Subject Area

  • Life Sciences / Biology
  • Architecture / Building Management
  • Asian Studies
  • Business & Management
  • Chemistry
  • Computer Science
  • Economics & Finance
  • Engineering / Acoustics
  • Environmental Science
  • Agricultural Sciences
  • Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • General Sciences
  • Materials Science
  • Mathematics
  • Medicine
  • Nanotechnology & Nanoscience
  • Nonlinear Science
  • Chaos & Dynamical Systems
  • Physics
  • Social Sciences & Humanities

Why Us? >>

  • Open Access
  • Peer Reviewed
  • Rapid Publication
  • Life time hosting
  • Free promotion service
  • Free indexing service
  • More citations
  • Search engine friendly

Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.













July 2016

The study sought to ascertain the relationship and effects of foreign exchange liberalization on financial performance of commercial banks listed in Kenya’s Nairobi Securities Exchange. Baed on the study, this paper explores the extent to which interest rate fluctuations affect financial performance of banks listed at the NSE. The development of literature was guided by the interest rate parity theory. The study used a time series correlation research design targeting all commercial banks that are listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange from 2006 to 2013.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the socio-economic consequences of the lake Tchad regression on the population of Kinasserom. The causes and the outcome of such a phenomenon on the various activities of the population are the keys point of our investigations. A specific documentation is used and the analysis of the population points of views confirm our results and interpretations. The regression of the lake chad is caused by the drought, significant year reduction among the different actors (Protagonists).

The objective of this study is to determine the mediating effect of strategic innovation, administrative innovation and quality innovation between Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and organizational innovation. Using a cross-sectional design, with a sample of 32 institutions of higher education in Mexico through its medium level managers and administrative staff perception. Using statistical technique of structural equation modeling (SEM) and relying on the resource based view we found support for the hypotheses.

The concept of obscenity denotes the quality of being obscene which means offensive to modesty or decency lewd, filthy or repulsive. Sec 292 of the Indian Penal Code was engrafted to give effect to international convention for suppression of Traffic in obscene publications. Public decency and morality are constitutionally authorised ground of restraint on the right of free speech and expression. With the help of decided cases, the concept of obscenity has been discussed elaborately.

Women are basically gifted with the art of multi-tasking. They are capable of handling too many things at one go. The way they project themselves & the way they handle things, it is one of the most important management study. Many women are not aware of all these. But once they value it, they start vitalizing it & make sure that they leverage it in a positive way. Many successful women have made it happen due to the bliss of multi-tasking. Women has an edge over the men is only due to multi-tasking. Though men are also capable in doing, the consistency factor will be missing.

Community policing is a recent philosophy in policing which is based on the assumption that the best way of solving the crime problem is taking proactive measures to prevent the occurrence of crime. The successful implementation of the strategy depends on the level of cooperation among the community, the police, and other stake holders. This study assesses how successful community policing is in a slum neighborhood which is characterized by high rate of crime and juvenile delinquency: Kebele 31 of Addis Ketema sub city, Addis Ababa.

Modelling tight gas unconventional reservoirs can be a complex task, as there are different uncertainties involved due to geological complications. Moreover, intrinsic characteristics of tight gas reservoirs, makes them very prone to formation damage which can affect the future production rates and increases the simulation uncertainties. The Whicher Range field in Perth Basin is a large undeveloped ‘unconventional’ tight gas reservoir in Western Australia. Gas‐in‐place estimations of up to 6 TCF have been reported.

The study was undertaken to disseminate nutrition messages through a package of visual aids to the beneficiaries of ICDS (A scheme under Ministry of Women & Child Development) and the study was also aimed to assess the impact of the education programme on the target women.(beneficiaries of ICDS). All the seven circles of the North-West Jorhat ICDS Project in Assam with seven dominant communities were represented in the areas selected for the study. A total of 210 women in the age group of 15-45 years selected in equal numbers from the seven communities.

Normative survey was adopted for the study with a sample of 300 higher secondary students in Puducherry. A three point scale with 45 statements was used to access the Environmental Ethics of the higher secondary students. The collected data was statistically analysed using Statistical Package for Social Studies (version- 16) Differential analysis were carried out to study and to check the significant mean difference between variables. The results revealed that the Environmental Ethics of the higher secondary student’s was average.

Purpose: The study aims to unveil the library collection and services which are being offered to its users without any financial benefits or charges. Although, the libraries are meant for procuring compatible study material and offer services since inception but before ICTs, the libraries had worked manually and services were also offering through manual system, thereby to retrieve the material was time consuming and after ICTs the orientation of the libraries has got drastically changed and collection is accessible 24×7 throughout the year with the facility of remote access.

This work describes the evolution of the studies on the organization and hence the ontological and epistemological conception of the organizational knowledge. It is shown that in each socioeconomic and political context the modes and forms of studying organizations are changing and hence they also change the perspectives of its analysis, increasingly enriching themselves, that is to say, systematizing the logical bodies of analysis, theories and methods arise and hence new objects of study become better defined.

The present paper deals with organisation structure and supply chain management of Sikkim Milk Union. The primary data has been collected from Sikkim milk union. Technological innovation and competition in dairy sector in India have led to improvements in supply chain management.. Supply chain improvements reduce inventories, waste, and costs, and thus increase efficiency within the firm and the market channel. The turnover of Sikkim milk union has grown from Rs. 3055 lakhs in the year 2011-12 to Rs. 3733 lakhs in the year 2013-14, which is 22.19% growth.

Agricultural productivity can be measured in terms of the final products produced and the inputs requirement for the output. Although a considerable number of research works has been carried out on agricultural productivity in Hooghly district, but the study on the trends and the determinant factors of the agricultural productivity is rare. Therefore, scientific, empirical, factor-intentive investigation is an essential phenomenon in the rural economy of Hooghly district.

According to humid subtropical, mountainous and high mountainous regions of Georgia there have been identified tendencies of changes of agro-climatic indicators caused by global warming (increase or decrease). Realized studies confirm that the impact of global warming is more reflected in the mountainous and high mountainous conditions, which has a significant impact on the increase in the sums of active temperatures, extension of the vegetation period, general reduction of atmospheric precipitation and frequent droughts.

Today, the world is facing a serves crisis of international terrorism. India and European Union have called for immediate need to redress the issue terrorism at international and regional levels. For this they have come out with various proposal the enhancement of peace and stability; one such is area is strategic partnership between India and European Union. At this level both at bilateral and multilateral levels have focused on this pertinent of issue of terrorism.

Since times immemorial Central Asia has been a playing field for invaders who ventured forth from their own territories to stake their fortunes on this vast region. But with the demise of the Soviet Union these republic gained independence and are now sovereign states commonly referred as Central Asian Republic (CARs). Unexplored natural resources and their geo-strategic location have brought major powers to the ‘New Great Game’.

The recent trend in Indian foreign policy focuses primarily on the diplomatic engagement with great powers. So far, Indo-French relations are concerned, it was even cordiale during the Cold War period. It improved much more after 1965 and 1971 wars. The golden period was the year 1998 with India’s nuclear explosion. France, then, was the only country that did not imposed any sanction and more important it signed strategic partnership with India. From hence onwards, Indo-French objective in the Indian Ocean region was to work for peace and stability.

In this ever changing dynamic world, the need for the foundational ethics and behavioral traits is growing to a significant scale. It is an unfortunate fact that there is a notable fall in the minimal ethical standards among people. To understand the cause behind the present scenario is what this article is aimed at. The ultimate objective of this research is to contribute to the world of business a momentous understanding that will upraise the standard of managerial judgment. What is it that is responsible for the weak managerial decisions? It is the lack of empathy!

In this study-experiment are treated 14-15 years old young basketball players (active and not active), who besides learning process exercise basketball in different basketball schools in the city of Prishtina. The experiment includes 10 variables, 5 from those variables are from the basic motor performance and 5 other variables are from situational skills. In this study, is applied method of T-test between basic motor and situational variables. The study includes 66 entities of males (33 are active while 33 are not active), who are subjected to certain tests from the trainer.

India is a country rich in natural resources. Labour is aplenty and skilled Labour is easily available given the high rates of unemployment among the educated class of the country. With Asia developing as the outsourcing hub of the world, India is soon becoming the preferred manufacturing destination of most investors’ across, make in India is the Indian government’s efforts to harness this demand and boost the Indian economy. The Indian economy has been witnessing positive sentiments during the past few months.

A plant as a source of food is a fundamental element in the life of human beings. Though there are plenty of vegetable, fruits and other crops have been modified for good yield time to time throughout the world but the demand of the wild vegetables and fruits is increased now a days. The indigenous people, who dwell in and nearby forests, gather and consume wild edible plants as snacks, as a vegetable and at times of food scarcity. These people consume wild edible plants and rely on these resources to meet their food needs particularly in periods of food crisis.

Deflections of the head during level, straight, steady-state walking and running are considered. The literature is reviewed regarding the relationships between the forward speed, the step frequency, and the vertical, lateral, and fore-aft components of head motion for healthy adults.

In this paper, we address the development of a global optimization procedure for the problem of designing a water distribution network, that satisfies tat specified flow demands as stated pressure head requirements. The proposed approach significantly improves upmon a previous method of Lahiouel et al. (2004) by way of adopting a simultaneous layout and pipe size otimization of water distributon networks. The necessity of a coupled solution of the layout and pipe sizing problem is shown.

Cylindrical Roller bearings are designed to carry heavy radial loads. The rollers are guided by ribs on either the inner or outer ring; therefore these bearings are also suitable for high speed applications. Furthermore, cylindrical roller bearings are separable, and relatively easy to install and disassemble even when interference fits are required. The load carrying capacity of a single row roller bearing is less than that of a double row roller bearing. An improvement in load distribution and thus load carrying capacity may be realized, as well as contact stress is also reduced.

Pervious concrete or No fineness concrete is a conventional concrete that is used in pavement or car parking’s for draining of storm water and increasing the ground water level. This project is mainly based on the investigation and increasing the strength characteristics of Pervious concrete. The mix design is designed considering only cement and coarse aggregate since the concrete is a “NO FINENESS CONCRETE”. The mix ratio is considered as 1:6 and the water cement ratio is taken from 0.4-0.45. The admixtures are added in % of cement for Nano silica & % of concrete for polypropylene.

This paper reports on a questionnaire based exploratory study of teacher perception, beliefs and current assessment practices with regard to the implementation of a curriculum reform ‘policy statement’, School-Based-Assessment (SBA), in Senior High School Mathematics classrooms in Ghana. The objective of the study was to inform the theory and design of professional development programme for teachers in an on-going formative assessment project in line with the SBA.

In this paper, we proved the convergence of the solution for the nonlinear fuzzy volterra integral classes equation over fuzzy interval with high computational and complexity to find the solution in analytical method, so we describable this solution by using Homotopy perturbation method, by using Banach fixed point theory for existence and uniqueness. That with explained numerical examples. Finally using the MAPLE program to solve our problem.

The Tannat grape provides wines with good structure and coloration due to high concentration of phenolic compounds (Echeverry et al., 2005; Gonzáles-Neves et al., 2006; 2004a, b, 2002). The Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar yields a dark red wine, full-bodied, with a lasting pleasant odor (Camargo,1994; Souza, 2000).Through the monitoring of winemaking, it can be identified the behavior of phenolic compounds and color parameters in order to define the best and most suitable winemaking system, keeping the characteristics of interest.

A proposed (ICTiL) model that integrates thinking creatively into learning process was presented to bring the two processes as one process. One of the aims of the modelis to find a way of enhancing working-memory through following a new proposed way of learning and thinking. This enhancement is supposed to increase learning, generating and producing new ideas, and achievement. This research sought to find the impact of (ICTiL) model on working-memory.

In the present investigation the new Nymphaea (water lily) are successfully incorporated in epoxy and the composite are prepared. Nymphaea epoxy composites with varying weight fractions (10%, 20%, 30%) are fabricated. the mechanical properties such as density, hardness, flexural strength, tensile. and moisture absorption of all composites are tested. The effects of fibre content on the mechanical properties of composites were investigated. The results show that by the incorporation of Nymphaea fibre into epoxy improves the mechanical properties.

The cloud computing trend of replacing software habitually installed on campus computers (and the computers themselves) with applications delivered through the internet is driven by aims of reducing universities’ information technology complexity and cost. This study examines the Exploitations of Cloud Computing in Library and Information Centers.

The soybean exporter chain represents a high proportion of the Brazilian economy. However, the main producing areas are far from seaports and exposed to several logistic problems, which are a consequence of the lack of planning and investment in infrastructure. As a result, producers are burdened by the additional logistical costs, which affects the competitiveness of the Brazilian soybean industry and reduce the amount of capital for future investments.

Today cloud computing is the most trending and advanced technology with high future implementation in the information and technology industries. Nowadays many cloud storages or online storages are provided by a number of companies to their customers as well as to the employees. In current scenario computing infrastructure is rapidly moving towards the cloud based architecture in which the users are enabled to move their data and application software to the network and access the services on-demand.

In this paper we focus on describing the dynamics of dengue virus, using a compartment type model with time delay that occurs during the production of antibodies. We study the dynamics of healthy cells, infected cells, B-cells of the human body, viruses and antibodies where immunity is provided by the activation of B cells into plasma cells and maturation of plasma cells into antibodies (humoral immune response). Stability regions are identified with respect to the external variables and it is observed as the virus burst rate increases, the stability regions would decrease.

Background: In Brazil, between 2009 and 2016, the number of diagnostic imaging grew on average 51.35%. Radiographs are complementary tests of extreme importance to close dental diagnosis and map out a plan of treatment. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the degradation and durability of processing liquid solutions of x-rays films, the Kodak brand in open containers (unprotected solutions) and sealed in opaque plastic containers and lids (proprietary solutions) within the darkroom.

Background: Inadequate awareness about real dimension of diabetes mellitus among the general public of India is a key problem for increase incidence of diabetes. The status of awareness varies from place to place which necessitates case studies in small areas having geographical and cultural importance. Objectives: This study is aimed to assess the level of knowledge and awareness of diabetes mellitus among the people of river island Majuli, Assam of India which, will be of a great help to identify areas of knowledge that might require additional efforts to increase.

The ability to make accurate measurements is one of the essential foundations of an advanced industrial society. This ability is the pivot around which trade, commerce and society revolve. Everyday extremely large number and variety of items are in the selling buying process in our surroundings for a wide variety of purposes. The prices and important decisions are based on measurements.

Methacrylic Acid – Ethylacrylate (MAA:EA) copolymer electrolytes doped with different concentration of Fe3+ were prepared using the casting technique. Electrical conductivity of the films was measured with impedance analyzer in the frequency range of 1 Hz to 1 MHz and in the temperature range of 303–348 K. It was observed that the magnitude of conductivity increased with the increase in the salt concentration as well as the temperature. UV-Vis. optical absorption spectrum indicates a variation in both intensity and optical energy gap with different concentration of doping level.

