be done on large metal sections. The aim of present work is to reduce time in metal cutting by designing the gearbox equipped clutch operated power hack saw. The four stage gearbox is provided to vary the speed and torque of saw according to type of metal to be cut. To shift the gear a clutch arrangement is provided.

  189. Swaroop Chandre, Swapnil Kad and Viraj Kale

    In the current internet era use of internet in different fields restricts no bounds. Companies and organisation are moving from the traditional recruitment process to E-recruitment. Job seekers or applicants submit their Curriculum Vitae (CV) directly send them to the company's website. At such time company face a lot of problem with these growing number of documents which are in free and different formats. Our work is basically on CV analysis. This paper describes a system for automated resume information extraction to support rapid resume search and management. The describes system is capable of extracting several informative fields describes by HR-XML from free format resume. Experimental results carried on large number of resumes show that the proposed system can handle a precision of 91% and a recall of 88%. The proposed system will be kept in Semantic Web approach that provides companies to find expert finding in an efficient way.

  190. Mr. Aditya A. Vaidya, Mr. Akash S. Tayal, Mr. Aniket A. Terwadkar and Mr. Nikhilesh J. Tambe

    Petrol is used as a conventional fuel for many past years. So the dependency on petrol has increased greatly. Due to which depletion of energy sources (i.e. Fossil Fuels- Gasoline and Diesel) have occurred. Therefore there is requirement of hybrid engine, by which dependency on petrol and diesel can be decreased. Now days, people are facing problem of high fuel prices and harmful emission from vehicle which affects directly or indirectly on environment and human health. Aim of our project is to reduce the exhaust emission by running the vehicle on LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)as an alternative fuel for two stroke SI engine. This results in perfect balance in fuel consumption and pollution control which can be optimized in future generation vehicle. Using this concept, two fuels can be effectively transformed to hybrid with increasing fuel efficiency by 30 percent. Two stroke S.I. engines are having poor fuel economy and while using Petrol as a fuel; it emits high hydrocarbons and greenhouse gases.

  191. Ahmed M. Abo-Bakr and Husien H. Abbas-Temirek

    In an effort to discover new biologically active compounds, a series of new heterocyclic compounds have been synthesized from the 3-p-tolyl-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidine-4-one (1) and its brominated derivative 5-bromo-3-p-tolyl-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one (2). Reaction of 1 with 3-benzyloxybenzaldehyde gave the arylidine 3, which either by the reaction with malononitrile gave the pyrano[2,3-d]thiazole 4, or by the reaction with cyanothioacetamide gavethe thiazolo[4,5-b]pyridine 5. Condensation of 1 with ethylformate and cyanothioacetamide gave the thiazolopyridine 6. Treatment of 1 with triethylorthoformate gave the 5-ethoxymethylene derivative 7, and with phosphorous pentachloride and dimethylformamide gave the dimethylaminomethylene derivative 8. Condensation of 1 with isatin, tetrachlorophthalic anhydride and pyromellitic dianhydride afforded the corresponding 9, 10 and 11, respectively. Treatment of the 5-bromo-rhodanine 2 with hydrazine hydrate gave the 5-hyrazinoderivative 12, which reacted with ethoxymethylene malononitrile to give the pyrazole derivative 13. Reaction of 2 with amino-compounds such as, 2-amino-5-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole, 3-amino-5,6-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazine, o-, and p-phenylenediamine afforded 14, 15, 16 and 17, respectively. The reaction of 2 with thioacetamide gave the thiazolothiazole 18. Treatment of 2 with carbon disulfide and p-toluidine afforded the corresponding p-tolyl-dithiocarbamicester 19, which cyclized in ethanol and pipredine to give the thiazolothiazole 20. The chemical structures of the prepared compounds were characterized by their elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectra. Investigation of the antibacterial activity of these compounds was done by the paper disc technique. Some of the tested compounds showed high and favorable antibacterial activity.

  192. Veenaa Deeve, N.V., Vijesh Joe, C. and Narmatha, K.

    The green computing is one of the recent and prominent research field where many researchers are working on finding the efficient way to use energy in an efficient manner. The two ways in which the researchers look into green computing are mainly concentrating on the energy efficiency and power consumption and other way is making the green software to thrive the industry and make innovatory products. The number of challenges faced while migrating from classing computing to green computing are very high. But if the hurdles of implementation is crossed effectively the result will help in the environmental development and safety too. Most of the top companies are nowadays working seriously on migrating their project towards green computing.

