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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





May 2020

  1. Dr. Koushal Dave

    Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19) pandemic, which has posed a major challenge to the health care systems across the world. Health care workers especially nurses are committed to serve the society and the biggest challenge they face today is to cure and care for the people affected with COVID‑19. Objectives: This study aimed to identify the challenges faced by Indian nursing professionals working in hospitals and dealing with COVID - 19 patients. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire containing demographic details and challenges faced by nursing professionals in dealing with COVID-19 patients was prepared using Google forms and distributed to nurses of India through social media. Total 100 nurses from different hospitals of India were participated. Data were coded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The mean age of the participants was 35.09 ± 4.83 years, 72% were females and 60% had diploma education. 76% participants from Government hospitals setting and 88% were resided in urban areas. Majority of the participants 58% were responded that they were extremely concerned for the availability of PPEs in hospital. Approximately 84% participants reported that they required training related to donning and doffing of PPEs, infection control practices and care of COVID -19 positive patients. Separate screening and admission facilities for COVID-19 positive nurses, transportation, food and accommodation were found major workflow related challenges in hospitals. Approximately 32% participants were well prepared to provide care to COVID -19 positive patients and 75% were stressed and frustrated due to the workload. Conclusions: This study concluded that the common challenges faced by nurses across the country are: shortage of personal protective equipments (PPEs), inadequate training to deal COVID -19 patients, lack of accommodations, food and transport facilities for nurses, and separate screening, quarantine and admission facilities for nurses in hospitals. Flexible, adjustable policy and protocols can be made by hospital administrators and nursing leaders to overcome these challenges faced by nurses. Nurses are determined to win this war and make significant contributions to the health care of the society.

  2. Dr. Purushottam Bhawre,

    India the ambient atmospheric conditions have progressively deteriorated due to urbanization, industrial development, lack of awareness, poor maintenance of motor vehicles, and poor road conditions. Transport vehicles and industrial emissions are the major sources of pollutants in the earth’s atmosphere. Among the various air pollutants from various sources particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide are having a significant role in affecting the air quality and thereby causing harm to human health. Hence, these parameters were considered to determine the air quality of India. The objective of this paper is to provide insight details about the current situation of air quality across various cities present in India, along with countless origins and effects of air pollution. An attempt is made to make people aware about various types of gases and particulate matter present in air highlighting their effects on the environment along with the various ways of overcoming this situation during the lockdown COVID19 period, which was started on 22March2020, using the Air Quality Indexis proposed for the seven major cities of India, for simplified public information and data interpretation. The 24-hourly average concentrations of six major criteria pollutants, viz. Particulate matter PM10, PM2.5, Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) carbon monoxide and two meteorological parameters, e.g., Humidity and Temperature for the year 2018, 2019, 2010 (January, February, March and April). During the study of the meteorological parameter we observed that, there are no changes in temperature, the humidity level is also not getting any significant changes in the overall cities. Particular Matter (PM10 and PM2.5) both parameters are decreasing overall selected cities, especially in March and April month. Ozone activities are also decreasing as compared with 2018 and 2019 data, during the study of all cities. Nitrogen dioxide levels is decreasing for all cities during these periods. The sulfur dioxide level is decreasing for all cities exceptional Bengaluru city their sulfur dioxide level is very low. The carbon monoxide level is decreasing overall cities during the March and April month.

  3. Abagale, F. K., Osei, R. A. and Antwi, P. K.

    Previously, water was regarded as a free commodity, considered unlimited in quantity and available as required, however, with continued population growth and diversified demands, the resource is becoming increasingly scarce and often of inferior quality due to pollution. The study assessed the water quality of open wells and boreholes in Tolon District. Data was taken at 6 days intervals for a period of twenty-two (22) months. Mean salinity level of open wells and boreholes were in the range of 0.02 ppt to 0.15 ppt and 0.55 ppt to 0.82 ppt respectively. The results indicated that salinity in all open wells was below 0.50 ppt considered standard for good drinking water whilst the boreholes were above the recommended standards. Turbidity of open wells was between 32.75 to 369 NTU and above the WHO acceptable standard of 5 NTU for drinking water but with borehole turbidity ranging from 0.61 to 2.65 NTU. Aside geology, seasonality was identified as a factor affecting water quality as salinity and other parameters were higher in the dry season than the wet season. A positive correlation existed between salinity and reduced water levels in open wells with source as groundwater and a coefficient of correlation (r) ranging from 0.511 to 0.876. The study noted that water quality monitoring is very important in delivery of the desired and acceptable potable water for human use as local climatic factors with associated water withdrawals and recharge rates greatly influenced the water quality of boreholes and open-wells.

  4. Engr. Kabiru Salihu and Chinda Zaria

    This research work determined the average bearing capacity for black cotton soil in Numan Federation and selection of suitable foundation for simple structures using Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola Numan Campus as case study. Series of laboratory soil tests were carried out to analyse the soils sampled collected from the campus. The results for test analyses showed that the bearing capacity of soil is poor in terms of meeting engineering requirement. The consolidation test show that the soil settles deeper than the allowable and the permeability rates of the soil is very low. Hence the soil became densely saturated very soft in the wet season. The study recommended that engineering practices to determine bearing capacity of soils should be conducted before embarking on construction. Also, various practices that can stabilize the black cotton soil can be adopted to improve the bearing capacity of the soil in Numan federation.

  5. Rahman, M. S., Islam, M. R., Sharmin, M. N., Parvez, M. S., Khan, H. R.,Hossain, M. M., Siddiqua, T. and Ali, M. Y.

    The outcome of the radiotherapy depends on how precisional dose deliver to the treatment volume which should not be exceeded more that ± 5% of the prescribed dose. Among the several factors that effects on accurate dose delivery to the tumor, the absorbed dose measurement plays a major role. For the accuracy of dose measurement, several national and international protocols such as TRS-277, TRS-398, TG-51 and DIN-6800-2 are currently being used for the dosimetry of photon, electron and ion beams. The IAEA protocols TRS-277 (air Kerma, Nk) and TRS-398 (absorbed dose to water, ND,W) are familiar and popular that are used worldwide. The purpose of this work is to study on (a) periodical consistency of calibration factors of ionization chamber, (b) accuracy that involved in absorbed dose determination in the IAEA protocols TRS-277 and TRS-398 for high energy X-ray beam and (c) traceability of the dose measurement by participating IAEA/WHO TLD intercomparison program. A total number of 13 ionization chambers of which 12 thimble and 1 parallel plate are calibrated with 60Co in-terms ND,W factor against the reference standard of SSDL, Bangladesh. The deviation of calibration factor by manufacturer’s stated value and present measurement lies in between 0.13-3.38% with an uncertainties of ± 1.4% (coverage factor k=1). The average deviation of absorbed dose measurement between two different dosimetry protocols TRS-277 and TRS-398 were found within ± 1.59% for 4 MV and 15 MV LINAC photon beams which shows an excellent agreement with other measurement in the literature. The results obtained by the participation of IAEA/WHO intercomparison program ensures the traceability of present work with excellent agreement with IAEA standard.

  6. Mauro Geller, MD, PhD, Vinicius Fontanesi Blum, MD, Lisa Oliveira, MS, Spyros GE Mezitis, MD, PhD Rafael Nigri, MD, Mendel Suchmacher Neto, MD, Carlos Pereira Nunes, MD, Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca, PhD and Karin Soares Cunha, PhD

    Nitazoxanide is a broad-spectrum, orally active anti-infective initially developed for the treatment of protozoal disease. However, nitazoxanide and its active metabolite, tizoxanide, have demonstrated antiviral activity against a variety of viruses in preclinical and clinical settings. This review of the literature aims to present the pharmacological profile of nitazoxanide, mechanisms of antiviral action, and its demonstrated and potential antiviral applicability.

  7. Prakash, D.S.R.S., Balaji Chandra Mouli J. and Kiran Deedi, M.

    Pathogenesis of diabetes is complex and there is an interplay between genetic and environmental factors. While it is impossible to change genetic conditions at present, we do have an impact on the environmental ones. Symptoms of both Type 1 & Type 2 diabetes usually increase slowly, and therefore the patient does not pay attention to them for a long time. If diabetes is diagnosed early, and treatment is carefully planned and carried out, it is possible in many cases to achieve recovery from the clinical symptoms. Nowadays we have many modern drugs available that greatly facilitate good metabolic alignment of Type 1 & Type 2 diabetes, but till 90s pharmacological treatment was limited to insulin, metformin and sulfonylurea. Treatment for Type 1 & Type 2 diabetes must be undertaken with a view to reducing insulin resistance. Studies show that proper diet and physical activity are much more effective in preventing the development of Type 1 & Type 2 diabetes than any drug available and they are both first treatment of choice. If this is not satisfactory, or if the patient is unsuccessful, pharmacotherapy is needed. Metformin is most often used at the beginning. If the treatment applied does not give satisfactory results, it is necessary to extend the pharmacotherapy – in this case, incretin drugs and Sodium-glucose linked transporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors) are recommended. Acarbose preparations (alpha- glucosidase inhibitors) are also used as supportive treatment. Currently, drugs from the sulfonylurea group are being introduced less and less often, as their use may cause hypoglycemic conditions as well as weight gain. When the use of oral medications appears to be insufficient for metabolic control, the inclusion of injections of insulin is considered.

  8. Gulzar S Sanghera and Arvind Kumar

    Sugarcane, being a vegetatively propagated crop, has a low seed cane multiplication rate. Besides, huge quantity of cane seed used for planting may have infested with number of pest and diseases cause decrease in cane yield and quality significantly over the years of its cultivation. A number of cane seed propagation techniques have been adopted successfully by farmers and industry in different sugarcane growing countries. In vitro propagation is the best alternative to overcome such limitations to produce disease free and sufficient amount of planting material. It is however a very sensitive technique, which requires aseptic condition in different stages viz. mother plant establishment, initiation and establishment of aseptic culture, multiplication, rooting, and acclimatization. In different seed cane programmes, breeder, foundation and certified classes of sugarcane seed are not being maintained by the different agencies or organisations associated with sugarcane agriculture across different states. Further, accounting of different classes of sugarcane seed i.e. breeder, foundation and certified are not being maintained by the different sugarcane growing States therefore the exact quantum of sugarcane certified seed distributed by different agencies in major sugarcane growing state could not be assessed and resulted in failure of assessment of seed replacement rate (SRR) in sugarcane. Sugarcane varieties selected for micro-propagation should have accompanying morphological description to enable verification of varietal characteristics during different stages of seed production. The nursery crop meant for harvesting of shoots for culture is raised from heat-treated setts in a field where sugarcane crop has not been grown during the previous season. The nursery should be inspected and certified by breeders, pathologists from research institutes and accredited laboratories for freedom from diseases such as grassy shoot, phytoplasma, sugarcane mosaic virus, sugarcane yellow leaf virus, ratoon stunting disease, leaf scald, smut and red rot by using recent techniques/methods. Further, shoot tip explants can be obtained from three sources: (a) tops of actively growing canes, (b) elongating axillary shoots from the decapitated shoots, and (c) dormant axillary buds. In our experience, the best explants is the shoot tips from actively growing sugarcane tops. For best results, harvesting of shoot tips is done 120 and 180 days after planting and one to two days after a good irrigation of the nursery. This paper add information on testing and certification seed cane material for supporting the propagation within a short period of time and cost effective manner to have rapid multiplication of disease-free seed of new, improved varieties of sugarcane; and to safeguard the interests of cane growers and the sugar industry.

