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February 2019

  1. Dr. Tintith Ansari, Dr. Mahendra Nagar, Dr. Suman Khangarot, Dr. Anil Saxena and Dr. Kamalnayan Shringi

    Introduction: Pulmonary tuberculosis is a chronic destructive lung disease with caseation, necrosis and fibrosis that lead to the formation of cavities. These cavities facilitate the growth of many organisms including fungi by providing plenty ofoxygen and necrotic tissue material. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in the department of respiratory medicine, govt medical college, kota.200 sputum samples were taken and divided into 4 groups of 50 cases each. Results: Fungal co- infections were more common in male sex, malnourished, smoker and alcoholic. Overall fungal prevalence was 36 % with Moulds in 21.5% and filamentous fungi in 14.5%. Conclusion: A high prevalence of fungal infection in found among TB patients and a routine screening for fungal infection is recommended for proper diagnosis and early management.

  2. Dr. Dipesh Patel, Dr. Hetal Pandya, Dr. Hiral Barot and Dr. Dhruv Kotecha

    Sclerodermais a multisystem autoimmune disease in which there is increased fibroblast activity resulting in abnormal growth of connective tissue. Systemic sclerosis is classified into two main types: Diffuse cutaneous and limited cutaneous scleroderma. Commonest presentations of limited scleroderma were Calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, oesophageal dysmotility, Sclerodactyly, Telangiectasia and only facial skin manifestation is very rare presentation. We are presenting a case report of rare involvement of facial skin only as an initial manifestation of limited scleroderma.

  3. Jude Ominyi, RN.

    Background: Evidence-based practice is an important aspect of healthcare delivery as its principles are internationally recognised to have instigated quality improvement initiatives. However, available evidence suggests that complexities surrounding its implementation largely exist in healthcare settings. Aim: This study aimed to explore impact power dynamics on evidence-based practice implementation in nursing in the Nigerian acute care setting. Method: A qualitative case study approach was utilised to study two hospitals drawing on interviews. Data was generated from staff nurses (n=12), ward managers (n=21), nurse managers (n=2), and physicians (n=2). Data was inductively, iteratively and thematically analysed through cross-case synthesis. Findings: Limited decision-making power deprived nurses of their autonomy, leading to non-delivery of evidence-based practice. These findings have significant implications for policy and practice as there is imminent danger for clinical outcomes in this context. Conclusions: Power dynamics impacts implementation of evidence-based practice in nursing. However, resistance can trigger emancipatory behaviours and can enable nurses to develop agency for challenging malpractices

  4. Dr. Chandreshwar Prasad Sinha, Dr. Leeladhar Sahu, Dr. Parida, N. Dr. Akhilesh Sahu

    A case of 55 year old male patient suffering from diabetes mellitus since 15 years, showing neuropathic symptoms in lower extremities since 2 years. The classical symptoms like parasthesia, numbness in both lower limbs along with burning and tingling sensation were present in the patient. These symptoms were aggravated since three months for which patients came to visit the OPD of RLAMCH, Chandkhuri, Durg. The patient was examined as per the routine procedure and shifted to the IPD for further specific treatment and management. In the IPD Madhumehari churn and Gomutra was given orally twice a day. This treatment regimen was continued for three months. The patients was first admitted for 10 days and consumed the medicine in medical supervision then the rest of the period had taken the medicine at home with every week follow up to the hospital. The serum blood glucose level was compared before and after the treatment, the result of which was significant in maintaining the blood glucose level within the optimum limit throughout the treatment period without any further worsening of the condition. The neuropathic symptoms were substantially decreased with the hopeful outcome.

  5. Chhewang Topgia, Lakshya Prateek Rathore, Rahul Kumar Singh, Sidharath Sood and Ayush Sharma

    Introduction: Hip fractures are relatively common injuries in adults and are associated with substantial mortality and morbidity, especially in the elderly. While patients above 60 years are considered for arthroplasty, the study focuses on evaluating internal fixation in carefully selected patients of this age group. Aim: This study is aimed at evaluation of clinicoradiological and functional outcomes of fixing femoral neck fractures in a selected elderly population. Material and methods: The study included 36 cases of fracture neck of femur above 60 years of age treated by closed reduction and internal fixation. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was done preoperatively and those with Physiologic Status Score (PSS) more than 20 were included in the study. Results: In our study 75% of the patients had an excellent Harris hip score while it was good in 11.11%, fair in 8.33% of the patients and poor in the remaining 5.55% of the patients. Non-union of femoral neck fracture occurred in 4 cases (11.11%) while osteonecrosis were observed in 3 patients (8.3%). The eldest patient operated was 85 years of age. Conclusion: Internal fixation maybe considered as mode of treatment in carefully selected patients over 60 years also with favourable outcomes. PSS is a useful tool in selecting such patients.

  6. Dr. Ashika Kailar, Dr. Premjith PS, Dr. Divya Shetty, Dr. Aftab Damda, Dr. Rajaram Naik

    Aim: Comparative evaluation of effect of two demineralising agents on the apical microleakage in root end cavities filled with MTA Plus. Materials and Method: Forty five single rooted teeth were selected and biomechanical preparation was done upto F2 Protaper. Root canals were obturated with AH Plus sealer and Guttapercha. Access cavities were sealed with GIC. Apical root-resection was then performed by removing 3mm of the apex at 90° to the long axis of the root with a straight fissure bur. Root-end cavities were prepared using diamond fissure bur upto 3mm. The teeth were randomly allotted into three groups of 15 each. Group A: root-end cavities demineralized with citric acid 10% (1 min). Group B: root-end cavities demineralized with 17% EDTA (1 min). Group C: root-end cavities with no demineralizing agent (Control Group). All the groups were retro filled with MTA Plus. The samples were then stored in 100% humidity for 24-hours and coated with nail varnish except the resected root end. After drying, they were immersed in methylene blue dye for 24-hours. The teeth were sectioned and examined under stereomicroscope. Results: Control group with no demineralizing agent showed least mean microleakage (0.166±0.040mm) and group demineralised with 17% EDTA showed highest mean microleakage (0.210±0.16mm) Conclusion : Removal of smear layer increases dentin permeability, facilitating bacterial penetration, hence it can be concluded that application of demineralising agents during apical surgery cannot be recommended.

  7. Yan Vares and Yaryna Gudzan

    Today, despite the application and constant improvement of various techniques such as sinus floor elevation, vertical and horizontal augmentation of the alveolar ridge, the use of zygoma and extra-short implants etc, the issue of functional and aesthetic rehabilitation of distal maxillary defects with dental implants persists. Unsatisfactory quantitative and qualitative parameters of bone tissue in this anatomical site considerably complicate, and at times even make it impossible to install dental implants. Moreover, they often require additional surgical interventions aimed at increasing the volume of bone tissue, significantly extending the terms of the final prosthesis. The progressive method of rehabilitation of patients with dental loss in distal upper jaw is the use of the technique of so-called tubero-pterygoid implantation proposed by J.F. Tulasne in 1985, the main feature of which is placement of dental implants in cortical areas of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone and the pyramidal process of the palatine bone. Given study presents a clinical case of successful rehabilitation of a patient with acquired adentia and atrophy of the distal upper jaw with tubero-pterygoid implant. The study identifies the main factors that may complicate implantation in distal maxillary aspects and looks at the advantages and disadvantages of tubero-pterygoid implants by comparison with traditional crestal implants.

  8. Dr. Anil K. Tomer, Dr. Panna Mangat, Dr. Afnan Ajaz Raina, Dr. Faizan Bin Ayub and Dr. Megna Bhatt

    At present when endodontic surgery is considered, the gold standard as retrograde filling material which comes to mind is the Biodentin. However there are certain other materials available in the market but due its improved physical properties in the clinical application, this material is considered as the first option. This case report represents a endodontic surgery of a mandibular anterior teeth in which Biodentin was used as a root end filling material which resulted in complete healing of the case at 1 year with absence of clinical symptoms and radiographic evidence of regeneration of the periapical tissues.

  9. Hala El-kammar, Raneem F. Obeid and Radwa T. El-sharkawy

    Background: The tongue is the second most commonly affected oral site after periodontal tissues in diabetes. Diabetic complications are mainly attributed to oxidative stress and side effects from long term use of drugs to treat diabetes. MO has been reported to be a valuable source of natural antioxidants. Materials and methods: this study comprised three groups; control, diabetic and MO treated groups. The experiment was terminated after fourteen days. Evaluation of the rats was done by measuring blood glucose levels, as well as, histological assessment of the tongue tissue by H&E and SEM. Results: There was a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and histological evaluation revealed improvement in the condition of the tongue mucosa in the MO treated group compared to the diabetic group. Conclusion: MO has a hypoglycemic effect on the blood glucose level of diabetic albino rats. MO may partially reverse some of the detrimental effects hyperglycemia has on the tongue mucosa of diabetic rats.

  10. Bekele Edessa Dhibba

    The purpose of this study was to assess the challenges and strategies of teaching speaking skills in large classes. To this end, Mettu preparatory school which is found in Ilu Abba Bora Zone, Oromia region is selected. The respondents of the study were four English language teachers and one hundred twenty students from grade eleven. Descriptive survey-which is known as cross-sectional research design was used to describe the current situation of the study, and purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select a number of study units from a defined population. The instruments used to collect data were interview and questionnaires. Then the collected data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis. The findings of the study showed that the teachers lacked different classroom management strategies in teaching speaking skills, and most of them could not effectively play their managerial roles during teaching speaking skills in large classes. The findings also showed that the teachers rarely used different strategies and techniques in order to develop students’ speaking skills. The study further revealed that the teachers have considered large classroom as a problematic in teaching speaking skills rather than their teaching methodology. The study also portrayed that students in large classes hardly interact with each other to improve their speaking skills. Furthermore, the study indicated that the teachers frequently used whole class organization at the expense of pair and/or group organizations. Finally, recommendations were forwarded based on the major findings of the study so as to improve the students' speaking skills and use different large class strategies. Hence, it was recommended that English language teachers have to use appropriate strategies to manage large class. Therefore, they must develop the approach that works best for the students based on their learning styles, the characteristics of their students, and the goals and objectives of the lessons.

  11. Dr. Yousef Mehdipour

    Introduction: Today’s economic and social changes force universities to try to find new learning approaches. E-Education is an evolved form of the old methods of teaching and learning that using in formation technology proposed and Forward as fast as the preferred method of learning was introduced in the era of knowledge. Initially e-education stood for electronically enhanced education. The present study was performed in order to Readiness of faculties for Implementing of E-Education in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences that with provide suggestions to managers and decision makers, help them for implement a successful E-Education system. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out using a Likert scale researcher-made questionnaire on four dimensions of cultural, human resource, skills and the existence of technology infrastructures to assess the readiness of 350 faculties on 2018. After confirming the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, the research data were collected and the data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16 and the results were analyzed using descriptive statistics method in the form of a table. Results: In order to implement e-education, the readiness of faculties in terms of cultural dimension with a mean of 3/38 and their computer skills with a mean of 3/568 and human resource dimension with a mean of 3/18 are good, but the readiness of more than half of the faculties for information technology infrastructure was a weak level. Conclusion: The overall result of this study showed that the faculties were well prepared and the most important obstacle to the implementation of e-education was the technological dimension of the university. Therefore, it is recommended that, the faculty empowerment courses in order to implement e-education in the university are essential, and managers should have a plan for required technological infrastructure before implement e-education.

  12. Vinci, G., Ciano, S. and Rapa, M.

    Background: Quality assessment can inform us about the nutritional values of food, but also about its origin (i.e. cultivation techniques) and organoleptic properties. Analysis of foods is continuously requesting the development of more robust, efficient, sensitive, and cost‐effective analytical methodologies to guarantee the safety, quality and traceability of foods in compliance with legislation and consumers demands. Biogenic amines are a class of molecular marker, used to recognize and to identify food origin, vegetables maturity, cultivation techniques and storage time. Since sustainability is an actual aim of the scientific research, even “green” analytical determinations in food are going to be developed. Green chemistry introduced several points like less waste, low energetic costs, raw materials made by renewable sources. Objectives: The aim of the present work is to compare two different HPLC method for determinate biogenic amines in food matrix. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied to evaluate the environmental effects/impacts of the two differents scenario. Moreover, the application of the Life Cycle Cost analysis allowed to evaluate costs in the second scenario. Methods: High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) allow to identify and quantify biogenic amines in food matrices. Two different HPLC methods were compared by Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Cost methodologies. These methodologies permit to quantify the environmental negative output, pointing out opportunities to reduce input and output of the system and to choose the most cost-effective option. The environmental variables were calculated by using Simapro 8 software (ReCIPe 2016 method). Results: The new analysis methodology allows to use just 20.6% of resources. The optimized methodology saves more than 50% with a payback period of 10 analysis. Conclusions: The implementation of new methods of analysis improves the efficiency and sensitivity, pointing out sustainability topic in food quality assessment field.

  13. Tegegn Gobana Dulla and Zeleke Arficho Ayele

    This research was meant to find out whether or not university students regularly spend more time in the library and to identify challenges students face not to regularly spend more time in the library with reference to three selected public universities (Hawassa, Wolaita Soddo and Wachemo) in the South Nation, Nationalities and Peoples’ Regional State of Ethiopia. A descriptive design with a mixed approach was employed. A seven-point and five-point scale questionnaire was used to gather data from 1500 students (500 students from each university). A semi-structured interview was also held with 24 students (8 students from each university) randomly selected from among those students who had filled in the questionnaire. Data gathered by the questionnaire were analyzed quantitatively, whereas data collected by the interview were analyzed qualitatively. The study found that the vast majority of university students spend less time in the library; among those students who spend more time, only few of them do that regularly and effectively use their time as well as reference materials/resources available in the library. Moreover, instructors hardly inspire students to regularly spend more time in the library and hardly guide them how to effectively use their time as well as the resources. Furthermore, the university library faces a shortage of ICT infrastructure, furniture, and clean toilet rooms and water access. Lastly, generally speaking, the university librarians are ineffective to identify and provide reference materials/resources they are asked and they have poor communication skills. Accordingly, recommendations have been made.

  14. Mimoza Canga, Vito Malagnino, Giulia Malagnino and Irene Malagnino

    Background: Success of endodontic treatment depends on complete debridement and disinfection of root canal space. Objective: The evaluation of the efficiency of the Chlorhexidine and ozone gas in the elimination of Candida Albicans in the root canals. Hypothesis: Is Chlorexidine treatment more effective than ozone gas treatment? Materials and methods: In this study we inoculated 20 teeth with C. albicans. All teeth were washed with 10 cc of sterile saline solution. The root canals were incubated with Brain-Heart infusion broth at 37°C for 24 hour. 20 single-rooted human teeth were prepared using Mtwo instrument. In the first group (n=10) as an irrigating agent we used 10 cc of 2% CHX solution and in the second group (n=10) as an irrigating agent we used ozone gas. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0. Data were analyzed by one-sample t-tests. The significance level (α) was set at 0.05, with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%, whereas P-value and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are used to compare independent samples. Results: Chlorhexidine treatment reduced significantly the amount of C.albicans (P=0.002) compared with the group treated with ozone gas (P=0.005). By reducing the number of treatments in time period, the difference between the effects of two irrigants is increased, dominating the chlorhexidine treatment. Conclusion: The efficiency of the treatment with chlorhexidine is maximal and the colony forming units falls significantly and we recommend using this treatment in comparison to the ozone gas treatment.

  15. Wang Jinglin, Ren Shangkun, Zhang Dan and Yu Tengfei

    Alternating current filed measurement (ACFM) is an electromagnetic non-destructive testing technique for detecting defects on metal surfaces and near surfaces. ACFM data acquisition system uses the programmable logic device FPGA and A/D converter to quantize and control the signals according to the selection of the work piece to be inspected, and then realizes the data communication between the PC and the hardware through the serial communication mode to complete the acquisition and digitization of the signal. In this paper, the upper computer software was developed based on the Java+MySQL database platform, and the serial port communication Serial Tool relying on development was used to complete the data transmission. The My SQL database was used to extract the target data from data packets, which completed the data storage and analysis, then realized the defect identification and sized quantization inversion function. What’s more, Jfrerchart was used to complete the two-dimensional graph drawing of the target data. The software improves the efficiency of data acquisition and processing, and the research results are of great significance for the detection and evaluation of surface defects.

  16. Adigezalov Azer Nadir Ogli

    In the article some information about market relations‟ coming into being in Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan is given, and also the dynamics of bilateral collaboration of the two countries in trade- economic sphere is traced back. The information about the reasons impeding the development of these relations is given, the significance of bilateral interest of the countries to each other is revealed, which, as a result, led to mutually beneficial and fruitful collaboration between the two fraternal countries: Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan. The trade and economic relations of the Republic of Uzbekistan with the Republic of Azerbaijan were established in 1995, as a result of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the states. The intensification of relations began in 1996, when the TRACECA project arose, which contributed to the creation of the Transcaucasia corridor (via Turkmenistan to Baku and from there to Poti). In general, trade and economic relations between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Uzbekistan are at a high enough level, cause mutual aspiration and interest of states to expand trade and economic relations in all possible spheres and directions.

  17. Dr Kathleen Okafor

    As a juristicyet inanimate person, the company exercises its powers through the members in general meeting, the board of directors and committees set up by the company. It is at meetings that members exercise ultimate control of the company, give directors the opportunity to explain results and applaud or denounce managements. The humongous power of especially transnational companies makes the conduct of their meetings a very crucial factor not only in corporate governance or social responsibilities but also in national development. Most corporate actors donot adequately graspthe rules on company decision-making processes to participate effectively and legally at meetings. The lapses and ineffective decision making were manifested in the phenomenal scandals of Enron 2001 & Worldcom, 2005 as well as Nigerian bank failures in 2005 causing job losses of multitudes of employees, and large scale diminution of stakeholders. Furthermore, the global reach of many companies across national borders makes it necessary to restate the laws on company meetings so as to enlighten local and foreign investors, educate company administrators, and also reduce unnecessary family feuds, litigation and company disharmony. Consequently, this paper attempts to provide a compendium of statutory, common law and judicial dictates on company meetings especially as regards investors’ protection & controls. This paper also serves as a compass for navigating the murky waters of decision making in order to enhance managerial value through shareholder-centric governance.

  18. Dr. Kouassi Konan Jean-Claude

    This study aims to analyze the opportunity offered by the socio-cultural environment in the act of fraud. It is based on a field survey of 51 individuals selected using the reasoned sampling method. The data collected were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The theory behind this study is Cohen and Felson's theory of opportunity. The tested hypothesis is verified because in terms of results, it appears that the socio-cultural environment favors the illicit sale of the cashew nut. The Ivorian rulers would therefore benefit from increasing the awareness on the interest of the sale of this product in Côte d'Ivoire and the respect of the texts which govern its marketing.

  19. Temesgen Zana and Hiwot Abayneh

    In international commodity market coffee is the second most traded commodity next to petroleum. Ethiopia produces coffee Arebica and it is also widely believed that the country is the birthplace of the most cherished bean. Coffee has a great social, cultural and livelihoods importance for the majority of Ethiopian population, and it is tied to complex and strong socio-cultural settings. The country produces more than 30% of the total coffee production in Sub-Saharan Africa and it also consumes nearly 50% of the total production blended with complex socio-cultural settings. The objective of this study was to analyze certified coffee value chain in the context of Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. The study used both qualitative and quantitative data collected through focus group discussions (FGD), key informant interviews (KII) and field observations and review of various secondary sources. The study adopted the Global Value Chain analysis framework and assessed the input-output structure, institutional context and the governance structure. Apart from the study also reviewed constraints and opportunities facing upstream value chain actors. The identified value chain actor includes input suppliers, smallholder coffee producers, coffee farmers cooperatives, Sidama Coffee Farmers Cooperatives Union (SCFCU), and international certified coffee importers, roaster and retailers. Under the value chain supporters category the government institutions at various level, research institutes and Universities, and NGOs were identified. The government through the top level ministries plays regulatory function in the overall agriculture and export trade sector, including coffee. Besides this international third party certification bodies set standards demanding all actors in the value chain to comply with. The major constraints identified includes: underdeveloped organizational and business management systems, lack of capacity to adequately implement different sustainability certification standards, gaps in coffee quality inspection skills and facilities, lack of quality payment system at smallholder level, higher cost of certification, insufficient collateral for credit guarantee from the bank, low level of female participation at leadership level. The value chain governance structure review also showed a growing power of the downstream actors’ contrasted with suppliers’ incompetency in production and export coordination.

  20. Dr. Neeta A. Nagori

    One of the major outfits in teenage girl’s wardrobes includes skirts. It is very much physical and functional in nature. In today’s global Era, designing new garments has widened the scope of garment industry and also gives opportunity to designers to play with various designing elements in creating innovative garments. When we go through the society it is noticed that there is an increasing acceptability of denim amongst all strata of Indian society. The denim market is constantly re-defining and re-inventing itself with new designs, embellishments and cuts. So a study focus on “Innovative Skirt Designing by Fusion of Denim” was undertaken to give something new to the society. 100% of the respondents like the skirts developed by different fabrics of denim and it will be accepted by the mass of the people.

  21. Udyama Juttada, Ramesh Mandarapu, Sudhakar Godi and Paddaiah Gangisetti

    Background and Objective: Adiponectin gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the exon 3 and intron 4 is a well characterized SNP which has previously been linked to various diseases including cardiovascular diseases. The association of this gene with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is studied in various studies , hence the present study was designed to investigate the association of SNP +45T/G and +276G/T in the AdipoQ gene in CVD patients with and without diabetes mellitus and normal controls in North Coastal Andhra Population. Methods: The present study has a total 274 subjects, in which group 1 has normal controls without any complications (n=99), group 2 has cardiovascular disease subjects with diabetes (CVDDM) (n=102), and group 3 has cardiovascular disease subjects without diabetes (CVDNDM) (n=73). Patients were divided into group 2 and 3 based on the manifestation of diabetes. All the clinical, biochemical parameters were analysed for the study subjects. Adiponetin SNP were genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP). Results: Our study has revealed a significant association of 276G/T adiponectin polymorphism with CVDDM cases in study subjects. The TT genotype against TG+GG genotype of the 276 G/T polymorphism was observed to confer increased risk to develop cardiovascular disease with diabetes (P=0.000001). TT Vs TG+GG in the given population, although the proportion of CVDDM attributable to TT genotype was 6.8% in overall study population, a similar risk factor was also observed in GG genotype against TG+TT genotype to confer the risk of developing cardiovascular disease with diabetes (P=0.0017) and GG genotype attributes nearly 50.9% in overall cases. Whereas heterozygote TG genotype does not show any significant association in CVDDM cases. Conclusion: The SNP 276 G/T of adiponectin gene was observed to confer increased risk to develop cardiovascular disease among diabetes subjects.

  22. Ronald Brisebois, Apollinaire Nadembega and Toufic Hajj

    Entity Resolution and unstructured Web has recently attracted significant attentions and usage of Block Chain is increasing to try to solve different problems as traceability. Entity Resolution can be defined as the process of identifying, matching, verifying accuracy and try to get to the same metadata definition of the Entity from several sources including the unstructured web and structured databases. A new issue have been identified for Entity Resolution: What is information today could be wrong in an instant later, so we talk now of the value of the Entity Resolution in function of the time. In this paper, we address the issue of data and metadata timely integration from unstructured, structured and multi-sources. We propose a new semantic approach of data integration and Entity Resolution that aims to build a unified and trusted traceable repository (UTTR), called SMESE Traceable Trusted Smart Harvesting Algorithm from Unstructured and Structured Web (SMESE-TTSHA). SMESE-TTSHA is based on Traceable Smart Harvesting Strategies (TSHS) addresses the problem of performing Traceable Entity Resolution (MLM-TTSHA) using trusted, ranked sources and taking care of the value of the information at an instant t. We experimentally evaluate our SMESE-TTSHA approach on large real datasets and compare the performance results with those of existing approaches. Our experimental results show our proposed models perform well on the Traceable Entity Resolution compared to the existing approaches, while also satisfying constraint of the algorithm.

