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July 2018

  1. Dr. MARTIN François, Dr. JOHNEN Julien, Dr. PIZZIRUSSO Felix and Dr. VAZQUEZ Cesar

    Platypnea-orthodeoxia is un uncommon syndrome associating dyspnea and refractory hypoxemia induced by upright posture. Multiple etiologies can be brought upfront: cardiac shunt (patent atrial septal defect), pulmonary resection and hepatopulmonary syndrome amongst others. Its diagnosis is made by ultrasonography, often misled by its nonspecific clinical presentation. We present an atypical case of patent atrial septal defect. In our clinical case, the latent defect had been made patent by an architectural cardiac modification following a bulky pericardial cyst located near the right lung base. The therapy is that of the shunt, surgical or percutaneous.

  2. Dr. Puneet Sharma, Dr. Devinder Preet Singh, Dr. Pradeep Yadav and Dr. Ramniwas Kumawat

    New paradigms are continuously developing in orthodontics. Paradigm shift is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline. New idea generally experience great resistance from practitioners in the field and once the idea is accepted by various practitioners, a new paradigm begins. When this natural dentition state occurs, the face should also be in the perfect harmony and balance and the stomato-gnathic system should function ideally. All these appliances and various other modifications serve the purpose of anchorage but with some limitations like patient compliance especially with extra oral appliances and anchorage loss to some extent.

  3. Italo Giuffre

    This is a review article about the potential neuroprotective activity of forskolin, a receptor-independent activator of adenylate-cyclase, associated to homotaurine, rutin, L-carnosine, vitamins B1, B2, B6, magnesium and folic acid in a food supplementation to patients affected by open angle glaucoma. The combined action on IOP and neuron survival suggests a neuroprotective activity of this food supplement in glaucomatous neurodegenerative disease, in which elevated IOP is the main risk factor, but not the only determinant of the progressive death of retinal ganglion cells from campimetric and electrophysiological points of view.

  4. Dr. Saraswathi .K .Gopal, Dr. Padma.M., Dr. Supriya Manoharan, Dr. Sowmya.H., and Dr. Amala Manivannan.

    Background: Panoramic radiography is a two-dimensional dental x-ray that captures the entire mouth in a single image, including the teeth, upper and lower jaws, surrounding structures and tissues. The study was conducted to report the various findings on panoramic radiographs archives of retrospective data. Materials and Method: This study was conducted in the department of Oral Medicine & Radiology in Meenakshi Ammal Dental College & Hospital during the period August 2016 to September 2017. It included panoramic radiographs of 2000 patient images obtained for various reasons. Patient’s information such as name, age, gender, indication of OPG was recorded. All images which were of no diagnostic value and faulty were excluded from the study. All images were taken with single digital Sirona OPG machine and were statistically analysed with Chi square test using SPSS software version 22.0. Results: In the spectrum of our OPG radiographic study, the various common findings in the 2000 radiographs are periodontitis with 21.05%, impacted mandibular 3rd molar bilaterally with 14.95%, periapical abscess with 8.30 %, impacted mandibular 3rd molar unilaterally with 6.80%, pulp stone with 5.60% , styloid elongation – unilateral in 5.25%, microdontia and maxillary 3rd molar bilaterally with 5% , root dilacerations with 4.45%, TMJ degeneration with 3.40% and maxillary 3rd molar unilaterally with 3.35% . Out of 2000 radiographs, incidental findings were seen in 973 radiographs with 48.65%. The most common incidental findings are periodontitis 25.28%, pulp stone 22.30%, impacted mandibular 3rd molars bilaterally 17.99%, TMJ degeneration with 10.79% , microdontia 10.27%, impacted mandibular molar unilateral 10.07%, root dilacerations 9.54%, periapical abscess 9.45%, impacted maxillary molars bilaterally 7.39%, styloid elongation bilateral 4.93%, calcified carotid arteries 4.93%, Odontomes 4.32%, impacted maxillary molars unilateral 4.01%, styloid elongation unilateral 3.59%, dense bone islands of 3.08% , cement osseous dysplasia 2.87% , maxillary sinus thickening of 1.54%, external root resorption and other impacted teeth with 1.43%, supernumerary impacted teeth 1.33%, macrodontia and maxillary canine impaction with 1.23%, mandibular canine impaction 1.13%, and antrolith with 0.61% and internal root resorption with 0.20%. Conclusion: Panoramic radiograph is a preferred routine diagnostic tool for the evaluation of fractures, impacted teeth, full mouth rehabilitation, large lesions, cysts, tumors etc. The additional advantage is incidental findings which may remain undetected if radiographer does not concentrates on keen interpretation.

  5. Dr. Chandramani B. More, Dr. Kajal Shilu, Dr. Nishma Gavli and Dr. Rao Naman Rajeshkumar

    Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic, insidious, irreversible, progressive, scarring and debilitating potentially malignant disorder (PMD) involving the oropharynx and the upper part of the esophagus. It is characterized by juxta-epithelial inflammatory reaction and progressive fibrosis of lamina propria, leading to blanching, stiffness and rigidity of oral mucosa, and further trismus. OSMF is frequently seen in countries of south and south-east asia. The etiology of this disease is multifactorial, but studies have confirmed its strong association with chewing of arecanut and its commercially available products. The molecular pathogenesis of OSMF is unclear and complex. Hence, the authors through this article are proposing additional information to the existing pathogenesis of OSMF and have made an attempt to simplify the same. This article also highlights the new clinical manifestations of OSMF, observed by the authors.

  6. Dr. Muthamilselvi, G.

    A quantitative research approach with quasi experimental design was adopted by the investigator to compare the effectiveness of medicat4d and non-medicated sitz bath on episiotomy wound healing among the postnatal mothers in selected hospitals at pudycherry. Sixty postnatal mothers were selected by simple random sampling technique. They were divided in two groups, 30 in Interventional group I with Medicated sitz bath (Butadiene 10%) and 30 in Intervention Group II with non- medicated sitz bath (105 F) were planned. The data was collected using REEDA Scale for status of episiotomy wound healing and pain was assessed by visual Analog scale. One way ANOVA computed to find out the effectiveness between the Medicated sitz bath with Non Medicated sitz bath. Findings revealed that medicated sitz bath was effective than non medicated sitz bath in reducing the pain and improving the wound healing . So the stated hypothesis were accepted by the investigator

  7. Dr. Mamta Malik, Ravinder S Saini, Dr. Sanjeev Laller, Dr. Kanwalpreet Kaur, Dr. Pooja Sheokand and Dr. Nisha Dahiya

    Background: Periodontal disease is a chronic disease of the oral cavity comprising a group of inflammatory conditions affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Numerous markers in saliva have been proposed as a diagnostictests for periodontal disease such as intracellular enzymes and alkaline phosphatase is one amongst them. The purpose of this study was to determine the salivary levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in patients with periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers, and to compare them with ALP in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the activities of salivary ALP in 75patients ageing between 20-50 years. The experimental groups consisted of 50 Chronic periodontitis patients( 25 with smoking and 25 without smoking history) and the control group had healthy subjects (25 samples). Unstimulated whole saliva collected from each subject was transferred to auto analyzer to measure the salivary alkaline phosphatase levels. The quantitative analysis of salivary alkaline phosphatase levels of samples obtained from subject groups was done. Results: ALP level were higher in the subjects of chronic periodontitis in smokers habit when compared to non-smokers and healthy individuals Conclusion: Salivary level of Alkaline Phosphatase was significantly elevated in patients with chronic periodontitis in smokers as compared to non-smokers and healthy individuals and can be considered as a biomarker for periodontal disease.

  8. Dan Călugăru and Mihai Călugăru

    The authors are commenting the article entitled “Sustained benefits from ranibizumab for central retinal vein occlusion with macular edema: 24-month results of the Crystal study” published by Larsen et al. in Ophthalmology Retina 2018;2(2):134-142. The conclusion resulting from this article is that regardless of the antiangiogenic agents chosen (e.g., bevacizumab/ranibizumab), the treatment paradigms used (e.g., treat-and-extend/pro re nata/fixed-interval/escalated algorithm), the patient age, the baseline best-corrected visual acuity, and the form of central retinal vein occlusion (ischemic/nonischemic occlusion), the efficacy of treatment depends primarily on the promptness of the therapy after the onset of the retinal vein occlusion.

  9. Dr. Piara Singh, Dr. Makam Ramesh, Dr. Tulip Chamany and Dr. Amarpreet Marwaha

    Background: Banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a further modified standard RYGB which was designed in a view to achieve greater weight loss and avoid or diminish weight regain in the long term. There is conflicting evidence as whether the banded RYGB is better than standard non-banded type and lack of literature in this part of south India made us to conduct this study. Objectives: To compare the outcomes in terms of mean weight loss, % excess weight loss, significant weight loss and resolution of comorbidities among banded and non-banded Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass groups at 1 year of post-operative period. Methodology: A longitudinal observational study was carried out at two tertiary care hospitals in the Department of Laparoscopic and Bariatric Surgery, Bangalore in 109 morbidly obese patients who underwent standard non-banded RYGB and banded RYGB during January 2012 to December 2015 and were followed up till 2016 for a period of 1 year. The 1-year total weight loss, excess weight loss (%) and significant excess weight loss were comparatively analyzed using independent t test, Mann Whitney, Fisher’s exact test and Chi-square test wherever, required. A P value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant Results: Among 109 patients who underwent RYGB, 67.9% underwent non-banded RYGB and 32.1% banded RYGB. The mean age of study subjects was 43.91yrs with a standard deviation of 11.71yrs and females predominated the study and both the groups were comparable in all the socio-demographic characteristics except for age and presence of hypertension. Mean Total Weight loss, Median Excess Weight loss, >50.0% BMI loss, resolution of comorbidities were nearly similar and not significantly different in both the study groups. (P>0.05) Conclusion: Both banded and non-banded RYGB were equally effective in reducing excess weight loss and resolution of comorbidities at the end of 1 year of post-operative period. On comparing with other literatures, highlights the requirement of long term follow up.

  10. Dr. Namita Pandey and Dr. Seema Chadhha

    Background: Cervical lymphadenopathy is a very common problem encountered in hospital settings, particularly in children. Underlying cause can be evaluated by using various diagnostic modalities. FNAC is a simple, quick and inexpensive method for evaluation of enlarged cervical lymph nodes. FNAC in children is less popular as compared to its use in adults. Objective: To determine the utility of FNAC in diagnosing pediatric cervical lymphadenopathy. Methods: The study was conducted at Northern Railway Central Hospital, New Delhi, from January 2015 to December 2016. 115 patients presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy, up to the age of 10, were included in the study. FNAC was used for making diagnosis. Results: Cervical lymphadenopathy was quite common in children, with most common cytomorphological finding being reactive hyperplasia. Most of the etiologies were benign. Conclusion: Different etiologies play role in development of cervical lymphadenopathy. FNAC is a safe and reliable diagnostic method in children obviating the need for excision biopsy.

  11. Hare Krishna, Aritra Banerjee, Seema Singh, Pooja Jain and Neerja Rani

    Background: The coeliac trunk (hepatolienogastric trunk or “Tripus Hallery”) is the most important artery of the foregut. It arises at the level of T12 vertebra from the abdominal aorta. The branches of coeliac trunk (left gastric, common hepatic and splenic) considered as the normal appearance. The coeliac trunk variations have been reported which are common and usually asymptomatic. Left gastric artery variations are very rare and awareness of such anatomical variations has become specifically important in patients undergoing hepatobiliary surgeries and liver transplantation to avoid serious ischemic complications. Therefore, it was aimed to study the coeliac trunk and its branching pattern. Objective: The present study is aimed to investigate anatomical variations of the coeliac trunk and left gastric artery. Methods: The present study was carried out on 42 cadavers of age 60-80 years who were allotted to 1st year MBBS students for routine dissection during the period of last 4 years in Department of Anatomy, AIIMS, New Delhi. Dissection was done to identify the coeliac trunk and its branches. The branches were traced from origin to termination. Results: We observed three unusual variations in arterial patterns of the coeliac trunk in 42 cadavers. The middle colic artery was arising from coeliac trunk which was supplying the uncinate process of pancreas and transverse colon. In another two cases we observed an accessory branch arising from left gastric artery which was supplying the left lobe of liver and cardiac end of stomach. Conclusion: The knowledge of deviations from the normal arterial pattern of gastrointestinal tract is of immense significance for surgical and radiological procedures pertaining to the liver and adjacent viscera.

  12. Abdul Qayum Chowdhury

    Background: Epistaxis is defined as any bleeding arising from the nasal mucosa, it is the most vascularization of the nose and paranasal sinuses, which receive blood supply from the internal and external carotid systems. It is the most common ENT emergency situation¹ bearing a prevalence of about 10 to 12%4. Its incidence is of 30 cases for every 100,000 inhabitants and more then 87% of the patients seen by the ENT are admitted to a hospital8. The objective of this present study was Evaluation of etiology mainly non-traumatic and its associated factors. Methods: 58 number of patients were included in this study with Epistaxis. The main outcome of study were etiology, age, sex, Occupation, Seasonal Prevalence, Site of non-traumatic epistaxis, Sevearity & frequency of non-traumatic epistaxis and treatment modalaties. Result: The study showed that the commonest cause of non-traumatic epistaxis was idiopathic 29.31%, followed by maggots infestation and rhinosporidiosis 10.34%, Hypertension 8.62%.Beside these, Rhino sinusitis, Haemangioma, Idiopathic blood dyscrasias & topical nasal steroid user presented with showed hypertension, rhinitis and septal pathology found 8.62%, Atrophic rhinitis and Sinunasal neoplasm 5.17%, Ethmoidal polyp 3.44%, Inverted papilloma 3.44%,Vestibulitis 1.72%. Antrochoanal polyp 5.17%. It was encountered that males were affected twice than the females (2.05:1). Their mean age was 40 years (range 1.3 to 80 years). Anterior nasal bleeding was noted in majority of the patients (51.72%). Non surgical measures such as observation alone (27.58%), anterior nasal packing (20.68%), posterior nasal packing (8.6%) were the main intervention methods. Surgical measures 25 out of 58 (43.10%) mainly Wide base excision & Electrocauterization of base of Rhinosporidiosis were carried out in 6 cases, Correction of septal abnormalites were carried out in 8 cases. Electrocauterization and biopsy after hospital admission taken in 4 cases. Arterial ligation and endovascular embolization were not performed. Conclusion: Epistaxis are very common in male and Their mean age was 40 years. Idiopathic is the most commonest cause of non-traumatic epistaxis. Most case were successfully managed with conservative (Non surgical) treatment.

  13. Nasreen Anjum, CH. Satyanarayana, Sharma, G R K. and Srinivas, D.

    Sustainability is the end goal of organic farming and sustainability includes social, economical and ecological components and these characteristics play an important role in influencing the farmers to practice organic dairy farming. As their education level and awareness about the advantages of the organic farming will influence them for conversion in to organic dairy farming. Indians being small and medium farmers the labour intensive nature of the various dairying aspects makes impossible for the small to medium farmers to get remunerative prices. Though livestock forms an integral part in practicing organic agriculture they limit their production only upto organic agriculture and do not go for organic dairying due to highly perishable nature of milk and milk products. High capital requirement for starting the organic dairy farming and extremely low returns in the process of conversion from non organic to organic farming discourages farmers to take up organic dairy farming as majority of the farmers are middle class and cannot afford to start organic dairy farming.

  14. Dr. Varun A. Deshpande, Dr. Rucha V. Deshpande and Dr. Praneita S. Gangji

    The awareness of aesthetics is increasing along with the patients expectations. Metal Ceramic restorations had been widely used past many decades in dentistry. Due to the advantages of all ceramic materials the use of these restorations is preferred. Restoring anterior aesthetics with Fixed Dental Prosthesis (FDP) considers facial , dental and gingival aesthetics. To achieve these, interdiciplinary approach is a good option of choice.

  15. AndiKartini Eka Yanti, Faridin, H.P., Syakib Bakri, Hasyim Kasim, Haerani Rasyid, Pendrik Tandean, Fardah Akil, Nu’man As Daud and Arifin Seweng

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by progressive joint damage, with very high morbidity and mortality. High level of serum uric acid is associated with a condition of ischemic injury, and aggravate the inflammatory process in RA, it is suggested that uric acid is associated with the degree of disease activity in RA. Aim: Determine the correlation between the degree of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis with level of serum uric acid in patients treated in Wahid in Sudirohusodo hospital Makassar and its network. Method: This research is an observational type with cross sectional approach in 57 subjects of rheumatoid arthritis, who were over 18 years old and did not have other autoimmune diseases. The degree of disease activity was assessed based on DAS28-LED instrument. Serum uric acid, serum creatinine, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test, using venous blood samples. Sampling is done consecutive sampling and put into the experiment until a certain time so that the number of sample reached. Methods using Multiple and logistic regression to determine the relationship between the degree of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity and serum uric acid levels. Result: In this study most were 40-59 years old (43.9%), with the most subjects were females (73%), and most with high degree of disease activity (52.6%). Based on regression and multivariate analysis, male sex was most significantly correlated with uric acid level (p <0,05), there was no significant correlation between degree of disease activity and serum uric acid level. Conclusion: There were no significant correlation between the degree of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity and serum uric acid levels, though it may appear that the uric acid levels increased at higher levels of activity. Risk factors most significantly associated with serum uric acid levels is the male gender. Further research is needed with larger sample quantities and longer time, to be able to assess fluctuations in serum acid levels, and to assess other risk factors affecting serum uric acid levels.

  16. Dr. Bijo Alexander

    Nanotechnology is manipulating matter at molecular and atomic levels. It holds myriad potentials in the field of medicine and dentistry. The paper tries to provide the reader an insight about nanotechnology in dentistry by addressing its social, health and ethical impacts. Applications of nanotechnology in dental diagnostics, dental materials and preventive dentistry is discussed along with a peep into its future prospects.

  17. Sanaye, M.M. and Zehra, S.

    Background: Urolithiasis has become a global problem with increased prevalence over last few years. Renal calculi formed usually comprises of calcium oxalate as a major constituent. Conventional treatments include use of vasodilators in early stage of urolithiasis, whereas, staghorn calculi requires Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL) intervention which carries risk of renal injury and recurrence. They are also expensive, time bound and associated with side effects. Literature reports medicinal plants rich with multi-functional bio-active constituents, possessing lithotriptic potential which needs to be scientifically explored. Objective: Pentacyclic triterpenoids viz. lupeol, ursolic acid and betulin are reported in literature for their anti-urolithiatic effect. As the plant Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. Apocynaceae is rich with these phyto-constituents, this study was conducted with the objective to find out in-vitro lithotriptic activity of four extracts of leaves of Alstonia scholaris, in comparison with standard poly herbal preparation Cystone (Cys). Method:-Leaves of Alstonia scholaris were extracted with Methanol (MeAS), Chloroform (ChAS), Ethanol (EtAS) and Hydro-ethanol (HeAS) solvents using soxhlet apparatus. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed to identify presence of triterpenoids; which was further confirmed by HPTLC. In-vitro lithotriptic effect of four extracts was evaluated by incubating each extract (50,100,200,400 and 800mg) at different time intervals (8, 18 and 24 hours) with calcium oxalate crystals (10mg) in semi-permeable membrane isolated from chicken eggs. Result:-Class of compound determination by HPTLC confirmed presence of pentacyclic triterpenoids in all four extracts with the highest content in EtAS. The order of extent of dissolution of calcium oxalate crystals observed was EtAS>ChAS>HeAS>MeAS. Conclusion:-Maximum lithotriptic activity of leaves of Alstonia scholaris was observed with extract EtAS which is comparable with standard Cystone. Thus, anti-urolithiatic effect exhibited by leaves of Alstonia scholaris can be attributed to the presence of pentacyclic triterpenoids detected in the plant.

  18. Amith Kumar Chennadi

    This is a case series study done at tertiary centre ,Prathima Institute Of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar in northern region of Telangana. Cases were diagnosed to have congenital heart disease by echocardiography performed by cardiologist. In our study of 40 patients, 40% of patients had VSD followed by ASD at 25% .Other congenital heart diseases like PDA and valvular heart disease were found to be at 11%. Tetralogy of Fallot was diagnosed in 3 patients.

  19. Meriem Amine, Meriem El M’Daghri, Carine Samuhan Dakouo, Iswa Kadiri, Mouna Hamza, Abderrahmane Andoh and Anas Bennani

    Introduction: The choice of the therapeutic solution in the prosthesis is brieflyexplored field. The purpose of this study is to emphasize on factors influencing and guiding the patients towards a specific therapeutic option. Material and Methods: An epidemiological study has been achieved within the Prosthodontic Departments of University Hospital Center Ibn Rochd. It included all patients aged 18 years old and more treated in these departments during two months. The statistical methods used are descriptive. Results: The sample studied included 172 patients hosted during the study period with a male / female ratio 0,56.The factors identified as influencing the patient’s choice of the therapy were: The functional rendering for 64% of the patients, the practitioner’s opinion for 59.3%, the increase in self confidence with the prosthesis for 55.8%; the position of the teeth to be restored for 53.5%; the aesthetic rendering for 52.9%; the cost of the treatment for 51.2%; the desire to have a radical solution for 46.5% and the desire to have a fixed device for 41.9%. Regarding the type of the prosthesis performed; these same factors are found, but in a different order of priority. Discussion: The functional rendering represented the major choice criterion for a removable or fixed prosthesis in this studied population as a whole. The main place of the practitioner’s opinion could simply reveal the great confidence that the patients had towards their practitioner to guide them towards the best therapeutic choice. Although the cost factor was the sixth factor of choice, it influenced both the patient and the practitioner in this prosthetic therapeutic decision-making. Given that in our background, the socio-economic level of the sample is still limited and the majority of the cost of the prosthetic care are provided by a free medical cover called the medical assistance plan or RAMED, based on the principles of social assistance and national solidarity for the benefit of needy population. Conclusion: The shared decision-making should take into account both the practitioner’s therapeutic proposals and the aforementioned prosthetic choice factors inherent in the patients. This is part of the permanent apprehension for an improvement in the acceptance and the satisfaction of the prosthetic result by the patient.

  20. Dr. Shweta Varma, Dr. Ajay Bhoosreddy, Dr. Sonal Patil, Dr. Kalyani Vaijwade and Dr. Mala Jaisinghani

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to see the appearance of buccolingual dilacerations of the root on RadioVisioGraphy. Material and Methods: 50 buccolingually dilacerated extracted teeth were collected and graded based on the degree of severity of root curvature. They were then mounted on wax and examined on RVG. These RVG images were then categorized into five types as per Young Ho Kim et al. Objectives: I. To group the extracted dilacerated tooth based on the degree of severity of root curvature. II. To categorize the RVG views based on the degree of severity of root curvature: 1. Indistinct type 2. Clear blunt on the root tip 3. Stepping on root tip 4. Bull’s eye 5. Normal type Results: Of all the teeth 1st molars were more common buccolingually dilacerated teeth followed by premolars, 3rd molars, 2nd molars and canine. As the degree of severity of root curvature increases, the blunt type and the stepping type were more commonly observed on RVG. Conclusions: Within the scope of our study we can conclude that although 3D imaging has been used as diagnostic confirmatory test for buccolingual root dilaceration 2D imaging can be used as diagnostic screening test.

  21. Hajir Sir Elkhatim Hamid Mukhtar, Walid Ahmed Hamid Eldaif, Alsadig Gassoum, Mohamed Abdelrahman Arbab and Hassan Hussein Musa

    Background: A case-control study was conducted to study vitamin D receptor VDR-BsmI polymorphism with tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility in the different types of tuberculosis infection among Sudanese patients. Methods: One hundred and twenty tuberculosis patients with 46 apparently healthy controls were included for genotyping of the VDR-BsmI polymorphism using Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR –RFLP). Results: This study found that the BsmI polymorphism in VDR gene is significantly associated with tuberculosis infection (P=0.00) and the heterozygous allele Bb is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis infection with odd ratio 4.681. The pulmonary tuberculosis was the most predominant in the study population and it was found to be associated with the VDR-BsmI heterozygous Bb allele odds ratio (OR) 1.319 while the bb allele was associated with the Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis infections. Conclusion: The b allele is associated with susceptibility to TB infections among Sudanese patients especially to the extra pulmonary TB.

  22. Priya Vezhavendhan

    Objective: To investigate the effect of chitosan (CH), a biocompatible polysaccharide, on the antibacterial property of polycarboxylatecements. Materials and methods: The conventional control group zinc polycarboxylatecements were manipulated in their original composition and for experimental groups, solutions of chitosan added to the commercial liquid in 0.2g/L (0.0044 wt%) concentration. Antibacterial effects against Streptococcus mutans were tested in two groups after 48 hours and the data were submitted to statistical analyses. Results: The analyses of the results revealed that the highest mean zone of inhibition was recorded in experimental group compared to control group with statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: The antibacterial property can be considerably improved by the addition of a tiny amount of CH. Moreover, in the presence of CH, the release of fluoride ions is catalyzed.

  23. Ndiogou GUEYE, Dienaba Sall, S.Y., Tahir A. DIOP and Raghu Ram, M.

    To A total of twenty Trichoderma strains were isolated from rhizospheric soils of tomato fields from different areas of Niaye zone, main area of horticulture production in Senegal. Identification of these Trichoderma isolates was based on morphological and cultural characters on potato dextrose agar medium. These strains were screened for the production of extracellular enzymes such as cellulase, L-Asparginase, chitinase and pectinase. The screening was done by following plate assay method on their respective solid media. Among the 20 strains, 14 strains showed the pectinase activity, 11 strains was positive for L- Asparginase production, 3 strains showed chitinase activity, 15 strains was positive for cellulase activity. The 2 strains (TS1 and NG4) was found to be positive for all the enzymes tested. The excretion of extracellular enzymes reveals their usefulness in the application of Trichoderma species as biocontrol in agricultural soils and in industrial and commercial applications.

  24. Dr. Aman Abrol, Dr. Arvinderpal Singh, Dr. Charanjeet Singh, Dr. Anuj Sharma, Dr. Priya Pundir

    Apical extrusion of irrigants and debris is an inherent limitation associated with cleaning and shaping of root canals and has been studied extensively because of its clinical relevance as a cause of flare-ups. Many factors affect the amount of extruded intracanal materials. The purpose of this study was to assess the bacterial extrusion by using manual, Mtwo NiTi rotary system and V(variable) taper rotary instrumentation techniques. Thirty six human mandibular premolars were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis. The teeth were divided into 3 experimental groups (n=10) and 1 control group (n=6). The root canals of experimental groups were instrumented according to the manufacturers’ instructions by using manual technique, Mtwo NiTi rotary system and V (variable) taper rotary instruments .Sterilized saline was used as an irrigant and bacterial extrusion was quantified as colony-forming units/milliliter. Results obtained were statistically analysed with suitable statistical test.

  25. Dr. Shreya Shetty, Dr. Roopak D Naik, Dr. Harshavardhan Kidiyoor and Dr. Praveen Kumar T.

    The cheek retractor is an indispensable aid in the field of orthodontics. It is of great importance for moisture control as well as for the provision of a clear field of view during intraoral photography. In this report, we present an innovative technique to modify the cheek retractor for simultaneous use of suction and high volume evacuation during the bonding procedure. Moreover, the use of the same cheek retractor for photographic purposes has been made possible with this modification. This modification leads to better patient comfort and minimal inventory.

  26. Varun Abrol and Kahan Abrol

    The Nanodentistry is a science and technology of diagnosing, treating and preventing diseases, using nanoscale structured materials. Nanorobotics centers are self-sufficient machines which are functional at the nanoscale. The focus of this article is on application of nanoparticles in orthodontics. Nanotechnology, which concerns structures at the Nano scale, is considered as a vital current technology of the 21st century based on its economic and scientific potential. The future in orthodontic treatment will benefit enormously through nanotechnology should all the current attempts succeed to its clinical application at a reasonable cost to the orthodontist and patients.