Germination of Sesame (Sesamu indicum) seeds was made by irrigated with distillery spentwash of different concentration. Primary treated spentwash [PTSW], dilution with water in the ratio 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 were analyzed for their plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and physical & chemical characteristics. Experimental soil was tested for its physic-chemical parameters. Sesame seeds were sowed in the prepared land and irrigated with raw water (RW), 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (SW: RW) spentwash. The nature of germination and growth of seeds was studied.

This research aimed at exploring factors that contributed to the weak performance of students in science education (Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics). It focused on five randomly selected preparatory schools of Jimma zone, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. The study employed a cross sectional research design, and both quantitative and qualitative data types were used. Accordingly, the data were collected through structured questionnaires, focus group discussions and interview.

The prime goal of the CBIR system is to construct meaningful descriptions of physical attributes from images. Physical features and mathematical features are two such typical descriptions. To extract physical features such as color, texture, edge, structure or a combination of two or more. The majority of the proposed solutions are variations of the color histogram initially proposed for object recognition. Since color histogram lacked spatial information methods liable to produce false positives especially when the database was large.

Increasing speeds and complexity of wireless communication systems have necessitated the progress and advancement of high performance signal processing components. Today's developing technologies involve fast processing and efficient use of properties. These properties include memory, power, and chip area. UWB delivers much potential for design of high speed wireless communication system. MB-OFDM (UWB) offers high data rates access for wireless communications. OFDM system is use for high speed applications. Ongoing research seeks to optimize resource usage as well as act.

Light aircraft are being used widely for passenger and freight transport nowadays. In this paper aerodynamics of a trainer aircraft’s 3d wing with NACA 2412 aerofoil is presented. The lift and drag coefficient of the 3d wing at different angle’s of attack using CFD software Fluent is analyzed and the plots of flow parameters like velocity, pressure and path lines are given. In this work kω sst Turbulence model is used to analyze the flow around the 3d wing of the trainer aircraft considering nominal wind turbulence conditions.

Alkali chloroborophosphate glasses containing 1 mol% of HoCl3 were prepared and characterized. The optical absorption spectra of three glasses have been studied in the UV-VIS-NIR region. Ho3+ ion has several low lying meta stable levels, which can give rise to transitions at various wavelengths from infrared (IR) to ultraviolet (UV) regions. Racah (E1, E2, E3), spin-orbit (x4f), configuration interaction parameters (a,b) and hydrogenic ratios E1/E3 and E2/E3 are also obtained.

The study aimed to look into the findings of the outcomes-based monitoring and evaluation (OBME) in maritime education programs of Naval State University. The OBME is an approach used to audit the maritime education programs. Descriptive documentary analysis method was utilized in the study. Data were collected through the Commission on Higher Education and Maritime Industry Authority (CHED-MARINA) OBME instrument in eleven (11) key areas of evaluation, reduced, displayed, and analyzed in drawing out conclusions.

Lack of homogeneous distribution of pesticides in agricultural spraying is negatively affecting the success of pulverization, and causing unnecessary consumption. The use of suitable machines and spraying technologies are required to be used in order to abolish this problem. Especially in cultivation of tomato, this problem is causing large amount of product losses. For this purpose, two different sprayer (air-assisted, classic sprayer) –extensively being used at an enterprise where tomato cultivation is being realized- have been selected, and pulverization has been performed.

In this paper we present a set transformation of points in a line of the Desargues affine plane in a additive group. For this, the first stop on the meaning of the Desargues affine plane, formulating first axiom of his that show proposition D1. Afterwards we show that little Pappus theorem, which we use in the construction of group proofs in additions of points on a line on desargues plane, also applies in the Desargues affine plane.

Machining is a vital part of production process in the manufacturing industries. With the advancing technology, chip cutting based machining (turning, milling, drilling etc.) methods still conserve their importance. Good surface finish not only assures quality, but also reduces manufacturing cost. Thus, the selection of cutting parameters, such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and cutting fluid, is very important as they directly affect the surface finish.

An alternative Growth Media for Qualitative analysis of general aerobic bacteria counts (GAB) was determined and counterchecked with the ready-made media from HACH company Paddle testers are double-sided slides to proof the ability to use the Total Coliform media for two day at 35°C for qualitative determination of the GAB colonies in PH range 5.5-7.5 because both are Gram negative bacteria, several trials done using positive source of GAB and Coliform with blanks and all the results were accepted.

The study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of correlation between tomato yield and primary macronutrients content at leaf tissue sampled in different epochs. It was used the hybrid Paronset, cultivated in greenhouse in the fall/winter season, in a fertigation system in pots with coarse sand. Electrical conductivities of 0.8; 1.6; 2.4 and 3.2 d Sm-1 were used in a randomized block design with ten replications to induce variation of contents of primary macronutrients in the leaves and tomato fruit yield.

The objective was to evaluate the effect of mepiquat chloride in red sunflower cultivation as flower vase. A completely randomized design was adopted with ten repetitions and five concentrations of mepiquat chloride (250; 500; 750; 1000 and 1250 mg L-1), was used as a control sprayed plants with only distilled water. The applications were performed at 15; 30 and 45 days after sowing.

To obtain genotypes which meet the dual purpose objectives, the breeders are based on the construction of a plant ideo type, showing rapid establishment, tillering potential, high dry matter production per unit area, tolerance to grazing and trample, regrowth capacity, long growing season and short reproductive phase, high quality bromatological forage, and adequate grain yield. The aim of this literature review is to determine the processes and biometric models used to obtainment and selection of dual purposewheat genotypes.

The present investigation was carried out at college farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to study the combining ability and heterosis for quality and yield characters in cotton. Further an attempt was made to trace out the best parents and crosses for future breeding programmes. In this direction seven lines and four testers were crossed in LxT mating design to generate 28 hybrids and evaluated with check NHH44 to know the combining ability of parents and crosses.

A study was conducted in Gonda and Barabanki districts of eastern U.P. regarding salt consumption and utilization pattern of selected households. Hundred households were selected from each block and surveyed through questionnaire method about their general information such as name, age, educational status, occupation, income and specific information regarding household practices of consumption, purchasing, usage and storage of salt.

The species Lentinula edodes, also known as shiitake, presents marked utilization of cuisine and is one of the mushrooms most consumed in the world, due to the several functional properties such as anti-tumoral and hypocholesterolemic as well as its anti-microbial and antioxidant action. Nevertheless, its nutritional value is variable according to the strain, processing after harvest, developmental stage of the basidiome and of the growing substrate.

The aim of this study is to verify, by introducing in the northwest of the RS of19 genotypes of sugarcane, that best respond for agronomic traits to three crop years, becoming promising for cultivation by farmers in the region. The traits evaluated were: total juicebrix, juiceyield and stem mass. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. Aiming at early production the genotypes RB765418, IAC 87-3396, IAC 91-5035 and Nova Iraí are more suitable for cultivation in northwest region of Rio Grande do Sul.

In silico screening is a study of systems biology commences by computer along with proteins and chemical compounds. Diverse types of cancer responsible proteins were analyzed under schrodinger suite such as PTEN, NKCR, BRCT7 and BRCT8, Chek1, BRCA, Rad51D, BRCA1, HSP27 and HSP70. Proteins study revealed the maximum anti-cancer effects of cervical cancers. Chrysophyllumcanito plant chemical compounds roles were annotated by means of systems biology with strong evidence.

The acceptability and quality evaluation of Sargassum tea was studied from May 1 to April 31, 2012 to determine the most acceptable formulation of sargassum tea mixed with different flavorings (lemon grass, pandan and sweet basil leaves and pure sargassum), chemical, nutritional, microbial and heavy metals component of the best treatment were analyzed. The product were prepared in 2 grams tea bags and the different treatments were subjected to acceptability test by 60 taste panelist.

Background: The ancient Medicine showed its versatility in applying various aspects of honey produced naturally. Honey has proved previously been antimicrobial agent as well as showing wound healing property by many authors. However, the properties of honey depend on its type, origin of location and flower which develops the final product. The current work was focused on the antimicrobial activity and protein content of honey originated from two commercial honey and two wild honey obtained from Vachellia nilotica and Tamirindus indica.

Background: The utility of HbA1c for long term assessment of glycemic control requires an accurate, precise and robust measurement system. Currently, immunoassay and HPLC are the most popular methods for HbA1c estimation. Merck Life Sciences has introduced a fully automated direct enzymatic method for quantification of HbA1c from whole blood on MINDRAY chemistry system.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV), Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and Trichomoniasis are collectively known as Infective Vaginitis (IV). It is as a result of the disruption of the healthy microbiota and represents the most common gynaecologic condition encountered in the clinic. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of BV, VVC, Trichomoniasis, microbiological patterns and predictors of infective vaginitis among female students attending Federal University of Technology, Medical Centre, Owerri.

Milk is a translucent white liquid produced by mammary glands of mammals. The quality of milk and its product is highly affected because it is an excellent and perfect culture medium for the growth of many kinds of micro-organisms. The objective of the review was to assess the safety of milk and its products with respect to food-borne diseases, losses and improving quality and to suggest well developed milk marketing system as a majority of small scale producers’ access to market.

One Hundred and fifty-one pearl millet accessions collected from their production zones of Upper East, Upper West and Northern Regions were genotyped using Thirty-Six (36) Pearl millet SSR markers (loci) in 20111. This study used the Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers since these have demonstrated to be very informative in studying relationships in closely related plant species as well as readily detecting co-dominant inheritance and exhibiting a high level of polymorphism per loci. The results revealed a total of 316 alleles for all accessions using the 36 markers.

Carbon sources viz., glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannitol and sorbitol; Nitrogen sources viz., ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, glycine and calcium nitrate were supplemented in Czapek’s dox medium to study their influence on chlamydospores production of Volvariella. Supplementation of sucrose and potassium nitrate to the growth medium each at 3 per cent level encouraged the mycelial growth and chlamydospores production of both V. volvacea strain CBE TNAU 1505 and V. bombycina strain CBE TNAU 1406.

Present investigations were carried out to test aset of four fungicides i.e. Ridomil-G, Dithane M-45, Daconil 75 WP and Acrobat MZ and their different rates were tested for the control of post emergence damping off disease on tobacco seedlings by pre-sowing application of these fungicide sat the Tobacco Research Station, Khanghari, Mardan during the year 2013-14. Two varieties of tobacco i.e. Speight G-28 and TM 2008 were used for this study.

Megamalai hills in Southern Western Ghats of India have an unestimated wealth of mushrooms biodiversity that need to be tapped. The Megamalai hill forest was surveyed for occurrence of wild edible fungi. Studies were carried out two consequent years and it is done in all seasons. A total of 60 species of mushroom were collected, recorded, photographed and preserved. Most of the samplings were done in Megamalai reserved forest and the dense biomass favours variety of edible and medicinal mushrooms. Some of the species identified are Lymnophilus, Auricularia, Agaricus, Tricholoma, Pleurotus.

The aim of the study was to determine the levels of certain phytochemicals in the leaves of Tecomastans during two physiological stages i.e., flowering and pre-flowering. The study revealed that the physiological developmental stages significantly affected the levels of studied phytochemicals. The flowering stage revealed higher levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins in comparison to pre-flowering stage. However, alkaloids were observed to decline during flowering phase of the plant.

Today, one of the major environmental problems being faced by Indian cities and towns relate to management and handling of municipal solid waste (MSW). Economic growth, urbanization and rising standards of living in cities have led to an increase in the quantity and complexity of the solid waste generated.

Zoonotic diseases and other abnormalities are considered to be major health problem and causing a huge economic loss. A cross sectional active abattoir survey was conducted from May 2014 to January, 2015 to estimate direct financial losses due to organ condemnation in cattle slaughtered in abattoirs of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. A total of 479 cattle were examined through ante mortem and postmortem examinations.

The jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L). is a Neotropical tree found in sandy soils, loamy well-drained upland and high plains, its importance is related to the fact that it is a promising species for reforestation programs and altered area recovery. Work objective was to evaluate the growth and ecophysiological aspect in young plants jatobá submitted water stress and flooding. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal Rural University of Amazonia in Belém, PA, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized with three water conditions: control, drought and flooding.

The present study was conducted to investigate the duration dependent changes in gonadal hormone and semen quality of the diabetic patients under regular and irregular treatment mode. In these aspect blood glycemic sensors, gonadal hormone profile, oxidative stress sensors in sperm pellet were assessed. Spermatological profiles were evaluated for testing the semen quality.

The study includes phytochemical screening and quantification of primary and secondary metabolites like carbohydrates, protein, lipids, phenol, tannin and flavonoids from Syzygium malaccense (L.)Merr. & L.M.Perry leaves. The leaves of Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry showed highest carbohydrate value than the other primary metabolites. So malay apple can act as a good remedy for nutritional disorders and pharmaceutical agent.

Increasing open cast mining and industrialization increase in living standard which result decrease in quality of the water. Limestone mines water [Lime stone Mine 1st situated at industrial area, Lime stone Mine 2nd situated at sensitive area and Pond 3rd (Man made) situated at residential area were analyzed for various physico chemical parameters Air Temp, Water Temp, transparency pH, TDS, Conductivity, Free CO2. Alkalinity, Hardness, chloride, PO4, DO, BOD, COD, ammonia, mercury, Ca and Mg ions.

The agro industrial sector produces large amounts of waste which often are not properly disposed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of burnt rice husks and sugarcane bagasse as a substrate for the production of iceberg lettuce seedlings. The study was conducted in the city of Frederico Westphalen, RS, in 2015. The experimental design was completely randomized and consisted of six treatments and four replications with 100 plants / replication.

An attempt was made to remove the hardness from bore well drinking water collected near sea shore area of Kanyakumari district. About 8 different sample stations were selected in Kanyakumari district. The physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TS, TDS, TSS, acidity, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, chloride, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate, fluoride, of the water samples were analyzed according to the standard APHA methodology. The obtained results were compared with water quality standards prescribed by BIS.

Angiogenesis is the creation of new blood vessels. The process of angiogenesis involves the migration, development, and differentiation of endothelial cells, which contour the inside wall of the blood vessels. The development of antiangiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will repress metastasis and encourage apoptosis of tumor. The present object focuses on phyto- constituents and antiangiogenic activity of the Leucas aspera leaves extract.

The frequent use of antimicrobial has rendered the risk of increase in resistance against E. coli. The objective of this study was to observe the resistance pattern against most commonly used drugs. A total of 92 Escherichia coli were isolated from tissues of diseased poultry birds. The antibiotic resistance-susceptibility profiles were conducted by standardized disc diffusion following CLSI method. Test for resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents were conducted.

Introduction: Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus. Resistin, an adipokine explains the link between obesity and diabetes. The present study was conducted to explore the association between resistin gene polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: It was a case control study consisted of 90 Indian subjects divided into three groups as cases (n=30), obese person without diabetes (n=30) and healthy controls (n=30).

The objective of this study was to assess the ecophysiological aspects and metabolic responses of carbon and nitrogen in açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) plants submitted to water stress. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia in the Brazilian city of Belém, State of Pará. The experimental design was completely randomized in two water conditions (control and water stress), with 5 repetitions, fully 30 experimental units, where each plant was an experimental unit.