  23. I Putu Gede Ardhana and Mutria Farhaeni

    This study is attempted to examine the potencies and opportunities for development of agrotourism which is seemed from the aspect of central productive areas in province of Bali. Firstly, auther described the history of regional development for central productive areas where is one of the national development for agriculture in broadest sense. Second, auther described the central productive areas where are derived in several districts and city in province of Bali. and 10 years ago beginning in 2000-2010 each respective of excellence commodities and activity programs have been planned. And these programs were covered 5 subsector, namely : (1) subsector of food crops and horticulturs, (2) subsector of plantational crops, (3) subsector of animal husbandries, (4) subsector of fishing and (5) subsector of industrional activities with various types. And auther used the method to approach; with the input, process and output, and the approach of literature as reports, and research results relating to the purpose of problems, then the mentioned, interpreted data which was obtained, from these areas and arranged in the form of paper. From research auther could concluded these areas have very large potencies and opportunities for develop of agrotourism to every subsectors that spreads in each districts and city in province of Bali, and the influence on improving the welfare of the surrounding communities.

  24. Solomon Kebede, Ayansa Tolesa and Hailu Geremew

    The target of this work was the detection of fault in engine through its sound using spectral analysis. The sound signals of three selected engine parts were examined using spectral analysis to detect the fault in Toyota 3B engine. These sound signals are sound from normal Toyota 3B engine, sound from faulty advanced engine and sound from faulty retarded engine in Toyota 3B engine. These all sounds have a unique spectral representation and have a unique sound which different from the normal engine sound. Sound capturing processes was occurred by combining laptop, mini-jack, microphone, microphone stand and engine and these sound signals were recorded in isolated room to avoid interference from surrounding sounds. Two signal visualization techniques were used in this work and these sound signal visualization techniques are time wave form and line spectrum. The plot of line spectrum was obtained after time domain is converted to frequency domain with help of FFT. This conversion is performed with aid of MATLAB soft ware. This thesis results indicates that each sound signal has its own time waveform, line frequency spectrum and power spectrum. It can be concluded that every sound signal has a unique frequency. This work initiates others to detect the fault in engine using spectral analysis.

  25. Nweze, S. and Achebo, J.

    The quest for the continued improvement of weld quality cannot be over emphasized. Hence, every good manufacturer is eager to find better ways to improve product quality. Research has shown that one of the practical ways to improve on weld quality is to optimize input process parameters. The aim of this study is to optimize and predict the Weld Penetration Size Factor (WPSF)of TIG mild steel welds using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), with the purpose of achieving optimum results. In this study, several sets of experiments were carried out. The input parameters considered were the applied current, voltage, and gas flow rate. The TIG welding process was used to join two pieces of mild steel plates, after which the WPSF was measured respectively. The experimental result was analyzed using the RSM. The results obtained showed that current of 140.01 Amp, voltage of 20.00 volt, welding speed of 150.00mm/min, and gas flow rate of 12.01 L/min will produce a weld with the following optimum properties of WPSF at 2.6636mm. This solution was selected at a desirability value of 97.30%

  26. Ellis Kobina Paintsil, Dr. Augustina A. Sylverken and Matthew Glover Addo

    Background: Nearly half of the world’s population are at risk of being infected with malaria parasite. In Ghana, 3.5 million people get infected with the disease every year and about 20,000 children die from it annually. Haematological changes associated with malaria have been reported but may vary due to age, gender, and demographic factors. Objective: This study seeks to analyse the effect of malaria on some common haematological parameters of children (1-14 years) and adults (>14 years) patients attending St. Patrick’s Hospital, Offinso, Ghana. Methodology: A total of 2076 full blood count together with malaria test data, comprising of 1200 females and 876 males, were obtained from the laboratory department with 539 (25.96%) testing positive for malaria. Results: Majority (68.65%) of the malaria positive cases were recorded in children ≤14 years. In the 15-44 years category, females recorded significantly high cases of malaria than their male counterpart. There was a significant (p<0.0001) difference between the median haemoglobin levels of children with and without malaria. Within the adult population there was no difference between the median haemoglobin levels of malaria positive and negative adults (p > 0.05). Significant differences between all studied haematological parameters of malaria infected children and adults were identified. Out of the 370 children with malaria, 14.59% had severe anaemia compared to1.78% from their adult counterpart. The risk of developing severe anaemia was also 8.22 times as high as the risk of severe anaemia in malaria adult.Although 49.46% of children and 38.46% of adult with malaria suffer from thrombocytopenia, the risk of thrombocytopenia among children with malaria was 1.29 times as high as the risk in malaria adult. Median WBC count in children was significantly (p<0.05) higher than adult. The study also showed that 87.84%, 56.21% and 22.24% of severe anaemia, leucocytosis and thrombocytopenia respectively that occurred in children with malaria can be attributed to their age. Conclusion: Children are 2.8 (OR) times more likely to suffer from malaria infection than adults whilst equal cases of malaria occur in females and males. Policy makers and stakeholders should as a matter of urgency develops malaria intervention programs targeting children, whilst health workers should closely monitor the haemoglobin levels, platelet count and WBC of malaria children, since they suffer the worse haematological abnormalities.

  27. Aamar Ilyas and Dr. Ramraini Binti Ali Hassan

    The objective of this paper is to justify the rationales of methodology that is used to investigate the practices of the informal entrepreneurship. First of all, review the previous methods, both direct and indirect, that have been employed to examine the practices of informal entrepreneurship. Direct approach is the most suitable method that is designed to produce data from informal entrepreneurship and this method has also aptitude to explore the nature of informal entrepreneurship such as in terms of income level, employment status, distribution of gender, ethnicity, or determinants of informality. Respondents are informal entrepreneurs who are working in informal entrepreneurship sector. Snowball sampling technique is a decent technique to explore the nature of informal work such as employment status, motives or reasoning to join this sphere. However, the prime source of data collection will be interview, direct observation, documents, and archival sources for this field because it allows having one-to-one contact with participants. Therefore, evaluate the thematic analysis is better fit for this field and interpretive phenomenological analysis is unsuitable.

  28. Jorge A. Cabezas and María Laura Arias

    The synthesis of five 1,3-enynes was performed and its activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was determined.

  29. Sutar Kanchan and Sutar P. M

    Dandoba hills which is also locally known as Dandakaranya is famous for the temple of lord Shiva. The vegetation of Dandoba hills is protected and declared as reserved forest by Forest Department, Govt. of Maharashtra. It represents mainly tropical dry deciduous forest and scrub jungle. The present study was conducted to observe richness of species. During the present work, over 106 species of dicotyledon were reported. Family Mimosaceae and Capparidaceae were the most dominant families. The dicot floristic diversity of Dandoba hill is now available for the first time with this publication.

  30. Nemorio Rodrigues Alves, Marina Saraiva de Araújo Pessoa, Trycia Ryane de Freitas Silva, Andreza Josiany Aires de Farias, Edenilson Cavalcante Santos, Eclésio Cavalcante Santos, João Carlos Neto Araújo, Allana Renally Cavalcante Santos de Moraes, Brenda S

    The integrative review was the choice for the elaboration of this study, since it understands that this method allows the synthesis of completed researches and obtains conclusions from a studied phenomenon. This study aimed to identify nursing interventions described in the literature that contribute to the humanization of care to neonates in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The criteria used to select the sample were: articles published in Portuguese, listed in the following databases: Latin American Literature in Health Sciences - LILACS, International Literature in Sciences of the Saide - Medline, Scientific Electronic Library Online - SCIELO and Google academic. The period of publication of the articles was not delimited during the search. The descriptors used were: Critical Care Nursing, Humanization of Care and Neonatology. For the sample, 6 articles were selected because they met the eligibility criteria. The results demonstrate that nursing actions related tohumanization in NICU should be based on the construction of individual care, integrality and in the respect for life.

  31. Roukaya Abdou Souley, Issoufou Amadou, Halima Diadie and Abdourahamane Balla

    The sumbala or African mustard, produced by traditional methods of fermentation of some protein and/or oleaginous seeds, is a food condiment used in West Africa. The variability of its organoleptic characteristics led to diversity of product and makes its more complex for characterization. Several studies have provided information on the process of this condiment production, it’s an important source of nutritional values as well as its nature and microflora properties. Organoleptic characteristics of this condiment were also reported. Through this study, current knowledge about the product and the process of production as well as technology and responsible bacteria involved in this type of fermentation have been discussed.

  32. Nasuk, I.I., Rumayasa, G.P. and Laminem

    Koi fish (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the very potential types of ornamental fish in East Java and has a high economic value. Aeromonas salmonicida is a bacterium that includes Quarantine Fish Disease and has spread on the island of Java. Various antibiotics are available on the market for treatment of these bacterial infections, however, only commonly used certain antibiotics. Continuous use of an antibiotic can spur bacterial resistance. This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin in the treatment of A. salmonicida infection. Ciprofloxacin was chosen because it has the highest inhibitory value of A. salmonicida growth of 10 ppm with 11 ppm MBC value. At these doses up to 10 times the value of MIC, ciprofloxacin did not show a toxicity reaction in Koi fish. The researche design used Complate Randomize Design with different ciprofloxacin doses, namely treatment A (11 ppm), B (16.5 ppm), C (22 ppm), D (27.5 ppm) and E (33 ppm) repeated 3 times. The results of data analysis with ANOVA showed significant differences between treatments (p <0.05) Analysis continued with least Significant Difference and showed that the treatment of 11 ppm was significantly different from the treatment of 22 ppm, 27.5 ppm and 33 ppm. The treatment of 16.5 ppm was significantly different from the treatment of 22 ppm, 27.5 ppm and 33 ppm, while the treatment of 22 ppm, 27.5 ppm and 33 ppm was not significantly different, the dose of ciprofloxacin was effective and efficient or best for the treatment of A. salmonicida in Koi fish is 22 ppm.

  33. Padmashree, Flavia Reshma Quadras, DivyaRani, R. and Anoop Thampi

    Background: The neonatal period is recognized as a brief, critical time that requires focused interventions. Neonates routinely undergo painful invasive procedures even after uncomplicated birth. Treating procedural pain has become a crucial part of neonatal care. In the past it was believed that neonates do not feel pain because of incomplete myelination of peripheral nerves. This is no longer believed to be true, because myelination is not necessary for pain perception. Hence Pain among neonates is often underestimated and untreated, producing untoward consequences. In one word assessment of pain in babies is a persistent, unresolved problem that has serious implications for effective management. Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of facilitated tucking in terms of variations in physiological and behavioural responses by comparing experimental and control group. Method: The data was collected from 50 neonates (experimental =25, control =25) of Srinivas hospital, Mukka. Experimental group neonates underwent routine procedure with facilitated tucking and control group neonates underwent routine procedure without facilitated tucking. Result: The mean NIPS score following the routine procedure with facilitated tucking was 1.60 with a standard error of 0.245 and the same following the routine procedure without facilitated tucking was 5.12 with a standard error of 0.279 The NIPS scores of these two procedures were compared by using unpaired t-test, which revealed that there is a statistically significant difference in NIPS score (mean difference 3.520) between them. The result also showed that there is no significant association between the physiological and behavioural changes with demographic variables. Conclusion: In conclusion, Facilitated tucking is an effective non-pharmacological measure to reduce procedural pain in neonates demonstrated by significantly lower NIPS scores.

  34. Dr. Umar Nazir, Dr. Rouf Hussain Rather, Dr. Shazia Benazir and Dr. Rabbanie Tariq Wani

    Introduction: Anemia is a major public health problem all over the world especially in developing countries. Anemia prevalence in young children continues to remain over 60% in most parts of India and Asia despite a policy being in place and a program that has been initiated for a long time. Objectives: • To estimate the prevalence of Nutritional Anemia in Under 5 children of block Hazratbal,district Srinagar. • To estimate the risk factors of Nutritional Anemia in Under 5 children of block Hazrabal, District Srinagar. Results: Out of the children surveyed 158(77.5%) were having Moderate Anemia, followed by 38 (18.6%) were having Mild Anemia at the time of study. Conclusion: This study has accentuated evidence of an extremely high prevalence of childhood anemia in block hazratbal of district Srinagar especially in certain sub-groups of the population.

  35. Dr. Ali Abbas Zbala F. I.C.S., Dr. Besher M. Amen M.B.CH.B FI.C.M.S and Dr. Haitham Assem Abdalrazak

    Background: Depression is a 'quiet crisis' facing diabetics, their families and their health care providers. Financially and emotionally this crisis is exacting a terrible cost. (1) The possibility of depression catising diabetes was first advanced in 1684 by Thomas Objectives: • To study frequency of depression among people with diabetes. • To study socio-demographic data associated with depression, diabetes, and their co-morbidity. Methodology: This case control study was conducted during the period from 1st June, 2005 to 30th march 2006. Two samples were chosen for this study, 100 diabetic patients; 50 IDDM and 50 NIDDM, and 100 non-diabetics as a control. The two samples were matched for age and sex. All the diabetic patients included was between the ages 20-60 years. Fifty of them were females and fifty were males. Results: The prevalence of depression in diabetics in the study is higher than that in other studies. This study has shown that depression is prevalent among patient with both type-I and type-II diabetes and there is no difference in its distribution between IDDM and NIDDM as both of them required complex life changes. Our study was consistent with other studies: #Study done by Anderson -RJ; 2001(13) #Study done by Lust man-PJ; 2002 (2) The higher. Conclusions: The rate of depression in diabetic patients was more than two fold higher than that non-diabetic people. Depression interferes, with all aspects of functioning prevalence of (Depression in diabetic females compared to diabetic males but did not approach statistical significance, but it did in the non-diabetic group (p>0.05).

  36. Singh, R.A., Verma, M.C. Singh, P.V. Jaiswal, v.b., Rajesh Rai and Asha Yadav

    An experiment was laidout during summer season of 2006-07 and rainy season of 2006-07 at Regional Research Station, Mainpuri, C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur. The experimental soil was sandy loam with poor fertility status. The seventy five genotypes of groundnut were tested. The main objective was to findout the suitable genotypes for cultivation during summer season. The secondary objective was to work out the magnitude of yield reduction between summer season and rainy season cultivated groundnut. Among the tested genotypes in summer season Co1 registered significantly highest pod yield of groundnut by 35.41 q/ha followed by ICGS 37 (25.00 q/ha), ICGS 5 (25.00 q/ha), ICGS 76 (25.00 q/ha), ICGS 11 (25.00 q/ha), GG7 (25.00 q/ha), S206 (25.00 q/ha) and Tirupati 3 (25.00 q/ha). The cultivars TG 26, M 157, NRCG 3498, PR 1 and R 9251 also produced the pod yield by 22.91 q/ha, 20.83 q/ha, 20.83 q/ha, 20.83 q/ha and 20.83 q/ha, respectively, during summer season. During rainy season the aforementioned genotypes also give better yield. All the genotypes reduced the pod yield during summer season as compared to rainy season. The magnitude of yield reduction was recorded from 1.60 per cent to 36.64 per cent.

  37. Osama Abdullah Abdelraheem and Ahmed Hamdy Mohamed Abade

    Objective: The aim of this study is to perform analysis between self-fixating mesh and sutured mesh in open inguinal hernioplasy. Method: This study has been conducted in Aswan University Hospitals on 40 patients,the patients will be classified blindly into two groups each group include 20 patients Group A for self-fixating mesh and Group B for suture fixating mesh. Result: From the results of our study and the certain points we tried to modify in the standard technique of self-fixation mesh at inguinal hernioplasty, we collecting data which suggestive that self-fixation mesh has some advantages more than suture fixation mesh. Conclusion: Self fixation mesh is a simple, rapid, effective, and safe method for inguinal hernia repair, and may reduce postoperative pain, improve patient general health, and quality of life.

  38. Sirajudheen Majeed

    Objectives: The present study is designed to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of the ethanolic extract of the bark of Bischofia javanica (BJ) Blume (Euphorbiaceae). The study was conducted by using invivo alloxan induced diabetic model in wistar albino rats. The parameters that were used for the assessment of antidiabetic activity are liver glycogen and blood glucose levels. Materials and Methods: (Preparation of the Plant Extract): The leaves of the BJ were collected from Wayanadu, Kerala, India during October 2010 and was authenticated by Mr. Krishnan, Lecturer in Botany, Kannur University, Kerala. The collected barks were air dried. After that the barks were powdered in an electric grinder. The powdered plant bark was soaked in ethanol and kept aside for 7 days with occasional stirring. After 7 days, the ethanolic layer was filtered. The solvent from the total extract was distilled off and the concentrate was evaporated on a water bath to a syrupy consistency and then evaporated to dryness10. The yield obtained was approximately 9.5% (95g). The dried extract was then stored in a desiccator for further use. Expperimental Animals: Healthy adult Wistar albino rats, weighing about 180-220g between 2 and 3 months of age obtained from SCOP, Valachil, Mangalore were used for the study. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee for animal experimentation SCOP (Ref: SCP/CPCSEA/ P09/F150/2009-10), Valachil, Mangalore. Results and Conclusions: The study performed preliminary phytochemical analysis for testing different chemical constituents preent in ethanolic extract of the bark of BJ Blume and thereby the observations showed the presence of triterpinoids, saponins, and tannins. Furthermore, the results of the research indicate that the ethanolic extract of the bark reduces the blood glucose level in diabetic rats. Further studies are needed to isolate and characterize the active principles and to find out the mechanism responsible for its antidiabetic activity.

  39. Maysaa Jasim Mohammed

    Fifty female patients at the reproductive age were subjected for evaluation and consultation at the infertility clinic. Their complete histories were recorded and included the type of infertility, duration, patient age, parity, gravity and menstrual abnormalities. For each, a general examination and special gynecological examination including concentration on evidence of Hirsutism, acne and obesity was considered. Blood samples were taken at early follicular phase of menstruation for Radioimmunoassay (RIA) to determine Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Trans-vaginal ultrasound was conducted during early follicular phase of menstrual cycle. Biochemical investigations on patients with PCOS showed that there is a direct relationship between ovarian size and stromal echogenicity. The PCOS presented with secondary infertility of 64%, while, it was 16% in the primary phase. PCOS was recorded more common in urban area (70%), while, it was 30% in rural area. The use of ultrasound is more accurate than biochemical investigations in the diagnosis of PCOS.

  40. Sulismadi, Wahyudi, Ihyaul Ulum and Salahudin

    The village government Landungsari create a public service website that www.pemdeslandungsari. com, The website contains content that support the implementation of online public services in the village Landungsari among family card-making services, ID cards, licenses Disorders and Birth Certificate. In this case, This study describes the challenges of implementation of Electronic Government in the Village Government Landungsari Malang. This study uses qualitative research methods of data collection techniques: interview, observation and documentation. This study revealed that the application of E Government in Malang Regency Village Government Landungsari not go well due to the weak leadership of village government, the lack of budgetary support for the implementation of e-government, low capacity of the village government, and the lack of infrastructure support. The issue is the implementation of e-government challenges effectively and efficiently.

  41. Abbas Tariq Khutheir and Thamer A. Hamdan

    Background: Low back pain is a common problem in pregnancy. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of low back pain during pregnancy and to delineate the factors associated with the development such symptoms. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 178 pregnant women attended the gynecological wards and orthopedic wards in Alrefaee General Hospital, Iraq. From September 2016 to September 2017. Data was collected utilizing a self- administered structured questionnaire to determine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with low back pain during pregnancy. Results: The prevalence of low back pain during pregnancy was 55 % (98 pregnant women out of 178). Pain occurs mostly in the third trimester of pregnant women aged between 25- 34 years. Urban housewives during gravida 2 are more susceptible to moderate low back pain especially in lumbar region. Conclusion: Low back pain during pregnancy is a common problem that causes hardship in this population. Further studies are required in the areas of prevention and treatment.

  42. Dr. Ahmed Zuhair Younis Al-Dabbagh and Dr. Fakhir Yousif

    The study was conducted on 2 groups including patients group and control subjects group at the outpatient clinic of Ibn Sina teaching hospital in Mosul during the period between 1/11/2010 and 1/5/2011. The first group consists of 53 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the second group consists of 53 apparently healthy subjects matched for age and gender who denied respiratory symptoms were kept as control group. The aim of this study was to assess whether there is an increase in the risk of osteoporosis in patients with COPD compared to that in healthy age-matched control subjects, and the correlation of osteoporosis to various degrees of disease severity. All the study groups were subjected to assessment of medical and drug history, measurement of weight and height to derive body mass index, pulmonary function testing, biochemical tests, and dual-energy X- ray absorptiometry The data obtained from the study revealed that patients with COPD have a significantly increased risk of osteoporosis as compared to that in healthy age-matched control subjects, 22(41.5%) versus 11(20.7%), respectively. The risk of osteoporosis was significantly different after stratification for Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease-stage. Most patients with osteoporosis did not receive pharmacological treatment. Age, body mass index, menopausal duration and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) % predicted were significant independent correlates for osteoporosis.

  43. Leana Zumbado Gutiérrez, Juan José Romero Zúñiga, Elías Barquero-Calvo, Jessica Abarca Gómez, Mónica Jiménez Mora, Vandad Ravery Morovati and María Laura Arias Echandi

    Campylobacter spp. is one of the main bacteria that cause food borne illness. Many of these cases are caused by C. jejuni and C. coli, which are transmitted mainly by poultry. A cross-sectional study, conducted between March and July 2015, demonstrates the national frequency of Campylobacter spp. and the species C. jejuni and C. coli in broilers for human consumption using a simultaneous sampling design in three levels of Costa Rican poultry production chain. For this research, 152 samples of cecal content (CC) (87 farms), 104 samples of carcass rinse after chiller (CA) (six processing plants), and 96 carcass rinses from 96 retail stores (RS) were collected. The samples were analyzed by microbiological culture and PCR species specific. The overall frequency of Campylobacter spp obtained was 59.37% (209/352, 95% CI 54.24%-64.51%), for C. jejuni was 42.59% (95% CI 37.45%-48.26%), for C. coli was 3.09% (95% CI 1.21%-5.00%) and 8.64% (95% CI 5.62%-11.77%) for contamination with both species. The frequency of Campylobacter spp. in CC was 57.23% (95% CI 49.37%-65.10%), in CA was 61.53% (95% CI 52.19%-70.89%) and 60.42% (95% CI 50.63%-70.20%) for RS. The frequency of Campylobacter spp. found in this study is high, and it represents a risk for public health in Costa Rica. Preventive measures for this agent are few and inadequate, thus leading to high levels of contamination.

  44. Harpreet Singh, Manoj kumar Mangla, Ashish Mittal, Mahesh Gaikwad, Gourab Bhaduri and Ritu Sangwan

    Background: Mean Overall Index for Rheumatoid Arthritis (MOI-RA) is a new, continuous and feasible index to assess the impact on activity of daily living (which is the patient’s prime concern) so it could be useful in regular clinical practice for monitoring Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. Objective: Assessment of disease activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis using Mean Overall Index for Rheumatoid Arthritis (MOI-RA). Material and method: The present study was a cross sectional study done on hundred RA patients as per American college of rheumatology criteria (ACR criteria) who presented in Rheumatology clinic at PGIMS, Rohtak (Haryana). Patients were assessed for disease activity using Disease activity score-28 (DAS28), Clinical disease activity index (CDAI), MOI-RA at baseline and at three months. Results: The mean age was 40.04 ±11.47 yrs with 84 females and 16 males. At baseline the mean DAS28, CDAI and MOI-RA score was 5.91±1.309, 30.56±17.82 and 43.54±18.81 respectively, while at three months was 2.74±0.84, 3.79±4.18, and 8.11±5.67, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient of MOI-RA with DAS28 and CDAI at baseline was 0.962 and 0.961 respectively and at three months was 0.929 and 0.939 respectively (all p-value <0.001). Reliability index (assessed by Cronbach’s alpha) was 0.751, 0.445 and 0.360 for MOI-RA, DAS28 AND CDAI respectively. Conclusion: MOI –RA was found to be significantly correlated with DAS28 and CDAI. The components of MOIRA include all important measures of disease activity, so it could be useful in regular clinical practice for monitoring RA patients.