  27. Adeniyi Adewunmi, Tawakwalit Ottun, Sunday Omisakin and Kola Ogah

    Background: Zinc plays an important role in testicular development, spermatogenesis and sperm motility via its antioxidant properties in scanvenging reactive oxygen species. Objectives: This study sets out to determine the correlation of blood and seminal fluid zinc levels and semen parameters in Nigerian men with normal and abnormal semen parameters who were seen for infertility. Methods: A prospective case-control study of eighty five men with abnormal semen parameters (cases) and equal number with normozoospermia (controls) enrolled from the Institute of Fertility Medicine and the gynaecological outpatient clinic was carried out. The cases were further sub-grouped as oligozoospermic (n=64), asthenozoospermic (n=13) and azoospermic (n=8). Blood and seminal fluid concentrations of zinc were determined by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometer. Results: The median zinc concentrations in blood and seminal seminal fluid were significantly lower in the cases compared with the controls; 1.7 μmol/L(IQR 0.6,2.7) versus 3.2 μmol/L (IQR 1.6,5.2), p<0.001 and 9.0 μmol/L (IQR 6.1,11.0) versus 19.4 μmol/L (IQR 14.0,25.5), p<0.001 respectively. Blood zinc levels showed a significant positive correlation with sperm count (r=0.311 p=0.012), progressive motility (r=0.252 p= 0.045) and total motility (r=0.285 p=0.022) in the oligozoospermic men. Seminal fluid zinc level however was significantly correlated only with progressive sperm motility (r=0.251 p=0.045) in the oligozoospermic men. Conclusion: This study revealed that blood and seminal plasma zinc levels were significantly lower in men with abnormal semen parameters compared with normal controls. In oligozoospermic men, blood zinc levels were significantly positively correlated with semen parameters while the seminal fluid zinc levels showed significant positive correlation only with progressive motility.

  28. Parvathy Kamath and Suja Joseph

    Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome is an important medical condition which is on the increase in the past 50 years. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing nations of the world.. Literature review was carried out on the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, complications, diagnostic modalities, and various treatment options. Additional information was obtained by cross referencing on other related journals using computerized search.

  29. Dr. Vivek, K., Dr. Vasanthakumari, A., Dr. Jai Ganesh, I., Dr. Vivek Reddy and Dr. Lokesh, S.

    The aim of this study was to assess the dental awareness prevailing among primary government school students. A cross-sectional school-based study design was carried out. School children from Mathur primary government school were involved in this study. Data were collected by using structured pre and post questionnaires. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate the dental awareness of primary school children regarding their oral health and dental treatment. This study included 300 primary school students from Mathur, Kanchipuram district, Tamilnadu. Data were analyzed. Before awareness programme majority of sample 230 (78%) had average level of knowledge, 62(20%) poor level of knowledge and only 8 (2%) had good level of knowledge regarding Dental hygiene. After structured awareness programme 68% students had average and 32% had good level of knowledge and no one had poor level of knowledge regarding dental hygiene. It was concluded that knowledge and practice about oral health among study participants were poor before awareness and much more improved after awareness programme. Therefore, comprehensive oral health educational programs for both children and their parents are required to achieve more knowledge regarding dental and oral health.

  30. Dr. J. Pranu Chakravarthy and Dr. Shifan Khanday

    Aim of the study: To study the morphological and morphometric study of the menisci of the knee joint and its clinical significance. Objectives: To estimate the incidence of different shapes of the medial and lateral menisci and the incidence of discoid meniscus. To evaluate the morphometric variations in the menisci. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out over a period of three years in the Department of Anatomy, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai. Materials: The following materials were used for the study: Human adult knee joints, available in the Anatomy dissection hall, were used for the present study. The study includes 116 menisci from 58 knee joints of adult cadavers. Among them, 31 were right-sided and 27 were left-sided isolated lower limbs. Methods 1.Morphological Study: After the dissection of the skin and muscles, the approaches to the menisci were performed, opening anteriorly by a longitudinal incision on each side of the joint capsule, cutting the patellar ligament and the collateral ligaments transversely. In order to expose the menisci clearly, the joint capsule and the intra-articular ligaments were cut and the condyles were circumferentially detached from their soft tissue attachments and removed, exposing the tibial plateau. All dissections were performed in a systematic fashion and the data were recorded on a standardized collection sheet. Morphological variants of the shapes of the menisci were macroscopically noted and classified. The medial menisci (MM) were sub-grouped as sickle shaped, sided U shaped, sided V-shaped, crescent-shaped and C-shaped. The lateral meniscus (LM) was sub-grouped as crescent (semilunar)-shaped, C-shaped and discoid-shaped. When the meniscus covers the tibial plateau circularly, the meniscus is said to be a discoid type. Menisci, which had thin anterior and posterior horns and thin bodies, were defined as crescent (semilunar)- types. Menisci, which had thin anterior, posterior horns and thick bodies, were defined as sickle-shaped types. Menicsi which resembled sided U, sided V and C were named as sided U, sided V and C shaped respectively. Menisci that showed any structural changes, such as injuries or advanced degenerative changes were excluded. 2.Morphometric Study: To measure the length of the menisci, a line was positioned from the apex of anterior horn to the apex of posterior horn of the meniscus. The distance of the line was measured with Vernier Caliper. The width of menisci was determined by establishing three points: anterior third (a), medium third (b) and posterior third (c). From each point, one line was drawn from the peripheral margin to the central margin of meniscus. The values were recorded. The thickness of the meniscus was determined using the same width points, between the top and bottom edge in outer circumference only. The data were tabulated and statistically analysed. Discussion: The present study was undertaken in 116 adult menisci from 58 adult cadaveric knee joints. Menisci were studied for a review of its morphology, morphometry and its comparison with previous studies. The main findings were: Five morphological types of menisci were determined. Out of 58 medial menisci studied, 54.6% were crescent shaped; 34.6% were V shaped;10.8% were U shaped and no discoid medial menisci were found. Out of 58 lateral menisci studied, 41.6% were crescent shaped; 56.4% were C shaped; 2% discoid lateral menisci were found. Morphometry revealed the following results: The length of lateral meniscus is smaller than that of the medial meniscus; the width of the lateral meniscus is more than that of the medial meniscus; the medial meniscus is thicker when compared to lateral meniscus in both the left and right side knee. Difference in shape and size of menisci in the same knee as well as with different knees of different cadavers were observed. The obtained results presented variations regarding some parameters when compared to the previous studies. Conclusion: The present study will provide support to the meniscal anatomy, concerning the surgical procedures and arthroscopy of the knee joint. The study has provided additional information on different shapes of the medial and lateral meniscus with contribution to a better delineation of meniscal anatomy and implications in regard to allograft meniscus transplantation. Therefore, health professionals that work with the treatment of meniscal injuries should be aware of the possible anatomical variations that may exist in the meniscus facilitating the rehabilitation process.

  31. Sutanu Modak, Rup Kumar Das and Bimalendu Saha

    By the use of micro-implants, molar distalization has become easier. The adverse effect of molar distalization on anterior teeth can be avoided by the use of micro-implants. A 15 years old female patient reported with chief complaint of space in upper front teeth region and abnormal positioning of a tooth. On examination it was found that 13 is buccaly impacted and 11 is high labially placed and dilacerated. The 11 was brought into the arch after creating sufficient space. The 16 was distalized using micro-implants. The 14 and 15 was distalized and space is created for 13. After that surgical exposure was done for 13 and it was brought into the arch. After treatment class-I molar and canine relation was established on both side.

  32. Dr. Manikandan Patchayappan, Dr. Rajkumar R and Dr. Balasubramanian D

    Context: A large number of patients are admitted to hospitals in large cities without any identification. These “unknown” patients represent a unique problem in developing countries. There is no systematic study in world literature on this subgroup of patients. Aims: to elucidate the natural history and outcome of traumatic brain injury patients admitted in the department of neurosurgery as “unknowns”. Settings and design: retrospective analysis of all traumatic brain injury patients admitted to the department of neurosurgery as “unknowns”, between January 2017 and December 2017. Results: ninety patients were admitted as unknowns over a period of one year. 81 patients were males and 33 patients became known during their hospital stay. 34 patients were discharged from the hospital, whereby 12 with good recovery and 14 with moderate and 6 with severe disability and 2 in vegetative state. 73 patients were managed conservatively and about 17 patients were treated by surgery, most often for cerebral contusion. About 56 patients died inspite of the best possible treatment. 25 patients were discharged to home and 9 patients were sent to destitute home, as they remained unknown, with the help of social worker in our hospital. Conclusions: Unknown head injury patients are usually neglected. Their management from prehospital to treatment and discharge is fraught with challenges. They need special care for which staff should be well trained and hospital must have economic resources. A good network of social workers help in rehabilitating these patients. There is a need to upgrade ourselves in term of taking fingerprints and biometric to improve identification accuracy of unknown patients.

  33. Atheer Mohammed Alrubaian, Somaya Abdullah Algarawi, Dr. Ola Samy and Abrar Mohammed Alrubaian

    Restoring of missing teeth is significant for functional and/or esthetic capacity. Although edentulism is one of the most common problems that the dentist treats, there is lack of knowledge in the community toward replacement of missing teeth. The aim of this study is to check the awareness and the attitude among Qassim's community toward replacement of Missing teeth including: the causes of replacement, obstacles of not replacing teeth and the source of knowledge for the population.

  34. Dr. Namita Shukla and Dr. Om Prakash

    The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the perception of the community on zoonosis in Surajpur district of Chhattisgarh. The Study was conducted in all six block of Surajpur District of Chhattisgarh which is located in northeast direction of Chhattisgarh. A questionnaire based cross sectional study was design to look on the perception of the community on zoonosis. The respondent were stratified in to four group Veterinarian, Physician, Livestock owner and pet owner A simple random sampling method was employed for sampling of data from Livestock owner and pet owner. A data from Physician and Veterinarian were collected by visiting on their posting area of different block of Surajur district. Each respondent was interviewed with schedule containing open and close ended question on various aspect of zoonotic disease to test their knowledge and awareness about zoonotic disease. The data was qualitative based and were analyzed and result were prepared to assess awareness and knowledge of zoonosis. Most of respondent of Livestock owner have no knowledge about zoonosis About 20% pet owner have knowledge about zoonotic disease. Although about all the 100% respondent well know that rabies was due to dog bite.. Respondent was asked if they was aware of disease that cause abortion in cattle and transmitted to human. but only 30% of livestock owner and pet owner were aware of such a disease Few of them, aware of transmission zoonotic disease to human being through contaminated. milk, meat, air, feed and through contact with infected animal. Livestock owner have a lack of knowledge about proper disposal of animal waste. Most of livestock owner have no knowledge about food hygiene as preventive measure form zoonosis. Therefore form the present study may be concluded that there is a need to create awareness and improve knowledge of livestock farmer and pet owner toward zoonotic for it effective containment.

  35. Cheick Oumar KINDO, Cheick DIARRA and Abdramane BA

    In this study, the HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model is used to simulate the deposition of PM2.5 aerosol particles emitted by biomass fires in the Baoulé loop, from the locality of Neguela in Mali. This simulation is done through the calculation and the analysis of backward trajectories maps in height configuration for the attribution of the sources as well as the deposition maps. The sources are located along the backward trajectoires. The activities of biomass fires in the zone are observed mainly in the dry season with maximum frequency at the end of the dry season and early wintering. This period is also a period of dry deposition of PM2.5 particles. The end of the dry season and early wintering is the period of burning of growing spaces. This practice has a positive aspect in the case of a supply of phosphate, nitrogenous and potash nutrients. At the end of the dry season, the backward trajectoires show the origin of the particles emitted by the bush fires of Guinea, the Ivory Coast and the surroundings of Néguéla. In dry seasons, dust storms bring PM2.5 particles from the North. In winter, air masses are transported south and south-west from the Atlantic Ocean. This promotes precipitation, which in turn results in the wet deposition of PM2.5 particles that are removed from the atmosphere. During the rainy season, there is no major emission of particles except those of domestic combustion. Deposition calculations by HYSPLIT model are in good agreement with in situ measurements

  36. Dr. Zhi Gang Sha and Rulin Xiu

    Heart is mentioned in many spiritual wisdom traditions. It is said that the heart plays a crucial role in determining our physical reality. In this work, we refer to the heart mentioned in a spiritual context as spiritual heart. We explore the use of quantum physics to explain how and why the spiritual heart determines our physical reality. In our previous work, we demonstrated that everyone and everything is made of matter, energy, and information. We propose to define spirit as the content of information, spiritual heart as the receiver of information, and mind as the processor of information, respectively. We show that these definitions make it possible to use quantum physics to explain spiritual phenomena such as intuition, telepathy, clairvoyance, distant healing, psychokinesis, and more. We can use quantum measurement phenomena to explain the role of spiritual heart plays in determining physical reality, we examine the process of quantum measurement. We show that quantum measurement indicates the role of spiritual heart and mind in determining the physical reality and it reveals the process of manifestation. It shows how our physical reality is determined by our soul, spiritual heart, and mind. This insight suggests again that it is possible to integrate natural science and spirituality together scientifically in one scientific and mathematic framework. This work has great significance in the natural sciences, in social sciences such as politics, economics, philosophy, psychology, consciousness studies, and in religion and in the healing arts.

  37. Dr. Babita Dubey and Dr. Khushboo Jain

    In this research paper the researcher analyzes the effect of extraverted personality in empty nest syndrome in middle aged women. 480 women were selected from twin city of Bhilai and Durg. The data was collected by using Empty Nest Syndrome Questionnaire and Personality Test Questionnaire. Mean, Standard Deviation and ANOVA were used for analyzing the data. The finding reveal that extraverted middle aged women have less feeling of empty nest syndrome than introverted middle aged women.

  38. Ong’ayo, A. H., Onyango, C.A. and Ochola, W.O

    The objective of present study was to assess the perception of extension service providers’ towards demand driven extension approach that was implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture under the auspices of National Agricultural and Livestock Extension Programme guided by National Agricultural Extension Policy. The study used Ex-post facto survey design. Simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the study area and the sample. One set of questionnaire was used to collect data from extension service providers. Data were analysed using t-test and descriptive statistics with the help of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Findings revealed that after the implementation of NAEP reforms, there was observation of insignificant change in perceptions among extension service providers towards pluralistic and demand driven extension approach. The insignificant change in extension service providers’ perceptions towards agricultural extension services delivery system may have been due to weak collaboration caused by bureaucratic procedures and financial constraint of the NALEP-GOK and NALEP-Sida who were the main funding agencies of the Pluralistic and Demand Driven approach. The insignificant change in perceptions may also have been because of the difficulty faced by agricultural extension officers in promoting agricultural technology packages without the farmers making an effort to demand for them due to inability or inadequate knowledge of the appropriate time to seek for the services. The paper recommends that the different agricultural extension organizations including the government extension to strengthen collaboration among extension service providers by improving their financial commitment. The Ministry of Agriculture should also develop a policy that will endeavour to enhance farmers’ knowledge acquisition through participatory training, field demonstration and experimentation. This will enhance their ability to value the importance of demanding for services from the different extension advisory organization at an appropriate time. The empowerment of the farmers will lead to improved demand for extension services resulting in maximum engagement of extension service providers, consequently change in perception. The significant change in perception will enhance interaction among extension service providers and the farmers and ultimately increased agricultural production for food security and increased income.

  39. Sutapa Pal

    The rapidly growing population of our nation and its far reaching consequences in economic, social, physical, environmental domains of India is a major cause of concern. Various government projects/programs have been implemented for the past 65years in fields of maternal &child health, family planning, primary education, women empowerment etc. But still Government is yet to achieve its target. India is a huge country and any plan of action can be successful only if it is implemented from grass root level. Universal Education is a global prime target and Mathematics, which is itself an universal subject of education right from primary level, can be used effectively to spread awareness amongst our younger generation regarding the demographic picture of present India. Mathematical models using school mathematics can be used effectively as interesting problems for young India. .Following National Curriculum objectives, in this way Mathematics will be presented in real practical problems which, with various graphs, figures, models will not only be interesting but will be thought provoking and enlightening for our students. These problems will replace imaginary problems and give them an insight regarding our real India and encourage them to find solution in their own way. In this way our future nation builders will be better prepared as future citizens of India.

  40. Roberto P. Briones

    Hiwarekar (2012) recently introduced a new scheme in cryptography the construction of which is based on the Laplace transform of the Maclaurin series of a C∞ function tk (rt). (Gupta and Mishra, 2014) posit that the single-iteration procedure offers a weak encryption scheme by showing that cyphertext messages can be decrypted by elementary modular arithmetic, and stating that the procedure is independent of the Laplace transform. This paper examines the conditions that give rise to the encryption scheme based on the Laplace transform, and will discuss ways of strengthening the purported sources of weakness of such cryptographic process. A modification of the initial step of the encryption scheme is then offered, giving rise to two passwords for a single iteration, hence increasing the security of the encryption.

  41. Reuben Muthengi, Niceta Ireri and Jared Menecha

    Background: Depression is a common psychological disorder in the world today. Despite the fact that a number of studies have been conducted on depression among the general youth population, limited studies have been done on the youth in the church especially those who have fallen victims of premarital pregnancies. There is an assumption that youths in the church don’t suffer the same way psychologically like those youths who are not in the church. This study therefore sought to investigate whether the female youths who have fallen prey to premarital pregnancies in AIC church also suffer from postnatal depression. Objective: To investigate the level of depression among AIC youths aged 13-24 involved in premarital pregnancies in Wamunyu DCC Methods: Purposive sampling was used to recruit female youths aged between 13-24 years in AIC churches within Wamunyu DCC. Those recruited had been victims of premarital pregnancies. After recruitment, Beck’s Depression Inventory was used to assess their level of depression. Besides this, a socio-demographic questionnaire was also used to gather relevant data for this study. Results: The study found out that the youths who were victims of premarital pregnancies suffered moderate levels of depression (20.38 ± (12.62SD)). This affected their mental health adversely besides stagnating their spiritual welfare. Conclusion: Female youth in the AIC church and who have been victims of premarital pregnancy suffer from postnatal depression. The church should therefore re-invent ways of helping such youth to return to normalcy and continue gaining from the spiritual nourishment.

  42. Pius Lustrilanang, Yuli Andi Gani, A., Tjahjanulin, Suryadi and Julizar Idris

    The mechanism to implement local leader election must conform with political development, people dynamic, and democratic progress at the place where the election was held. Therefore, the objective of this research was to understand, review, describe, and also analyze the second round of the 2017 DKI Jakarta’s local leader election (pilkada), which was implemented through direct election method. Research type was qualitative with constructivism paradigm. Result of research showed that the implementation of direct election can be facilitated by not only clearly explicit regulations and technical guidances,but also by effectively enforceable operational order.

  43. Raufhon Salahodjaev

    The aim of this study is to test if intelligence is a proxy for human capital across nations. Our findings show that cognitive abilities are significantly correlated with HDI, literacy and PISA scores across countries. Moreover, we find that that human capital is correlated with economic development. Our results suggest that IQs simply captures the quality of human capital across nations.

  44. Ashutosh Mahesh Pednekar

    Spam detection in emails has been a standard classification problem since decades. But nowadays, emails are only a small part of our digital conversations. Instant messengers, for example, are a huge source for spam messages and images these days. This paper proposes an application of deep CNN’s to help classify these images into three main classes: Important, Acceptable and Spam. Acceptable are those images which might be irritating, but are not necessarily Spam, e.g. Good Morning messages.

  45. Govindappa Navalagi

    In 1970, Gentry and Hoyle have defined and studied the notion of c-conti-nuity in topological spaces. Later, Long et al and Gauld have studied some more properties of c-continuity in the literature. In 1965, O. Njastad, had defined the concept of α-sets, latter these sets were called as α-open sets. 1983,Mashhour et al have defined and studied the concepts of α-closed sets, α-continuity, α-openness and α-closedness in topological spaces. In this paper, we define and study the concepts of c-α-continuity, c-continuity, c*--continuity and almost c-continuity in topological spaces. Also, we characterize their basic properties.

  46. Ismal, Mas Roro Lilik E., Holilah and Rakhmad Yusminto

    Local autonomy age requires the presence of bureaucratic neutrality. Fulfilling this requirement is a fundamental challenge, which the successful achievement will receive a public spotlight. Excellent quality of public personnel is very important for bureaucratic neutrality, especially for the implementation of local autonomy in Pasuruan City. The objective of research is, firstly, to describe the planning for improving public personnel quality to develop bureaucratic neutrality in Pasuruan City Government, and secondly, to analyze factors that support and constrain this planning. Research type is a descriptive study with qualitative approach. Data collection technique includes observation, in-depth interview, and documentation. Analysis procedure involves data triangulation. Result of analysis indicates that public personnel in Pasuruan City Government is already neutral. Bureaucratic model of Max Weber’s perspective consists of basic principles of legal-rational authorities. These principles are:(1) standardization and formalization; (2) job division and specialization; (3) hierarchy of authorities; (4) professionalization; and (5) written documentation. It is consistent with a decree stipulated by the Ministry of Public Personnel Utilization and Bureaucratic Reformation (MPPU-BP) No.5/2014 on Civil Service Personnel, and also with Article 233 in Local Autonomy Act No.23/2014. However, the expertise of technology that is required to support e-government and to deliver information openness is not yet optimum, and the quantity of non-formal staffs has overburdened personnel budget. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a specific agenda to maximize the delivery of information through e-government and to rationalize the quantity of non-formal staffs. The Local Agency for Personnel Issue (Badan Kepegawaian Daerah - BKD)will act as the facilitator of education and training given to the staffs on job qualification in order to create bureaucratic reformation that respects bureaucratic neutrality in Pasuruan City Government.

  47. I Ketut Gede Harsana

    Nyepi day as a commemoration of Saka new year by Hindus in Bali and coupled ucapara Tawur Kesanga and ogoh-ogoh art as the embodiment of bhuta kala or negative energy that exist in man (buana alit) and universe (buana agung). The purpose of this research is to revitalize the identity of Balinese people through ogoh-ogoh art. This research uses qualitative research method by doing observation, interview with some respondent and recording field. The results show that ogoh-ogoh is the result of cultural creations which in the culture is embedded an excitement from the Balinese to show their creativity and identity in the expression. The creator of ogoh-ogoh art creation has indirectly shaped the identity and built the character of Balinese society. Although there are ogoh-ogoh that are outside the context of a lonely ceremony, this can be seen as a public taste associated with lifestyles, collective imaginations that ultimately form consumptive society and unconsciously the arena of creativity in the work began to diminish. However, the event of ogoh-ogoh creation must still be seen as strengthening the identity of Hindus in Bali.

  48. Sushma Kumari

    Introduction: Children are major consumers of health; they are the wealth of tomorrow. Oral hygiene is practiced every morning involving rubbing of the hard and soft palate, upper and lower gums, inner aspects of cheek, under surface and over surface of tongue and the teeth with or without tooth powder or paste probably. Children under the age of five years generally spend most of their time with parents and guardians, especially mothers, even when they attend preschool or nurseries. Poor knowledge and practices of parents towards oral health of infants and young children are associated with increase caries prevalence. Methodology: In this Descriptive research design, 150 mothers of under five children were selected as a sample for the study by using Non- Probability sampling – convenient sampling technique. The data was collected by using structured knowledge Questionnaire to assess the knowledge and check list to practices on oral hygiene among mothers of under five children. Data analysis was performed by descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. SPSS-17 software was used and p value less than 0.05 were considered significant. Result: Majority 52.0% mother of under five children had good level of knowledge, 38.0% mothers of under five children had fair level of knowledge, 6.7% mothers of under five children had excellent level of knowledge and only 3.3% mothers of under five children had poor level of knowledge regarding oral hygiene of their under five children. Majority 68.7% mothers of under five children had followed neutral practices, 22.0% mothers had followed positive practices and only 9.3%mothers of under five children had followed negative practices regarding oral hygiene of their under five children. The obtained value (0.127) shows that there is positive correlation between knowledge and practice indicating that the knowledge level increases then the practices also increases. Discussion: Out of 150 mothers, 52.0% mother of under five children had good level of knowledge and only 22.0% mothers had followed positive practices, 68.7% mothers of under five children had followed neutral practices. Informational booklet on Oral Hygiene was provided to the Mothers of under five children to increase the knowledge and practices on Oral hygiene.

  49. Nigel Glenn N. Javier, Noremay B. Perez and Jo Ann M. Petancio

    Internship or practicum phase is viewed by teaching interns as the most beneficial and valuable component of their training. What they learned throughout their undergraduate training is put to a test as they now practice and learn the rudiments of the teaching profession. Yet teaching interns (TIs) learn differently from each other and are grouped when they go to their respective school assignments. How do we group or cluster teaching interns in order to maximize teaching performance? Using an artificial world simulation found in the NetLogo software, this paper presents classroom grouping models for Piagetian and Vygotskiian TIs using parameters such as zone of proximal development (ZPD), teacher distractions, and number of Vygotskiian neighbors allowed for interaction.Piagetian TIs have been found to perform better in low ZPD, low teacher distraction, and limited number of Vygotskiian neighbors. Vygotskiian TIs on the other hand, have been found to thrive in high ZPD, high teacher distractions, and more Vygotskiian neighbor levels.For an optimum teaching performance among Piagetian, Vygotskiian and combined Piagetian-Vygotskiian TIs in a cluster, ZPD levels and teaching distractions must be at a maximum level with predominantly Vygotskiian TIs comprising the cluster.

  50. Patil, B.A.

    Occupational and safety issues have a connection with various components in the regional economy since the provisions of health, hygiene and safety in the workplace contributes to economic growth processes in a number of ways. This paper attempts to examine the socio-economic conditions of the workers in SSIs and to assess the magnitude of common occupational health and safety measures among workers in SSIs and also to find out the major occupational health problems that are being faced by the workers in SSIs. This study is mainly based on primary data. Karnataka state is selected for the purpose of the present study. The total sample size of the study was 200 workers in SSIs. Simple statistical tools and techniques like simple averages, ratios, and percentage were employed for analysis of data. The main findings reveals that the majority of workers in SSIs were male.63.50 per cent sample respondents have competed secondary and higher secondary education. It has been found that a majority of sample respondents are not only dissatisfied with all aspects of health amenities but also safety mesures which are existing in their working place. Significant proportion of sample respondents have been suffering from joint pain, back pain, gastric ulcer, piles and generalized weakness.

  51. Anisha Maitra

    With the rise of sitcoms and television series arises the question of how gender and its attributes are represented in the contemporary world. It is impossible to step out of the narrative of gender, which implies that either gender roles and stereotypes can be conformed to, or not conformed to. The show has been mostly located within the post-modern culture as it is self-reflexive by nature, it includes elements of Baudrillard’s Simulacre, it inculcates within itself Marxist and nihilistic ideas mostly shown through its anti-capitalist nature and Morty’s take on life. “Raising Gazorpazorp” and “Big Trouble in Little Sanchez”,” “Lawnmower’s Dog” and “Rickchurian Date” are some of the episodes that address the discourse of gender and its representation. This paper attempts to do a feminist criticism of the text, by looking at specific episodes (mentioned above) and using specific theories of the discourse of feminist theory namely ideas of Kate Miller, Judy Butler, and Angela McRobbie. It points out instances in the text where gender roles are being abided by, and where they are being broken. Gender and Sexuality is a theme subtly present throughout the narrative: it has been done primarily through the cynical character of Rick and the complex relationship shared by Jerry and Beth and how gender functions in today’s world. In “Rick and Morty”, the creators of the show Harmon and Roiland, in attempt to address gender stereotypes, and the problems of rigid gender roles, create further stereotypes and paradoxically subvert them in the process.