In Egypt, chemical insecticides are used repeatedly in mosquito control programs leading to increase insect resistance in the field especially against carbamate, Organophosphates and Pyrethroids, B.t.i. strains are restrictly used. In order to find a quick method for detecting elevation of resistance to the old insecticides or newly used biological insecticides, our research correlated between level of detoxifying and serine enzyme activity with elevation of resistance in Culex pipiens larvae against carbamate, DP and biological insecticides.

Pregnancy complications like hypertension or gestational diabetes are reflected macroscopically and microscopically in the placenta. Placental morphologic changes vary substantially in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia that affects the growth of foetus. In pregnancy induced hypertension, there is increased resistance to utero-placental circulation which adversely affects the growth of placenta, which ultimately results in unfavorable outcome of pregnancy. The present study was undertaken to evaluate various gross pathological changes in placentae of pregnancy induced hypertension.

The sugar cane is one of the most important crops in Brazil, both in the economic as social and environmental. The sugar cane is of fundamental importance as a raw material for the production of sugar and alcohol, which enables the replacement of fossil fuels with renewable. Mechanized harvesting sugar cane without burning straw gave rise to a new production system called green cane. The straw originated this system, combined with the intensity of rainfall determined new concepts on transposition of herbicides to the ground.

Free radicals are the causes of a large number of human degenerative diseases affecting a wide variety of physiological functions. Antioxidants, even at relatively small concentrations inhibit oxidation by acting as free radical scavengers and thus converting these radicals into less reactive oxygen species. The present study is on the plants such as Ageratum conyzoides, L., Eupatorium ayapana, Vent., and Chromolaena odorata, L. which belong to the tribe Eupatorieae of the family Asteraceae. These members are rich in secondary metabolites such as phenol, flavanoids and tannin.

Ventilatory lung functions are reduced during occupational exposure to industrial air pollutants. The degree of functional impairment has a direct relationship with the dust concentration and duration of exposure. Spirometry is a valuable tool to investigate and assess the degree of pulmonary functional impairment caused by occupational dust. Periodic pulmonary function tests help in earlier detection and intervention.

E. coli isolate pe16, when subjected to PCR analysis showed positive forStx2f. Protein from this isolate was subjected to purification. The purification scheme involved ammonium sulphate precipitation at 40% saturation and then at 60% saturation, dialysis using 1% sucrose solution followed by Ion exchange chromatography. DEAE Cellulose for anion and CMC for cation were used as packing materials. Elutions obtained from above purification steps were subjected to protein estimation by Lowry’s method.

Currently the success through natural fertilization has decreased in humans and domestic species worldwide. In Mexico, subfertility problems have come to affect 1 of 6 couples. According to the World Health Organization, the main causes are: endometriosis (42%), ovulatory disorders (33%), and the increase in the diagnosis of obesity, diabetes and cancer.

Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia is a manifestation of atherosclerotic disease in the mesenteric blood vessels. It can be treated percutaneously. And the endovascular intervention of mesenteric blood vessels has surpassed surgical revascularisation over the past decade due to its lesser peri operative complication rate. Trans-femoral approach of revascularising is limited by its difficulty in coaxial alignment of the guiding catheter and hence brachial artery and recently the Radial approach have been utilized for mesenteric artery revascularisation for over a decade.

Present investigated was performed to study the toxic effects of oral administration of silver nanoparticles on liver and serum parameters of male rat. Six healthy Wistar rats weighing between 150-200 g were randomly selected and divided into three groups. Group I serve as control group and received distilled water while treatment groups were administered 1 mg kg–1 b.wt. silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for 30 days. After 24 hrs of experiments completion, rats were sacrificed using diethyl ether. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture to extract out serum for biochemical estimation.

Plastics have become an important part of modern life and are used in different sectors of applications like packaging, building materials, consumer products and much more. Many plastics are physically, chemically robust and cause waste management problems. Bioremediation is an important approach to waste reduction that relies on biological processes to break down a variety of pollutants. This is made possible by the vast metabolic diversity of the microbial world.

Phosphorus is a major component of plants and soil. Plants can absorb phosphorus as phosphate anion. A large number of microorganisms are present in the soil are known to solubilize and make the insoluble phosphorus in the available form to the plants. Bacterial colonies from tea garden soil were isolated on Pikovskaya’s (PKV) agar medium, containing insoluble tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) as calcium source. The colonies showing clear halo zones around the bacterial growth were considered as phosphate solubilizers.

Ayurveda and other literature mention the use of plants in treatment of the various human ailments. Ficus benghalensis is a large evergreen tree found throughout India. It is commonly called Banyan tree. It is used in traditional system of medicine like ayurveda and homoeopathy. Different parts of the tree have been found to possess medicinal properties: leaves are good for ulcer, aerial roots are useful in gonorrhea, seeds and fruits are cooling and tonic.

This article aims to present biotechnological methods used in the recovery of soil Inert in extinct erosion area in Residential Geovanni Braga, the Annapolis City Hall in the State of Goiás, through revegetation techniques with fertilization and planting forage braquiária to improve the bed of vegetable and microbiological soil structure and chemistry.

Ivory Coast has decided to popularize the cultivation of cotton in order to integrate the people of the savanna zone to the market economy. To carry out this policy, the State has created CIDT to help them move from a subsistence economy to that market. This parastatal opted for a close supervision that allowed Ivory Coast to achieve "records" production of seed cotton. However, since the liberalization of the cotton sector, the coaching staff, which once was the "pride" of the Ivory Coast, is increasingly criticized.

The millet (Pennisetum americanum) is an annual cover crop in increasing use in the Cerrado region. Excessive use of agricultural machinery and inadequate management has caused losses in soil physical quality. Research has shown that besides being effective as ground cover, millet has shown ability to break through compacted layers. This study aimed to evaluate the growth and yield of millet plants subjected to levels of soil compaction. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design.

Unethical business practices are gaining wide attention in the business circles, academia and government. Various measures are adopted to control these unethical business practices. However despite of the known fact that spiritual values have positive effect in controlling this menace and the fact that spiritually oriented people act in Godly ways, Spirituality as a control measure for unethical behavior and business have not been sufficiently explored.

Background: Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) is a rapidly growing, noninvasive imaging modality that developed quickly over the last decade, and its role for evaluation of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) becomes of great promise with high diagnostic accuracy. The presence and extent of Coronary Artery Calcification (CAC) correlates with the overall magnitude of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and with the development of subsequent coronary events.

Orthodontic management of impacted canines can be a very complex and requires a carefully planned interdisciplinary approach. The surgical orthodontic treatment of impacted canines is aimed at bringing the tooth into its correct position in the dental arch without causing periodontal damage. Various forms of inter-arch and intra-arch mechanics have been developed for the eruption of impeded and impacted teeth.

Hairy tongue (HT), also known as “lingua villosa nigra”, is a benign and reversible condition and is characterised by marked accumulation of keratin on the filiform papillae of the dorsum of the tongue resulting in a hair-like appearance. The Color of the papillae may vary from brown to black. Here we report a case of hairy tongue in a 45 year old male patient.

Lipomas are benign tumours of mesenchymal origin. Intraoral lipomas are rare, representing 1% to 5% of all benign oral tumors, although they are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the trunk and proximal portions of extremities. Their diagnostic importance lies in the distinction from other benign connective tissue lesions, salivary gland neoplasms and liposarcomas. They are usually treated by surgical excision and bear excellent prognosis. Here we report a case of intraoral lipoma in the buccal mucosa.

Hydatid disease is quite common in countries like India, Egypt, Australia, New zealand, Mediterranean countries, Middle East, Africa and sheep rearing countries (Kayaalp et al., 2007). This common disease is known to affect many uncommon sites in the human body as face, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, breast, thyroid and intermuscular planes. Other unusual sites include heart (2%), kidney (1.5%-3%), brain (3%), and spleen (3%). Incidence of musculoskeletal disease including subcutaneous tissue has been reported to be 0.5 to 5 % (Gole et al., 2013).

Knowledge of the position of the mental foramen is important when administering regional anesthesia, orthodontic tooth movement/surgery and performing periapical surgery in the mental region of mandible. The mental foramen has been reported to vary in different ethnic groups. Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to identify the most common position of mental foramen on panoramic radiograph in the western Indian population. Its symmetry of location on right and left sides and gender differences were also analysed.

Introduction: We believe that every organ in the body has a strong collagen chassis. Injury and lacerations of the chassis will distort the shape of the organ, lead to its dysfunction, abnormal position and chronic pain. The strong pelvic diaphragm keeps the pelvic organs and tracts in their normal position. Pelvic floor dysfunction is widely present in women particularly around menopause. The internal urethral sphincter (IUS) is a collagen-muscle tissue cylinder that extends from the bladder neck down to the perineal membrane.

Background: Collodion Baby refers to clinical presentation in neonates present within a thick taut shiny translucent membrane resembling a collodion, usually this membrane sheds off within 2-3 weeks after birth Case Characteristics: Both the infants were full term and had abnormal skin with ectropion and eclabium. Apgar was normal with no gross systemic anomalies. Intervention: The infants were placed in an incubator and temperature monitoring, IV antibiotics, fluid and electrolyte replacement was done.

A sustained release matrix formulation for Albuterol Sulphate was designed and developed to achieve a 12 h release profile. Using HPMC K15M and HPMC K100M as an inert matrix forming agent to control the release of Albuterol Sulphate. The matrix tablets for these formulations were prepared by direct compression and their in-vitro release tests were carried out for a period of 12 hours using USP dissolution test apparatus (type II Paddle) at 37±0.5°C and 50 rpm speed.

Primary epiploic appendagitis is an exceptional reason of the acute abdomen. It is an ischemic infarction of an epiploic appendage. If it happens on the right hemicolon, it looks like anappendicitis whereas a left-sided epiploic appendagitis can be mistaken for sigmoid diverticulitis. In this study, cases for both of these conditions are exhibited with respective clinical, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonographic (US) findings. Both cases were analyzed conventionally.

Aim: The aim of the study is to asses dental students perception, attitude and their views on anti tobacco counselling. Objective: The study is conducted to understand the influence of knowledge on counselling, the effectiveness of the counselling and how they rate themselves as counselors and the barriers faced by them in the counselling process.

Background: Asthma is one of the commonest chronic childhood illness. Childhood obesity forms a link between adult obesity and cardio-vascular risk. Exercise-induced asthma is defined as an intermittent narrowing of the airways, demonstrated by a decrease in some measure of flow, that the patient experiences as wheezing, chest tightness, coughing and difficulty in breathing that is triggered by exercise.

Patients whose teeth are affected by severe dental fluorosis with enamel defects (Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index = 5-7) have a great concern regarding the appearance of their teeth and can have psychological impact on the quality of their life. This paper proposes a minimal invasive technique for the esthetic management of such teeth.

Background: Accessory coronary ostia refer are ostia located in the aortic sinuses other than those of the left and right coronary arteries. The most common ostia found in the aortic sinuses are those of the conal and sinoatrial node arteries. Knowledge and recognition of these two arteries is important when performing coronary angiography. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of accessory ostia in the aortic sinuses in autopsied hearts.

We put forward a novel concept to explain the physiology of micturition. Micturition consists of two stages, first stage in infancy and early childhood and the second stage starts after toilet training. In the first stage, micturition is a sacral spinal reflex. In the second stage, after toilet training, the person builds up, by learning and training, high alpha sympathetic tone at the internal urethral sphincter (IUS) keeping it contracted and the urethra closed and empty all the time.

Melanoma is malignant neoplasm of melanocytes and their precursor cells. It accounts for 5% of all cutaneous cancer. 30% of cutaneous melanoma arises in the head and the neck region. The most commonly affected intra-oral sites are palate and maxillary gingiva. Since most of the mucosal melanoma are usually asymptomatic in early stages and presents as pigmented patch or a mass the diagnosis is delayed until symptoms of swelling, ulceration, bleeding are noted. Herewith we report a case of intra-oral malignant melanoma in a 30 years old female patient.

Uterine rupture is a catastrophic complication of pregnancy occurring most commonly during third trimester. Though, uterine rupture in first and second trimesters is rare, spontaneous mid-trimester rupture is even rarer with only four such cases described in English literature. We hereby report an extremely rare case of spontaneous midtrimester uterine rupture due to angular pregnancy.

Glycine 1.5% is used for optimal visualization during hysteroscopy, but it may cause pulmonary oedema. We are reporting a case of severe and life threatening appearance of Operative hysteroscopy intravascular absorption syndrome during hysteroscopy myomectomy under GA in the Gynecology operation theater. Development of pulmonary oedema, metabolic acidosis and Hyponatremia was very fast forcing us to abandon the procedure and shifting the patient to ICU.

Given the profound perturbations in the maternal immune system during pregnancy and the postpartum period, it is not surprising that the clinical and biological features of periodontal infections are affected. Some of the pregnancy-induced immunological modifications in the mother increase her susceptibility to a number of infections, including periodontal disease. It also appears that periodontal infections, at least in some populations, can increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Maintaining good oral hygiene is a must for the successful outcome of orthodontic treatment with tooth brush as a main aide of cleaning. This study was planned to check plaque controlling and cleaning effectiveness of brushing with conventional tooth brush, orthodontic tooth brush and an electrically operated rotary brush in patients who had fixed orthodontic appliances placed in their mouth. Study included 30 orthodontic patients (18-25yrs.) were divided equally into three groups.

The limited solubility of drugs is a challenging issue for industry, during the development of the solid dosage form. Liquisolid technique is a novel and promising approach to overcome this problem. This technique is an efficient method for formulating water insoluble and poorly water soluble drugs. The liquisolid technique is based upon the dissolving the insoluble drug in the nonvolatile solvent and admixture of drug loaded solutions with appropriate carrier and coating materials to convert into acceptably flowing and compressible powder.

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a well recognized iatrogenic complication of assisted conception techniques, which uses pharmacological ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technology (ART). However, in most cases OHSS is self-limiting and requires supportive management and monitoring while awaiting resolution. In a minority of women undergoing treatment it can result in life-threatening complications such as thrombo-embolic phenomena and multiple organ dysfunctions.

Lymphatic filariasis, caused by Brugia malayi, commonly known as elephantiasis, is a neglected tropical disease. No vaccines are available for the prevention of filarial infections. A number of pathogenic organisms including filarial parasites display specialized proteins on their cell surface to assist in invasion. One of the best characterized is the glycolytic enzyme enolase. Enolase represents a multifunctional protein involved in basic energy metabolism in pathogens. In the present study, gene encoding enolase of B. malayi was isolated, amplified and identified by sequencing.

Fractured anterior tooth with a fracture line extending subgingivally poses multiple problems to clinicians. Since it requires exposure of sound tooth structure to achieve proper finish line for restoration, it is necessary to elevate the fracture line above the epithelial attachment. Orthodontic forced eruption is suitable approach for extrusion of tooth, without disturbing esthetics, in cases where fracture line is extending below gingiva or alvelor bone crest. Conventional orthodontic appliance is unappealing due to brackets.