  9. Jyotsna Jacob and Kanika Kumar

    The outbreak of covid-19 has created a global health crisis that has had a deep impact on the way we perceive our world and our everyday lives and hence causing a significant negative impact on mental health. The uncertainty and low predictability of COVID-19 not only threaten people’s physical health, but also affect people’s mental health, especially in terms of emotions and cognition. The aim of this study is to assess the level of anxiety among general population in India during COVID-19 outbreak. An online survey was conducted with a semi-structured questionnaire using non-probability snowball sampling technique that surveyed 210 individuals through social networking platform. The level of anxiety was found out to be in mild level but it also revealed that majority of the people (86%) were preoccupied with the thoughts of COVID-19 and reported that they wash their hand more than usual. Maximum number of sample (82%) also revealed that they think twice before going out and also they have started watching news more usually. The findings of the study also revealed that there was significant association between education and profession with level of anxiety.

  10. Prakash, D.S.R.S.

    Gene therapy offers important perspectives in current and future medicine but suffers from imperfect vectors for the delivery of the therapeutic gene. Most preclinical and clinical trials have been based on the use of viral vectors, which have evident advantages but also some serious disadvantages. In the past decade the use of DNA transposon-based systems for gene delivery has emerged as a non-viral alternative. DNA transposon vector engineering remains largely in a preclinical phase but some interesting results have been obtained. This mini-review aims to provide the current state of the art on DNA transposon vectors used in a gene therapy perspective.

  11. Gitanjali Devi

    The use of bioindicators in monitoring programmes is helpful to detect environmental status or to evaluate the efficacy of measures taken to improve environmental quality and to anticipate emerging problems. Nematodes are highly diversified group of animals on earth and excellent indicator organism for determination of environmental status at the place under investigation. This review draws the importance of nematode as biological indicator of environmental status.

  12. Mkuu, D.E.

    This study examines Cretaceous to recent sediments from Msufi # 1 well located in Mafia Island, southern Tanzania. A maturity assessment was made using the vitrinite reflectance (% Rv), fluorescence colours, total organic content (TOC) and palynofacies approach. Data results were used to evaluate maturation levels, construct burial modelling and determine the peak and post-oil generation windows. Total organic content TOC in (wt %) contains values ranges from 0.1 - 0.8% implying matured enough for hydrocarbon generation. Palynofacies particles were characterized by high percentages of phytoclasts, mainly brown and black wood materials. Marine and non-marine palynomorphs were also present in lower abundances with some biodegraded materials (AOM) that confirm continental shelf, shallow marine environmental conditions with a high terrigenous input. Vitrinite reflectance ranges from 0.3 - 3.4% Rv indicating a thermal maturity level for oil and gas windows. Samples displayed yellow to brown fluorescing colours signifying maturity level throughout the oil and gas window.

  13. Dr. Paul Aloyo, Dr. Solomon Mwaniki, Prof. Caleb Mireri, Dr. Peter Kamau and Dr. Dennis Karanja

    Globally, stakeholders in learning institutions have strived to improve the schools’ physical environments in attempt to enhance learning outcomes of learners. The gist of this study was to establish whether the current status of the physical environment in the public secondary schools in Nairobi County have been mainstreamed to positively influence on the learning outcomes. The objectives of the study were: establish the extent of sufficiency of school land sizes; determine the status of schools land security of tenure; establish the status of maintenance of school buildings and; ascertain the adequacy of facilities for learning. The study adopted the case study research design. Public secondary schools were stratified into boys, girls and mixed categories. A further stratification along eight geopolitical divisions resulted into a sample of 39 schools. Results from a revised Commonwealth Association of Physical Environment (CAPE) questionnaire administered revealed that the overall average quality of mixed schools’ index of 126 was lower than that of boys’ and girls’ schools. The indices for boys’ and girls’ schools were both equal to 134. A framework of improving school facilities from the foregoing results was, therefore, suggested with key features of upgrading old facilities, improve school grounds and controlling physical development around educational facilities

  14. Preeti

    Introduction: According to the population Reference Bureau, about 17% of all married women in less developed countries would prefer to avoid a pregnancy but are not using a contraceptive method. Country with low pcontraceptive prevalence rates usually has higher unmet need levels for spacing than for limiting births, where as the opposite is usually true in countries with mid and high contraceptive prevalence rates. In general Terms, women in rural areas, women above 30 years of age and women from ethnic minorities have higher levels of unmet needs than women in urban areas and they are more likely to have unmet needs for limiting than for spacing births. Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted with an aim to assess knowledge and misconceptions regarding some selected contraceptive devices among married women. Door to door survey was conducted in Panthal district Reasi, J&k. A total of 200 non user married women were selected by door to door survey that fulfilled defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Questionnaire and checklist used for assessing knowledge and misconceptions of all married women. Result: The result revealed that the knowledge had less mean score (10.06) as compared to misconceptions (15.30) Hence it was inferred that women had an average knowledge and little misconceptions regarding selected contraceptive devices and it was found that there was inverse relationship between knowledge and misconceptions. Discussion: In the present study, majority (88.88%) were non-users of selected contraceptive devices which was inferred that women had an average knowledge and little misconceptions regarding selected contraceptive devices which leads to negative relationship between knowledge and misconceptions. A part of this, association between knowledge and education, parity and family were revealed significant results where as association between misconceptions with age, education were showed significant results whereas rest of selected variables were non-significant

  15. Preeti Dube

    Purpose of this research is that the time has come to evaluate our societal structure to preserve the root of our Hindu culture and protect the our Hindu Santana Sanskrit. We are in 21st century, in the Era of Globalization and Hi-Tech Technologies and thus world has become global village in the form of mobile in every human hand. In such a fast changing world, its our duty to preserve our original Root of Santana Dharma, Hindu culture is so Rich and progressive since ages, its traces are found since back 5000 years. The institution of marriage is an oldest social institution and provides a foundation on which whole super structure of civilization and prosperity is built, its our duty to protect essence of Hindu Marriage and its uniqueness.

  16. Narendra Prasad, Sahoo, U.K. and Obaidullah Ehrar

    The present study is concerned with tree populations and the attempt was made to study the effect of anthropogenic according to altitudinal height in Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary of Jharkhand, India. We have compared the few tree based species characteristics like density, basal area, diversity, and tree species composition along three altitude based study zones existing between 199m – 603m height creating 54 quadrates, each of size 10m × 10m. The total richness of tree species in the study area was recorded as 2471 individuals of 25 families were reported among the three zones. Shannon Weinner diversity index varied from 25 to 41 and 3.07 to 3.997 respectively along study zones of Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary. Lowest number of species (SR=25) was found from lower zone due to maximum disturvance of anthropogenic cause while least disturbed zone possessed highest number of species (SR=41). Middle zone occupied an intermediate position with respect to species richness (SR=29). The Similarity value (Si) also indicates that the highest value shown by the combination of upper zone and middle zone forest (0.707) followed by upper zone and lower zone (0.609). The combination of upper zone and middle zone, upper and lower zone, middle and lower zone forest exhibits slightly lower degree of similarity with the value of 0.707, 0.609 and 0.606 respectively. In conclusion, the degree of similarity for the entire three zone forest is low. The floristic similarity analysis between the three zones of Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary of Jharkhand show the similarity value range from 0.606 – 0.707 which is floristically low in similarity indicating heterogeneity in the species composition.

  17. Radu Irina-Miruna

    When talking about a complex application, the first thought of the majority of developers is splitting the logic into pieces. For building the smaller parts, nowadays micro services architecture is a fast-growing popular choice. But there was a time when people used to rely on a component-based development approach to satisfy the need for building components. Something happened during this interval that shifted the point of view. This article proposes to find out the relation between micro services architecture and component-based architecture. The focus of this research is towards finding how micro services and components are perceived in the opinions of scientists and IT professionals as they are exposed online.

  18. Ufaque Muzaffar, Maraj-ud-din

    Introduction: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) accounts for 5% of gynaecological Out Patient Department presentations. Generally, 4% to 11 % of postmenopausal women will experience bleeding per vaginum. Although the chances of occurrence reduces , as time since menopause increases. About 71 million people of our population are aged over 60 years and out of these, 43 million are post menopausal women, as per the third consensus meeting of Indian Menopause Society (2008). Postmenopausal bleeding is one of the most common reason for referral to gynaecological department, with a strong suspicion of malignancy. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted out on 75 patients at department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Government medical college Srinagar for a period of 18 months from June 2018- December 2019. Postmenopausal women who came up with complaints of vaginal bleeding, with their last menstrual period at least one year back and who were 45 years and above. Informed consent was taken from the study subjects. Exclusion criteria for the study subjects was taken as; Patients having pre-mature menopause, Surgically induced menopause , Radiation induced menopause, Chemotherapy induced menopause. Results: In our study of 75 patients for evaluation of PMB it was found that majority of study subjects 44% had their menopause between the age of 50-54 years, 60% had menopausal bleeding between the age of 50-59 years, 41.33% were Para 2, 34.6% had associated hypertension, 16% had associated Diabetes mellitus, 37.3% were overweight , 2.6% were obese,5.3% had Hypothyroidism and 4% had no illness. Conclusion: Medical disorders like diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension etc are associated with higher risk of malignancy. Endometrial thickness of more than 4 mm and histopathology features of proliferative changes put a patient at high risk of malignancy. The main purpose of evaluation of post menopausal bleeding is to determine the exact cause, which in majority of the cases turns out to be benign cause, though the main worry of the clinician is premalignant and malignant leisions. Hence all the patients with post menopausal bleeding need to undergo endrometrial sampling.

  19. Agaly H, Diallo M, Diallo S, Elansari M.S, Djerma I.

    L’abcès du cervelet est une localisation peu habituelle des abcès encéphaliques il peut survenir au cours des infections de l’oreille moyenne et mastoïde. La contamination se fait généralement par contiguïté, le germe le plus fréquent est le streptocoque B. Le diagnostic doit être suspecté devant une suppuration otomastoïdienne avec un syndrome d’hypertension intracrânien et un syndrome cérébelleux. L’imagerie est l’examen clé pour le diagnostic et thérapeutique. Le traitement chirurgical doit être choisi en fonction de la taille et le besoin d’identification du germe. Qui doit être suivit par un traitement de la porte d’entrée.

  20. Giulio Tarro, MD, PhD

    The certainties of this coronavirus infection are it is a new coronavirus with human-to-human transmission. The genome varies up to 12% compared to the original bat coronavirus, <1% of healthy people die from the disease. The antibodies of the healed subjects neutralize the virus also for the other infected. Those who have had the virus perhaps without their knowledge because it is asymptomatic and have overcome it by treating it as a normal flu or even pneumonia, preserve its memory through specific antibodies and are protected. He cannot infect anyone after being healed. For relapses, the subjects are immunodeficient, they did not produce the antibodies or they are infected by a different or modified virus. The symptomatology of this coronavirus respiratory syndrome is considered moderate for the majority of cases as a simple cold, which can however deepen in the pulmonary bronchus and give "mild" pneumonia, according to the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention , statement made at the end of February after the observation of about 90 thousand cases. 14% of confirmed cases became severe with serious pneumonia and dyspnoea. Another 5% of the patients had pulmonary collapse, septic shock and deficiency of several organs and correspond to the critical cases that led to the exit (2.3% of the total). The coronavirus that travels regularly in winter cause symptoms mostly colds. The cases infected by this new COVID-19 develop severe forms only if there are previous diseases and in the elderly. Less than 1% of healthy subjects died of this new SARS, while cardio patients were 10.5%, diabetics 7.3% and patients with chronic respiratory diseases, hypertension or cancer 6%.

  21. Boujoual I. and Andoh, A.

    Firstly the novel coronavirus occurred in WUHAN city (CHINA), then it has rapidly spread across China and many other countries. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 coronavirus disease outbreak a pandemic. The danger of that virus doesn’t lay mostly on its lethality but on its strong transmissibility. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, dry cough, fatigue and sometimes abdominal pain. The elderly and people with underlying chronic diseases represent a higher risk of complications. There still no consensus regarding the best antiviral treatment, but a large variety of drugs have been tested and have shown good outcomes ( chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, lopinavir and ritonavir…). In this review, we summarized the signs and symptoms, the transmission modes of COVID-19, we detailed the diagnosis and the updates regarding its treatment, and concluded with the epidemiologic state in Morocco and the actions taken by the government to avoid the spreading of the virus.