  52. Karla Baz Chablé, Luis Núñez Oreza, Betty Sarabia Alcocer, Claudia Caamal Ortiz, Jessica Quintal Panti, Paulino Tamay Segovia and Selene Blum Domínguez

    Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is a systemic infection usually caused by bacteria with consequences so severe that they can cause the death of newborns. In our country, neonatal sepsis varies from one hospital to another, being the second cause of mortality in newborns. Objective: The purposes of this study were to determine the incidence rate of neonatal sepsis, early and late neonatal sepsis, as well as the mortality rate and its association with gestational age and days of hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the General Hospital of Specialties "Dr. Javier Buenfil Osorio" of Campeche City. Material and Methods: A transversal, retrospective, observational, descriptive study was carried out that included all newborns that met the inclusion criteria, with a confirmed diagnosis of sepsis with or without added pathology, who were admitted at NICU of the hospital from January 2017 to December 2017. Results: During the period of study, 3800 neonates were born; which 373 neonates were included in this work. A total of 64 newborn were diagnosed with neonatal sepsis representing an incidence rate of 16.8 cases per 1,000 live births. Neonatal mortality rate associated with sepsis corresponded to 6.3 per 1,000 live births. In general, bacteria isolated from blood cultures were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus spp. Conclusions: This study found a high incidence rate of neonatal sepsis, being early sepsis higher compared with late sepsis. According to the acquisition time of neonatal sepsis, an association between the prematurity of newborn and late sepsis was demonstrated. Mortality of neonatal sepsis had a higher incidence with respect to the observed in neonates who died without diagnosis of sepsis. Longest stay in the NICU of premature newborn increased the risk of contracting a nosocomial infection in the hospital and dying.

  53. Burhan T. Kaydawala and Nimish J. Shah

    Background: There is a need for a simple and clinically oriented severity scoring system that can predict mortality of acute pancreatitis within 24 h of presentation. Early recognition of severe disease would enable the clinician to consider more aggressive interventions within a time frame that could potentially prevent adverse outcomes. (1) The Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP) is a new, convenient, prognostic multifactorial scoring system.(8) In this study of patients with acute pancreatitis, we evaluate the BISAP SCORE in assessing mortality and intermediate markers of severity in an acute pancreatitis. Aim and Objectives: 1. To evaluate the accuracy of the BISAP SCORE to predict mortality in acute pancreatitis patients from our institution. 2. To assess the accuracy of the BISAP SCORE to predict which patients are at risk for intermediate markers of severity including the development of organ failure, persistent organ failure and pancreatic necrosis. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in the SSG hospital between APRIL 2015 to JANUARY 2016. Total 70 patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis at SSGH from APRIL 2015 to JANUARY 2016. BISAP scores were calculated on all patients based on data obtained within 24 h of presentation. Results: In our study out of 70 patients, 9 patients (12.85%) expired. The sensitivity of BISAP score in predicting the mortality in acute pancreatitis was 88.9% ,for the same specificity was 83%. This results were statistically significant with p value for BISAP score being 0.001. There was a statistically significant trend for increasing mortality with increasing BISAP score. The sensitivity of BISAP score in predicting the development of organ failure was 75%, for the same specificity was 84%. This results were statistically significant with p value for BISAP score being 0.001. The sensitivity of BISAP score in predicting the development of necrosis was 55.6%, for the same specificity was 82%.This results were statistically significant with p value for BISAP score being 0.03. Conclusion: The BISAP score stratifies patients within the first 24 h of admission according to their risk of in hospital mortality and is able to identify patients at increased risk of mortality prior to the onset of organ failure. The BISAP score represents a simple way to identify patients at risk of increased mortality and the development of intermediate markers of severity within 24 h of presentation.

  54. Debasis Mithiya, Kumarjit Mandal and Simanti Bandyopadhyay

    The cropping pattern in West Bengal has undergone a major change in the recent past, moving away from cereal to non-cereal crop cultivation. This shift has primarily been towards horticulture crops; influenced by the growth of technology, modernization, and changes in food habits. Horticulture has been one of the fastest-growing crop group within agriculture in India as well as in West Bengal. By using secondary data the share of cultivated area under different crops and crop group, growth rate of area under different crops and the various indices of crop diversification have been calculated. The crop concentration coefficient has also been calculated. The results indicate diversification towards horticulture in West Bengal. This paper has also assessed the impact of horticultural diversification on farm income and employment using farm level information from West Bengal. The results clearly reveal that horticulture production is more remunerative and labor-intensive, i.e., the gross return is much more in per hectare horticulture cultivation than that in cereals and pulses. Job opportunity is also high in case of horticulture cultivation as compared to others. Therefore, it fits well in the small farm production systems. The study also develops the econometric model like two stage least square (2SLS) regression to find the effects of crop diversification on employment and income by using secondary data.

  55. Zulema Cordova Ruiz, Sosima Carrillo, Francisco Meza Hernández, Loreto María Bravo Zanoguera and Patricia Guadalupe García Cabrales

    Nowadays, derived from the situation that exists in Mexico, the government has put special attention on the development plans and programs to the promotion of new companies, its main focus being the target market for young people. Thus, in the stage of professional training, actions are promoted within the study programs with contents related to entrepreneurship, generating subjects that focus on the creation of companies, whose ultimate goal is to consolidate and become sources generating jobs and that contribute to the gross domestic product. The objective of the research is to determine the relevance of the subject development of entrepreneurs, trying in the student the development of skills for the creation of a business project. The design of the research is descriptive, not experimental and transversal. The measuring instrument used was a questionnaire, which was applied to a universe of 312 students of the different degrees offered by the Faculty of Administrative Sciences belonging to the Autonomous University of Baja California, who are taking the subject "Entrepreneurship Development" and have developed a business project Among the results obtained, they point out that more than 80% of the students consider that they have the skills to promote the business project before future investors, as well as the desire to formalize their company, in addition to claiming that there is a contribution of knowledge acquired in the entrepreneurship learning unit for their professional development.

  56. Dr. Monique E. Cordova, Ms. Tizza Marie Navarro and Mr. Renan O. Elcullada

    This study aimed to assess the listening and reading comprehension proficiency of the public elementary and high school teachers in Cebu, Philippines. The descriptive research design, simple frequency counts and percentage distributions were used in this research. Four hundredpublic school teachers in the Province of Cebu Philippines were the respondents of this research: two hundred teachers from the elementary and two hundred from high school. A teacher-made test was used to assess the listening and reading comprehension proficiency of the teachers. The highest percentage of scores of teachers from both elementary and high school belong to the above average level of proficiency in the listening comprehension skills. Moreover, in the reading comprehension skills, the highest percentage of scores of both elementary and high school teachers fall under the above average proficiency. This reveals that the teachers have the ability to process reading or listening text, understand its meaning, follow the organization of the passage, draw inferences, identify the main idea, determine the author’s purpose, recognize literary devices and understand the situational mood.

  57. Stevo Pasalic

    Education is one of the key factors in the effectiveness and speed of economic development. Improving and changing social relations depends mostly on the knowledge and on the level of education of people. Modern development requires new knowledge and the need for them is constantly growing. The quality of human resources is a dynamic element of development policy. Its mobility and adaptability accelerates and improves change. The contribution of education is for the overall development of strategic importance, among other things, because technological progress dictates the development of human potential. The educational system in our area monitors the problem of mismatch in the structure of education, educational profiles and the needs of the economy. The one who degrades his educational system loses his own future. Poor education is not the only exclusively reason for unemployment, but the fact is that there is a strong correlation between these two phenomena, and that education plays an important role in the fight against unemployment. Transition processes have resulted in major changes in the structure of employment. Economic pressures and the uncertain market has forced many organizations to turn to more flexible forms of employment. After analyzing the available studies, analysis, research in the field of labor market trends in the Republic of Srpska, and analyzing the available relevant statistical data, the demographic structure, employment and characteristics of the workforce, the informal economy, education policies and labor market outcomes, as well as the economic growth and dynamics of labor demand, this paper answers the question of current trends in the education and labor market of the Republic of Srpska and provides an analytical overview of the availability of labor force with respect to the age structure, educational structure and other available statistical indicators.

  58. Janet A. Mananay and Catalina M. Canasa

    This study gives insights on the reasons for waving of hands as an Ethno-Malayan practice of prayer and worship during the singing of Gozos, Bato Balani sa Gugma and its cultural parallel implications to teacher education curriculum. The researchers used qualitative method through in depth interview of the participants. The lyrics of the Gozos was integrated during the actual interview of the devotees and thematic analysis was used to confirm common themes and their experiences with the anthology behind the song. Results revealed the following themes: Expression of Faith, Supplication, Symbol of Praise, and Devotion with a Grateful Heart. The significant cultural parallelism of this practice to teacher education curriculum is discussed in the paper.

  59. Arop, Festus Obun, Owan, Valentine Joseph, and Ekpang Martins Akan

    The purpose of this study was to examine effective communication management and the performance of tertiary institutions in Cross River State. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a correlational design and was conducted using Cross River State College of Education, Akamkpa as case study. A proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used to select 30 per cent each from a total of 176 academic staff and 215 Non-academic staff in the institution. A total of 53 Academic and 66 Non Academic Staff were selected resulting in a sample of 119 participants. A questionnaire titled Effective Communication Management and Performance of Tertiary Institutions Questionnaire (ECMAPOTIQ), was used as the instrument for data collection. The collected data were analysed and the hypotheses were tested using Chi Square test of independence at .05 level of significance. The findings revealed that effective communication management has a significant relationship with human relationship, work performance and organizational goal attainment. Based on these findings, it was concluded that effective communication leads to good human relationship, promotes work performance and organizational goal attainment. It was recommended among others that educational managers should make efforts to adopt good communication skills to enable them communicate effectively; workers should adopt proper communication strategies if they are to promote good relationship among co-workers and the managers.

  60. Odigwe, Francisca, N., Offem, Odim Otu and Owan, Valentine Joseph

    This study focused specifically on determining the extent to which duration of vocational training influence university graduates job performance in baking and computer business enterprises respectively. In achieving this, two research questions were raised and two research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of this study include a total of 123 baking business and 208 computer business centres in the Area. Out of this population, a proportionate stratified sampling technique was used to select 10% resulting in the selection of 12 baking and 21 computer business centres. A simple random sampling technique was adopted to select 36 and 63 graduate-workers from baking and computer business enterprises respectively, resulting in a sample of 99 respondents. A rating scale was used as the instrument for data collection. The instrument was administered by the researchers. The data obtained, were analysed using descriptive statistics, while the hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance using one-way analysis of variance (One-Way ANOVA). The results of the analysis revealed that duration of vocational training influenced university graduates job performance in baking and computer business enterprises respectively. Discussions, conclusion and recommendation were all made based on the findings of the study.

  61. Avijith BARUA, Ramendu PARIAL, and Srabonti SAHA

    Background: Microalbuminuria is considered to be an early stage of diabetic nephropathy as well as marker of cardiovascular disease. Objective: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and predictors of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic subjects of Bangladesh. Subjects and methods: A total of 578 type 2 diabetic patients (male 308, female 270) with the mean age of 51.00±7.0 years were analyzed. Different biochemical parameters e.g. Serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), serum creatinine, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and HbA1c were measured using available commercial kits. Microalbuminuria was measured by strip. Results: The prevalence of microalbuminuria among type 2 diabetic patients was 43.07%. Prevalence of microalbuminuria was marginally higher in male than in female (male 47.54%, female 38.51%). Subjects with microalbuminuria had significantly higher blood pressure, body mass index, fasting blood sugar (FBS), LDL cholesterol, serum creatinine, HbA1c, triglycerides (p<0.001), duration of diabetes (p<0.05) and significantly lower HDL cholesterol (p<0.001) than microalbuminuria absent group. Significant predictors for the development of microalbuminuria included age, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, hypertension and retinopathy. Conclusion: Screening of microalbuminurea and its risk factors is urgent to alleviate cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetic patients of Bangladesh.

  62. Jackson E. Muhoho

    This paper aimed at determining the factors influencing entrepreneurship performance in Tanzania with a specific reference to Kinondoni Municipality. The study was guided by the following objectives; examining the government policies which must be adopted to improve entrepreneurship performance; and assessing whether the existing government policies have capability to enhance Small and Medium entrepreneurship (SME) in Tanzania. The study adopted a case study methodology. A total of 30 respondents were drawn from different entrepreneurs who are dealing with small and medium businesses. The stratified sampling technique was employed in selecting the respondents. The study population was stratified according to gender and type of business owned. Data was analyzed through SPSS ver.20 and Microsoft excel statistical tools. The study found out that the factors which inhibit entrepreneurial performance include marketing, capital and premises; furthermore, existing government policies were also viewed by research respondents as double –edged instrument characterized as being both a facilitator and inhibitor/bottleneck of entrepreneurial performance. The study concludes that these constraining factors need to be reviewed and re-addressed by government through re-formulated and reviewed government policy frameworks so as to improve and foster entrepreneurial performance in this nation. The study therefore recommends a sound and prudent policy framework should be put in place in order to serve as a reliably authentic instrument to guide, unleash and provide for sustainable market, capital acquisition and premises; in this regard, the policy frameworks should be able to provide congenial or conducive business environment and significantly facilitate strategically reliable and productive responses to financing needs, entrepreneurial education and training, capital needs, simplification and easing of business working environment including registration procedures which in turn serves as a key catalyst and incentive factor to entrepreneurship moves and significant new ventures start up in Tanzania economy

  63. Nagwa Thabet Elsharawy

    Enhancement of food safety is the major interest by increasing interest in natural preservatives, which has antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and more healthy specially in meat which is highly susceptible to microbial growth, it is which can cause its spoilage and contributes to food borne diseases in human, resulting in serious health problems. The objective of the present study was to, (i)evaluate different uses of (dilland parsley) extracts,(coat, dipped, 1.5% and 3%) when they added to some popular meat productson pH and TBC, (ii)evaluate their inhibitory effect on some food spoilage microorganisms, (TSC, and coliforms) and some food-borne pathogens (Staph. aureus, E. coli, salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.) to ensure meat safety were investigated during storage at 4±1 °C for 14 days. The extracted oils from Dill and parsley added to meat products (minced meat, Burger and Kofta) by different methods, (control sampling, coating, dipping, 1.5% concentrations and 3% concentration). pH measured then different microbial examination. Results declared that with dill were more effective on pH and TBC, TSC, coli form, Staphylococcus areus, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. while parsley was more effective against E. coli. In conclusion, obtained results recommended usage of dill extract as safe and natural antimicrobial meat additives to prolong shelf life of meat product due to its high antibacterial activity against many meat spoilage microorganisms and meat pathogens. On the other hand, parsley extract showed mild to moderate effect against most meat spoilage and meat pathogens.

  64. Jackson E. Muhoho

    This paper examined critical factors which affect adaptation of E-learning in Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs) in Tanzania. The Study was guided by these specific objectives: to examine critical barriers of E-learning acceptance with focus on organizational culture or perception on E-learning ;to examine critical barriers of E-learning adaptation with reference to E-learning infrastructure; to ascertain critical barriers of E-learning acceptance with focus on quality content creation of E-learning content. Data was collected from academic and administrative staff randomly and purposively selected from two selected institutions namely the Open University of Tanzania (OUT) and the University of Dar -Es -Salaam (UDSM).These were selected as case study for this research based on criteria of their long experience and expertise in practicing E-learning. The analysis done through SPSS ver.20 and excel software revealed two critical barriers on acceptance of E-learning at HLIs which are quality of content creation for E-learning content and organizational culture towards E-learning adaptation also termed in this study as perception on E-learning. It was revealed that majority of E-learning practitioners have limited skills on creating quality content or basically no clear integration between Pedagogy and ICT. Study also indicated that employment market is inclined in favor of graduates that have gone learning through conventional learning approaches than those who attend E-learning programmes. The study also noted that institutions had ICT policy in place but were lacking reliable E-learning policy; to a large extent this led to lack of awareness among staff members. Study findings further indicated correlation between acceptance of E-Learning and organizational culture as well as quality of content creation. This study concludes that policy makers and administrators in HLIs have to institutionalize E-learning policy as enabling factor towards E-learning adaptation and increase efforts on quality content creation. Study recommends that this challenge can be addressed using ISA-BeL Model.

  65. Jackson E. Muhoho

    This paper aimed at analyzing “Factors Affecting Effective Implementation of Training Programs in Tanzania‘s Parastatal Organizations, the case of TANESCO, Dar-es-Salaam and Coastal Zone offices. The study was consistently guided by following objectives: to find out whether Tanesco has workable annual training program; to identify whether the yearly training program. Supported by a Corresponding budget; to find out whether there are procedures for selecting prospective trainees; to describe the social factors constraining effective implementation of training Program at TANESCO;to identify measures taken by TANESCO to address employees social factors limiting effective implementation of training program. The study adopted a case study approach. A sample of 274 employees was drawn using both simple random and purposive sampling methods. Data were collected by questionnaires, interviews, and documentary reviews. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Microsoft Excel software was also used to provide statistical tools of data analysis. The study revealed number of factors that may negatively affect effective implementation of training programs in parastatal organizations; these factors are two main categories: Firstly, Organization factors such as lack of training needs analysis, lack of sensitization of employees on existence of training program, shortage of training budget, lack of training programs evaluation; Secondly, Sociological factors such as age characteristics, marital status, family responsibilities and low level of education. The study recommends enhancement of training programs through the following; Develop uniform Training Needs Analysis (TNA) framework to improve efficiency of training function; improve clarity in program scope and objectives; Conduct evaluation after every training session and provide timely feedback to trainees; Increasing adequate budget allocation; improve process openness and transparency in Implementing training program and let every individual effectively participate in determining type of training they need ;and adapt Blended Learning Program Model (Garvey,2011) and Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation Model,1975.

  66. Rwan Aldakheel, Haifa Alhussein, Hanoufalwabli, Alanoud Alammar, Darine Sadig, YusraAlkamali and Dalia Sharafeldin

    Comparison of selected oral microorganisms among intellectual disabled people and normal people Objective: The aim of this study is to determine and evaluate the types and prevalence of selected microorganisms in the oral cavity of intellectual disabled patients compared to normal people. Material and methods: This study included sixty participants aged from 14-24 years old, 30 control healthy participants, and 30 case of intellectually disabled participants from the female day care center school diagnosed as intellectually disables. Saliva samples from the participants were tested for Streptococcus mutans , lactobacilli , and candida, as well as PH buffering capacity of saliva, using caries risk test (CRT) for Both Streptococcus mutans lactobacilli and PH, sabouraud agar medium was the culture medium for candida albicans. The statistical analysis included chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests was carried out. Result: The case group show, colonies of streptococcus mutans ≥105 (56.7%) and <105 (43.3%) compared to the control group sample showed ≥105 (0%) and <105 (100%) . And for the lactobacillus case group showed ≥105 (73.3%) and <105 (26.7%) compared to control group ≥105 (43.3%) and <105 (56.7%). Candida was positive in 100% of case group, while control group was positive in 53.3% of the samples. For PH there was no significant difference for medium and high PH between the case and control group, but there is a difference for low PH in control group 3/30 samples (10%) and study group 11/30 samples (36.7%) Conclusion: The present cross sectional study suggests that there is a statistically significant difference in the candida and cariogenic bacteria (streptococcus mutans, lactobacillus) a high prevalence of the oral microorganisms (candida, SM, LB) among females with ID. There is a significant difference in low salivary PH in non-ID female patients compared to ID patients.

  67. Nivedita Oinam and Kumarjit, R.K.

    Information regarding distribution of zinc in soils is important for understanding its chemical reactions and bioavailability in wetland as well as upland rice soils for application of fertilizers and increasing yield of reice plants. Thus, a study on relationship between physico-chemical properties and DTPA-extractable Zn content of rice soils were done, for that thirty six surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from different paddy fields of four valley districts of Manipur namely Imphal-east, Imphal-west, Thoubal and Bishnupur district using Stratified Random Sampling. . All the soil samples were acidic in reaction with pH ranging from 4.90 to 6.00 with mean value of 5.32. The Electrical Conductivity of the soils varied from 0.05 dSm¬¬¬-1 to 0.26 dSm -1 at 250C with a mean value of 0.11 dSm¬¬¬-1. The analyzed soils showed organic carbon content 0.79 to 3.51 % with a mean value of 2.68% and cation exchange capacity of the soils 8.3 to 24.4 [cmol (p+) kg-1] with mean value was 17.34 [cmol (p+) kg-1]. The studied soils were mostly clay in texture with 20.0 per cent to 73 .2 per cent content. Considering 0.6 mg kg-1 as the general critical limit of available zinc (DTPA-Zn) in soils, 91.67% of the soils are sufficient in zinc (DTPA-Zn) ranging from 0.55 to 1.26 mg kg-1 with mean value of 0.89 mg kg-1 in the soils. DTPA-Zn showed significant negative relationship with soil pH (r= -0.483**) indicating the availability of Zn decreases with increase pH.

  68. Joseline Metobo and Timothy Sulo

    Many developing countries are faced with insurmountable levels of urban solid wastes especially in the residential areas. This research aimed at investigating factors influencing urban household’s decision to participate in solid waste recycling and the intensity of recycling urban solid wastes through various recycling outlets using a two stage Heckman Model. A multinomial logit model was used to investigate urban household’s choice of recycling outlets. Urban households were randomly sampled whereas solid waste vendors / hawkers, waste pickers (scavengers) and the dealers in the buying centres were sampled using snowball sampling technique. This research reveals that a market for solid wastes at the household level has developed in Kenya. Seventy two percent (72 %) of the households sampled agree that they can easily get a market for some of the solid wastes that they generate in the buying centres’ / dealers and also to the solid waste vendors who visit them to buy different types of solid wastes. Study also found out that different solid waste prices vary from household to household and from location to location within the same region. Solid waste pickers (scavengers) also play a significant role in household recycling. Ninety two percent [92%] of the respondents indicate that solid waste scavengers forage through their waste bins frequently to collect different types of solid wastes mainly for sale in the local markets. The multinomial logit results indicate that the frequency of collection of wastes by the local authority was negatively related and statistically significant at 5 percent level of significance in influencing the choice of onsite recycling of solid wastes at the household. These results also indicate that household income was negatively related and statistically significant at 5 percent level in influencing the choice to recycling solid wastes through solid wastes agents and dealers. The multinomial logit results further show that price of scrap metal and price of plastics are negatively related and statistically insignificant in the relative log odds in choosing onsite recycling at the household vs. recycling through the vendors / hawkers.

  69. Abhilash Venunathan, Dr. Reetha Ismail, Bijoy Philip and Vishnu, A. P

    The main concept of the complementary and alternative therapy refers to therapies used together with conventional medicine as well as therapies used in place of conventional medicine. In the modern era the word holism is more often coined with the nursing practice. There has been a substantial increase in the use of yoga and other complementary and alternative medicine even among the modern health care professionals everywhere in the world. The main aim of the study was to identify the knowledge and attitude of nursing students towards yoga and other complementary and alternative therapies. The data were collected from 300 undergraduate nursing students by using NSAS-Y (Nursing Students Attitude Scale-CAT) and a knowledge questionnaire. Results show that majority of the nursing students having adequate knowledge and a positive attitude towards the yoga and other complementary and alternative therapies. The study concluded that there should be a provision for remodeling in the traditional nursing educational system to integrate the yoga and other complementary and alternative therapies in the nursing curriculum in order to improving the knowledge and attitude of the young buds in nursing as well as faculty.

  70. Dutta, P. K. , Molla, T. H., Islam, M. S., Bashera, M. A. and Ahsan, M. S.,

    The present investigation was carried out to know the proximate composition of flesh of the fish Puntius gonionotus. Lipid from fish flesh was extracted and some analytical tests of the crude lipid were carried out to ascertain some of its physical and chemical characteristics of the fish. The fish was found to contain moisture (71.510.93) %, protein (22.210.92) mg/100 gm, lipid (5.240.64) mg/100 gm, ash (1.020.5) mg/100 gm. This study also revealed that the minerals Sodium (762.16 mg), Potassium (2942.00 mg), Magnesium (48.11.83 mg), Calcium (2764.54 mg), and Phosphorus (2101.80 mg) content of this fish are relatively richer than other small indigenous fishes. The physical and chemical characteristics viz. density (g/cc), refractive index, iodine value (I2/100 g), saponification value (mg/KOH), saponification equivalent, acid value (mg/KOH), ester value, peroxide value (mEq/Kg), % of free fatty acids (as oleic acid), total cholesterol (mg/dl in lipid) of lipids have also been reported.

  71. Dr. PL. Nagappan, Dr. Premkumar, K.S., Dr. Sumalatha, S., Dr. N. Rehna Parveen and Dr. S.M. Vignesh Prasad

    Today orthodontic treatment is in growing demand and it is not limited to a specific age or social group. The nature of orthodontic treatment is such that the orthodontic wires and appliances, which are used to apply force and move the teeth, are exposed to the oral cavity. Orthodontic appliances or parts of orthodontic appliances are accidentally swallowed and have caused problems by entering either into the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. The broken orthodontic appliances, or components and dental instruments are the second most commonly ingested objects in adults. Aspiration or ingestion of orthodontic appliances is less common and depends on the kind of appliance .The orthodontic appliance or components that may be accidentally swallowed or ingested viz expansion appliance key, transpalatal arch during its removal, a mandibular spring retainer, a maxillary removable appliance, a fragment of a maxillary removable appliance, a piece of archwire , a fractured Twin-block appliance and accidental ingestion of a rapid palatal expander , a quad helix appliance , a component of a fixed orthodontic appliance , a gold cast crown during orthodontic tooth separation and presence of orthodontic archwire in the nasal cavity , orthodontic bracket lost in the airway during orthognathic surgery , dislodgement of an orthodontic bracket into a sagittal split site etc. Although in most cases these objects are excreted, in 1% of the cases, complex problems such as gastrointestinal perforation are seen, which can sometimes lead to serious risks, and death also .We can say that orthodontic treatment involves dangerous tools to be worked out, in a sensitive place like oral cavity, which is the entrance for respiratory and digestive systems. Prevention is the best method, but when happened, an efficient management of the event would become critical and so saving the patient’s life is at greatest risk.

  72. Irfan A. Mohammed and BhavinY. Gajera,

    The poor oral bioavailability of manydrugs is mainly due to the poor aqueous solubility, chemical instability and preabsorptive metabolism. Numerous approaches have been developed for enhancement of oral bioavailability and are currently in the clinical application. Even though, some drugs do not meet the required clinical application due to the patient compliance and ineffective therapeutic levels. Vesicular delivery systems are considered as alternative delivery for the enhancement the bioavailability of this category of drugs. The enhanced bioavailability of the liphophilic drugs from the vesicular systems mainly due to the increased effective surface area of the drug in the presence of lipids, surfactants and co surfactants, enhanced lymphatic uptake, altered gastric motility and by virtue of their small particle size. Extensive literature is available for the properties, applications, and preparation and evaluation methods. This review mainly dealt with the reported drug loaded various vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, lipid nanoparticles, self-emulsifying delivery system, nanosuspensions.

  73. Jyotsna Jacob

    The problem of substance abuse is growing at an explosive rate and in just little over a decade it has spread its malevolent tentacles to every part of the global part. Hence a descriptive study was conducted to assess the knowledge on substance abuse among B.Tech students at selected colleges of Faridabad. Sample of 100 B.Tech students was taken using convenience sampling technique. Self structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge level. The findings of the study revealed that majority (36%) had average knowledge level, 33% had good knowledge level, 17% had excellent knowledge, 11% had poor knowledge and only 3% had very poor knowledge. The study also revealed that there was significant association found between level of knowledge with demographic variables like age and previous knowledge regarding substance abuse. No significant association was found between level of knowledge and other demographic variables.