Castleman’s disease (CD) is an uncommon lymphoproliferative disorder typically presenting as ‘Mediastinal’ lymph node swelling. Clinical presentation can range from asymptomatic to generalised lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Two histological variants are hyaline vascular type and plasma cell type. Hyaline vascular type CD presents as unicentric mass mimicking various infectious and malignant causes of lymphadenopathy.

Eyes are one of the important senses of our body. Damage to the eyes can severely affect patient functioning, his psychology and overall personality. It is not always possible to repair and provide complete functioning, but reconstruction should always be attempted. Though a routine standard procedure has been provided in reconstruction of an ocular prosthesis, ideal cases scenarios are rare and require certain modifications.

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of impacted maxillary and mandibular canine Objective: The objective is to investigate for the incidence of maxillary and mandibular canine impaction in patients reporting to orthodontic treatment. Material and method: A total of 100 patients in the age range of 13-40 yrs, who visited for orthodontic treatment.

Background: Lung cancer is currently the most frequently diagnosed major cancer in the world and the most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. It comprises about 17% of the total new cancer cases in males and 23% of the total cancer deaths. The incidence is increasing dramatically in women and lung cancer has surpassed breast cancer as a leading cause of cancer death in women. To combat the disease successfully, lung cancer should be diagnosed at earliest possible stage preferably before the lesion has reached the stage of a visible and palpable tumor.

Background: Poorly nourished child grows less rapidly during first 6 years of age. In India, around 43% of under five children were underweight. Child protein energy malnutrition reflects a number of intermediately processes such as household access to food, access to health service and caring practices. the present study was undertaken to assess prevalence of malnutrition as well asthe nutritional status of children below six years’ age group and to explore most probable risk factors influencing malnutrition.

Introduction: Traditional surgical techniques both resective and regenerative establish periodontal health addressing the primary goal of pocket elimination. Restoration of lost periodontal tissues rather than regeneration is being accomplished with untoward side effects which led to the advent of a newer non-invasive Laser assisted new attachment procedure protocol challenging the old paradigm of periodontal healing in the absence of guided tissue regeneration barriers(GTR) or bone grafting materials.

Introduction: In present day scenario, maxillofacial trauma plays a dominant role in road traffic accidents. The purpose of this study is to enhance our understanding of the epidemiology and trauma patterns of mid-face injuries, to come up with protocols that can ensure a more efficient management of trauma patients, implement programs to increase public awareness regarding road safety rules and ultimately, aim to reduce the incidence of maxillofacial trauma in RTA.

Objective: To review the literature for evidence based understanding of the clinical presentation, pathogenesis and treatment of the phantom limb syndrome. Background: Phantom limb pain (PLP) refers to the sensation of pain in the missing part of the amputated limb. It usually manifests as a burning sensation, a gripe and may vary in both intensity and frequency. It is associated with stump pain (SP) and phantom limb sensation (PLS). The incidence of this is very high, among patients who have undergone any amputation.

Background: The purpose of the study is to estimate the knowledge, attitude and practice of the oral hygiene, and dental treatment, and its correlation with everyday oral hygiene practices among the health care professionals of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted on 300 health care professionals. Two hundred health professionals were asked to answer a questionnaire containing 20questions.Data once collected was analysed. Results: 14% health professionals visited the dentist once in a year.

Aims and Objectives: The aim of study is to evaluate the prevalence and clinical presentation of congenital preauricular sinus (PAS) and to determine its association with other congenital abnormalities. Methods: This is an observational study conducted in patients attending to OPD of ENT department. All patients with clinical diagnosis of pre-auricular sinus were enrolled after taking written informed consent and detail histories of presenting complaints were taken. Otologic, nose, throat and full general examinations were done to rule out the other associated congenital anomalies.

Objective: To review the literature for evidence based understanding of mirror neurons, its discovery, and significance in social cognition. Background: Mirror neurons are a type of brain cell that respond when we perform an action and when we witness someone else perform the same action. They possess the fascinating property of being activated by the performance as well as the observation of specific motor actions. It is widely assumed that mirror neurons were designed by evolution to enable action understanding.

Objective: The aim of this work was to review the literature about The role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells BMSCs in bone healing in cranio-maxillofacial bone defects. Design: Using related key words, electronic search of English-language papers was conducted on PubMed data-bases in Mars/2016. Studies that assessed the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells BMSCs in bone regeneration in cranio-maxillofacial bone defects in human or animal models were included.

Background: Oral cancer is currently the most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths among Indian men, which is usually preceded by oral potentially malignant conditions (OPC) like leukoplakia and/or oral submucous fibrosis.

Introduction: Oral health is essential for general health and well-being throughout life and is a marker for overall health status. It is associated with the development of healthy personality and perception that enables an individual to speak, eat and socialize without active disease, discomfort or embarrassment. Aim: To determine association of dental caries prevalence and oral hygiene indicators among 12 and 15 years old school going children using ICDAS II. Material and methods: The data was recorded by investigator in pre-designed proforma. The proforma was divided into 2 parts.

Pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates between the two pleural layers, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. Excessive amounts of such fluid can impair breathing by limiting the expansion of the lungs during ventilation. This is an open label, comparative, analytical interventional and prospective study done in the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Government Medical College Hospital, Kota during period Oct. 2013 to Sept. 2014.

The objectives of orthodontic therapy are to establish a good occlusion, enhance the health of the periodontium, and improve dental and facial esthetics. Although tooth contact is important, the interrelationship between orthodontics, periodontics, and esthetics, should not be deemphasized. The common unaesthetic situations that may develop during orthodontic treatment are the gummy smile, gingival margin discrepancies, and the missing papilla. This article describes these situations dusring orthodontic treatment and how to overcome them.

The objective of this study is to evaluate the affection of grip strength in cricketers who are having soft tissue injury of shoulder. Method: A cross sectional survey was carried out on 80 cricketers, between 17-19 years of age. They were divided into two groups out of which group 1 had 40 cricket players without any soft tissue injury of shoulder and group 2 had 40 cricket players who had soft tissue shoulder injury on the dominant side and had resumed playing cricket. The grip strength is evaluated using hydraulic hand dynamometer on dominant and non-dominant hand in both the groups.

Aim & Objectives: To determine the tensile bond strength of different tray adhesives which were allowed to dry for various intervals of time between auto polymerizing resin and polyvinylsiloxane impression material. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 samples were prepared for this study. Out of the total 56 samples, a single coat of Coltene tray adhesive and Medicept tray adhesive was applied for 28 samples each, following which tray adhesive was allowed to dry for four different time intervals. (0 min, 20 min, 40 min, 60 min).

Introduction: Diabetes has a high prevalence rate in India. More than 62 million diabetic individuals were currently diagnosed with diabetes. Most often patients with diabetes go undiagnosed. This study was undertaken to screen patients for diabetes mellitus using gingival crevicular blood during dental procedures. Objective: Objectives are to assess and compare the glucose levels in the gingival crevicular blood, Finger capillary, and intravenous blood.

Mucocele is a clinical term that describes swelling caused by accumulation of saliva at site of a traumatized or obstructed minor salivary gland duct. It is basically a pseudocyst which can be classified as extarvasation and retention type. Mucocele can affect the general population, but most commonly young patients (20-30 years old). Clinically they consist of a soft, bluish and transparent cystic swelling which normally resolves spontaneously. The most common location of the extravasation mucocele is the lower lip.

Darier's disease is characterised by skin colored, yellow brown or brown firm rough papules in the seborrhoeic rich areas of scalp, face and trunk. The disorder can also present with a myriad of unusually rare cutaneous lesions like small leukodermic macules. We present such a case of darier’s disease with hypopigmented maculopapular lesions because of the rarity of its occurrence.

Objectives: To determinate the duration of the effects caused by Intermittent Static Stretching (ISS) on muscle elongation. Background: Flexibility training is considered an essential physical quality in sport competition, injuries prevention and adapted physically activity. However, there is little information about the duration of the effects provoked by a stretching protocol on muscles-tendon unit, even if elongation exercises are very common in all physical activities.

Introduction: The development of new endodontic technology is aimed at increasing ease and practicality. However, the basic principles of disinfection should also be considered because the presence of residual necrotic tissues and bacteria in the root canal has a direct effect on the outcome of endodontic therapy. Aim of the study: To evaluate the effect of two rotary systems versus manual instrumentation on the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis count in the root canal.

Prolonged labour is a leading cause of death among mothers and newborns in developing countries. Early detection of abnormal progress and prevention of prolonged labour cansignificantly improve the outcome of labour. The partograph is a simple chart for recording information about progress of labour. A descriptive study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding partograph among 60 staff nurses selected by convenience sampling technique, working in Labour ward of selected hospitals of district Ludhiana, Punjab.

Background: Considerable amount of research has been done on the evaluation and improvement of the quality of health care delivery in the past 30 years. It seems likely that there will never be a solitary criterion by which to measure the quality of patient care One of the first steps to build quality in a healthcare organization is to evaluate the perceptions of the medical personell about quality issues.

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor AOT is a relatively uncommon, benign tumor accounting for 2.2-13% of all odontogenic tumors. It presents in three clinicopathological variants as: Follicular, Extrafollicular and Peripheral type. We present clinical features, radiological evaluation and treatmentof two rare cases of extrafollicular variant of AOT who reported to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal bone loss around immediate dental implants with synthetic Hydroxyapatite graft. Materials and Methods: Twenty- four implants in the premolar area of maxilla in 15 patients were included in this study. 12 implants placed immediately after extraction with synthetic hydroxyapatite graft (group I) and 12 without using hydroxyapatite graft served as control (group II). Implant success, plaque index PI, and bleeding index BI, and marginal bone loss MBL were evaluated.

Background: During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, gallbladder perforation with leakage of bile and/or gallstones into the abdominal cavity occurs frequently while gallbladder is being dissected from liver bed or while extracting it through the port site. In this retrospective study we have studied the case files of the patients who underwent laproscopic cholecystectomy and had intraoperative gallbladder perforation and had studied its effect on outcome of the surgery.

Introduction: Posterior dislocation of the elbow joint with fracture of both the radial head and coronoid process, the so called ‘terrible triad’, is a complex and difficult-to-treat injury. We present a rare case of Bilateral terrible triad of elbow associated with left peri-lunate dislocation and right lunate dislocation never reported in the literature. Case report: A 38 year old male presented to our hospital after a road traffic accident with fall on outstretched hand, complaining of pain in both elbows and wrist. There were no external injuries at the time of presentation.

Intestinal coccidian infection is a major health problem in a developing country like India, having the largest number of people living with HIV in the world. This study includes 80 stool samples from AIDS patients with diarrhoea attending St. John medical college and hospital, Bangalore. Cryptosporidium species and Isospora species oocysts were detected using modified acid fast stain and rapid saffranin method. This was done in stool samples before and after concentration.

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease. The worldwide of persons afflicted with the disease is increasing. The incidence of the disease has increased manifold particularly in the South- East Asian Region. Although lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy is particularly important in the management of the disease, compliance of the patient is often compromised owing to the chronic nature of the disease. This is where the role of technology comes into being. Technology, if used judiciously, can be of great benefits in the management of the disease.

Renal artery aneurysm accounts for 1% of all aneurysms. Pregnancy is a predisposing condition for aneurysm formation and rupture. Our aim is to reinforce the presence of this rare condition as a cause of hypovolemic shock in pregnancy. With this aim, we present a case of a female who presented to us with this rare entity. The diagnosis of renal artery aneurysm during pregnancy remains elusive due to its rare occurrence and non-specific presentation. A high degree of vigilance and prompt treatment is required to salvage the lives of both mother and fetus.

Ectrodactyly is one of the rarest congenital malformation of the limb also termed as split hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM).Majority of cases are sporadic, as is the present case, but familial types also exist with autosomal dominant inheritance. The causative factor is defect of central elements of the autopod (Hand/Foot). There is deep median cleft of the hand and/or foot. It is also known as “lobster-claw” deformity because of the cone-shaped clefts of the hands and/or feet.

Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the linear and cross arch dimensional accuracy of conventional alginate (Algitex) and alginate alternative ( AlgiNot) at different time intervals. Materials and Methods: Thirty two impressions of full arch master model were made with both the materials and they were divided into four groups: immediate pour, poured at24 hours, 96 hours,and 120 hours. Anterio posterior (A-B& A-C) and cross arch (B-C) measurements were made on the casts with the help of coordinated measuring machine.

Background: Acute abdominal emergencies are common reason for admission into emergency unit of most hospitals. This study was undertaken to look at the spectrum of such presentations to Patna Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India. The management and outcome were also highlighted. Method: A retrospective review of case notes of patients with abdominal emergency conditions between year 2012-14 was carried out. Parameters studied included demographic characteristics, diagnosis, management and outcome. Results: A total of 202 patients were studied.

Purpose: The intaglio surface of complete denture is not polished so due to rough surface adhesion of microorganisms to denture surface. This study aimed to measure the antimicrobial activity and flexural strength of heat cure acrylic resin after incorporating zinc acetate in different percentage. Materials and Method: A total number of thirty-two disk shaped (6mm x 1mm) and rectangular shaped samples (65mm x 10mm x 2.5mm) were prepared from heat-polymerized acrylic resin incorporated with Zinc acetate.

A series of novel 1,3,5-triazinyl benzothiazine derivatives have been prepared by condensation of N-[1-alkyl]4-aryl-6-thioxo-1,6-dihydro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]-N’-arylidenhydrazine with 2-mercaptobenzoic acid. The structure of the new compounds has been established by elemental, spectral and m.p. studies. All the compounds have been subjected to antibacterial and antifungal screening. In the series, compounds with chloro- inhibit the growth of S.

Down syndrome (DS) was first described by John Langdon Down (1866) at mid-nineteenth century and one century later, the DS primary cause due to trisomy 21 was reported (Lejeune et al., 1959). DS is predominantly due to non-disjunction of chromosome 21. It is not a disease; however the affected individuals have a greater risk in acquiring many systemic and oral conditions. DS is the most common autosomal chromosomal anomaly with an incidence of 1 in 600 to 1000 live births in all races and economic groups.

Introduction: Evolution of dental materials has increased the indication of esthetic restorative procedures. However, composite resin materials are not suitable for posterior class II restorations because of their high wear rate and insufficient marginal adaptation. Resin composite materials undergo volumetric polymerization contraction of at least 2% which results in gap formation at cavity margins.

Background: Presence of viable bacteria obtained from gall bladder during elective cholecystectomy can be decisive in the outcome of gall bladder surgeries with reference to surgical site infection. Materials and Methods: 104 patients with symptomatic gall stone disease underwent elective cholecystectomy. Bile sample was taken intra operatively from gallbladder using a size 22 spinal needle before beginning gallbladder dissection in both open and laparoscopic procedures and sent for culture and sensitivity examination.

Anemia in the elderly patients is an extremely common problem that can be associated with mortality and impair the quality of life. Since anemia is a sign and not a diagnosis, therefore an evaluation is almost always warranted to identify its cause. (Bhasin and Rao, 2011) In our prospective study we investigated about the morphological type and the etiological spectrum of anemia in 100 patients with age 60 years and above. Hb< 12gm/dl (in females) and Hb<13gm/dl (in males) {acc to WHO Criteria} (World Health Organization, 2010) were the cut off value for anemia.