  193. Ho Lee Lee and Prof. Ir. Dr Law Puong Ling

    An Environment Management System (EMS) is a tool for identifying the aspects and managing the impacts of an organisation's activities on the environment. The Environmental Management Systems (EMS) structure recognizes that both environmental and economic performances are directly linked with each other. The primarily purpose of implementing an EMS is to improve an organization’s environmental performance continuously. Benefits of successful implementation of an EMS would include cost reduction in pollution prevention activities, compliance with legislation requirements, and a better organizational image internationally and locally. This review looks into the benefits and role of EMS implementation and three most common frameworks of EMS; 1) ISO 14001, 2) USEPA’s Performance Track and 3) Responsible Care ®.

  194. Nalamala Rakesh

    In Wireless sensor networks the sensed data is collected and transmitted to the base station in the form of tree known as Data Gathering tree. If the number of Data Gathering Trees created for each cycle in wireless sensor networks is more it affects the performance of the entire network. Here only one data gathering tree for each cycle is constructed, so optimizing the network performance. Power optimality is achieved by considering heterogeneous sensors for construction of Data Gathering Tree. A data gathering tree is constructed using proposed algorithm which is a modification of Efficient Data Gathering (EDGE) protocol. It conserves the limited resources of the sensors and avoids both flooding and periodic updating of routing packets. The Tree will be reconstructed upon node failures or addition of new nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is enhanced EDGE which deals effectively for loops and optimizes the network performance.

  195. Kameshwaran, K. and Malarvizhi, K.

    The data mining process is to extract the information from a large data set and transform the extracted data into an understandable structure for further use. Clustering is a main task of exploratory data analysis and data mining applications. Clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). Power Iteration Clustering (PIC) algorithm is recently identified algorithm which helps to create a good quality of cluster. PIC is simple and scalable graph clustering technique. In PIC the embedding is an approximation to a eigen value-weighted linear combination of all the eigenvectors of an normalized similarity matrix. This embedding turns out to be very effective for clustering. This work shows that PIC consistently outperformed when the process is parallelized and it achieves fault tolerance by branch and bound algorithm. Parallelization minimizes computation cost, this algorithm works on all lower end commodity computers.

  196. Salawu Asipita Abdulrahman, Ekemhe Emmanuel Aiyejina and Ubi Ateb Paschal

    The favourable properties exhibited by synthetic polymers and ceramics have made them become the most commonly sort engineering materials in recent years. Despite the excellent properties exhibited by these synthetic polymer materials, the problem of biodegradability and sustainability makes it necessary to research into fully biodegradable composites which are green in every way. In this research, green composites were developed using cassava starch as matrix material and luffa cylindrica fibre as reinforcing material. The weight of the reinforcing material was varied at a step of 10 g from 10 g to 50 g during the bio-composite fabrication. 4% (0.1 mole) sodium hydroxide was used to treat the luffa cylindrica fibres at room temperature for 24 hours to enhance the interfacial bonding interaction between the cassava matrix and the bio fibre. Characterisations carried out on the treated bio fibre were; Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIRS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Tests including impact test, shore-D hardness test, moisture absorption, and bulk density determination of the developed composites were performed after the development of the bio-composites. The characterisations showed that the sodium hyrdroxide treatment effectively modified the fibres. Results from the mechanical tests showed that the bio-composite with 9:1 matrix to filler ratio absorbed the highest impact energy of 6.425 j while the 5:5 samples gave the least percentage moisture absorption value. A bulk density of 0.67 g/cm3 was obtained for the 7:3 (matrix to filler ratio) samples and the highest density value for the samples was obtained for the 9:1 sample with a corresponding value of 1.68 g/cm3.

  197. Omnia A.A. El-Shamy, Abdullah S. Al-Ayed and Hala M. Abo-Dief

    The effect of three different nonionic surfactants on the mild steel in artificial corrosive oil were studied. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements were depicted that the investigated inhibitors acts as mixed type inhibitors. The SEM was used to justify the practical results. The relationship between molecular structure and the inhibition efficiency were evaluated using PM3 semi-empirical method. The inhibition efficiency was matched with the most calculated quantum chemical parameters namely EHOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital), ELUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital), the energy gap ∆E, the Mulliken charges, the hardness η, the dipole moment µ, the total energy change ET, the electron affinity A, the absolute electronegativity x, the fraction of electron transfer ∆N and the electrophilicity index ω.

  198. Debnath, S., Barman, N. and Majhi, R. C.

    Caste system is a peculiar feature of Indian society. Swami Vivekananda is full of praise for the original caste system but he strongly criticises the degenerated caste system of his time. In his writings he has highlighted the problems relating to the exploitation of the poor by the rich, of the weak by the strong, of the unprivileged by the privileged one, exploitation of the lower class by the so-called higher class and so on; and the resulting struggle, the need to save people from dehumanizing poverty and a host of similar other issues. Vivekananda considers priest-craft, untouchability etc. as the main evils of the degenerated caste system. Throughout his lifetime he preaches against these and tries to generate public consciousness against these evils.