  45. Dr. Das, K.C., Dr. Anshuman, Dr. Rajat Khandelwal, Dr. Kailash Mohitey and Dr. Pepse Pradhan

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The disease most commonly affects the lungs, although other organs are involved in up to one - third of cases. In order of frequency, the extra pulmonary sites most commonly involved in Tuberculosis are the lymph nodes, pleura, genitourinary tract, bones and joints, meanings, peritoneum and pericardium. Despite effective treatment, tuberculosis can lead to significant short-and long-term health consequences. Deep vein thrombosis (1.5%–3.4%) is one the unconventional complication of tuberculosis due to hypercoagulable state secondary to the inflammatory state. We report one case of DVT associated with extra pulmonary tuberculosis.

  46. Dr. Abhishek Soni

    Trigeminal neuralgia or tic douloureux, because of its varied clinical presentation and distressing nature, can be especially challenging to the dental practitioner. It is characterized by a sharp shooting pain that is most often unilateral and ipsilateral to the trigger point. The pain episodes are short in duration and abruptly arise and subside. This case series is an attempt to highlight the various clinical presentations of trigeminal neuralgia along with the brief overview highlighting the various differential diagnosis of the condition.

  47. Dr. Abhinav Jain, Dr. Narendra Padiyar U., Dr .Pragati Kaurani, Dr. Sudhir Meena, Dr. Devendra pal singh and Dr. Shaily Ujjwal

    Background and objectives: Determining an accurate shade match is one of the most critical steps for cosmetic procedures. Shade selection for dental restorations is usually done visually by matching with a shade guide. Light from the shade sample enters the eye and acts on rods and cones in the retina. Impulses are then passed to optical centre of the brain, where the inferences is done. Different persons may make different execution of the same stimulus, and thus shade selection could become a subjective assessment. This in-vivo comparative study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of shade matching using conventional shade guide with and without using a light correcting device. Methods: A total of two hundred undergraduate dental students studying in Mahatma Gandhi Dental College & Hospital, Jaipur were randomly selected for the study after fulfilling exclusion and inclusion criteria. One investigator was selected for the study. The shade of the maxillary right central incisor of all the subjects was recorded visually using both Vita classical and Vita 3D Master shade guides with and without Light Correcting Device. Then the investigator took the shades of the subjects using Digital Spectrophotometer. All the values were recorded. This was done between 1100 hrs and 1400 hrs in daylight on a clear day. The conditions of tooth shade match were: natural light, a sunny day at noon time. Finally, all the data recorded were converted to mathematical coordinates according to CIE-L*C*h* values in which L* coordinate, represent colour luminosity, varying from white to black; and C* represent chroma the chromaticity of the colour , while h* represent hue. Results: Results showed that there was no significant difference found among the E values of Easy shade VL 3D and Vita 3D with Light correcting device and also between Easy Shade VC and Vita C with Light correcting device. The significant difference was found in E values of Easy Shade VC and Vita C without Light Correcting Device and in Vita C with & without Light Correcting Device. Also a significant difference was found in E values in Easy shade VL3D and Vita 3D without Light Correcting Device and also in Vita 3D with & without Light Correcting Device. Conclusion: This study showed that the shade selection done using both Vita classical and Vita 3D Master shade guides with light correcting device was more accurate than the shade selection done without Light Correcting Device when compared to the shades of the subjects using Digital Spectrophotometer. Using a Light Correcting Device along with conventional shade guide may be a simple and inexpensive option for dentists obviating the need to invest in a more expensive spectrophotometer.

  48. Rysbayeva, G., Bainesh Sh. Kulbekova, B., Manabaev, B., Orazbaeva, H. and Baktiyarova Sh.

    A religious name is a type of given name bestowed for a religious purpose, and which is generally used in religious contexts. Different types of religious names may be in use among clergy of a religion, as well in some cases among the laity. Now consider the language picture of the world in general human cognition in the unity of the world model, and with the same conceptual view of the world is a philosophical and philological concept. The study "Language world" and "Conceptual picture of the world" in the trinity "Language-thought-world" is one of the urgent problems of modern linguistics. Language world - a specific method for the language of reflection and representation of reality in language forms and structures in its relation with the person who is the central figure of the language.

  49. Yerima, E. A., Ogah, E., Ogbodo, C.V. Ataitiya, H. and Ani, J. D.

    This study assesses the impact of some heavy metals on soils around the rice milling factory using indices such as geo-accumulation index and contamination factor while metal mobility was assessed using mobility factor. The results reveal that the dominant metal concentration were in the order: Fe > Pb > Co > Ni while Cd and Cr were below detection limit. The potential mobility of the metals within the soil was in the order: Co > Ni > Fe > Pb. The Geo-accumulation index of all the heavy metals determined showed that the test and control soils were strongly contaminated with Pb and its relative potential mobility was 36% and 51% respectively. The mobility of metals was less pronounced in the test soil due to high organic matter content of 5.38% in soil around the milling industry usually generated as waste during rice processing compared to the 0.54% organic matter content in the control soil.

  50. Ugboma C.J. and Wala, C.

    Seasonal variation on the effects of heavy metals (chromium and zinc) on the corrosion potential of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Desulfovibrio vulgaris on three metal coupons (stainless steel, mild steel and carbon steel) in Ndoni River was carried out for a period of one year between April 2017 to March 2018.The River is a fresh water ecosystem where sulphur reducing bacteria can be found. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans had its highest growth rate in the dry season at 28MPN/100ml and highest growth rate in rainy season at 22MPN/100ml while Desulfovibrio vulgaris had its highest growth rate in the same dry season at 26MPN/100ml and highest growth rate in the same rainy season at 19MPN/100ml.The heavy metals (chromium and zinc) were present at a level tolerated by the organisms in the dry season at (1.08mg/l and 1.46mg/l) respectively while the levels of chromium and zinc at the beginning of rainy season were at 0.87mg/l and 1.10mg/l respectively. The corrosion rates of the three metal coupons stainless steel, mild steel and carbon steel were also highest in the dry seasons namely 0.127g, 2.271g, and 4.291g respectively. The TTEST value for chromium(stainless steel, mild steel and carbon steel) are 0.000598, 3.65947E-05 and 4.53205E-06 respectively while that of zinc(stainless steel, mild steel, and carbon steel) are 2.63664E-05, 0.004315319 and 7.74988E-05 respectively. The Correlation value between stainless steel and mild steel was 0.102427567.The Correlation value between mild steel and carbon steel was 0.146927782 while the Correlation value between stainless steel and carbon steel was 0.990278275.

  51. Trinain Kumar Chakraverti, Ratnesh Kumar, Ranjan Kumar Srivastava and Nandkishore

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain the common infections in outpatients as well as hospitalized patients. Extended Spectrum Beta- Lactamase producing organisms causing urinary tract infections (ESBL-UTI) are increasing in incidence and pose a major burden to health care. ESBL-producing E. coli have been isolated from both hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. Current knowledge on antimicrobial sensitivity pattern is essential for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of ESBL uropathogenic E.coli and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of ESBL and non ESBL producers, which is essential to guide appropriate antibiotic treatment. Material and Methods: Urine samples from 1551 patients received in Department of microbiology, PMC, Patna were processed for wet mount followed by culture and sensitivity. All the samples were inoculated on Nutrient agar, Bood Agar, and Mackoncky Agar. Growth showing significant bacteriuria (≥105 cfu/ml) were further identified by the standard biochemical procedures and antibiotic sensitivity done as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Phenotypic Detection of ESBL and AmpC were performed by combined disc diffusion method as per standard protocol. Results and observations: Out of the 1551 processed urine samples 398 (25.66%). samples were culture positive. The total number of E. coli isolated were 253 (63.56%). More number of Females 147 (58.10) had significant UTI due to E. coli compared with males 167 (41.95%). High level of resistance was seen with Ampicillin 221(87.35%), Cefotaxime 183(72.33%) Ceftriaxone 181 (71.54%), Ceftazidme 175 (69.16%) and Cefepime 167 (66.00%). Resistance to other classes of antibiotics was detected as Ciprofloxacin 191(75.49%), Norfloxacin 203 (80.23%), Cotrimoxazole 201 (79.44%) Nitrofurantoin 133 (52.56%), Gentamycin 121 (47.82%) and Amikacin 79 (31.22%). Among β lactam inhibitors, Amoxyclav 198 (78.26%), Cefoperazone-sulbactam 112 (44.26%). and Pipericillin tazobactam 103 (40.71%). Sensitivity to imipenem was 177(69.96%). No any E.coli isolates were resistant to Tigecycline and fosphomycin. (Table 1). MDR isolates represented 173(68.37%). Among these Multidrug resistant strains, ESBLs positive strains were 141 (55.73%) isolates while, the number of AmpC positive strains were 31 (12.25%) isolates. All AmpC producer were co-producers of ESBL, the remaining 113 (44.66%) isolates were pure ESBLs. Conclusion: This study highlights the Prevalance of MDR, ESBL and AMP C producers of E.coli in UTI. In our study Carbapenems and amkacin are promising drug for ESBL producers while Fosphomycin and Tigecycline use as reserve drug.

  52. Mohammad-Ayman A. Safi

    Objectives: Previously, we retrieved sixteen studied concerning celiac disease (CD) among at-risk individuals in Saudi Arabia (SA) involving five studies concerning CD among short stature (SS) individuals. We present a characterization and meta-analysis for these five studies. Methods: Data from the relevant studies were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Inc) and the Comprehensive Meta-analysis (CMA) program. This study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, SA from March to July 2018. Results: All studies involved seroscreening, while endoscopies were used in three studies. The prevalence of seropositive-CD was 16.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]=11.7–21.7)with high heterogeneity (I2=83.576), while the prevalence of biopsy-proven CD was 6.7% (95% CI=4.6–9.5) with lower heterogeneity (I2=50.944). Anti-transglutaminase (Anti-tTG) antibodies were used in two studies (with anti-gliadin [AGA] in one and anti-endomysial [EMA] and AGA in the other). EMA alone was used in two studies, and one study was without details. Four studies occurred in the Riyadh region, and one study was in the Western region. Females with CD were 1.5 times more prevalent than males. Study subjects’ ages were 1.37–21 years. Conclusion: The prevalence of biopsy-proven CD (6.7%) was within the global range of 2.9% to 8.3% while the seroprevalence (16.1%) was high. No significant difference between the reported (by the studies) serologically-proven rates and biopsy-proven rates was noted (p = 0.205).

  53. Dr. Spriha Smriti, Dr. Pratulaya Nandan and Dr. Ranjan Kumar Srivastava

    Introduction: Globally 36.7 million people are infected with AIDS. India alone has 2.1 million patients with HIV infection. Oral Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection. In HIV infection, the isolation of non-albicans from oral Candidiasis is on a rise. Hence it is necessary to identify Candida albicans as well as non-albicans species too. Method: The present study was undertaken on 100 patients to identify the isolates and correlate them to CD4+ lymphocyte count for the period of one year. KOH mount and Gram’s stain done for demonstration of yeast like cells. Isolation was done on SDA media. Isolation was further processed by germ tube test and confirmed by fermentation and sugar assimilation test. Culture was grown on Chrom agar and CD4+ T cell count done. Result: Specificity of Gram’s stain and KOH mount was 76% and 64% respectively. SDA yielded 100% growth. Germ tube was positive in all C. albicans and C.dubilinensis cases. C.albicans was the most common species isolated (28.3%), followed by C.tropicalis (26.66%), C.guillermondii (17.69%), C.dubilinensis (10.61%), C.krusi (7.07%), C.parapsilosis (6.19%), C.kefyr (3.53%), least isolated species C.glabrata (0.88%). Mean CD4+ T lymphocyte count was 125.28± 78.45 cells/µl of blood. Discussion: In 2007 work in Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi found that C. albicans was most predominant 59.3%, followed by C.glabrata(14.8%), C.parapsilosis (11.8%), C.guillermondii and C.tropicalis 1% each. In 2009 Kumar G.Menon CP, Thangam et al showed that out of 54 cases of HIV positive patients, 44% were infected with C.albicans and 56% were non-candida albicans. Conclusion: There is an increase in occurrence of non-candida albicans species in Oral Candidiasis. Oral Candidiasis affects patient’s compliance of ART and nutritional intake.

  54. Zulkipli, N.A., Yunus, R., Abidin, Z.Z. and Lim, B.Y.

    Hydrolysis is one of the method used to produce levulinic acid. Before hydrolysis, the samples need to be pretreated to enhance the production of levulinic acid during hydrolysis reaction. Two different pretreatments, acid pretreatment and ultrasonic-assisted acid pretreatment were done followed by acid hydrolysis on oil palm mesocarp fibre (OPMF). For acid pretreatment, the parameter involved was temperatures (60 ⁰C, 80 ⁰C and 100 ⁰C) while the effect of sonication powers (40%, 60% and 80%) was investigated for ultrasonic-assisted acid pretreatment. Acid hydrolysis reaction was performed at the temperature of 140 ⁰C for 3 hours. The samples from hydrolysis were then prepared for thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and analysis by high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). TGA analysis revealed that the pretreated sample which produced the highest amount of levulinic acid based on HPLC result gave the lowest activation energy based on TGA result. This sample produced 11.45% levulinic acid and the activation energy for decomposition of this sample was only 15.16 kJ/mol. This indicates that the lowest energy was needed for decomposition of this treated sample due to the efficiency of acid pretreatment with its excellent condition towards fiber.

  55. Achintya Ghatak and Adarsh Garg

    Power is the important infrastructure on which the socio-economic improvement of the country depends. The power transmission (PT) system is at the core of the power industry and which is vibrant to the development of India. As a result, it is crucial that electricity is readily available for the growth of infrastructure, economy and largely improved the quality of living of the people of the country. In spite of the critical nature of PT, the literature relating to the influence factors impact is emergent, with no hypothetical or empirical studies yet conducted to establish the factors elaborate. There are some common influence critical factors for power and non-power linear construction projects to make success the project but some factors are influenced by power sector precisely, especially power transmission projects. Based on literature review, it is found 65 factors in 6 groups potential influencing factors which are influenced to success power project in India. Finally, conclusions are drawn relating to the degree to which this review and analysis may form a theoretical framework that can be tested empirically, on top of providing decisive information with recommendation to Power transmission (PT) project stakeholders to accomplish their significant goals as well as the realisation of the profits involved.

  56. Guruswamy, J., Ashwini Joish Dr. Sadath Ali Khan Zai and Dr. Shashishankar, A.

    This paper presents the experimental study on static behavior of Railway Prestressed concrete (PSC) sleepers Using Next Generation Nano Based Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete. The next generation nano based carbon fiber reinforced concrete is prepared using advance concrete materials such as GGBS, Silica Fumes, Carbon fibers, Polypropylene fibers and Carbon Nanotubes, (CNTs) integrated with High Performance Concrete having its compressive strength of 60 N/mm2. Five different PSC test specimens were casted viz. S1(M60), S2(M60+CNT), S3(M60+CNT+PF), S4(M60+CNT+CF) and S5 (M60+CNT+PF+CF). Carbon Nanotubes were first dispersed in deionized water and surfactant using an ultrasonic mixer as per state-of-the-art techniques, then the CNTs, Carbon fibers, Polypropylene fibers were combined with concrete. The PSC sleepers are casted at Sri Maruthi Builders and manufacturers of PSC railway sleepers, Yeshwanthpur, Bangalore, Karnataka and static tests were carried out at Department of Civil Engineering, UVCE, Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Load deflection curve was established. Ductility index, energy absorption and toughness index characteristics are determined and also the crack pattern, first crack load and ultimate load were studied. It is experimentally observed that sleeper specimen S5, first crack load and the ultimate load has been significantly enhanced as compared to other PSC railway sleeper test specimens.

  57. Sravani, E.V., Kartheek Babu, K. and Dr. Vijaya Kumar, D.

    The high cost of conventional building materials is a major factor affecting housing delivery in the world. This has necessitated research into alternative materials of construction. In this study, coconut shell is used as light weight aggregate in concrete. The properties of coconut shell and coconut shell aggregate concrete is examined and the use of coconut shell aggregate in construction is tested. The project paper aims at analyzing flexural and compressive strength characteristics of with partial replacement using M30 and M20 grades of concrete. The project also aims to show that Coconut shell aggregate is a potential construction material and simultaneously reduces the environment problem of solid. cubes are casted, tested and their physical and mechanical properties are determined. The main objective is to encourage the use of these seemingly waste products as construction materials in low-cost housing.

  58. Lisna Jose

    Employee engagement can be defined as the extent to which employees are motivated to contribute for the achievement of organizational goals. CSR is an inexorable factor that can act as a technique to promote Employee engagement and to influence the attitude and behavior of employee’s. The objective of the study is to identify the influence of CSR on employee engagement, attitude and behavior. The study was conducted at V-Guard Industries Limited at Vennala, Kerala. The tool used for data collection was questionnaire and data was collected from 60 respondents and analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Science. The study seeks to assess the extent of influence of CSR activities of the employer company on the employee’s motivation, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and eventually employee engagement. From the study it has been concluded that CSR activities are acting as an important drive for stimulating employee engagement and in influencing attitude and behavior of employees in an organization.

  59. Ositadinma Chukwuemeka Alozie

    The United States established the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA) of 2004 with the fundamental concept of improving information sharing within the Intelligence Community to boost its counterterrorism efforts in Homeland Security. The IRTPA of 2004 was established to enhance the communication channels among intelligence agencies, facilitate data exchange and analytic tradecraft etc. to reduce intelligence failures that could result to catastrophic terrorist attacks like the September 9, 2001 terrorist attacks. Unfortunately, more than a decade after the establishment of the Act, there are doubts on the level of National Security threats after 2004 coupled with arguments on the effectiveness of the IRTPA of 2004 on U.S. counterterrorism efforts. Therefore, this research paper evaluates the impact of IRTPA of 2004 on homeland security focusing on the degree of terrorist activities from 1990 – 2018. Comparing the level of terrorist incidents between 1990 – 2004 (before the Act) and 2005 – 2018 respectively, to accept or reject the null hypotheses that the IRTPA of 2004 decreases threats to National Security.

  60. Dennis M. Mitterer, Richard Schuttler, Stephanie Noel Hoon and Heather Mitterer

    Aim: The purpose of this research was to test whether nurse manager’s servant leadership behaviors correlated to the job satisfaction and turnover intention of staff nurses. Background: Distinguished nursing excellence is accomplished by leaders that inspire others to adopt behaviors that encourage service and performance. Method: A 58 Likert-type servant leadership questionnaire assessing managers’ behaviors, relative to job satisfaction and turnover intention, was completed by 283 nurses working at a Magnet certified, Level II trauma center. In order to predict the influence of management behavior on job satisfaction and turnover intention, multiple linear regression analysis was utilized. Results: The conclusion reflected that servant leadership behaviors resonate with staff nurses resulting in an increase in job satisfaction and reduction in turnover intention beyond that of transformational leadership. The research demonstrated a strong, positive correlation linking servant leadership behaviors and job satisfaction. Conclusion: Servant leadership behaviors engage nursing staff resulting in higher job satisfaction and decreasing turnover intention. Implications for Nursing Management: Given the importance of human capital in nursing, nurse managers have an opportunity to create an environment where nurses can make meaningful contributions to an organization by reducing one of the causes of the nursing shortage.

  61. Daniel Mekonnen and Mr. Getu Degu

    The main objective of this article is to investigate Values, Beliefs and Systems Related to Lidara Indigenous security alliance and Conflict Resolution Institution among Sodo-Gurage, Libido-Mareko, Oromo, Meskan Gurage and Silte Ethnic groups in Southern Ethiopia. To attain this objective, the article employed both secondary and primary data sources. Both primary and secondary data were organized thematically and analyzed through systematic interpretation and triangulation of various sources. The article found that the major causes of conflicts in the study area are predominantly related to economic issues, especially, conflicts over land holding which are prime causes of other types of conflicts like homicide, physical injuries and property destruction. In addition to these, violations of social and cultural norms are also leads to conflict. In lidara indigenous inter-ethnic security alliance and conflict resolution institution the beliefs, values and procedures the system involves during conflict resolution take credit for the system’s success in maintaining peace and harmony of the society. Despite the theoretical controversy among scholars regarding the sources of conflict, the article further found that the four ethnic groups have develop their own view of sources of conflict, way of handling and decision enforcement mechanisms, which helps Lidara indigenous security alliance and conflict resolution institution in conflict resolution process.

  62. Rowena Sabate

    This study aims to evaluate Filipino-value bound management functions among the middle-level managers of States University and Colleges at Region 8 assessing their strengths and weaknesses to enhance Filipino way of management. Filipino values are rarely studied because of the insufficiency of tools that can accommodate it. A descriptive-developmental method of research was used to assess three-hundred sixty-six (366) respondents from selected State Universities and Colleges. A two-part survey questionnaire was used as the main instrument to gather the needed data. The results were analyzed and interpreted through statistical tools such as Mean, Percentage, and ANOVA. The role of a parent (family cohesiveness); implementing curriculum initiatives (no cultural differences); orienting and modeling to students and stakeholders (walking the talk); not tolerating kumpadre system; managing school resources (avoid stealing); and promoting pakikisama (comradeship) to community network were revealed among all others that based on Filipino value-bound management functions. These suggest that the results of the study could serve as basis for the development of a Resource Material for Filipino middle-level managers.

  63. Molly M. Jacobs

    Introduction: Body weight perception refers to the personal evaluation of one's weight irrespective of actual BMI. Body perception does not always reflect reality and can be influenced by external factors. Methods: This paper explores the association between adolescents’ body perception, demographic characteristics and residential location using both binary and multinomial logistic regressions regression analysis to assess 1) perception accuracy, 2) the association between demographic characteristics and perception accuracy and 3) the relationship between perception and residence. Results: Results showed that half of adolescents misestimate (either under or over categorize) their body weight and that discordant perception is more prevalent among men, the overweight, blacks, younger adolescents and those enrolled in school. The type of misestimation varies by residential location. Rural residents are less likely to overestimate their weight while suburban residents are more like to underestimate their body weight compared to urban residents. Discussion and Conclusion: By examining both overestimation and underestimation of body weight, this study identified trends in adolescent weight perception by region. Rural residents are less likely to over- and suburban residents are more like to over-estimate their body weight compared to urban dwellers. Both are problematic. Underestimation can signify that actual overweight is being ignored. Overestimation may motivate overweight youth to eat healthier and be more active but could encourage unhealthy weight control behaviors. Therefore, intervention programs should be careful to promote healthy weight and weight perception.