Aim: to correlate the position of impacted maxillary canines on panoramic radiography with cone beam CT (CBCT). Materials & Methods: In this study fifty patients with sixty impacted maxillary canine were retrospectively radiographed. The labiopalatal position of the impacted canines and root resorption of permanent incisors were evaluated with CBCT. The findings of panoramic radiography and CBCT were analysed and compared through statistics.

Aim: to compare the efficacy and cytotoxicity of four different types of sealers including AH plus, Sankin, Tubliseal EWT and Apexit as well as their effect on cytokine release of L929 fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: Here cells were cultured in Complete Medium Culture (CMC) and then divided into two test groups. In group 1, sealers were added to cell culture wells immediately after mixing. In group 2, sealers were added to cell cultures 3 hours after mixing. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay after 4, 24 and 168 hours.

Background: Desmin as one of the major stress-bearing elements in the sarcomere and intercalated disk is an important determinant of cardiomyocyte function and long outcome. However, DES disturbances have been noticed in various heart diseases and can be modified by DES mRNA and ubiquitin proteasome system. The relation between desmin mRNA, desmin and ubiquitin in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) has not been examined.

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Most women with newly diagnosed breast cancer are of luminal type. Aim: To explore the modern modalities focusing on the hormone therapies for breast cancer. Methods: Systemic review of PubMed filter finds publications to support keywords of the current study. Findings: Treatment of breast cancer can be classified into local or systemic therapies.

Introduction: Different adjuvants have been used to extend spinal anesthesia, with probable benefits of late commencement of postoperative pain and reduced analgesic requirements. Midazolam has only sedative property. However, dexmedetomidine has both analgesic and sedative properties that may prolong the duration of sensory and motor block obtained with spinal anesthesia. This study was designed to compare intravenous dexmedetomidine with midazolam and placebo on spinal block duration, analgesia and sedation.

Introduction: In India minimum required hemoglobin for blood donation is 12.5 gm%. Blood donation deferrals due to anemia are very common and it decreases availability of precious blood donor for the blood bank. Aim and Objective: To provide baseline information regarding the prevalence and spectrum of anemia in retrospective blood donors to help plan a future strategy for donor management. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective, single center-based study assessing the blood donor deferral due to anemia was carried out in Blood Bank, P.D.U.

Objective: The cocoa stem borer, Eulophonotusmyrmeleon Felder causes today serious damage in cocoa farm in Côte d’Ivoire. This study was conducted to determine the outbreak periods of this new lepidopteran pest in the Indénié-Djuablin region, the second largest cocoa producing area in Côte d'Ivoire. Methodology and Results: The study was conducted from 2009 to 2013 in farmers’ cocoa farms of the Indénié-Djuablin region in Côte d'Ivoire. Changes in the population density and attack rates ofE.

Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) being a toxic xenobiotic aromatic compounds generated as a result of incomplete combustion of organic matter pose a direct threat to human health due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic nature. PAHs being non-polar have low solubility in water and hence are difficult to be eradicated by any means. A constant struggle of scientific community and incessant research has espied various methodologies to increase the rate of degradation of PAHs by modification of environmental factors.

The study estimated the effect exports and imports on economic growth in the Arab countries during the period 1995 to 2013. The study used panel data approach by E- views program in 17 countries: (Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Tunisia, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Egypt, Djibouti, Mauritania, Morocco, Yemen and Palestine). The study found that the effect exports and imports have positive effect of economic growth in the Arab countries during the period 1995 to 2013.

Lichen planus is an chronic mucocutaneous condition that affect adults and is uncommon disease for a child, but in rare condition it may affect children of any age. In this case a 6 years old female child presented with oral ulcerative lichen planus that involves the dorsum of the tongue and right buccal mucosa for past 6 month. She also hadextroral manifestation of lichen planus involving the hand wrist region and ankle of the knee region. Oral Lichen planus was confirmed with the clinical and histopathological features.

Occupational exposure to Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) constitutes an important health hazard. PAH may lead to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing oxidative stress.

Background: Vaccination is one of the most effective disease prevention strategies and potency of vaccine is dependent on effective management of cold chain at all levels of vaccine handling by cold chain handler. An effective cold chain maintenance system is the backbone of success of any immunization program. This study was done with objectives to assess the knowledge and practices of Cold chain handler regarding cold chain equipments and vaccines storage.

Aim: The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of technical mathematics laboratory in teaching secondary Thirty-seventh school female students Jeddah - Saudi Arabia Methodology: descriptive-analytical approach, the study included 28 female secondary students of Thirty-seventh school full semester after the use of technical mathematics laboratory, the research sample was chosen randomly, and questionnaire was used as data collection tool, data entry and analysis was done by Microsoft's Excel 2016.

In order to find out whether there is difference in reading comprehension skills between the governmental and non-governmental grade 12 preparatory school students of Jimma town, necessary data were collected by using reading comprehension test, questionnaire for students and for teachers. The data collected were analyzed quantitatively using statistical techniques of percentage and mean.

Background: Now days, stress is dangerous & significant problems of World & affect physical, mental, behavioral, and emotional health. Yoga has been reported to control stress, to be beneficial in treating stress related disorders, improving autonomic functions, lower blood pressure, increase strength and flexibility of muscles, improve the sense of wellbeing, slowed ageing process, control breathing, reducing signs of oxidative stress and improving spiritual growth.

The research study reports the results of a comparative analysis on causes of occupational stress among the men and women employees and its effect on the employee performance at the workplace International Agricultural Research Institute, Hyderabad. A survey of 200 employees consisting 120 men and 80 women from the institute carried out to assess the nine independent stress causing factors Work overload, Boss-Peer, Role Ambiguity, Role Overload, Co-Workers, Lack of control, Career, Individual, Physiological Factors and its effect on employees’ Performance a dependent factor.

Snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina L.) is an important Cucurbitaceous vegetable and has been traditionally grown due to its easy cultivation and short duration. An experiment was conducted by Randomized block design to characterize and assess the genetic diversity of 40 genotypes collected from different parts of South India which differ morphologically including one check variety MDU-1, at the Department of Horticulture, Annamalai University. Data were recorded for eleven characters.

An experiment was carried out to study the influence of organic nutrients and Gibberllic acid on the performance of English cape lily (Crinum spp) . Among the treatments, it can be concluded that the organic manure viz., Farmyard manure @ 15 t ha-1 along with foliar application of Gibberllic acid @ 500 ppm was found most effective in maximizing the days taken for sprouting (10.12 days ), plant height (66.12 cm), number of leaves ( 22.57 plant-1) and leaf area (246.12 cm2 ) .

Growing maize for vegetable purpose is a recent development for which baby maize called “Babycorn” has proved enormously successful as a venture in worldwide. An experiment was conducted at the Department of Horticulture, Annamalai University with Factorial Randomized Block Design(FRBD) which consist of 15 treatments which has different graded levels of Nitrogen at the rate of 100,125,150,175 and 200 kg ha-1along with Phosphorus viz., 40,60 and 80 kg ha-1 in addition to a constant dose of Potassium at the rate of 50 kg ha-1and the data were recorded for seven characters.

“An investigation was carried out to study the “Effect of organic manures along with Humic acid on growth and yield of Thuduvalai was carried out with four different organic manures such as Farm yard manure @15, 17.5 and 20 t ha-1, vermicompost @ 2.5, 2.75 and 3 t ha-1, Coir pith compost @ 2.5, 2.75 and 3 t ha-1 t ha-1, Poultry manure @ 2.5, 2.75 and 3 t ha-1 along with Humic acid @ 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 per cent as foliar spray were studied under in randomized block design with three replication of 13 treatments.

The study on the effect of plant growth regulators on growth and yield of Periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don] cv. Rose purple flowered was carried out in the medicinal unit, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar, Tamil Nadu. This experiment is carried out in Randomized block design with 10 different treatments replicated thrice.

Superficial fungal infections of skin affect millions of people throughout the world. The information of medicinal plants has been accumulated in the course of several centuries based on various medicinal systems such as Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Naturopathy, Modern, Siddha and Unani. Enicostema axillare is a common Indian medicinal plant belonging to the family Gentinaceae was selected and screened for the phyto chemical compounds, antifungal activity and clinical evaluations.

Background: Public health is increasingly concerned with recognizing factors that lead to differences on the basis of profession & teaching practices in stroke. We conducted a study to determine the knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs, and how both are perceived, in a representative sample of female multipurpose health care workers (FMPHWs) in Kashmir valley Methods: A representative sample of the female healthcare workers of two districts of Kashmir division were selected using a double randomization technique.

Background: The aim of this article is to report the prevalence of various dental manifestations of rickets in young children. Methods: Pediatric patients of both the genders of age-group 6-18 years of age with history of rickets in infancy as reported by pediatrician were examined clinically. The exclusion criteria for the study were patients with history of fluorosis, any syndromes or any congenital skeletal deformities.

Objective: To examine the effects of three different parameters—pH value, brands of bracket, and role of brushing—on release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances. Materials and Methods: Simulated fixed orthodontic appliances which consist of brackets with covered base were immersed in artificial saliva of different pH values (4.2, 6.5 and 7.6) during 28-day period. Three different brands of stainless steel brackets were used: Gemini(3M), Abzil(3M), Orthox(JJ ortho) series. All the brackets embedded in self cure and the effect of brushing on ions release have been evaluated.

Background: Knowledge about the health status of migrants is often limited due to lack of data. This is because migrants are often excluded from surveys. Immigrants from disease-endemic areas settle in urban slums with highly vector-receptive and unprotected housing, introducing new and drug-resistant strains. Aims and objectives: 1. Study of Morbidity Pattern among Migrant Workers Material and Methods: Migrant population in coastal city was the study population. Study duration: From December 2015 to April 2016.Study design: Cross sectional study.

Background: Breast cancer is the commonest female cancer worldwide and metastasis deteriorates it’s therapeutic outcome. Several clinicopathological parameters have been associated with metastatic suppressor gene (MSG) expression levels that decipher it’s prognostic/predictive significance. The role of MSG Nm23H1 in breast cancer is inconclusive. Our goal was to investigate the possible clinical significance and correlation of Nm23H1 with metastatic breast cancer.

Plasma cell dyscrasias represent 1.4-2 % of all malignancies and among hematologic malignancies; it constitutes 10 % of the tumors. Plasma cell dyscrasias are composed of multiple myeloma, primary and secondary plasma cell leukemia. Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) is a rare and aggressive disease, represents 1-4 % of plasma cell dyscrasias. The prognosis of this is very poor with median survival of 8- 11 months in different reported series.

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder with 7.6% of transformation rate into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of which majority display low grade of tumor differentiation. The aim of the study is to assess the genetic markers p53 and ki-67 in OSMF, OSCC and OSCC with the background of OSMF. 10 cases of each group were stained with p53 and Ki-67 by immunohistochemistry. Statistically significant results were found amongst the 3 groups with moderate to severe expression (p<0.05) of both the markers.

The objective of this study was to assess the existing institutional practices and conditions that nurture the development of students in two sports academies in Ethiopia. To this end, the researchers used a qualitative case study design conducting focus group discussions with 20 randomly selected students and individual interviews with 4 coaches and 2 sports academy directors. The findings pointed some strengths and weaknesses of the programs.

Traditionally oral cancer has always been associated with tobacco and areca nut chewing habit. An emerging concept is that tumor development and progression is also largely dependent on the cross - talk between immune system and tumor cells. Amongst internal agents, tumor associated macrophages and fibroblasts, play a pivotal role. Cytokines released by fibroblasts crucially affect the carcinoma cell behaviour and the role of chronic inflammation in tumor progression has now widely accepted.

Mentha arvensis Linn belonging to family Lamiaceae is native to the temperate regions of Europe and western and central Asia, east to the Himalaya and eastern Siberia, and America. It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 10–60 cm (rarely to 100 cm) tall. The leaves are in opposite pairs, simple, 2–6.5 cm long and 1–2 cm broad, hairy, and with a coarsely serrated margin. The flowers are pale purple (occasionally white or pink), in clusters on the stem, each flower 3–4 mm long. The plant is widely distributed throughout India.

Ovarian malignancies are on the rise worldwide. Important strategy in management is to differentiate benign from malignant lesions since for benign lesions ovariectomy is sufficient but malignant tumours require cytoreductive surgery with IV or intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Though imaging can help in diagnosis, histopathology is confirmatory. This report highlights the role of intraoperative frozen section in diagnosis of such malignancies.

Pancreatic panniculitis is rare form of panniculitis associated with pancreatic disease. The skin manifestations can occur at any time of the pancreatic pathology. Here we report a case of pancreatic panniculitis in a patient with no pancreatic pathology.

Background: According to high blood pressure statistics, about 1.5 billion people are suffering from high blood pressure world-wide. Arterial hypertension is a major health problem among all population in the world. Hypertension is common risk factors for sexual dysfunction. Study shows that there was a greater tendency for hypertensive adults with or without treatment to have low libido compared with age-matched normotensive adults. So, sexual dysfunction (dissatisfaction) is more frequent in patients with uncontrolled.

Background: Globally, pregnancy and childbirth complications are the major cause of death among 15 to 19 year teenaged mothers. Teenage pregnancy and childbirth is a common health problem in industrialized as well as the middle and low income countries. Teenage pregnancy is also a major social and health problem in Nepal and which occurs two times higher in rural areas than in urban areas. The purpose of this study was to explore maternal and foetal outcomes among teenage mothers regarding teenage pregnancy and childbirth. Methods: Descriptive exploratory study design was used.

Introduction: Type II diabetes is a common condition and a serious national and international health problem. In most countries diabetes has increased along-side rapid cultural and social changes: ageing populations, increasing urbanization, dietary changes, reduced physical activity and unhealthy behaviors. About eight percent of adults in the world are estimated to have diabetes, out of them eighty percent live in low- and middle-income countries. The main objective of this study is to assess the health related quality of life of adult diabetic client.

Background and Aim: Infertility is a common condition with a prevalence of 12-14%. It has important medical, economic and psychological implications. Thyroid hormones play an important role in menstural health and fertility. The aim of the study was to study serum gonadotrophins in hypothyroid females in reproductive age group and to find a correlation if any amongst the two and also study the prevalence of infertility in hypothyroid and subclinical hypothyroid patients.

Background: Dental caries is highly prevalent and a significant public health problem among children throughout the world. The prevalence and incidence of dental caries in a population is influenced by a number of risk factor such as age, sex, socio-economic status, dietary patterns and hygienic habits. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among school children in Chennai. Aim and objectives: This study is to assess the prevalence of dental caries among 3-15 year old school children in Chennai.

Background: Trauma remains a big health problem in every country. Regardless of the level of socioeconomic development, trauma is responsible for 25% of the death in the USA. It is also the leading cause of death in the people from 1 to 44 years of age. Penetrating trauma is still the most frequent cause of death in the first four decades of life, and the rate of trauma causing morbidity and mortality increase in war time and violent conditions.

Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue consisting of glands and/or stroma located outside the uterus. Involvement of the terminal ileum is extremely rare. Preoperative distinction of ileal endometriosis from other diseases of the ileocecal region is difficult in terms of clinical presentation, symptomatology, radiological appearance, and surgical and pathological findings.

The cleidocranial dysplasia is a rare disease which can occur in either sex equally or by autosomal dominant trait. Problems associated with this condition are multiple supernumerary teeth, retained deciduous teeth, delayed eruption, change in shape, impacted teeth and absence of deciduous teeth resorption. For the management of Cleidocranial dyaplasia with many clinical conditions various orthodontic-surgical regimes are discussed in literature.

Introduction: Androgens are vital to prostate growth, development, and prostatic carcinogenesis. Studies have been conducted to evaluate androgen receptor expression in cancer cells and most of the studies have concentrated on cancer epithelial cells and not cancer stromal cells. Development of the prostate gland as well as development of prostatic cancer is closely associated with stromal-epithelial interactions and in the centre of these interactions stands the Androgen Receptor in both stromal and epithelial cells.

Background and Aim: This manuscript is aimed to develop a theoretical framework for performance management and measurement of Medical Equipment Management System (MEMS) based on key performance indicators (KPIs) which fits well in public hospital context of India and other developing countries. Material and Methods: The paper is based on literature analysis followed by statistical analysis. Study design consisted of selection of a set of KPIs and their organization into a simple logic model consisting of four domains of input, process, output and outcome.

Tooth that is present in addition to the normal set of dentition was termed as supernumerary tooth or hyperdontia. They may be erupted or unerupted, single, multiple, unilateral or bilateral, and in one or both jaws. Multiple supernumerary teeth are rare in individuals with no other associated diseases or syndromes. Here we discussed two interesting cases of supernumeraries in female patients without any associated syndromes

Background: CAD has been associated with mortality and diminished quality of life. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma is a transcription factor that leads to the regulation of glucose homeostasis, lipoprotein metabolism and nuclear homeostasis. Aim: The present study aimed at evaluating the association, if any, of Pro12Ala polymorphism (rs1801282) in PPARγ gene in CAD cases in the North West Punjabi population of Punjab.

We reported a rare case of unilateral agenesis of levator ani. A adolescent male child came for evaluation of perineal swelling. On MRI study, we nicely depicted complete nonvizualization of unilateral levator ani muscle.

Rehabilitation of a missing anterior tooth poses a challenge for the clinician. A variety of therapeutic options from implants to conventional Maryland bridges can be used to address this challenge. However cost, time and preservation of natural tooth structure limits their use. Recently, Fiber reinforced composite resin bridges have been suggested as a good alternative to conventional prosthetic treatment when fixed, conservative, economical and immediate tooth replacement is desired.

Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) is a technique for bone reconstruction of alveolar ridge achieved with help of non resorbable or resorbable membranes. Bone grafts can be used in combination with membranes to further enhance the results. It may be used in conjunction with dental implants, in socket preservation, or in a staged manner. GBR procedures have been utilized for localized ridge augmentation as well as in reconstruction of larger areas. Both vertical and horizontal augmentation can be achieved although the predictability is not same for both.

Pancreatic disorders like Acute pancreatitis, Pancreatic Abscess, Pseudocyst, Pancreatic malignancy, Chronic pancreatitis present with pleural effusions. Here we present four cases of right sided massive hemorrhagic pancreatic pleural effusion which presented with chest complaints rather than abdominal ailments. Pancreatic pathology was established after thorough workup and Pleural fluid analysis which showed elevated amylase levels in all the cases and this was clinching our diagnosis which was also supported by Computed Tomography of Abdomen (Plain and Contrast).

Introduction: The commonest complication of liver cirrhosis is hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatic encephalopathy is a complication of acute or chronic liver disease. Clinically hepatic encephalopathy can be classified as overt and Minimal. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy represents cognitive deficits in the absence of Overt encephalopathy. Aims and Objectives: The study is conducted to evaluate cognitive dysfunction ,which is a marker of subclinical or Minimal hepatic encephalopathy in liver cirrhotics by Minimental state examination and Number connection test.

Chemotherapy is still the standard of care in management of solid tumors. Chemotherapy has a common toxicity of myelosuppression. Some chemotherapy regimens cause either thrombocytopenia or bi-cytopenia. Living in developing countries pose another challenge in treatment of myelosuppression, and to continue timely chemotherapy. Aim: To study the role of Carica Papaya extract in treatment of chemo induced thrombocytopenia in low socio-economic strata of patients. Methods: It was a prospective study, in which patients of different solid tumors were enrolled.

Introduction: The pulmonary function tests give an objective assessment of the functional status of the respiratory system and indicate the nature and extent of the functional disturbance in disorders associated with pulmonary impairment and disability. Spirometry is valuable in industrial medicine, to study the lung involvement in occupational diseases which occur in workers of textile mills, coal mines and other occupations in which they are exposed to various forms of air pollutants.

Furcal perforation is usually an undesired complication that can occur during preparation of endodontic access cavities or exploring canal orifice of multirooted teeth. Inadequacy of the repair materials has been a contributing factor to the poor outcome of repair procedures. On the basis of several studies carried out and assess the physical and biologic property of Biodentin, it was concluded that this material may be suitable for closing the communication between the pulp chamber and the underlying periodontal tissues.

Objective: To assess correlation between dermatoglyphics, ABO blood groups ,Rh factor among periodontally healthy and diseased patients Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients with chronic periodontitis and 100 periodontally healthy patients were included in the study. The finger print pattern of participants will be recorded with a rolling impression technique using duplicating ink on executive bond paper. Non fasting venous blood was collected from each subject, and analyzed for determination of ABO blood groups and Rh factor.

Hospital humanization is necessary to creating a comfortable place for patients to get well. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived quality of hospital environment between the different categories of hospital users, i.e. Patients, staff and visitor/companions in China. A total of 204 subjects including inpatients, outpatients, companions, health professionals, as well as hospital administrations were enrolled in the present study. Subjects completed questionnaires including the demographic information, physical environment variables and social environment variables.

Transient neonatal pustular melanosis TNPM and Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum ETN are benign dermatosis with vesiculopustular erruptionsoccurring in the neonatal period. On the basis of overlapping clinical and microscopic staining of lesions, few authors suggested that clear cut distinction could not be made between TNPM and ETN. In our case both occurred separately, as TNPM was followed by ETN.

A wide variety of normal and neoplastic human tissues are characterized by granular cells. Granular cell lesions from many different sites share similar light and electron microscopic features. The striking histological feature is the morphological resemblance of the cells in these lesions which are characterized primarily by the presence of numerous cytoplasmic acidophilic granules. The entire tumor may be composed of these cells or the cells may be seen as focal aggregates. Odontogenic tumors of the jaws with a predominant component of granular cells are exceedingly rare.

World over, half of the anaemic burden is assumed to be due to iron deficiency. In pregnancy, it has been estimated that 38.2% (95% CI: 33.5-42.6) of pregnant women which corresponds to 32 million women have anaemia globally. Iron deficiency results when there is inadequate iron intake and absorption, increased iron requirement during growth, and excessive iron losses. Iron absorption is tightly regulated according to body iron reserves and the intensity of erythropoiesis.

Introduction: Eustachian tube maintains equilibrium between middle ear and atmosphere, protects against nasopharyngeal pressure variations, ascending secretions and microorganisms. Patent and functioning Eustachian tube is the foremost requirement for success of tympanoplasty. The reason behind graftfailure is abnormal function of Eustachian tube, which is the main pathology behind chronic suppurative otitis media. Objectives: The Eustachian tube patency is assessed here with various tubal function tests in all cases of safe otitis media.

Background: Upper subscapular nerve is one of the most varied nerves of Brachial plexus. Variations in the origin of upper subscapular nerve of the posterior cord of brachial plexus are essential in surgical approaches to the axilla and upper arm, administration of anesthetic blocks, interpreting effects of nervous compressions and in repair of plexus injuries. The plethora of variations in the origin shows population differences. Data from central Karnataka population is scanty and needs detailed documentation.

Aim: The aim of the study is to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among the rural population and to analyze the pattern of infection (pulmonary and extra pulmonary) in various age and sex wise distribution of the disease. Methodology: A total no of 1,31,600 patients attended Out Patient Department (OPD) of Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre (KIMS-RC), over a period of six months between October 2015 and March 2016 and were clinically examined. Among them, 273 tuberculosis suspected cases were identified and included in this study.

Introduction: In today’s fast pace world, there is a greater need in building an effective doctor patient relationship, as patients also tend to expect more than just regular check-up sessions and demand a more holistic medical experience comprising of good doctor-patient relationship. Objective: To investigate students’ opinion on which factor is the most essential in building a good doctor-patient relationship Method: The study design for this study is cross-sectional study. Data was collected from 500 students via the prepared questionnaire and was scored using a scale from 1 to 5.

Rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic instruments are commonly used to prepare root canals. Several studies have reported the ability of rotary NiTi instruments to produce well-centered, smooth, minimally transported canals. Although having many advantages, these instruments have one major disadvantage of file breakage during canal preparation, which often occurs without prior warning to the operator. It is difficult to remove a separated instrument from root canal with conventional methods.

The use of traditional medicine (TM) com¬plementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased significantly over the past few years. In this context, it is necessary to develop information to meet the needs of consumers. Inequities in availability, accessibility and affordability of health care have increased, between as well as within populations the world over. In the recent past there has been a growing interest in Traditional medicine/Complementary and Alternative Medicine (TCAM) and their relevance to public health both in developed and developing countries.

Context: Establishment of a person’s individuality is of significance for legal as well as humanitarian purpose. Lip print is one of the evidence that can be left in the crime scene by which it helps in identification purpose. Thus the investigators can rely on chelioscopy as supportive evidence in specific investigation. Aim: The aim of the study to evaluate the predominant pattern of lip prints in Visakhapatnam population.

Congenital cyanotic heart diseases (CCHD) especially cyanotic spells require urgent assessment and treatment either medical or surgical intra-cardiac repair in view of the wide spectrum of anatomic variation. The prognosis of the disease, morbidity and mortality was high requiring special expertise and setup. Presence or absence of Patent Ductus decides the morbidity and mortality. Prostaglandins (PGE-1) can reopen and maintain patency of ductus arteriosus in neonates reducing the urgency of performing shunts and allowing resuscitation of the patients preoperatively.

Background: One of the most significant developments in recent years relating to the treatment of bleeding varicose veins of the esophagus and stomach (VVES) at Portal hypertension (PH), is the introduction into practice of the new endovascular technique - transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS). TIPS is minimally invasive method of creating a portosystemic shunt to decompress the portal venous system and method allows embolize tributaries (left gastric vein, short gastric vein) VVES and thereby reduce the risk of bleeding.

Urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine. It is present in 35% of people over the age of 65 with half of the patients who are homebound or institutionalized being incontinent (Hannestad et al., 2000). It is twice more likely to occur in women over the age of 60 than in men due to the weakening of pelvic floor muscles during labour. Even the Ebers Papyrus (an ancient Egyptian medical text from 1500 B.C.) has mentioned using pads for the treatment and management of urinary incontinence (Becker, Horst-Dieter, 2005). The cause of incontinence can be reversible or transient.

Saliva has been described as the mirror of the body as it reflects oral and systemic health. The presence of disease specific biomarkers in saliva, aid in identification and monitoring of the disease progress. As a result saliva has increasingly been evaluated for its use as a diagnostic medium in the detection of dental caries, periodontal disease and other infectious diseases, salivary gland diseases, systemic diseases such as cardiovascular, renal, autoimmune disorders and in malignancies.

For successful endodontic therapy, the clinician must have the thorough knowledge of root canal morphology. But variations in the root canal morphology makes the endodontic treatment challenging. One of the most challenging anatomic variations is the “C” shape configuration of the canal system. C shape canal presents an extensive complex system which is difficult to diagnose by preoperative Intra oral periapical radiograph as it is two- dimensional image of a tooth.

Myocardial infarction in a young female without any known genetic or family history of heart disease nor any history of hyperlipidemia is rarely seen. We document a case of an 18 year old female with pulmonary tuberculosis developing myocardial infarction.

A healthy body is determined by the health of each cells which depends on acid-alkaline balance (or pH Balance). It is most crucial which can affect human health status. It impacts immunity, digestion, bone strength, symptoms of joint disease, hormones, and the function of essential internal organs." An improper pH balance that is acidic ph can not only severely impact quality of life, but it can also shorten life. On contrary alkaline ph can reverse the disease process. Even cancer cells thrive in an acid environment.

Background: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder of brain. Oxidative stress may contribute to seizures noticed in epilepsy. The present study was taken to relate the oxidative stress role in epilepsy and also possible mechanism which may lead to further seizures and finally neuronal death noticed in Epilepsy. Aims and objectives: A total of 150 patients and 100 cases were taken in the study. All patients were diagnosed as epileptic by neurologist. Patients were categorized as Group-I (GTCS) 50 patients, group-II (JME) 50 patients and Group-III controls 50.

As in today’s modern era of antibiotics where the incidence of osteomyelitis of jaws seems to be decreasing, it still remains a challenging clinical entity due to the substancial growth of graph of systemic diseases. Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory bone disease commonly related to complex microbiota, most commonly pyogenic staphylococcus, and occasionally, streptococci, pneumococci and enterobacteriae. It presents a varied clinical and radiographial manifestations depending upon the severity of its spread into the bony architecture.

Choledochal cyst is a rare disease of the biliary tract. Historically, choledochal cyst disease was considered as a disease of childhood but is increasingly being recognised in adults. The optimal and definitive treatment used today is the complete excision of the extrahepatic duct, cholecystectomy and roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy due to high morbidity and high risk for carcinoma associated with internal drainage, a commonly used treatment in the past. We report a case of 14 year old male patient with markedly dilated tortuous CBD with marked splenomegaly and portal hypertension.

Objective: To study pulmonary function indices of tobacco chewers and compare with those of nonusers by PFT & DLCO. Materials & methods: 60 stable patients attending OPD of D.Y.Patil Hospital, India were recruited in the study, of which 30 were chronic tobacco chewers but non smokers & 30 served as control subjects without any history of tobacco consumption. Results: In our study we had a total of 60 patients. 29/60 (48.3%) were females and 31/60 (51.7%) were males.

In this review, an attempt has been made to delineate with pharmacological and phytochemical aspects of Clerodendrum serratum Linn. Clerodendrum serratum commonly known as Bharangi is traditionally valued and reported for having Bronchodilator, Wound healing, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-oxidant, Anti allergic, anticancer activity. Phytochemical study shows the presence of Saponins, terpenoids, D-mannitol, minerals, glycosides which are responsible for the pharmacological activity. This review paper highlights the various phytochemical and pharmacological activities of Clerodendrum serratum.