  199. Prof. (Ms) Joan Leela Madtha

    Slow learners should not be confused with students in need of special education or reluctant learners who are non-cooperative. The teachers and guardians may resort to some of the teaching aids available to special education students that may enhance interest of slow learners and help them get involved in the learning process. A slow learner is a child or pupil who is able to learn educational skills but a rate and depth below average as compared to the child’s peers or average learners in the class. Slow learners are often confused with students in need of special education or reluctant learners who are non-cooperative. A student who fails to excel in some classes or in some subjects does not imply that he or she is a slow learner. However, resorting to some of the teaching aids available to special education students may enhance interest of slow learners and help them get involved in the learning process. Actually slow learners are normal students who are simply not interested in studying under traditionally acceptable system of education. And several students in a class fall under this category, but most parents or guardians prefer to remain in denial mode.

  200. Sheriff Ghali Ibrahim, Kabir Mato and Paul Victor C.

    The paper tries to examine the nature and dimensions of foreign aid within the framework of international politics. It also discusses the politics of foreign aid as well as why the powerful states provide foreign aid to the weaker nations. The research adopted the secondary methodology to provide a substantial argument on the topic under study. Findings show that, albeit nations provide foreign aid through humanitarian interventionist gesture, some powerful nations are completely without such motive, but give out foreign aid based on strategic logical motive. The paper concludes that, giving out aid to third world societies without monitoring where and how the money is going to end, continues to make foreign aid meaningless, as corrupt leaders of the Third World would continue to siphon whatever that is given to the state. The paper recommends absolute monitoring and evaluation of foreign aid as well as targeting more productive areas of the economy of the recipient nation.

  201. Samuel K. Rong’uno

    Teachers are very important people in the education system. They play a central role at the school level, facilitating learning, planning, organization, leading and controlling the learning process. Many scholars attribute good performance to effectiveness and efficiency of teachers in teaching and proper utilization of material resources. This paper examines how teachers’ preparation and motivation to conduct class work influence academic performance in primary schools. The paper is based on a study conducted in Wareng Sub-County in Uasin Gishu Caounty, Kenya. The study covered a total of 55 public and 17 private schools distributed evenly among the five education Zones in the District. The figures translate to 52% and 68% of public and private schools respectively. Data collection was by means of questionnaire administered to teachers and head teachers. The results on performance were collected from the District Education Office. Performance in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) was used because it is a national examination that is not biased. The duration covered three years, 2007-2009. The study found out that teachers in private schools prepare more adequately compared to those in public schools. The main areas that were examined were: syllabus coverage, assessment of pupils learning climate and provision of instruction materials. Except in the later, public schools trucked being private schools in all the rest. The study also revealed that private schools motivate their teachers with items ranging from house equipment to finance. It was recommended that signing of performance contract should be implemented in public schools. This would eliminate laxity among teachers. Through the study findings, the management and head teachers of public schools may be able to discover why they cannot challenge private schools academically and more so ensure maximum academic results at the end of each academic year.

  202. Mariam A. A. Ameer, Salam M. El-hafez, Ghada M. El-hafez and Amira A. A. Abdalla

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of String Vibration Damper on the myoelectric activity of the wrist extensors during the impact phase of backhand stroke technique.15 elite and 15 novice tennis players with an age ranging from18-25 years volunteered to participate in this study. Only one racket was used and was impacted by a pressurized ball. That was subjected to a constant velocity. The ball impacts were directed the racket throat area with and without using the String Vibration Damper. The participants were not allowed to see the ball impacts, as stand was placed between the participant and the racket. The experiment was repeated three times at the same day with rest periods in-between. The wrist extensors EMG data were collected with and without using the String Vibration Damper. Results revealed that there was no significant effect of using String Vibration Damper on the mean values of maximum EMG activity of the examined muscles (P>0.05). But, the decrease in the myoelectric activity of tennis beginners is significant, indicated that it may be preferable to use the string vibration damper with tennis beginners to protect them against the occurrence of lateral elbow pain. In conclusion, the results of the study do not support the concept of using the String Vibration Damper to reduce the myoelectric activity of the wrist extensor during tennis playing.

  203. Jimi Debbarma, Sandhya Goswami and Tarika Sharma

    The study was conducted in the state of Tripura during the year 2014. The aim of the survey was to document the income opportunity to the Jute growers and the person associated with making of jute products i.e. craftsmen in Hapania Jute cluster (Cooperative society). The people of the area are getting involved in Tripura Jute Mill Ltd and taking interest in the Co-operative Society which is helping them in developing their socio-economy. Annually each family involved in production of jute fiber has earned Rs 4,119 from Tripura jute Mill Ltd. Craftsmen in Hapania Jute cluster (Cooperative society) has earned averaged profit of Rs 2,750 per month hence, 33,000 per year per person. Jute cultivator of the Tripura had a secure purchaser for their raw material. But in Tripura, the local cultivators has lost interest in growing jute as they prefer other cultivation like rubbers which seems to be far more profitable to them. Thus, it is prime important to analyze the fiber yield production status of the beneficiary farmers and provide them with better management.