  64. Djeyne Silveira Wagmacker, M.Sc, Amanda Silva Fraga, Lilian Brito Lima, Patrícia Sobreira Alves, Luzete Fernandes Santos, Jessica Layane Vilhena Ferreira, Jaqueline Barbosa Moreira, Jefferson Petto, M.D, PhD, Luiz Erlon Araujo Rodrigues, M.D, PhD and Ana

    Introduction: The inflammation process is considered as a central factor with in the aspects that atherosclerosis. Several factors can affect the vascular inflammatory disease, such as dietary and metabolic patterns. Objective: to verify if there is an association between subclinical inflammation and dietary and metabolic factors in women with overweight. Methods: 66 women with overweight (BMI = 29±4,3kg/m2), sedentary with the age of 24±4.1 years. Lipid profile, insulin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were dosed after fasting. The nutrition survey was made through the 24-hour recall. Subclinical inflammation defined by levels of CRP>3,0mg/L. It was utilized t-tests for independent samples, Spearman’ rho, multivariate logistic regression, as significance level p<0,05. Results: Women with vascular inflammation present higher values of blood glucose levels85±8,1vs 83±7,9mg/dL (p=0,02) and BMI of32±5,6 vs 28±3,2kg/m2 (p=0,02), reduced intakeofpolyunsaturatedfats6±5,2 vs 10±8,1% (p=0,03) andfibers13±5,0 vs 20±13,8g/day (p˂0,01). After the analysis of logistic regression, remained as independent decisive factors: the BMI (OR=1,2, IC95% 1,1-1,5) and the total intake of polyunsaturated fat (OR=0,8 IC95% 0,7-0,8). Conclusion: In women with overweight, the total polyunsaturated fats in take is a protective factor, while increasing BMI is an independent predictor factor for the development of the subclinical inflammatory condition.

  65. Taher Abdelraheem Sayed and Mohamed Abdelaziz

    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder and its epidemiological aspects and psychiatric comorbidities have not been properly investigated in Al Ahsa city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The aim of the study was to explore the epidemiological features, personality traits and psychiatric comorbidity of IBS, among Saudi adult patients. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 127 Saudi adult patients diagnosed as IBS and 127 age and sex matched normal individuals living in the eastern province (Al Ahsa city) of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Demographic data had been gathered including socioeconomic status (El-Gilany socioeconomic status scale). Personality characteristics were assessed using Minnesota II Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) and the common associated psychiatric disorders (depression and anxiety) were evaluated using Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A)respectively. Results: IBS is more common in females (57%), in the age group ≤ 30 years (42%), in divorced people (34%), low socioeconomic class (46%) and low educated people (32%). Scores of MMPI-II of IBS patients on hypochondriasis, depression, psychoasthenia and social introversion (93±4, 94±3, 83±5 and 94±3 respectively) were higher than the control group (87±3, 85±4, 77±3 and 89±3 respectively). Depression and anxiety were more common in IBS patients (57.48% and 45.67% respectively) than the control group (36.22% and 30.71 respectively). Conclusion: It is common to find hypochondical complaints, psychoasthenia symptoms and social introversion as abnormal personality characteristics in patients with IBS. High prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities especially depression and anxiety among IBS patients necessitate the simultaneous addressing of both somatic and psychological needs in those patients.

  66. Ouaye, J.P., Fan, X.T., Mahulu, E.M., Xiao, J., Maloko, L.H., Hou, L.X., Wang, X.W. and Xu, A.T.

    Background: Presbycusis is age-related bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, with course acceleration highly influenced by comorbidities including arterial hypertension (AH) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Two major diagnostic approaches used include pure tone audiometry (PTA) and audiometry brain-stem response (ABR).Comparative studies regarding change in PTA and ABR threshold without age limit and co-morbidities’ consideration have been published. However, literature has no reports regarding aforementioned concerns. Objective: In this prospective study, we aimed to ascertain and correlated the relationship between PTA and ABR thresholds in patients with presbycusis in co-morbid with arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, either alone or combined. Methods: In this study, 56 patients comprised of 35 females and 21 males, with mean age 64.71± 9.3(50-83) met study criteria. Depending on associated co-morbidities, the cohort was divided into 4groups, thus: group I (presbycusis alone, n=21), group II (presbycusis and DM, n=12), group III (presbycusis and AH, n=14) group IV (presbycusis and DM/AH, n=9) respectively. PTA and ABR thresholds were obtained and analysed. The statistical data analysis was performed using ANOVA-ONEWAY (SPSS-IBM), and p-value (≤0.05) was considered significant. Results: In this study, ABR and PTA threshold difference between ears was not statistically significant. The comparison between the mean threshold difference of ABR and PTA in group I and II was significant at each frequency, while group III exhibited a significant difference at high frequency only. However, group IV showed no significant difference between ABR and PTA thresholds. We also found that the mean difference in decibel was different in each group. In group I the mean difference decibel was < 20dB at high frequency and >20dB at 0.5 and 1 kHz. Group II showed a mean difference < 20dB at all frequency range. In group III we found mean difference between the two tests <20dB at 4, 8 and 2-4 kHz and >20dB at 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz. Finally in group 4 the mean threshold difference was >20dB at each frequency. Conclusion: There was a positive relationship between the ABR and PTA threshold, which appear to be insignificant in presbycusis patients with both AH and DM; this finding may be related to synergic effects of the two chronic illnesses on the cochlea.

  67. Vishnu Ranade and Hetal Mistry

    Background: Young old elderly are the individuals in the age of 65-74 years. Changes due to aging leads to increased static air trapping, work of breathing & decreases overall pulmonary function including Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Due to these changes, specific body positioning can cause improvement or deterioration in lung function. There is no evidence of PEFR in different body positions in young old elderly individuals. Objectives: • To evaluate the effects of different body positions on peak expiratory flow rate in Young old elderly, in which the positions are Standing Sitting in chair Semi-Fowler’s position Supine • To find out the position in which the PEFR value is greatest. Methodology: Ethics approval & participant consent was taken. Study design was cross section observational study. 100 subjects were included. Subjects with the age of 65-74 years with no history of any respiratory distress 6 months before the study were included. Individuals with obstructive or restrictive lung diseases, major vision/auditory problem, neurological problems were excluded. Correct instructions were given to the patients according to the guidelines of National Institute of Health. PEFR was then taken in Standing, Sitting, Semi Fowler’s & Supine position & readings were taken. SPSS 16.0 software was used to analyze the data. Data was tested for normality using Shapiro Wilk test. Results were analyzed using Friedman test. Level of significance was set at 5%. Result: 1) Peak expiratory flow rate achieved by young old elderly individuals were significantly affected by body positions ( p<0.0001). 2) Standing generated the highest PEFR amongst all 4 positions followed by Sitting, then Semi Folwer’s while Supine generated the least PEFR. Conclusion: There is a significant effect of different body positions on peak expiratory flow rate in young old elderly. According to the study, Standing is the best position in terms of PEFR following by Sitting, Semi fowler’s and then Supine which has least PEFR value. It can also be concluded that forced expiratory maneuvers can be best performed in standing position in young old elderly individuals. It was also found that the more the upright position, better is the PEFR value.

  68. Latifa Afrin Dill Naher, Nawazesh Farid, Dr. Masuma Begum, Dr. Asma Ul Hosna And Dr. Kazi Farzana Khanam

    Background: Increased prevalence of anemia has been observed in adolescent, who are susceptible more often to nutritional anemia. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 276 newly admitted MBBS students of Prime Medical College, Rangpur, Bangladesh. For this serum haemoglobin level, total count of RBC and RBC indices of each student were recorded from records preserved in Pathology Department of Prime Medical College. Results: Among 276 male and female students, 33.70% (93) were anemic. Again, 16.66% (22) among the male and 48.61% (71) among the female students were anemic. Mild anemia was observed in 16.66% (22) male and in 31.94% (46) female students and 17.36% (25) female had moderate anemia. The differences among the anemic students were statistically highly significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: The observed prevalence of anemia is more among the female students and most of the students are mildly anemic.

  69. Dr. Leena Selvamary, A., Dr. Aswath Narayanan, M.B. and Dr. Jayanthi, D.

    Aim: To assess the association of personality traits with oral tumours. Materials and methods: The sample comprised of 215 patients, attending outpatient department of a dental tertiary referral center of south India. Case and control - comparative cross sectional study was designed. Cases consisted of subjects (105) diagnosed with tumour of the oral cavity. Controls consisted of subjects (110) who do not have any tumour at the time of screening for oral diseases. The cases and controls were matched for age, sex, pernicious habits, spicy diet, medical history of syphilis, family history of occurrence of tumour and presence of sharp tooth in relation to tumour on oral examination. Eysenck’s personality questionnaire was used for categorising the personality trait viz. Psychoticism, extraversion, neuroticism and lie scale. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson’s chi square test to find the association of personality types with tumours of the oral cavity. Results: The personality type neurotic and the combination of Psychotic neurotic, Psychotic ambivert neurotic lie were significantly higher among the cases. The personality type Average and the combinations of Ambivert average was significantly higher among the controls. Conclusion: Personality traits of a person and the combination of various traits are associated with occurrence of oral tumours.

  70. Dr. Kavitha Loganathan, Dr. Gopal Shankar Narayan, Dr. Ramachandran Anil Kumar, Dr. Sokkalingam Mothilal Venkatesan, Dr. Baskaran Veni Ashok, Dr. Venkatesh Balakrishnan and Dr. Anu Priya Guruswamy Pandian

    Dental handpiece is one of the indispensible instruments in dental office required for the efficient accomplishment of a multitude of dental procedures like cavity preparation, tooth preparation for esthetic and prosthodontic procedures, polishing and prophylaxis, implant site preparation and placement. Adherence of dentist to the maintenance and sterilization protocols of handpieces has become inevitable not only to ensure their efficient functioning and longevity but also to prevent cross-infection and cross contamination amongst dentists and patients. This paper discusses principles of handpiece maintenance and methods available for effective sterilization in general dental practice.

  71. Narayana Prasad, P., Tarun Kumar, Tarun Sharma, Anupa Rawat and Mansi Rawat

    Introduction: The present study was conducted to understand changes in mean area of nasopharynx, hyoid triangle and position of hyoid bone in patients with retrognathic mandible after functional appliance therapy. Methods: Fourteen Class II malocclusion subjects in growing age with mandibular retrusion were selected. Mandibular retrusion in subjects was corrected by functional appliance therapy. Effect of functional appliances on nasopharynx and hyoid bone dimensions were evaluated from lateral cephalograms recorded before and after appliance therapy. Paired t- test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean area of nasopharynx and hyoid triangle was evaluated. It was found that there was increase in mean area of nasopharynx which is statistically significant with a P value of 0.004 in post cephalograms of treated subjects .It was also found that there was decrease in mean value of hyoid triangle in post cephalogram of treated subjects which was found statistically not significant with a P value of 0.773. There was mean decrease inhyoid distance from third cervical vertebrae which shows an upward movement of hyoid bone. Conclusion: Forward mandible displacement occurs with functional appliance therapy and, there were significant changes in the mean area of nasopharynx, and there is decrease in the mean area of hyoid triangle with upward movement of hyoid bone after functional appliance therapy.

  72. Dr. Ali Abbas Zbala F.I.C.S. and Dr. Besher M. Amen

    Background: The presents situation in Iraq is dominated by violence, looting, kidnapping, torture, or murder. This had created an extremely threatening and traumatizing atmosphere for the whole population and especially children. Objectives: To determine the PTSD among primary school children in Baghdad. Method and Sampling: Across sectional multi stages sample survey of 600 respondent aged 6-15 years had been contacted in Baghdad during Jan and Feb.2006, sixteen schools were involved with 37-38 children represent each school. Tool: Arabic version of MINI (international neuro psychiatric interview PTSD module 1 was applied. Results: During the last 2 years 47% of the respondents had experienced major traumatic event. The prevalence of PTSD among school children was 14%. The male\female ratio was 1\3 which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The traumatizing events were very common and had precipitated PTSD in 14% of children the prevalence was less tan expected which may suggest that Iraqis had adapted some sort of psychological immunization through the last 3 successive stressful and traumatizing decades. The study warrants exceptional efforts to re-stabilize the situation in order to avoid wide spread of morbidity and disability among children.

  73. Dr. Ali Abbas Zbala

    Background: The causes of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are yet unknown. Evidence of familial aggregation is one approach for investigating the role of genetics in the etiology of this condition. Objectives: To determine the rate of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) among first degree relatives (FDRs) of both probands &control group of a sample of psychiatric outpatients with OCD & their sociodemographic characteristics. Mathod: The study sample include 50 probands&312 of their relatives & compared with control group of 50 & 357 of their relatives, who were identified in psychiatric outpatient clinic & assesed by the use of semi-structured psychiatric interview schedule based on DSM IV criteria for diagnosis of OCD in addition, information were collected regarding sociodemograghic characteristics. Results: The prevalence of OCD was significantly higher in probands compared with control relatives (6.1% versus 2.5) (P<0.05). Females were affect more than males. Most patients were married, and of high education. Conclusion: The rate of OCD in FDRs is increased more than two & half fold than in the general population &this goes with that of other researches on this topic. this might suggest some genetic basis for OCD at least partially, however there may be some biological relationship.

  74. Dobrina D Tsvetkova, Danka P Obreshkova and Petar Y Atanasov

    Background: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, characterized by inflammation, demyelinization and axonal injury. The current therapeutic strategies include: disease-modifying, immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive agents (Mitoxantrone). Immunomodulatory drugs are Interferon β, Glatiramer acetate, Leflunomide, Teriflunomide, Fingolimod, Laquinimod (with dual properties of immunomodulation and neuroprotection). For the treatment of relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, new trend is the application of a specific therapeutic strategy with monoclonal antibodies: Alemtuzumab, Daclizumab, Natalizumab and Rituximab. Objective: The purpose of the study is the summarizing of the data for pharmacological activity and analytical methods for determination of a drug for treatment of multiple sclerosis – Fampridine. Methods: The method of literature survey of data for pharmacological action of Fampridine and analytical methods has been applied. Results: For pharmacological activity, literature survey has been shown, that 4-aminopyridine (Ampyra, Dalfampridine, Fampridine, Pymadine), as a selective voltage-dependent potassium channel blocker in the neuronal membrane, prolongs the depolarization phase of the action potential, improves axon potential propagation, increase neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction. Fampridine has been used clinically for multiple sclerosis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. The combination Nivalin P: Galantamine hydrobromide/Pymadine is promising for Alzheimer's disease, due to the synergistic effect of cholinergic potentiation components: Galantamine hydrobromide as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and Pymadine as a stimulant of presynaptic release and synthesis of acetylcholine. For the analysis of related substances in 4-aminopyridine substance have been developed gradient HPLC method with UV-detection and capillary electrophoresis. For determination of 4-aminopyridine in capsules, serum and urine have been presented HPLC methods with UV-detection. For analysis of 4-aminopyridine in plasma capillary electrophoresis, spectrofluorimetry, gas chromatography with electron capture detector and HPLC with UV-detection have been described. Conclusion: The main pharmacological application of Fampridine is for treatment of multiple sclerosis and the combination Nivalin P: Galantamine hydrobromide/Pymadine is promising for Alzheimer's disease. As the most often applied methods for analysis of 4-aminopyridine in dosage forms and biological samples have been presented HPLC methods with UV-detection, gas chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.

  75. Dr. Richa Giri, Dr. Ashish Naresh, Dr. Kushwaha, J.S., Dr. Saurabh Agrawal, Dr. Brijesh Kumar and Dr. Verma, R.K.

    Background: The study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of Spironolactone (25mg OD) along with Ramipril (5mg) on diabetics (30-70yr) in relation to proteinuria and state of Diabetic Nephropathy. Material and Methods: A comparative, prospective, non-randomized, non-blinded experimental study was conducted on 32 patients (30-70yr) of diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus showing proteinuria. Total duration of study was about one year from October 2017 to October 2018. Subjects were followed over 12 weeks and baseline and 12-week Urine ACR being compared. Initially there were total 32 patients out of which 4 patients did not came for follow up, hence total 28 patients were included in the study. Base line Urine ACR values were compared with follow up Urine ACR values at 12 weeks. Other base line laboratory investigation such as serum lipid profile, HbA1c, eGFR, fundus examination, ultrasonography (KUB), serum urea, serum creatinine, haemoglobin, were taken at the starting point. Results: Patients after receiving drug (spironolactone 25mg along with Ramipril 5mg) were followed for 3-month duration and response were assessed by measuring urine ACR value at end of 3 months. Mean values of baseline and follow up Urine ACR for Group was 471.5±465.62, 244.66±237.54 respectively. For comparing effects, paired t test was applied,t calculated was found more that value of t observed with p value <0.05 which proved statistically significant and denotes that there was significant reduction of proteinuria over 12 weeks follow up period in. It was observed that percentage reduction of Urine ACR was 48%. Conclusions: In the study it was concluded that combination of spironolactone and ramipril had significant effect over proteinuria reduction over follow up period in patient with diabetic nephropathy. Significant reduction of proteinuria occurred over 12 weeks follow up period 48%.

  76. Dr. Julia E. Kamenoff

    Turbulence Laser medicine (TLM) is a non-invasive photodynamic therapy, which is characterized by a turbulent acceleration of the photobiomodulation in the human body, thus achieving excellent healing effect for short periods of time. The author is presented a new approach for Laser Dental Education based on Biological Medicine principles. The new educational program involves knowledge about laser biostimulation, photoinfrared photobiomodulation, Laser Eliminating Therapy as Allergy and Environmental Medicine, Immunological Allergies, Autonomic nervous System Hypersensitivity Allergy and alternative methods of Combined Laser Treatment. This new approach of teaching show how to build Model of Individual Optimum Laser Stimulation and require education on four level: First level – laser biostimulation and biomodulation, Second level – Healing effect of Infrared Laser beam, clinical application. Next third level involves skills on Laser acupuncture and Combined Laser Biosynergetics. The higher level of laser education gives information about Turbulence Laser Medicine clinical application. All levels of Laser training require workshops with different types of Dental laser machines. This new approach of education has been approbated in Department of Prosthodontics, Laser Educational center for post graduated education at Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University, Sofia. Results after the laser education show a great effectiveness.

  77. Premlata Prakash, Usha Singh, Richa Justin Hans, Seema Barnabas and Balqis Victor

    It is widely viewed that fostering bioethics among members of the nursing profession is of profound importance due to increased progress of medical science and technology and lack of awareness about bioethics among undergraduate students which has rendered prior views of ethics insufficient for health care professionals. As the student nurses are the future professional nurses, so their foundation of bioethics needs to be laid at the preliminary level as they reach the actual clinical practice. This way they can take nursing profession at the highest level of perfection and standards. In view of this a descriptive research was planned to assess attitude of nursing students by using attitude scale to promote bioethics through Continuing Nursing Education (CNE). Total 300 nursing students participated in the study as subjects. The data was collected keeping in view the ethical considerations. The data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics at p<0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that 88% students had positive attitude and 13.9% had negative attitude towards bioethics in nursing. It may be recommended that similar type of studies can be conducted in other medical institutes to promote and impregnate the bioethics in the foundation of nursing profession which is the student nurses.

  78. Ija, M. I., Jacob, D. and Umar, M. K.

    Since independence of Nigeria in 1960, the country has been experiencing a high degree of mismanagement of resources particularly in the area of public procurement. There have been existing open abuses to rules and standards in the award and execution of public contracts in Nigeria. Sustainable procurement means appreciating and managing social, ethical, safety, environmental and economic value associated with the supply chain and materials selection. Improving procurement performance helps to establish “purchasing social responsibility. This study attempts to assess sustainable procurement in building construction in Minna, Niger State. This was achieved through assessing the challenges inherent in the procurement system of Niger State and ascertaining the level of sustainable procurement practices existing in the public sector. Survey design method was adopted for the study which include the use of questionnaire and interview. Data for the study were sourced from two sources; which are primary and secondary sources. Findings from the study indicates that there are potential barriers to sustainable construction in Niger State which includes; lack of government commitment, economic conditions, lack of government support/no incentives, and fear of higher investment costs and that sustainability is not integrated into the construction procurement process in Niger State. Based on the findings, recommendations were made such as: incentives and support from the government and regulatory agencies should be made available to firms that are compliant to sustainability goals, so as to encourage the practice of sustainability.

  79. Ajit Kumar Saxena, Meenakshi Tiwari and Aniket Kumar

    Introduction: Male infertility is a serious problem in developing world where genetic and epigenetic factors play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The rationale behind the present study to understand the genetic basis of male infertility, to identify the “novel gene mutation” and also asses the frequency (%) of microdeletion of Y-chromosome i.e. deletion of AZF regions interfare during spermatogenesis. Still, 10-20% cases of infertility fail to identify exact cause of male infertility and are fall in the category of unexplained cause of infertility in non obstructive azoospermia. Material and Methods: Blood samples were collected from the cases of clinically diagnosed non obstructive azoospermia (NOA) with respective controls. Study was performed using RT-PCR based analysis using 14 set of STS markers of AZF region allocated on Y- chromosome and NextGen Sequencing. Results: Mutational spectra include the individual variations of frequency of AZF gene mutation as a factor responsible for male infertility in eastern part of the country. Genetics analysis of AZF a, b, and c regions showing different frequency of deletion but the deletion of AZFc showing significant difference with respect to controls (p<0.001). NGS play a significant role to explore the involvement of de novo mutation of USP9Y and PCDH11Y gene mutation resulting changes in protamines. The deletion frequency AZFa region is 1.0%, while AZFb and AZFc regions showing 6% & 19%, respectively in non obstetric azoospermic cases. Hence, curiosity has been developed further to identify “new mutations” based on Next Gen Sequencing, identifies USP9Y gene of AZFa region showing non-frame shift mutation (insertion of C→G/C→A) at region exon42:c.6996_6997 insCGA in heterozygous condition. Secondly, of AZFb region showing single nucleotide gene polymorphism rs2524543, G→T and rs2563389, T→ G of PCDH11Y gene in homozygous condition. Conclusion: The identification of causative mutations in the cases of NOA and their penetrance lead to interference in spermiogenesis .Hence, on the basis of mutational spectra, genetic counselling of infertile couples are required before reaching to final decision. No doubt the environmental factors influence the gene-pool lead to altered spermatogenesis in male infertility.

  80. Dr. Navin Mishra, Dr. Isha Narang, Dr. Krishna Biswas, Dr. Sharma, A.K. and Dr. Devika Singh

    Anterior teeth are quite vulnerable to traumatic injuries and are very common among all age groups resulting in plethora of problems from simple crown infarctions to avulsion of teeth. A crown root fracture of the anterior teeth mainly affects children and adolescents; one of the main reasons is due to increased outdoor sports and recreational activities. Salvaging the fractured teeth through reattachment should always be the priority of the treating clinicians if the fracture segment is available without compromising the periodontium. Reattachment of fractured tooth fragments can immediately restore form, function and esthetics, provides a positive psychological response, and is a relatively simple procedure due to advancements in adhesive and restorative dentistry. The prognosis of such cases depends on the degree of fracture, pulpal involvement, level of eruption, apex formation. Since the anterior crown fracture has direct psychological impact on the patient, so reattachment should be ideally done as it brings out the best esthetics in immediate vicinity after trauma and can give a perfect smile to the patients.

  81. Dr. Sounder Raj, K., Dr. Vishwanath, S. K., Dr. Thungbeni, P. N., Dr. Anu, R. and Dr. Sreeshma

    Mandibulectomy is a procedure that is used to eradicate disease that involves the lower jaw or mandible. Surgical resection of mandible owing to benign, malignant neoplasm, and osteoradionecrosis is common. The resection can be total or segmental depending on the extend of the lesion. In the case of segmental resection or hemimandibulectomy which is removal of only one side of the mandible, loss of mandibular continuity causes deviation of remaining mandibular segment towards the resected side and rotation inferiorly due to muscle pull and scar contracture affecting mastication and esthetics. Surgical reconstruction may not be always possible. Prosthetic rehabilitation plays an important role in these patients. This case describes the prosthodontic management of hemimandibulectomy with regular cast partial denture. Guiding flange prosthesis was avoided in this case because there was no occlusal deviation. The deviation of the mandible towards the resected side was due to scar contracture only.