  74. Jennifer B. Cabaron

    Financial institutions go through some steps to create compelling and well-organized strategies for sustainable business success. This paper aimed to determine the strategic marketing practices of financial institutions mainly in Region IX, in the Philippines. The descriptive survey method was used aided with the standardized questionnaire by Jaakkola et al. (2010). Market orientation, innovation orientation, and marketing assets and capabilities were variables used to determine the strategic marketing of selected financial institutions. There were ninety (90) respondents of the study. Frequency count, percentage, and weighted mean used as a statistical tool. Results of the study showed that rural banks employ strategic marketing to an extreme extent on market orientation and has a definite advantage on innovation orientation. It also showed that rural banks had power in marketing inside-out capabilities while having a particular edge in marketing outside-in capabilities. The researchers’ recommendations are highlighted in the paper which is helpful to rural banks to meet their clients adequately. Additionally, there should be future studies on other important aspects of bank services such as deposit interest rate, loan interest rate, and accessibility of responding to the questionnaires.

  75. Shraddha R. Dorlikar, P. M. Tumane, *Durgesh D. Wasnik and Nikhil A. Kolte

    The present study investigates comparative study on biodegrdation of azo dyes by Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from environmental and clinical samples. The samples were collected from environmental such as water contaminated with dyes and clinical samples such as throat, pus and urine samples Klebsiella pneumoniae. The azo dye used in this study namely Congo red, Methyl red, Methyl orange, Eriochrome black T. K. pneumoniae isolated from clinical samples degrades higher percentage of Methyl red 88.76% and Congo red 66.45% and least percentage of Methyl orange 7.00%. Whereas the degradation of azo dye by K. pneumoniae isolated from water of textile dye effluent, higher percentage of degradation was found against Methyl orange 95.45% Congo red 76.38% Eriochrome Black T 73.18% and least degradation against Methyl red 8.86%. By comparing both samples for the degradation, environmental sample like water was best decolorizer of azo dye compared to clinical samples.

  76. Dr. Aarti Singh, Dr. Hasan Ali Adil and Dr. Umarji, H. R.

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is by far the most common ulcerative lesion encountered by the practicing dentist and various drugs have been tried out in the management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Rebamipide tablet and Amlexanox oral paste have shown promise in relieving the patients from this miserable condition, therefore these new drugs have been tried in treating patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. The basic aim of this study was to test the efficacy of 5% Amlexanox oral paste and Rebamipide tablets in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

  77. Tchawe Tchawe Moukam, Tcheukam-Toko Denis Kenmeugnebienvenu Djiako Thomas

    In This work is the result of research conducted on a dam in Cameroon. The aim is to study the variation of flow through the intake of a penstock in order to highlight its influence on the entire structure. For this fact, a study is conducted by a 2D numerical approach under FLUENT (6.3.26). It is clear from this work that the shape of the structure upstream and the intake have a real impact on the structure of the flow, it is the same for the flow rate of water that arrives upstream. The structure of the flow is unstable, the maximum speed is observed not far from the wall. A large recirculation zone is observed on the step at the inlet of the intake, it is very active on the acceleration of the flow velocity towards the pipe; likewise, it is responsible for the birth of air bubbles which will have consequences later on the phenomenon of cavitation of the blades of our turbine.

  78. Gnanamani, I., Padmaja, M. and Florida Tilton

    DNA Barcoding is a new taxonomic approach for identifying biological specimens and managing species diversity. Intraspecific variation in a sequence is in order of magnitude less than that observed inter-specifically and this provides the means by which species are differentiated. It is also being used as a research tool for refining the understanding of biological diversity, and as a system for assigning biological samples to their species of origin. The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification of the green tiger prawn, Penaeus semisulcatus. The present study on molecular identification based on DNA barcoding of MT-COI gene was also aimed to construct a possible molecular phylogenetic tree with selected shrimp species for understanding their evolutionary relationship/ significance. Penaeid shrimps are an important resource in crustacean fisheries, representing more than the half of the gross production of shrimp worldwide. The results showed that DNA barcodes present a high degree of interspecies variation making classification possible even at the species level and this technique is relatively cheap, fast, and useful in the identification of incorrectly labelled market products.

  79. Prof. Shahnaz Taing and Dr. Shazia Nisar

    Background: Pregnancy has a profound effect on the thyroid gland and its function. Hypothyroidism complicates 0.3-0.7% of all pregnancies. Most common cause of hypothyroidism in pregnancy is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Women with thyroid autoimmunity are twice as likely to experience spontaneous miscarriages. Hence, there is a need to screen for subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity in pregnancy, especially in women with a history of miscarriages. Objectives:(a) To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in a hospital based sample of Kashmiri women with recurrent abortions and perinatal outcome after receiving treatment. (b) Is universal screening needed or not? Methodology: It was a prospective hospital based multiple unit study. Two groups were formulated, one group comprising of 100 pregnant women with a history of two or more recurrent abortions were labelled as case group while as another group comprising of 100 pregnant patients with one successful pregnancy were labelled as controls. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism, thyroid auto immunity and maternal and fetal complications were analysed in the groups with appropriate statistical methods. Results: In our study the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in case group with recurrent miscarriage was 27%. Thyroid autoimmunity was present in 31% of cases while as in controls it was 18 %, p-value statistically significant (0.033). Also mean TSH of cases and control groups were not significant (0.893). Complications between cases and controls were statistically not significant after receiving treatment. However postdatism was statistically significant (p value 0.024). Another subgroup was created within case group labelled TPO positive and TPO negative groups, TPO positive were 31 in number, while 61 were TPO negative. Statistical comparison was drawn between these two groups. The mean TSH in TPO positive group and TPO negative group was statistically significant (p value 0.001). With respect to complications between TPO positive and TPO negative groups, there was no statistical significance. However, IUGR was statistically significant with p value of 0.002. Hypothyroidism was statistically significant with 27 in TPO positive and none in TPO negative, p value 0.001. Conclusion: The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity was higher in pregnant women with a history of recurrent abortion compared with a healthy pregnant control population. Following L-T4 treatment, there was no difference in the prevalence of miscarriage between hypothyroid and euthyroid individuals in TPO positive women. All euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity should be treated with LT4 to achieve a favourable maternal and perinatal outcome.

  80. Meghashree, M.

    Growing concern of the planet due to heavy consumption of sand and coarse aggregate in concrete made it a necessity to find way through sustainable construction practices. Gigantic numbers of building and destruction trashes are produced in emerging countries like India. The clearance of these trashes is serious problem because it requires huge space. Recycled concrete can produce an alternative aggregate for structural concrete as partial or total replacement. The present work is to study the properties of concrete with replacement of 100% of natural sand by manufactured sand and coarse aggregates by different proportions with recycled concrete aggregates (RCA). A mix proportion for M25 grade concrete is derived with standards confirming to IS codes. RCA was partially replaced for coarse aggregate in the proportions of 20%, 40% and 60% fine aggregate by M-sand for 100%. The fresh and hardened properties of thus prepared concrete are studied and compared with concrete made using conventional materials. A comparison with control mix mainly their compressive strength, split tensile strength will allow assessing the suitability of using Recycled aggregate in concrete with replacement to sand with conventional or artificial sand.

  81. Dr. Bhavesh Airao, Dr. Zinkal Kothadiya and Dr. Mehul pawar

    Background: Worldwide, cervical cancer comprises 12% of all cancers in women and 2,31,000 women die of cervical cancer every year, over 80% of whom live in developing countries. Across India cervical cancer is the commonest preventable cancer reported from all cancer registries except those in Mumbai and Delhi where breast cancer is the commonest. Aims and Objectives: 1. To do cervical cancer screening by VIA and VILI. 2. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of VIA, VILI. 3. To assess the reliability of VIA and VILI as a cancer screening tool in the detection of precancerous lesions of cervix by comparing its sensitivity and specificity with pap smear keeping colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy as reference standard. 4. To study the efficacy of combined screening programs. Material and method: 500 patients were selected from the C.U. SHAH MEDICAL COLLEGE, SURENDRANAGAR Gynaecology OPD over a period of November 2016 to May 2018. Results: Sensitivity of VIA is73.56% VILI is70.11% Pap Smear is79.31%. Specificity of VIA is 83.05% VILI is 84.02% Pap Smear is97.82%. Conclusion: Visual inspection of the cervix after application of acetic acid and Lugol’s Iodine can be used as one of the low cost screening tool in the detection of pre invasive lesions of cervix. The higher sensitivity, accuracy, low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA, VILI a useful screening test in developing countries like India.

  82. Jeyhun M. Ismayilzada, Rafiq I. Bayramov, Urfana B. Nagiyeva and Rena I. Hamzayeva

    Objectives: The present study reports the clinical and functional features of the current of drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in patients withchronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Material and Methods: The present study reports the 180 patients who were examined in therapeutic departments of Tuberculosis Hospital No. 4 in Baku, which is the base of the Phthisiatry Department of the Azerbaijan Medical University from January 2013 to December 2017. Results: Among the examined were 33 women and 147 men aged 41 to 69 years. 110 patients (61%) had a widespread process in the lung, destructive changes were found in 126 (70%) patients. All patients were divided into two groups: the first group - 119 patients who had obstructive ventilation disorders in their pulmonary function test study, the 2nd group was formed from 71 patients with unchanged functional indices. Among the examined were 33 women and 147 men aged 41 to 69 years. 110 patients (61%) had a widespread process in the lung, destructive changes were found in 126 (70%) patients. Multidrug-resistant form was found in 36.1% of patients of the 1st and 20.5% in the 2nd group. The results of examination and treatment of patients with COPD testified to the severity and slow regress of clinical and radiological manifestations of the disease, the long-term preservation of bronchial patency disorders. All this led to the advisability of developing a basic of treatment program for patients with TB with COPD. Conclusion: The results obtained indicate a negative effect of bronchial obstruction on the tuberculosis process, which led to the development of a basic treatment program combining different methods for eliminating the causes of bronchial obstruction: adequate etiotropic chemotherapy, exposure to pathogenic agents, modern regimens of bronchodilator therapy, and smoking control.

  83. Prabhat Kumar Mishra and Vijay Thawani

    E.coli growth was good in 37ºC , This bacteria was indicator of water pollution, This was present in human intestine , If temperature was increase it was create infection of abdomen and indication of infection of abdomen Escherichia coli cells will grow over a temperature range of about 40°C, and remarkably, the cell growth rate increases in response to increasing temperature like a simple chemical reaction in a central normal range of its growth temperatures .

  84. Nikolai I Kobasko

    The paper discusses austempering process performed at the first step in cold environment friendly liquid and then, at the second step, quenched products go immediately for tempering at a temperature equal or higher of martensite start temperature Ms. The new technology is based on discovered new characteristics of transient nucleate boiling process where surface temperature maintains at the level of boiling point of a liquid relatively a long time. In the paper three variants of austempering processes are considered: austempering process with use of cold water salt solutions of high concentration; austempering process with use of cold water solutions of inverse solubility polymers; austempering process with use of cold plain water under pressure. It is shown that core cooling rates of austempered by new technology products are 2 – 3 times larger as compared with conventional austempering in melted salts and alkalis. The new technology has several advantages. It is possible governing austempering temperature within 100oC and 450oC to provide optimal condition for achieving fine microstructure of highly strengthened bainite. The aim of elaboration is extending significantly size of products suitable for austempering, increasing mechanical properties of a material and making technology green.

  85. Turgay Kara, Ibrahim Şara, H., Sami Coban, M., Fatih Ates, Sedat Durmaz, M. and Ibrahim Guney

    Gallbladder agenesis (GA) is an extremely rare condition. Some people with this rare condition can refer to hospital with biliary colic-like symptoms. This can lead to patients being misdiagnosed and unnecessarily operated. Here a 58-year-old female patient who presented with complaints of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain is presented. Because of the pain in the back of the epigastric region, high serum amylase and lipase values, it was thought to be acute pancreatitis. Furthermore, gallbladder was absent, ductus choledocus was dilatated but intrahepatic bile ducts were normal in the sonographic examination and IV contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) which were performed to investigate the etiology and the severity of pancreatitis. Upper abdominal Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging and Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) examinations were performed to evaluate the biliary tract and gallstones more clearly on the patient who had no gallbladder operation history. Finally the patient was reported as gallbladder agenesis by MRCP. To avoid unnecessary surgical procedures, it is recommended that suspicious patients must to be evaluated with MRCP when gallbladder is not clearly identified via US or CT.

  86. Sonali A. Nagare, Anita A. Najan, Mrunal K, Shirsat and Avinash V. Dhobale

    In the present research work, mouth dissolving tablets of bendroflumethiazide were prepared by direct compression method with a view to enhance patient compliance. Mouth dissolving tablets have many numbers of advantages over the conventional tablets like rapid disintegration, faster dissolution, Ease of administration and quick onset of action etc. Two super-disintegrants, viz., croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate in different ratios with microcrystalline cellulose along with mannitol to enhance mouth feel. Many pharmaceutical dosages are administered in the form of pills, granules, powders, and liquids. Generally, a pill is designed for swallowing intact or chewing to deliver a precise dosage of medication to patients. The drug and excipient interaction study was carried out by taking Infrared Spectrum of Pure drug and optimized formulation (B2). There was no change in the prominent functional groups of indicating drug is in intact form. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, wetting time, water absorption ratio, disintegration time and dissolution study.

  87. Dr. Jennifer B. Gonzales Dr. Helen B. Boholano

    Internationalization of Education has become one of the priorities in higher education, in order to produce people who could function in a diverse work environment with broad international culture. Internationalization of Philippine Higher Education Institution has become in a mantra as the country aims to be academically relevant in the network of interconnected global market. The study investigated the extent of the cultural pluralism of Higher Education Institutions in Cebu as means of internationalization of education. Specifically it sought to explore the learning styles of the international students, determine the adjustments made by the higher education institutions and identify the benefits of internationalization. Using Husserlian Phenomenology, the following was revealed: a) the students have specific learning styles which includes purposive and active learning to enhance the language and culture, take advantage in affordable education, and appreciate the schools’ provision of modern facilities and equipment; b.) the schools adjustments include curriculum offerings and delivery, enrollment and other policies, leadership structures and benchmarking strategies, provision of enhanced facilities and equipment; c.) the benefits of internationalization include cultural awareness, improved instruction, peer teaching and language accommodation. It is concluded that internationalization creates opportunities for Higher Education Institution, which is beneficial for the international and local students as well as the school administration and the faculty. This propels HEIS towards better instructional delivery and better communication and cultural pluralism. To strengthen internationalization in Philippines, it is recommended that HEIs may offer short-term courses to cater international students. It is further recommended that benchmarking to international schools and faculty training for internationalization may be granted.

  88. Joni Inocencia F. Gonzaga, Laurence L. Garcia and Ma. Mayla Imelda M. Lapa

    Background: Adolescence is a transitory period in an individual’s life. It is a fascinating stage as the individual goes through a period of adjustments. Objective(s): This study inquired into the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy and aims to narrate the experiences of teenage parents as they take in their role. Methods: It utilized the narrative inquiry to teenage mothers from Cebu City with age range of 13 to 17 years of age, and whose partner may be living together or not. Individual interview was done however, there was no specific guide questions used. As the narration took place, the researchers took notes on the plot, scene, setting and characterization of events. Results: This narrates the story of young women who experienced an unexpected life transition, from being a teenager to becoming a mother with the following highlights of their stories: A Family in Turmoil, The Girl in Trouble meets the Knight in Shining Armor, The Perfect Girl is Gone, Letting the Storm Rage On, The Storm did Bother her, To Rise like the Break of Dawn. The journey revealed a transition from a young girl full of vigor and enthusiasm to a young mother who is faced with the responsibility of childrearing at a time where she is supposed to grow and flourish. Conclusions:Narration of the lives of teenage mothers provided appreciation of the struggles they’ve been through. This sheds the light on the realities they face because of the harsh transition from being a girl to eventually becoming a young mother.

  89. Dr. Nagesh, R.D. and Dr. Hansda, S.C.

    Introduction: While mesh hernioplasty is increasingly getting popular, anatomical repair of ventral hernia is still commonly done by surgeons. In this study we have compared the effectiveness of mesh hernioplasty versus anatomical repair in the treatment of primary midline ventral hernias. Material and Methods: 30 patients of primary midline ventral hernia were treated by mesh hernioplasty while 30 patients were treated by anatomical repair. Results were compared in terms of duration of surgery, local complications and recurrence. Result: Average duration of surgery is longer for mesh hernioplasty compared to anatomical repair. Local complications (hematoma, seroma and surgical site infection) are more common in mesh hernioplasty cases compared to anatomical repair. In our study no recurrence was seen after mesh hernioplasty but 2 (6.6%) cases of anatomical repair recurred during 6 months follow-up period. Discussion and Conclusion: While mesh hernioplasty takes longer duration to perform and has high local complication rate; it has lower recurrence rate compared to anatomical repair.

  90. Dr. Neeta A. Nagori

    Denim garments are unlikely to fade from public eye as the versatility that these garments carry remains unmatched till date. The denim apparels can be spotted anywhere from mannequins in malls to people roaming on streets. The fad for denim has spread its tentacles everywhere around the globe suggesting its durability. So the study focuses on “Denim – the time less fabric an approach towards re–use in lower garment”. 90% of respondents like the concept of re–use of the old denim. 100% of respondents like the designing of the garments and considered it is the best way of waste management.

  91. Nishat U. Shaikh and Ashok M. Chavan

    Nanotechnology is a branch of biology which deals with study of nano-materials, nanoparticles and its applications. Nowadays, nanotechnology occupies a large area due to its importance in the entire field. Pharmacological industries and textile industries were solely dependent on the use of nanoparticles. Biological method is a good alternative source for the production of nanoparticles as compare to physical method and chemical methods. Microorganisms provide good alternative for the same due to its large availability and cheapest investment. Fungi have capacity to multiply rapidly, so it can be used for the production of nanoparticles. In the present investigation different species of Penicillium was used for the production of gold nanoparticles. The color of cell free filtrate turned into different shades of purple color which indicates the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Effect of these synthesized gold nanoparticles was tested against Wheat, Jowar and Bajra; which shows significant results in germination status of these cereals.

  92. Mrs. Pallavi Taparia, Dr. Sandhya Mishra, Dr. Dharmveer Yadav and Dr. Suresh Koolwal

    Introduction: Among specific nutritional factors that may be in deficit without overt malnutrition, Vitamin D is significant and has been associated with active Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB). Previous reports have shown that vitamin D deficient people had higher risk of developing active PTB which in turn also influence disease outcome. Objective: To study Vitamin D status in PTB patients and its correlation to disease severity and sputum positivity. Material and Methods: 120 adult PTB patients and 60 healthy controls were recruited. Sputum positivity was assessed by counting number of Acid Fast Bacilli in sputum microscopically and disease severity by Bandim TB score. After written consent, serum was used for investigating routine and specific test like Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH). Result and Discussion: Serum Proteins, Albumin, Vitamin D and PTH were significantly decreased in PTB patients than controls. Vitamin D correlated moderately to disease severity (r=-0.38) and sputum positivity (r=-0.34) suggesting its role in influencing disease outcome and reactivation of latent infection. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D has specific immunoregulatory function and Its deficiency could enhance disease susceptibility. Supplementation with vitamin D may be beneficial for high risk patients for effective treatment response. Thus, Calcium and its related metabolites including Vitamin D are required to be monitored in PTB due to its influence on disease severity.

  93. Mohd Hasni Jaafar and Gunaseelan A/L Gurusethan

    Childhood and adolescent rates of obesity and overweight are continuing to increase in much of the world. Most of them begin as early as the ages of 5 and 6 years, or during adolescence. Obesity is indeed a major public health concern due to its huge negative impact on the society at large which is well supported by evidence-based literatures. Risk factors such as diet composition, excess caloric intake, decreased exercise, genetics, and the built environment are active areas of etiologic research. Current evidence proposes that the systemic responses to exposure to environmental factors could potentially increase the risk of excess weight. The effects of exposure to these chemicals known as obesogens are of crucial importance during developmental phases of life. By considering the adverse trans-generational effects of obesogen chemicals on human health, the global obesity epidemic should be considered as a multifactorial complex disorder necessitating the emphasis of public health interventions for environmental protection.

  94. John Paul Relacion Pacyao Vic Marco Paolo F. Gencianeo

    This study was conducted in the 5 selected coastal barangays of Davao del Sur namely Brgy. Tagabuli, Sta. Cruz, Brgy. Punta Biao, Digos City, Brgy. Bucana, Hagonoy, Brgy. Balasinon, Sulop and Brgy. Bagumbayan, Malalag. These barangays were the Program Partners during the implementation of the Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program (PNAP) – Mangrove Rehabilitation Project due to suitability requirements. These were also declared by the Philippine Government as the identified Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) in the region. The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of the mangroves planted under PNAP, and determined its contributing factors behind its survival and mortality rates. Research questionnaire was also used in data gathering for socio-profiles of the project beneficiaries and management interventions employed. Results of the study revealed that Brgy. Punt Biao, Digos City (98.7%) and 95.85% in Brgy.Bucana, Hagonoy exhibited high survival rates. In terms of area orientation, these Barangays is a midland zone, and hence, expected minimum to high survival rates since planted mangroves in these areas were not directly exposed over strong winds and waves actions. However, lowest survived mangroves were recorded in Brgy. Balasinon, Sulop with 10.22% due to wave fluctuations and other climatic conditions in general. Results further revealed that Mangrove mortalities may result from different factors: change in nutrient availability, grazing animals, deforestation, feral pigs, sea level rises, storms and strong winds, shoreline erosion, altered tidal flows, and climate change which is mainly caused by human pollution and disorderness. Different management strategies includes direct planting method, and regular visitation, cleaning and overall monitoring in the different mangroves areas at least once a month or twice a month. Replanting mechanisms of mangroves were also realized and being practiced in some study areas. Hence, this could be the reason why Brgy. Punta Biao and Brgy. Bucana recorded excellent number of mangroves survived.

  95. Dr. Madan Lal Kurre

    The present study was aimed to see the effect of intelligence and motor skill learning upon adolescent boys. For the present study, 100 boys from age group i.e. 12,13,14 and 15 years respectively were selected from various schools of Chhattisgarh. In all 400 adolescent boys were selected. To assess motor educability of adolescent boys Johnson’s test of motor educability (1932) was used. while intelligence, Malhotra’s (1984) Mixed Type Group Test of Intelligence (MGTI) was used. The results reveal that To verify hypothesis “Significant positive relationship will be observed in motor skill learning of selected subjects with their cognitive ability i.e. intelligence” of adolescent boys. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated.

  96. Dr. Kanav Mahajan, Dr. Rahul Mahajan and Dr. Sanjeev Gupta

    Percutaneous pinning after closed reduction is commonly used to treat supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. Minor pin tract infections frequently occur. The aim of this study was to prevent pin tract infections using a rubber stopper to reduce irritation of the skin against the Kirschner (K) wire following percutaneous pinning. Between July 2016 and June 2017, seventeen children with closed supracondylar fracture of the humerus of Gartland types 2 and 3 were treated with this technique. All patients were treated with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning and followed up prospectively. Only one patient, who was a hyperactive child, developed pin tract infection due to softening of the plaster slab. We found using the rubber stopper to be a simple and inexpensive method to reduce pin tract infections following percutaneous pinning.

  97. Zuhal Kaynakci Elinc, Latif Gurkan Kaya Hakan Elinc

    It is very risky to arrange green lands and install urban furniture at touristic regions. Moreover, these areas are functional for only 3-4 months per year by visitors. The goal of this study is to develop a “portable garden” concept where green islands and urban furniture are used. At the end of the theoretical study, three sample portable gardens were designed using 3dsMax software. It is expected that the study will contribute to the environmental planning of protected urban areas in the future. The introduction of portable gardens could protect existing Cultural and Natural Properties of the region so they can accessible to the next generations. The innovation of the present study is expected to contribute to the urban areas that are under protection.

  98. Dr. Chitra Patil, Dr. Aljeeta Kadam, Dr. Shikha Desai, Dr. Monali Patil and Dr. Dhara Patel

    Introduction: The aim of the study is to describe an uncommon location of Telangiectatic Granuloma with intra bony defect. Etiology of the it has been associated with chronic irritation, trauma. Synergistic effects seen with presence of plaque, calculus, regular use of orthodontic appliances, iatrogenic factors is also attributed. The Telangiectic granuloma is most frequently located in the vestibular gingiva of the maxillary anterior region. This article presents with the clinicopathologic findings of a male patient, with a chief complaint of spontaneous bleeding from a gingival overgrowth. An excisional biopsy was taken and sent for histopathologic evaluation. It revealed numerous small newly forming bloodvascular channels to multiple large blood filled endothelium lined blood vascular channels. There was presence of diffuse areas of chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate and areas of haemorrphage. Clinical Significance: OTG appear to have a female predilection and are commonly seen as red tumorous lesions affecting the vestibular gingiva of the maxillary anterior segment (Jafarzadeh et al., 2016). The case presented is of a male patient, 19 years old, with OTG in mandibular anterior region with intra bony defect.

  99. Sanghesh B. Bele

    The Cloud computing is the development of parallel Computing, Distributed Computing and Grid Computing. The Cloud Computing is not a very new concept because it is connected to Grid Computing Paradigm, whose concept came into thirteen years ago. Cloud computing is not only related to grid computing but also related to utility and cluster computing. Cloud computing is computing platform for sharing resources which include software’s, business process, infrastructure and applications. It is also relies on technology of virtualization. In this paper, we will discuss about grid and cloud computing and how cloud computing is different from other. In this paper, we will also highlight the future of computing as cloud computing. Also to find the actuality of the fifth generation computing in the form of Cloud Computing.

  100. Sanjana S., Uday, J. and Hariprasad, T. P. N.

    Beta 2 microglobulin (B2M) is a small ~11KD protein. Increased level of Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) leads to several diseases like amyloidosis, peripheral arterial disease, coronary heart disease, cancer and inflammatory diseases. B2M downstream signalling is mediated by activation of the protein kinase A/cyclic AMP (cAMP) mediated by potential interaction with Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling in humans. In this study an insilico approach was carried out to identify the possible receptors which interact with this protein and induce the downstream signalling which may be a further used to explore therapeutic target for treating cancer.

  101. Nainawat Manila, Sharma Manju and Mehta Seema

    Background: MMR acts as a marker of general health of a country and is an indicator of risk of death once a woman becomes pregnant. Purpose: To review the effects of JSSY by evaluating the MMR and assessing the epidemiological aspects and causes of maternal mortality. Methods: Retrospective study included maternal mortality in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur from 1st Jan 2009 to 30th April 2014. All maternal mortality from 1st Jan 2009 to 30th April 2014. Data collection and analysis from vital statistic register and mortality records were done. Main Results: MMR from Jan. 2009 to April 2014 was 238/100000 live births. MMR before JSSY (Jan. 2009 to Aug. 2011) was 265 and MMR after JSSY (Sep. 2011 to Apr. 2014) was 218. Mortality was more in rural area (64.74%) with lower socioeconomic class (63.58%). Haemorrhage (28.9) being the commonest direct cause of mortality while Anaemia (19.08%) being indirect cause. Conclusion: MMR in our state is still very high. So, there is need to improve maternal and child health care. Though JSSY helped us to improve maternal and child health care system and bring down maternal mortality a bit.