  204. Ganapathy, S. and Abiramasundari, V.

    Higher Education in India has undergone a unique transformation since independence. Quantitative growth and qualitative improvement both are important for the higher education. The higher education system in India is at the stage of Quality Assurance. Internet, an Information Superhighway is an open non-participatory computer communication infrastructure that reaches every corner of the globe, carries information on every topic and is available to users round the clock. Major services of the Internet with its Strengths and Limitations were discussed. A survey was conducted on a sample of sixty individuals in order to identify the dominant usage of the Internet among the various strengths of the Internet. It is concluded that among the various strengths of the Internet, Wealth of Information Resources is found to have a better usage. If the Internet is used for all of its purpose, the knowledge horizon will move to infinity.

  205. Awah, Irene Mary

    This paper attempts to highlight the concept of dependency theory, and has put up a way forward in the concept of self-reliance. Dependency theory is a notion that the rich nations of the world totally dominates other less fortunate nations. In this write up, the explanation and meaning of self- reliance and how it can relate to national development especially in the socio- economic, political and administrative aspects were highlighted. In addition, some constraints to a self- reliant development in Nigeria were indicated. Unless a clear ideology of self- reliant development for the country is formulated and disseminated and the constraints removed, our pursuit of a “greater self-reliance” will remain illusory.

  206. Gladys Yinimi and Amega-Dunu Christopher

    Bushfires have become an environmental challenge in Ghana and it has become difficult for the Government to control devastating menace since this activity is deeply rooted in the socio-cultural and economic systems of the indigenous people, especially farmers. The effects of bushfire on rural livelihoods and on the ecosystem in the Upper East Region are extensive and damaging. Bushfires have accelerated environmental degradation and have become very influential in the ecology and socio-economic aspects of the rural landscape in the transition zone of Ghana. A series of participatory research activities revealed the continuing importance of fire to rural livelihoods, but that a mismatch in desired burning regimes exists between local stakeholders. The socio-economic impact of this disaster was collected using approaches such as interviews and focus group meetings. Some of the consequences of bushfires include the burning of food stuffs, houses as well as domestic animals. The research found out that, the continuous prevalence of this activity was due to the laxity in the implementation of bye-laws regulating bushfire burning due to the lack of personnel and logistics to state agencies in the district to combat the problem.

  207. Farouq Almeqdadi

    Pre-Service Elementary Teachers who study at Emirates College for Advanced Education (ECAE), Abu Dhabi, UAE, have opportunities to actively participate in all aspects of school life through the Practicum program. This program begins during the first year with observations in schools (Practicum I), while the next three years (Practicum II, III, and IV), student teachers start to teach aspects of lessons, small group lessons and then teach full lessons, until finally taking responsibility for teaching several classes over a 10 week period during their final year of internship in the schools (Students’ Handbook of ECAE, 2013). The ECAE students study four years to be elementary teachers who will teach mathematics, science, and English in English Language. The main objective of the Practicum III experiences for the students is to establish a strong foundation in the teaching, learning and assessment cycle. Students will plan, implement, assess, evaluate and reflect on lessons implemented in mathematics, science, and English. They will implement a variety of instructional strategies, prepare appropriate assessment tasks and develop reflective thinking skills in the planning and delivery of lessons. All lessons should use technological tools and formats including the communications between the students themselves, schools mentors, and college mentors. The main goal of this study was to investigate the perceptions of the ECAE students who finished their field experiences (Practicum III) about Mathematics. The researcher used an interview which consisted of nine questions with all students in the sample. The students’ perceptions were varied from low to large impact of the Practicum practices on their views about mathematics and how can they teach the mathematical concepts to the elementary students. The results of the study highlighted the importance and the power of the field experiences (Practicum III) in schools to develop the students’ mathematical knowledge and skills which are needed for the effective teacher. The researcher summarized the themes and sub-themes concluded in the results.

  208. Yoseph Gebrehiwot Tedla and Mekwanent Tilahun Desta

    The modular curriculum was introduced three years ago across all state-owned higher education institutions of Ethiopia. The rationale behind using this curriculum is that students should develop their language skills rather than their knowledge about the English language so that they can effectively attain their communication needs. To this end, related courses are formed into clusters with the aim of giving students sufficient time to exercise specific skill areas. In the modular approach, most of the courses are designed to be covered through the whole semester while few are on blocking basis. In practice, instructors offering skill-based courses as well as students majoring in English are oftentimes observed expressing their complaints about the limitations of the newly introduced curriculum. This study aimed at examining the suitability of the modular approach to offer/learn skill-based modules in EFL classes at Mekelle University. The subjects of the study were students in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature and instructors teaching English courses in the same Department. Questionnaire, focus group interview and classroom observation were the three data gathering tools used. The result of the study shows that language skill developing courses are less suitable to present through the blocking mode in terms of employing student-centred instruction, continuous assessment and practice-oriented lesson delivery. To improve the outcome of the modular approach, all the skill-focused modules should be revisited and redesigned considering the theories and the nature of language skill development in areas where English is considered as a foreign language. Also, technology should be in place to assist the classroom teaching learning process.