  82. Dr. Chandra Jyoti and Dr. Manojkumar and Dr. H. H. Sinha

    Background: Hysteroscopy is gold standard procedure for uterine cavity evaluation (1). There are many randomized controlled trials on technical feasibility and patient compliance demonstrating that the procedure is well tolerated and effective in treatment of intrauterine pathology. Objective: To review the role of hysteroscopy in evaluation of infertility. Method: The study group includes 100 infertile women presenting to OPD during the period January 2017 -July 2018. This retrospective study was conducted at Department of Gynecology in AIIMS Patna. Patients aged 21-42 years with infertility were included in this study. Results: Among 100 infertile women, abnormal hysteroscopic finding were seen in 52% of cases. The most common abnormality was intrauterine adhesion (46.4%). Cervico-isthmic abnormalities were present in 7.1%. Observed abnormalities were septate uterus 12.5%, submucous myoma 7.1 %, endometrial polyp was seen in 23.4 %. Uterine cavity was normal in 88% cases, deformed cavity in 12 % of cases. Conclusion: Intrauterine adhesion were the most frequent abnormal finding in patient evaluated for infertility. Hysteroscopy is valuable diagnostic and therapeutic modality in management of infertility. Subject Area: obstetrics and Gynaecology.

  83. Wede J. Yarsiah, MPH, Yussif M. Dokurugu, DrPH, MPH, C. Perry Brown, Dr PH, MSPH

    Sexual orientation is a term that describes a person’s sexual, emotional, or romantic attraction, as well as the gender of the people they are attracted to. Bullying is unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children. Bullying can lead to low self-esteem, poor health, substance abused, self-harm, and suicide which is define as the act or an instance of taking one’s own life voluntarily and intentionally. The purpose of this research is to understand the effects that bullying has on the suicide rate among adolescent LGB in Florida. Data was collected from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) with a sample size of 6,359. Only twenty-six variables were used and analysis through SAS Studio 9.4.The population included 9-12 graders, blacks, whites, heterosexuals, gays/lesbians, bisexuals, those who were unsure, Hispanics/Latinos and all other race. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were used. The significance of the study shows that 59% Gay/Lesbian, 43% Bisexual are bullied because of their sexual orientation. Race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation influences being bullied and the vulnerability suicidal ideations. Bullying, behavioral factors, drugs and alcohol use, physical harm, and low self-esteem are all significant when taking in consideration with suicide ideations. This study highlights and provides information about bullying, and suicide on LGB adolescents in Florida while taking in counts for the different predictable factors.

  84. Dr. Yussif Mijirah Dokurugu, PH., MPH., MA. and Chika A. Elechi-Onicha, MPH.

    Breast cancer is the second commonest cancer worldwide in 2008 (1.4 million new cases: 11% of all global cancers and 360,000 deaths) and the commonest potentially fatal cancer of women (Stuckey 2011). Breast cancer incidence has been increasing worldwide for decades, and there is currently a greater than 4-fold variation in age-standardized incidence rates between countries with the lowest (East and Southern Africa) and highest (Western Europe, North America and Australia/New Zealand) incidence (Stuckey 2011). Less than 10% of breast cancers can be attributed to an inherited genetic mutation (Stuckey 2011). Breast cancer is more commonly associated with environmental, reproductive, and lifestyle factors, some of which are potentially modifiable. There are several ways to treat breast cancer, depending on its type and stage. Some treatments are local, meaning they treat the tumor without affecting the rest of the body (Maughan, Lutterbie, and Ham 2010). Types of local therapy used for breast cancer include Surgery and Radiation therapy. Systemic treatments: Drugs used to treat breast cancer are considered systemic therapies because they can reach cancer cells almost anywhere in the body. Breast cancer, is one of the most common cancers in the world and although its incidence is more in some developed countries, death is higher in countries with low level of development. Therefore, better plans for screening and early detection programs in these countries are suggested. Both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors have been identified that increase a woman’s risk of breast cancer. The incidence of breast cancer, both in the United States and worldwide, is increasing. However, with the advent of regular screening, more women are being diagnosed with early-stage disease.

  85. Dr. Yussif Mijirah Dokurugu, DR PH, MPH, MA. and Jennifer Richards, MPH, PT, CHES

    Obesity was formally recognized as a disease by the American Medical Association in 2013, with several other professional organizations worldwide following suit shortly thereafter (Bray, Kim, & Wilding, 2017). Obesity is a multifactorial disease that results from physiological, genetic, and environmental components acting together (Skolnik & Ryan, 2014) and is associated with several comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, and several types of cancer. Globally, overweight and obesity are defined by the well-accepted proxy measure of weight compared with height, known as body mass index (BMI) (Cohen, et al., 2015). A BMI > 25 kg/m2 is considered overweight and a BMI > 30 kg/m2 is considered obese. Diet plays an important role in body weight. There are three macronutrients that comprise the human diet; fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Macronutrients are simply nutrients found in food that provide calories or energy to the body when consumed. Fats provide 9 calories per gram and are chemical compounds consisting of an ester of glycerol and one, two, or three fatty acids that aid in metabolizing vitamins & minerals. According to the study by Cohen et al. (2015), there is a strong relationship between the increased proportion of carbohydrates consumed in total caloric intake, initiated in the 1970’s, and the increased prevalence of obesity since that time. Obesity remains a major public health burden, both globally and within the United States. The prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly over the past 40 years, in both children and adults. This has resulted in crippling financial costs in the US alone, with an overall annual cost estimated to be more than $1.4 trillion as recently as 2014.

  86. Aditya Thomas, Swaminathan Ravi, Siddharth Dorairajan, Myla Yacob, Vijay Abraham and Inian Samarasam

    We present the case of a 63 year old woman from Bangladesh, who presented with history suggestive of gastric outlet obstruction for 1 year and melena for 2 weeks. She was previously treated at her hometown for pancreatic pseudocyst. At presentation she was cachexic, anaemic and icteric. She was diagnosed to have a gastric antral polyp causing gastro-duodenal intussusception. This caused gastric outlet obstruction (GOO), obstructive jaundice and pancreatic duct dilatation. In spite of her frail and nutritionally depleted state she needed emergency laparotomy to prevent complications of cholangitis and severe melena. She had relief of symptoms post operatively. The challenges in perioperative management of this rare scenario in a frail, 63 year old woman are described.

  87. Dr. Nidhi Duggal, Dr. Pratibha, Dr. Sarabjit kaur and Dr. Deepika

    Neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity mostly need surgical treatment which requires resection of the tongue, floor of the mouth, part of maxilla and mandible. Mandibulectomy & radical neck surgery involves the comprehensive loss of tissues and affiliated functions. So the rehabilitation of such patients is more challenging as there are many limitations like limited tissue coverage and retention, deviation towards resected site, loss of control on mandibular movements that alters the normal function. Dentulous patients can be retrained to achieve acceptable maxillomandibular relationship with the help of guide flange or ramp prosthesis. This paper describes the basic approach for the prosthodontic rehabilitation of a dentulous patient with hemimandibulectomy to achieve better function.

  88. Dr. Sajid. T. Hussain

    An increasing number of patients have become aware of the detrimental effects of periodontal disease and tooth-loss and they seek periodontal care. The cornerstone of management of chronic periodontitis is the non-surgical periodontal treatment. The primary goal of periodontal therapy is to preserve the natural dentition by achieving and maintaining a healthy functional periodontium. Many adjunctive treatment modalities have been introduced lately to enhance the therapeutic outcome of periodontal treatment. It appears that there is no periodontal therapy where nonsurgical periodontal therapy is no longer effective. Some of these modalities have been found to offer statistical significant benefit in clinical outcomes than the scaling and root planning alone.

  89. Kalaiyarasi, G., Jeyabalan, D., Rameshkumar, C. and Subramanian, C.

    The Doodabedda is one of the highest peaks in the Nilgiris. A total of 37 bird species were had from twelve transects in the Doddabedda study area during the study period from November 2017 to October 2018. The highest Encounter Rate was recorded in the house sparrow (Passer domestics) ER= 23.41 (LER 17.8 & UER 26.31). The lowest Encounter Rate was observed in the Eurasian black bird (Turdus merula) ER=0.13 (LER 0.03 & UER 0.18). The other species were noticed the moderate encounter rate of population. A total of 37 species it consisting of 11 orders and 27 families, were recorded. Out of 37 species, the highest Encounter Rate (ER) was for House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) The Shannon index of alpha diversity of avifaunal group in the Study Area was - 1.641.

  90. Rameshkumar, C., Kalaiyarasi, G. and Subramanian, C.

    The distribution of Indian Peafowls in the Meghamalai forest area was studied in all the available habitats. The habitats includes southern dry deciduous scrub forest (SDSF), southern dry mixed deciduous forest (SDMDF), southern moist mixed deciduous forest (SMMDF), southern sub-tropical hill forest (SSTHF) and Miscellaneous and plantation forests (MISC+PL). The overall encounter rate of Indian peafowl in the study area was 1.86/km walked. The highest encounter rate was estimated in the SDSF habitat (ER=3.5/km walked). The minimum encounter rate was recorded in the SSTHF (ER=0.35/km walked). The other habitats such SDMDF (3.07), SMMDF (1.72) and Misc Plantation (0.71) were showed the moderate number of encounter rate of Indian peafowl Meghamalai forest areas. The present study revealed the distribution of Indian Peafowls in different habitats and the wide range of altitudinal gradients (altitude 330 to 950 msl) in the Meghamalai forest areas. This study also revealed that the populations of Indian Peafowls were found higher number in particular habitat when compared to others and it showed the fondness in the open areas of forests in the study area.

  91. Victor Mose

    The paper finds Okun’s coefficient for Kenya to be 0.12 over the period 1991-2012, instead of 0.3. This implies that to reduce unemployment rate in Kenya by 1 percent, real GDP must grow by at least 10 percent. Given the real GDP targets for the period 2012-2018, it is feasible for Kenya to achieve 4 percent unemployment rate in the 5 years but if the economy continues to consistently grow at 4.6 percent realized in 2013 it will take at least 10 years to achieve it that is by 2022. The study used cointegration and error correction model having found that the series were normal and integrated of order 1. Cointegration was confirmed by using Engle-Granger two stages process. The recovery rates of errors were found to be 55 percent and 38 percent in the short run and long run respectively. It is recommended that Kenya should target 4 percent unemployment rate by 2018, place or strengthen strategies controlling structural and seasonal unemployment, and encourage an annual 10 percent increase in consumption, investment and government spending.

  92. Thiago Henrique da Silva, Maria San Miris Lopes de Oliveira, Bruno Oliveira de Veras, Wêndeo Kennedy Costa, Sivoneide Maria da Silva, Rubens Pedro Lorena Silva, Leonor Alves de Oliveira, Maria Betânia Melo de Oliveira and Márcia Vanusa da Silva

    The bacteria constitute a group of highly diverse microorganisms that play important roles in the environment, having a versatility in the production from multiple molecules, among them the enzymes that have wide use in biotechnology. Hydrolytic enzymes are widely used in different processes in industries as pharmaceuticals, textiles, food and biofuels, such as proteases, pectinases, lipases, asparaginases, cellulases, among others. The microorganisms isolated from impacted environments appear as potential sources for new molecules of employment in the industry due to the metabolic versatility and stability in extreme environmental conditions. This study investigated the hydrolytic enzyme production capacity and biotechnological potential of 25 isolates belonging to seven bacterial genera (Bacillus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Exiguobacterium, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Proteus) collected from polluted urban stream in Recife/Pernambuco, Brazil. The production of L-asparaginase, protease, lipase, cellulase, amylaseand xylanasewas verified in 72%, 44%, 32%, 24%, 20% and 12% of bacteria, respectively. Bacteria have demonstrated a high hydrolases production capacity and can be applied at crucial stages in the bioprocess of biofuels, pharmaceuticals and food, associated with the intrinsic characteristics that can be used in recombinant DNA technology.

  93. Njipouakouyou Samuel, Joao LonaTchedná, Orlando Mendes and Cherno Luis Mendes

    This investigation has permitted us to come to the conclusion that the INSTAT+3.37 and CROTWAP8.0 methods of computation of the evapotranspiration are coherent in Guinea Bissau. Therefore, they can be quietly introduced in operative works in the country. The best period of cultivation period is very short in Bafata, approximately 50 days. Consequently, irrigation is unavoidable there as the vegetative cycle of many agricultural species is around 90 days.

  94. Chundawat, D.S., Sandeep Kumar Tomar and Anupam Kumar Singh

    The environmental and economic concern is the biggest challenge concrete industry is facing. Advancement in utilization of wastes in concrete as a mixture reduces pollutants in environment and maximizes usage of natural resources( Shreekantet al., 2016). During the production of cement CO2 is produced from clinkerizationwhich causes global warming (Andrew, 2018). By reducing clinker consumption environment can be protected(https://www.wbcsdcement.org). An attempt was made to partially replace the clinker with waste material Quarry dust with an aim not to lose the strength far from original concrete mix. From the observations of test results, clinker can be replaced with 15% of quarry dust in concrete. The physical and mechanical properties of materials used in concrete were investigated. For each replacement cubes were casted for measuring 7days and 28days compressive strength. The results have been discussed. Here mine’s screen reject is used for partial replacement of clinker in cement manufacturing for studying the strength property of concrete. The aim of the experiment is to find the maximum content of mine’s screen reject partial replacement of clinker without compromising with the quality and strength of concrete.

  95. Allie Berroyer, Marianne W. Robertson, Casey R. Watson and Dr. Travis E. Wilcoxen

    The objective of this study was to determine whether painted lady caterpillars, Vanessa virginiensis, exhibit trail following behavior via a pheromone. We conducted 450 trials with caterpillars in a T-maze. For a control treatment, we did not expose caterpillars to pheromones in either arm of the maze. For two experimental treatments (trail treatment and extract treatment), we left one arm untreated, and we treated the other arm with natural pheromones (trail treatment) or pheromone extract (extract treatment). We recorded the arm choice of each caterpillar. The choices made by both experimental treatments were significantly different than those of the control treatment, indicating that V. virginiensis does exhibit trail following behavior involving a pheromone. Future research should be conducted onV. virginiensis to determine the function of trail following, the chemical composition of the pheromone, whether a hierarchy of signals is used in communication, and whether degree of relatedness impacts pheromone reception.

  96. Gitanjali Devi and Bora, L.C.

    The potential of three biopesticides (Biofor-PF-2,Biozine-PTBandBiogreen-5)of Assam Agricultural University to provide protection against root penetration of infective juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 on King chilli was assessed in pots in net house condition. All the biopesticides were found to reduce the nematode penetration to various levels. Soil application with Biogreen-5 was the most effective of all the tested products in preventing juvenile penetration by up to 69.7 per cent, 6 days after inoculation with nematode compared to that in untreated check.

  97. Kumuda, S.S., Mohan Kumar, T.K. and Vijayan, V. A.

    Background: Mosquito control has been facing problem mainly because of the development of resistance to chemical insecticides. Hence research on plant-based bioactive insecticides as parts of integrated vector management have received renewed attention. In this regard the present study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal, ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activity of different solvent extracts of Dalbergia oliveri leaves and Heracleum rigens seeds against Culex quinquefasciatus, the Filariasis vector in India. Material and methods: The larvicidal bioassay was conducted following the WHO method, Ovicidal and Oviposition deterrent activity tests were carried out following the method of Rajkumar and Jebanesan, (2009). Results: Results indicate that maximum larvicidal activity was found with the petroleum ether extract of both D. oliveri and H. rigens against the vector species with LC50 values being 36.28ppm and 69.25ppm respectively. In the ovicidal activity assay, the petroleum ether extract of D. oliveri and H. rigens produced 100% mortality at 100 ppm and 125ppm against Cx. quinquefasciatus eggs. Here the LC50 value for D. oliveri was 24.98ppm compared to 34.83ppm for H. rigens. Likewise in oviposition deterrent effect experiment, petroleum ether extract of both D. oliveri and H. rigens exhibited 100% activity at 50ppm and 125ppm with LC50 value 14.62ppm and 39.03ppm respectively. Conclusion: These investigations indicate that the leaf/seed extracts of local plants have the potential to be developed eco-friendly phyto molecules for vector control. Further, the results also pinpoint the superior efficacy of D. oliveri.

  98. Lucía Acuña Díaz, Melissa Umaña Solano, Jorge Cabezas Pizarro, Mauricio Redondo Solano, Carolina Chaves Ulate and María Laura Arias Echandi

    Arcobacter and Campylobacter genres are pathogenic microorganisms associated with gastrointestinal diseases and their main transmission route is through food and water. Both genres have been strongly associated to poultry, these animals have been signed as reservoirs and contamination sources. Due to this characteristic, industries associated to poultry production had to establish control measures for these bacteria, being hygiene and disinfection one of the most important ones at processing plant level. The use of chemical agents for the control of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms is one of the most used strategies in food industry, nevertheless, the inadequate use of these substances and the transmission of resistance genes between strains has motivated an increase in the appearance of resistant microorganisms. This has led to the search of new chemical agents that accomplish with the characteristics requested by food industry, including to be non-toxic for consumers, food compatible and active at concentrations similar to routinely used. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of eight different sodium carboxylates against different Arcobacter and Campylobacter strains. Growth of these bacteria was determined at different concentrations of the salts. For Arcobacter, the inhibitory effect of the corresponding sodium salts was as follows: butanoate >gallate – 4-bromobenzoate - decanoate>benzoate>octanoate>caffeate> ascorbate; whereas for Campylobacter was: gallate – 4-bromobenzoate >decanoate – octanoate – butanoate – benzoate >caffeate> ascorbate. Sodium gallate and sodium 4-bromobenzoate were the two salts that presented inhibitory effect at lower concentrations for both bacteria (MIC = 31 µg/mL), butanoate presented a MIC ever lower but only against Arcobacter strains (< 8µg/mL).

  99. REGNIER, Leonardo de Lima Pereira

    Brazilian’s native forestry species usually present a slow development. The demand for commercial production of seedlings from those species is rising due to its use on afforestation programs. Making necessary the development of techniques that reduce the time required to seedling production. Pterocarpus rohrii is an important Brazilian native species with some potential economic uses, but with rare publications about its technologic or biological characterization. Thereby, this study aimed to evaluate germination pattern associated with different sowing techniques of Pterocarpus rohrii.One thousand and eight hundred fruits from each population evenly distributed between two replicas of each treatment. Control treatment consisted of direct fruit sowing, while in the second treatment all fruits had their wings removed with scissors. Synchronization indexes were not significantly different between treatments or seed origin. Removal of the seed wing did not affect the time associated with the germination process but provided better germination rates. Germination pattern and responses between treatments and germination rates are dependent on population characteristics. Being responsible for a great variation on time required to germination of a seed lot. Besides that, wind removal seems to be an important procedure, since it promotes higher germination rates. Propitiating a better exploitation of a seed lot.

  100. Alyson Bueno Francisco

    This paper puts forward a linear erosion control measure in an area degraded by gully by means of implanting barriers of bamboo fiber. The pin method was applied in order to analyze the efficiency of this methodology. An estimate of soil loss was calculated from the variation in the soil levels in the experimental plots to consider this variation, the area of the experimental plots, and the soil density. After 17 months of monitoring the experimental plots, the efficiency of the barriers in controlling accelerated loss due to a greater concentration of sediment accumulation in the barriers’ upstream pins and a greater soil loss in the pin farthest from the barriers could be observed. In the experimental plot with barriers, a soil loss rate of 4.4 Mg / year was observed, and a 10.25 Mg / year rate was estimated for the experimental plot with no barrier. An efficiency rate of 66% in controlling erosion in the experimental plot with barriers was calculated from these estimates. The adoption of these low cost barriers, there being abundant material in the study region, is recommended as a control method due to the ease of handling the plant fiber and its fixation in ravines with slopes of nearly 15º.

  101. Deepthi Kaviraj and Rajagopal Raj Kumar

    In modern agricultural practices recommendations were made to apply synthetic fertilizers in tea plantations. Five splits of fertilizer applications were done every year coinciding with wet seasons in plantations. Plants did not utilise the applied fertilizers completely for their growth and development, the required amount of nutrients plants uptake and the rest of its requirement is met by the activity of population of soil microflora to solubilise the unavailable form. Continuous application of chemical fertilizers is harmful to the rhizosphere microorganisms. A pot culture experiment was carried out to document the impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) under integrated nutrient management (INM) system on soil fertility, soil enzymes and microbial population. The treatments includes 100% NPK, 100% NPK along with bioinoculants, 75% NPK + bioinoculants, 50% NPK + bioinoculants, bioinoculants alone and control. Results revealed that nutrient status and soil microflora was enhanced and reduction of 25% NPK combined with bioinoculants registered significant variation among the various treatments. Detailed results were presented and discussed.

  102. Davasuba, S. and Nagarajan, A

    In this paper we discuss about Near product cordial labeling graphs on Book graphs. If the labeling in the graph satisfies the condition of Near product cordial then it is called Near product cordial graphs. In this paper we have proved that the above mentioned graphs are Near product cordial graphs Except B+K1.It is not Near product cordial for both even and odd rectangular pages but for Triangular Book and Pentagonal Book it is not Near product cordial when t is odd.

  103. Davasuba, S. and Nagarajan, A.

    In this paper we discuss about Near product cordial labeling graphs on path graph and its corollary then < Cn : Cn-1 > , S(Cn). If the labeling in the graph satisfies the condition of Near product cordial then it is called Near product cordial graphs.In this paper we have proved that the above mentioned graphs are Near product cordial graphs and except (S(Cn)) which is Weak Near product cordial labeling of the graph.

  104. Georges Abi Rizk, Rawad Daccache and Jad Rizkallah

    The experiment was conducted in an extensive breeding of dairy cows in Ghineh-Mount Lebanon in order to identify the effect of zinc methionine supplementation on milk production affected by subclinical mastitis. The animals were divided into 2 groups; the first group was non supplemented (control ZM-, n=7), while the second was supplemented with 4 g the first month (June) before doubling the dose to 8 g of Zn-methionine/head/day the next month (July) (experimental ZM+, n=7). Milk samples were collected once a week from 40 teats selected based on CMT score during the two months June and July. The methods employed in this study included California mastitis test, bacteriological culture and milk composition analysis for milk fat, protein and lactose content. Milk yield and milk composition decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing of total aerobic bacterial count TABC. Zinc methionine ZM supplementation for subclinical mastitis cows resulted in significant decrease in total aerobic bacterial count comparing to time effect (from 1.16 ± 0.20, day1 to 0.70 ± 0.13 x105cfu/ml, day 57; P < 0.001). The obtained results showed a significant increase in milk production in the supplemented group ZM+(16,00 ± 0.80, day1 to 18.86 ± 0.71 l/day, day 57; P < 0.001). Milk lactose and protein content were also significantly increased especially after one month of treatment in ZM+ group (from 4.10 ± 0.06 day 1, to 4.40 ± 0.04 % day 57 for lactose content and 2.70 ± 0.08 day 1, to 3.20 ± 0.05 % day 57 for protein content; p<0.001). Whereas, no significant difference was noted in milk fat content between groups (P> 0.05). This study showed the positive effect of supplementation of zinc methionine on TABC, milk yield and milk composition. This shows the importance of chelated minerals supplementation in the ration, in order to prevent the progression of subclinical mastitis to clinical cases that cause economical loses in dairy cows and affects the composition of the milk and consequently will be refused by the industries.

  105. Shubha V Patel and Sunitha, S.L.

    Biomedical signal is a collective electrical signal acquired from any organ/system that represents a physical variable of interest. This signal is normally a function of time and is describable in terms of its amplitude, frequency and phase. The Electromyogram (EMG) signal is a biomedical signal that measures electrical potentials generated in skeletal muscles during its contraction representing neuromuscular activities. The nervous system always controls the contraction/relaxation. The EMG signal is a complex signal, which is controlled by the nervous system and dependent on the anatomical and physiological properties of muscles. The knowledge of muscle, EMG processing and EMG classification is essential for analysing and understanding the functions of muscle, especially paralysed muscle. Hence this review paper summarizes the information about physiology of normal and paralysed muscle. Work done in EMG processing, EMG analysis and classification methods used for different biomedical applications are mainly discussed in this review paper.