  102. Dr. Kiros Abeselom

    The author of this Paper has reviewed and analyzed purposively selected reports of mass media (“mainstream media”), i.e. electronic and print media, especially in the Western world, for instance in Germany concerning the unrest insome towns of Oromia and Amhara Regional States of Ethiopia in autumn 2016.However, the question is, what happened really in Ethiopia on the ground during the unrest in Ethiopia in autumn 2016? The news about the unrest in Ethiopia in autumn 2016 was manipulated, i. e. it was fake news. But what is fake news? Fake news means false news, lie, deceive, cheating, illusion, misleading, dummy, simulation, fabrication, manipulation and propaganda. Therefore, according to this definition of fake news, the reports about the unrest in some towns of Oromia and Amhara Regional States of Ethiopia in autumn 2016were propaganda because the fact was very small but the reports in the news were exaggerated. For example, in terms of the number of people who were involved and/or in terms of the regions which were affected by the unrest in some towns of Oromia and Amhara Regional States of Ethiopia in autumn 2016. However, these manipulated reports were simply copied by mass media (“mainstream media”), especially in the Western world, for instance in Germany without verifying the facts of such reports or news. For instance, Marco Maier wrote an article that the Oromo and Amhara people feel that they are oppressed by the minority Tigray people “(ca. 6 percent of the Ethiopian population)” which holds all key positions in the government. However, Maier’s report is not based on facts because the following examples show the opposite: The appointments of the cabinet of the Ethiopian Federal Government in 2015/16, 2016/17and in 2018 show that the majority of the ministers in the Federal Government of Ethiopia in Addis Ababa were from Oromia region, for example in 2016 eight ministers from Oromia region, four ministers and deputy prime minister from Amhara region, four ministers and prime Minister from Southern Nations (SNNPR) region, three ministers from Tigray Region, etc. Therefore, in order to find out scientific facts about the unrest in Ethiopia in autumn 2016, the author of this Paper has applied the following methodologies: 1. Secondary data were collected from various sources, like for example Internet (websites), watching television news (reports), reading print media, 2. Empirical studies and/or observations in Ethiopia as well as in Germany were reviewed and analyzed.3. In addition, the author of this Paper has written letters to authors of articles as well as editors of articles concerning the article about the late Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi on 12.07.20 and the reports about the unrest in some towns of Oromia and Amhara Regional States of Ethiopia in autumn 2016.However, the source of their reports is “made up out of thin air”. The fact that the purpose of fake news is to defame persons, spread hatred and disturb public peace knowingly, governments like Germany, Malaysia, Singapore, the European Commission, etc. are taking legal actions against social media platforms, like Facebook, etc.

  103. Pradeep Kumar Padhi, Shivaram Prasad Singh, Chitta Ranjan Panda, Haribhakti Seba Das, Jimmy Narayan, Preetam Nath, Prasant Parida, KaibalyaRanjan Das, Sambit Kumar Behera and Surya Kanta Parida

    Background and Aim: Hepatobiliary manifestations are amongst the most important extraintestinal manifestations in chronic ulcerative colitis patients. There is paucity of data on hepatobiliary alterations in ulcerative colitis patients from India. The study was carried out to evaluate the hepatobiliary alterations in ulcerative colitis patients admitted to a tertiary care centre in Odisha. Methods: Consecutive patients 0f Ulcerative colitis admitted to Gastroenterology Department SCB Medical College, Cuttack from 0ct 2013 to April 2015 were included in the study. Patients with history of liver diseases were excluded. All patients were subjected to clinical examination, liver function tests and ultrasonography for evaluation of hepatobiliary alterations. MRCP was performed in selected patients. Controls were recruited from healthy subjects (n=100). Results: A total of 112 patients [73(65.1 %%) male; 39(34.9%) female] with ulcerative colitis were included. The mean age and BMI were 40.2±14.01years and 21.3±3.5kg/m2 respectively. Patients with mild, moderate and severe disease activity were 22(19.6%), 67(59.8%) and 23(20.5%) respectively. The median duration of illness was 24 months (IQR:6.5-48). Extra intestinal manifestations were found in 68 patients(60.7%).40(35.7%) patients had arthralgia, 6(5.3%) had arthritis, 13(11.6%) had episcleritis,2(1.7%) had stomatitis, 3(2.6%) had Erythematic Nodosum, 1(0.9%) had pyoderma Gangrenosum. 60 (53.8%) patients developed hepatobiliary alterations.2(1.7%) had jaundice, pruritus and clay colored stool in whom MRCP revealed primary sclerosing cholangitis. 22(19.6%) had hepatic steatosis, 42(37.5%) had asymptomatic transaminitis, 17(15.1%) had elevated alkaline phosphatase and 67(60%) had hypoalbuminmia. In control groups 17(17%) had hepatic steatosis, 28(28%) had transaminitis, 8(8%) had elevated alkaline phosphatase. Conclusion: The study revealed that approximately 61% of Ulcerative colitis patients had extra intestinal manifestations. Hepatobiliary alterations are the most common (53.5%) extra intestinal manifestations in Ulcerative colitis and asymptomatic transaminitis is the most common hepatobiliary alterations in the patients with Ulcerative colitis in the present study.

  104. Shubham Bandral, Sapna Kundal, Arup Giri, Indu Kumari and Rajesh Kumar

    Introduction: Life on earth is not possible without water; one of the essential constituent of the environment. This study was designed to assess the quality of productivity and water quality of fish pond water in National Fish Farm Kathua and hand pump water of Kathua regions (Barnoti and Nihalpur). Method: Sample was collected in the month of April 2018. The water sample was analyzed for various physic-chemical characteristics like temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC), chlorides, carbonates, alkalinity, sulfate, nitrates, phosphate, and hardness. Results: Results showed the level (mean ± standard error) of pH (Fishpond-7.68 ± 0.93, Handpump-6.5 ± 0.22), TDS (Fishpond-136 ± 2.70 mg/L, Handpump-11.25 ± 0.96 mg/L), DO (Fishpond-17.60 ± 3.03mg/L, Handpump-12.71 ± 1.47mg/L), EC (Fishpond-1.9 ± 0.55 µS/cm2, Handpump-1.5 ± 0.58 µS/cm2), chloride (Fishpond-929.24 ± 20.77mg/L, Handpump-88.40 ± 52.21mg/L), carbonate (Fishpond-76.28 ± 27.86 mg/L, Handpump-84.00 ± 32.67 mg/L), and alkalinity (Fishpond-456.40 ± 124.04 mg/L, Handpump-528.00 ± 192.87 mg/L), respectively. But, the level of sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, and hardness was not detected. Conclusion: The suitability of the hand pump water and fish pond was assessed. With reference to this study, it can be concluded that the water quality of hand pump water was good and the productivity level was moderate in all the ponds.

  105. Calvo-lluch, A., Otero-saborido, F., Suarez-arrones, L, Gobea-soto, J.A. Villalba-fernández León-prados, J.A.

    The main objective is to review the scientific literature regarding dance and physical demand. Databases concerning physical activities have been revised: Scopus and Proquest. In medical sciences: PubMed, Medline and Medes. In social sciences: Dialnet and PHD databases: Teseo, and other databases have been selected next to 34 JCR articles, and it’s content makes reference to the physical training of the dancers. The revision of all these articles happened in 2017 and it excluded every article or PHD that did not talk about this two following topics; Physical conditioning and fitness training relating it to dance. They all agree that dance by itself is not enough to challenge the dancer’s physical condition; therefore physical preparation is essential in a dancer’s schedule.

  106. Anurima Baidya, Tapan Majumder, Rituparna Das and Subrata Baidya

    Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis (TB) co-infection is a lamentable medical phenomenon and CD4 count among them is a surrogate marker of their immune status.Objectives: 1. To study the epidemiological profile of HIV –TB co-infected subjects. 2. To study the CD4 count status among HIV, TB and HIV-TB co-infected patients both at diagnosis (pre treatment) and after initiation of treatment. Methodology: This was a hospital based comparative cross-sectional study conducted at Agartala Government Medical College between May & June 2013, among 60 patients in each group of HIV, TB and HIV-TB co-infected patients. Results: The study revealed that the HIV-TB co infection and HIV infection was more prevalent among males and in the age group of . Majority of the HIV-TB co-infected patients had CD4 count less than 200 cells/μl at the time of diagnosis and there has been a significant rise in CD4 count level with the initiation of treatment in all the three groups of HIV +ve patients, HIV-TB co-infected patients, and TB patients (P value <0.00). Conclusion: Sustained efforts are needed to detect and treat tuberculosis among HIV infected patients to curb the dual menace of HIV-TB epidemic.

  107. Gino G. Sumalinog

    There is a good number of foreign students in many universities in the Philippines, but these students encountered listening dilemmas which hindered their learning. In this paper, the researcher randomly chose fifty (50) participants from 18 different nationalities to determine their listening anxiety levels, their causes, as well as the coping strategies they used in hurdling their listening difficulty. Using the measures of central tendency, the findings revealed that the foreign students’ listening anxiety in general is high due to three (3) main factors: teachers’ factors, environmental factors and, individual factors. As to their coping strategies, it came out that they used socio-affective strategies, meta-cognitive strategies, and cognitive strategies. Social and affective aspects, which involved asking for assistance and sharing of experiences, were dominantly employed by the students, followed the other two strategies. As conclusion, the participants’ anxiety levels differ in impact towards their studies, and they used varied coping strategies that effectively addressed their listening anxiety. Consequently, the result could build a listening dilemma-free learning experience. Recommendations and suggestions for further studies to prepare and assist international students were included for their seamless learning experience wherever they may go.

  108. Rashmi, Nidhi Goel, P.P. Gupta and Uma Chaudhary

    Introduction: Significant mortality and morbidity is caused by Tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries like India. Direct ZiehlNeelsen (ZN) sputum smear microscopy for the detection of AFB remains the most important diagnostic test for TB. But the sensitivity of this method in diagnosing pulmonary TB is discouragingly low. One approach to the improvement of sputum smear microscopy is the application of chemical pretreatment to disrupt sputum structure, separate clumps of mycobacteria, and concentrate bacilli, thereby increasing the probability of their detection. Aims and Objective: To compare the efficacy of Sodium Hypochlorite and Phenol ammonium sulphate pretreatment methods with direct sputum smear microscopy to detect AFB from sputum samples of suspected pulmonary TB patients. Methods: A total of 300 samples from 300 suspected pulmonary TB patients were studied. The sputum samples were divided into 3 parts and used for direct ZN staining, pretreatment with 5% sodium hypochlorite by centrifugation and sedimentation and phenol ammonium sulphate. The smears were stained by ZN technique and seen under 100 X oil immersion lens. The results were compared with culture on LJ media, as gold standard. Results: The sensitivity of direct microscopy was seen to be the lowest of 37.50%, followed by PhAS 45.83%, Bleach by sedimentation 50% and highest by Bleach by centrifugation method 52.08%. Conclusion: Pretreatment by sodium hypochlorite centrifugation method is a better method than PhAS for improving sputum smear microscopy.

  109. Janet C. Sambu

    Mixed and unpredictable performance of pupils taught in private and public primary schools both at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) and Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) exams is still a challenge in Kenya despite documentation that private primary schools produce better school leavers than public primary schools. This study was set to compare academic performance of private and public primary school leavers at KCSE in Kericho County. Two County schools; (a girls’ and a boys’ school) were randomly selected out of six County schools. A total of 337 students; 170 boys and 167 girls were selected for the study. Out of the 170 boys, 81 and 89 came from private and public primary schools respectively, while out of 167 girls, 89 and 78 came from private and public primary schools respectively. KCPE and KCSE results were obtained from school documents containing students records and were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, (SPPS) version 17.0.Results indicated that public primary school leavers performed better than those from private primary schools at KCSE; however, further comparative analysis using independent t- test showed that there was no significant statistical difference. Regression analysis showed a positive relationship between KCPE marks and KCSE points, while Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to find the effect of KCPE marks on KCSE points showed that for public primary school leavers it was weak while for private primary school leavers it was moderate. The study therefore concludes that performance at KCSE depends on KCPE but not much influenced by the private or public primary school background. There is need for education stakeholders to harmonize teaching approaches and other co-curricular activities in both private and public primary schools for better performance at KCSE.

  110. Maji Jose, Vengal Ipe Varghese, Varsha Jayakar, Vinayak Lokapur, Srinivasa, K., Pratap, G.K. and Manjula Shantaram

    Cytotoxic effect of tobacco both in vivo and in vitro is confirmed by a wealth of scientific evidences available in literature. It is established that smokeless tobacco related tissue damage is related to reactive oxygen species production in oral cells, peritoneal macrophages, hepatic mitochondria and microsomes. In the present study, it is explored to compare the cytotoxic effects of three different tobacco samples and cyto-protective effects of three different plant extracts. Cyto-toxicity induced by tobacco samples andcyto-protective effects of plant extracts, when analysed, a reduction in % cell viability of oral epithelial cells after incubating with different tobacco extract was noted in a concentration dependent manner. Viability noted with tobacco -1 exposure was 73-52 % with increasing concentration, with tobacco -2 was 75 to 32% and with tobacco-3 was 52 to 23%. Simultaneous treatment with plant extracts along with tobacco samples resulted in reduction in cytotoxic effect reflected as increase in % viability than tobacco treatment alone, indicating the cyto-protective effect of plant extracts, but not to the level of untreated controls.

  111. Vedasamhitha Ramavarapu, Subam Mahender, C., Srichurnam Sreekar and Varun Tripuraneni

    The study is carried out as retrospective and prospective observational studies to analyze the cancer characteristics, therapeutic approaches and the state of depression in Breast cancer patients. Breast cancer is one of the highly prevalent female specific carcinomas, however, the rarity of male breast cancers is observed. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has been shown to be a useful strategy in the treatment of Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) because it results in tumor downstaging benefits. This study agrees with what Chintamani et al. found in India in a study population with similar characteristics and the same chemotherapy regimen. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has proved appealing potential benefits over the classic adjuvant therapy. Apart from cancer characteristics and therapeutic statistics, the effects of Doxorubicin neoadjuvant therapy were analyzed with respect to tumor size after each cycle of NAC. The significant change in the tumor size (measured in cm) of 39 patients undergoing NAC. The use of Doxorubicin for neoadjuvant therapy was found to be significantly beneficial in the reduction of tumor size of locally advanced breast cancers (LABC). This reduction in tumor size prior surgery helps in the choice of type of surgery being performed. It can result in avoiding the use of mastectomy and more preference for breast-conserving surgeries can be given.

  112. SBAISS Larbi MBARKI Mohammed Amine

    The influence of public management and the introduction of quality management, with the successive reforms of Moroccan public administration, have accelerated the transposition of new tools and management practices from the private to publicsector. The experiences of Moroccan local communes in implementing quality approaches in their management style are too limited. With the large yards restructuring and the new constitution, the powers of municipalities are expanding, and the process of decentralization hasin creased to give more track maneuver to local communities. In this context, the role of leaders (administrative directors) had been dominant in the layout and ownership of quality initiatives in the Moroccan local commune’s process. Through this brief, we address the problems related to the reasons that impede the implementation of quality management in Moroccan local authorities and their appropriation by the leaders. To do this, we first carried out a literature review on our subject to shed light on the key concepts and theoretical foundations, then to treat the empirical part through a semi-qualitative approach carried out in a Moroccan city based on common interview guidelines with the heads of divisions.

  113. Sasirekha, B. and Roshini Nair

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BS36 isolated from soil was tested for its biosurfactant production potential by utilizing different natural waste carbon substrates and its insecticidal activitywas evaluated. Among several natural substrates used in the present study, orange peel was found to be best substrate for biosurfactant production yield with surface tension of 80.04 mN/m and emulsification activity of 65%. Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to maximize biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant production increased 1.5 fold (28.17 mN/m) within 24 hrs compared to its production under the unoptimized conditions (41.88 nM/m). Qualitative analysis revealed that the isolated biosurfactant is of lipopeptide nature. Biosurfactant produced by B. amyloliquefaciens BS36 has an insecticidal activity against rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica).

  114. Sumithra, S., Dr. Nesa Aurlene, Dr. Sunayana Manipal, Dr. Rajmohan, Dr. Prabu, D., Dr. Sindhu, R. and Dr. Bharathwaj, V.V.

    Background: Literacy is an undeniable necessity that enables individuals in any community to lead a socially productive life. Literacy in medicine and dentistry implies the ability of people to understand health information presented to them and make informed decisions regarding their health care. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is an association between literacy in medicine and literacy in dentistry and also whether the medical and dental literacy scores had an influence on lifestyle factors. Methods: A single institutional cross-sectional survey was conducted in the months of October 2017 to November 2017 at SRM Dental College and Hospital, Ramapuram, Chennai. A total of 100 participants were included in the study. The questionnaire consisted of items to assess the dental literacy, medical literacy and lifestyle factors such as smoking status, alcohol consumption, and lifestyle factors including habit of playing sports, doing exercise and dietary habits. Bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests and Pearson’s correlation were used to analyse the data. The results were analysed using SPSS software for windows, version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Pearson’s correlation coefficient between dental literacy and medical literacy was found to be 0.268 which was found to be significant at p < 0.05. A weak positive correlation was elicited between medical literacy and dental literacy. Chi-square tests showed significant association between medical literacy and two lifestyle factors namely frequency of doing exercise and frequency of consuming poultry. Conclusion: The present study concluded that there is a positive association between medical literacy and dental literacy. It also concluded that medical literacy has an effect on lifestyle factors although not all lifestyle factors were found to be significantly associated with medical literacy. Targeting public health education programmes to improve medical and dental literacy could improve the health of a community by enabling people to comprehend health information better, to inculcate healthy lifestyle practices and make informed decisions regarding health care.

  115. Florence Mukamana and Dr. Patrick Mulyungi

    The operating environment for business has become very volatile and dynamic following increased innovation and globalization. This has meant that organizations have to constantly be ready to develop and implement new strategies that would boost their competitiveness. Diversification is developing as one of the most important growth strategies adopted by firms to boost performance. Some firms that have adopted diversification strategies have succeeded while others have failed. The study sought to determine the effect of corporate diversification on the financial performance of manufacturing firms in Rwanda. To achieve this objective the study used a descriptive survey. A census approach was used, and secondary data was used for five years (2012-2016). The data was gathered from financial statements and records. Data analysis was done using a regression model. The study found that corporate diversification was positively related to financial performance of 15 selected manufacturing firms in Rwanda. Data analysis was done using a regression model. The study found that corporate diversification was positively related to financial performance of the manufacturing firms in Rwanda. Growth and firm size were found to be negatively related to financial performance of manufacturing firms. The correlation results were found to be weak but moderate between corporate diversification and financial performance of manufacturing firm. From the descriptive results, it was found that a few selected manufacturing firms had diversified their products. The mean value of the selected manufacturing firms that had diversified their products was 0.0209. This mean value shows that the level of corporate diversification is moderate. Firm size and financial performance was found to have a weak positive relationship which was represented by R= -.354. There was no relationship between growth of the firm and financial performance of manufacturing firms. From the model of coefficients, corporate diversification was found to be statistically significant in the model. This is because its p-value was lower than 5%. The results were as follows p=0.004. These finding are consistent with the hypothesis of the study which predicts a positive relationship between corporate diversification and financial performance of the selected manufacturing firms in Rwanda. Further, it was observed that firm size and growth of listed manufacturing firms were statistically insignificant. The results obtained were as follows p=0.007 and p=0.094. The study recommends that firms should offset the risk of doing business. Through expanding, a firm is not dependent on a limited number of products, locations, or markets in order to survive. A company may pursue this diversification in reaction to a change in the market. The study was conducted within a limited time and scope. The results and the conclusion drawn in this study cannot however, be used to make generalization of all the manufacturing firms operating in Rwanda.

  116. Dr. Hemish Kania, Dr. Shashank Bansal and Dr. Amit Inamdaar

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is very unusual type of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and occurs mostly in patients of neurofibromatosis. The occurrence of MPNST in breast tissue is particularly rare. Only 8 cases have been reported till date in absence of history of neurofibromatosis. We are reporting such case in a 30 years old male who presented with hard and painless breast lump for 3 months. Patient was treated with wide local excision and surgical specimen was submitted for histopathological examination. Microscopic examination revealed a malignant spindle cell tumor of low grade. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed which showed positivity of vimentin and negative for LCA (leukocyte common antigen), CD99, desmin, Bcl-2, S-100. Final diagnosis MPNST was put on the basis of morphological appearance and IHC. Patient was treated with postoperative radiotherapy in dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions in view of unknown margin status. At present patient is on regular follow up.

  117. Nesrine Hassan Youssef

    Heavy metals and aflatoxins contaminated crops are considered a big problem threatening animals and humans. The relationships between heavy metal mixture in contaminated soil and certain fungi produced aflatoxins are studied. The role of commercial chitosan as bi-functional agent was studied too. Chitosan powder 1% realized high heavy metals adsorbance efficacies in both soil and reduces its availability in obtained plants. This study focuses also on developing an effective technology for treatment of aflatoxins and available heavy metals-contaminated soil. Our results indicated that added chitosan1% to seed beads area increased the percentage of germinated seeds, minimized the availability of Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni ,Fe and Al in produced rocket plants. Chitosan significantly reduced aflatoxinG1 in both tested soils. Meanwhile, the aflatoxin B1 inhibition was significantly exhibited only in case of sterilized sandy soil. On the other hand, aflatoxin B1 and G1were significantly inhibited in plants. The competition between soil flora and the two tested fungi don’t affect the chitosan’s efficacy.

  118. Dr. Prashant Tamgadge, Dr. Rashmi wasekar, Dr. Heena Mazhar, Dr. Rajdeep Singh, Dr. Pramod Krishna, B. and Dr. Sushant kumar Soni

    Plasma cell mucositis is a chronic, multifocal, non-neoplastic plasma cell proliferative disease of upper aerodigestive tract having unknown etiology, very rare condition with less than 50 cases reported in literature till now. The present case reported unifocal variant of such lesion of lower lip in elderly female patient presenting clinically as painless papular growth of oral commisure having nodular mucosal horns with erythematous to velvety surface changes extending towards lower lip since last one year associated with pain and pharyngitis. The histopathologic Section shows overlying squamous epithelium with marked acanthosis, hyperkeratosis and papillomatosis along with patchy fibrosis and dense plasma infiltrate.The significance of this case is the differentiation of a benign disease from one that is potentially life threatening.

  119. Zebdewos Zekarias

    The objective of this study was to explore the factors affect the implementation of cooperative learning and increase motivation, and interpersonal relationships in first year psychology department students’ classroom. The study involved descriptive survey design. Participants of the study were Wolaita Sodo University, school of education and behavioral science and specifically at department of psychology first year students who are enrolled in the university programs in 2016/17 academic year. Since first year psychology students are 50 in number and grouped into one to five functions. Generally, ten groups were organized. Among ten groups, five groups were selected through random sampling, lottery technique. The data were collected using questionnaire method. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results of descriptive statistics analysis showed that 72% of students were responded that poor communication affect the implementation of cooperative learning. Overall, after the implementation of action strategy, the research showed that cooperative learning bolstered student productivity, as well as increase motivation and interpersonal relations among students.

  120. Dibia Ndukwe

    This survey research sought to provide information to various stakeholders of money deposit banks on the critical factors inhibiting firms from discharging social responsibility in Nigeria. A survey questionnaire was used to collect primary data on factors that inhibit CSR practice, by Nigerian deposit money banks. Archival documents and analysis of financial results from 2010 to 2014 of fifteen publicly listed money deposit banks in Nigeria were collected and analyzed for the five year period. This study utilized multivariate techniques of data analysis. Factor analysis statistical tool was used in the analysis. The research identified that – government regulations that limit corporate expansion (GRLCE), absence of government infrastructural support (ABGIS) and inadequate financial resources (IFR) are the most critical factors inhibiting corporate social responsibility in Nigeria. The study recommends that government should intervene through infrastructural development, tax incentives, subsidies and regulations to encourage corporate expansion.

  121. TRAORE Kassoum

    The Ivorian forest is in difficulty and even endangered because of its advanced degradation. Of 16 million hectares, there are still about 3.5 to 2 million today. This drastic reduction of forests, especially protected areas, is due to an irrational agriculture of forest resources through shifting cultivation on slash and mining-type abusive logging that has led to a degradation of the forest cover. Safeguarding the Ivorian classified forests is an objective at the heart of the debates of the life of the Ivorian nation. In the past, Ivorian forests used to occupy a large part of the national territory. Today, human activities have reduced them in many places. Yet they play very important ecological roles. Infiltration or clandestine occupation of forests classified by the population follows a logic of subsistence or survival. Communities therefore live at the expense of the forest not only for their agricultural activity but also by collecting fuel, fiber and medicines. In addition, illegal gold panning nowadays inside forests classified by peasants who have become "gold diggers" has also contributed and continues to exacerbate the phenomenon. As a result, there are several land conflicts that disrupt social cohesion and weaken the social fabric between the communities living around the classified forests. Therefore, unanimously, the national and international community believes that "The Ivorian forest lives a tragedy: the fauna, flora and our waters are in danger. The Ivorian forest is dying. It's just disappearing

  122. Dr. Tanvi Jaiswal, Dr. Surekha Godbole, Dr. Anjali Bhoyar Borle, Dr. Seema Sathe and Dr. Mithilesh Dhamande

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of smile designing on oral health - related quality of life. Objectives: Comparative evaluation of health-related quality of life (OHQoL) in patients before treatment and after treatment ie:- after 1 month of smile designing. Methods: In this case series study, the impact of treatment on OHQoL was measured using the standard questionnaire OHIP 14. This tool was applied to 15 patients who visited department of Prosthodontics SPDC wardha, before and after 1 month of treatment. Results: A total of 15 patients participated in the study. The average mean score recorded before treatment was 2.65 which was reduced to 1.13 after smile designing treatment. OHIP-14 scores were shown a statistical significant difference before and after treatment and had a greatest impact on quality of life after treatment. As can be seen, comparison of the frequencies of these responses suggested that after treatment, changes in OHRQoL for almost all questions. Conclusion: This study showed a positive effect on the OHRQoL and a strong impact on social, psychological emotional daily life of each patient.

  123. Dr. Ahmed Sayed Khashaba, M.B.B.CH. MD. PhD.

    Background: The aim of this study is to systematically review the impact of sports on oral health. Objective: Understanding the physiological effects of sports on the oral health. Methods: A review of previous literatures from different journals in the same subject will be discussed; Data was collected during the period from 2013 to 2018. Results and conclusion: The findings of this systematic review showed that sports have a negative impact on oral health.

  124. Nguyen Thu Ha

    In recent years, the management activities of the master's degree in education management at universities and institutes in Vietnam has achieved certain results such as the huge number of training courses, many universities and the Academy organizes training, the attention of the society. However, there are still limitations and inadequacies due to the fact situation of education reforms such as: training quality is not good enough; training programs are not modern; some educational institutions are not capable of training... On the basis of research theory and real status of training management activites for master's degree in Education Management at universities and institutes in Vietnam, the author proposes some suitable and feasible management solutions to improve the quality of education in order to contribute to the development of the education management staff for the education reform.

  125. Dr. TAI Hirigo Ignace

    The phenomenon of writing which constitutes poetry expresses itself in literature and mainly in oral poetry from the stowage of modern writing to tradition with its genres and traditional artistic practices. Disintegration indeed even non-existence of airtightness in the organization of traditional generic is retaken with dexterity by poetic writing that gives rise to a multiform generic organization. Intertextuality which drives from it, leads thus to a bursting of sense by the crushing of the monotony of uniformity. In the tread, it reaches its paroxysm with the integration of internal hypertextuality or intern intertextuality. The polyform organization of poetic work induces the phenomena of polyphony and polyrythmy that end by convincing of Jean-Marie Adiaffi’s creativity.

  126. Dr. Pallavi S. More, Dr. Amit Nehete, Dr. Nitin Gulve, Dr. Sheetal Patani and Dr. Shivpriya Aher

    Introduction - The aim of the study is to identify the ideal position of maxillary central incisor as defined by soft tissue thickness of the upper lip, using modified A-line. Materials and methods-30 standardized lateral cephalograms of adult orthodontically treated patients were studied. Patients with esthetically pleasing profile, competent lips, average growth pattern, ANB range in 2-4º and Angle’s class I molar relationship were selected. Cephalometric landmarks were located and U1 position with respect to modified A line, A-Pog line, N-Pog line and SN plane was studied. Results-The mean value of U1 to modified A- line is -0.5mm. The observed mean values for U1 to A-Pog, U1 to N-Pog and U1 to SN plane are 5.98mm, 6.98mm and 103.78º respectively. Conclusion-The modified A- line, based on horizontal plane (HP) and soft tissue thickness of the upper lip at point A can be used as an objective cephalometric tool for positioning maxillary central incisor.