  209. Dr. Smitha Rao, M. S. and Kohila Kanagalakshmi, T.

    Relational databases which use SQL have a long- standing position in most organizations and have dominated the database markets for a long time. Relational databases work best with structured data—such as a set of sales figures—which readily fits in well-organized tables. This is not the case with unstructured data, such as that found in word-processing docu- ments, social media, log files etc. Especially in large scale and high concurrency applications, such as search engines and Social media using the relational database to store and query dynamic user data has been found to be inadequate. The advent of Big Data created a need for out-of-the-box horizontal scalability for data management systems. This ushered in an array of choices for Big Data Management under the umbrella term NoSQL, new technology for storage of large unstructured data. NoSQL databases are today gaining importance due to their linear scalability, schema flexibility and comparatively higher performance This paper highlights the implementation of NoSQL databases. It seeks to analyze various solutions to structure the unstructured data in terms of the way data is stored and retrieved from NoSQL databases.

  210. Despite the extensive benefits of ERP systems, organizations commonly face a hostile attitude from potential users who resist the ERP system implementation process. Customization of ERP is possible but big modifications are complex, costly and difficult in upgrading. The study sought to find ways to actualize effective adoption of ERP and understand the problems of ERP adoption in KOFC. The research was carried out through a Case Study with KOFC Corporation using questionnaires and individual interviews. The study findings showed that recent surveys confirm that majority of the respondents have some idea of other Information Systems yet they are not very comfortable with the current ERP mostly because they feel it was customized in a complicated way. The main conclusions drawn from this research were that current approaches to adopting ERP are deficient because they failed to embrace a holistic approach, instead opting for a narrow one which proves to have not worked and that a lack of communication between major stakeholders at corporation and the contractor level has hindered ERP adoption. This research argues for a multi-pronged model to reduce incidences of resistance. One that takes into account customer views, management of company policies, implementation issues (including proper resourcing and review policies), the need for developer support infrastructures, and a means of communication networks.

  211. Simeyo Otieno, Dr. Edgar Ouko Otumba and Robert Nyamao Nyabwanga

    Wealth creation is the goal for every investor. The stock market is one attractive area for investment. Nairobi Securities Exchange being an emerging market in the region, it is considered that both foreign and local investors will seize the opportunity and invest in the stock market. However, this has not been the case for many potential investors due to inability to make informed investment decisions based on future expectations of the stock market. An understanding of the stock market trend in terms of predicting price movements is important for investment decisions. Markov Chain model has been widely applied in predicting stock market trend. In many applications, it has been applied in predicting stock index for a group of stock but little has been done for a single stock. Moreover, the model has had limited application in emerging stock markets. The overall objective of this study therefore, was to apply Markov Chain to model and forecast trend of Safaricom shares trading in Nairobi Securities Exchange, Kenya. The study was conducted through a longitudinal case study design. Secondary quantitative data on the daily closing share prices of Safaricom was obtained from NSE website over a period covering 1st April 2008 to 30th April 2012 forming a 784 days trading data panel. A markov chain model was determined based on probability transition matrix and initial state vector. In the long run, irrespective of the current state of share price, the model predicted that the Safaricom share prices would depreciate, maintain value or appreciate with a probability of 0.3, 0.1 and 0.5 respectively.

  212. Mirela Costianu

    Where are we standing in the history of oil? In which point of the line are we now? Where are we going? Where is the line leading us, up or down? Towards what is the world moving? Are we going to “bathe” in oil in the near or far future or are we going to say “goodbye” to oil pretty soon? Global oil depletion is one of the most debated subjects nowadays, as oil is still the most important commodity we have. Since we are so addicted to this resource, it is essential to us to know the arguments that sustain the idea that the world is running out of oil and the counter-arguments to it.