  22. Dr. Dantkale S.S., Dr. Pudale S.S., Dr. Swapnil Chandekar and Dr. Manasee Bendre

    Globally, stakeholders in learning institutions have strived to improve the schools’ physical environments in attempt to enhance learning outcomes of learners. The gist of this study was to establish whether the current status of the physical environment in the public secondary schools in Nairobi County have been mainstreamed to positively influence on the learning outcomes. The objectives of the study were: establish the extent of sufficiency of school land sizes; determine the status of schools land security of tenure; establish the status of maintenance of school buildings and; ascertain the adequacy of facilities for learning. The study adopted the case study research design. Public secondary schools were stratified into boys, girls and mixed categories. A further stratification along eight geopolitical divisions resulted into a sample of 39 schools. Results from a revised Commonwealth Association of Physical Environment (CAPE) questionnaire administered revealed that the overall average quality of mixed schools’ index of 126 was lower than that of boys’ and girls’ schools. The indices for boys’ and girls’ schools were both equal to 134. A framework of improving school facilities from the foregoing results was, therefore, suggested with key features of upgrading old facilities, improve school grounds and controlling physical development around educational facilities

  23. Benazouz, I., Moussaoui, H., Boujoual, I. and Andoh, A.

    In the context of respecting tissue economy, prosthetic implant prosthesis is the first therapeutic choice for the restoration of an anterior edentation, but this treatment option presents numerous medical and surgical contraindications. Therefore, bonded bridge is an interesting alternative rehabilitation. Its design has progressed over time. With the appearance of new ceramic systems, one of the retainers disappeared creating a new type of bonded bridge: “the all-ceramic cantilever bonded bridge”. This therapeutic proposal, which remains largely unknown to practitioners, requires a description and a precise codification of its main clinical aspects in order to be able to democratize it with a maximum security. Our article aims to review the indications, clinical stages and longevity of bonded ceramic cantilever bridges.

  24. Efstathios K. Metaxas, Konstantinos Tzelepis, Panagiota Pantoula, Konstantinos Laschos, Antigoni Karakosta and Georgios Lefakis

    It is about a70 year old male patient who underwent right nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma, excision of the tumor in the left lower lobe for adenocarcinoma and eleven months post procedures underwent successfully redo mini thoracotomy and excision of a tumor in the left upper lobe for small cell lung cancer. Patient he did not receive any adjuvant therapy. It is an interesting case report.

  25. Osunbade, O.A.., Abodunrin, T.O., Olagoke, H.B. and Mapamile, A.D.

    This work aimed at formulating and evaluating the fatty acids and amino acids profile of complementary food developed from African walnut and fermented maize flour. African walnut, turmeric roots and maize grains (Zea Mays) were processed separately into flour and formulated into blends containing 25 to 45% African walnuts. The most preferred blend was evaluated for amino acids and fatty acids profiles using standard methods. The fatty acids result revealed saturated fatty acids (14.25%) and total unsaturated fatty acids (85.75%). The results of amino acids ranged from 0.79-13.18%. Amino acids score of 51.4 was obtained for this complementary food. This show that the most preferred blend containing high essential amino acids and fatty acids required to support children growth. The study has shown that an acceptable nutrient-dense complementary food can be made from African walnut.

  26. Dr. Chetana Narendra Vate and Dr. Shyam Devidas Ganvir

    Background: Knee-osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative articular cartilage disease, combined with variable and gradually advancing thigh muscle weakness leading to functional impairments. The population worldwide, is ageing and age-related osteoarthritis is the leading cause of disability, radiographically evident in one out of four individuals between 56–84 years’ old. Osteoarthritis is the primary cause of long-term disability and is ranked second among all pathologies that result in reduced physical activity of all joints, the knee is most frequently affected by OA, which leads to the greatest loss in functional performance and incurs the highest social costs as compared to any other type of arthritis or site of OA. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find the association of physical performance among community dwelling elderly population with and without knee joint osteoarthritis. Subject and Method: 12 subject were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subjects were selected by convenient sampling method. They were divided into 2 groups of knee osteoarthritis and without knee osteoarthritis. To evaluate physical performance in elder’s time up and go test was conducted. The time taken to complete the task of TUG is recorded and then analyse. Result: Time taken to complete the time up and go test was analysed and compare between groups of knee osteoarthritis and without knee osteoarthritis by Unpaired t test (pvalue = <0.0001). Age was compared in between group and it came not significant. BMI in participants with knee OA was higher than in participate without knee OA. When KL Grading and TUGT was compared in group A pvalue: <0.0001 extremely significant. As KL grading was higher the time taken to complete TUGT was also more. Conclusion: Participant with knee joint osteoarthritis takes more time to complete the TUGT than participant without knee osteoarthritis. BMI in participant with OA was higher than in participant without OA. Higher KL Grading value also leads to more time to complete TUGT.

  27. Soomro Shabbir Ahmed

    China and Pakistan regard the CPEC as a new source of potential synergy between their respective national development strategies, which may help the two countries, translate their close political cooperation into multifaceted economic cooperation, attain mutual benefits, and achieve win-win outcomes. For the economic corridor to reach its potential, however, there are security and political challenges in Pakistan that must be addressed. China’s presence in the Global South has increased dramatically over a decade. The discourse of mutual benefit and non-intervention has attracted much attention in the developing world, which is now facing the consequences of Western interventions. However, the extent to which Chinese engagement in the developing world stays true to these principles needs to be evaluated in terms of its effects on the political-economic structures of the host nations. This study analyses how China and the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is interacting with the political and economic realities of Pakistan. Firstly, the study traces the history of regionalism in Pakistan and shows that over the years, the developmental mission of the central state has created deep-seated regionalism in Pakistan. The study shows that CPEC is deepening such cleavages. The regionalist forces have opposed the project in two broad ways: by demanding a greater share in the project or by completely rejecting the interventions. Secondly, the study analyses the lop-sided civil-military relations in Pakistan and concludes that Chinese engagement in Pakistan is leading to the military’s tighter control of civilian and economic matters relating to CPEC.

  28. Efstathios K. Metaxas, Konstantinos Tzelepis, Ioannis Stamatatos, Stavroula Amanetopoulou, Dimitrios Tsiftsis, Aristotelis K. Stefoudis, Dimitrios Klapsakis, Eleni Alexandra Maniotis, Lazaros Tsiatsios Dimitris Broutas, Stylianos Zaragkas and Athanasios S

    Background: To determine the importance of first and second rib fractures upon the causes, sex, age groups, associated injuries, morbidity and mortality. Methods:In a 25 year period a retrospective study took place. Thirty one (31) patients diagnosed with first and second rib fractures in General Hospital of Nicaea-Piraeus Agios Panteleimon Thoracic Surgery Department. Results:Between the years 1995 to 2020 (25years) 31patients diagnosed with first and second rib fractures, 22 male (70,96 %) and 9 female (29,032 %), aged 26-79 years mean age 44 years. Aetiologic Factors. Traffic accident reported 28 (90,322%) patients, fall from high 3(9,677%) patients. Associated injuries. Rib fractures(medium and lower)25, Sternal fractures 5, Flail chest13, Pneumohaemothorax 19, Scapula bone fracture 11, Lung Contusion 23, Pneumomesopmeumonium 1, Haemopericardium 1, Diaphragmatic ruptures 3, Haemoperitoneum 14, Head injuries 3,Vertebral fractures7, Kidney injury – nephrectomy 1, Pelvis fractures 3, Upper extremities fractures 11, Lower extremities fractures 4.Conclusion. Most of the patients underwent chest drain insertion for Pneumohaemothorax. Otherwise conservative treatment for the majority of the patients, analgesic and anti-inflammatory medication, nebulizers, low molecular heparin, monitoring physiotherapy and early mobilization. The patients’ hospital stay and the results of the treatment were determined mostly by the gravidity of the associated injuries and the early diagnosis and management. Multi trauma patients required intensive care unit required longer stay in the hospital. There is no doubt about first and second rib fractures and associated injuries that the successful management needs to be done by a properly trained and experienced team.Attention should be given to collaboration to other specialties in the hospital like, general surgeons, neurosurgeons, orthopaedics for the management when operation required. Computer Ct Angiography (with contrast) and 3D Reconstruction = The Gold Standard. No major vascular trauma was noticed.

  29. Benradi, L., Nour, M. Zaari. N, Derouich. Y, Fitri. M, Elaissaoui. F, Aadem. A, Habib. S and Belahcen. M.

    Cystic lymphangioma is a rare type of tumor of the lymphatic system, benign and typical during infancy, and are generally congenital. They are basically dilated lymph nodes with an endothelial covering, and serous or chylous contents. This tumor is located in the neck in 75% and axilla in 20% of cases. Involvement of the upper limb and particularly the elbow is very rare. We report on a case of macrocystic lymphatic malformation localized at the elbow. It was a 14 years old adolecent. Was followed up in our department because of congenital subcutaneous soft, painless mass of the left elbow. Ultrasonography and CT scan were evocative of the diagnosis of macrocystic lymphatic malformation. Surgical resection was complete without postoperative recurrence.

  30. Benradi, L., Nour, M., Salhi, H., Elaissaoui, F., Aadem, A. and Belahcen, M., Haloui, A., Mouhoub, M. and Bennani, A.

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease progressing by flares which can affect both sexes at any age. The lesions can be localiseted or multifocal; the organs most frequently affected are the bone, the lung, the skin and the endocrine system. We report a case of a young 13-year-old child with single focal clavicular langerhansian histiocytosis kept under surveillance with good clinical and radiological progress.

  31. Efstathios K. Metaxas, Antonios Katsipoulakis, Konstantinos Laschos, Dimitrios Tsitsimelis, Gerasimos Aravantinos and Nikolaos Anastasiou

    It is about a 52year old female diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. Presented almost two years post Ca breast treatment with a solidary chest wall mass(single metastasis post breast cancer therapy), involving the right chest wall, the right lateral part of the sternum, who finally underwent successfully mass removal, right hemi sternum excision and mess placement with a unique technique. One year and a half post procedure patient is in good health, free of disease on a regular basis follow up. It is an interesting case report specially the used operative technique.

  32. Suneesh Kuruvilla, Subramaniam, R., Serin Varghese, Riya Davis, Rahumath, Shaheena Latheef, Ashif Muhammad, Vidya Venugopal and Dr. Pooja Latti

    Background: The first case of COVID-19 was reported in the state of Kerala in India on 30th of January 2020. Since then the Government of Kerala has acted swiftly in preventing the spread of infection. The first wave affected 3 medical students from China, who were treated successfully. The second wave started from 7th of March and till date, about 401 patients have been diagnosed positive. This study was conducted between the first wave and beginning of the second wave to assess the awareness of patients visiting a dental teaching institution. Methodology: The study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. The target population was the patients visiting a dental teaching institution in the state of Kerala, India. The questionnaire consisted of 11 questions with 2 sub-questions. The questionnaires were distributed by the house surgeons posted in the Department of Public Health Dentistry. The respondents filled the answers in the questionnaire on their own and were asked to return the filled questionnaires immediately. The data collection was done over a period of one month during February – March 2020. Results: A total of 440 responses were obtained. All respondents had heard about corona virus. Over 98% knew it originated from China. 99% knew the country of origin. The most common symptom the respondents knew was breathlessness followed by flu like symptoms. Newspapers, government sources and social media were the most common sources of awareness. Over 58% agreed that they knew where to report. 52% were taking precautions. Over 96% were interested in knowing more about the disease. Conclusion: The respondents had a very good awareness on COVID 19, even before the second wave of the epidemic in Kerala.