  106. Natchimuthu, S.

    One of the observed common reinforced concrete (RC) structural failures during recent earthquakes is column shear failure. When the stiffness and associated strength are abruptly reduced in a structure along the height, earthquake-induced deformations tends to concentrate at the flexible and/or weak storey. The concentration of damage in a storey leads to large deformation in vertical members. The excessive deformation in vertical members often leads to the failure of these members and the collapse of the storey. Soft/weak first stories are especially common in multi-story residential buildings in urban areas, where the first storey often is used for open space, commercial facilities or garages. Structural walls that separate residential units in levels above may be discontinued in the first storey to meet the change in use. The first-story columns during strong earthquake shaking must resist a large base shear, inevitably leading to large storey drift concentrated in that storey. Experimental and analytical experiment was planned and conducted to study the influence of brick masonry infill against the lateral loading. In this study, one third scaled frame, with centrally brick infill in the frame along loading direction has been taken for experimental investigation. Totally two frames with two columns, along loading direction and one beam with and without infill were constructed in the frame. Until the cracks developed in infill and beam column joints, the contribution of lateral loading is being carried out, the change in lateral stiffness, strength, ductility and of the framed structure due to the presence of in fills and bare frame against lateral loading is investigated using experimental and analytically.

  107. Hailu Geremew and A. K. Chaubey,

    The aim of this study is to investigate the natural radioactivity levels and possible hazards in floriculture soils. The observed results were compared with the same study done for Virgin land and Agricultural farm land, from same study area, Holeta, Shoa, Ethiopia. The radioactivity concentration of 238U, 232T h and 40K were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI (Tl) detector. Moreover, the elemental concentrations, Req, DR, ADR, Hex and Hin were calculated. The results were compared to international standards, soil-375 and soil-6 given by IAEA. The average values of 238U, 232T h and 40K in Floriculture soil were found to be 142.29 ±. 27.67, 7.82 ± 0.54 and 259.62 ± 44.98 Bq/Kg respectively, in agricultural farm land these were found to be, 133.85 ± 20.49, BDL and 287.82 ± 35.68 Bq/Kg respectively, and in virgin land. 30.51 ± 5.32, 14.52 ± 1.695 and 100.29 ± 19.81 Bq/Kg respectively. The activity concentration of 238U is increasing faster than the other NORM for soils exposed to artificial fertilizers and increasing rate is more for the case of floricultural soils. The hazardous measuring parameters were found to be maximum as compared with the virgin soils. This may be as a result of more phosphate fertilizers added to the floriculture soil.

  108. Gulumbe, N.S., Bello, K.A., Bukhari, M.M. and Abdulazeez, A.Y.

    The adsorption potentials of Senna occidentalis Seeds (SoS) Activated Carbon (AC) on the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solutions has been studied by employing equilibrium adsorption technique, adsorption isotherm and kinetics models. The equilibrium adsorption parameters varied were initial dye concentration, carbon dosage, contact time, pH and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin were chosen as the isotherm models while pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intra-particle diffusion were chosen as the kinetics models. The correlation coefficient (R2) found at 0.9962 and dimensionless separation factor (RL) at 0.0099 has confirmed that the best fitted model that described the adsorption process of CR dye is the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Similarly, kinetics of the adsorption processes have been studied and found to be pseudo second-order kinetics. Based on this research findings, Senna occidentalis Seeds Activated Carbon can be said to have potentials for dye removal from effluents of industries, such as; textile, leather, paper, rubber, cosmetics etc.

  109. Faith F. Dias, Panchami Radhakrishnan and Bina F. Dias

    Background: Egg shells take a year to decompose but are known to keep pests at bay. They contain many basic amino acids like cystine in reasonable quantities. Cystine being a dimer of cysteine contains a disulphide bond. This could be used as a source of sulphur. Objective: Our aim was to extract sulphur and carry out various tests to check the presence of both sulphur and calcium in egg shells. Using this knowledge the efficacy of calcium and sulphur as fungicides could be postulated. Methods: Egg shells were treated with 40% sodium hydroxide and lead acetate giving lead sulphide which confirmed the presence of sulphur in eggshell. Eggshells were then treated with 40% sodium hydroxide once again followed by treatment with 16 N nitric acid which led to the formation of sulphur powder. Further by testing we confirmed the presence of sulphur in the final powder. We also performed various reactions to check if calcium carbonate could be converted to calcium chloride and calcium hydroxide. Results: Maximum % concentration of sulphur (4.45%) was obtained when the volume of sodium hydroxide to nitric acid used was in the ratio of 3:2 and least % concentration (0.13%) was obtained when the ratio was 2:1. Conclusion: The method developed could be worked on to get more % concentration of sulphur and cannot be used alongside the industrial method of obtaining sulphur. However, obtaining calcium from egg shells shows a promising future.

  110. Nana Hadiana, R. and Nur Zeina Maya Sari

    Employee performance quality in carrying out his duties with transformational leadership. Employee performance. The transformational leader becomes central figure of the achievement. Leaders are expected to be able provide motivation, direction, role models and even influence for all citizens jointly achieve achievements. In running the wheels of the organization, charismatic leaders are needed and have a central role and strategy bringing the organization to achieve its goals. The methodology used is descriptive survey and a type of conclusive research whose main purpose to describe something that is usually in the form market characteristics or functions, and characterized by the formulation of specific hypothesis. Considered as the activity of providing a structured questionnaire to a large number of respondents.

  111. Mpairwe Anthony, Komurere Abigail, Atwiine Scovia and Muganga George

    The study sought to assess the contribution of universities on socio-economic transformation of neighboring communities, taking a case of Bishop Stuart University and Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Mbarara Municipality. Using a mixed design, and being largely qualitative, the study utilized interviews with key informants, FGDs, observations and documentary reviews to collect data from a total of 56 respondents. Data was analysed by using thematic and content analysis as well as quoting verbatim narrations from respondents. The study findings revealed that universities have positively contributed to communities’ socio-economic transformation. However, findings further revealed that several challenges have been encountered in the process of transformation of the communities in question. The study finally makes recommendations that can effectively bring about meaningful partnerships between the universities and the neighboring communities such that the expected roles of universities and socio-economic transformation can be realized.

  112. Cornelius O. Ogu, Peter U. Achukwu and Kingsley Ezema

    Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus has been proved to increase the risk of bladder cancer among diabetics, yet studies in Nigeria are scarce. Objectives to Aim: To determine the prevalence of urothelial cell cancer and assessment of Diabetic patients who attend clinic at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu southeastern Nigeria. Materials and methods: Ethical clearance and informed consents were appropriately obtained. Fasting Blood Sugar of the participants (165 diabetics and 140 non diabetics) were determined, then terminal urine samples were collected in a sterile universal container by the participants. Self administered questionnaires were issued. Urine samples were centrifuged at 4000rpm for 10 minutes. The sediments were used to make smear on well labeled charged slides and stained using May-Grunwald Geimsa staining technique for cytology. Urinalysis and urine microscopy were also carried out on the urine sediments. Results: Hyperglycaemia was noticed in 81.05% of the diabetics. Prevalence of abnormal urothelial cell among the diabetics was 3.03%. Conclusion: There was low prevalence of urothelial cell cancerand poor control of blood sugar level among diabetics in this locality. There was low post diagnosis survival rate.

  113. Tegegn Demissie Werku

    This study dealt with analysis of the Grade 10 EFL textbook in terms of the degree to which the reading activities accommodate reading strategy training. Direct and indirect reading strategies were criteria of analysis while items/questions in the reading activities were units of analysis. The frequencies of each criterion in the checklist were added and changed into percentage to establish their level of existence based on Yudoleksono, (1999) and Alharbi (2015) model which is 0-25% poor, 26-50 fair, 51-75 good, and 76-100 excellent. The results showed that both direct and indirect reading strategy training were fairly incorporated in the textbook. The study recommended that syllabus writers and material developers for EFL textbooks should pay considerable attention to reading strategies used by effective readers. Universities should give LLS course to candidate English teachers. Additional studies are recommended in the area of analyzing English textbooks in terms of the credit they gave to LLS in general and reading strategy training in particular.

  114. Cornelius O. Ogu, Peter U. Achukwu and Kingsley Ezema

    Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus has been proved to increase the risk of bladder cancer among diabetics, yet studies in Nigeria are scarce. Objectives to Aim: To determine the prevalence of urothelial cell cancer and assessment of Diabetic patients who attend clinic at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu southeastern Nigeria. Materials and methods: Ethical clearance and informed consents were appropriately obtained. Fasting Blood Sugar of the participants (165 diabetics and 140 non diabetics) were determined, then terminal urine samples were collected in a sterile universal container by the participants. Self administered questionnaires were issued. Urine samples were centrifuged at 4000rpm for 10 minutes. The sediments were used to make smear on well labeled charged slides and stained using May-Grunwald Geimsa staining technique for cytology. Urinalysis and urine microscopy were also carried out on the urine sediments. Results: Hyperglycaemia was noticed in 81.05% of the diabetics. Prevalence of abnormal urothelial cell among the diabetics was 3.03%. Conclusion: There was low prevalence of urothelial cell cancerand poor control of blood sugar level among diabetics in this locality. There was low post diagnosis survival rate.

  115. Er. Bikash Narayan Naik

    Performance appraisal being a vital part of any organization has undergone a lot of refinement. The refinements have been made keeping in view the changing needs and habits of both the employer and employee. The paper focuses on the various performance appraisal systems propounded in the past and also those adopted by the organizations in the past and present. The organizations are presently working in a dynamic and competitive work place. Different work places provides different challenges and opportunities to the employees and employers, accordingly the performance appraisal system also varies as per different work place. The paper provides possible upcoming systems for performance appraisal considering all the factors affecting the performance appraisal.

  116. Dr. Mayur M. Sisodiya, Dr. Anuradha Gandhi, Dr Prakruti Patel, Dr Vishnu Sharma and Dr Mira Desai

    Aims: To evaluate efficacy and safety of drugs in patients of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their impact on quality of life. Materials and Methods: Newly diagnosed patients of RA were included in the study [Group A=Methotrexate (7.5 to 25 mg) orally + Hydroxychloroquine (200 mg) orally& Group B =Methotrexate (7.5 to 25 mg) orally + Hydroxychloroquine (200 mg) orally + Prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day and then tapered to maintenance dose 7.5 mg/day) orally] and followed up for a period of 6 months after enrolment. Efficacy of drugs was assessed using Disability Assessment Score 28 (DAS 28) and Quality of life was measured with Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ).The data was recorded in Microsoft Excel Worksheet version 2007 and statistical evaluation was done using ANNOVA test and unpaired t-test and P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Result: Total 82 patients were included and divided in group [A (n=47) and B (n=35)]. In group A & B, there was significant reduction (P<0.001) in DAS28 at 2nd follow up as compared to baseline. In group B, DAS28 was significantly reduced at 1st follow up (P<0.05). Mean difference between group A & B was non-significant. In group A, total MHAQ was significantly change (P<0.001) at 2nd follow up as compared to baseline. In group B, the groups. Conclusion: MHAQ score was significantly reduced (P<0.001) at 1st follow up and at 2nd follow upas compared to baseline. Significant reduction (P<0.001) in MHAQ observed in both the group at 2nd follow up as compared to 1st follow up. In group B, there was strong correlation (r value=0.7) between DAS28 & MHAQ. Adverse drug reaction observed were mild in severity in both DMARDs decrease the severity of symptoms in RA patients over a period of time but symptomatic improvement is seen earlier in combination of DMARDs (methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine) plus prednisolone therapy.

  117. Dr. Bhavesh Airao, Dr. Dipal Patel, Dr. Zinkal Kothadiya and Dr.Vishal Sharma

    Aim of study: To study perinatal transmission in PLWH delivered in last five years at C. U. SHAH medical college and hospital surendranagar. Result: In this study, out of 50 PLWHA patients, one infant was infected, 20% of them were breastfed, 36% were delivered by caesarean section, 56% were delivered by vaginal delivery, 8% were instrumental (6% vaccum assisted and 2% forceps delivery). Among them all mothers and infants were given treatment. Conclusion: Nevirapine has been shown to reduce significantly vertical transmission when it used antepartum and intrapartum by the mother and postpartum by the newborn for 6 weeks. The use of elective Caesarean section should probably be reserved for women who fail to achieve viral suppression at the time of delivery or if any obstetrical reasons in india. Breastfeeding reducesthe long-term efficacy of perinatal antiretroviral therapy. All PLWH patients should avoid breastfeeding the newborn if possible.

  118. Hernando Avilez Pineda, Teresa De J. Rivas Pérez, Ma. Elvia Chavarría Solís, and Ángel De J. Jaimes Compeán

    Violence and insecurity in Acapulco, Mexico have perpetrated a devastating and terrifying image on tourist flows. The panorama of organized crime has not only affected the region's dynamic economy and competitiveness, but also deteriorated the perception of tourists. The objective of the research is to identify the reactionary measures taken by issuing destinations, and how they have contributed in generating the perception of insecurity. The methodology applied for this report is documentary exploratory through a series of stages in obtaining accurate data on the research topic, such as a variety of secondary sources from relevant institutions and nongovernmental organizations. The issue of insecurity – whether perceived or real not only affects tourism, but also the economic and social development of a city since its main source of income comes from the issuing destinations that arbitrarily establish travel warnings. Therefore, the paper also explores how the domestic government should respond to external perceptions, such as developing effective public safety strategies to restore the confidence of international visitors.

  119. Dr. Shahnaz Sheikh, Dr. Anushree Bajaj, Dr. Manzoor Ahmad Malik and Dr. Balchandra Paike

    Background: The benefits of tracheostomy are not without associated complications and risks. The increasing use of tracheostomy has resulted in parallel increase in complications. Meanwhile little emphasis is given in medical and nursing instruction on post operative management to reduce the complications. Material and methods: This study was carried out at dr ulhas patil medical college and hospital jalgaon. The total number of patients included in the study were 130 of all ages including both males and females. The tracheostomy was done for various indications. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of complications of tracheostomy and to suggest the preventive measures for the same. Results: The incidence of complications was 25.38% with mortality 1.8%. The commonest complication was surgical emphysema and the commonest indication for tracheostomy was artificial ventilation accounted for 69.8% of cases. Conclusion: Even though, Tracheostomy is a life saving procedure, is not without complications but fortunately all the complications are preventable.

  120. OVUEGBE, Uzoma Callistus Hawkins and Dr. Emeka Obi

    The Services sector is one of the most important sectors of the economy of every nation. In Nigeria, IT contributes more than half of the GDP and has substantial share in the country’s exports and employment. The objective of this paper is to empirically examine the effect of crude oil revenue on the service sector growth in Nigeria between 1981 and 2017. Time series data were sourced from secondary sources on Service Sector Growth (SEV), Labour (LAB), Capital (CAP) and Crude Oil Revenue (COR). The data sets were analysed based on the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bounds testing approach for co-integration that estimates the long-run and short-run relationship between variables. The result of the analysis reveals that labour and capital impacts negatively on service sector growth while crude oil revenue impacts positively on service sector growth in Nigeria within the period. The paper therefore recommends that government should increase her budgetary allocation to the services in addition to introducing fiscal and monetary policy measures that will impact positively on the sector and ensure fiscal discipline regarding spending of crude oil revenue in terms of putting infrastructural facilities in place so as to boost the services sector growth which will in turn enhance economic growth and development.

  121. Woynishet Solomon and Hiwot Abayneh

    Bread wheat plays a significant role in the national economy and food self-sufficiency. The marketing system and channels differs for different areas. Production of bread wheat by smallholder farmers of the lemo district is mainly for market which is the most important and widely known cash crop of the area but there was lack of properly functioning marketing system and this often resulted in lower producers’ price. Therefore, this study focused on identifying bread wheat market chain actors and their channels and factors that affect the volume of wheat marketed. Three stage sampling technique was employed in this study. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data were collected from 160 producers and 35 traders. Secondary data were gathered from district agriculture and rural development offices and trade and industry office. Both descriptive and econometric analyses were employed for data analysis. The study indicated, out of the total wheat produced in 2016/17 cropping season, 64.8% was supplied to the market. The result showed that about seven marketing channels were identified in transferring 2083.5Qt wheat from producers to final consumers. The result of a multiple linear regression model indicated that quantity produced and number of oxen affects volume of wheat supply positively while distance to market and family size affect negatively and significantly. Therefore it is advisable that wheat producers in the study area should be encouraged owning good number of oxen to prepare their land in time and responsible bodies should work on development of infrastructure in the area.

  122. Birhan Muche Alemie

    The electrical resistivity sounding (VES) and magnetic profile methods are the most popular and the cheapest geophysical techniques. But the electrical resistivity sounding methods are more efficient for shallow deposit (sedimentary stratified layers) and not for the shallow and deeper volcanic rock horizon to delineate the bed rock due to erratic data and its electrical equivalence limitation. Here in this paper, It is attempted to show how magnetic profile could help the electrical resistivity sounding investigation. Electrical Resistivity Sounding and Total Magnetic Field Methods to determine the over burden deposit thickness and characterize bed rock physical property for ground water potential assessment. This approach can help to handle the bed rock geophysical property. To conduct investigation work on Gerado catchment: One magnetic profile crossing the catchment SE to NW direction which has 1820m profile length with 50m spacing and three electrical resistivity soundings with AB[m] = 1500m by using Schlumberger configuration had been carried out at the selected three stations on the magnetic profile. All VES data analysis, interpretation, 1D and 2D geo-electrical cross-section models of subsurface had been processed, determined and generated by using IPI2win and IX1D for electrical resistivity, Potent for magnetic modeling to fix top depth and to get a good picture of the bed rock under subsurface.

  123. Elias Woemego Bushisso

    The main purpose of this descriptive study was to find out grade nine students’ and teachers’ attitude towards learning and teaching English in group work modality and related factors to their attitudinal problems with reference to some selected secondary schools of Hawassa City Administration in Ethiopia; the secondary schools selected were Addis Ketema and Alamura and these schools were selected purposefully. To that end, from the total population of seven-hundred twenty (720) students and twelve teachers, ninety-four (94) students and six teachers were selected by employing simple random sampling. Data gathering tools like attitude questionnaire and, interview were employed. After the data were gathered, the quantitative data were analyzed by employing the techniques of comparing means, frequency counts and percentile counts, while the qualitative data were thematically analyzed; the findings showed that the students and teachers have positive attitude towards learning and teaching English in group modality, though students have low level of language ability and lack of practice in group work. The result obtained through the questionnaire and the interview confirmed this reality; Based on the result, the researcher recommends that the use of group mode of learning English should be encouraged from early grades, for it develops students’ independent learning.

  124. Kishore Parth

    Goods and Services Tax or GST known as the biggest game changer for the Indian economy. Almost 160 countries have implemented GST so far. However, the thought of GST in India was rooted way back by Vajpayee government in 2000. The Finance Minister in his budget speech of Budget 2015 has announced time and again that the tax will be introduced on 1 April, 2016, however it came into existence in the year 2017 on 1st July.. VAT or Value Added Tax was first introduced in France somewhere in 1954. The concept of VAT is applying a tax only on the value added by each person at each stage; by allowing the person input credit of taxes paid up to his stage of procurement. Thus the tax is expected to increase the gross domestic product of the economy, reduce the concept of ‘tax on tax’ and reduce prices. Overall it is known to be beneficial to everyone, the business, consumer and the Government. In India, there are so many indirect taxes applied on goods and services by both central and state government. GST is intended to include all these taxes into one tax with seamless ITC and charged on both goods and services. Thus service tax, special additional duty, excise duty, VAT to name a few will get repealed and will be added into GST. For this, GST will have 4 parts – Central GST (CGST) Bill, Integrated GST (IGST) Bill, Union Territory GST (UTGST) Bill, the GST (Compensation to States) Bill. state taxes like VAT will be subsumed into SGST and the central taxes like excise duty into CGST. This Research Paper is focoused on 2 years journey of GST in India and its future.

  125. Dr. Umesh Chandra Nayak

    Folk art is a higher form of culture in comparison to primitive art. The needs and peculiar problems of the village people's life find an expression in folk art. While satisfying the needs of the people, folk art attains a certain aesthetic level. Folk art is divided into two classes, Viz. hand-made figures and moulded figures. The hand-made type is of a primitive pattern. Heads, eyes, eye-brows, lips etc of the figures are shown, but the legs are left out. In the moulded type a full human or animal figure is fashioned. Folk art although dwindling, is still a living reality in Odisha. Great skill is displayed in the making of dolls, toys, puppets, carvings on soapstone, wooden vessels, gate doorways, chests, palanquins, musical instruments, bridal costumes etc. Temple walls and walls of certain private houses are still painted. Drawing on canvas is still a practice in Odisha. Odisha's 'Patachitras' are famous in India and outside. Bowers of the pith flowers with figures of charming women are made on the occasion of 'Jhulana' (swinging festival of Radha and Krishna) on the full moon day of Shravana. Brass fishes, horn toys, filigree ornaments, a painted 'Farua' (a temple-like wooden pot in which Vermilion is kept), textile and soapstone work and 'ganjapa' (traditional play card) of Odisha still draw wide attention. Palm leaf as a writing material is now out of use except on some ceremonial occasion. Some palm leaf manuscripts are carefully preserved in the museum at Bhubaneswar as specimens of traditional drawings and paintings. Odisha has witnessed ceaseless human endeavour in the field of art, craft, sculpture and temple building activities for about 2500 years during her recorded history. Endowed with nature’s beauty and bounty, Odisha boasts of a rich cultural heritage and tradition of music, dance, dramatics, art & crafts of many splendored varieties and forms; which elegantly emanate from its magnificent monuments, ancient caves, and rock-cut sculptures and innumerable temples found still intact with all its pristine glory and grandeur. This holy land with a hoary past, offers the quintessence of the multifaceted cultural profiles of Indian panorama. Art in all its myriad forms is so deeply ingrained in this state that the routine chores of the folk styles take sublime aesthetic expression of magnificent diction in intangible performing art idioms.

  126. Asegid Getachew

    The issue of person organization fit has been considered as one of the paramount research areas in organizational behavior. Various research undertaken in the area have indicated that the extent to which the abilities and values of individuals fits with the demands of the job environment greatly affects employees commitment and their intention to continue working in a given setting. The current study was initiated in view of assessing the interplay between P-O fit and turnover intension of academic professionals in academic institution, by taking evidence from Hawassa University. The study was cross sectional in nature and made use of survey instruments developed by prominent researchers in the area. The result of the study indicated that, although no to a large extent, there exists misfit between the desire and values of academic professionals and the demand and values of the academic institution. Further the results of the study indicated that P-O fit is an important predictor of academic professional’s turnover intension . The outcome of the research is expected to be a valuable input in the process of designing and implementing employee oriented human resource strategies by academic professionals in the country.

  127. Baiartis Lyngdoh Peinlang

    The purpose of the study is to explore the customary traditional recreations of the Mawiang, one of the classified sub-tribes under the Khasi tribal division resdiding within one of the twenty petty Khasi states called Hima Mawiang, characterised by traditional chieftainship or Syiemship as the ultimate leadership in ruling the state. The study also aims at examining the concept of utility of recreation in the life of sub-tribe under study. The study is conducted based on a firmed conceptual background and suitable research methods are used in order to obtain a desired outcome. The findings in the study can be of significant contribution towards understanding the tribal concept of using recreation in an agrarian or rural setting, the role played by recreation in religious rituals and ceremonial events, and also in shaping social, physical and mental quality of the people.