  127. Dr. Hemish Kania, Dr. Amit Inamdaar and Dr. Shashank Bansal

    Mammary sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms that arise from the mammary stroma (Farrokh et al., 2006). Angiosarcomas, one of the most common forms of mammary sarcoma, are developed from the endothelial lining of the blood vessels. Angiosarcoma of the breast is an exceedingly rare disease that may occur as a primary neoplasm or as a complication of radiation therapy after breast conservation. Only about 20% of angiosarcomas are primary sarcomas. The incidence of primary breast angiosarcoma is about 17 new cases per million women. Primary angiosarcoma of the breast is exceedingly rare, and represents around 0.04% of malignant breast neoplasms. Its incidence among breast sarcomas varies from 2.7% to 9.1%. Breast angiosarcoma is more frequent in young women (20 to 50 years) like in our case with no previous cancer history or other known risk factors. We present a case of a 42-year-old woman, with a painful slowly growing mass in her left breast over a period of one year which on investagitating came out to be primary angiosarcoma of breast.

  128. Kirti Pandita and Piyush Malaviya

    In developing countries like India wastewater fertigation for crop cultivation is a regular practice. Effluents from various industries are considered as the main industrial pollutants containing organic and inorganic compounds. The increasing agricultural reuse of treated effluent serves goals such as promoting sustainable agriculture, preserving scare water resources and maintaining environmental quality. The wastewaters being used include both untreated and treated, although the former predominates the later. The present experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of tap water (clean water), primary treated and secondary treated distillery wastewater on various growth parameters i.e. (root length, shoot length, seedling length, fresh root weight, fresh shoot weight, fresh seedling weight, root shoot ratio) and various stress indices i.e. Shoot Length Stress Tolerance Index (SLSTI), Root Length Stress Tolerance Index (RLSTI), Root Fresh Weight Stress Tolerance Index (RFSTI), Shoot Fresh Weight Stress Tolerance Index (SFSTI) of Pisum sativum L. var. FPP11. The results depicted that the maximum values for all growth parameters mentioned above were observed in seedlings treated with tap water (control Set-1) which was followed by Set-3 treated with secondary treated wastewater and minimum was shown by seedlings treated with primary treated distillery wastewater i.e. (Set 2). Maximum stress tolerance was shown by Set 1(Control set) i.e. (100%) which was followed by Set 3 i.e. (Secondary treated wastewater) and minimum stress tolerance for all the indices was shown by Set 2 i.e. (Primary treated wastewater).

  129. Dr. Kashem, M.A., Dr. Md. Motlabur Rahman, Dr. Shahana Khanam, Dr. Taisir Shahriar and Dr. Sadia Afrin

    Gastrointestinal malignancy accounts for approximately a fifth of all cancer deaths in the United Kingdom. By the time patients are symptomatic, lesions are often advanced, with limited treatment options available. The development of effective endoscopic therapies means that neoplastic lesions can now be treated with improved patient outcomes. This has led to a paradigm shift, whereby the aim of digestive endoscopy is to identify premalignant conditions or early neoplastic change, in order to make an impact on their natural history. This has necessitated an improvement in imaging techniques in order to identify subtle mucosal changes that may harbour precancerous cells. At present there is an array of available imaging modalities, each with implications on cost, training and lesion detection. Here we describe the scientific rationale behind the major commercially available techniques as well as offering a glimpse at possible future directions.

  130. Dr. Kusuma, A. Prof. Sivasankar, P.R.

    Working women have the right to complete integration in the development process particularly by means of Working women have the right to complete integration in the development process particularly by means of an equal access to education and equal participation in social, economic, cultural and political life. In addition, necessary measures should be taken to facilitate this integration with family responsibilities which should be fully shared by both partners. Accordingly, this study focuses on women's socio-economic status without dealing in-depth with other aspects of status. It also examines the extent to which social, demographic and behavioural characteristics of the working women themselves alleviate or aggravate their economic problems.

  131. Silpa, D., Brahmaji Rao, P. and Kranthi Kumar, G.

    Plant growth promoting Bacillus licheniformis DS3 strain isolated from Agriculture field soils of Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India. The identification of bacteria was done by 16 S rRNA sequencing analysis. Siderophore production by microorganisms in solid medium, Chrome Azurol’ S (CAS) Agar plate assay was used. Siderophore produced by the strain Bacillus licheniformis DS3 was identified as hydroxamate type. Maximum siderophore production was achieved from 96 h of incubation period with 14.4µg/ml. Carbon and nitrogen sources on the production medium also greatly influenced the siderophore production. Maximum siderophore production 18.2 µg/ml was obtained with glucose as the carbon source and ammonium sulphate 14.6 µg/ml used as nitrogen source. This strain showed significant fungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporium and Fusarium solani. Therefore our results elucidate that the Bacillus licheniformis DS3 strain shows potential activity and biological agent for the control of several fungal pathogens of black gram plant.

  132. Dr. Deepika Bainiwal and Dr. Meenu Dhiman

    Battered Precision is the key to prosthodontics and it is thus imperative that restorations are made as accurately as possible. This is best achieved by the use of hinge axis concept and thus it should be incorporated into routine clinical practice to achieve optimum results. The transverse hinge axis in dentisry has always been a subject of controversy with its existence itself and existence of single or multiple hinge axes. The presence or absence of a hinge axis of the mandible is of prime importance in clinical phases of dentistry and can be located with any degree of accuracy. Most of the transographs concept is based on the asymmetry of the condyles. The anatomic condylar asymmetry, as well as the observation that the mandible may open or close at a slight angle to an arbitrary vertical plane of the face has lead page to theorize that there are two transverse hinge axis, one for each condyle. Hinge axis record reveals that translatory and rotational components in varying proportions affect the path and location of the condyle in movement. In order to program a dental articulator to duplicate the hinge opening and closure of the mandible, it is necessary to make a hinge axis record and transfer this information to the articulator. The transverse hinge axis point may be located most precisely by a kinematic process, or its location may be estimated by some arbitrary method. The following methods are explained in sequence.

  133. Dr. Piara Singh, Dr. Makam Ramesh, Dr. Tulip Chamany and Dr. Amarpreet Marwaha

    • To compare the outcome of Bariatric surgery in terms of metabolic changes among the study subjects. • To compare the outcome of Bariatric surgery in terms of attaining fertility. Material and methods: A longitudinal study was conducted at two tertiary care hospitals in the Department of Laparoscopic and Bariatric Surgery, Bangalore, for a period of 4 years from January 2012 to December 2015. A total of 290 study subjects who were admitted in the two tertiary care hospitals during the study period having comorbidities like dyslipidemia, diabetes hypertension, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) on Ultrasonography (USG) and consented for bariatric surgery were included in the study. The patients who were not available for 12 months follow-up were excluded from the study. Results: Majority 40.3% were in the age group of 26-40 yrs of which 74.5% of the study subjects were females. The excess weight loss was recorded among 53.1% of the study subjects. Glycemic control was achieved in terms of resolution of FBS among 95.5% of them at 6th month and 100.0% at 12th month, PPBS among 86.5% at 6th month and 95.1% at 12th month and HbA1c among 74.5% at 6th month and 84.8% at 12th month. Dyslipidemia and hypertension also showed a significant reduction with 100% fertility rate. Conclusion: Excess weight loss, metabolic improvement in term of glycemic control, control of dyslipidemia, remission of hypertension was observed. Thus our study recommends bariatric surgery for achieving better metabolic control among obese individuals.

  134. Vladimir M. Zemskov, Konstantin N. Pronko, Andrey M. Zemskov and Veronika M. Zemskova

    The dependence of morbidity rate, state of factors of anti-infective resistance, hormonal status, severity, intimate mechanisms of formation of immune disorders, the effectiveness of their pharmacological correction, and the antigen distribution of the ABO system was established on extensive literature and own clinical material. The determination of the signaling targets of the action of modulators on the immune system makes it possible to determine laboratory markers for prescribing medications.

  135. Dr. Umesh Chandra Nayak

    The Village where anthropological fieldwork was under-taken among the metal bowl makers (Kansari) is a multi-caste, nucleated and a fairly large village consisting of 1787 households of which there are 242 metal bowl maker (Kansari) households. The village still retains several rural features although it is in close proximity to the capital city of Odisha in the district of Bhubaneswar and Puri. Since past, the village has the wide reputation of leading centre for the manufacture and trade of brass, copper and bell metal wares, both inside and outside the state. The several caste groups inhabiting the village were interring dependent economically and otherwise. The inter caste relationship in the village is based more on complementarily than on contradistinctions. Studies on peasantry have been made par excellence, the major concern being with the groups of cultivators. The non cultivator dimension representing an analytically marginal category consisting of crafts based specialist groups and non craft groups have not been studied adequately. Consequent upon the impact of economic modernization a comprehensive understanding of the peasantry needs further consideration in respect of the various craft groups who pursue their pre industrial craft technology for basic subsistence and at the same time maintain intrinsic interrelationship with peasants in economic, political, social and religious and ideological spheres. The artisan groups besides fulfilling the needs of the agricultural sector have advanced in modernizing and reinforcing their mode of production in order to secure better opportunities for survival.

  136. Dr. Ankita V. Deshmukh and Dr. Poonam M. Singh

    Background: The aim of this study is to comparatively evaluate the efficacy of dehydrated human chorion membrane with and without 2% Metronidazole gel in periodontal pocket therapy in patients with moderate to severe periodontitis. Methods: 40 patients were recruited for the study and were divided into 2 groups of 20 patients each. The clinical parameters assessed were plaque index, gingival index, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss. The clinical indices were assessed at baseline, 1 month and 3 months and pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss were assessed at baseline and 3 months postoperatively. Surgical therapy involved open flap debridement for both groups followed by placement of chorion membrane in Group 1 and placement of chorion membrane with application of 2% metronidazole gel on the flap side of the membrane in Group 2. Results: For all the clinical parameters assessed, highly significant (p<0.01) reduction was observed with respect to the plaque and gingival index scores within the group. Intergroup comparison, however, showed no significant difference. Pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss showed highly significant (p<0.01) improvement from baseline to 3 months within the groups as well as between the two groups. However, Group 2 (chorion membrane with 2% metronidazole gel) showed a larger effect size than did Group 1 (chorion membrane alone). Conclusion: The results establish that although both treatment modalities i.e., chorion membrane alone or in conjunction with 2% metronidazole gel yielded good results, the latter proved to be more effective and can be promising for the treatment of periodontal pockets in patients with chronic periodontitis.

  137. Kiros Abeselom

    This study examined the paradox situation of the benefits of Moringa Tree, i.e. Firstly, Moringa is designated in the literature as the “The Miracle-Wonder Tree” or “The Source of Food and Energy for the twenty-first century”or in short as the “Tree of Life”. According to the literature, Moringatree has the following benefits: Nutritional Value (healthy diet), i.e. Moringa of ingredients or contents, vitamins, minerals; Medicinal Value; Water Purification; Animal Feed; Environmental Protection benefits. Secondly, despite the fact that Ethiopia has an incredible variety of biodiversity of traditional useful plants and other untapped natural resources like Moringatree, the people of Ethiopia are not getting the benefits of this huge resources of the country. Thirdly, although there are allegedly scientific researches and/or studies as well as indigenous knowledge about the multi-purposes of Moringatree, for instance the above stated benefits, there is no any information about the systematic applications of the nutritional, medicinal and environmental benefits of Moringatree in the society on the ground for example in Ethiopia whether these advantages and possible negative side effects of this plant are already tested and certified by the concerning authorities. In other words, these benefits of Moringatree should be prescribed and fixed the dosages and the length of time of application by the authorized specialists and/or governmental institutions in Ethiopian context. Although four concerning Ethiopian Federal Institutions were requested by theauthor of this Paper (on behalf of Wolaita Sodo University) to share information with the University concerning this issue, none of these four Ethiopian Federal Institutions didn’t respond. Therefore, the author of this Paperrecommends that the results of the research on the benefits of Moringa tree should be available to the society (community) systematically, scientifically, easily understandable, legally useable. Because there are risks of massive utilization and inflated price in the market which may encourage indiscriminate adulteration with cheap materials that could have undesired effect on public health for instance in Ethiopia. Moreover, the main objective or purpose of a research is to make the results or the benefits of the research available to the society or community. Otherwise research without community services or outreach programs remain like (candle)-light in a big water pot or tanker. Therefore, to raise awareness among the community about the benefits, availability, usage (dosage) possible negative side effects of Moringatree is important.

  138. Dan Călugăru and MihaiCălugăru

    The authors are commenting The authors are commenting the article entitled “Guidelines on diabetic eye care. The International Council of Ophthalmology recommendations for screening, follow-up, referral, and treatment based on resource settings” published by Wong et al. in Ophthalmology; https://doi. org.10.1016/j.ophtha. 2018.04.007. Published online: May 15, 2018. The conclusion resulting from this article is that regardless of the intravitreal pharmacotherapy chosen, namely, specific (bevacizumab, ranibizumab or aflibercept) or nonspecific (corticosteroid implant) anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, the efficacy of the treatment depends primarily on the promptness of the therapy after diabetic macular edema diagnosis. Both groups of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor substances provide similar rates of vision improvement, but with superior anatomic outcomes and fewer injections in the corticosteroid implant-treated eyes. However, more patients receiving the corticosteroid implant lose vision mainly due to cataract.

  139. Dr. Archana Bhat Prof Rajni Dhingra

    Non communicable diseases (NCDs) and their associated risk factors have emerged as major public health challenges globally. It is well established that the co-existence of two or more risk factors is associated with increased risk of developing NCDs than would be expected on the basis of the sum of the separate effects. The World Health Organization (WHO) has already warned of increasing NCDs among adolescents as a major public health problem. The importance of this age group also lies in the fact that many serious diseases in adulthood have their roots in adolescence. With this context in the background, the present research was conducted to assess the relationship between body mass index and blood pressure profile. The sample of the study comprised 400 adolescents (16-18yrs) across the gender, residing in Urban Jammu district in J&K state of India and studying in the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) schools. The research was undertaken with following objectives: • Prepare blood pressure profile of selected adolescents • Asses the body mass index of selected sample • Study interrelation between blood pressure profile and BMI among the sample adolescent group. To assess the BMI of sample adolescents anthropometric measurements (including height, weight), standardized anthropometric rod and was used. Electronic blood pressure apparatus (sphygmomanometer) was used to measure blood pressure. Analysis of data revealed that sample girls and boys were having mean height as 160cms and 172cms respectively, which was far less than National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS, 2010). Mean BMI was 21.74 for girls and 21.08 for boys. More than half of the sample adolescents (52%) were pre- hypertensive. 47.25% of sample adolescents were normotensive and 7.5% of sample adolescents were in hypertensive stage I. Blood pressure readings were found to shift from normotensive to hypertensive with increase in body mass index in sample adolescents. The research has implications for inclusion of indigenous data in the already existing database and for planning health related policies and programmers for adolescents.

  140. Yewubdar Shewaye and Hussein Mohammed

    Stripe (yellow) rust caused by Pucciniastriiformisf.sp.tritici, is one of the major diseases of wheat in the world. Development and use of resistant wheat cultivars is the most economical and environmentally friendly solution in combating wheat stripe rust. Field experiments were carried out at two sites in Ethiopia (Kulumsa and Meraro) and seedling tests were conducted at KARC green house during the 2015 cropping season to evaluate the response 192 elite spring bread wheat genotypes and eight checks to the prevailing races of stripe rust at adult plant stage and seedling stage. About 72.5% and 42.5% of the lines exhibited resistance to stripe rust during the field screening at Kulumsa and Meraro, respectively. Disease was more severe at the cooler site Meraro than Kulumsa. Eighteen genotypes at Kulumsa and 16 genotypes at Merao were almost immune to the disease (severity and AUDPC of zero). Seventy two genotypes (36%) showed resistant reaction at both locations in field condition for adult plant stage (CI < 20).For seedling, 47% for mixed isolates and 31% for kubsa isolates showed resistance reaction responses to stripe rust disease based on coefficient of infection (CI). Seventy two genotypes (36%) showed resistant reaction at both locations in field condition for adult plant stage (CI < 20).

  141. Dr. Jesús M. González-González

    Introduction: Circadian rhythm is defined as the oscillations of biological variables at regular intervals of time. In mammals numerous clock genes have been described, whose function is to control all the circadian activity of those animals. We think that the progression of caries can be influenced by some circadian rhythms. The objective of this work is to review the circadian rhythms and establish which of them is the most influential in the formation of dental caries. Material and methods: A revision was made in Medline and Scielo medical databases, in order to select relevant information related to the object of this study. Results: they are in tables 1 and 2. Conclusion: Among the studied circadian rhythms, salivary is the one that has the most influence on the progression of caries.

  142. Dr. Monique Escalada-Cordova

    The study is entitled The Disney Princesses in Their Own Shining Armor: A Postmodern Characterization of Women in Selected Disney Animated Films. It focuses on the postmodernist characterization of women in terms of physical appearance and character traits. Results of the study reveal that the physical appearance of the characters in the animated films differ from the classic societal standards and are characterized with courage, strength, affection, discipline, resourcefulness, responsibility, compassion, athleticism, assertiveness, wisdom, heroism, clumsiness, awkwardness, stubbornness, rebelliousness, and kindness. It is proven that postmodernist characterization of women is revealed in the three Walt Disney animated films: Mulan, Brave, and Moana. It is recommended that women be not constrained by the restrictions of society and that they cultivate a strong sense of freedom individuality, and uniqueness. Respect for women and their ability to do things independently to survive or succeed be taught and cultivated among the young.

  143. Pratyush Himatsingka, Sakshi Taparia Abhishek Venkteshwar

    Research in the field of Globalization has been a dynamic study area over the years and is likely to become even more so as the importance of glob alization has always been gaining momentum. Human trafficking is one of the main problems across the blobs, it is emerging into a million dollar enterprise. Developing countries have become a hub for human trafficking . Therefore understanding the relationship between Globalization and Human trafficking will be viewed as increasingly important. This article aims at examining the relationship between globalization and human trafficking.

  144. Dr. Preeti Jamwal, Dr. Rahul Mahajan and Dr. Kanav Mahajan

    Introduction: Although the treatment of choice for unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients has been internal fixation for a long time, several studies have shown mechanical and technical failures. Primary cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty has been proposed as an alternative with some advantages concerning earlier mobilization and minimal postoperative complications. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective cohort hospital-based study conducted at three tertiary hospitals over a period of two years. A total of 98 patients were enrolled in the study, 38 patients treated with Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) and 60 patients treated with hemiarthroplasty. Intraoperative events (e.g. duration of surgery and blood loss), hospital stay, weight bearing, Harris Hip score and post-operative complications were used as predictors of final outcome. Mean follow-up was 13.66±5.9 months in hemiarthroplasty group and 11.8±2.7 months at internal fixation group. Results: The two groups were comparable in age, sex, comorbidity, mode of trauma, and classification of fracture. Early mobilisation was significantly better in hemiarthroplasty (p<0.001) where 93.3% of patients started partial weight bearing on postoperative Day 1, while in the DHS group, 73.7% of patients started partial weight bearing after two weeks postoperatively. At the final follow-up, the mortality rate did not differ between the two groups, but general and mechanical complications were more common in the DHS group. The mean Harris Hip score was better in the hemiarthroplasty group (91.14 vs 74.11). Conclusion: Primary cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty is a safe and valid option in treating unstable intertrochanteric fracture. Although it has been shown to have some advantages over DHS in certain circumstances, lack of randomization and difficulties in standardization of patients and treating surgeon raise a need for more studies with bigger sample size and proper randomization.

  145. Richa R. Modi, Rakesh J. Gogiya, Manoj G. Chandak and Purva Bhutda

    Adjusting the occlusal anatomy of teeth during posterior composite restoration consumes so much time. A microbrush stamp technique is a simple, reliable and effective way of producing the occlusal anatomy. This procedure involves duplicating the tooth anatomy of unprepared teeth and then replicating the same after cavity preparation.

  146. SeldaTekin and Elif Bombaci

    Background: Parallel to the advanced surgical techniques, the critically ill postoperative surgical patients are increasing in intensive care units (ICU). Mortality and morbidity of these patients in ICU are multifactorial. However, which of them is most effective is not clearly understood. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the factors, which more frequently affect mortality and morbidity of the critically ill patients in postoperative period. Methods: Between 2011-2012, 121 patients were included in this study. Postoperative surgical patients, who followed-up in our ICU during one year period, were evaluated in respect of demographic characteristics, “American Society of Anesthesiologists” (ASA) physical status, preexisting co-morbidities, data about surgical procedures, “Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation” (APACHE) II scores, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, the amount of transfusion, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in ICU, vasopressor agent requirements and the effects of these parameters on mortality and morbidity of the patients were examined. Results: We found that age, gender, ASA physical status, co-morbidities, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels on admission, blood loss in the intraoperative period and operation time were not predictive factors on mortality. However, APACHE II≥25, the amount of transfusion, co-morbidities developed in ICU, mechanical ventilation more than 3 days, length of stay more than 6 days, need of vasopressor agents were risk factors on mortality. Logistic regression analysis showed blood transfusion, co-morbidities developed in ICU and prolonged length of stay were independent risk factors for mortality. Conclusions: In conclusion, we want to emphasize the importance of preventive strategies and precision of blood transfusion in critically ill surgical patients because of the deteriorated effects of co-morbidities developed in ICU resulted in prolonged length of stay and mortality.

  147. Hany Zaky

    To formulate meaning is to make sense of the experience and interpretations of the same situation. Reflection equips educators with the methods to correct distortions in beliefs and problem- solving errors in classroom context. Critical reflection involves a critique of the presuppositions on which beliefs have been built (Mezirow, 2011). Educators strive to apply the designated curriculum purpose in classrooms. However, the application process starts with redefining the purposes and make changes for the implementation progress. Thence, educators need attaining the self-regulatory skills to enhance not only students learning growth but also their own perceptions of self-efficacy over the learning process. The thrust of this article is to pinpoint educators’ transformation during curriculum implementations’ processes. It highlights the major roles of self-regulation, self-efficacy, and self-monitoring as ways for transformation and professional developments.

  148. Naresh Kumar, Kuldeep Kumar, Asma and Ashok Kumar

    The field experiments were conducted in the field of Botany department of C.C.S. university campus, Meerut in the month of November to January (2018). 10%, 20% and 30% of aqueous extracts prepared from weed species namely Ageratum conyzoides L. used for the present investigation to determine their allelopathic potential on growth and, developmental changes of Pisum sativum L. The weed extracts showed a positive effect on soil parameters (pH, CEC) at 30% extract. However, 10% extract induced the physiological parameters of pea plant such as germination percentage, root and shoot growth, nodulation, biomass production, and moisture content. The extracts of Ageratum conyzoides have more positive effect at 10% concentration on pea crop.

  149. Dr. Subhamay Chakraborty, Dr. Shruti Shah, Dr. Parvin Sultana, Dr. Sudipta Kar, Dr. Prof. Gautam kumar Kundu and Dr. Abhishek Das

    One of the most challenging tasks for a pediatric dentist is the management of deleterious oral habits which severely affect the dento facial complex. However, if these habits can be intercepted and diagnosed early, they can save the patient from the psychological impact of undergoing long treatment therapies. One such deleterious oral habit is Morsicato mucosae oris ie Chronic Cheek biting that affects the buccal mucosa. Presented here is a case report that describes the interception of this deleterious habit in a 6 year old girl child who was a bilateral cheek biter with the help of an unique design, modifying oral screen.

  150. Ms. Jyoti and Dr. Arindam Chatterjee

    Battered child syndrome describes non-accidental trauma to children, representing a major cause of morbidity and mortality during childhood. The abuse usually is inflicted by step-parents, baby sitters, and others responsible for the child's care. Abuse is more common among stepchildren, handicapped, and first-born children. Most victims are younger than 2 years of age, with a reported average age of 16 months.

  151. Dr. Girish Deshmukh and Dr. Arvind Shetty

    Background: The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of Surgical Stripping, Electrocautry, Carbon dioxide and Diode laser for treatment of Gingival melanin hyperpigmentation. Method: 30 patients of both sexes, in the age group 18-50 years with bilateral physiologic gingival melanin hyperpigmentation in maxillary and mandibular anterior region, were treated. Random allocation of the sites was done. The clinical parameter assessed were Dummett oral pigmentation index, Hedin melanin index, gingival index, visual analogue scale, gingival wound healing. Dummett oral pigmentation index, hedin melanin index and gingival index were assessed at baseline, 1 month and 3 month. Visual analogue scale and gingival wound healing was assessed 1 day postoperative and at 7 days. Result: Significant (p<0.001) reduction seen in gingival index and visual analogue scale from baseline to 3 months. Intergroup comparison show no significant difference in hedin melanin index. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Surgical stripping, electrocautry, cardon dioxide and diode laser proved to be highly effective in treatment of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation. Surgical stripping remains the Gold standard. However, carbon dioxide and diode laser provides added advantages.

  152. Dr. Shankhanil Dev, Dr. Abhishek Das, Dr. Sudipto Kar, Dr. Shabnam Zahir and Dr. Gautam Kumar Kundu

    Lip picking is an impulse controlled psychological disorder characterized by the recurring urge to pick one’s own lips and this problem is often to the level that harm is caused. It may co-exist with lip biting habit. Unless these habits are intervened they would manifest into more serious degrading oral health conditions. We present a case of these two habits co-existing in a pediatric patient, which were managed by the customized fabrication of a RURS’ elbow guard to prevent the hand from reaching the lips fully. An oral screen was also fabricated to obstruct the dental arch from causing further damage to the lip due to self-induced obsessive biting habit. Significance of clinical application of these two appliances lie in the fact that they not only provide barriers to these repetitive habitual reflexes but they also serve as reminders for abstaining from such habits. Besides, these appliances are also quite simple to fabricate requiring commonly available dental materials.

  153. Dr Ritu Phogat, Dr. Manjunath, B.C., Dr. Adarshkumar, Dr. Radhyeshyam, Dr. Saumya Singh and Dr. Geeta Rani

    The aim of review is to find out the oral health statuses and unmet treatment need of intellectually disabled children in India. The oral health of people with intellectual disabilities is often compromised, which has a deleterious effect on their well-being and quality of life. Dental caries and periodontal disease are among the most common secondary conditions affecting people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This literature review outlines oral health status among intellectually disabled [Mentally retarded (MR) and Down Syndrome (DS)]. The individuals with intellectual disability have poorer overall oral health and oral hygiene compared with the general population. Numerous barriers have been identified which could have profound effect on oral health of these individuals. Individuals with Down syndrome have less dental caries, but experience more extensive periodontal diseases. They have more missing, misaligned teeth and often affected with malocclusion and consequently they required more attention towards their oral health statues. Dental caries was similar or low than general population but the prevalence of untreated caries was high. It is important for dental professionals to identify and quantify their needs and plan oral health promotion programmers for better oral function and an improved quality of life.

  154. Anuradha Sharma, Ankit Gaur and Neetu Taank

    The peripheral giant cell granuloma, also known as giant cell epulis, PGCL or giant cell hyperplasia, is the most common giant cell lesion in the oral cavity. It does not constitute a true neoplasm, but rather a reactive lesion caused by local irritation or trauma. Moreover, its etiology is still contentious. Previously, the lesion was called peripheral giant cell reparative granuloma. However, its reparative effect has not been proved yet, hence osteoclast activity seems doubtful. This paper presents a unique case of peripheral giant cell granuloma in an 11 year old boy who was referred for evaluation of a gingival mass approximately 2 cm × 1.5 cm in size extending from distal aspect of canine to mesial aspect of first permanent molar and covering the crowns of first premolar and primary second molar. It extended from the free gingival margin on the labial side of the first premolar and primary second molar to the attached gingiva on the lingual surface. Thus, management of such case presents a challenge to the practitioner to carefully excise the lesion and on the same hand protecting the underlying erupting permanent tooth.