  33. Prakash, D.S.R.S.

    Introducing a new gene by replacing the mutant gene, is the prime goal of any gene therapy. In the present section, we will understand the mechanism of gene therapy and its types. “A process to recover the normal function of a gene by transferring a gene is known as gene therapy.” Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. In the past few decades, many efforts have been made to improve the prognosis of GBM, however, with limited success. Many gene therapy strategies for GBM have been developed and a few have progressed to clinical trials. Retroviral vectors have superior features for gene therapy in brain cancers, including tumor specificity, immunogenicity, and longer half-life. Early gene therapy trials in GBM patients based on transplantation of retrovirus-producing cells into the brain failed to prove efficacious. Adenoviral vectors, which can be prepared as high-titer virus solutions and undergo efficient transduction in tumor cells, failed in clinical trials, likely due to immunogenicity and instability of gene expression. Alternative therapeutics such as oncolytic viruses that specifically target and destroy cancer cells are currently under investigation. In addition to novel vectors, retroviral vectors are still attractive candidates for use in gene therapy against brain tumors. Since yields of properly-packaged viral particles from virus-producing cells have been very limited so far, gene therapy by direct injection of high- titer retroviral vectors into the patients’ brains was not possible. To overcome these disadvantages, a packaging cell line that yields high-titer retroviral solutions was established by our group, enabling the direct injection of massive retroviral vector stocks directly into the brain. Mouse glioma models were effectively cured with a combination of a suicide gene/ prodrug system and a highly-concentrated retrovirus solution. Preclinical assessments, including that of replication-competent retroviruses and tumorigenicity of the combination method, have confirmed the safety of the highly-concentrated retrovirus solution. Addimited so far, gene therapy by direct injection of high- titer retroviral vectors into the patients’ brains was not possible. To overcome these disadvantages, a packaging cell line that yields high-titer retroviral solutions was established by our group, enabling the direct injection of massive retroviral vector stocks directly into the brain. Mouse glioma models were effectively cured with a combination of a suicide gene/ prodrug system and a highly-concentrated retrovirus solution. Preclinical assessments, including that of replication-competent retroviruses and tumorigenicity of the combination method, have confirmed the safety of the highly-concentrated retrovirus solution. Additional studies are needed to address the clinical utility of such combination gene therapies. Taken together, these data suggest that retroviral vectors are still good candidates for development in gene therapy applications.

  34. Dr. Swara Desai (PT) Dr. Nikita Chauhan (PT) and Dr. Priti Mehendale (PT)

    Background: Haemophilia is a hereditary X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the deficiency of factor VIII or IX coagulant activity. Internal and prolonged bleeding into the joint space and muscles are the main symptoms of haemophilia which inadvertently results into haemophilic arthropathy and affects the individual’s life. This study was conducted to gain an insight into the impact of haemophilia on the Quality of Life (QoL) of haemophiliac adults. Methods: This was a case series which included 30 patients, who were screened for the inclusion and exclusion criteria and enrolled in the study. Male patients with Haemophilia A or B who were undergoing treatment at the hospital and in the age group of 18-60 yrs. with complications of Haemophilia such as joint swelling, spontaneous bleeding etc. were included in the study. Patients with and musculoskeletal, neurological or cardiovascular conditions not associated with Haemophilia and other bleeding tendencies such as liver failure, anti- coagulant drugs, etc. were excluded from the study. The outcome measures used were the HAEM- A – QOL, which is an adult version of the quality of life in Haemophilic adults and the Numerical Pain rating scale (NPRS). Results: Total 30 patients were included in this study, the HAEM- A- QOL questionnaire was administered and NPRS was taken. The average age of the patients was 29 years (±3.97) and mean NPRS score was 4.2 (±1.31). 40% of the subjects had elbow as their target joint and rest 60% had knee as their target joint. The Mean and Standard Deviation for various subscales were: 1. Day to Day activities – 56(±6.99) 2. Mood and Feelings – 65.1(±7.32) 3. Work or school life, family life and Social Life – 62.8(±2.17) 4. Haemophilia Treatment – 30.5 (±7.56). Average QOL of Life was 53.6, with standard deviation ±10.46 in adult male haemophilia patients. Conclusion: The present study concludes that there was a moderate affection of the quality of life in these patients. According to the HAEM- A- QOL, the emotional and behavioural aspect was severely affected followed by the Social life and the Activities of Daily living, which were moderately affected. Worries/ concerns related to the treatment were mildly affected.

  35. Dr. Dhalkari, C.D., Dr. Indurkar, M.S., Dr. Gayathri, R.

    Introduction: Maxillary labial frenum is a fold of the mucous membrane which connects lip to the alveolar process of the jaw. The upper labial frenum is a normal anatomic structure with inherent morphological variations. Aim: To evaluate the variation in the maxillary labial frenum attachments and its morphology in population. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 100 subjects within age group of 15–35 years. Intraoral examination was done to evaluate the maxillary labial frenum attachment location and morphology by direct visual method and photographs were taken. Result: In this study, depending upon the extend of attachment fiber the most common type is mucosal (65%) followed by gingival type (25%), and papillary type (3%) is least common. The most common morphological type is normal frenum (60%) followed by normal frenum with nodule (17%) and normal frenum with appendix (13%). The least common morphological type is bifid labial frenum (1%). Conclusion: Maxillary labial frenum have different morphological variation and it may cause mucogingival problem. So the practitioner necessary to give importance for frenum assessment during clinical examination to prevent periodontal problem and need to relocate or excise high frenal attachment during mucogingival surgery (root coverage) for complete coverage of root.

  36. Luis Miguel Méndez Saucedo,Claudia Alejandra González Prado García, Natalia Montemayor Peña, Francisco Javier Mancilla Mejía, Laura Serrano Salinas, Ivonne Esperanza Zayas Lara, Sandra Leticia Aguilar Vazquez, Abraham Hernández Mundo and Silvia Lissett

    The lingual abscess is rare, it is important to know how to detect it in time since it can be confused with another type of pathology and is life-threatening. Objective: To present a clinical case of a rare entity that may compromise the airway as well as the most appropriate approach and treatment. The tongue is an area that is considered resistant to infection and that is constantly exposed to trauma. Clinical case: A 79-year-old diabetic male, with a clinical picture suggestive of lingual pathology, with an increase in the volume of the tongue that feels fluctuating and painful with simple and contrasted tomography where a purulent collection was observed. Surgical drainage and impregnation with antibiotics were performed. Results and conclusion: after intravenous impregnation for 3 days with a double antibiotic scheme and surgical drainage, the patient presented a fast and satisfactory recovery.

  37. Dr. Shweta Varma, Dr. Ajay Bhoosreddy, Dr. Mala Jaisinghani and Dr. Manjari Chaudhary

    Pemphigus Vulgaris is a chronic autoimmune intradermal blistering mucocutaneous disease that initially manifests in the form of intraoral lesions, followed by other mucous membranes and the skin. The aetiology of the disease still remains unclear but the presence of auto antibodies is consistent with an autoimmune disease. Systemic corticosteroids remain the treatment of choice but topical corticosteroids are also used for long term non-healing lesions of the oral cavity. In this article, we have discussed a case of a 60-year-old woman showing oral ulceration without skin lesions.

  38. Tajamul Rashid, Shahid Rasool and Irfan Nazir

    Background: Primary Tuberculosis (TB) of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare condition. In fact thyroid gland was considered immune to the tuberculosis till 1862, when Lebertreported the involvement of the gland in a patient with disseminated tuberculosis. Case report: We report a young lady of 21 years of age who presented to ENT out-patient department with history of pain and swelling neck of 3 months duration. FNAC showed presence of histiocytes, epitheliod and giant cells, and was positive for acid fast staining suggesting tuberculosis. Conclusion: Though a rare entity, tuberculosis of the thyroid gland should be considered while managing a patient with a thyroid nodule. As anti-tuberculosis therapy is efficacious, proper diagnosis by FNAC and histopathological examination could avoid unnecessary surgical interventions.

  39. Abera Tsegaye

    This article attempts to indicate the benefit of Facebook in learning English as a foreign language. It examines students” perception of using Facebook for practicing their English. It also discusses the opportunity the social media, i.e. Facebook, has for students to learn English. To this end, Three matrixes: language change, self-stem and motivation were used to elicit information from the participants regarding their practices of English Language learning using Facebook .Sixty-five students who were all from Department of English Language and Literature participated in the survey. The findings thus reveal that students have benefited greatly from Facebook. It has allowed them to communicate globally in which English is used as a lingua franca. Hence, it was found that students have developed self-confidence to use English as a medium to communicate through Facebook, and they are motivated to use it to learn English as a Foreign Language. As a result, it is recommended that English Language instructors should consider Facebook as a tool to help their students learn and practice their English.

  40. Teshome Kassahun

    Ethiopia has huge amounts of non-timber forest products like bamboos and honey resources, but thecontribution of these resources to the national economy is very low due to underutilization. Thus, this study aims at identifying and understanding the reasons for inefficiencies in the highland bamboo and honey value chains and to identify potential leverage points for improving the performance of the chain: the case of Dawuro. Both mixed quantitative and qualitative research approaches; and cross-sectional survey were employed: A multistage sampling technique was employed to select a sample from the target sample units. Data were collected sample of 185 honey value chain actors and 132 highland bamboo value chain actors through initial desk research, key informant interviews, Focus Group Discussions, and interviews questionnaires and checklists. Both value chain and econometric analysis methods were used as analytical tools. Value chain analysis results shown that both bamboo and honey chain actors were neither vertically nor horizontally linked. Spot market transactions regime was the common marketing system in both bamboo and honey value chains. Most the existing marketing channels in study areas are to enlarged and inaccessible to move culm and honey products to market that diminishes mainly the producer’s share the trade of culm accounts 17.5% (birr 4416 or $132.48(1EBT = USD 0.03)) share of total bamboo farmer’s annual income. However, education status and training, farming experiences, farmer’s expectation on bamboo business, lack of formal market access and information dissemination, weak bamboo value chain actors linkages, lack of bamboo extension services and incentives, knowledge and skills limitations on bamboo silvicultural managements, lack of treatments of culms to increase its service life and standards were the key contributing factors of highland bamboo value chain development at farm stage. Honey trade was accounts 28% (birr 28840 or $865.20) of household’s gross annual income. On the other hand, the education status, selling price of honey, distance to the nearest market, access to honey extension service, honey farming experiences, the total number of modern hives owned by producer affects the quantity of honey supply to the market at p < 0.00 significance levels. The short and well-liked marketing channels should be established to enhance the reasonable benefit distribution of chain actors. To increase chain performance of both bamboo and honey value chains, product and process upgrading strategies, common objectives, extension and training should be designed and delivered continuously by honey and bamboo chain support providers.

  41. Samuel Chimdi, Jemal Abafita and Lemma Shallo

    The purpose of this study was to examine impacts of saving and credit cooperative societies on household wellbeing in Gurage Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Primary and secondary sources were used. The primary data source was collected through direct interviews based on semi structured questionnaires from 90 treated and 112 controlled group plus discussion with three informant group and extra with staffs of two unions .The study was used a cross- sectional survey research design, and the multistage sampling techniques was employed. The survey data were analyzed through quantitative method, and used descriptive statistics and inferentially statistics logit and propensity score matching econometrics model. The study finding shows age, education, training, loan, interest rate, income sources are the main factors affecting saving and credit cooperative membership participation. The impact evaluation finding based on household asset accumulation measurements shows saving and credit cooperative participants were more own asset than non-participants. However, there is no significant difference between income and consumption among membership participants and non-participants. Finally, researcher recommend saving and credit cooperatives should seriously work to develop members entrepreneurial talent and promoting members to investing on off-farm and non-farm rather than invest on fixed asset activities to improve household wellbeing.