  128. Rajashekar, Y.R.

    Background: Alcoholism causes harm to the well-being and health of the person and also he family. Spouses are mostly affected because of the intimate nature of the relationship. Studies on the impact on spouses have been very less in psychiatric literature. Objective: 1. To evaluate the frequency and nature of psychiatric morbidity in wives of patients with alcohol dependence syndrome. 2. To study the relationship between psychiatric disorders of wives with the severity of alcohol dependence. Methods: Cross sectional observational study was done by enrolling a total of 100 patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence and their wives screening (112 patients, 12 refused consent, 100 were enrolled). Patients were recruited by consecutive sampling method. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) – To assess psychiatric morbidity among wives and Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ) – To assess the severity of Alcohol addiction among husbands. Results: Psychiatric co-morbidities were seen in 56% cases. Most common associated psychiatric morbidity was depression (37%) followed by anxiety (15%), phobia (3%) and psychotic disorder (1%). A significant association was seen between presence of psychiatric co-morbidity and severity of alcoholism (p<0.05) with prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among low, medium and severe alcoholism cases was 27.3%, 60.4% and 83.8% respectively. Conclusions: The high rates of social and psychological distress among women whose partners have alcohol problems, need to be addressed either as part of alcohol treatment programs or independently. These issues need to be addressed not only to improve outcomes for the dependent individuals, but also as potentially reversible risk factors that could significantly impact women's own health outcomes.

  129. Sathya Narayanan

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the sorption of heat-cure and self-cure acrylic resins in different solutions. Materials and Methods: Two groups of material are used with the samples of self cure and heat cure. Two square shaped specimens with dimension of (20 mm × 20 mm × 2 mm) were prepared for each acrylic resin (heat cure and self cure) and then immersed in three solutions like distilled water, denture cleansing solution, combination of distilled water, and denture cleaning solution for 12 h alternatively at room temperature, and tested sorption by weight gain/loss method, respectively, after 1, 7, and 14 days. The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Tukey's test. Results: The mean value of self cure and heat cure in distilled water is about to be weigh by electronic weighing machine. These values were statistically significant. Overall, analysis of results showed the maximum sorption value in denture cleansing solution followed by alternative soaking in distilled water and combination of both. Least sorption was observed with distilled water followed by combination of both. Conclusion: Both heat-cure and self-cure acrylic resins showed varying water sorption in different solution. Denture cleansing solution is a better storage medium than distilled water and combination of both of heat-cure and self-cure acrylic resins.

  130. Dr. Ranbhushan Singh, Dr. Indra Bhatyal, Dr Konika Razdan and Dr. Satya Dev Gupta¬

    Ketamine in two different doses (1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg IV) after diazepam 0.2 mg/kg IV was administrated to 100 females for minor obstetric and gynecologic procedures after premedication with either atropine 0.01 mg/kg i.m. or with atropine 0.01 mg/kg and promethazine 0.5 mg/kg i.m., anaesthesia was satisfactory and mild but clinically insignificant respiratory depression was observed in all the four groups. Addition of promethazine to the premedication significantly reduced the postoperative nausea & vomiting as well the emergence delirium (P < 0.05).

  131. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Anjana Ajith, Dr. Vinodhini Jyothivelu, Dr. Krishnamoorthy, S.H., Dr. Sruthy Padmagiri and Mrs. Rekha Patali

    Background: Naso Alveolar Moulding (NAM) is an effective and successful procedure enabling the presurgical approximation of the alveolar segments to increase the overall procedural success in cleft lip/palate (CL/P) cases. Even though it has become routine at certain centers in western countries, the preference still remains evasive in India. Objectives: The study aimed at assessing the preference for NAM among the CL/P surgeons in India and evaluating the technical considerations in the fabrication of NAM appliance. The study also assessed the preference of Pedodontists in the multidisciplinary CL/P team. Methods: CL/P surgeons associated with Smile Train across India were approached for evaluating the preference of NAM in their daily practice and their opinions on the technical aspects of performing NAM were collected through the questionnaire. A total of 190 questionnaires were prepared out of which 40 were filled through direct personal interview and 150 were sent and collected via mail. The results were analyzed using NPar tests and chi square tests. Results: Among the 107 respondents, 63.6 % preferred PSIO and 59.8 % preferred NAM. Ninety two percent of the surgeons prefer NAM being done by Pedodontists and 81.3% opined that Pedodontists should be a part of CL/P team. All the results were statistically significant Conclusion: From the study we conclude that, NAM is a preferred technique in cases especially with wide clefts. The age of initiation of moulding and regular follow up adjustments are instrumental in ensuring success of NAM.

  132. Dr. Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Dr. Fallak Sher Khan and Dr. Sunita Kumari

    Background: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common cause of surgical abdomen requiring emergency surgery, with a life time incidence of about 6% to 8%. One of the most important steps in appendectomy procedure is closure of appendix stump. In laparoscopic appendectomy extra corporeal or intra corporeal knotting are used for stump ligation. Harmonic scalpel is an energy device that can be used to deal with appendicular stump. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized comparative study was conducted in Post Graduate Department of Surgery, Government Medical College Jammu. All patients with clinical evidence of acute appendicitis, recurrent appendicitis and patients dated for interval appendectomy were included in this study and laparoscopic appendectomy was performed in all. Patients with clinically apparent perforation, appendicular lump and co morbid condition contraindicating surgery under general anaesthesia were excluded from this study group. 84 patients were taken up for the study but data of four patients were excluded from study as they needed conversion to open surgery. Rest of the 80 patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group A included 40 patients in whom appendicular stump was dealt with extracorporeal knotting and group B included 40 patients in whom appendicular stump was dealt with harmonic scalpel. Results: Mean age of patients in extracorporeal knotting group was 27.6 years (7-62 years) and in harmonic scalpel group it was 26.9 years (8-64 years) with M:F ratio in extracorporeal knotting group (Group A) being 1.5:1 and in Group B (Harmonic scalpel) it was 1.7:1. Mean Operative time in Group B was 35.44 minutes and it was 50.8 minutes in Group A. The difference in operating time was statistically significant (p < 0.00001).Mean appendicular stump closure time in harmonic scalpel group was 44.6 seconds and in extracorporeal knotting group was 295.6 seconds and difference was statistically significant (p<0.0001). Post operative ileus was present in 5% (n=2) patients in knotting group and in harmonic group it was present in 7.5% (n=3) patient. Statistically difference in two groups was not significant (p=1.000). Mean pain score as observed was 4.12 in Group A and 3.8 in Group B. In majority of the patients in both groups; only 02 doses of analgesics were required. Port site infection was observed in 2.5% (n=1) patient in harmonic group and 7.5% (n=3) in knotting group (P=0.609). The mean duration of post operative hospital stay was 3.12 days (2-5 days) in knotting group and 2.76 days (2-4 days) in harmonic group. The mean interval to return to daily routine was 7.4 days in knotting group and 7.64 days in harmonic group. There is no statistically significant difference between two groups (p=0.513). Conclusion: The technique of laparoscopic appendectomy by harmonic scalpel is very simple and safe that is changing surgeons’ performances to refined, quicker and efficient procedures. In view of the results available from the present study it is concluded that harmonic scalpel appendicular stump closure is safe, time saving, easily accessible and simple when compared with extracorporeal knotting closure of appendicular stump. In situations where facilities of harmonic scalpel are available patients of appendicitis must be extended the benefit of ligating appendicular stump with harmonic scalpel.

  133. Belgiovine, C., Bertoncello, A., Cetti-Serbelloni, F., Mistretta, S., Tarassi, G., Tronconi, E., Zangrandi, F., Montanelli A. and Monari, M.

    Background and Objectives: This study was aimed to identify the distribution patterns of ABO and Rh-D blood group among the women hospitalized in our hospital Pio X, during the years 2009-2018 in order to observe the new distribution in the Milan population. Materials and Methods: We collected and analyzed 13223 blood samples and evaluate the distribution of ABO and Rh (D) antigens also by ethnic groups. Results: We observed that during last ten years the resident population is changed; the percentage of Caucasian (alias Italian) women is reduced, while the percentage of women belonging to other ethnic groups is increased. This different composition of resident population reflected what we observed in ABO and Rh distribution. We noted that the actual Milan population is formed by women of about 10 % of African, 8 % of East Asian, 8 % of Iberia-American, 5 % of east Europe, and around 70 % of Caucasian. We observed this difference in a new distribution of ABO group and Rh antigens. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the Milan population is composed by Caucasian people but also by mixed marriages between Caucasian and East Asian population children, in particular. This fact could lead an important remix of blood genes that explained the different distribution also in the actual Milan resident population.

  134. Ratobimanankasina, H. H., Rahanitrandrasana, O., Raobelle, E N., Rasolonjatovo, J. D. L. C., Raharivelo, A. and Rajaonarison, B. H.

    Recently, internet and social networks in Toamasina’s people life change deeply their view and their conception of mental illness that as at a long time ago, considered within our customs and traditions as pain inflected by ancestors. Our objectives are to be able to fight against the prejudices of psychiatry in Toamasina, to be able to break the barrier between several ideologists, to go further towards a psychiatry centered on more modern and adapted care. We carried out a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of the two years (2017-2018) in the only department of psychiatry in Toamasina by using hospital data. Through an anonymous questionnaire filled by our consultants, we have been able to trace their pre - arrival careers in psychiatry. Clinically, the major psychiatric disorders recorded in Tamatave psychiatric hospital are dominated by delusional disorders, depressive mood disorders, conversive syndromes and psychiatric troubles related to alcohol and cannabis. However, in 2018, compared with in 2017, we recorded a significant increase of 5.06% in anxiety disorders, 2.02% in depressive troubles and 1.14% in cannabis use. In fact, Toamasina’s people had to deal with destabilizing events in 2018, among others, the cyclone AVA, quite powerful and destructive in January and the presidential election with political clashes at the end of the year. The interview with our patients highlights clearly this search for insurance and protection through traditional practitioners (18%) in 2018, by religion (45%), or by psychiatric care (78%). However, most of our patients choose the association Psychiatry-Religion (88%) in 2018. In a conservative country as ours, oral tradition still holds a prominent place (35%). As Malagasy have a low literacy rate, they are easily influenced by free affirmations by oral tradition. From our point of view, Malagasy people have already had their own psychotherapies long time before the introducing of Western psychiatric approach in our Island. In fact, by referring to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis. So, psychiatrist should have the power to identify with these therapeutics systems and even challenge them for an excellent therapy. We should enhance our efforts on the extension, the medialization of scientific knowledges, because many Malagasy audiences are still and really in ignorance.

  135. Dr. Daya Jangam

    Background: Head and neck cancer is a major problem that occurs in Asia. Increasing incidence and lack of improvement in prognosis of oral cancer and pre cancer in Indian population necessitates in depth probing of various etiological and contributory factors for its early diagnosis and prognosis. Various studies have focused supporting an association between Candida species and oral neoplasia. Objective – This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and correlation of Candida organisms in leukoplakia, oral cancer and healthy control group. Method: A comparative study was carried out in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, which include total 63 patients based on inclusion and exclusion criteria 21 clinically and histopathologically diagnosed oral cancer patients and 21 leukoplakia patients and 21 subjects with no clinical lesion were included in the study. The biopsy specimen processed for routine histopathologic examination and PAS staining. Whole saliva sample collected by spitting method was incubated in Sabouraud’s dextrose agar by lawn plating technique. and colonies were counted for Candida species. Results: In present study we found positive correlation of Candida species in oral cancer and leukoplakia patients. The distribution of mean candida colonies in oral cancer group was significantly higher compared to the leukoplakia and control groups (p-value <0.001 for both). The distribution of prevalence of presence of candida colonies differ significantly between oral cancer group and normal group as well as between leukoplakia and normal group (p-value<0.05 for both). Conclusion: Present study indicates positive role of candida in oral carcinogenesis.

  136. Dr. Namrata Lohakpure and Dr. Daya Jangam

    Background: Head and neck cancer is a major problem that occurs in Asia. Increasing incidence and lack of improvement in prognosis of oral cancer and pre cancer in Indian population necessitates in depth probing of various etiological and contributory factors for its early diagnosis and prognosis. Various studies have focused supporting an association between Candida species and oral neoplasia. Objective – This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and correlation of Candida organisms in leukoplakia, oral cancer and healthy control group. Method: A comparative study was carried out in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, which include total 63 patients based on inclusion and exclusion criteria 21 clinically and histopathologically diagnosed oral cancer patients and 21 leukoplakia patients and 21 subjects with no clinical lesion were included in the study. The biopsy specimen processed for routine histopathologic examination and PAS staining. Whole saliva sample collected by spitting method was incubated in Sabouraud’s dextrose agar by lawn plating technique. and colonies were counted for Candida species. Results: In present study we found positive correlation of Candida species in oral cancer and leukoplakia patients. The distribution of mean candida colonies in oral cancer group was significantly higher compared to the leukoplakia and control groups (p-value <0.001 for both). The distribution of prevalence of presence of candida colonies differ significantly between oral cancer group and normal group as well as between leukoplakia and normal group (p-value<0.05 for both). Conclusion: Present study indicates positive role of candida in oral carcinogenesis.

  137. Dan Călugăru and Mihai Călugăru

    The authors are commenting on the article entitled “Central serous chorioretinopathy in elderly subjects: angiographic and tomographic characteristics” published by Bae et al. in Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 2019; 257(2): 279-288. Published online December 18, 2018.The authors concluded that central serous chorioretinopathyin elderly patients was associated with a lower resolution of serous detachment of the neurosensory retina, increased impairment of retinal pigment epithelial layer, foveal thinning, and worse visual outcome. However, the validation, extrapolation, and generalizability of these outcomes can be made only after inclusion in the stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis of all the missing data mentioned by us in addition to the baseline characteristics already assessed in this study, serving to identify the key drivers correlated with final visual acuity and resolution of the subretinal detachment after treatment.

  138. Shilpa C. Natesan, Bindhu, P. R ., Rekha Krishnapillai and Priya Thomas

    Central odontogenic fibroma is a mesenchymal odontogenic tumor comprising less than 5% of all the odontogenic tumors. This tumor tends to occur in a wide age range with no gender predilection. Several attempts have been carried out by various authors to simplify and classify this benign tumor. The rarity and lack of specific clinic and histologic criteria have rendered the diagnosis of this tumor challenging. Also, the clinical and radiographic features mimics several other odontogenic and non-odontogenic entities. However, a biopsy is mandatory to diagnose this type of odontogenic tumors. We describe a case of central odontogenic fibroma occurring in the posterior mandible of a 13 year old male patient.

  139. Dr. Nagham Muhammed Utba, Dr. Farah Fawzi Marzook, Dr. Atheer Adnan Fadhil and Dr. Nawfal Azzo

    Background: For pre-surgical assessment of an adnexal mass, the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) ADNEX model can be used by medical doctors to diagnose ovarian cancer in women who have at least one persistent adnexal and estimates the probability that an adnexal tumor is benign or malignant. Objective: To study the value of the international ovarian tumor analysis (IOTA) in differentiation between malignant and benign ovarian tumor. Patients and methods: Fifty one patients presented with suspicious adnexal mass to the radiological department in Baghdad teaching hospital in medical city complex in the period from February 2016 till the end of December 2016. U/S was performed to confirm & characterize the adnexal mass. CA-125 tumor marker was measured. All patients underwent surgery to remove the mass and the masses were sent for histopathological study. Results: the IOTA score was calculated and compared, and shows that IOTA score was efficient in the determination of benign or malignant. The sensitivity of the IOTA score system was 92% and specificity was 98% in detection the malignant at cut off point 49.25%. Conclusion: the IOTA score (ADNEX model) was highly sensitive (92%) and highly specific (98%) in detection of benign or malignant at score of 49.25.

  140. Dr. Ramhari Sathawane, Dr. GunjanV Moon, Dr. Sharthchandra Bontha, Dr. Rakhi M Chandak, Dr. Ashish BLanjekar and Dr. Romita D Gaikwad

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a worldwide disease, and the prevalence is increasing particularly in developing countries. Individuals with undiagnosed Type II diabetes are at increased risk of developing coronary artery disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Lip prints and fingerprints being genetically determined may serve as one of such biomarkers. The analysis of lip prints and fingerprints are simple and noninvasive when compared with biochemical tests for Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Aim: To study correlation of lip and finger print patterns in patients with Type II diabetes mellitus. Materials and method: The study sample included 100 subjects in 20 to 60 years of age group which were divided into two group (50 normal individuals and 50 uncontrolled Type II diabetes mellitus patients). They were selected from Outpatient Department of General hospital and Oral Medicine and Radiology from Swargiya Dadasaheb Kalmegh Smruti Dental College and Hospital, Nagpur. Their lip and finger prints were recorded and then classified using the classification of patterns of the lines on the lips proposed by Suzuki and Tsuchihashi and the patterns of fingers were analyzed according to Henry’s system. Result: It was found that when seen individually each digit showed the highest percentage of loop pattern almost equally in both cases and controls. In diabetic patients whorls are seen as the most common prevalent pattern in both right and left hands. Reticular type of lip print pattern was significantly higher in diabetics (50.0%) than controls (10%). Conclusion: This study indicates that people with Type IV pattern of lip print may have a greater predilection for developing Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Also whorl type of fingerprint pattern was more common in diabetic than non-diabetics individuals; hence, suggesting that lip print and finger print patterns can be used as an early diagnostic marker for Type II diabetes mellitus.

  141. Abdi-Samad Abdi Ali, Yu Yan Bo and Iqtida Ahmed Mirza

    Obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding accounts for approximately 5% of all GI bleeding and is defined as bleeding from an unknown source that persists or recurs after negative endoscopic diagnostic evaluation. We present a case of 21 years old male who was admitted to our hospital with atypical presentation include amaurosis, on and off hematochezia worsen after seafood and alcohol consumption, past medical history showed that he had been treated in different hospitals without improvements, physical examination was uneventful with stable vitals, Endoscopy showed an ulcer with elevated margins and two Lumina in the ileum, and pathological result confirm chronic active inflammation of the mucosa with erosion. His final diagnosis was perforated meckel’s diverticulum and ileocecal resection was done and he’s currently stable during 6-months follow-up.

  142. Asha V and Binika Laishram

    Introduction: The retromolar canal normally arises from the mandibular canal behind the third molar, and travels antero-superiorly to the retromolar foramen (RMF), which is located within or around the retromolar triangle. RMF permits the passage of vascular-nerve bundles that contribute to nutrition and innervation of the pulp and periodontium of mandibular molar teeth. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of retromolar canal along with diameter and course using CBCT as it offers advantages in terms of better visualization of the structural images of the anatomical variation with high contrast. Materials and methods: The present study was conducted in 100 individuals within the age group of 18 to 50 yrs with erupted or impacted mandibular third molar was included in the study for the presence of RMC using CBCT. Axial, sagittal, and cross-sectional images were reconstructed for all hemi-mandibles. The retromolar canals were classified into 9 categories. Results: The present study comprised of CBCT images of 100 subjects in which 43% were males while 57% were females, ranging from 18-50 years with a mean of 23.5±7.6. Of 100 CBCT images, retromolar canal was found in 18 subjects (18%) whereas a total of 25 RMCs (11 left, 14 right) were detected. Both male (50%) and female (50%) have equal prevalence of RMC and the age group 21-30 years (38.9%) tended to have more RMC than the other age group. Conclusion: Age, gender and location had no significant association with the course and diameter of RMC. The knowledge of this anatomical variation is important for surgeons to prevent damage to the nerves arising from retromolar canal.

  143. Dr. Aman Abrol, Dr. Nidhi Aggarwal, Dr. Preeti Gupta, Dr. Mallika, Dr. Kunjam and Dr. Neha Abrol

    Esthetic dentistry has shown much advancements in material and technology over time. Microleakageis one of the common factors affecting the integrity of tooth-restoration interface. Hence, the idea of study was to know which of the restorative materials were to be used in clinical practice for deep Class II restorations. Fifty human freshly extracted maxillary premolar teeth were selected and divided into five groups Group1(n=5),:no cavity preparation done, standardized class II cavities were prepared for rest of groups Group2(n=5):left unrestored, Group3(n=10): restored with Zirconomer, Group4(n=10): restored with Tetric N Ceram, Group5(n=10): restored with Cention N,Group6(n=10): restored with Glass Ionomer Cement .The specimens were thermocycled and two layers of nail varnish was applied on all surfaces except for 1mm around the restorative margins and apex was sealed with sticky wax. The samples were immersed in 0.5% methylene blue dye for 24 hrs, washed under running water, sectioned and observed under Stereomicroscope. The statistical analysis was done using kruskal wall is and Mann whitney U tests. All restored samples showed certain amount of microleakage. A statistically significant difference was observed between all the groups except Cention and Tetric N Ceram. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that zirconomer showed maximum micro leakage followed by GIC, and Cention-N and Tetric N Ceram showing the least microleakage.

  144. Dr. Purnendu Shekhar Lohiya, Dr. Mahesh Maheshwari and Dr. Amber Kumar

    Background & Objective: Prematurity and low birth weights are the important risk factors for Neonatal and Infant mortality. It is not possible to weight significant proportions of newborns in rural areas of many developing countries, mostly due to unavailability of weighing scales. These low birth weight newborns, even if they survive, they used to suffer from long term disability such as malnutrition or gross developmental delay. Many studies earlier have attempted to identify surrogate makers of LBW to find out solution of this problem, but still there is no consensus of cutoff value for these surrogate markers, which can correlate uniformly with LBW. The reproducibility and reliability of these surrogate markers vary in different races and locations. The aim of this study was to identify the reliable surrogate markers for LBW. Methods: This prospective cross sectional study was carried out in a tertiary level hospital located in central India. The aim of the study was to identify a surrogate marker/s which can be reliably used for identification of low birth weight newborn. Results: All the anthropometric measurements correlate significantly with birth weight. Multiple linear regression analysis showed the best predictors in the descending order for low birth weight were Chest C., Calf C., Head C., length & MUAC with a variance of 77.4%, 3.0%, 1.4%, 1.0%, 0.7% respectively. Sensitivity for head and chest circumference was 92.42 and 92.20 respectively, whereas sensitivity for MUAC was 95.26, the highest among all parameters. This study suggests that mid upper arm circumference below <11 cm may be an optimum anthropometric surrogate to identify LBW newborns. Conclusion: Head and chest circumferences were the best specific anthropometric surrogates of LBW. MUAC was the best sensitive and easier and convenient surrogate marker, but it can overestimate LBW infants. Combining MUAC with either HC or CC will be most appropriate for identifying LBW infants in resource limited areas. Further studies are needed in the field to cross-validate our results.

  145. Sushma Singh

    Objective: To determine the maternal and fetal outcomes in mother with gestational diabetes mellitus attending antenatal clinics in VIMS, Pawapuri. Design – This was a cohort study. Participants – (ninety) 90 mothers with gestational ages between 24 – 32 weeks were recruited from may 20 15 to Feb 2016. They were followed up to the time of delivery. The WHO criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes was used. Thirty mothers with a 2 hours’ postprandial capillary blood sugar more than 140mg /dl were the expose group & mothers with <140mg/dl were the unexposed group. Blood Sugar was measured by one touch glucometer. Outcome variables: Sociodemographic characteristics maternal complications mode of delivery & the fetal outcomes. Results: The mean ages of both groups were similar 28.6 years various 27.5 years. Both had BMI more than 26. The mothers of GDM were four times more likely to have hypertensive disease (v= 0.04) & nine times more likely to have a vaginal candidiasis. The indications of caesarean section in mothers with GDM were two times more likely to be due to big babies and obstructedlabors. The babies for Mothers. With GDM were more likely to be macrocosmic, still birth and have shoulder dystocia than those of normal mothers. Conclusion: Gestation diabetes mellitus is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. There is need to routinely screen mothers for gestation diabetes.