Subclavian steal syndrome is a form of peripheral artery disease which may be a marker of underlying atherosclerotic disease. It can manifest as symptomatic ischemia affecting the upper extremities, and in some cases the brain. The condition still remains under diagnosed mainly in elderly people. Here we had a 84 year male who presented with neurological disturbances and feeble pulses of left hand. On evaluation he was found to have neurological deficits with a significant narrowing at proximal left subclavian artery.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as a diseased state characterized by poorly reversible airflow limitation that is usually both progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung. As a sub maximal exercise test, the 6 min walking test (6MWT) is a good predictor of functional status for patients with chronic respiratory disease. The 6MWT is easy to administer, well tolerated and more reflective of activities of daily life than the other walk tests and cardiopulmonary exercise tests.

Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggest that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

Allergic rhinitis is a very common disorder that affects people of all ages affects quality of life and productivity at work. Antihistamines, sympathomimetics, xanthine derivatives are commonly used as the treatment for symptomatic management, but they do not prevent recurrent episodes. . Bresol tablets is polyherbal formulations indicated for the management of allergic rhinitis.

The main objective of periodontal therapy is to achieve complete regeneration of loss of tissue due to periodontal disease. There are various modality of treatment available for the regeneration of periodontal tissue. Minimal invasive techniques are the procedures allow less tissue trauma and better result. In this article various minimally invasive techniques for regeneration of periodontal tissue has been described.

Despite being an essential component of medical profession, medical ethics has been neglected in the curriculum resulting in increased instances of unethical practice and dwindled respect for the profession. To overcome all these challenges and to restore the professionalism, effective medical ethics education is extremely desirable at this point of time.

Objective: Study was undertaken to evaluate the role of MRI in the evaluation of pelvic mass lesions, and performed clinico-pathological correlation. Methods: The Prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 60 female patients who were clinically suspected to have pelvic mass lesions or detected with a pelvic mass incidentally on USG in the hospitals attached to Govt. Medical College, Kota during the period from December 2014 to December 2015. Final diagnosis were obtained by histopathological correlation in near all cases.

Aim: To examine possible microbiological contamination of normal saline solution under normal clinical surroundings, also to determine the duration for which dentist could use their normal saline solution without microbiological contamination using different techniques and to identify common micro organisms that may contaminate such solutions. Materials and Methods: Three procedures for collecting samples of the normal saline from each of three sealed plastic bottles available in market were used comparable to procedure routinely followed in clinics. 1.

Introduction: We present our clinical experience in a case of orbital fracture occurred as a result of a penetrating foreign body in left midfacial segment causing orbital floor fracture and a fracture of median wall of the left maxillary sinus. Case presentation: We report an unusual clinical case of a 66-year-old Caucasian man, received emergency in the ENT clinic at the University Hospital "Tzaritza Joanna - ISUL" with work-related blunt orbital and facial trauma.

Patency following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is highest for lesions in the common iliac artery than more distal vasculature of lower limbs. The outcomes following use of self expanding stents in the distal aorta and iliac arteries at the bifurcation was shown to be promising in the past. Here we present a case of bilateral severe iliac artery disease treated by using two self expandable long stents using bifurcation technique. The immediate and one month clinical outcome is very good in this case.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of childhood cancer. Overexpression of survivin is associated with increased risk of recurrence in a variety of cancers including hematologic malignancies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been demonstrated to be a significant promoter of tumor neovascularity. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of expression of survivin and VEGF in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at induction and their correlation with minimal residual disease (MRD) following chemotherapy.

Globalization of healthcare has brought about the possibility of medical tourism, where medical treatment can be provided across border. Medical professionals from all over the world travel to developed countries for getting new technologies to be applied in their medical services. The term medical tourism has become a household name, which involves patients from developed and underdeveloped countries to seek medical treatment abroad for various reasons. This paper reviews and analyzes the literature based upon a comparison between the health care system in India and Nigeria.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly fatal disease. Therefore, accurate predictors of clinical outcome can contribute to the design of appropriate treatment for individual patients. Proviral integration of Moloney virus-2 (PIM2) is a key mediator of hematopoietic cell growth and apoptotic resistance. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation by Pim-2 is required for its antiapoptotic function. The aim of the present study was to assess PIM-2 and NF-κB ex¬pression in adult patients with AML and to determine their correlation with the induction outcome.

Introduction: Côte d'Ivoire has established several structures working in the field of public health since its independence in 1960, to deal with health problems. More than five decades later, a study has been conducted by the National Public Health Institute with the objective to realize a situation analysis of public health structures. Methods : This study was a cross sectional study with descriptive purpose carried out in Abidjan in 2012, with 26 structures involved in the field of public health and from different ministries in Côte d’Ivoire.

We present a case of disseminated invasive aspergillosis involving lung, heart and both kidneys in a 62-year old male who developed bronchopneumonia after chest trauma. Though endotracheal aspiration demonstrated presence of Aspergillus flavus during his hospital stay but invasive status and extent of dissemination was established only by autopsy and histopathological examination. This case report discusses the predisposing factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic difficulties and course of disseminated aspergillosis.

Mahaswea Devi is one of the few authors who have an unflinching commitment and passion for the underdog. She has been writing about the dispossessed people of India for fifty years. She not only depicts their lives in her writings but also tries to change the conditions of their lives through various social welfare activities – it is here that her uniqueness as a creative thinker lies. The present paper analyses the connection between the works of Mahasweta Devi and her social work. In fact most of her writings are an outcome of her activism.

The Prior to 1990, there was hardly any problem of solid waste management in Albania. The solid waste was locally managed in all the urban areas of Albania. Almost all the wastes was organic in nature and was used as manure. Traditionally, only a special caste was involved in waste management activities. In the past, these people collected the waste from settlements using primitive tools such as buffalo ribs to lift the waste and shoulder baskets to carry the wastes. The wastes collected were dumped on nearby river banks or in open fields.

The experiment was undertaken during the period 2014-15 at Sorghum Improvement Project, M.P.K.V., Rahuri with the objectives to estimate the general and specific combining ability of parents and hybrids. To achieve these objectives, four cytoplasmic male sterile lines (females), ten restorers (males) and their forty hybrids were studied by using Line x Tester mating design.

The experiment was carried out during rabi, 2012-13 involving 15 inbred lines in combination with 4 testers in line x tester design to obtain 60 cross combinations for evaluation along with three checks for heterosis in terms of yield and its attributes. The results indicated significant negative relative heterosis for days to 50 per cent tasseling in 26 hybrids indicating earliness for maturity.

IET 18006 is an elite Basmati variety, with highly desirable long slender grain type and medium duration and possesses excellent aroma. However, the variety is highly susceptible two major diseases, viz., bacterial blight (BB) and blast which reduce yield of the elite Basmati variety significantly. We have improved IET 18006 through targeted introgression of the major BB resistance genes, Xa21 and xa13 and the major blast resistance gene, Pi54 through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB).

The present study was carried out to investigate the potential of the supplementation of the green seaweed Ulvafasciata, as a dietary additive ingredient along with the basic feed ingredient in fish feed, to improve the fresh water fish Rohu so called Labeorohita (Hamilton) biochemical composition. The experiment was carried out in the PG and Research laboratory, Nirmala College for women, on Labeorohita of a mean length (10cm) and weight of (45±1g).

Study the effect of different thermal treatment on Listeria monocytogenes survival in applied studies. For this object, isolate was used from Red meat source. The preservation of meat at (4 oC) had no major effect on isolation of Listeria monocytogenes, also when we kept samples at a room temperature of (21oC). Whereas the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from preservation samples at (-18oC) were stopped after the sixth weeks.

Pulses (grain legumes) are the second most important group of crops worldwide. Globally, 840 million people are under nourished mainly on account of inadequate intake of proteins, vitamins and minerals in their diets. Under stored conditions , pulses suffer maximum grain loss due to dreaded stored grain bruchid pests.

Doxorubicin is one of the important antitumor agents having a variety of therapeutic potency against variety of human tumors including soft tissue sarcoma, breast cancer, small cell carcinoma of the lung and acute leukemias. Similarly it has toxic effect on various parts of the body especially on immune system and heart. Whenever this drug is used on cancer patients, its toxicity acts on immune system of the patients by depressing the bone marrow.

Ornamental fishes are show pieces and expressions of aquatic splendor. The ornamental fish industry has now secured an essential section of international trade for which, fish needs to be transported to far away destinations. Ornamental fish packaging systems are characterized by very high fish loading densities and high metabolic wastes in the transport water. Stress created due to this affects the survival of the fish. Therefore new technologies needs to be undertaken for fish transportation. Anaesthetics are nowadays used for fish transportation.

Pulp and paper mill released large amount of wastewater which affects the environment. These mills uses highly toxic chemical for pulping and bleaching processes. The intention of this research paper is to identify predominant bacteria in pulp and paper mill effluent. In addition to evaluate the degradation efficiency of bacterial isolates and combination of bacterial isolates by shake flask method. Biological treatment methods involve the utilization of bacterial consortia found to be effective in removal of colour, lignin and COD.

This study investigated the effect of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools in Oju local government area of Benue state. The research was guided with four purposes, four research questions and hypothesis. Survey design was adopted and both students and teachers constituted the population for study. A sample of hundred subjects was drawn from five schools and was administered questionnaires. Data collected was analyzed using simple percentage (%) for research question and chi square for hypothesis.

Animal husbandry signifies as the second largest economical activity and provides employment and economic support to rural families. Many of the important tasks in animal husbandry are performed by women besides their responsibilities as home makers but the role of dairy farm women is not recognized as economic contribution and they remain as unpaid labour. This study emphasized the analysis of participation of dairy farm women in animal husbandry occupation. The study was conducted in Shimoga district of Karnataka.

Low herbaceous cover is a major constraint to productivity in the farming systems of Sudano-Sahelian zones. The adoption of herbaceous species for the improvement of these farming systems has been quite low in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Cameroon. In a survey that looked at the role of herbaceous species in the farming system, farmer perception of the potential use and importance of local herbaceous species was also evaluated. Famers identified most of the species encountered with well known local uses.

Controlling mosquito is of utmost importance in the present day scenario with rising number of mosquito borne diseases. An alarming increase in the range of mosquito is mainly due to deforestation, industrialized farming and stagnant water. Thus, special products like mosquito repellents for combating mosquitoes are required. The present study was an endeavor in this direction, where attempt has been made to collect, the information on natural mosquito repellent and to standardize the tie dye recipes with (natural mosquito repellent) for cotton fabric.

Life satisfaction among aged is an important construct in psycho-social study of ageing. In the present study is based on a sample of 120 people 60 male and 60 female drawn from Lucknow city. Sample consisted of adults living in homes with families it was planned to assess the relationship between life satisfaction and recreational activities of old age people. Researcher used standardized scale (Satisfaction with life scale, Diener, E) and self structured questionnaire.

Phytoplanktonic algae and aquatic macrophytes play dynamic role in fresh water ecosystem. The lake, locally called as Amruthapur lake is located in the vicinity of Telangana University campus, Amruthapur village, Dichpally. This lake was chosen to enumerate diversity of phytoplankton’s and distribution of aquatic macrophytes by seasonal variation for which collections were analyzed for a period of one year during August, 2014-October, 2015. For experimental studies surface and bottom water samples were collected from differenent sites of Amruthapur lake.

Strawberry cultivation is widespread in several regions of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, and there is a high demand for strawberries by the consumer market; they are often an alternative income for family farmers. This research aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of strawberry cultivars Albion, Camarosa, San Andreas, Camino Real, and Aromas in the climatic conditions found in Frederico Westphalen - RS. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria campus Frederico Westphalen/RS in the year 2015, in the conventional conduction system in low tunnels.

A field experiment was conducted at Agronomy research farm of IAAS, Rampur, chitwan, Nepal during summer and winter season 2010 and 2011 to study the effect of crop sequence and nitrogen rates on hybrid maize. There were thirty treatment combination consisting of six crop sequences, maize-maize, fallow-maize, greengram-maize, cowpea-maize, blackgram-maize, clusterbean-maize in main plots and five nitrogen rates 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 kg/ha in subplots with three replication.

The present works deals with internal radiation dose of Po-210 through the consumption of drinking water from Tiruchirappalli city. The concentration of Po-210 was determined in 10 (S1-S10) different drinking water samples. The Po-210 in drinking water ranged from 0.67 mBq/l to1.75 mBq/l. The highest Po-210 activity measured in Thillai nagar (S5) water sample. The Po-210 dose to the individual member of public by consumption of drinking water ranged from 0.70 µSv/y to 1.77 µSv/y.

The study investigates Pleurotus sp is potential growth in producing mycelium and enhancing biomass production for their stimulatory effects under submerged culture condition. Addition of 25.07 gL-1at the 21st day’s stage of exponential growth stationary phase give the most excellent stimulatory effect on growth of mycelium and fungal biomass production increase. The decline phase on 28th days under submerged culture biomass of dry weight production (20.50gL-1) level decrease.

The investigation was conducted to study the “Opinion of Televiewers about News programmes telecast through different channels of Assam” with the objectives (i) to analyze the viewing behaviour of the respondents, (ii) to draw opinion of the viewers about News programmes telecast through different channels, (iii) to elicit suggestion from the viewers in the prospect of improving the News programmes. The study was conducted in Jorhat district of Assam. A purposive multi stage sampling method was adopted for selecting the representative sample of the study.

Herbal medicines have gained global importance, both medically as well as economically. Bacopa monnieri (L.) is commonly and widely called as brahmi, belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae. It is a traditional plant in India, which has been used for centuries to increase mental capacity, improve mental and brain functions. The plant was reported to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant and anticancer activities.

Surveys were conducted in the forest of Beni Yaala (mining site of Jerada), Ain Beni Mathar, and Tendrara (North-eastern Morocco) have allowed harvesting 29 truffle fruiting body of five different locations and record information on fungal species encountered. In the laboratory, macro-and microscopic structure criteria for identifying of these species were determined.

The present experiment was undertaken in Kharif 2013 at Upland Rice Research Block of S. G. College and Research Station, Jagdalpur to investigate the role of floral behavior on yield physiology of upland rainfed rice. Spikelet fertility is found to be positively linked with prolonged vegetative growth (0.0255) because of ample supply of food material. Plant height was observed to be very important in operating grain yield via panicle length (0.2518), spikelet per panicle (0.2821*), spikelet fertility (0.5058**) and biological yield (0.3972**).

India is an agriculture based country. Imbalance between demand and supply of agricultural production is a major concern to feed the ever-increasing population of our country. To enhance agricultural production, there are several ways. Out of various ways, plant protection occupies prime position. Insect-pests and diseases cause enormous damage to agricultural crops, forests as well as stored agricultural commodities. Almost every economically important plant is attacked by a variety of insect-pests and diseases.

The family Amarantaceae has got potent antioxidant property and in the present study antioxidant properties of the ethyl acetate extracts of Amarantus viridis L. and Amarantus spinosus L. were evaluated by different in-vitro experiments including DPPH radical assay, Total antioxidant assay and Reducing activity assay for ascorbic acid equivalents, Total Phenolic content and Total flavonoid content. The present study revealed that Amarantusspinosus L.