  42. Mauro Luisetto, Naseer Almukthar, Giulio Tarro, Ghulam Rasool Mashori, Gamal Abdul Hamid, Ahmed Yesvi Rafa, Caterina Fiazza and Oleg Yurevich Latyshev

    Related health international organization there are two principal way of transmission of coronavirus covid- 19: direct contact whit infected subject or by droplets. Other way under deep investigation by researcher is airborne transmission. Related the evidence presented in this work is possible to verify that in indoor settings this is possible. Relevant is the distance considered. Observing the role played by PM10 of polluted air in accelerated diffusion of covid-19 in some world region Is interesting to observe the effect of musk use to reduce intake of this pollutants for a significative period. All this evidence must be applied in many healthcare settings like oncology or towards immunodepressed (or other kind of vulnerable condition) patients also during access to hospitals. ICU settings are the hospital area subjected to severe procedure to prevent diffusion of Covid -19 and other infectious disease like MDR bacteria or some invasive fungal but according published evidences other area in hospital settings must be considered at risk to diffuse this kind of infectious disease.

  43. Suraj Mandal, Himanshu and Km. Shiva

    Corona viruses (CoVs) is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae that have various types of strain such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, nCoV. After an outbreak of pandemic corona virus (COVID-19) from the Central Chinese city of Wuhan, WHO has been declared a global health emergency in whole world. Now it become a very serious problem even developed countries are worsely affected and because of this pandemic situation above 200 countries are affected and more than 204,987 people are died in the worldwide. Even in this modern era where we have enough resources but still we are facing many problems with lot of diseases. Scientists and doctors are not getting any medicines against this pandemic. Nobody knows how much time it will take to completely cure to all affected people. This has become a biggest threat to humanity in 2020.

  44. Dr. Mahesh Dave Dr. Saurabh Jain Dr. Heer Nath

    Background: Snakebite is a major public health problem throughout the world and more so in tropical and subtropical countries, where people are more engaged in agriculture work have highest incidences of snake bites. The neutrophilic/lymphocytic ratio (NLR) is one of the valuable test which may be altered in acute infection, acute stress, acute inflammation and hypovolemic shock. Methodology: This was a descriptive case control study which was carried out over all the patients of snake bite admitted to medical wards of Maharana Bhupal Government Hospital, R.N.T. Medical College, Udaipur (Rajasthan) between the period from January 2019 to November 2019. Result: Maximum incidence of snake bite was found in male (62%), from rural area(78%) with farmers (38%) by occupation. It was observed that bite was common in monsoon and post monsoon season (88%), bite was common in lower extrimities (56%) and at night time (60%).Among all bite 40% was contributed by non poisonious and rest 60% was poisonious bite , out of which haemorrhagic and neuroparalytic both contributed equally. NLR is found to be normal (<3) in 20% of the snake bite patient while 80% have raise NLR (40% patient have 3-10 followed by 22% patient have 11-20 followed by 12% patient have 21-40). Conclusion: NLR was significantly high in snake bite patient both hemorrhagic and neuro-paralytic. NLR is having strong association with lag period, hospital stay, severity and outcome.

  45. Mugendhiran, S. and Sheeja, B.D.

    The Nilgiri hills consist of a well-defined plateau situated at the junction of the two great ranges of hills, Eastern and Western Ghats. Asteraceae is one of the largest families having medicinal and aromatic plants in Nilgiris. The milk thistle plant, Silybum marianum is an annual or biennial plant, native to the Mediterranean area and some parts of the United States; this has now spread to other warm and dry regions. To investigate the phytochemicals, FT-IR and GC-MS analysis of ethanol extracts of Silybum marianum was done. Seeds were shade dried and finely powdered for ethanolic extraction. Then, each of the extracts was further subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Qualitative determination of the different biologically active compounds from crude extracts of Silybum marianum using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed different type’s chemical entities of high and low molecular weight of varying amounts present in each of the extracts. These chemical compounds are considered biologically and pharmacologically important. The study established the chemical composition and anticancer activity of the plant.

  46. Benazouz, I., Boujoual, I. and Andoh, A.

    Acrylic, Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) based polymers are found in many industrial, professional and consumer products and are of low toxicity, but do contain very low levels of residual monomers and process chemicals that can leach out during handling and use. Methyl Methacrylate, the principle monomer is of low toxicity, but is a recognized weak skin sensitizer. When exposed to MMA in the dental clinic, dentists and other dental staff appear to occasionally suffer hypersensitivity, asthmatic reactions, local neurological symptoms, irritant and local dermatological reactions. The integrity of latex gloves may also be compromised after exposure to MMA during dental procedures. Dental staff should avoid direct contact with MMA and room ventilation should be optimized. The purpose of this article is to outline the cytotoxic consequences of acrylic resins and clinical recommendations for their use.

  47. Muhammad bin Abdul Hamid, Akhter Rasool Dar and Nadia Rashid

    Introduction: Congenital clubfoot is one of the most common congenital anomalies encountered in orthopaedics. Its etiology has been proposed to be multifactorial. We studied the association of various factors, with special reference to consanguinity between parents as the possible etiological factor in the development of this condition. Materials and methods: 78 children with congenital talipes equinovarus were included in our study, and a detailed history was taken, with emphasis on parental consanguinity, and an examination was done to assess the idiopathic, or non-idiopathic nature of clubfoot. Results: Idiopathic CTEV was the most common type diagnosed. Of the 78 children with CTEV, 21 (27%) were born out of consanguineous marriages. Only 1 out of those 21 children had a non-idiopathic CTEV. Conclusions: There is a high incidence of parental consanguinity among parents in the children diagnosed with congenital clubfoot, in our region. However, parental consanguinity was not associated with increasing severity of clubfoot. More studies, and possibly genetic testing, however, are needed to clarify the association of disease severity with parental consanguinity.

  48. Dr. Rajeev Verma, Dr. M.R. Pandya, Dr. Meenakshi Verma

    Cholesterol is an important building block in the formation and repair of cell walls, function of nerve tissue, and the production of hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and the stress hormone, cortisol. It is important to understand that fat tissue (cholesterol) in itself is not bad, and is actually essential for the body to function properly. The mixing of ama with fat tissue is the main cause of imbalanced cholesterol as per Ayurveda. When meda dhatu mixes with ama, it changes the quality of fat tissue and the quality of cholesterol, making it unhealthy rather than healthy. High cholesterol raises our risk for heart disease, heart attack. In Ayurvedic perspective, the production of cholesterol does not necessarily need to be lessened, but it needs to be balanced. When the digestion is balanced and healthy, then the body produces .the right amount of cholesterol, in the right proportion to nourish the body. Balanced diet, proper lifestyles, exercise, yoga, balanced Agni (digestion & metabolism) play important role in prevention of hypercholesterolemia.

  49. Dr. Sujit Nath Choudhary and Dr. Bajesh Kumar

    Background: Pneumonia is the most common single cause of death among children under 5 years of age in the developing countries, Pneumonia accounts for 16% of all deaths of children under that age, killing 920136 children in 2015. Anemia prevalence in young children continues to remain over 70% in most parts of India and Asia despite a policy being in place and a program that has been initiated for a long time. The major health consequences of anemia include physical and cognitive impairment, as well as increased morbidity and mortality related to infection. Aims and objectives • To assess Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) as a risk factor for pneumonia. • To know the association between IDA and pneumonia in children. Methods: This case control study was conducted in Department of Pediatrics in Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar during the period of one year from July 2016 to June 2017. A total of 100 children aging between 6 months-60 months were selected and grouped into 50 cases which were hospitalized for pneumonia (28 (56%) male and 22 (44%) female) and 50 healthy controls (29 (58%) male and 21 (42%) female) without any respiratory problems, attended Out Patient Department. After taking an informed verbal consent from the parents, children were subjected to medical history taking, clinical examination and complete blood count was done, Serum Iron, serum ferritin, and total iron biding capacity were done among children with hemoglobin less than 11 g/dl. Chest radiography was also done for hospitalized cases for pneumonia. Results: Anemia, particularly IDA, was significantly more frequent among cases than controls groups (p<0.001). Hemoglobin level was significantly lower in the IDA patients than in the IDA controls (P=0.02), Anemia was a risk factor for childhood pneumonia (P<0.001, odds ratio 6.8, and confidence interval 2.73-17.09) and recurrent chest infection (P<0.001, odds ratio 10.48, and confidence interval 3.59-30.56). Conclusions: Anemia, particularly IDA in children associated with pneumonia was significant. Prevention, early and accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment of anemia are necessary for a better outcome.

  50. Manote Arpornsuwan, MD and Matinun Arpornsuwan, MD

    Early diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is crucial for disease treatment and control. The clinical characteristics in patients infected with COVID-19 most commonly manifest fever, cough and fatigue, which in some patients can be accompanied by runny nose, headache and other symptoms. Additional symptoms such as diarrhea are less common. All research about the clinical characteristics of COVID-19, none of COVID-19 research mentioned that facial flushing was a clinical feature that could be found. The invisible facial flushing, unrecognized clinical sign with the naked eye could be detected by the smartphone application in the COVID-19 patients. This novel screening tool for COVID-19 patients will be potential for early diagnosis and may be used in conjunction with thermoscan camera as front line screening and diagnostic capacity. It will help all medical service providers the effective screening tool for the recognition and early diagnosis before performing CT scans and real-time RT PCR (rRT-PCR) assays, especially in some health care facilities where could not be performed due to lack of laboratory support. Furthermore, application in active case finding for COVID-19, the key actions to stop transmission is challenging in countries with community transmission.

  51. Dr. Sarish Latief, Dr. Muneeba Lateaf, Dr. Jaismeen Kaur, Dr. Ranjan Mani Tripathi and Dr. Himanshu Singh

    Osteomyelitis of jaw bone is characterized by inflammatory reactions .Osteomyelitis seems to be related with some systemic diseases like malnutrition and autoimmune diseases. Microbiological culture suggests that staphylococcus aureus along with T.palladium, A.israelli are responsible for osteomyelitis .Various diagnostic methods like ultrasound, CT, MRI etc are seen beneficial in accurate diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Antiobiotics, hyperbaric oxygen, incision and drainage are some useful methods that helps in management of osteomyelitis.

  52. Dr. Nadia Irshad, Dr. Navneet Kour, Dr. Kousain Sehar, Dr. Manju Verma, Dr. Shakir Hussain, Dr. Adeel Ahmed, Dr. Burhan Altaf and Dr. Ambree Hajni

    Different viruses have been posing threat to humanity from time to time, and in 2019 a severe respiratory illness (Pneumonia of unknown etiology) reported in Wuhan, Hubei province China, became a major challenge to public health not only in China but also the countries around the world, and is still creating havoc. Despite of intense efforts about how, when and where this disease appeared is still a source of considerable uncertainty. Little is known about the effectiveness of personal protective equipment for health care workers who take care of patients infected with the novel coronavirus but still infection control measures are necessary to be taken to prevent this disease from further spread and to help control the pandemic situation. Like other health workers, dentists are also at the risk of getting this infection, as COVID 19 was recently identified in the saliva of infected patients and thus playing the pivotal role in human to human transmission. As in bronchoscopy, inhalation of air borne particles and aerosols produced during dental procedures with COVID 19 patients can be a high risk in which dentists are directly and closely exposed to infection. Therefore, it is crucial for dentists to refine preventive strategies to avoid the COVID 19 infection by focussing on patient placement, hand hygiene and completely follow the WHO guidelines. Thus in this article we will discuss in detail about the various strains, incubation period, mode of transmission and the preventive measures needed to overcome this threat.

  53. Dr. Ashutosh Kumar and Dr. Manjul Mohan

    Background: Post thrombotic syndrome an important chronic consequence of deep vein thrombosis. Severe post thrombotic syndrome including venous ulcer, which develop in 5% to 10 %, the principal risk factors of post thrombotic syndrome are anatomically extensive DVT, recurrent ipsilateral DVT. Recurrent DVT that may occur years later after the initial event is a known risk factor for the development of PTS. 1 (super script done)Post thrombosis of big vein in abdomen (vena cava) or pelvic (iliac vein) leads to development of collaterals in anterior abdominal wall. Case report: A 28 year male chronic smoker known case of DVT presented with non healing venous ulcer with dilated anterior abdominal wall and left leg vein. On evaluation, he was diagnosed with anterior abdominal wall varicose vein in post thrombotic syndrome post DVT with secondary varicose vein and venous ulcer in left leg for which anticoagulant was prescribed with advice of stenting. Discussion: Post thrombotic syndrome of the legs, characterized by chronic venous insufficiency, occurs in up to half of patients who experience DVT or Pulmonary embolism. After DVT, Post thrombotic syndrome will develop in 20% to 50% of patient and post thrombotic syndrome complication are stasis ulcer, skin changes and varicose vein of leg commonly. Post DVT of major vessel of leg, resulting varicosity of the veins of abdominal wall which is a rare complication. Large, prominent normal veins are seen often in the abdominal wal1, particularity in thin individual is and in conjunction with prominent veins elsewhere in the body.