  213. Bintoora Kamukasa Kakurungu Adonia

    Mt. Moroto Central Forest Reserve is a unique, rich and vital ecosystem which acts as one of the key water catchment areas in Karamoja region. The forest reserve supports the livelihoods of marginalised, forest dwelling, indigenous people known as Tepeth who depend on it for shelter against other armed neighbouring ethnic groups, as a source of food, honey, herbal medicine, energy and spiritual values. For centuries, Tepeth have applied and practiced traditional norms to protect the forest cover, unique trees species of spiritual, medicinal and food values. However, in the recent years, the utilisation of forest resources has been commercialised, forest cover converted to crop fields and pro-conservation traditional norms undermined, with far reaching consequences on the integrity of the forest reserve and the livelihoods of indigenous people. A study was carried out to identify major threats to the conservation of the forest with the view of coming up with strategies for sustainable management of the ecosystem and enhancement of people’s livelihood. Focused group discussions with forest resource users were carried out, consultative meetings with leaders held, a questionnaire was administered to randomly selected kraal members and field observations made. The results indicated that Mt. Moroto Central Forest Reserve was experiencing unprecedented human pressure in form of deforestation, mineral exploitation, fires, conversion to agricultural fields, charcoal burning and over grazing which had exacerbated forest degradation, food insecurity and loss of good traditional norms, which for a long time had enabled local people to protect the forest. It was established that conversion of the forest to crop fields was the greatest threat to the integrity of the central forest reserve. This was confirmed by 40.7% (n = 44) of the respondents. The findings also revealed gaps and weaknesses in the management of the forest. It was evident that there was urgent need for the forest management authority to formulate and implement an integrated management plan that sets priority interventions required to restore the integrity of the forest reserve, recognises the role of indigenous people and their traditional norms in conservation and promotes collaborative forest management.

  214. Hassen Mehammedbrehan Kahsay

    Today, most leading companies are developing customer relationship to make loyalty and retention programs. Beyond offering consistently high value and satisfaction, marketers can use specific marketing tools to develop stronger bonds with consumer. First, a company might build value and satisfaction by adding financial benefits to the customer relationship. A second approach is to add social benefits as well as financial benefits. This study focuses on the determinant factors affecting customer relationship management in ethio telecom in Mekelle town branch. In order to collect data both primary and secondary data sources were used in the study. The primary data was collected from users of the services and employees of the ethio telecom by using questionnaire. The secondary data was collected from books and other related records of the corporation. The sampling method used for customers was convenience and simple random sampling was used for employee so as to gather primary data. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive analysis and accordingly interpreted and reported.

  215. Peninah Jepkogei Tanui, Sarah Chumba and Jared Bogonko Bitange

    Environmental accounting practices are integral part of business success. They help in allocating environmental costs and integrating them in business decisions. These practices usually precede environmental reporting where the organization communicates its accountability regarding environmental efforts. Globally, some of the contemporary environmental issues that affect business include climate change, lack of access to clean drinking water, acute food shortages caused by draught and the use of non-renewable energy sources. Due to the rapid environmental deterioration, stakeholders, including business persons, are called to unite in curbing depletion of the natural resources by excessive human exploitation. The Kenya Vision 2030, in its social pillar, aims at making the country enjoy equitable social development in a clean and secure environment. This paper examines the environmental accounting practices and environmental costs of business based on a study of sampled large petrol filling stations in Eldoret Municipality in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study was conducted in the month of November 2014. The study was guided by Stephen Ross and Barry Mitnick’s Agency Theory. A total of 70 large petrol filling stations were selected using purposive sampling. The study employed a survey research design. Data was collected using questionnaires. Data analysis was done with the aid of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and presented using descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that 87.5% of the petrol filling stations carried out environmental accounting practices with only 20% facing challenges at implementing it. Moreover, 97.5% of the petrol filling stations were found to be evaluating these practices on a yearly basis. The findings further indicated that the contingent, image and relationship environmental costs were not largely incurred by the petrol filling stations. The most common costs incurred were the inspection, pollution control, spill response and waste management. The study recommended the need to carry out more research on ways to overcome challenges facing petrol filling stations while carrying out environmental accounting practices. In addition, there is need to devise ways to sensitize and motivate petrol filling stations to engage more in frequent evaluation of these practices, environmental reporting, support environmental groups, train on environmental issues and carry out more research on environmental issues.

  216. Uttam kumar Das and Prof. (Dr.) Jayakrushna Panda

    The 360 degree feedback provides valuable insight and helps to unveil areas of concern or improvement, so as to make any necessary changes. 360 degree feedback method is perfect to assess leadership qualities and also how the managers and supervisors are perceived by the employees and thus, is an effective way to growth and development within an organization. Since this kind of feedback and appraisal method is so comprehensive and thorough, it tends to be taken more personally. The 360 degree feedback method is quite beneficial for the business organizations, as it helps to identify the strengths, as well as weaknesses, of the employees and to figure out effective ways to work upon them. Also, it gives a brilliant opportunity to the employees to improve their performance and productivity.