  155. Joed C. Cabilin and Roldan T. Echem

    The water quality of Kitabog River at Kitabog Titay, Zamboanga Sibugay was assessed using macroinvertebrates. A total of 11 species of macroinvertebrates were identified in the study area. Phylum arthropoda has the number of 6 species and Gerris marginatus was the most abundant (32). One-Way ANOVA revealed that there were highly significant between species abundance and station (p=0.00 < .05). The Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) Score System revealed that Kitabog River was under questionable category. The catergory interprets that the river is moderately impacted. The quality of water in the study site is brought by the waste matter being deposited into the river from the rubber plantation.

  156. Dr. Vishesh Yadav, Dr. Priyanka Sachdeva, Dr. Sahil Handa, Dr. Ankur Bhagat, Dr. Mamta Malik and Dr. Sanjeev Laller

    Introduction: The epidemic of substance abuse is fast growing in the young population of India. University students, staying away from home are easily introduced to such habits which they find difficult to quit. Methods: A 14 Item questionnaire was constructed using three domains: Screening for Substance Abuse (socio-demographic and personal) and Reasons for Substance Abuse were distributed to students of a university in Delhi NCR. Results: A total of 512 students were screened out of which 215 (42%) were smokers predominantly of age group (18-21). Most of the smokers were found to be hostlers. Many of them were smokers who were consuming cigarettes 157 (73.02%) among other forms of smoking. It was seen that 124 (57.7%) were also alcoholic in addition to smoking .Majority of the drug abusers were Marijuana users followed by Char as users. Pleasurable experience 73 (46.5%) is emerged as major reason for smoking. Conclusion: Use of both regulatory and educational approach are indicated to reduce the menace of substance abuse amongst students, which is on the rise.

  157. Abhinita Kumari, Suma B.S., Garima Mangal

    With the rapid developments in modern science and technology, the information network technology has blazed a trail in our learning, work and lives. Computers are the excellent means for storage of patient-related data and computer software is used for diagnosis of diseases. Computer networking enables quicker communication. The application of computers in dentistry is related to patient education, maintenance of electronic records and databases, communication, information about new products, information to recent dental literature, continuing dental education, settling insurance claims, marketing, quality assurance, digital imaging, teledentistry and many more. A large amount of medical literature and information is now available electronically and even medical teaching is becoming electronically based in some developed countries. Aim: is to assess the specific knowledge of dental students and explore the attitudes and practices of dental students towards computer usage. Materials and methods: A simple random sample of 140 students including interns and postgraduates in the age group of 19-45 years of Buddha Institute Of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Patna constituted the study population. The data was collected using a close ended questionnaire which consisted of 3 major groups:- sociodemographic details, knowledge about the computer usage, software skills, software handling, basic operations, attitude and practices towards computer usage. A descriptive cross- sectional study was done. . Ethical clearance was obtained from Ethics committee of Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Patna. Chi-square test was used to assess the significance finding at 95% confidence limit. Results: Both the undergraduates and postgraduates had good attitude towards computer usage. Among the undergraduates only 8(11.4%) and 38(54.2%) of the postgraduates used computer daily with relevance to dentistry/ patient use. Among the undergraduates 7(10%) and 51(72.8%) of the postgraduates used internet daily to check for academic information. Among the undergraduates 20(28.5%) and 65(92.5%) of the postgraduates checked e-mail daily with relevance to dentistry/patient use. Conclusion: Finding dental education information is easy on the internet and is also the most preferred place to search for information, updates and recent advances with respect to dentistry. Courses to develop students computer skills can improve this situation by influencing students attitudes and capabilities. In this era of competition, computer literacy and appropriate guidance for the sensible use of internet will keep our students from lagging behind. Institutes should play their role to facilitate and equip every student with the computing skills, along with developing an understanding and awareness regarding the appropriate and meaningful use of this technology among them.

  158. Pradeep Sukla and Shubhanshu Gupta

    Background: Menstruation in women is a normal physiological process and key sign of reproductive health. Poor menstrual hygiene is a problem in many developing countries. Proper menstrual hygiene is essential for one’s own wellbeing and development. Objectives-to evaluate the knowledge and practice regarding menstrualhygiene among adolescent girls and to determine the co-relation of knowledge and practice levels among the adolescent girls. Methods: It was an observational analytical study conducted at different OPD of medical college, Jhansi from July 2017 to June 2018 among adolescent girls aged (10-19 years). Information on demographic variables which include age, class, type of family, education of mother, family income, age of menarche was collected from the participants. Validity of questionnaire was checked by pilot testing. Knowledge and Practices level were categorized into good, fair and poor. Epi-info software was used for data analysis and chi-square test was used. Results: 66% of girls belonged to late adolescent stage. 72% of participants had prior knowledge about menstruation, while the most common source of information was mother (62%), only 8.5% girls had good knowledge and 20 % girls had good practices. Education of mother had statistical significant effect on knowledge scores of the participants. Conclusion: It was found that the awareness about menstrual hygiene was still poor, less than 10 percent have good knowledge. The girls should be educated about significance of menstruation and development of secondary sexual characteristics, selection of sanitary menstrual absorbent, and its proper sanitary disposal.

  159. Dr. Swati N. Chavan, Dr. Jitendra K. Rathod, Dr. Mukund N. Risbud and Dr. Avinash B. Kshar

    Context: There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. Saliva can offer a great value to detect the diabetes mellitus at an early stage if we are able to establish the positive correlation between blood and salivary glucose levels. Also there is decrease in the salivary and lacrimal flow rate seen in diabetic patients. Aims: This is a cross-sectional study undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level and salivary and lacrimal flow rate in people with diabetes mellitus. Settings and Design: For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited. Methods and Material: Unstimulted salivary flow rate was measured by graduated syringe. The blood glucose level and salivary glucose levels in unstimulated whole saliva samples were analyzed using glucose oxidase method. Lacrimal flow rate was measured by Schirmmer’s test. Statistical analysis used: Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was applied to assess the correlation between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level. Results: The significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation of salivary glucose level and fasting blood glucose level was observed in people with diabetes in both the sets of samples. But there was no positive correlation found between salivary and lacrimal flow rate in people with diabetes in both the sets of samples. Conclusions: Although study suggests some potential for saliva as a marker in monitoring of diabetes mellitus, there are many aspects that need clarification before we reach to a conclusion.

  160. Dr. Paromita Majumdar, Dr. Rupankar Dey and Dr. Laboni Ghorai

    A comprehensive knowledge of the root canal anatomy is essential for successful endodontic treatment. However, presence of anatomic malformation in the tooth can be diagnostically and technically challenging and hence may pose difficulties during endodontic therapy. One such anatomical variation is the presence of extra root distolingually in permanent mandibular first molars. This additional root is called Radix entomolaris. Awareness and understanding of this unusual root and its canal morphology are factors that can affect the outcome of root canal treatment. This article presents a case of Radix entomolaris in a mandibular left first molar and knowledge about its prevalence, possible aetiology, external and internal morphology, radiographic and clinical approach to diagnosis, endodontic management and common iatrogenic errors which may occur during the treatment.

  161. Iis Marwan

    This research purposes is (1) toimplements of character building in subject matter of movement art of Pencak Silat double stance to development focus for concern values through computer based learning (CBL) model, (2) to improve movement art of it double stance skills. This research uses Class Action Research Method such as (1) planning, (2) action implementation, (3) monitoring, (4) evaluation, and (5) reflection. The subject of this research is second grade students SMPN 1 Tasikmalaya City, West Java. This is results showing that (1) application of computer based learning model in movement art of it double stance can be improve the concern values and cooperation for visible commence categories. (2) CBL model can be improving good movement art of it double stance skills for them. The students have enthusiastic to attend for it lesson. They feels free that isn’t pressure, expressive, and the class have liven up when they’re study.

  162. Arpita Sarkar, Anwesha Adak, Subrata Saha and Subir Sarkar

    Colpocephaly is an abnormal enlargement of occipital horn of lateral ventricle associated with several abnormalities. Various etiologies have been reported including intrauterine/ perinatal injuries, genetic disorder and an error of morphogenesis. Here a case of colpocephaly associated with cleft palate and hypoplastic corpus callosum is reported. A feeding appliance covering the palatal defect is fabricated.

  163. Nagwa Thabet Elsharawy

    The cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and lead (Pb) as heavy metal may reach chicken meat as a result of many of human activities causing severe health hazards to consumers by its accumulative effect. Therefore, A total of 100 chicken meat and their offal (50 of each) were randomly collected from chicken butchers at New Valley governorate, Egypt to evaluate the effect of grilling, marination and simmering on the metals residues. The mean concentration levels of Cd, Cu, Fe and Pb in chicken meat were; 00.04± 0.03, 0.19± 0.090, 7.130± 0.251, 0.30± 0.195 µg/g respectively. While in offal were; 00.056± 0.035, 0.76± 0.420, 87.16± 2.485, 0.45± 0.190 µg/g respectively. In concern to Egyptian standard and WHO/FAO all samples were within the permissible limit and fit for human consumption. Properly cooking of chicken has limited reducing the potency of heavy metals in food, depending on cooking (temperature, cooking medium and time). The most cooking method decline the concentration levels of Cd, Cu, Fe and Pb was simmering which reduce the concentration level in chicken meat to; 0.0 for Cd, 0.15± 0.00, 5.97± 0.294, 0.10± 0.010 µg/g for Cu, Fe, Pb respectively in simmered chicken meat samples and were; 0.0 for Cd, 0.46± 0.240, 73.18± 2.850, 0.24± 0.0135 µg/g for Cu, Fe, Pb respectively in simmered chicken offal samples. More studies still needed to control environmental pollution in chicken meat and offals.

  164. Nassih, H.

    Introduction: Serious complications following vaccination with BCG are rare. Among these complications, osteitis is of particular interest because it is more common and appears to occur in immune competent patients. Despite the diagnostic criteria proposed by Foucard and Hjelmsted in 1971, post-vaccination BCG osteitis is rarely recognized in pediatric practice, with only 25% of cases being diagnosed. Observation: We report the case of a 12-month-old infant, who presented to pediatric emergencies for partial functional impotence of the upper left limb, evolving for 2 months in a context of apyrexia and of conservation of the general state. The patient was vaccinated with BCG at day 15 of life. The injection site was the left deltoid. The dose and type of vaccine used was not specified. He had not had any local post-vaccination complications, nor recent trauma of the limb, and there was no known tuberculous contusion in the environment. Results: On examination, the infant had pain while the stretching the left arm, relieved by the limb against trunk position. The palpation had found a firm, painless, non-inflammatory mass of the anterior aspect of the upper third of the left arm. The radiograph of the left shoulder had revealed a lytic metaphyseal-diaphyseal left humeral image. MRI showed a lesion process of the upper extremity of the aggressive left humerus with invasion of neighboring structures. A bone biopsy performed had objectified granulomatous osteitis without caseous necrosis. The tuberculin IDR was phlyctenular, reaching 18 mm. The rest of the balance sheet looking for other locations was negative. Anti-bacillary triple therapy (rifampicin, pyrazinamide, isoniazid) was started. The evolution after 6 months of treatment remains favorable, with persistent apyrexia, preserved appetite, and weight gain of 3 kilograms. Conclusion: Osteitis after BCG vaccination is a rare, underestimated and difficult to diagnose. It should be considered in small children who have already received BCG vaccination, have had no contact with tubercolosis and have clinical findings consistent with osteitis, but do not respond to conventional antibiotics. It has a better prognosis, with a good response to anti-bacillary and surgical treatment. Clinical trials are needed to codify therapeutic management.

  165. Dr. Smita Deshkar and Dr. Sharmila Raut

    Central nervous system infections by protozoa constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout the world. This is partially due to the globalization of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa. This article discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for some of the more common infections of the nervous system caused by protozoans: Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Plasmodium falciparum.

  166. Nassih, H.

    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disease resulting from dysregulated activation and proliferation of lymphocytes. Its occurrence after vaccination is possible but exceptional in children. All cases reported in the literature are secondary to measles vaccination. We report the case of a nine-month-old toddler, not consanguineous, with no particular medical history. Having received his first dose of the measles-rubella vaccine. Who presented 7 days after an alteration of the general condition, a generalized papular rash, and an extensive petechial and ecchymotic purpura. A fever of 39.5°c, complicated by a state of convulsive illness, acute diarrhea, and an acute edema of the lungs were noted. The patient admitted to pediatric intensive care unit was intubated-ventilated-sedated and placed on broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. The brain scan followed by lumbar puncture was normal. CRP was slightly increased to 32 mg / l. The remainder of the biological assessment showed bicytopenia (hypochromic microcytic anemia, thrombocytopenia), and predominantly neutrophilic leukocytosis. Acute renal failure, significant hepatic cytolysis (transaminases greater than 10 times normal), and persistent hyponatremia at 129 mmol / l were noted. Feritinemia and LDH were very high. The serologies of hepatitis A, B, C, HIV, and CMV were negative. A realized myelogram showed a histological appearance of a macrophage activation syndrome. The evolution was marked by hemodynamic instability refractory to adapted resuscitation measures. The patient had a multi-visceral failure and died 48 hours after admission. HLH after vaccination against measles remains a rare but formidable complication. Favoring factors, clinical and biological characteristics, as well as the possibility of a genetic predisposition must be specified.

  167. Peña B. Silvia, D. and Posadas P. S Denise

    Water with toxic metals represent a risk to animal production and to public health due to their presence in milk. The information of the chemical quality in water for animal consumption in the milk basin of Xochimilco, Mexico is scarce. A water sampling was carried out to identify arsenic, lead, mercury, nitrates and nitrites, pH, temperature, colour and smell in four dairy farms in winter season, 2017. The toxic metals were identified by qualitative Reinsch test and the concentration by flame atomic absorption spectrometry technique. The results of pH and temperature showed an average of 7.8, and of 10.5 ºC, the mean nitrate content was 0.79 mg L-1and 0.070 mg L-1for nitrites. Reinsch test indicated that all water samples were positive for at least one metal, with mercury being the most frequent (66%). The detected mean concentrations were: lead (0.040±0.03 mg L-1), arsenic (0.0015±0.0011 mg L-1), cupper (0.019±0.0053 mg L-1), cadmium (0.039±0 mg L-1), all inside the livestock maximum permissible levels, while mercury (0.078±0.03 mg L-1) was found in excess. Arsenic was the only metal found inside the drinking water permissible levels and cupper was found in the limit of the drinking water. In milk samples, lead and cadmium were found. It is concluded that the contamination by toxic metals in the water of dairy cows consumption in the Xochimilco Basin, can affect milk production, and lead canbe a risk in human healthin a long term exposure.

  168. Ali Mohammed Abdullah Bawazir and Manjula Shantaram

    Actinomycetes are the Gram-positive bacteria and represent a ubiquitous group of microbes widely distributed in natural ecosystems around the world. Therefore, evaluation of their distribution is important in understanding their ecological role. Actinomycetes are widely distributed in different habitats and involved in important processes. They are the most abundant organisms that form thread-like filaments in the soil. Actinomycetes constitute a huge extent of the microbial populace in many soils, and their suitable check frequently surpasses one million for each gram. Theystand out amongst the most broadly conveyed gatherings of microorganisms in nature, shaping a vast piece of the microbial population of the soil and aquatic environments such as rivers, lakes and other freshwater habitats.

  169. Dr. Firdous Shaikh, Dr. Sonia Sodhi, Dr Zeenat Fatema Farooqui and Dr. Lata Kale

    Multifunctional organ of the human body without a bone yet strong is the tongue. It mainly consists of the functional portion of muscle mass, mucosa, fat and the specialized tissue of taste i.e. the papillae. Diseases may either result from internal/ systemic causes of extrinsic causes like trauma, infection, etc. A new method for classification has been proposed in this review for diseases of tongue. This review mainly focuses on encompassing almost each aspect that the body reflects via its mirror in mouth, the tongue.

  170. I Ketut Gede Harsana

    Nyepi day as a commemoration of Saka new year by Hindus in Bali and coupled ucapara Tawur Kesanga and ogoh-ogoh art as the embodiment of bhuta kala or negative energy that exist in man (buana alit) and universe (buana agung). The purpose of this research is to revitalize the identity of Balinese people through ogoh-ogoh art. This research uses qualitative research method by doing observation, interview with some respondent and recording field. The results show that ogoh-ogoh is the result of cultural creations which in the culture is embedded an excitement from the Balinese to show their creativity and identity in the expression. The creator of ogoh-ogoh art creation has indirectly shaped the identity and built the character of Balinese society. Although there are ogoh-ogoh that are outside the context of a lonely ceremony, this can be seen as a public taste associated with lifestyles, collective imaginations that ultimately form consumptive society and unconsciously the arena of creativity in the work began to diminish. However, the event of ogoh-ogoh creation must still be seen as strengthening the identity of Hindus in Bali.

  171. Olanipekun A.D., Faleye F.J., Ogunlade, I. and Popoola, O

    The role of natural products, especially medicinal plants in the treatment of various ailments cannot be overemphasized, several plants have being investigated for their medicinal values. Different parts of Allanblackia floribunda tree is being used locally for the treatment of diseases, in this study, the antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts of the seed, pulp and peel of Allanblackia floribunda fruit were tested against Ten (10) strains of bacteria including six (6) Gram-negative isolates; Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and four (4) strains of Gram-positive; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacilluscereus, Micrococcus luteus and Streptococcus pneumonia. Different concentrations of the methanol extracts of each part of the fruit exhibited different antibacterial actions in a dose dependent manner against most of the tested organism.In order to investigate the phenolic content of the pulp, peel and seed of Allanblackia floribunda, the total polyphenol content of the methanol extracts of each part was determined. The total polyphenol content of the methanol extract of the peel (251.3 mg/g) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the pulp (78.92mg/g) and both are significantly higher than the methanol extract of the seed (5.56mg/g). The polyphenol content of Allanblackia floribunda fruits reduces as we go from the peel to pulp and the seed. This results correlated well with the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay carried out on the three parts. This indicate that the antioxidant capacity is related to an additive effect of various polyphenols in the extract.

  172. Deia K. Khalaf and Yusra K. Al- Rawi and Maaesah S. Abdulrahman

    Determination of newborn growth parameters are necessary in each population for planning their subsequent children growth charts and early detection of diseases. To determine the normal standards of anthropometric measurements for full term neonates in Baghdad. Compare them with WHO standards, And to study different factors that may have effect on the anthropometric measurements. Three thousand and sixty normal singleton full term neonates (1377 males and 1683 females) were enrolled randomly in a descriptive study during the period from 1st of January to 31 of December 2016 in AL-yarmok teaching hospital in Baghdad gender, parity, mode of delivery The ante natal care, Socioeconomic status (SES=high, moderate and low). The measurements included: Weight, Length and the occipito-frontal circumference (OFC). The male to female ratio was 0.8:1, and newborn of male gender to multigravida, vaginally delivered, regular ante-natal care, high socioeconomic status (SES) and middle age group mothers have a significantly higher weight and OFC than females.

  173. Adeoye, O. J. and Aina, S. A.

    Good governance can better be achieved where socio economic rights are provided and made justiciable. Socio economic rights give meaning to right to life and dignity of human person. It enables the people to live above poverty level if provided and guaranteed by the government. The study relied on both primary and secondary sources of data such as statutes, textbooks, articles in journal, internet and the likes. The data collected was subjected to content and contextual analysis to arrive at our conclusions. The study examined the legal regime of socio economic rights within the purview of Nigeria legal system as to its justiciability and enforcement. It is our conclusion that socio economic rights should be made justiciable as part of effort of government to reduce poverty and that judicial interpretation of these rights as encapsulated in Chapter II of the Constitution should be in consonance with right to life and dignity of human person as enshrined in section 33 and 34 of the Constitution.

  174. Dr. Sangeeta Deka, Dr. Deepjyoti Kalita and Dr. Naba Kumar Hazaruka

    Introduction: Drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP) is a common problem-afflicting world over. Delay in isolation of pathogens and rapidly evolving drug resistance globally are making the effective management of condition like CAP, especially in developing countries, very challenging. Empirical therapy, based on knowledge of local drug resistance pattern is the mainstay. This study was a preliminary work in DRSP from CAP subjects. Aim: Identification of common agents of our CAP subjects and to study the pattern of drug resistant isolates. Methods: Semi quantitative culture method was employed on sputum sample followed by drug sensitivity testing based on disc diffusion technique. Results: Adult CAP was found to be more common in middle-aged to elderly male with Strpetococcus pneumoniae in more than one fourth of the subjects. Beta lactam resistance in Pneumococci was high and drug resistance in other agents were found to be of moderate to high level. Conclusion: DRSP is a menace and it needs to be contained urgently. A larger study with more intensive experimental component is the need of the hour.

  175. Falana, T. C. and Aina, S. A.

    Every man in a particular society deserves survival. Survival in this sense is not just to be alive alone, but to be accorded some basic needs of life such as food, shelter, clothing, etc. Where this is lacking, then there is a threat to man’s life and survival and the end result is crime. Crime is part of the social configuration of the society and cannot be totally eradicated. The objective of this paper is to justify the fact that where survival is highly competitive, the rate of crime will be high. This is because the need to survive is non negotiable to every man. It is further argued that the above fact resulted in the failure of the theories and forms of punishment which are developed with the sole aim of reducing crime in the society. The methodology adopted is both doctrinal and empirical with primary source from relevant case laws and statutes. The secondary source includes internet sources, bible, articles in journal, books, data, etc. The paper concludes that the various forms of punishments enshrined in our criminal justice system are grossly inadequate in tackling crime and thus suggested that if government can create a good economic environment and good governance where men can survive with less competition and class struggle, the rate of crime will be reduced far beyond the adoption of penology.

  176. Dr. Seema Sathe, Dr. Surekha Godbole, Dr. Anjali Bhoyar Borle, Dr. Mithilesh Dhamande and Dr. Rajanikanth Kambala

    Forensic odontology is the forensic science that is concerned with dental evidence. It is a relatively new science that utilizes the dentist’s knowledge to serve the judicial system. Forensic identification based on assessment of prosthodontic appliances is assuming greater significance, as labeling of dentures and other prosthetic appliance could provide vital clues for patient identification. This article presents a review of available literature highlighting the fact that how a prosthodontist can play a key role in identification of a deceased individual.

  177. Bhargavi Basavaraju and Dr. Kaiser Jamil

    Reports from human studies indicated that Lactobacillus rhamnosus exerted strong antioxidant activity in situations of elevated physical stress. This has benefitted Athletes in the sports arena as these individuals are exposed to oxidative stress during their exercises and activities, hence studies on determining the antioxidant activities of probiotics might benefit humans undergoing stress related activities. The ability of probiotics possessing antioxidant activities will assume greater importance if this hypothesis is tested, since probiotics with antioxidant properties can increase the antioxidant levels and neutralize the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in such individuals. Probiotics are defined as viable microorganisms sufficient amounts of which reach the intestine in active state and exert positive health effects by improving gut health. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy various probiotic bacteria such as Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Bacillus subtilis isolated from various commercial and domestic sources using standard probiotic testing assays.In-vitro studies on Anti-oxidant activities using standard protocols have shown that Bacillus coagulans had the highest (94%) DPPH activity as compared to other probiotics. This investigation could determine that these few test organisms with their additional anti-oxidant properties could be considered as value added useful probiotics due to their ability for not only acid tolerance and bile resistant properties but also having useful antioxidant properties, therefore qualifying as safe commercial probiotic products.

  178. Ms. Dhivya, M., Dr.Vetriselvi, P. and Dr. Adhisivam

    Background and purpose: Maintaining a normothermic state is an essential newborn care during the first few weeks of life. The most cost effective management strategy for hypothermia is its prevention and it can be done by the mothers of a neonate. So, the mother has to be educated regarding the various measures of thermoregulation .The purpose of the present study is to assess the effect of video assisted structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding prevention of hypothermia among mothers of preterm babies. Materials and methods: A pre-experimental study with simple random sampling (lottery) technique was used to select the 55 postnatal mothers who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. After obtaining formal permission from the institution and written informed consent from the mother of preterm babies, pre-test was conducted by interview method using the structured questionnaire. On the same day 20 minutes video assisted structured teaching programme was given through lecture-cum-discussion to the mother. The video had information regarding importance of temperature control in preterm neonates, management of hypothermia, importance of breastfeeding, kangaroo mother care in prevention of hypothermia and complication of hypothermia. On third day post-test was conducted using the same questionnaire. For analyzing the data, descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (paired t-test, chi-square) were used. All the statistical analysis had done with 5% level of significance. Results: The results showed that the mean score was increased from the pre-test score of 10.91± 3.576 to post-test score of 20.36 ± 2.908 and it was found to be statistically significant at 0.001 level. There is also significant association of pretest knowledge categories with some of the socio-demographic variables of the mother like education, place of residence, previous knowledge and sources of information regarding prevention of hypothermia among mothers of preterm babies. Conclusions: The present study revealed that video assisted structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding prevention of hypothermia improved the knowledge of mothers of preterm babies.

  179. Dr. Meenu Dhiman, Dr. Nitin Sharma, Dr. Deepika Beniwal and Dr. Neha Sikka

    Aim: To describe a pulpotomy using Mineral trioxide aggregate in an immature permanent mandibular second molar. Summary: Partial pulpotomy was performed on a cariously exposed permanent second mandibular molar showing symptoms of irreversible pulpitis. Follow-up examination revealed complete root formation with resolution of clinical and radiographic symptoms thereby successfully preserving the tooth and vitality of its pulp. Conclusion: MTA may be used as a successful pulpotomy agent in immature permanent molars.

  180. Fredrick Aloo Ndege, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Julius O. Gogo

    Institutional inputs are resources invested in the school system with an aim of enhancing quality education. In Kenya quality education is measured primarily by performance in education, access availability, adequacy and utilization of resources. There are several ways of measuring performance including achievement in national examinations. In Kenya there are differences in the quality of education as some students perform better than the others due to certain factors as revealed by regional mean scores. For example studies in Kakamega County revealed that entry behaviour had a coefficient of 0.50 at the 0.05 level of significance while in Kisii financing had a correlation coefficient of 0.447 at the 0.05 level of significance on the quality of secondary school education. The overall mean score in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Examination between 2011 and 2017 in Migori County was 4.530 lower than the of 4.617. The objective of this study was to establish the influence of entry behaviour of students on quality of secondary school education in Migori County, Kenya. The study established that entry behaviour of students accounted for 54.1% of the variation in the quality of secondary school education in Migori County as signified by Adjusted R square of 0.541. This means that entry behaviour of students had a strong positive influence on the quality of secondary school education. The study concluded that entry behaviour plays an important role in enhancing the quality of secondary school education.

  181. Fredrick Aloo Ndege and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Educational inputs are resources invested in the school system with an aim of enhancing quality of education. In Kenya quality secondary education is measured primarily by performance in examination, access; and availability, adequacy and utilization of resources. In Kenya there are differences in the quality of education provided by schools as some schools perform better than others. The overall mean score in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Examination between 2011 to 2017 in Migori County was 4.530. The national mean score in Kenya Certificate of Secondary school Education examination from 2011 to 2017 was 4.617. The objective of this study was to establish the influence of teacher characteristics on quality of secondary school education in Migori County, Kenya. The study established that teacher characteristics accounted for 71.4% of the variation in the quality of secondary school education in Migori County as signified by Adjusted R square of 0.714. This means that teacher characteristics had a strong positive influence on the quality of secondary school education. The study concluded that teacher characteristics play a key role in enhancing the quality of secondary school education.