  54. Makeche Chinyama Mauris and Nyendwa David Jonathan

    The physical-chemical conditions, phytoplankton diversity and zooplankton diversity of the lower Kafue river were studied in January, 2020. The study was aimed at assessing the physical-chemical conditions of the lower part of the Kafue river and determine the phytoplankton diversity and zooplankton diversity in the lower Kafue River. The study sites that were sampled were Muyanganas at Kafue Fisheries Limited and Kasaka Fisheries Training Centre. Kafue Fisheries Limited is an aquaculture habitat while Muyanganas and Kasaka Fisheries Training Centre are non-aquaculture areas. Water samples were collected using a filtering water sampler. Collected water samples were preserved in 1000 mL plastic bottle by adding 5 mL of 4% formalin concentration. The phytoplanktons were counted using a PX Biological microscope. The plankton species were identified to genus level. Water samples collected from each study site were analysed in order to determine Temperature, pH and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels. These parameters were determined using an automated pH meter. The results of regression analysis showed that there was a significant regression of phytoplankton diversity on zooplankton diversity in the lower Kafue river (p = 0.02). However, there was no significant difference (p=0.7451) among the physical-chemical parameters within the study area. The results obtained implied that aquaculture has an impact on both phytoplankton and zooplankton diversity in the lower part of the Kafue river.

  55. Dr. Kousain Sehar, Dr. Nadia Irshad, Dr. Navneet kour and Dr. Manju Verma

    The development and evolution of classification systems for periodontal diseases have been largely influenced by paradigms that reflects understanding of the nature of periodontal diseases during a given historical period. Based upon definition from the World Health Organization (WHO), periodontal health should be defined as a state free from inflammatory periodontal disease that allows an individual to function normally and avoid consequences (mental or physical) due to current or past disease. Reseachers have provided a foundation to study the etiology, susceptibility traits, pathogenesis, and treatment of diseases in an organized manner by evolving clinicians a way to organize the health care needs of their patients. The workshop was co‐sponsored by the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) and the European Federation of Periodontology (EFP) and included expert participants from all over the world. Planning for the conference, which was held in Chicago on November 9 to 11, 2017, began in early 2015 summarizing the proceedings of the World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri‐implant Diseases and Conditions. An organizing committee from the AAP and EFP commissioned 19 review papers and four consensus reports covering relevant areas in periodontology and implant dentistry. The authors were charged with updating the 1999 classification of periodontal diseases and conditions1 and developing a similar scheme for peri‐implant diseases and conditions.

  56. Dr. Siddharth Narote, Dr. Amit Saragade and Dr. Kunal Vaishnav

    The epidemic of coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19), has become a major public health challenge for countries around the world. The World Health Organization announced that the outbreaks of the novel coronavirus as a public health emergency. A route suggested for human-to-human transmission is through airborne droplets, touching or coming into contact with an infected person or a contaminated surface. Dentists are at higher risk of getting infected and need to take concerned precautions. Telemedicine has been used in almost all medical specialties but not so widely used or accepted in dentistry. Teledentistry is an emerging mode of practice which indicated great potential in fields of clinical practice as well as public health delivery. It has a major role in providing information regarding the medications without risking the contact contamination. Teledentistry eliminates that barrier and provides a smoother practice environment. This review signifies the importance of teledentistry during the outbreak of COVID-19.

  57. Konan Behiblo, N. B., Robet, E. J., Yeboue, K. H., Zoho bi F.G. A. and Amoikon, K. E.

    The present study was carried out on soybeans (Glycine max), cowpeas (Vignaunguiculata), lima beans (Phaseoluslunatus) and pigeon peas (Cajanuscajan) in order to promote their consumption in Africa by determining their nutritional values. For this purpose, a physico-chemical analysis of each whish was performed reveal that the powders of soyabeans, cowpeas, lima beans and pigeon peas are richer in proteins (pigeon peas : 15.98 ± 0.23% and soyabeans : 30.77 ± 0.83%) and the fibers (lima beans : 20 , 62 ± 0.21% and soyabeans : 29.45 ± 0.07%). They have low water contents (cowpeas: 7.65 ± 0.18% and lima beans: 10.93 ± 0.03%). The ash content varied from (cowpeas: 3.86 ± 0.06%. Tosoyabeans: 5.23 ± 0.06%). Regarding the lipid contents of the seeds, they were between (lima beans: 1.16 ± 0.15% and soyabeans: 19, 86 ± 0.15%) while the carbohydrate content is between soyabeans: 32.90 ± 2.11% and pigeon peas: 55.59 ± 0.08%). The energy value varied between cowpeas 228.41 ± 1.81 andsoyabeans: 358.85 ± 5.07 Kcal per 100 g of powders. As for the phytochemical composition, the content of phenolic compounds is the highest and it varies from (lima beans: 29.76 ± 0.24 mg / 100 g of DM tosoyabeans: 114.26 ± 0.09 mg / 100 g of DM). Likewose the values of the antinutritional factors are respectively (pigeon peas: 7.51 ± 0.48 mg / 100 g of DM and soyabeans: 17.25 ± 1.15 mg / 100 g of DM) and (pigeon peas: 53.18 ± 1.18 mg / 100g and lima beans: 84.52 ± 1.08 mg / 100g DM) All leguminous beans are rich in potassium (pigeon peas: 23.57 ± 0.57% and cowpeas : 27.78 ± 0.89%) and phosphorus (lima beans: 5.07 ± 0.06% and soyabeans: 8.63 ± 0.28 %). The results show that all the leguminous beans studied represent a potential source of lipids and proteins in the diet of Ivorians.

  58. Tabish Fahim, Ajeet Kumar Saharan, Richa Mahajan and Anand Kumar Singh

    Introduction: Physical self-concept is viewed as basic for acknowledging human potential. A competitor with unsatisfied self-perception may encounter more prominent competition anxiety than his peers who have fulfilled self-perceptions or take part in non-aesthetic games because of the apparent risk of their unacceptable build. Aim: To determine the effect of physical self-concept on competition anxiety of young wrestlers. Materials and Methods: Physical Self Perception Profile (PSPP) and Sports Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) were administered on a total of 123 young wrestlers who participated in the “7th All India Chandgiram gold cup wrestling tournaments in March 17-18, 2018”. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the significance relationship. Results: The average age of wrestlers was 22 years. The relationship between Physical Self-concept and competition anxiety was negative, strong in strength and statistically significant (p-value 0.05). Conclusion: Wrestler's competition anxiety diminishes with the increase of Physical Self-concept. Such data will help wrestlers themselves, just as coaches and sport psychology advisors.

  59. Shivani Parmar and Ankita Sharma

    Bioceramics are materials which include alumina, zirconia, bioactive glass, glass ceramics, hydroxyapatite, resorbable calcium phosphates. They have been used in dentistry as root repair materials, bony defects repair, apical filling material, perforation repair and help in tissue regeneration. They have certain advantages like biocompatibility, non toxicity, dimensional stability and bio-inertness. They have a structural similarity to Hydroxyapatite, an intrinsic osteo conductive activity and have an ability to induce regenerative responses in the human body.This review focuses on an overview of Bioceramics, classification and their advantages and also gave a detailed insight into individual bioceramic materials currently used in the fields of endodontics.

  60. Chaudhary Veena

    In this study, the aim was to find out the prevalence of sex ratio, preterm birth rate, low birth weight rate, twin birth rate, congenital abnormalities, caesarean delivery rate, morbidity & mortality rate in a group of neonates born alive in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India. These neonates (652 singleton neonates & 16 twins) were born alive to 660 mothers (42.73% primigravida & 57.27% multigravida), in Rockland hospital, from 01.01.2012 till 07.08.2014. In our study of 668 neonates (368 males & 300 females), Sex ratio of birth was 1.23 males/female, preterm birth rate was 9.58%, LBW rate was 11.23%, VLBW rate was 0.3%, ELBW rate was 0.15%, twin birth rate was 1.21% & caesarean delivery rate was 70.9%. The prevalence of congenital abnormalities was 1.35% and congenital heart defects (0.45%) were the most common congenital anomalies, in our study. About 7 neonates (1.05%) were referred to the higher centre. No neonate discharged from Rockland hospital was reported to have bronchopulmonary dysplasia, kernicterus or cerebral palsy on follow up. Besides, the NMR was zero, in our study.

  61. Ugwu, S. N., Ojike, O., Okonkwo, W. I., Okafor, E., Ugwuishiwu B. O. and Echiegu, E. A.

    In this study, the performance of a mixed mode solar kiln was carried out. The kiln was incorporated with double glazed flat plate solar heat collector with built in paraffin as a heat storage medium. The off-load site study of the kiln during sun shine and no-sun shine periods of the day were carried out in Nsukka (Latitude 7o N), Nigeria. The range of ambient temperatures during the study period was between 18.3–33.2oC. Equally, the daily radiation ranged between 11.8–20.9 MJ m-2. The results obtained showed a maximum cumulative efficiency of 40.7% for the kiln. In addition to this, an average efficiency of 38.8% was obtained in the system. The result of a timber drying operation carried out with the kiln showed an improvement over a similar kiln but with pebble stone as storage medium in the literature. It is therefore recommended that for optimum thermal energy utilization while using mixed mode model during the sunset periods, the top glazing of the working section should be covered to reduce the top heat loss since it is no longer receiving any solar radiation during these periods. Equally, a development of a mathematical model to simulate the solar kiln is strongly recommended.

  62. Divya, L. Nethi, Sailaja, P., Subbalakshmi, B. and Murty, K.N.

    This paper presents a criteria for the existence of at least one ψ^αbounded solution on N for the non-homogenous fuzzy difference equation of first order. We also present a criteria for the existence and uniqueness of solutions to non-homogenous fuzzy two-point boundary value problems. 2010 MOS Classification: [34B15], [93B05], [93B15].

  63. Mamadou Salla GUEYE, Ngor Sarr, Mame Faty Mbaye Fall and Ibrahima Ly

    Pour ce présent article, il s’agit de concevoir un outil de perception de la confiance par la clientèle afin d’évaluer son influence sur le comportement effectif dans le contexte sénégalais du marché des assurances. Cet outil ainsi élaboré dans ce travail permet de réaffirmer le lien de cause à effet du couple confiance-fidélité.

  64. Manisha Raghuvanshi and Sanjay Dixit

    At this paper we are intended to provide a brief primer in plasma physics, introducing common definitions, basic properties, and typical processes found in plasmas the present paper short discussion and compatible study about classical and quantum plasma and also discuss about the properties and application of plasma.

  65. Ogbeifun, Isaac Esezobor, PhD; FCA and Adeniran, Taiwo Esther, ACA.

    This study assesses the impact of audit quality attributes on financial reporting quality in Nigeria. The investigation is based on the relationship between the Audit Attributes and Financial Reporting Quality of some selected listed commercial banks in Nigeria. The audit quality attributes proxy used are; Audit committee report, audit firm size, auditors’ remuneration and auditor’s report, which can be regarded as the independent variables, while the dependent variable is the financial reporting quality. Three hypotheses were tested in this study. The empirical study was performed using a sample of 10 banks and 4-year observations from the period of 2015-2018. The study is descriptive in nature and the correlational and ex-post facto designs were adopted in carrying out this research. One of the reasons why audit quality attributes is germane in the determination of financial reporting quality is that it will influence the investment decision making of an existing investor, potential investors and all the stakeholders interested in the financial report. The findings would be of interest to potential investors, auditors (internal and external) and management in the process of financial reporting enhancement. Finally, the study offered recommendations to enhance the financial reporting status through good audit attributes.