  217. Vijaykumar B. Malashetty and Devendra N. Kage

    Plants are playing a vital role in the treatment of various diseases in all important system of medicine. There are many plants on the earth which lies unexplored in the field of medicine. One such plant is Crotaleria juncea L. which is known as sunhemp, pundi or san etc. valuable fibre is obtained from the bark which has greater tensile strength and more durable than jute. Plant is a rich source of alkaloids, particularly pyrrolizidone alkaloids and toxic aminoacids in seeds. C. juncea having a promising place in the Ayurveda for its abortificient, emetic, laxative, leprosy and blood diseases. In the present review the complete update on the plant has been enlightened to bring out the hidden medicinal values of the plant.

  218. Ni Ketut Supasti Dharmawan

    To strength the legal education in Indonesia in order to achieve not only the development of law in local and national but also more international basis, improving continually the content or substance of legal material is very important. However, the role of legal method (teaching and learning method) is undoubtedly influencing the improvement of quality legal education. The Problem Based Learning (PBL) as part of the Student Centered Learning (SCL) can be considered as an effective method to escalate the legal knowledge, legal skill and curiosity of students as well as to stimulate students to become more active in class upon particular legal issues determined in the guidance books or known as course books. Various obstacles in implementing this active learning model can be solved through creative solutions that appropriate with surrounding circumstances.

  219. Mohammed Usman Darasa and 1Prakasa Rao, D. S.

    Generally speaking, India and Ethiopia are known to have reservation and affirmative action policies under their respective constitutions. The Indian Constitution recognizes the three major categories of beneficiaries of reservation policies such as scheduled castes (SCs) and scheduled tribes (STs) and other backward classes (OBC) who have historically been excluded and marginalized from Indian society. Similarly, the principle of affirmative action is one of the innovative features of the constitution of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. For instance article 54(3) provides that out of the maximum number of 550 seats in the House of People's Representatives, a minimum of 20 seats are reserved for 'minority nationalities and peoples of the country. In conclusion this work has tried to assess and describe available constitutional safeguards to historically, marginalized and disadvantaged sections of societies in India and Ethiopia. It has been indicated that both the constitution of India and the Constitution of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, make some key especial provisions regarding affirmative rights and protections to disadvantaged sections of societies based on their respective national context. Inter alia, Both countries have adapted Federal system of government which is believed to be the most suitable instrument for the realization of this end. In this regard, constitution of India is far more inclusive and comprehensive. Because, it attaches special and detailed clauses which obliged state take specific and measurable remedial stapes. so that they can ride of marginalization and wrongs that had been done against them. From a comparative perspective, at the level of constitutional protection, the two counties are similar in that both have constitutionally guaranteed or endorsed measures of affirmative action or reservation policies in response to historical in justices. The constitutional recognition of affirmative action of the two countries differs in two crucial aspects: there are three categories of beneficiaries in case if India- such as scheduled casts and scheduled tribes and other backward communities. While in case of Ethiopia, affirmative action is provided as wider and general constitutional solution or direction without specifying the exact beneficiaries except women. It simply says affirmative for all historically marginalized and disadvantaged sections of an Ethiopian society in general. In conclusion, constitutional commitment is fairly clear both in case of India and Ethiopia but still much have to be done to put these noble constitutional principles into practice through further enforcing legislations. And particularly in Ethiopia implementation has to be backed by strong an enforcing legislations as well as institutional frameworks. Unlike the Ethiopia, India has enacted plenty of an advanced and strong legislative protections and institutional framework to monitor proper implementation reservations in general.

  220. Rai, Y. K., Lepcha, J. and Rai, L. K.

    Namchi is fast evolving into a major tourist destination in Sikkim with the coming up Siddhesvara Dham and Guru Padamasambhava statue at Samdruptse. Total tourist arrival (domestic and international) at Siddhesvara Dham was recorded at 162,747 in the year 2013 and 242,154 in 2014 touching the growth rate at 33 %. International tourists who visited Siddhesvara Dham increased to 8,478 in the year 2014 as compared to 2,882 in 2013 showing growth rate of 66 %. Similarly, domestic tourist arrivals at Samdruptse in the month of May were 15,400, 17,300 and 19,114 in 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively, with the growth rate of 11 % from 2012 to 2013, and 9.5 % increase from 2013 to 2014. Month of May carried the highest number of tourist load per year at both (Siddhesvara Dham and Guru Padamasambhava statue) tourist destinations. Prevailing tourism activity is observed to be playing a key role in preservation of cultural heritage and also providing direct and indirect employment opportunities to local people.

  221. Hassan Bagheri Nia, Amirhossein Kayzouri, Shiva Norozzadeh, Soghra Amiri and Sara Abedi Koshki

    This study is an attempt to survey the relationship between personality type and occupational burnout among the employees of Esfarayen University of Technology. To do so, 80 employees were selected through random sampling. To glean the required data, Mayers Bergerrs’ personality type indicator and Maslach occupational burnout inventory were used. The data were analyzed in SPSS using mean, variance, and the Pearson’ correlation coefficient. As the results showed ESFJ type had no significant relationship with occupational burnout, while the other types had such relationship. Except for INTP, ISFJ, and ISDP, the rest of the personality types had negative relationship with occupational burnout in the study group.