  182. Victor W. Xia, M. A. Bakr, M. Abdelaziz, Ola. M. Wahba and Ahmed Abdelhafez

    Introduction Postoperative pain (POP) represents a major challenge in the management of surgical patients, as it is highly common after major surgeries and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. POP and its impact on patients who underwent liver transplantation (LT) is poorly understood. Aim This study was undertaken to investigate the incidence, assessment of POP, and clinical outcomes of patients with high level of postoperative pain in LT. Materials and methods After IRB approval, adult LT patients between March 2013 and September 2015 at our center were retrospectively reviewed. All patients who were extubated in the first week following LT were included. Pain score (0 to 10) during the first seven days post-extubation was assessed by numerical rating scale and recorded. Patients were divided into two groups: postoperative low to moderate pain score (PLMPS) reported pain score from (0-6) and postoperative high pain score (PHPS) from (7-10). The two groups were compared using univariate analysis and independent risk factors were identified by multivariate logistic regression. Of 424 patients who underwent LT during this period, 272 were extubated within the first postoperative week and were included in the analysis. Results A total of 114 (41.9%) patients reported pain score at 7 or higher during 7 days following extubation and 158 patients (58.1%) reported pain score "between 0 to 6" during the same period. There were no significant differences regarding to age, gender, MELD score, surgery time, intraoperative blood transfusion, vasopressor use and renal replacement therapy between the PLMPS and PHPS groups. However, patients in the PHPS group had a higher dose of hydromorphone (6.2±7.1 vs. 3.4±4.3, p=0.001), oral morphine equivalent (233.9±302.7 vs 132.6±309.8, p=0.008), and longer hospital stay after LT compared with those in the PLMPS group (44.2±46.3 days vs 30.7± 26.6, p=0.006). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, PHPS was independent risk factor for prolonged (>30 days) hospital stay after LT (OR 2.0 95% CI 1.04-3.83, p=0.04). Other independent risk factors for prolonged hospital stay after LT include preoperative encephalopathy, renal replacement therapy, and graft failure. Conclusion PHPS was reported to affect 41.9% of adult LT patients. Patients with PHPS had high doses of hydromorphone, oral morphine equivalent andprolonged hospital stay after LT than patients with PLMPS. Out findings, highlight the importance of pain incidence, assessment and management after LT. Abbreviations: POP, postoperative pain; OLT, orthotopic liver transplantation; LT, liver transplantation; PHPS, postoperative high pain score; PLMPS, postoperative low to moderate pain score; OME, oral morphine equivalent; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; MELD, model for end-stage liver disease; UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles.

  183. Jimsha V.K, Mariappan Jonathan Daniel, Mithunjith Krishnan and Sruthi Selvam

    Introduction: Sex is a biological quality that distinguishes male and females.Determination of sex is the prime aspect of forensic investigations followed by age and identification of ethnic population. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the mandibular angle by direct digital orthopantamography and its significance in gender determination. Materials & Methods: The sample consist of 100 digital orthopantamography images, mandibular angle was measured on the image for each case using inbuilt dimaxis software and statistical analysis was done by using T test. Results: The outcome of our study showed that there was a significant difference in the mandibular angle between genders with the angle being more obtuse angle in female when compared to male. So our study infersthat mandibular angle can be used as a reliable parameter for sex identification.

  184. Daisy Regis Palompon

    Background: Caring is the essence of nursing which is highly applicable to any type of clients. However, the concept of caring explored in the study focused on the elderly care and how this is approached and developed with consideration of cultural differences and backgrounds. Objective: This study developed a substantive theory on elderly care known as the Elderly Care Theory that defined what and how elderly caring is based on Filipino context of caring. Methods: This was developed using grounded theory with ten care providers interviewed and an actual observation of the caring practices in an elderly care facility. Results: The theoretical assumptions developed were: (1) Elderly care is an interplay of the caring culture, caring process and care agent which ultimately leads to the development of the elderly care satisfaction and quality of life; (2) Caring elements for the elderly are dependent on the quality/extent/status of delivery of caring culture, caring process and the care agent. The elements are affected by the physico-social-psychological-spiritual and political factors; (3) The care culture has its own elements which interact interdependently with each other such as nurturing, thriving and unifying culture. Its combined effect enhances the flourishing culture in an elderly facility; and (4) The care process and agents have interactive elements such as confident, enduring and strategic care and its combined effect creates the caring self. Conclusion: The care for the elderly is a holistic and specialized care. The elderly care elements necessary for the provision of care is a function of the environmental, socio-cultural, and spiritual factors of care and the personal competence of the care provider.

  185. Ashok Brahma

    In this study evaluate the Bodoland Territorial Council a Sixth Schedule Area and the working of the Bodoland Territorial Council the Administrative powers, functions and the Achievements. The Autonomous District Councils or Regional Councils under the Sixth Schedule are looked upon as instruments for welfare of the tribal people and to preserve their own tradition and culture. Contribution to social, political, economic and cultural development is regarded to be the core strategy of the District Councils or Regional Councils in the North East India. Bodoland Territorial Council is an Autonomous Council within the State of Assam under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It has been formed with the aim to fulfill the long pending aspiration of the area. The Memorandum of Settlement (2003) signed by the three parties- Government of India, Government of Assam and Bodo Liberation Tigers explores various aspects on the formation of BTC within the State of Assam. Important aspects as reflected in the Memorandum are being discussed. On the basis of Secondary data, this work attempt to study the Bodoland Territorial council in bringing about the socio-economic and infrastructural development of the Bodos.

  186. Dr. Prakash Kumar, Dr. Shivaji Mandal, Dr. Suresh Kumar Rulaniya and Dr. Debarshi Jana

    Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder. Symptoms include right upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and occasionally fever. The pain lasts longer in cholecystitis than in a typical biliary colic. Without appropriate treatment, recurrent episodes of cholecystitis are common. During this study 229 patients were admitted with chronic cholecystitis of which 12 patients were excluded before randomization. The remaining 217 were randomized with 106 in the group A and 106 in group B. 5 patients were excluded because of open conversion in both the groups (2 in group A and 3 in group B). Preoperatively; No significant differences existed between the 2 groups regarding sex, age; body mass index and ASA score. Also, the duration of LC surgery, incidence of intraoperative gallbladder perforations and spillage of bile or stones, incidence of intra-operative bleeding from either cystic artery or gall bladder fossa and mean postoperative hospital stay were found not significantly different between the 2 groups. The parameters studied were age group, placement of drains, bile leak, hospital stay, Asepsis score, Surgical site infections, postoperative antibiotic used (after 24 hrs). In SSI in Group A, 95 (89.6%) had no SSI and 11 (superficial 8, deep 2, organ specific 1, total 10.4%) had SSI. In Group B, 96 (90.6%) had no SSI and 10 (superficial 7, deep 2, organ specific 1, total 9.4%) had SSI (p value 0.818). In both the groups the difference in the incidence of surgical site infections was not statistically significant.Hence prophylactic antibiotics do not reduce the risk of infective complications in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy in low risk group of patients.

  187. Dr. Surajeet Basumatary, Dr. Sangeeta Deka and Dr. Deepjyoti Kalita

    Introduction: Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ration (NLR) is being studied extensively as a viable and inexpensive alternative to many recognized markers of inflammation (e.g. Cytokines, TNF, ASO, Prolactin etc.). Most of these studies are around GI and other condition/surgeries. This is a study which is examining the role of NLR in chronic tonsillitis cases pre & post-tonsillectomy vis-à-vis other established markers of inflammation. Aim: To examine the performance of NLR as reliable marker of inflammation in chronic tonsillitis subjects pre and post tonsillectomy. Methods: Thirty Chronic tonsillitis subject’s various parameters viz, Total WBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Neutrophil, Lymphocytes, ASO, CRP, ESR & NLR was estimated and compared pre (oneday prior tonsillectomy) and post surgery (around 1 month after surgery). Data were statistically analysed for reliability of NLR as marker of inflammation. Results: Statistically significant reduction in TC, Neutrophil, Lymphocytes, CRP, ASO and ESR level was observed, post surgery. Significant rise in NLR value was recorded. A negative correlation was established between reduced ASO, CRP, ESR etc. with raised NLR level pre to post-surgery. Conclusion: NLR value can be as useful as other markers of inflammation (ASO, CRP etc) especially in monitoring surgical management of chronic tonsillitis cases or those undergoing tonsillectomy operations. However a large scale study with more subject is essential.

  188. Berther Kute and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Parents expect a safe learning environment for their children while in teachers’ custody, yet threats to student safety are increasing globally, and Kenya is no exception. In Kisumu County, incidents of floods, criminal activity, community conflicts, fires and strikes continue to be recorded in schools. Due to legal responsibility and their position as first responders in school emergency, teachers have a crucial role in ensuring student safety, yet little has been done to explore teacher knowledge on management of student safety in emergency incidents in public secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to determine contribution of teacher knowledge on management of student safety in emergency incidents in public secondary schools in Kisumu County. The objective of the study was to examine the contribution of teacher knowledge to management of student safety in emergency incidents in public secondary schools in Kisumu County. The study established that; teacher knowledge and practices moderately contributed to student safety with overall mean ratings of 3.22 and 2.96 respectively. Findings of this study are important to educational administrators, policy makers and planners in understanding how teacher knowledge in emergency incidents contribute to student safety in emergency incidents in public secondary schools.

  189. Saradha, M. and Samydurai, P

    The present study aimed to develop in vitro micropropagation protocol for an endangered and highly valuable Ethnomedicinal plant, Utleria salicifolia. Micropropagation techniques applied for recovery of the selected plant species using leaf, cotyledon and node explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with different plant growth regulators. The maximum percentage of callus induction (81.1%) was observed in 1.0mg/L BA combination with 0.1mg/L Kn followed by 77.8% was recorded in 1.0mg/L 2,4-D combination with 0.1 mg/L Kn using leaf explants. The highest number of shoots (7.0shoot/explants) were observed in leaf callus explants was high in 1.0mg/L BA combination with 0.1 mg/L IAA. Indole butyric acid alone was more effective than other auxins for root development. The plantlets showed 97.5 % survival after acclimatization in soil.

  190. Dr. Debanjali Mukherjee, Dr. Shashi Ranjan and Dr. Rashmi Issar

    Myofibroma is a rare spindle cell neoplasm that consists of myofibroblasts (cells with both smooth muscle and fibroblastic features). Although it was originally described as a multicentric tumor process affecting infants and young children (myofibromatosis), it is now recognized that most cases of the tumor are solitary and that it can occur at any age. This report describes a case on solitary myofibroma involving posterior part of body of mandible extending to the ramus occurring in a 15 years old patient.

  191. Berther Kute, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Florence Y. Odera

    Parents expect a secure learning environment for their children while in teachers’ custody, yet threats to student safety are increasing globally, and Kenya is no exception. In Kisumu County, incidents of floods, criminal activity, community conflicts, fires and strikes continue to be recorded in schools. Due to legal responsibility and their position as first responders in school emergency, teachers have a crucial role in ensuring student safety, yet little has been done to explore teacher attitude towards management of student safety in emergency incidents in public secondary schools. The objective of this study was to establish the contribution of teacher attitude to management of students’ safety in emergency incidents in public secondary schools in Kisumu County. The study established that teacher attitude highly contributed with overall mean rating of 3.60. Findings of this study are important to educational administrators, policy makers and planners in understanding how teacher attitude contributes to management of students safety in emergency incidents in public secondary schools in Kisumu County.

  192. Dr. Samia Perwaiz Khan, Dr. Fadieleh A. Sohail, Dr. Shagufta Naqvi, Mohammad Abbas Khoja, Hina Siraj, Manal Husain, Noor us Sehar, Mina Bella and Waqar Hussain

    Nowadays, Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder of the endocrine system. Type 2 diabetes is a major non-communicable disease with increasing prevalence at global level and for this it should be properly managed otherwise it can lead to a number of serious health issues including heart disease, stroke, kidney disease and peripheral vasculardiseases. Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare glycemic control with lifestyle modification, oral hypoglycemic and natural herbs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: Data from January 2018 to May 2018 Medicare Cardiac & General Hospital,Jinnah Medical college Hospital(Korangi campus) was used for this investigation. Questionnaire method of 102 patients is used to compare glycemic control with lifestyle modification and oral hypoglycemic drugs. Result: The study done on type 2 diabetes mellitus patients having increased BMI, fasting and Radom blood sugar and HBAIc above 6. Showed that oral hypoglycemic (metformin) and lifestyle modification both improved glycemic control. Although the glycemic control by oral hypoglycemic was more significant. Conclusion: Lifestyle modification and oral hypoglycemic both are highly beneficial for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Management with OHG along with life style and dietary modifications has greater benefits.

  193. I Putu Suwantara

    Notary as a trustee of a public trust can also become a trusted third party in ensuring the authenticity of electronic transactions. However, there are still outstanding legal issues namely the reasons for notary to become trusted third party in securing authenticity against electronic transactions and the wordings of notary’s other authority electronic transactions certification equated with cyber notary contained in the elucidation of Article 15 paragraph (3) of Amendment of Notary Law (Indonesian Law No. 2 of 2014). This research is a normative legal research, by using statute, historical and conceptual approaches with employs snowball method as its collecting legal data technique and interview as additional data. Furthermore, grammatical and authentic interpretations are used. The study shows that the equality between the wording of electronic transaction certification and cyber notary in the elucidation of Amendment Indonesia Notary Law tends to obscure the notary’s meaning as a trusted third party. Therefore, it is necessary to reformulate towards the certification and authenticity of the electronic transaction on such provision so that a notary as a public official can implement its function as a trusted third party in strengthening the electronic transaction to avoid multi-interpretation on the elucidation of such article.

  194. Alfred M. Wamala, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Michael C. Were

    Poverty is the greatest challenge facing the African continent today. Education empowers citizens and hence reduces poverty by enhancing live hood. Globally, 77 million children are out of education and 25.7 million (33.4%) are those with disabilities. In Kenya 1504 (0.48%) Students with Disabilities of 315,000 in public secondary schools are in Inclusive Education programme. Baseline survey in Bungoma County between 2013 and 2016 indicated that 107(0.07%) Students with Visual impairments and physical challenges are in Inclusive Education programmes compared with total of 39,122 Students with disabilities. Therefore, Statistics indicate that very few Students with Disabilities are admitted in public secondary schools in Bungoma County. 39,015 (99.93%) may not be accessing formal public secondary school education. The objective of the study was to establish the influence of physical resources on implementation of Inclusive Education in public secondary schools in Kenya. The study established that physical resources accounted for 18.9% of the variance in the implementation of inclusive education as was signified by the coefficient Adjusted R square .189. The other 81.1% was due to other factors that were not the subject of this study. The influence was significant as the p-value was less than the set level of significance, .05 (r=.454, N =122, P<.05). These physical resources included chairs, desks, tables, classrooms, libraries and play fields among others.

  195. Yashodhara Barhate

    The rising awareness towards sustainable development has prompted the emergence of various global indices and agreements to encourage economic support to environmentally responsible investment. Carbon credit market has become a multi-billion dollar industry for credits issued under the Kyoto protocol. India is being heralded as the next carbon credit destination of the world. India is a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the objective of the Convention is to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. This paper highlights that the Local communities in Tier III cites of India could accrue benefits by reducing the carbon footprint and selling carbon sequestered by Clean Development Projects in Kyoto based markets. It is an exploratory research to understand the opportunities for investment in Ecosystem.

  196. Satyendra Narayan Sinha, Brajesh Kumar Choudhary and Manisha Singh

    Cervical cancer survivors have a higher propensity for the development of second cancer when compared to general population especially HPV, Smoking and radiation related cancer. In our report, unusual carcinoma like gallbladder cancer developed after 7 years in a non-smoker cervical cancer survivor treated with radical cholecystectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Till last reporting, she is doing well and leading a normal life with an ECOG 0.

  197. Alfred M. Wamala, Michael C. Were and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Globally, 77 million children are out of education and 25.7 million (33.4%) are those with disabilities. In Kenya 0.48 % (1,504) Students with Disabilities out of 315,000 in public secondary schools are in Inclusive Education programme. Baseline survey in Bungoma County between 2013 and 2016 indicated that 107 (0.07%) Students with Visual impairments and physical challenges are in Inclusive Education programmes compared with total of 39,122 Students with disabilities. Therefore, Statistics indicate that very few Students with Disabilities are admitted in public secondary schools in Bungoma County. 39,015 (99.93%) may not be accessing formal public secondary school education. The objective of the study was to establish the influence of Students With Disabilities on implementation of Inclusive Education in public secondary schools in Bungoma County, Kenya. The findings of the study were that Students With Disabilities accounted for 37.4% of the variance in the implementation of inclusive education as was signified by the coefficient Adjusted R Square .374. The other 62.6% was due to other factors that were not the subject of this study. The study also established that Students With Disabilities always petition school administration for assistance to fit in the school programme. Furthermore, student with Disabilities interact socially and academically well with regular students and therefore influenced implementation of Inclusive Education.

  198. Swati Mittal, Dr. Ashish Choudhary and Dr. Aparajita Mitra Prakash

    A common condition in geriatrics patients is the occurrence of edentulism. According to the United Nations Population Division (UN 2011), the share of India's population aged 60 and older is projected to climb from 8% in 2010 to 19% in 2050. One therapeutic approach directed at improving oral function in elderly is use of implant supported overdentures. According to McGill and York consensus statements it is accepted that the two implant overdenture is not the gold standard of implant therapy, it is the minimum standard that should be sufficient for most people, taking in account performance, patient satisfaction, cost and clinical time (Thomason et al., 2012). The use of two interforaminal implants with an overdenture can provide long-term neuromuscular benefits for edentulous patients (Spitzl et al., 2012).

  199. Denise Monique Dubet da Silva Mouga, Manuel Warkentin, Andressa Karine Golinski dos Santos and Enderlei Dec

    Aiming to verify the diversity of bees and the visited flora in a protected zone of southern Brazil, on the Serra Geral mountain range, in Santa Catarina State (SC), situated in temperate climate, sampling collection was carried out with entomological nets on flowering plants in araucaria forests, during the period 2010-2012. We counted 74 species of bees belonging to the Colletidae, Andrenidae, Halictidae, Megachilidae and Apidae families, with 1,056 sampling hours and 2,208 verified individuals. New occurrences were recorded for SC (Anthrenoides petuniae, Anthrenoides politus, Ceratina (Crewella) rupestris, Halictillus loureiroi, Hexantheda missionica, Megachile (Moureapis) nigropilosa, Megachile (Pseudocentron) framea, Megommation insigne, Thygater chaetaspis) and for Brazil (Lophopedia nigrispinnis, Paroxystoglossa brachycera, Psaenythia collaris). One species with restricted occurrence in SC was found (Ptilothrix relata) as well as a threatened species (Bombus bellicosus). Apis mellifera, an exotic species, accounted for 57.6 1% of the sampled individuals. The bee species visited 172 botanical species, of 50 botanical families. The evaluated network measurements reveal a diversified web and a system with asymmetric interactions, with a predominance of general relations. The results obtained by this census unveal the extant bee communities and their structure, which can support the maintenance of the araucaria forest, a threatened environment.

  200. Sapna Kundal, Arup Giri, Indu Kumari and Rajesh Kumar

    Introduction: Mansar and Surinsar Lake are the two important subtropical Lakes in Shivalik Hills of Jammu Province have been recognized as Ramsar Site owing to the rich diversity of both producer and consumers. The comparative study on water productivity of these two Lake had not been done yet. This study carried out to evaluate the productivity level of Mansar and Surinsar Lake as well as identification of different species of zooplankton. Method: Water samples are collected from both Lakes (Mansar and Surinsar) in the month of April in 2018 for productivity. The primary organic production of the river water was determined by ‘light and dark bottle method’. The zooplankton was observed under a microscope with 400X magnification and their number could be countered by using Sedgewick rafter cell under a microscope. Results: The investigation showed that the collected sample of water from both the Lakes having the valve of NPP between the 50-250 mgl/m/hr. The value of NPP shows that the water of these two Lakes is coming under Oligotrophic i.e. Nutrients content is less. Few species of zooplanktons are found which comes under the group Protozoa (2 sps.), Rotifers (1 sps.), Cladocera (2 sps.), Copepoda (2 sps.) and Arthropoda (1 sp.). Conclusion: The productivity of these two Lakes is directly correlated with zooplanktons productions, which are less in number. Presence of less number of zooplankton might be due to the pollution level is higher. The environment of these Lakes are not suitable for the cultivation of fishes and therefore, some steps should be taken for up gradation of the Lakes water quality, so that, faunal community or biodiversity of the Lakes may sustain properly.

  201. Ali Alyahawi, Saleem Alriashi and Ali Alkaf

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) present in type 2 diabetic and hypertensive patients greatly increases the risk of strokes and cardiovascular diseases. Timely detection of MS facilitates appropriate preventive and therapeutic approaches to minimize these risks. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of MS among Yemeni type 2 diabetic and hypertensive patients using AHA/NHLBI definition. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study conducted from April 2018 to June 2018. A total of 168 of patients with type 2 Diabetes, hypertensive, and DM type 2 with hypertensive were selected from the various out-patient departments of Al-thawra hospital and hospital of university of sciences and technology in Sana'a, Yemen. Components of MS were collected for these patients. The data was analyzed in order to identify prevalence of MS in these patients. Statistical analysis included usage of Chi-square tests using the software package SPSS 21.0. Results: The total prevalence of MS among the study patientswas81.0% and the prevalence increased with the age; 59.3 of patients were aged up 50 years old. The prevalence of MS among patients with diabetes type 2 was 75.9 of all total MS. Moreover, its prevalence in hypertensive patients as compared to non-hypertensive was 87.5%. The highest prevalence was observed among patients with both hypertensive and diabetes type 2. Conclusions: The prevalence of MS among Yemeni type 2 diabetic and hypertensive patients was very high and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This emphasizes the need for more attention to investigate this condition to decreasing the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these patients.

  202. Sanja Brekalo Lazarevic, Senada Selmanovic, Ivana Lazarevic, Azijada Beganlic, Jasmina Biscevic Tokic and Azra Kurtic

    Introduction: Workplace violence is widely recognized as an occupational health risk for employees in many organizations and it can damage their psychological health. Securitty guards are at comparably high risk of violent incidents. Objective: This aim of this work was to evaluate the association of non-physical form of workplace violence with distress among security guards and in what way does it affect mental health of the security guards. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 250 security guards in Tuzla Canton and was conducted anonymously using the Questionnaire about violence at work. Results: Threats and intimidation as a form of non-physical violence in the last 12 months experienced 32.4% participants, whereas exposition to verbal assault reported 18.8% study participants. Due to exposure to different forms of violence at work, respondents feel consequences to mental health such as easily get angry and frustrated, insomnia and become harsh and insensitive. Study participants also become violent towards their family members and become harsh and insensitive which leads toward depression. Non-reporting of violence was also a concern, main reasons were lack of reporting procedure, previous experience of no action taken and fear of the consequences. Conclusion: There is association between violence and mental health of the security guards and it is necessary to take prevention actions at the organizational and individual level on time to protect workers and provide safer workplace environment.

  203. Dr. Debkamal Kar, Dr. Swagata Gayen, Dr. Sanjeet Kumar Das, Dr. Sk. A. Mahmud and Dr. Mousumi Pal

    White lesions are selectively frequent in the oral cavity. The prevalence of oral leukoplakia is quite prevalent among such lesions. There are many variants of oral leukoplakia, one of which is oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (OPVL), it is a rare clinico-pathological entity which is slow growing, long term progressive lesion, but remains an enigmatic and difficult to define. According to the published case series, OPVL regarded as a disease with aggressive biological behaviours due to its high probability of recurrence and high rate of malignant transformation. This article presents the clinico-pathologic characteristic of verrucous leukoplakia turning into squamous cell carcinoma involving right buccal mucosa and commissural area of a sixty eight years old male patient.

  204. Dr. Yashmeet Kaur, Dr. Vaneet Kaur Sandhu and Dr. Sarfaraz Padda

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia (AH) is a rare lesion of the minor salivary glands characterized by localized swelling that mimics clinically with non neoplastic lesions (mucocele) as well as with neoplastic lesions of salivary glands. The lower lip is uncommon site of presentation. Histopathologically lesion comprised of variably sized lobular aggregates of normal appearing mucinous acini and duct with intervening thin fibroconnective tissue septae. Here, we report a rare case of Adenomatoid hyperplasia of lower lip in a 25 year old male patient, which mimics a mucocele clinically.

  205. Dr. Amit De, Dr. Savan S.R., Dr. Shahnaz, Dr. Mona Chowdhury and Dr. Anwesha Adak

    Crown lengthening procedure is widely used technique in dentistry, especially in esthetic zone. Pre-prosthetic crown lengthening is performed in such cases where there is insufficient crown length for fabrication of prosthesis. The principal of crown lengthening is based of the concept of preservation of biologic width. Violation of biologic width may result in gingival inflammation, recession, pocket formation, bone loss. Surgical procedure of crown lengthening may require gingivectomy or apically repositioned flap surgery with or without ostectomy. Proper case selection and execution is required for the success of the treatment.

  206. Dr. Ankur Akela and Dr. Runni Kumari

    Background: In abdominal surgery correct method of closing wounds is of great importance. The ideal method should be technically simple so that the results are as good in the hands of trainee as in those of master surgeons. Until recently layered closure of the abdominal wounds was considered ideal with great emphasis placed on peritoneal layer. It is now fully realized both from clinical observation and animal studies, that healing of incisions takes place by dense fibrous scar that unites the opposing faces of laparotomy wound enmasse. Objective: To compare the outcome of mass closure Vs single layer closure of midline incisions. Methods: 50 patients with midline abdominal incisions operated in PMCH, Patna either in emergency or elective were selected and divided in to two groups. GROUP1 included patients where single layer closure done on the other hand GROUP2 included patients for whom layer wise closure was done. The outcomes in terms of wound infection, wound dehiscence, sinus formation, incisional hernia etc. Were compared. Results: About 1.8% developed wound dehiscence in group1 compared to 7.1 % in group 2. Other complications like suture sinus formation, scar complications, Incisional hernia, were more common in group2 compared to group1. Conclusion: single layer closure method holds the promise for a safe technique of closure with minimal complication.

  207. Jyothsna, G. and Pattan Neeta

    Childhood nutrition is known to have a considerable impact on children’s health because the foundation for their lifetime health, strength and intellectual vitality is laid during this period. The aim of the present study is to assess the anthropometric status and food intake of pre-school children aged 1-3 years. A total of 50 subjects were studied to assess the anthropometric measurements of height, weight, mid upper arm circumference, head circumference and chest circumference for each pre-school child and diet survey methods of 24-hour recall method and food frequency questionnaire using standard procedures together with structured questionnaire. The findings showed that the mean of anthropometric measurements were found to be on par with WHO standards. The mean intake of foods was found to be significantly higher when compared to balanced diet.

  208. Guy Clarence Sèmassou, Jean-Louis Fannou, Valery Doko, Emile Sanya, Vianou, A.

    This paper presents the design of a wind pumping system coupled to a reservoir of water storage. This work has been done with the HOGA program (Hybrid Optimization by Genetic Algorithms). Different objective functions used in the design process are the Loss of Power Probability (LPSP) concept for the reliability, the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) for the economic evaluation and CO2 emissions of life cycle on the production of the various system components. With the presented model, the optimization of the design of wind pumping system can be realized technically, economically and environmentally, while ensuring the needs of the consumer without interruption. Design variables used are the wind turbines number (NW), the type of wind (TW), the tank number (Ntank), the type of tank (Ttank), type mast (Ttower) and total head (Thead), that is to say the type of well. A case study is conducted to analyse one wind turbine pumping projet, which is designed to supply drinking water in a rural community located at Sèmè-Kpodji, Benin (6°22’N, 2°37’E, 7m).

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