  66. Ogbeifun Isaac Esezobor PhD; FCA and Olorunsola Folasade FUNMI (MRS)

    This study examined the impact of audit quality on financial performance of consumer goods companies in Nigeria. The specific objectives are: to determine the effect of audit independence, audit tenure, audit firm size on the financial performance of consumer goods companies in Nigeria. The study is theoretically predicated on stakeholder’s theory, agency theory, contingency theory and lending credibility theory. Descriptive and cross sectional research design were adopted to investigate the relationship between variables of audit quality and financial performance of quoted firms in Nigeria over a period of 5 years. Secondary Data were obtained from annual reports of five selected quoted consumer goods firms. Panel Least Square Regression Model was used to test the formulated hypotheses. Findings showed that all the independent variables jointly and strongly have significant impact on the financial performance of the selected firms in Nigeria measured by return on assets except audit firm size. It is concluded that audit quality has significantly and positively impacted the financial performance of consumer goods companies listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The study then recommends among others, the need for firms to adopt effective internal control processes and practices that address key auditing practice for effective audit quality.

  67. Dr. Loukas Moustakas and M.Ed. Stavrianaki Angeliki-Tsambika

    In this paper, a comprehensive approach to adult education is presented, in particular the range of factors that can prevent adults from participating in any kind of educational program. Quantitative research was conducted with a questionnaire for adults in order to determine which factors influence their participation in lifelong learning. These factors have been found to vary depending on gender, age and marital status. All of these elements play a crucial role in the educational process of adults and their further development.

  68. Rabo Younoussou, Morou Boubé, Lawali Sitou and Mahamane Ali

    In the Niger River Valley, as well as in some areas of preference, M. oleifera is most often produced in association with some vegetable crops, including onions. This association can involve significant agronomic and economic effects. Thus, the combined effect of the factors layout and plant cutting level of M. oleifera plants on the yield of Allium cepa (onion) bulbs was studied. These factors include three and two levels, respectively. Each level of the first factor has been combined with each of the two levels of the second giving thus six (6) treatments that are: A1B1, A1B2, A2B1, A2B2, A3B1 and A3B2. Also, in order to compare the results with a reference situation, a control treatment (T) where the onion plants were sub cultured in pure culture was carried out. The parameters measured are the weight and the diameter of the bulbs. The yield in terms of weight was reported per hectare under the different treatments then was evaluated. The statistical tests on the comparison of means showed that the yield in weight, the average weight and the mean diameter of the bulbs are not significantly different between the treatments at the threshold of 5%. The study also showed that the treatments A1B1, A2B2, A3B2 and the Control are the ones that best explain the variability of the weight according to the diameter of the bulbs with more than 50% of the inertia and that we can adjust a straight line to their respective clouds. These results show that farmers can associate M. oleifera with vegetables such as onions without risk of considerable loss of yield.

  69. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad and Dr. Monika, G. K.

    Maintenance of primary anterior teeth in a healthy condition is important for the well-being of children, as it ensures proper mastication, esthetics, phonetics, space-maintenance, and prevention of aberrant habits. Primary dentition is more prone to early childhood caries and restoring them becomes inevitable owing to the pivotal role. Posts are utilized when there is inadequate tooth structure remaining to support a traditional restoration or an artificial crown. Post is cemented into a prepared root canal, which retains a core restoration over which the final crown is retained.

  70. Shivani Parmar and Ankur Gautam

    A maxillofacial prosthesis are successful treatment modality options such as to restore missing facial parts. Digital technologies and various 3D printing techniques are employed to construct facial prostheses such as ears, nose, eye. This is are view of literature enlightening the technique, materials and various applications of 3D printing that have been used in fabrication of maxillofacial prosthesis and in maxillofacial surgery.

  71. Dr. Madhumita Dhundiraj Kurdukar, Dr. Neeraja Jayant Nitsure and Dr. Gopal Ambadas Pandit

    Carcinosarcoma of the ovary is also known as Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumour. It is an ovarian neoplasm with an incidence of 1-3% of all ovarian neoplasms. Usually, patients are postmenopausal women with a history of low parity. We report a rare case of 44 years old woman who presented with complaints of amenorrhea and pain in the abdomen of three months duration. Per speculum and per vaginum examination showed a mass of size 10x 8 cm in the right iliac fossa. Ultrasonogram and CT scan revealed a neoplastic mass in the right adnexa. CA-125 levels were 714U/ml. The patient underwent staging laparotomy and was found to be in stage 4a. Microscopic examination showed the presence of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components with rhabdomyosarcomatous and chondrosarcomatous differentiation. The immunohistochemistry confirmed rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. The final diagnosis of carcinosarcoma or ovarian malignant mixed mullerian tumour (OMMMT) was rendered.

  72. Lehulu Tilahun and Habtamu Kassa

    Globally, 600 million people affected with high blood pressure. From Africa around 20 million people suffered with hypertension. In Ethiopia health care reports are incomplete and little is known on its impact. The main purpose of the paper is to Evaluate Cognition, Belief & Habit of clients with hypertension in relation with handling hypertension among Clients Seeking Care in Dessie Referral Hospital. Methods: Institution based cross-sectional study design was carried out. Information collected through interviewer administered questioner. Data was analysed manually through Microsoft excel. Findings displayed through tables and graphs. Results: A total of 117 clients were included. 110 (94%) of them reported as heard of hypertension, whereas 67(57.3%) respondents know the complication of hypertension. 94(80.3%) of the clients received information during the first visit of hypertension. Different types of complication were identified by 67 (57.3%). out of these 24(36%) has the complication or occurred to their families. Use of physical activity were not considered as an important protection of hypertension and a risk by 76(65%) of respondents. 64(54.7%) of the urban living respondents and those with high family income utilized reduction of salt in their diet. Conclusion: This study confirmed the need to improve the clients’ belief toward adherence of treatment to prevent the complication, and the importance of life style changes.

  73. Dr. Indranil Das, Dr. Junaid Iqbal, Dr. VGR Shastry and Dr. Dhiraj Kaul

    Introduction Reich and Johnson (1) first used the term “Lady Windermere syndrome”in 1992. They described 6 elderly women who were immunocompetent, had no significant smoking history or underlying pulmonary disease, and developed Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary infection limited to the right middle lobe or lingula. They hypothesized that these women could have had the habit of voluntary suppression of cough, responsible for the inability to clear the secretions from the right middle lobe and lingula. This habit results in a focus of inflammation in these areas, which in turn predisposes to MAC infection. They named this condition Lady Windermere syndrome after Oscar Wilde's Victorian-era play Lady Windermere's Fan to suggest the fastidious behavior. Because it was a retrospective study, no history of voluntary cough suppression was obtained from these patients. We report a similar case in a 51-year-old woman who had bronchiectasis and associated right lower lobe infection due to MAC. Our patient had a significant history of lifelong habitual voluntary cough suppression.

  74. Ruth Omungo, Michael Kihara Ph.D. and Timothy Wachira, PhD

    This study aimed at establishing the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy-self-help (MBCT-SH) in managing depression among older clergy. The study was a response to the serious but under-investigated problem of depression among older clergy, whose experiences of ageing and vocational challenges combine to render them susceptible to depression, which can be debilitating. Interventions are needed to tackle this serious and widespread mental health condition. Interventions, such as mindfulness-based cognitive behaviour therapy, have proved effective in reducing mild or moderate depression and in stemming depressive relapses. However, in Kenya, the efficacy of this intervention had not been assessed, more so with older clergy in focus. This paper employed the MBCT-SH to fill this knowledge gap. The study used a quasi-experimental research design. The respondents (n=160) were a convenience sample, drawn from four mainline protestant denominations: the African Inland Church of Kenya (n=20), Anglican Church of Kenya (n=44), Methodist Church of Kenya (n=32), and the Presbyterian Church of East Africa (n=51). The respondents were assigned to either an experimental or a control group. Those in the experimental group were exposed to MBCT-SH intervention for ten weeks while those in the control group received no treatment for the same period. The Becker Depression Inventory was used to estimate the levels of depression at the baseline, middle line, and end line. Generalised linear modelling was used, with repeated measures, to assess whether the depression levels would become less intense with the intervention of the MBCT-SH. Descriptive results showed that about 52% of participants had either mild or moderate depressive symptoms. Between the baseline and midline, the depression levels fell by 8%, and they fell by a comparable level between the baseline and end line. A significant difference was observed between the depression levels at baseline and midline (p=0.02) but not between the midline and end line (p=0.92). Regarding the control group, the BDI levels increased by 80% (M=7.6 at baseline and M=13.6 at the endline). For the treatment group, the BDI levels fell by 43% (M=12.5 at baseline and M=12.5 at the endline). Together, the findings give tentative evidence of the effectiveness of the MBCT-SH in controlling depressive symptoms among older clergy.

  75. Chaudhary Veena

    In this study, the aim was to find out the prevalence of ABO & Rhesus blood groups in a group of persons at two places in North India & one place in Northeast India. In this study, the results showed that the prevalence of different blood groups among one group of 2140 patients evaluated at RH & WCMSRH in North India was approximately: B 35%, O 32%, A 23% & AB 10%. The results also showed that the prevalence of different blood groups among one group of 205 students evaluated at JMCH in Northeast India was approximately: O 35.5%, B 28%, A 27.5% & AB 9%. Thus, it is concluded that in the present studies at RH & WCMSRH in North India, B gene was most common, while in JMCH study in Northeast India, O gene occurred most frequently. The blood group A was 3rd most common blood group & the blood group AB was infrequent in all the 3 studies in India. The Rh negatives were about 07% in North India & about 04% in Northeast India.

  76. Emmanuel Yapi AMONKOU, Aya Carine N’GUESSAN, Kacou Antoine Alban M’BO, Edson Lezin BOMISSO, Jean-Claude Konan KOFFI and Daouda KONE

    The dieback of reforested plantations is a pathology with various biotic and /or abiotic causes. In Cote d'Ivoire, this pathology affects Tectona grandis, Terminalia ivorensis and Terminalia superba in the reforestation plantation. The involvement of macroscopic and microscopic fungi has been studied to investigate the causes of the decline of these forest species. Assessments of land in classified forests of Irobo and Bouaflé and sampling of carpophores, roots, stems and soil were done. The fungi were isolated on standard Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and specific P5PARH media. Our results showed that the decline is more pronounced in the classified forest of Irobo (78.51%) than that of Bouafle and also showed a biotic kind of fungal disease. Various fungi have been identified, including pathogens (Fusarium, Cylindrocarpon, Verticillium, Cladosporium, Sclerotinia, Botryodiplodia, Pestalotia, Phytophthora, Phoma), parasites of weakness (Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium) and hyperparasites (Trichoderma). The fungi differ from one site to another and between types of samples. Fungal species by their nature actively participate in this complex phenomenon feared for these reforestation silvicultural consequences.

  77. Emily Sanderson Chacón and Daniel Vasquez Valverde

    Rosacea is a common chronic recurrent inflammatory dermatosis of the face that affects more women than men. It is characterized by paroxysmal flushing, persistent erythema and cheek, perioral or nasal telangiectasia, papules or pustules. Ocular involvement is found in more than 50% of rosacea patients, with symptoms including dryness, irritation, blepharitis, conjunctivitis and, more rarely, keratitis that may ultimately compromise eyesight. The specific pathogenesis of this disease is still unknown. It may be a chronic inflammatory disease with natural immunity and abnormal vasomotor function induced by multiple factors on the basis of a certain genetic background. Despite its severe, potentially devastating impact, and its epidemiologic richness, rosacea is incurable. The diagnosis is made clinically, and management consists of education, the avoidance of triggers that can exacerbate the condition, skin care measurements, and various topical and oral treatment options.