  222. Dr. Vijay Khare

    Buddhism, one of the most ancient religions of the world. Upon returning from enlightenment, Buddha spent the rest of his long life preaching about his Four Noble Truths: 1) dukka, the reality of suffering 4, 2) samudaya, the arising or origin of dukka, 3) nirodha, the cessation of dukka, and 4) magga, the way leading to the cessation of dukka. Buddhism is evangelistic in nature because its followers believe that the Hindu unbroken cycle of existence, which is filled with suffering, can be broken after all. Suffering can be stopped; beings can be liberated from painful existence. This paper focuses on Buddhism’s understanding of suffering. Having said that, it is not a comprehensive study of Buddhism. That is, it does not delve into every aspect of the religion and discuss all Buddhist doctrines extensively In particular, this study attempts to answer to the following questions from the Buddhist perspective: 1) What is suffering? 2) What causes suffering? 3) What can one do to stop suffering? 4) How can one walk on the path toward liberation from suffering? The paper is designed to be both truthful and respectful. Upon completion, its prospective reader will hopefully go away with a clear understanding of suffering according to Buddhism. This paper focuses on Buddhism’s understanding of suffering. Having said that, it is not a comprehensive study of Buddhism. That is, it does not delve into every aspect of the religion and discuss all Buddhist doctrines extensively. It does not offer a survey on the development of the religion over time or space. Rather, it takes a deep dive into the aspect of suffering, which is in fact right at the heart of the religion. It is hoped that once a prospective reader finishes reading the paper, he or she will know how Buddhists perceive suffering and how they deal with it in their daily lives.

  223. Dr. Das, V. M.

    Dr Mc Fadden and Dr Al Khalili who are pioneer in molecular biology and nuclear physics are unnecessary explaining Biology with QM. Both are separate identity or phenomena and both are triggered by MIND the ToE (theory of everything) The effects of matter and energy are different in different branches of science. In physics the effects are classified as classical physics and quantum physics. While in life sciences the effects are not physical rather they are associated with thoughts also. What are the basis of physical sciences as well as of life sciences or how laws of physics as well as of life sciences are made that is to be discussed in a very simple way. One has to equip with structure of the matter, origin of the universe and atomic genes as taught by participatory science. The standard model not only modified rather it has been completed (http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/indepth/2009/jul/01/the-quantum-life) with introduction of energized gravitons, primary fermions, primary bosons, Basic Building Blocks, Mind and Tachyons.

  224. Endang Siswati

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Labor unions on the performance and welfare of production workers in East Java Indonesia. Samples were taken from the four companies in the 4 districts / cities in East Java. To analyze the relationship between the variables of trade unions, variable performance, and variables welfare of workers in this study using Structural Equation Modeling with the SPSS 20 Amos 7 software. The analysis conducted in this study include confirmatory factor analysis of each latent variable both the exogenous construct as well as the endogenous constructs, a full analysis of SEM models, assumptions SEM analysis, structural equation models and hypothesis testing. Calculation of SEM analysis, parameter estimation of the relationship between labor unions on the performance obtained for 0.425. Testing the relationship between the two variables indicate the value of CR = 4.421 with probability = 0.000 (p <0.05). Means that the labor unions and a significant positive effect on the performance of labor, so the higher the union owned by the company, the performance of the workers will be higher as well. Parameter estimation of the relationship between the performances of labor for the welfare of workers obtained for 0.596. Testing the relationship between the two variables indicate the value of CR = 5.541 with probability = 0.000 (p <0.05). Means that the performance of labor is significant and positive effect on the welfare of workers, so that the higher the performance of the workers, the company owned by the workers' welfare will be higher as well.

  225. Dr. Pranab Chetiya, Mr. Jadab Dutta and Prof. J.C. Soni

    The present paper studiedSelf-concept and Emotional Maturity of Delinquency Prone and Non-delinquency Prone Adolescents of Secondary Schools in Assam. This study is conducted on a sample of 500 adolescents comprised of 200 delinquencies prone and 300 non delinquencies prone adolescents selected randomly from 12 secondary and higher secondary schools. The descriptive survey method is used for data collection using Lidhoo’s Delinquency Proneness Scale (1989), Self-concept Questionnaire (R.K. Saraswat) and Emotional Maturity Scale (M. Bhargava and Y. Singh). The study reported that delinquency prone adolescents have low self-concept and low emotional maturity than non-delinquency prone adolescents. It found positive co-relation among self-concept and emotional maturity.

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