  146. Dar Sajad Ahmad, Dar Abdul Waheed, Dar Ishtiaq Ahmad, Wani Nahida Yousuf, Sheikh Owais Ahmad, Akhtar haneefa and Matto Omer Farooq

    Introduction: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic cancer and the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in women in the United States. According to 2018 cancer statistics, the estimated number of newly diagnosed cases is 63,230, with a probability of 1 in every 35 women (2.8%) developing it during her lifetime. To date, there is limited knowledge of endometrial cancer in Kashmir India. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to analyze the demographic spectrum of endometrial cancers in Kashmir valley. Material and Method: This was a retrospective study, So all patients were included who had Histopathologically confirmed endometrial neoplasm registered at Regional Cancer centre of Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar Kashmir between 2008 and 2015. All the patient characteristics including age, presentation, type of cancer, stage of cancer, parity, treatment received in each case was studied in detail. Results: The present study included 80 patients of endometrial cancer. Mean age of presentation in our study was 55±0.63 years. Majority of endometrial cancers where of adenocarcinoma histology (81%) followed by sarcoma (10%) and papillary serous type (9%). The major clinical presentation was vaginal bleeding (85 %) followed by pelvic pain (28 %) and ascites (8 %). So far as evaluation is concerned, most of the cases (90%) where diagnosed by D&C and Pelvic USG. Majority of patients presented at stage I (60%) followed by stage III (18%). Conclusion: In conclusion, early detection will reduce the number of death of endometrial cancer patients. A significant number of endometrial cancer patients in Kashmir present with early stage of disease and probably due to clinical presentation in our centre that major clinical presentation was vaginal bleeding followed by pelvic pain. Endometrial cancers are observed at an middle age group that is more than 40 years of age . People should be educated for an early consultation for symptoms and high risk individuals should be encouraged for screening. The health programmes about endometrial cancer should be carried out in open places to give more information about endometrial cancer to the public.

  147. Dr. Chandrasekar, C.P.M., Dr. Pitchai Balashanmugam K., Dr. Tamilselvan, D. and Dr. Poornima, A.E

    Treatment of male urethral trauma is always a challenging problem. In India, as the incidence of urethral trauma keeps rising, more and more studies relating to this are being published. To compare the outcome of different emergency treatments in India and other countries, we searched Indian and English literature about this topic in the past 10 years. Based on the analyses, surgical methods include open realignment, endoscopic realignment and primary repair, and we summarized and compared the success rate and complications (mainly erectile dysfunction and incontinence) of each method. We found that realignment of posterior urethra has similar success rate in India and other countries, but the outcome of realignment of anterior urethra is variable. The reason remains unknown. Whileabandoned long back in Western countries, primary repair of anterior urethra is still an option in India with high success rate.

  148. Evah Raobelle, Nambinina Rasolofotsialonina, Herilanja Ratobimanankasina, Adeline Raharivelo and Bertille Rajaonarison,

    As depression is a state of pathological sadness which causes disability especially in adolescents, our objective is to determine the factors involved in depression among high school students in Antananarivo in aim to improve their care. This descriptive study was conducted in four high schools in Antananarivo, for the second and first grade classes of the school year 2017- 2018. Depression was evaluated by the Major Depression Inventory for Children. Data was analyzed by using the software Epi info 7, with a significance threshold p at 0.05. Thus three hundred and three (N = 303) youngsters were included in the study, with 124 boys and 179 girls (sex ratio = 0.69). More than half of the depressed population (59.57%) was an adolescent girl. Among the depressed teens, 53.62 % were from a middle-income family. Sixty-four percent of non-depressed adolescents were enrolled in public high schools. Moreover, teenagers with a good relationship with their parents were not depressed. Furthermore, depression was mostly found in adolescents with a medium-quality relationship with their teachers. Last, depressed students had average school performance in 79.86% of cases. All in all, depression in high school students deserves our attention in our therapeutic interventions. These young people are not priority because they don’t disturb well-being of the class. Thus, qualified staff in each educational establishment would be beneficial and should be adopted.

  149. Dr. Jaya Prakash Duraisamy and Dr. Rajkumar Ranganathan

    Acute subdural hematoma (Acute SDH) and cerebral contusion that occurs following trauma carries higher morbidity and mortality in spite of recent developments in neurosurgery. Emergency surgical interventions without delay and proper ICU care are necessary for favourable clinical outcome. Aim: In the present study, we evaluated the patients admitted with head injury and analysed the outcome of the patient who diagnosed and operated for Cerebral Contusion and Acute Sub Dural Hematoma at various locations of brain. Materials and methods: This study was performed on 54 patients who were operated for traumatic acute subdural hematoma and Cerebral Contusion without any systemic injuries at a single centre. Gender of the patients, mechanism of trauma, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at the time of admission and on discharge, procedures such as Fronto Temporo Parietal (FTP) Decompression, Uni Frontal Decompression and Bi Frontal Decompression were studied in detail and outcomes are compared. Conclusion: Acute SDH, Temporo Parietal contusion and Frontal contusion following trauma was associated with high morbidity. FTP Decompressive Craniectomy done for Acute SDH or Contusion in Temporo Parietal region has better prognosis when compared to Unifrontal/Bifrontal Decompression done for contusion or Acute SDH in Frontal region.

  150. Dr. Shivika Goel, Dr. Dakshita Joy Sinha, Dr. Udai Pratap Singh and Dr. Natasha Jaiswal

    Pulp vitality is very important for tooth viability, as it provides nutrition and act as alarm to detect pathogenic stimuli. Regenerative endodontic procedures aim at regeneration of pulp and dentin of the affected teeth. The aim of this review is to add a new prospect in regenerative endodontic therapy by using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). PRP and PRF have an intimate assembly of cytokines, glycan chains and structural glycoproteins which are enmeshed in polymerized fibrin network, and have the potential to accelerate soft and hard tissue healing. Thus this review is intended to add light on the various prospects of PRP and PRF and clinical insights to regenerative endodontics.

  151. Minu S., Twinkle S Prasad and Deepa, S

    Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma belongs to group of lymphoid neoplasm, which may be a presenting symptom in HIV patient who is immuno-compromised. The close association of NHL with HIV infection is formally recognized by the fact that NHL is designated as an Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome defining condition. Oral involvement primarily is not so common in these patients but if involved, they often involve gingiva or palatal region. Here we report a case of Non Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) with HIV who presented with primarily involvement of palate by NHL.

  152. Dr. Sakib Arfee, Dr. Imran Yousouf Bhat, Dr. Mudasir Rashid and Dr. Mohammad Azhar Ud Din Darokhan

    Introduction: Orthopedic surgery has a particularly hazardous work environment in which surgeons are at increased risk for exposure to infections, radiations, smoke, chemicals, excessive noise, musculoskeletal injuries, as well as emotional and psychological disturbances. Here we are only going to focus on the exposure to radiation while operating and what precautions to be taken. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge levels of orthopedic surgeons about exposure dose and possible risks of fluoroscopy. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire form with a total of 10 questions was taken to orthopedic surgeons working in GMC Jammu. The participants were requested to answer the given questions. The questionnaire evaluated participant’s knowledge about the exposure dose and possible risks of fluoroscopy and the preventive measures they take. Effects on patients were not assessed in this study. Results: A lead apron was the most commonly used protection from the harmful effects of radiation (100%) but without thyroid gland shield and glasses. Fluoroscopy shots were performed with the help of operating room personnel (86%). No Surgeon used any personal radiation monitoring device. Almost every surgeon was found to be anxious that as an orthopedic surgeon we receive very high doses of radiations and about the possible deleterious side effects. Conclusion: According to the survey results, the need for fluoroscopy was very high in orthopedic surgery but it doesn’t exceed all other interventionalists. However, orthopedic surgeons have inadequate knowledge about the exposure dose and possible level of risks of fluoroscopy. Therefore, we believe that training on this topic should be provided to all orthopedic surgeons. Myths related to radiation exposure in orthopedics surgery must be addressed.

  153. Anagha R. Dafade, Mithilesh Dhamande, Anjali Bhoyar Borle, Surekha Godbole and Dipak M. Shinde

    Neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity often requires surgical treatment involving resection of the the mandible, floor of the mouth, tongue and also the palate depending upon the extent of lesion. These cases, often lead to mandibular deviation. Which occurs due to loss of continuity of mandible and its related muscles. Altered muscle function will clinically result in functional compromise, facial asymmetry causing significant esthetic deformities ultimately leading to psychological breakdown. Rehabilitation of these patients who has undergone segmental resection of the mandible poses a considerable challenge to the prosthodontist when there is without osseous reconstruction. This case report describes a successful treatment modality for treating patients with severe mandibular deviation (mandibulectomy), providing a vertical stop to resected segment.

  154. Sonal Maurya, Jagvinder Singh Mann, Navjot Singh Khurana, Ashok Suman and Sunakshi Sharma

    Aim: The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with three different types of fibre-reinforced composite post systems using two different types of luting cements. Settings and Design: This was an in vitro study. Materials and Method: Ninety extracted intact human maxillary central incisor teeth were selected for the study. All the teeth were decoronated 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction, root canal treatment was performed, post space was prepared and the samples were divided into 3 groups (n= 30); Group 1: prefabricated glass fibre post (Reforpost), Group 2: customized polyethylene woven fibre post (Ribbond) and Group 3: customized Everstick post (GC). Two types of luting cements, dual cure resin cement Paracore (COLTENE) and self-etch/self-adhesive resin cement Maxcem Elite (KERR) were used for post cementation. The core was standardized to 4mm. Prepared samples were subjected to compressive load of 5mm/min at 135o anguation using an universal testing machine. The load at which fracture occurred was analysed statistically by one way ANOVA and post-hoc tukey test. Result: The findings showed statistically significant difference between failure loads. Group 3 showed highest mean fracture resistance value (54.77±1.65 Kgf), followed by group 1 (Reforpost) with mean value (42.47±2.24 Kgf) and group 2 (Ribbond) with mean value (24.12±1.91 Kgf ). Conclusion: Teeth restored with Everstick post showed highest mean fracture resistance value regardless of luting agent.

  155. Dr. Nilesh Mote, Dr. Amit Mani, Dr. Shubhangi Mani, Dr. N. G. Toshniwal and Dr. Devdatta Wankhade

    Corticotomy found to be effective in accelerating orthodontic treatment. The most important factors in the success of this technique is proper case selection and careful surgical and orthodontic treatment. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics advocated for comprehensive fixed orthodontic appliances in conjunction with full thickness flaps and labial and lingual corticotomies around teeth to be moved. It is an established and efficient orthodontic technique that has recently been studied in a number of publications. It has gradually gained popularity as an adjunct treatment option for the orthodontic treatment of adults. It involves selective alveolar decortication in the form of decortication lines and dots performed around the teeth that are to be moved. Bone graft should be applied directly over the bone cuts and the flap sutured in place. Tooth movement should be initiated two weeks after the surgery, and every two weeks thereafter by activation of the orthodontic appliance. Orthodontic treatment time with this technique will be reduced to one-third the time of conventional orthodontics. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics is promising procedure but only few cases were reported in the literature. Controlled clinical and histological studies are needed to understand the biology of tooth movement with this procedure, the effect on teeth and bone, post-retention stability, measuring the volume of mature bone formation, and determining the status of the periodontium and roots after treatment. This technique has several advantages, including faster tooth movement, shorter treatment time, safer expansion of constricted arches, enhanced post-orthodontic treatment stability and extended envelope of tooth movement. The aim of this article is to present a comprehensive review of the literature, clinical techniques, indications, contraindications, complications and side effects.

  156. Irfan Gul, Omer Farooq, Shujat Gul and Samia Rasheed

    Introduction: Poisoning is one of the most common medical emergency presenting to the hospitals in developing countries. Kashmir has high incidence of poisoning cases. According to WHO, three million acute poisoning cases with 2, 20,000 deaths occur annually. Of these, 90% of fatal poisoning occurs in developing countries particularly among agricultural workers1. It was estimated that almost 50,000 people die every year from toxic exposure in India2. The poisoning cases have increased due to the frequent use of pesticides in agriculture and exposure to hazardous chemical compounds as a result of industrialization. Aim and Objectives: This prospective observational study was conducted with an Aim to evaluate the demographic and clinical profile of acute poisoning in Kashmir region, Material and methods: The study was conducted from 1/6/17 to 30/12/17 among patients of acute poisoning brought to emergency department of GMC Srinagar included 330 cases of adults, with acute poisoning due to drugs and chemicals. Cases of Snake bite, insect bite, food poisoning and allergic reaction to drugs were not included in the study. Data regarding age, sex, marital status, occupation, locality, type of poison, route of exposure, and associated co-morbid conditions were collected from the hospital records and documented in the pre-structured proforma. Data were documented and statistically analysed. Results and Observation: 330 cases of acute poisoning presented to emergency department over period of six months. Female outnumber male with78.18 % (258 number of cases) while only 72 male patients. Most common poisoning presenting was organo-phosphate poisoning with total number of 58.78% (n 194)followed by rodenticides 10.54% (n 35) > benzodiazepines 7.87% (n26) > alcohol intake 4.84% (n16) > corrosive poisoning 4.57% (n15) > petrochemical compound 2.42% (n8) > Ayurveda compound 1.81%(n6) > carbon monoxide 1.51% (n5) > paracetamol 0.90% (n3), levothyroxine 0.9% ( n3) and unknown or miscellaneous 5.4% (n18). On retrospective analysis of data demographic profile of poisoning patients in Kashmir region was as under with highest number of cases were from Pulwama 16.9% (n56) followed by Shopian 15.15% (n 50), Kulgam 13.9%( n 46), Anantnag 12.7% (n 42), Bandipora 10% (n33), Srinagar 8.4% (n 27), Baramulla 8.48% (n27), Ganderbal 5.8% (n17), Kupwara 4.8% (n16 )and Budgam 4.2% (n14). Conclusion; The most common acute poisoning (60%) presenting was organo-phosphate compounds from districts of south Kashmir due to ready availability of these compounds among apple orchid farmers and lack of education and awareness among farmers about handling of these compounds. Thus, there should be proper education and laws regarding handling and use of these compounds.

  157. Dr. Anil Humane and Dr. Sharvari Mundhe

    Female genital tract tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of infertility in developing countries like India. The crux is identifying the symptoms, timely investigations and proper management. It mimics ovarian tumours in many cases as described below. Different diagnostic modalities with clinical co relation may help in appropriate diagnosis; however definitive treatment is debatable.

  158. Dr. Karan Gupta, Dr. Bhagyam R. Monga and Dr. Preeti Doshi

    Hemiplegic shoulder is one of the most common forms of presentation in individuals suffering from stroke. They present with severe pain as well limited range of movements in the affected shoulder. This case report demonstrates the use of high-resolution ultrasound guidance to facilitate blockade of the suprascapular nerve which supplies sensation to the shoulder joint. Upon targeted administration of a small dose of medication (local anaesthetic mixed with a corticosteroid) in real time under ultrasound guidance, the patient reported significant reduction in pain as well as improvement in his shoulder movements and function immediate post-procedure and on follow-up at 12-weeks.

  159. Dr. Sai Deepa B., Dr. Kala Vani S.V., Dr. Sharath P., Dr. Raju P.S., Dr. Hima Bindu S and Dr. Nirisha G.

    Aim: The study aimed to assess reasons for avoiding orthodontic treatment among dental students and non dental students with malocclusion requiring orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty dental and One hundred and fifty non dental students who would fall into IOTN (Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need) index grade 3, 4 and 5 answered a semi structured questionnaire containing 4 questions which records their awareness and concern about malocclusion and reasons for avoiding orthodontic treatment. Results: The results showed a discrepancy in the response between dental and non-dental students. For the first, second and third questions both groups showed statistically significant difference in the response. There was no statistically significant difference between dental and non dental groups for the overall response received with respect to fourth question though the reasons mentioned for not seeking orthodontic treatment showed wide variations. Long duration and pain/discomfort are the most common reasons for avoiding orthodontic treatment in dental and non-dental students respectively. Conclusion: There is a necessity to educate both the dental and non-dental students regarding recent advances in orthodontic treatment which decreases treatment duration and factors determining treatment duration and extent and amount of pain encountered during orthodontic treatment but the non-dental students should be more educated when compared to dental students.

  160. Mohamed Noohu Bariz S.A.K., Balaji A.R. and Prakash J.V.S.

    Introduction: Double J (DJ) stent removal requires local anesthesia and is done using rigid cystoscope. Patients experience significant pain during and after the procedure. We assessed the efficacy of preemptive oral diclofenac in analgesia for patients undergoing DJ stent removal by rigid cystoscopy compared to placebo. Methods: Only male patients undergoing DJ stent removal under local anesthesia between March 2017 and July 2018 were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive 50 mg oral diclofenac (Group A) or placebo (Group B) 1 hour before procedure by randomization. Intraurethral 2% lignocaine gel (25 ml) was used in both groups. Pain during rigid cystoscopy, pain at the first void, and at 1 day after cystoscopy was assessed using visual analog scale (VAS) (0–100). Adverse reactions to diclofenac and episodes of acute urinary retention, if any, were assessed. Results: Totally 121 males (Group A [n = 62]; Group B [n = 59]) underwent stent removal. The median (Interquartile range) VAS during the procedure in Group A was 30 (30) and Group B was 60 (30) (P< 0.001), at first void was 30 (30) and 70 (30) (P< 0.001) and at 24 h postoperatively was 20 (20) and 40 (20) (P< 0.001). The incidence ofside effects was comparable in the two groups (P> 0.05). Conclusions: A single oral dose of diclofenac 1 h before DJ stent removal using rigid cystoscope under intra-urethral lignocaine anesthesia decreases pain significantly during and upto one day after the procedure,with minimal side effects.

  161. Apurva Nikte, Urvashi Nikte, Vaidehi Arekar, Sushrut Niphadkar, Paritrat Prakash and Utsav Nikte

    Background: The biggest concern of any orthodontic treatment is the amount of time which is required to complete the treatment. Prolonged treatment time could increase the risk of dental caries, periodontal diseases, and root resorption. Thus, accelerating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is one of the primary goals for orthodontists with optimum end results, which will ultimately shorten the treatment duration. When an orthodontic force is delivered to a tooth certain mechanical, chemical, and cellular events take place within the paradental tissues, which will allow architectural alterations and cause movement of that tooth. Any orthodontic treatment on an average requires 12-48 months for its completion, but by increasing body's response to the orthodontic forces the treatment duration can be reduced. Many methods are available to accelerate tooth movement, such as corticotomy, piezosurgery, vibration, lasers, drugs, magnets etc. These methods have been successfully proven to reduce treatment times by up to 70%. The purpose of this study is to view the successful approaches in tooth movement and to highlight the newest technique in tooth movement.

  162. Raobelle, E. N., Ratobimanankasina, H. H., Rahanitrandrasana, E. O., Bakohariliva, H. A., Raharivelo, A. and Rajaonarison, B H.

    Diabetes and anxiodepressive syndrom are both two mjor problem of public health who have influence for each other. Depression and anxiety are the first psychiatric problems of diabetics’ patients that are often misdiagnosed and non-treated. The aims of this study are to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety and depression and to extract the associated risk factors, in order to improve the intake of the diabetic patients. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted within the endocrinology service in the University Hospital of Josph Raseta Befelatanana. Fifty diabetic patients were reported in the study, and the average age was about 27,35 years old with a female gender predominance. Depression was about 37% of the cases, and anxiety about 40%. Height percent of the study population has already made a suicide attempt in their medical history. The economic level, the comorbidity with arterial hypertension and alcool addiction were both factors that can influence in the incidence of depression and anxiety. So, the treatment of a diabetic patient should be subject to a multidisciplinary medical care.

  163. Salihu, D.A. and Yohanna, S.

    Background: The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic levels over the past few decades, and this is more so among hypertensive adults. Concurrent with this rise are increase in numerous obesity-associated diseases including heart disease, certain types of cancer, and diabetes. The cornerstone of therapeutic interventions to treat or prevent these diseases is weight loss via lifestyle modification. Aim: The study was undertaken to determine the effect of change in lifestyle measures on weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) among adult hypertensive patients. Methods: The study was a randomized controlled study involving hypertensive adults aged 20 years and above presenting in the General Outpatients’ Clinic (GOPC) of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH). Participants were consecutively selected and randomized to an intervention group that was offered structured counselling on lifestyle modification and a control group that was offered routine advice only. Participants in both groups were also taking antihypertensive medications. Participants were followed up monthly for twelve weeks and adherence to lifestyle modification measures noted. The proportion of observed changes were analysed using Chi square and Fischer’s exact tests. The means at 95% confidence intervals of the weight and BMI values were determined using the independent t-test. Data was analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant in all analyses. Results: Changes in lifestyle measures were notably more among the intervention group. Twenty four participants lost at least 0.5kg after the study, nine in the control group and 15 in the intervention group. Even though there was a difference in means of 2.47 kg (-11.46, 6.52; 95%CI) between the control and intervention groups at the end of the study, the difference was not statistically significant. Twenty three participants had at least 0.2kg/m2 decrease in BMI in the study group, nine in the control group and 14 in the intervention group. The difference in means between the two groups was 0.12kg/m2 (-3.38,3.62; 95%CI) and this was not statistical significant. Conclusion: This study shows that changes in lifestyle measures among hypertensive adults are associated with a decrease in weight and improved BMI. However the effect of lifestyle modification on these clinical indices, during a period of 12 weeks, following structured counselling may not differ from routine verbal advice only.

  164. Dr. Shahnaz Sheikh, Dr. Vikrant Vaze, Dr. Anushree Bajaj, Dr. Balchandra Paike

    Endoscopic DCR is preferred for its scarless, minimally invasive technique. Many modifications including placement of silicon stents has been done over the years to reduce the recurrence. Endonasal endoscopic and External DCR approaches have their own advantages and disadvantages. Endoscopic DCR is one of the several techniques to unblock the nasolacrimal duct. Methods: our study included 40 patients with epiphora having obstruction in the nasolacrimal duct. All the patients underwent Endoscopic DCR with silicon stent placement. Patients were followed postoperatively for a period of 6months -2 years. Results: Results of my study were compared with endoscopic DCR without stent and classical external DCR. We found that DCR with stent had less chances of recurrence and synechia formation. Results at 2 year follow up have been good with more than 90 percent symptoms relieved completely. Conclusion: Endoscopic DCR is a safe, cast effective alternative for external DCR in patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction. We found that endoscopic DCR with stent had several advantages over more conventional external approach.

  165. Sandhra George

    Membrane proteins have a pivotal role in cell biology. They are involved in supervising the cellular interactions and maintaining stability of the cell structure. Astrotactin-2 is a perfor in like protein, which has a crucial role in many neuro developmental brain disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia etc. Since transmembrane proteins are large in size, it is necessary to precisely orient the protein and thus coarse-grained simulation serves as the best option for computational studies of MPs. Coarse-grained models have been successfully used in studying proteins.Here in this study, MARTINI force field was used to run the coarse-grained simulation of ASTN-2.

  166. Gigi Roy, Anu Vijayan, Sonia Susan Philip, Sheeba Padiyath, BeenaKumary, T .P. and Anju Elizabeth Thomas

    Background: Ponticulus posticus is a cervical spine anomaly which can be detected on a routine lateral cephalogram that is mostly neglected by the dentists. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of ponticulus posticus and its relationship with gender in Central Kerala population. Methods and Materials: A sample of 525 patients lateral cephalogram were randomly selected from the archived records in the department. Eighty one lateral cephalograms were excluded, and only 444 lateral cephalograms were taken with patients aged between 8-50years. Each digital radiograph was inspected for the presence and absence of ponticulus posticus. It was further evaluated for either partial or complete form and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Ponticulus posticus was observed in 32% of the patients, of which 3.8% had complete and 28.2% had partial type. Even though there was some male predilection, no statistically significant association was found between gender of the patient and presence of ponticulus posticus. Conclusion: Ponticulus posticus is a common anomaly; therefore, lateral cephalogram should be carefully examined to check for the presence of this anomaly.

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