  78. Dr. Dilip Kumar Goswami

    Infectious diseases are not new for the human society. A good number of diseases caused havoc among the people in the past. Many lives were lost due to outbreak of some suddenly starting and quick spreading diseases. As per the evidence available it is seemed that, such type of diseases were considered as curse of the Gods and attack of some evil spirits. Many examples can be cited from the ancient classics of using chanting of some specific verses, offering of some prescribed offers to the lords of the diseases in prescribed methods. For treatment of Rabies (Alarka Bisha) and some psychiatric illness also some such methods are mentioned. The Ayurvedic classics classify the treatment procedures into 3 groups viz. divine therapy (daivavyapashraya), medicine (yuktivyapashraya) and psychotherapy (satwavajaya). In case of the infectious diseases divine therapy and medicine both are advised. Ayurveda gives the guidelines for prevention of the infectious diseases. Personal hygiene, social hygiene, food habits, maintenance of mental peace etc. are the salient features of the ways of prevention of the infectious diseases. Even some selective drugs are advised to use in specific time for prevention of certain infectious diseases. Study, knowledge and implementation of the Ayurvedic methods may be proved to be more beneficial for the human society for prevention of infectious diseases.

  79. Dr. Vipin Nain, Dr. Anirudh Bhushan, Dr. Priti Singh and Dr. Rajiv Gupta

    Catatonia is a syndrome having symptoms such as catalepsy, waxy flexibility, stupor, posturing, negativism, mutism and echolalia.1There are numerous causes of catatonia but patients with affective illness and schizophrenia, accounts for 25% of the catatonia population.2 An untreated and prolonged course of catatonic features may lead to life-threatening complications such as the development of pulmonary embolism or aspiration pneumonia, and significantly increased mortality and morbidity.3

  80. Ogbeifun, Isaac Esezobor and Ogunyankin Esther O. B.

    The objective of this paper is to study the impact of internal control mechanisms on the financial accountability in the local government system in Nigeria, using Owo local government as a case study. The study employed survey design for the purpose of the research work along with a sample size of fifty (50) respondents which comprises staff of this local government. The statistical tool used for the hypotheses’ test was ordinary least square (OLS) regression analysis. The findings showed that if the instruments of internal control noted in this research work are strictly complied with, financial accountability in the local government system will be certain and effective. The study concluded that the internal control mechanisms are very effective in ensuring financial accountability in the local government system. The study recommended that all the internal control mechanisms needed to be complied with strictly, if financial accountability will be achieved in Nigerian Local government system.

  81. Dr. Prabhakar Angadi (MDS), Dr. Girish Nazirkar (MDS), Dr. Nupoor Dilip Bhavsar and Dr. Ahmed Faraz Farooqui (MDS)

    The eye is a vital organ and an important component of facial expression. Loss of an eye has a crippling effect on the psychology of the patient. Maxillofacial prostheses restore and replace stomatognathic and associated facial structures with artificial substitutes. The objectives of eye prosthesis is to improve the patient esthetics, restore and maintain the health of the remaining associated structures, consequently provide physical and mental well-being. The primary purpose of an ocular prosthesis is to maintain the volume of eye socket and create the illusion of a healthy eye and surrounding tissue. A case of a custom- made ocular acrylic prosthesis is presented with acceptable fit, good retention, and esthetics.

  82. Makeche Chinyama Mauris and Nyendwa David Jonathan

    The physical-chemical conditions, phytoplankton diversity and zooplankton diversity of the lower Kafue river were studied in January, 2020. The study was aimed at assessing the physical-chemical conditions of the lower part of the Kafue river and determine the phytoplankton diversity and zooplankton diversity in the lower Kafue River. The study sites that were sampled were Muyanganas at Rub Road Bridge Kafue Fisheries Limited and Kasaka Fisheries Training Centre. Kafue Fisheries Limited is an aquaculture habitat while Muyanganas and Kasaka Fisheries Training Centre are non-aquaculture areas. Water samples were collected using a filtering water sampler. Collected water samples were preserved in 1000 mL plastic bottle by adding 5 mL of 4% formalin concentration. The phytoplanktons were counted using a PX Biological microscope. The plankton species were identified to genus level. Water samples collected from each study site were analysed in order to determine Temperature, pH and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels. These parameters were determined using an automated pH meter. The results of regression analysis showed that there was a significant regression of phytoplankton diversity on zooplankton diversity in the lower Kafue river (p = 0.02). However, there was no significant difference (p=0.7451) among the physical-chemical parameters within the study area. The results obtained implied that aquaculture has an impact on both phytoplankton and zooplankton diversity in the lower part of the Kafue river.

  83. Samy A. Khalil, U. Ali Rahoma, A.A.Hassan and A. M. Shaffie

    The main objective of this research, estimated of mean seasonal variations doses biologically active of UV-Bm solar radiation from global broadband solar irradiance over Egypt. The measurements of global solar radiation (G) and biologically effective erythematic radiation (EER) incident on a horizontal surface during the period time 1985 - 2015 at Cairo, Egypt are discussed. The monthly mean variation of slant ozone Z and UV-Bm transmission KtUV-B at the present work are found. The comparison between the two variables slant ozone Z and UV-Bm transmission KtUV-B are found. The seasonal statistical values of regression equations as the slopes (β), intercepts (α) and the standard errors (SE) for the fitted lines are done. The minimum slope occurs in winter, indicating that the percentage reduction in EER at higher slant ozone Z is larger than G. The variations of the slopes (β) during the year ranges from a minimum of 0.2867 in winter to a maximum of 0.3253 in summer, the intercepts also show their minimum and maximum values in cold humid and hot dry months. The temporal variability of the percentage ratio of the total hourly mean daily erythema to total hourly mean daily broadband solar global irradiation (EER/G) is presented. The estimated values of UV-Best solar radiation are a good agreement with the measured values of the UV-Bm solar radiation. The difference between the estimated and measured values of UV-B solar radiation varies from 3.1 to 4.25%.

  84. Nimra Iqbal, Asif Iqbal, Sana Farooq and Faiqa Farooq

    Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, skills and preparedness of dental practitioners regarding the concepts of dentistry post COVID-19. Materials and Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in March 2019 on 100 dental surgeons of dental clinics. A questionnaire was developed using literature and previously administered surveys to assess knowledge, attitude, and skills of dental practitioners regarding post COVID-19. Data were subjected to appropriate statistical measures and analyzed. Subjects And Methods: Data were collected through an online survey questionnaire based on awareness, knowledge, skills and practice of special health care dentistry basically dentistry after post COVID-19. Statistical analysis: The dentists knowledge, awareness, skill, social work and attitude as well as newer approaches in management were expressed in proportions . The 3-point scale was adapted for each of the following questions. Results: 67.2% dentists took proper travel history and contact history of their patients. 73.3% dentists are aware of grading their patients as moderate risk, high risk and low risk. 49.2% dentists make their patients rinse with 1% hydrogen peroxide before examining and treatment. 77.6% (90) dentists agreed for separate entry and exit of their dental operatory, modification of waiting area and prescheduling of appointment post COVID-19. 79.3% (92) dentists screen all their patients with infrared thermometer in the screening room before taking history. Conclusion: This questionnaire had a positive effect in raising awareness and knowledge in the dental surgeon who took part in the study.

  85. Sintayo Demise and Zebene Asfaw

    This study was conducted in Adola district to identify and document indigenous knowledge related to the use of medicinal plants and their contributions to household services in the district. The study was carried out between February and April 2019.Ethno botanical data were collected by interviewing 120 informants (92 males and 27 females) aged between 25-95 years. Both purposive and simple random sampling methods were employed to select key informants and general informants, respectively. Ethnobotanical knowledge of plants used for human and livestock ailments were addressed. The data were collected using structured and semi-structured interview through face to face interaction with the informants. The collected data were arranged and analyzed using SPSS software to identify the descriptive detail of demographic information on the knowledge of informants related to medicinal plants. One hundred thirty (130) species belonging to 113 genera and 66 families of medicinal plants were documented. Asteraceae families were the highest 10(15.2%) species followed by Euphorbiaceae and Lamiaceae with7 (10.6%) for each plant species. Of the total number of medicinal plants70 (53.8%) species for human, 53(40.8%) for human and livestock, and 7(5.4%) only for livestock ailments. The most habitat 79(70.5%) of plants were forests and most of their growth forms were tree .Sudden sickness and Diarrhea were the most common diseases recorded for human and livestock, respectively. In the district, Croton macrostachyus was the highest followed by Solanumincanum for treating highest number of ailments. Most of remedies were prepared fromleaves 72(44.2%) by grinding 95(52.8%) in fresh form (95.5%) as well as common route of administration was by oral (57.4%) followed by dermal (20.7%).Agricultural expansion was the most threatening factor of medicinal plants. This study recommands raising awareness of young generation and educated person to avoid negative attitude towards traditional medicinal plants, detail study of phytochemical for common medicinal plants species for development of modern drugs and the cultivattion and management of medicinal plants in home garden and farm land for further sustainable conservation for the future coming generations.

  86. Dr. Aprajita Dogra, Dr. Tarush Thakur, Dr. Rohit Gupta and Dr. Shipra Mahajan

    Introduction: Elastics and elastomers has been extensively used in orthodonticd. Force decay over a period of time is a major problem in the clinical usage of latex elastics and non-latex. This loss of force makes it difficult for the clinician to determine the actual force transmitted to the dentition Hence, the aim and objective of this study was to evaluate the force decay of latex and non-latex elastic of different brands and different sizes at 8 hours and 24 hours after having been subjected to constant stretching in both wet and dry .Material and Methods: Latex and non latex elastics (Figure 1)were used of size 1\4inch and 3\16inch inner diameter and were of medium force (4.5 oz) obtained from three manufacturers namely - Forest dent, American orthodontics (wild life series - gorilla, eagle, jelly fish and sand dollar), Jaypee orthodontics. The mechanical testing conducted on 480 samples of each type of elastics and force decay measured and was compared to that specified by the manufacturer. Difference between brand, composition, and wet/dry condition was analyzed using SPSS (version 21.0) using ANOVA analysis. Conclusion: Force decay was more in the wet media than dry media after stretching for 8 hrs and 24 hron Force decay was maximum in Foresta dent when compared with other brands in the dry media after 8 hrs of stretching. Forrce decay was maximum in American Orthodontics when compared with other brands in the wet media after 8 hrs of stretching.3

  87. Dr. Subhashish Barman, Dr. Aritra Chatterjee, Dr. Soumen Mandal, Dr. Md. Arif Hossain Dr. Sanjit Barman and Dr. Mohsina Hussain

    Background: Intraosseous Mucoepidermoid carcinoma(MEC) is a rare tumour in the head and neck region. Its clinical and radiologic features mimic many common lesions in the jaws. The need for an Elective neck dissection (END) along with resection as well as need for adjunctive radiotherapy has been a long standing controversy, thus making treatment modalities a subject of debate. Objective: To formulate a correct diagnosis and treatment plan for this lesion in order to prevent recurrence and failure of treatment which may cost the patient dearly. Case Report: We present the case of a middle aged man diagnosed with Low Grade Intraosseous Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma in the mandible. Surgical management included resection of the lesion along with an elective neck dissection. Additionally the patient was subjected to radiotherapy. Follow up period of the patient has been 1 year. Conclusion: A patient presenting with an osteolytic lesion in the jaw must be thoroughly evaluated. However innocuous the lesion might seem to be, it may turn out to be something far more serious. In low grade intraosseous MEC where surgery is the mainstay of treatment, the tumour size also plays an important role as a prognosticator for the disease. Even if it is a low grade tumour histologically, advanced stages indicated by tumour size or invasion of surrounding structures, change the entire course of the disease. As a result, the management of any such disease should be done judiciously and should include an elective neck dissection and/or radiation.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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