Grain discoloration disease is presently becoming a serious threat in rice growing areas of India including West Bengal. The disease is causing both qualitative and quantitative losses of grain yield as well as reducing germination and increasing seedling mortality. Except other factors several micro organisms specially fungi play major role in development of this disease. On the background of these facts, the present investigation was carried out with some newly evolved and commercially available seven old and new generation fungicides.

Agriculture sector is playing a critical role in sustaining rural economy of the country even in the era of liberalization and globalization. In India, about 75 per cent people are living in rural areas and directly and indirectly dependent on agriculture. In recent years, commercialization, diversification and human resource issues in agriculture have been emphasized in several policy documents. Agriculture is a labour intensive activity, there was 12 per cent increase in overall labour force in India between 2001-2011 whereas in agriculture there was 3.6 per cent decline in labour force.

The mutagenic effects of Gamma rays, EMS and SA on frequency, spectrum and relative percentage of promising mutant in two varieties of pigeon pea viz. BDN 708 and BSMR 853 have been studied. These varieties showed differential response to mutagens. In morphological mutants tall, dwarf, small compact leaves, small pod, five seeded pod, two seeded pod and branched were isolated. Majority of such mutants bred true during the subsequent generation. The wide range of variability for yield contributing characters was observed.

Due to increase in occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens, there is a pressing need to develop effective alternate antibacterial compounds. Medicinal plants are the rich source of secondary metabolites that serve as potential antibacterial agents. The aim of the present study is to fractionate screen the crude ethanolic leaf extract of Aegle marmelos screen for the antibacterial activity against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and identify the compounds present in the active fraction.

The specimens of Pleurotus sajor-caju were collected from nature during 2011-2012. Collections were made from differ¬ent parts of Distt. Shimla (H. P.). The antimicrobial activity, of Pleurotus sajor-caju, at four concentrations (20, 40, 60 and 80%) of extracts prepared in different solvents (water, methanol and ethanol) were screened against five pathogens including three fungal pathogens (P. infestans, A. alternata and F. sambucinum) and two bacterial pathogens (E. coli and S. aureus).

This paper interrogates the stylistic devices of oral narrative in an African set up with a case study of Wanjira WA Rukenya who is a renowned narrator from Kirinyaga County in the republic of Kenya. The thrust of the work will focus on two levels. Firstly the study introduces the influence that created Wanjira„ the artist‟. Secondly the investigation will narrow down on the devices and techniques of performance employed by this artist which makes her work outstanding as well as outlining its relevance to the oral literature.

In view of the existing fossil fuel deposits may come for another 30 to 40 years and Costs of these Fissile Fuels are day by day increasing. As we know that all over the world the diesel vehicle population is growing at an alarming rate. The emission will irritate skin, eyes, nose and throat and also leads to bronchitis asthma in the long run and has been led to air pollution. It is a serious concern with the pollution point of view. Developing Countries like India depends on its fossil fuel requirements on foreign countries for which spars a huge foreign currency in purchase of crude oil.

The sol-gel method was used to produce nanoparticles of nickel ferrite. The brown powders were sintering at the temperature of 800˚C for 24 hrs. The ferrite nanoparticles were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural characteristics of calcined sample of Ni1-x Znx Fe2 O4 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5).The FT-IR analyzed the functional group. The prepared samples have cubic structure and crystalline size decreases from 25-55nm calculated using Debye’s Sherrer formula. The preparation method investigated brought about formation of Nickel ferrite single phase.

The mechanism of obtaining a reliable estimate of methane potential using an anaerobic bio-digester system is of high importance. The universality of the procedure undertaken to determine the methane production using an anaerobic system is essential to ensure inter-laboratory repeatability and accuracy of the results. Anaerobic sludge from UASB reactors are used as inoculum for seeding in anaerobic digesters. It is challenging to obtain anaerobic sludge with microbial community for startup of the bioreactor.

Expansion joints used to absorb any misalignment due to positioning axial angular or due to thermal expansion of pipes. In large steel reduction plants corex process is implemented. In corex process all compressed hot gases reused and are carried to each station by pipes. To ensure safe working with these hot pressurized gases expansion joints used in piping system. Expansion joint provides flexibility to piping systems. Different expansion joints can be used to give flexibility in different direction like axial, angular and lateral.

In view of the existing fossil fuel deposits may come for another 30 to 40 years and Costs of these Fissile Fuels are day by day increasing. As we know that all over the world the diesel vehicle population is growing at an alarming rate. The emission will irritate skin, eyes, nose and throat and also leads to bronchitis asthma in the long run and has been led to air pollution. It is a serious concern with the pollution point of view. Developing Countries like India depends on its fossil fuel requirements on foreign countries for which spars a huge foreign currency in purchase of crude oil.

The development of the welding of aluminum has seen greater demands upon the design of faster and larger aerospace and automotive industries. AA 6082 (EN AW 6082) grade aluminum alloy is mostly used for lightweight construction. These alloys contain small amounts of silicon and magnesium, typically less than 1% each, and may be further alloyed with equally small amounts of manganese, copper, zinc and chromium. Hardening constituent in this alloy is magnesium silicate Mg2Si phase.

A comparative study on the performance characteristics of wide porous plane and parabolic slider is investigated in this paper. The modified Reynolds equation is derived subject to Darcy’s condition for porous media. The closed form expressions for pressure, load carrying capacity and frictional force, and coefficient of friction is obtained. It is found that the effect of MHD and lubricant additives in conducting fluid is to increases the load carrying capacity and frictional force in porous media for both the sliders.

Quality is one of the important aspects for construction projects. The level of success of construction projects depends upon the quality performance. Quality management provides the environment within related tools, techniques, procedures that can be deployed effectively leading to success of construction project. Though quality management is important at every stage of the project but quality management at execution stage contribute significantly on final quality outcome of construction projects.

The nanocomposite film of lead sulphide nanoparticles and poly vinyl alcohol has been prepared by chemical synthesis method. Lead nitrate and sodium sulphide were used as lead (Pb2+) and sulphur (S2-) ion sources respectively. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed the cubic structure of PbS. Formation of the nanocomposite film is confirmed using the FTIR. Photoluminescence spectrum exhibited the two emission peaks corresponding to the blue-green and green emission of PbS.

These days the requirement of memory is increasing day by day as it has become one of the integral part of the our day to day equipment’s that we use such as phones, computers, etc. the main reason for the popularity is its upgraded features like high speed of operation, easy to configure, very small in size and hence occupy negligible area, improved latency, and high performance. It has become possible due to advance controller that is used these days to provide necessary signal and commands to the SDRAM to perform at its best and provide outstanding features for the users.

Cloud Computing (CC) deals with incorporations of Enormous data storages and its heavy data processing abilities whereas on the other hand pervasive data collection capabilities of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). The interactions and communication between the CC-WSN makes a huge difference in acquiring results and greatly reduces human effort thus receiving a lot of attention from industrial and academic purposes as it provides lot of computing services.

Recent developments in the technology of the power metallurgy process includes powder production, powder consolidation and sinterings and attainment of high performance properties of metals and alloys direct outcome of the technological advances. latest developments in “green compaction, sintering or pressure sintering of preforms and the forging, rolling or extrusion techniques for final consolidation of such preforms. Quality powder in tonnage quantities at low cost make p/m process inhearently attractive.

Silos are containers used for storing bulk solids. Although there is no generally accepted definition for these terms, shallow structures containing coal, coke, ore, crushed stone, gravel, and similar materials. Silos are special structures subjected to many different unconventional loading conditions, which result in unusual failure modes. In this present study pressure calculation is carried out by Janseen’s theory and Reimbert theory for static condition and additional pressure due seismic action is calculated by Theoretical approach.

With the exploding human population on the Earth, consumption of resources is increasing day by day. Thus, increasing the pressure on the natural resources. Therefore, harnessing energy and production of non-toxic substances has become a priority. Green Technology is the way out to overcome these problems. This paper provides a brief description of the green vehicle and its types. Green Vehicle is a part of green technology which produces less harmful impacts to the environment than the other engine vehicles.

The construction industry is one of the key economic industries in India and is the main motivating force in Indian national economy. But, it suffers from a number of problems that affect time, cost performances. The construction industry is dynamic in nature due to uncertainties in technology, budgets and development process. The Indian construction sector has been acted as an engine of growth for the Indian economy for over the past five-decades and becoming a basic input for the socio economic development of the country.

Experiments were carried out to explore the performance of the gamma back-scattering technique in detection and localization of contrabands such as; TNT (C7H5N3O6), codeine (C18H21NO3) hidden in hollow plastic tubes. This is done using an assembly consisting of 241Am gamma source, producing about 5×107 photon.s-1, in conjunction with a NaI(Tl) detector. The source-detector distance was optimized and the optimal configuration was selected to scan the two samples each in turn.

Slum Sanitation Program (SSP) was conceptualized with the objective of improving health and hygiene conditions of slums in Mumbai through better sanitation services. The approach to build only demand based community toilets and active involvement of the community based organization for maintenance demonstrated consistent achievement of objectives resulting in Reduction of open defecation and improved health and hygiene conditions. The implementation of “ONLY WOMEN” community organization demonstrated accrual of other social benefits.

Software Metrics are instrumental in improving the quality of the Software. The sustainability of any software depends on the quality of that particular software. In this technical era where there is no dearth of software’s, we need to find out various factors that affect the quality of the software, and an important one of them being the Software Metrics. This paper attempts to define the various software metrics available for the measurement of software and lays stress on the relationship between the software metrics and the quality of the software.

Initiatives to set up 100 smart cities in the country by 2022 are underway and being implemented at a very faster pace. With the aim to strengthen and revitalize the urban local bodies the government has introduces a city challenge system for selecting smart cities on the basis of urban amenities, demographic profile and financial situation. India is the third largest Economy in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP) with a 6.4% share of worldwide gross domestic product (GDP) on a PPP basis.

In this paper we looked through the features and trends of development of the service sector in Uzbekistan. For that we gave notion about service and service economy. Moreover we compare international and national classification of services, as well as in the paper given development tendencies and history of services sector in the global economy. Also we conduct comparative analysis of countries, due to the role of services sector in their GDP and employment.

The study explores the impact of agricultural extension on households’ income and income inequality at a micro level using data from 734 rural households (out of which 390 are extension participants and 344 are non-participants) in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. It also deals with the determinants of income and income inequality. The data for the study is derived from eight tabias and three agro-ecological zones of the Geba catchment collected by MU-IUC project.

The importance of EQ has been rising consistently over recent few years. With the increase in intolerance among the people both personal and professional arenas have turned into a battlefield with bloodshed creating a red ocean. People firstly fail to understand their emotions and even if they do they fail in managing their emotions. It is also a role of education that should equip the students with the tools to manage their emotions. A concrete mentoring process supports the students to effectively understand as well as manage their emotions.

Empowerment of Women is the newest contemporary issue in the present day context. We are the civilised people and we are proud to be Indian but there is a big question has raised recently that are we really civilized Indian, because it has been considered properly that there is a discrimination between male and female and the Indian superstitious people make this discrimination line markedly since last decadal era.

Now a day’s many researchers have been researching on how to find most influential nodes in a network, especially in social networks. If we are given a social network where neighbors can influence other nodes of a network then to identify some such seed nodes in social network through which we can maximize the spread of influence is recent research topic. In this paper we are working on weighted greedy algorithm and modifying it to get better results.

This article tried to examine education policies and five years development plans in education sector particularly focusing on secondary education since 1947. The main objective of this article was to analyze the planning strategies pertaining to secondary education, allocation and utilization of funds for secondary education, reviewing the targets and achievements related to secondary education and to identify implementation gaps.

Every organization needs to mobilize and sustain commitment which will give the team its strength. Professionals as well as interns and beginners belonging to lower, middle and upper level of hierarchy working in the manufacturing and service sector organizations were questioned and conclusions drawn.

The traditional symbiotic relationships between tribal community and forest have been revealed from thousands of years. These two are ecologically and economically inseparable and co-existed. India (specifically north eastern region) has a huge population living close to the forest with their livelihood critically linked to the forest ecosystem. People living in their forest fringe villages depend upon forest for a variety of goods and services.

The purpose of the present study was to see Gender differences in the Self-efficacy of Secondary School Students. The study was conducted on a sample of 200students of 9th class studying in Government and Private Schools of Jammu district. Self-efficacy scale constructed and standardized by Dr. G.P.Mathur and Dr. Raj Kumar Bhatnagar was used to collect data. The collected data was analyzed with the help of‘t’ test. The results of the present study showed that significant difference exists in the Self-confidence of secondary school boys and girls.

The modern revival of organic farming dates back to the first half of the 20th century at a time when there was a growing reliance on these new synthetic, inorganic methods. Consumer’s consumption pattern has been changing rapidly about the food safety as well dietary consuming in India. Consumers become more anxiety about the food they consume. With the accessibility of organic food products in the market people have begun buying in the local retail markets.

The study was conducted to determine the readiness of the faculty and students of the College of Teacher Education (CTE) of Batangas State University as well as the ICT infrastructure in the utilization of e-learning system in the teaching learning process. The descriptive method was used in the study with the questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument. One hundred (100) CTE teachers in the university served as the respondents of the study.

Organizational commitment is defined as the level of involvement and identification with a given organization. Employees with high level of organizational commitment have significant contributions to the achievement of the organization under competitive conditions (Feldman & Moore, 1982). Job involvement is a function of individual difference and the work situation.

This research describes the development and assessment of an instrument to evaluate the processes of collaborative work carried out in primary and secondary schools in Tenerife (Canary Islands). In this sense, an adaptation of the questionnaire developed by Ferrandis, Grau and Fortes (2010), Questionnaire for evaluating Predisposition and Collaboration as regards Response to Diversity (CEPCRD), was carried out. The adequateness of this instrument was analyzed by means of content validity, reliability and underlying structure. Three basic dimensions were identified.

Grammatical functions can be defined as the functional relation between items that make up a clause and include notions such as the object and the subject. Grammatical functions form an important aspect of LFG and according to Keenan (1987), the study of LFG involves linguistic theories which explore the diverse linguistic structure aspects and their relations. Additionally, LFG analysis involves two syntactic structures; Constituent structure or the c-structure and the functional structure known or the f-structure.

Although progress has been made in increasing enrollment in many countries, these gains are undermined by large number of pupils who take more than one year to complete a particular grade or dropout before completing the primary cycle. In Kakamega District, where Kakamega Municipality is located, the high enrollment was short lived as the dropout rate rose from 2.4% in 2003 to 10.9% in 2004 and then declined to 1.2% in 2007. The purpose of this study was therefore to find out factors influencing dropout in public primary schools in Kakamega Municipality.

Kisumu Municipality is one of the areas that has high Human Immuno Deficiency Virus and Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome prevalence rate of 15% compared to a national prevalence rate of 7.3%. The HIV and AIDS scourge has resulted into many orphans who are vulnerable to many forms of exploitation such as a sexual exploitation and child labor. These forms of exploitation are bound to affect participation of children in education.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

Advantages of IJCR

  • Rapid Publishing
  • Professional publishing practices
  • Indexing in leading database
  • High level of citation
  • High Qualitiy reader base
  • High level author suport













Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari