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May 2018

  1. Conte, M.J. and Roşca, I.C.

    The basis of this primary and essential standardization of initiators physical principles strong approximation (new concept in EVTD2 theory) concerns the gravitational fields and those appearing in electrostatic. The standardization lies in realistic taking into account of surfaces emissions effects in the space-time (neutral and charged masses) according their equivalent black body temperatures Te. This reconsideration allows concluding the integration of gravity to electromagnetic force in a third specific case – two neutral masses. More, considering that there would exist three mini black holes (MBH) on the gravitational axis of the neutral or charged masses (one in every gravitational center and another in the zero resulting potential point O) better illuminates the phenomenological physical comprehension of attractions and repulsions for these two forces of classical physics. A specific statement for electromagnetic repulsion: the MBH in O must be replaced by a mini white hole (MWH) acting as a repulsive geyser.

  2. Edson M. Santos and Faurie, D.

    The purpose of the present article is to make a model using analytical equations, based on elasticity theory of continuous media for small deformations, with the aim of completely characterizing the material in their mechanical properties as well as the principal stresses-strains of thin films. The approach differs from the standard literature which usually brings crystal symmetries or is directly concerned with crystalline materials. It is entirely possible to dene and to analyse anisotropy in elastic media from first principles in thin films. Therefore, the constitutive relation between strain and stress will be considered orthotropic, obeying the generalized Hooke's law. A new equation for the stress of the film-substrate system is proposed based on Newton's laws and energy conservation. As an application, it uses the technique and data developed by Faurie et al (2005) in fibber-textured gold film deposited onto Kapton substrate by combining synchrotron X-Ray diffraction in situ tensile testing. As the gold thin film and substrate are considered transversely isotropic, therefore, is firstly required a texture analysis with the purpose of determining the possible Euler angles () and ( ) for each crystallographic direction that can be used in the model equations. With the data, it is possible to make graphics, "(strain) X F, for every force applied to the sample. Comparing the experimental graphs with the theoretical equations it was possible obtained their mechanical properties and the principal stresses-strains of the anisotropic gold thin film. The results are compared with the results of Faurie et al (2005).

  3. Aneena Babu, Mariya John , Maria Babu, Anurani Philip and Cuckoo Anitha Joseph

    The sad reality is that we live in an increasingly violent society in which the fear of crime is ever-present. Personal safety has become an issue of importance for everyone, especially for women. Where awareness fails we need efficient devices to assure our safety. Our aim is to create a complete safety features enabled portable device which will give true right for everyone to live their freedom to the fullest. This system consists of 2 sections, one is a smart belt & other is a smart bag both are wearable and user-friendly gadgets .These devices are handy made for portable use in almost any circumstance. Our first line of defense is personal safety feature is that it sends an emergency message to your chosen contacts with the push of a single button, We start by sending text message; one Guardian we designate will receive a message, with a link to a map showing your location via GPS. It will be sending the alert messages continuously for a particular amount of time to the nearby police station (normal mode) and to the railway help line number (train mode). As part of keeping our privacy, the device will contain the Hidden Camera detector. This device utilizes unique and intelligent technique that interferes with the 1.2/2.4GHz signals of wireless camera. I t can disable almost all types of existing spy cameras working at wireless video, in dressing rooms and Bluetooth cams, great for protecting your privacy in today's city life. We have also incorporates an anti theft alarm for the smart bag & also to the belt with NFC technology. As an ultimate form of defense , we have incorporated a teaser section along with belt, that produces shock whenever there is necessary.

  4. Dr. Razak Wahab, Mohamad Saiful Sulaiman, Nasihah Mokhtar, Ros Syazmini Mohd Ghani, Hashim W. Samsi and Madihan Yusof

    This paper investigated the bio-resources characteristics of composite boards manufactured from kenaf bast and oil palm fronds fibers. These two fibers mixed thoroughly and bonded together with resin urea formaldehyde at specified fibers ratios. The evaluations of the physical and strength characteristics made by the European Standards. Assessment of the physical characteristics includes the density, water absorption, thickness swelling and wettability. The strength characteristics assessment comprises of static bending for modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture, besides internal bonding of the boards, revealed the enhanced values after increasing the resin content. The morphological studies were conducted using micrographs' structures obtained from the scanning electron microscopy used in determining the distribution of the fibers and resin in the boards. The hybrid (Hibiscus and Elaeis) biocomposite board, highlighted the excellent physical and strength characteristics.

  5. Mohamad Saiful Sulaiman, Razak Wahab, Sitti Fatimah Mhd. Ramle, Ros Syazmini Mohd Ghani and Nasihah Mokhtar

    The chemical composition and anatomical structure on mature Schizostachyum brachycladum Kurz investigated. Harvested four-year-old bamboo culms segregated into the bottom, middle and top portions. The samples then undergo the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine their structure such as vascular bundle, parenchyma, and sclerenchyma, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to detect and quantify the changes of chemical composition of bamboo under the different variables which were extractive and the free extractive. The anatomical structures and the chemical compositions of the bamboo culms such as the extractive, holocellulose, alpha cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents were analyzed. Standards by the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) followed. Results show the chemical composition especially the extractive, and alpha cellulose were higher at the bottom portion around 5% and 54% respectively, while top portions shows higher in the value of the holocellulose and hemicellulose at 90% and 51%, respectively. The lignin content was higher in the middle portions at 20%. The SEM viewed cell wall structure of vascular bundle, parenchyma, sclerenchyma, and vessel. The different part of mature S. brachycladum Kurz which are top, middle and bottom at the 50X magnification viewed. The FTIR spectroscopy which are applied for the determination, quantify, and detected of chemical composition, lignin distribution, changes in wood properties during wood composites manufacture, wood density and discrimination of wood and non-wood from various species. The O-H stretching absorption bands (around 3600-3200 cm-1) and C-H absorption bands (around 2927 cm-1) have contributions from all these chemical components.

  6. Ghansham Payman, Raghu Rami Reddy, P. and Madhavi, A.

    A field experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Institiute (ARI), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana on a clay loam soil during the kharif seasons of 2014 and 2015 to study the “Influence of levels and time of nitrogen application on yield, nutrient uptake and soil fertility status in machine transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.)”. Experiment was carried out in a split plot design with three nitrogen levels viz. 120, 160 and 200 kg N ha-1in main plot treatments and three split schedules viz.2 equal splits at active tillering (AT) and panicle initiation (PI), 3 equal splits at initial tillering (IT), active tillering (AT) and panicle initiation (PI) and 4 equal splits at initial tillering (IT), active tillering (AT), tillering (T) and panicle initiation(PI) as sub plot treatments with three replications using the long duration variety BPT 5204. Application of 200 kg N ha-1 gave significantly highest grain yield (6,119 kg ha-1) over application of 120 kg N ha-1 and was at par with application of 160 kg N ha-1. Uptake of NPK was highest with application of 200 kg N ha-1 and it decreased with decreasing nitrogen levels. Three equal split applications recorded maximum grain (6,028 kg ha-1) yield and NPK uptake. Soil post-harvest pH and EC were not affected by nitrogen levels and time of application. With increasing nitrogen levels, available nitrogen increased while available phosphorus decreased and no effect on potassium.

  7. Ugboma C.J. and Ndubuisi-Nnaji U.U.

    Industrialization and modernization has led to high demand of energy resources thereby increasing the transportation and demand of crude oil and its products via different types of steel products which are prone to wear and tear leading to spillages of all forms in marine, brackish and fresh water habitats. This study is aimed at creating an environmental analysis index corrosion map of the shorelines of Ndoni river, Ahoada river, New Calabar river, Tombia river, Buguma river and Bonny estuary as well as determine corrosion rates of carbon steel coupons on these shorelines. Different methods of shoreline sensitivity were used in this study which includes that of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Nigeria Oil Producing Trade Sector (OPTS). A total of eight ESI types were found in the area and they include 1b, 3a, 4a, 6b, 9b, 9c, 10a and 10b. The most prevalent faunas found in these shorelines include crocodile, iguana, sea turtle, jellyfish, tilapia, frog, snail, toad, white crab, shorebirds, earthworm and millipede. Spearman`s correlation coefficient (r) value of 0.93 was the result of the relationship between the number of socioeconomic features and biological species along the shorelines. The corrosion rates of the carbon steel coupons in the various shorelines of Ndoni river, Ahoada river, New Calabar river, Tombia river, Buguma river and Bonny estuary are 44.068g/yr, 69.912g/yr, 72.435g/yr, 86.559g/yr. 119.420g/yr and 191.591g/yr respectively. The carbon coupons had lower corrosion rates in freshwater habitats followed by brackishwater habitats and highest in the estuarine habitat. Results from this study can serve as a quick reference point for oil spill responders as well as integral component of oil spill contingency planning, corrosion monitoring and decision making on type of steel to use on these various habitats.

  8. Nagamala, J., Dr. Muthulakshmi, P. and Dr. Kayalvizhi

    A quantitative approach, quasi experimental one group pre test post test design aimed to assess the knowledge ,practice and attitude on Temporary and Permanent contraceptive methods among primi and multi mother in Alandurai and Rathinapuri areas in Coimbatore,150 primi and 150 multi mother were selected by non probability convenient sampling technique was used to assess the knowledge, practice and Attitude by structure questionnaire and reassess the know ledge ,practice and attitude. There was a significant association between pre test level of KPA and demographic variables such as age ,occupation, duration of marriage, nature of contraception, education .Results showed poor contraceptive knowledge among mothers. Various contraceptives methods of knowledge should be provided to all the mothers.

  9. Endang Listianingsih Tarigan, Abdul Rachman Saragih, Herman Hariman and Stephen CL Koh

    Background: Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), a highly prevalent malignant disease is a leading cause of death in several regions in Southern China including countries in Southeast Asia. In Indonesia, NPC is a major multi-ethnic problem and it remains one of the most confusing and commonly misdiagnosed disease until advanced stages. Chemotherapy improves treatment but also contribute towards increased risk of thrombosis in cancer. Methods: A total of 12 subjects (males n=8; Stage II n=2; Stage III n=2, Stage IV n=8) were recruited into the study. Blood sampling was performed at pre- and post-chemotherapy cycles 1 to 3 followed by radiotherapy. PT (INR), aPTT, TT ratios were determined together with D-dimer, platelets and platelet aggregation. Results: The mean age of NPC patients was 43.3 ±9.0 years. Pre-chemotherapy ratios of PT, aPTT and TT were <1.0 which indicated a hypercoagulable state. No significant variation in these parameters were seen post-chemoradiotherapy except that D-dimer were elevated postradiotherapy and platelet numbers significantly reduced from cycle 2. However, 4 patients (33.3%) with Stage IV disease had D-dimer levels above the normal level (<500 ng/mL) at post-radiotherapy were further analysed. This suggest a further enhanced hypercoagulable and hyperfibrinolysis state and thromboembolic risk following radiotherapy in this small cohort study. Conclusion: Chemoradiotherapy enhance the risk of thromboembolism in 33.3% of advanced NPC patients in this small study group. These findings indicate that not all NPC patients show enhanced risk of thromboembolism following chemoradiotherapy.

  10. Dr. Archana Bharti, Dr. Madhu Swamy, Dr. Amita Dubey and Dr. Priyanka Marskole

    Avian mycobacteriosis in poultry is a contagious disease and may also be called avian tuberculosis or avian TB. Several mycobacterial species can be involved in the aetiology of avian tuberculosis. However, avian tuberculosis is most often caused by Mycobacterium avium belonging to serotypes 1, 2, 3 and 6 and M. genavense. The capacity of M. avium to produce progressive disease may be related to cell wall constituents and certain complex lipids present in the cell wall such as cord factor, sulfur-containing glycolipids (sulfatides) or strongly acidic lipids. Clinical signs are not pathognomonic and vary depending on the organs involved. Mortality over a short period may be insignificant but the intermittent loss of adult birds in valuable breeding stock and decreased egg production in layers are detrimental. Avian Mycobacteriosis also has zoonotic importance and commonly affect the immunocompromised human. The various preventive and control measures are present to control this disease but the diagnosis of the disease is difficult and hence it remains uninvestigated in many parts of our country.

  11. Tomoyuki Nishizaki

    The linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA), with cyclopropane rings instead of cis-double bonds, serves as a selective activator of PKCε. The present study investigated whether PKCε, activated by DCP-LA, phosphorylates PKCε itself and how phosphorylated PKCε affects its own activity. DCP-LA phosphorylated PKCε at the serine residues, but not the threonine residues, in PC-12 cells, which is abolished the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. The plasmids for wild-type and mutant PKCε were transfected into MSTO-211H human malignant mesothelioma cells with very little expression of the PKCε mRNA. DCP-LA enhanced PKCε activity approximately 7 folds in MSTO-211H cells transfected with the wild-type rat PKCε plasmid as compared with that in non-transfected control cells. Such effect was not obtained with cells transfected with the plasmid for mutant rat PKCε replacing Ser234, Ser316, Ser368, or Ser729 by Ala. Taken together, these results indicate that PKCε, activated by DCP-LA, enhances its own activity through serine autophosphorylation

  12. Arti Devi

    Introduction: The word error in medicine is used as a label for nearly all of the problems harming patients. Errors in medical field are of tenly make a mark as human errors in healthcare services. The purpose of this study is to assess the subcutaneous medication administration errors done by intensive care unit nurses and to evaluate the effectiveness of event based teaching programme. Methodology: In this experimental study, 74 subcutaneous medication administration events in medical ICU of MMIMS & R Hospital, Mullana, Ambala were observed. Event based sampling technique was used to collect the sample. The data was collected by using checklist for assessing the subcutaneous medication administration practices. Reliability of the observational checklist was determined by using inter rater reliability test and it was0.82. Data analysis were performed by descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. SPSS-17 software was used and P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Result: During before administering the medication the post implementation practice scores mean percentage (48.71) was higher than pre-implementation practice scores (60), during administering the post-implementation practice scores mean percentage (55.57) was higher than pre-implementation scores (46.71) and after administration it was found that the post implementation practice scores (48.97) was higher than pre-implementation practice scores (40.04). Discussion: The result shows that there was improvement in medication administration practices after implementation of event based teaching programme which was calculated at 0.05 level of significance. So, it is concluded that the Event Based Teaching Programme was effective to improve the practices of subcutaneous medication administration by staff nurses.

  13. Ritesh Nandwani

    Background: Chronic headache is one of the most common symptoms which are distressing to both patients and physicians. Due to the nagging nature of patients and inability of the physician to diagnose and problems of self-medications, nature of headache remains undiagnosed in spite of many elaborated battery of tests. The aim of the present study is to determine the most commonly associated clinical features of sinusitis. Materials and methods: The present prospective study was conducted in the department of ENT JSS medical college and hospital. The study was conducted from a period of Nov 2012 to June 2014. The study included a total of 50 patients with clinically proven inflammatory sinonasal diseases not responding to medical line of treatment. A complete detail about their signs and symptoms was also recorded in a tabulated form. Data was expressed as percentage of the total information and analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: The most commonly associated symptom was nasal obstruction, it was seen in 40 patients (80%). The next most commonly associated symptoms were headache and nasal discharge seen amongst 74% (n=37) and 72% (n= 36) subjects respectively. There were 36% (n=18) subjects having congested and normal nasal mucosa respectively. The nasal septum was central in 42% (n=21) subjects. Approximately 38% (n=19) subjects had mucoid discharge. Conclusion: Purulent nasal discharge was seen to be the most predominant sign seen in all the patients which was one of the commonest sign seen in cases.

  14. Preksha Sharma and Sushil Kumar Maheshwari

    Nursing is a stressful profession with long working hours, ethical dilemmas, and pressure of having responsibility for patients' life support care. Stress causes significant physical, mental, cognitive, behavioral, professional, social and economic impact on person’s under stress for long time. Current review focuses on stress in nursing profession and strategies that are found effective in coping against the stress. Awareness regarding stress and its management is important for nurses so that they can take preventive corrective measure as stress in nursing profession is inevitable. Nurses must recognize the sign and symptoms of stress to aid personal coping, as well as to design stress management interventions for their clients and families.

  15. Ranjit Nath, Vivek Dashore, Anubhav Gupta, Ajay Raj and Neeraj Pandit

    Objective: To assess the occurrence of pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in Tetralogy of Fallot after total correction and to correlate its severity with right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in early post operative period after total correction in TOF patients. Methods: We prospectively studied 38 TOF patients who has undergone total correction. Standard 2-Dimentional & doppler Trans thoracic echocardiographic assessment was done at seventh day , three month and six month after total correction . Pulmonary regurgitation severity, right ventricular diastolic dysfunction, right ventricular myocardial performance index, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion were assessed. Results: Most of the patients (50%) were < 5 year of age. 23 (60.5%) had none or mild pulmonary regurgitation while 15(39.5%) had moderate or severe pulmonary regurgitation. At 6 month follow up 86.8% patients had right ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Grade I, II and III right ventricular diastolic dysfunction was found in 31.6%, 31.6% and 23.7% respectively. Mean TAPSE and right ventricular myocardial performance index values at 6 month were 10.9±2.4mm and 39.07±7.8 respectively. The mean RVMPI was normal in none/mild pulmonary regurgitation severity group while it was abnormally high in mod/severe pulmonary regurgitation severity group. Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient value for pulmonary regurgitation severity group and RV diastolic dysfunction grade was 0.438, 0.50, and 0.447 on 7thday, three month and six month follow up respectively. Conclusion: PR severity had moderate positive correlation with right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in early post operative period after total correction in TOF patients.

  16. Talib Yusuf and Talib, S.H.

    RNA was isolated from Blood samples of various subjects of Diabetes, prediabetes and healthy individual. The entire DNA/RNA that has been extracted was found to differ in their molecular weight and was seen as separate bands when viewed under UV light. The concentration of the RNA was estimated by using the Nanodrop 8000 spectrophotometer. The concentration of healthy subject RNA was found to be more from Diabetic and prediabetic the ratio of their absorbance at 260 and 280 nm, was 2.01 which showed purity in the sample. The concentration of RNA was found to be the least in Prediabetic subject and ratio was found to be 1.89 indicating the presence of contamination. The RNA isolated from the Diabetic having ratio 1.97 which also indicates slight contamination.

  17. Tuğba GÜLTEKİN and Melek ARDAHAN

    The aim of the study is to analyze the work environment and problems of public health nurses working within the primary health care system in Turkey, and propose solutions from a societal and nursing point of view. In the world, the need for quality work force in primary health care has increased due to the expansion of health care coverage today. Despite the fact that there are graduate and doctoral programs in Public Health Nursing Departments of universities in our country, nurses and nurse midwives working in community health centers and family health centers carry out the duties of public health nurses within Turkey’s healthcare system. The number of public health nurses employed in primary healthcare institutions is very low and insufficient. The conditions in these primary work environments affect public health nurses negatively in terms of physical, psychological and social aspects. It is necessary to improve the employee personal rights of public health nurses, reestablish the occupational identity of public health nursing, and improve the conditions for providing holistic health care.

  18. Dr. Danasu, R., Mrs. Sathiyakala, K. and Pramila, S.

    All young children can be naughty, defiant and impulsive from time to time, which is perfectly normal. However, some children have extremely difficult and challenging behavior outside the norm for their age. The behavior of some children and adolescent are hard to change. Children do not always display their reactions to events immediately although they may emerge later, incase children who have suffered from childhood disorders are at a higher risk such as school failure, suicide, and mental health problems. Teachers play an influencing role in development of personality. Listening to child's problems is an important skill of a teacher. Most teachers and school personnel concur that they are able to identify behavioral and academic problems within first few weeks of a school year. Teacher's expectations and actions greatly affect the child's behavior. A study to assess the level of knowledge regarding identification of childhood disorders among B.ED students in selected colleges at Puducherry. The Research design chosen for this study was descriptive study. The study conducted in selected college at Lawspet in Puducherry. The population includes the B.ED students in selected college. The sample size for this study was 50 students in selected college at Lawspet in Puducherry. The sampling technique used for this study is purposive sampling technique. The Frequency and Percentage distribution of subjects by level of knowledge regarding identification of childhood disorders among B. Ed students out of 50 samples 5(10%) had inadequate knowledge, 40(80%) had moderately adequate knowledge and 5(10%) had adequate knowledge.

  19. Dr. Faisal Azhar Masoodi Dr. Faud Sadiq Baqal and Dr. Ifrah Khalil

    Background: Totally Extra Peritoneal (TEP) Approach in strengthening of posterior wall defect by placing a prosthetic mesh by a posterior approach is commonly practiced for hernia repair. There was a paucity of literature on the long term analysis of outcomes using heavy weight and light weight meshes. Objective: To compare the outcomes in endoscopic total extra-peritoneal groin hernia repair using lightweight and heavyweight polypropylene mesh. Materials and Methods: It was a hospital based prospective randomized clinical trial conducted among 66 patients over a period of 5 years to compare the outcomes of patients following laparoscopic total extra-peritoneal technique of tension free groin hernia repair using standard heavyweight (Prolene®) and lightweight (Ultrapro®) mesh prosthesis. A total of 32 participants were included in heavyweight mesh group and 34 in lightweight mesh group. All patients were randomly divided into two groups by computer generated random number tables. The study participants were followed for a period of 5 years to assess occurrence of chronic groin pain, recurrence, operative time, postoperative pain on days 0, 1 and 7 (VAS scores), return to normal daily activities, testicular pain and seroma formation. Results: The mean age + SD of study participants in lightweight meshgroup was 54.14 ± 8.33 yrs while it was 54.84 ± 6.75 yrs in heavyweight meshgroup and all study participants were males except one. The average time for return to normal daily activities was 2.35 days in lightweight meshgroup while it was 3.12 days in heavyweight meshgroup (p value =0.01). Post operative pain on day 7and chronic groin pain was statistically significantly lower in lightweight mesh group than heavyweight meshgroup (p value<0.01). Conclusion: The use of lightweight mesh for groin hernia repair is a safe and viable option. It offers many advantages in terms of decreased chronic groin pain and decreased post operative morbidity

  20. Dr. Ganaraj Shetty and Dr. Natasha Shetty

    Cancer associated with maxillofacial part is most common type of disorder, and it accounts for more than 550,000 cases annually worldwide. Multidimensional potential risk factors of dental implants failure must be considered when planning implant placement therapy in patients undergoing radiation therapy especially in maxillofacial region. Meticulous treatment planning along with careful preoperative oral examination and good coordination with oncologic specialists cannot be overemphasized. It is also important for the dental profession to keep abreast of the latest available radiation therapy technologies. Additional evidence-based clinical guidelines for implant use in patients undergoing radiation therapy are expected. Hence this paper reviews on literature behind the effect of radiations on dental implants.

  21. Shivaji Selvi, Harikrishnan Prasad, Muthusamy Rajmohan, K.K. Sri Chinthu, Viswanathan Prema and Loganathan Mahalakshmi

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of gender determination using two different techniques - Davidson bodies identification in blood smear and Barr bodies identification in buccal smear. Methods: A blinded study using 30 subjects (15 males and 15 females) was performed. Peripheral blood smear was obtained from each patient and stained with Leishman stain for identification of Davidson bodies. Buccal smears were obtained from each patient and stained with H and E stain for identification of Barr bodies. 100 neutrophils in blood smear and 100 squamous cells in buccal smear were identified and examined for the presence of Davidson bodies and Barr bodies respectively. Result: Our results showed that females had 1-2% of Davidson bodies in neutrophils compared to 0% in males. However, such clear cut differentiation was not obtained using Barr bodies. Conclusion: Davidson bodies and Barr bodies are independent variables. Davidson bodies in blood smear are highly specific when compared to Barr bodies in buccal smear. Thus morphological gender determination using Davidson bodies in hematopathology is easy, reliable, less time consuming and cost effective.

  22. Dr. Kelly Pearl Silva Lobo Norton, Dr. Surendra Kumar G. P., Dr. Bharath Raj, Dr. Nalinakshamma Muniswamy Reddy and Dr. Tanuja N Murthy

    The disfigurement after the loss of an eye can cause significant physical and psychological disturbance to a patient. The rehabilitation of an ocular defect patient is a challenging task both clinically and technically. A Custom made ocular prosthesis aids in replicating the exact location of the iris and gaze of the patient along with an accurate reproduction of the color, contour, and size of the contra lateral natural eye. This article describes a simplified approach for fabricating an accurate, esthetic and well-fitting custom-made ocular prosthesis in an attempt to restore facial symmetry and normal appearance of an anophthalmic patient.

  23. Dr. Babina Chirom, Dr. Rathika Rai, Dr. Menaga, V., Dr. Sh. Priyadarshani, Dr. Varun Deshpande, Dr. Arun. Kumar, S. and Dr. Kangjam Gunadhar

    Aims and Objectives: This study was done to compare and evaluate the retention of crown on abutment with polished surface, circumferential grooves, sandblasted and abutment both with grooves and surface abrasion using different cements. Materials and Methods: In this study, 10 test samples each with polished surface, circumferential grooves, sandblasted, both with grooves and surface abrasion were used. The copings were fabricated in conventional way with a wax ring attached to the occlusal portion. Different cements tempbond, Resin modified GIC (GC Fuji Cem), polycarboxlate cement (Harvard Cement) was applied. Each coping was seated and a static load of 50 N was applied. The specimens were assembled in the universal testing machine and subjected to a pullout test. The forces required to remove the copings were recorded in new tons. To compare the mean values between Cements and Models two way ANOVA was applied, for pair wise comparison of mean values Tukey HSD post hoc test were used. Results: The mean peak load was highest 272.85 in grooves and sandblasted surface using polycarboxylate cement .The mean break load highest 40.080 in sandblasted surface. The mean ultimate tensile strength was significantly highest 15.142 in grooves & sandblasted using polycarboxylate cement. Conclusion: The retention of the crown on abutment with the sandblasted Surface and grooves provided better retention under peak load and impart ultimate tensile strength. The break load was maximum in sandblasted surface using definitive cement GC Fuji cem.

  24. Dr. Amal Almutiry and Dr. Khadiga H Osman

    Background: Child abuse and neglect are significant problems worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, reported cases are increasing. In 2011, 616 child abuse and neglect cases were registered .This is in comparison with 80 registered cases in 2010. In 2009 and 2008, 73 cases and 65 cases respectively were registered. Therefore, our study was established to assess the level of knowledge and attitudes of dental practitioners regarding child abuse. Research Objectives: To assess the knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners regarding child abuse. To identify the barriers in reporting the cases of child abuse and neglect. To assess the need for training dentists in detection of child abuse and neglect. Research Methodology: With prior consent, a 20-question survey including both multiple choice and dichotomous (Yes/No) questions was mailed to dentists, and the data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Lack of knowledge about dentist role in reporting was identified as the major barrier in reporting [31.7%] in the reasons for hesitancy to report. Pearson chi-square test show significant difference between male and female regarding reason for hesitancy to report. There is a no significant difference between male and female regarding legal obligation of dentists to report child abused cases. Conclusion: Although respondent dentists were aware of the diagnosis of child abuse, they were hesitant and unaware of the appropriate authority to report .This issue should be covered and emphasized in dental schools’ curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected.

  25. Hayaa Zaki, Safinaz Abdelwahab and Nada Abdel Aleem

    Objective: The increased demand for esthetic restorations contributed for their development to adequately meet the clinical requirements of direct and indirect restorations in anterior and posterior teeth. This study was conducted to assess the influence of commonly used types of drinks in Saudi Arabia, on color stability of nano-ormocer bulk filling material compared to nano-hybrid resin-composite. Materials and methods: two types of materials were used Nano-hybrid composite (Filtek Z250) and Nano-Ormocer (VOCO admira fusion x-tra). A total number of 40 cylindrical specimens with dimensions of (4 mm in thickness and 6 mm in diameter) were divided into two equal groups according to the material used. Then each group was subdivided into 4 equal subgroups according to storage media (Arabiana coffee, Nestle classic instant coffee, Pepsi and distilled water as control). For both materials: the initial color was recorded. After three week’s storage, the deviation from initial color was recorded. Results: The results showed significant color change of nano-ormocer compared to nano-hybrid composite in Pepsi and Arbiana coffee storage media. Conclusion: Bulk fill Nano-Ormocer is a serious competitor to conventional Nano-Composite in the battle of esthetics.

  26. Mohammed Abdullah Basunduwah and Mohamed Fattouh Abdallah Ramadan

    Objectives: To evaluate marginal accuracy of metallic copings fabricated by conventional lost wax, CAD CAM technique using stereomicroscope. Methods: A stainless steel die was used with preparation height of 7 mm., finish line of 1.0 and the axial convergence was 5 degrees. Seven polyether impressions of the die were made and poured to extra hard stone to produce dies. Upon each die two types of wax pattern were fabricated, Group I: copings were fabricated manually. Group II: copings were fabricated using Cercon CAD/CAM machine creating 30 copings from the two groups (15 each group). All wax patterns were invested and casted to Nickel-chromium alloy Marginal gap was tested on 4 points around the copings using stereomicroscope. Paired t-test was used to analyze data P value lower than 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: there was statistically significant difference between tested groups, The mean (SD) for the marginal gap were 109.85(24.71), 115.97 (25.65) for manual and CAD/CAM fabricated wax patterns respectively. Conclusion: With the limitations of this study, the conventional fabricated wax patterns (group I) gives significantly better marginal gap than CAD/CAM (machine-milled) technique (group II).

  27. Dr. Najeeb Talal, Dr. Sartaj Hassan Shah and Dr. Shabir Ahmad Bhat

    Objectives • To define the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early evaluation of painful hip joints. • To establish a differential diagnosis of the various painful hip joint conditions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). • To assess the severity and extent of the underlying lesion in various conditions of painful hip joint. Materials and Methods • This prospective observational study was carried out over Period of one year in the Department of Radio-Diagnosis, Government Medical College, and associated hospitals Srinagar All patients referred to the Department of Radio-Diagnosis from outpatient department (OPD), in-patient wards or Emergency section with clinically suspected acute or chronic painful hip disorders were included the study. Patients with history of acute trauma were excluded. An adequate history was elicited, followed by a focused clinical examination. All the cases were done on Siemens Magneton Symphony 1.5 tesla (Siemens Healthcare, Germany), Results: among 50 patients of painful hip pathology, 47 (94%) patients were diagnosed accurately by Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI) and three pathologies were diagnosed incorrectly. Among these pathologies, one was Transient osteoporosis, second lesion was osteoid osteoma of femoral head, third lesion was septic arthritis Conclusion: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hip joint is a rapid, non- invasive, non- ionizing and accurate diagnostic imaging modality for the assessment of hip pain and sufficient imaging modality for delineation of different hip joint pathology.

  28. Dr. Noopur Managoli Kulkarni, Dr. Geeta Vadaje, Dr. Sujit Londhe and Dr. Shailesh Gawande

    Tobacco induced lesions seem to be increasing with each passing day. The number of tobacco consumers is seen to be multiplying. Those addicted to tobacco, barely know that one day they might land into a serious health hazard. The current paper is a compilation of tobacco related ill effects on the general and systemic health and oral cavity.

  29. Dr. Sartaj Hassan Shah, Dr. Shabir Ahmad Bhat and Dr. Najeeb Talal

    Aim: In this study, we evaluated the incidence of nutcracker syndrome as a cause of varicocele in young adults and its relation with body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods: This prospective study included a total of 30 patients who were referred for high resolution (HR) ultrasound examination of scrotum for evaluation of varicocele. Upper abdominal ultrasonography (USG) and Doppler was done in all cases for assessment of renal vein hilar and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) segment transverse diameter, peak velocities in hilar and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) segments of renal vein. Results: In our study we found Nutcracker phenomenon to be a cause of varicocele in 13.33% of cases of varicocele. We also observed that it was more common in cases with low body mass index (BMI) and higher grades of varicocle. Conclusion: Upper abdominal scan for assessment of status of renal vein should be routinely done in all cases of varicocele, particularly in cases with higher grades of varicocele and low body mass index (BMI)

  30. Edelli Buala Rani,V. Srinivas Reddy, Konda Amarnath, Suresh Kumar M and Visalakhshi G.

    Aim: Arch bars that are directly fixated to the maxilla and mandible with self-drilling locking screws combine features of Erich arch bars and bone-supported devices and present an alternative method of intermaxillary fixation (IMF) that possesses potential advantages over existing techniques. The objective of this study was to compare IMF using this device with Erich arch bars secured with circum-dental wires. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed of patients who were surgically treated for maxillofacial fractures from the year 2015 to 2017. The primary predictor variable was fixation technique, which was IMF using Erich arch bars secured with circum-dental wires or stainless steel arch bars fixated with maxillary and mandibular screws. The outcome variables were complication rates, time necessary for device application and removal, glove perforation rate, and cost. Results: Out of 40 cases 20 were included in under Group A and 20 under group B. In group A patients were treated with Inter maxillary fixation with Bone supported arch bar and in group B with erich arch bar. Time taken for the procedure was more in group B and also more cases of needle stick injuries were seen in group B when compared to group A where such injuries are completely nill. Conclusion: Bone-supported arch bars may be a comparable alternative to Erich arch bars secured with circum-dental wires for IMF.

  31. Luai Farhan Zghair, Jamal Khalil AL-Qaisy and Mohammed Hussein Mushrif

    A colostomy is a surgical procedure in which an opening (stoma) is formed by drawing the healthy end of the large intestine or colon through an incision in the anterior abdominal wall and suturing it into place. This opening, in conjunction with the attached stoma appliance, provides an alternative channel for feces and flatus to leave the body. It may be reversible or irreversible depending on the circumstances. Two patients where done to them right hemicoloctomy with end to side ileo- transverse anastamosis with vented colostomy where done to them. Closure of vented colostomy subcutaneously where done to them. The Subcutaneous (extra peritoneal) closure of the vent- colostomy to cormorbidity patients is very save method even if fecal fistula was occured no intraperitoneal contamination was happend because the peritoneal cavity was not opened, and no other complication were occured.

  32. Datta Prasad, M. and Ananda Rama Rao, B.

    Collagen sheath and amniotic membrane has unique properties like enhanced wound healing through neovascularisation, anti adhesive effects, bacteriostatic, without inducing immunological reactions. There are no studies to quantify neovascularisation with any agent applied to chronic non healing ulcers. This is a comparative study between collagen sheath and amniotic membrane application. This study is done to evaluate effects of healing in chronic ulcers as evidenced by quantum of neovascularisation by collagen sheath and amniotic membrane application for a period of eight weeks in 30 patients, 15 patients with collagen sheath and 15 patients with amniotic membrane. Collagen sheath is commercially available. Amniotic membrane is to be harvested from placenta taken from caesarean section and applied over ulcers. Patients are evaluated at first, second, fourth, sixth and eighth week. In the first two weeks there is faster rate of neovascularisation as seen by counting the number of capillaries in an average of five high power fields (p-value 0.000), later on there is congestion of vessels with formation of granulation tissue which peaks at fourth week (p- <0.0001), leading to reduction in ulcer size. When compared to collagen sheath amniotic membrane showed significant increase in number of capillary formation per high power field (p- <0.0001). There is significant reduction in ulcer size (p- 0.000) with both collagen sheath and amniotic membrane, inter alia there is no significant difference in decrease in ulcer size between collagen sheath group and amniotic membrane group (p->0.05). The cost effectiveness, readily availability, ease of application makes collagen sheath a better choice for treating chronic ulcers.

  33. AnugyaRastogi, Dr. Dheeraj Lamba and Ritambhara K. Upadhyay

    Background: - Physical activity is a major risk factor of the disease which leads cardio respiratory problem, obesity etc. maximal (or peak) oxygen consumption (VO2max) is acknowledge as the best physiological measure of cardio respiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise is associated with improvement in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and cardiovascular fitness. Objective: To determine the Efficacy of Jacobson’s Relaxation Technique in improving the aerobic fitness ((VO2max) in young adults. Participants: Total sixty subjects have been included in the study (aged 18-40 years). The subjects were randomly selected through chit method and divided into two group i.e 30 in Jacobson’s Relaxation Technique Group (A) and 30 in Aerobic Exercise (brisk walking Group (B) respectively. the pre and post intervention SPO2, Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and VO2max were noted and compared in two exercise conditions for duration of 4 weeks. The VO2max was measured for baseline and after 4 weeks intervention with the help of Rockport walking test. Result: The statistical analysis revealed significant difference in post 4 week intervention reading of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) (t value = 1.928, p= 0.59), but the not significant difference of SPO2 (t value = 0.929, p= 0.358), Diastolic Blood Pressure (t value = 1.307, p= 0.197) Systolic Blood Pressure (t value = 0.412, p= 0.082), Heart Rate (t value = 0.658, p= 0.513) respectively. Similarly, there were significant difference with in Jacobson relaxation exercise Group for pre and post 4 week intervention value of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) (t value = 6.146, p= 0.00), SPO2 (t value = 3.633, p= 0.001), Diastolic Blood Pressure (t value = 1.120, p= 0.197) Systolic Blood Pressure (t value = 2.615, p= 0.14), Heart Rate (t value = 19.630, p= 0.00) respectively. Conclusion- This study concluded that the Exercise interventions in form of Jacobson’s Relaxation Technique and Aerobic Exercise can bring improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (vo2max) in normal young adults. It is hypothetically proved that the Jacobson’s relaxation technique is more effective as compared to the aerobic exercise.

  34. Dr. Nupur Sharma, Dr. Harikiran A.G. and Dr. Shweta Y.S.

    Background: Globally there is a shift of the disease burden from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases. India is no exception in witnessing a rising incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Moreover NCDs have their common risk factors which could be addressed with minimum cost but maximum output utilising a setting based Common Risk Factor Approach (CRFA) for health promotion. Schools, an important setting with its essential stakeholder’s teachers, have the policy mandate to support action to promote the health of young people and importantly, they have the opportunity (and often the capacity) to do so. Therefore this study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of common risk factor approach based health education module in higher primary school teachers in Bangalore city, India. Method: A Quasi experimental study employing one group pre and post intervention design was undertaken with a sample of 151 school teachers in Bengaluru. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe the respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics. Changes in scores before and after the completion of the CRFA based health education program in knowledge, attitude & self -perceived behaviour (KAB) was measured using Paired student’s t test. Results: The mean ± SD total knowledge, attitude & self -perceived behaviour score of respondents significantly increased from 15.66±3.59 to 18.48±2.77, 35.77±3.01 to 41.17±3.34 & 4.91±1.63 to 6.46±1.75 (n=151, P<0.05) after the intervention respectively. Conclusion: The significant improvement in the knowledge, attitude and self- perceived behaviour towards CRFA among a sample of school teachers compared with the base line results emphasises the need for training teachers in health education.

  35. Satish B. Baralay and Sandesh S. Baralay

    Aim and Objectives: To determine the reasons/factors forgetting orthodontic treatment done and the expectations of the rural Maharashtrian population who are undergoing orthodontic treatment. Materials and Method: A structured questionnaire was used for this study.90 randomly selected patients were recruited. The questionnaire comprised of 10questions related to reasons and awareness for seeking orthodontic treatment and the patients’ expectations. The data was collected on an excel sheet and presented in graphical form. Results: Facial and dental aesthetics is a significant determinant in the decision to undergo orthodontic treatment. Thus it is essential to understand subjective motives for undergoing orthodontic therapy and thereby set treatment goals.

  36. Sunita Rani and Bandana

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and obesity is becoming a health problem in many developed and developing countries. Obesity is a global epidemic and is on the rise. This study was carried out “to assess and correlate the blood pressure and anthropometric parameters among the healthy adults. Total subjects were 100, in which 50 males and 50 females were taken. The descriptive research design and purposive sampling technique was used. Self structured tool was formulated by extensive review of literature and validation of experts. The data was collected by using self report (interview), observation and bio- physiological method. Findings of the present study revealed that there is significant positive correlation of weight(r=0.562, p=0.00), BMI(r=0.311, p=0.002), HC (r=0.255, p=0.010) WC(r=0.454, p=0.00), WHR (r=0.449, p=0.00) with MAP respectively. There is significant positive correlation of weight (r=0.558, p=0.00), BMI(r=0.241, p=0.016), HC (r=0.200, p=0.00) WC(r=0.389, p=0.00), WHR(r=0.407, p=0.00) with average SBP and significant positive correlation of weight(r=0.536, p=0.00), BMI(r=0.368, p=0.00), HC (r=0.287, p=0.004) WC(r=0.469, p=0.00), WHR(r=0.424, p=0.00) with average DBP. The present study indicates statistically no significant correlation between height and average DBP (r=0.182, p=0.07), WHtR and average SBP (r=0.134, p=0.184). It was concluded that with the increase in anthropometric parameters there is increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  37. Dr. Chandra Deo Ram and Dr. Piyush Kumar Sengar

    Introduction: “The kidneys perform a critical regulatory function within the cardiovascular system.” Burn injury of the skin increase local vascular permeability and and exudates rich in protein and salt leaks from the plasma to produce burn oedema. Prevention, identification and treatment of actual renal failure that occurs when the insult exceeds the capacity of normal protective renal homeostatic response to shock, have to be considered on this background. Material and Methods: 62 cases of both sex and different age group coming to surgical emergency within 48 hours after sustaining burn injury and involoving more than 10 percent body surface in children and more than 15 percent in adults. Results: Investigations was done to evaluate renal function by following tests- PSP excretion on 1st, 3rd and 7 th post op day, level of blood urea, serum creatinine level, serum sodium level, serum potassium level.

  38. Dr. Mohit Zamad, Dr. Vrinda Kolte, Dr. Aakanksha Zamad, Dr. Heena Mazhar, Dr. Pramod Krishna, B., Dr. Rajdeep Singh and Dr. Sushant Kumar Soni

    Objectives: To study and to compare the postoperative manifestations (pain, swelling and trismus) using two different techniques after 3rd molar surgery. Material and methods: Thirty healthy patients were subjected to surgical extraction of bilateral semi-impacted lower third molars, located in a similar clinical and radiographic position. In all cases, on one side, the flap will be repositioned to allow healing by first intention and on other side, incision margin will be just approximated, without closing the wound, seeking healing by secondary intention. Pain, swelling and trismus were evaluated at 1st, 3rd and 7 days. Results: There was lesser pain, swelling and trismus after extraction of a semi-impacted third molar when healing took place by second intention as compared to healing by first intention. Conclusions: The postoperative course proved worse when healing by first intention planned than on suturing by simple approximation of the wound margins.

  39. Satheesh Kumar, A., Sankaranarayanan, S., Bama, P., Baskar, R. and Kanagavalli, K.

    An ethno botanical study was carried out to collect evidence on the use of medicinal plants by the people who live in Topslip and Ooty Taluk of Coimbatore and Ooty district, Tamil Nadu. This study designed to identify plants collected for medicinal purposes by the local people and tribals of Topslip and Ooty, located in the Coimbatore and Ooty district of Tamil Nadu and to document the traditional names, preparation and uses of these plants. This is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are done by ICF (Informant Consensus Factor) method. Field research was conducted by collecting ethno botanical information during structured and semi-structured interviews with native knowledgeable people in region. A total of 51 medicinal plants belonging to 31 families were identified in the area. These plants, used in the treatment of many different diseases, are freely harvested in this region at abundant amounts. In this assertion, the information collected from the traditional healers was used to compare with the already accessible literature on the ethnobotany of India. Results of the survey showed that leaf materials form the major component of plant parts harvested. The majority of the remedies are prepared in the form of dry powder from freshly collected plant parts. Mst of the remedies are prepared from a variety of species, and are mainly taken orally. Most of the medicinal plants are collected from the wild. Annamalai hills and Chinchona village Ooty an important area for medicinal plants and associated local knowledge; the natural vegetation being the most important reservoir for the majority of the medicinal plants. Environmental and cultural variations are in the course of threatening the resources and this signals the need for thoughtful efforts to create public awareness so that measures are taken to conserve the plants in the natural ecosystems and other suitable environments.

  40. Mariana Iancu

    This research presents the results obtained with students from BIOTERRA University in Bucharest and with pupils from “Ion Luca Caragiale” National College in Bucharest, with whom the university is in partnership, by applying of Electronic-learning (E-learning) and of Virtual Reality (VR) with aid of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Biology. Such, has been applied the Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) through the “High School Educational Assistance” (HSEA) software application, by means of software educational presentations such as PowerPoint slides, Display Video Disc (DVD), demonstrated with the help of computer, of projector, smart board. Also has been applied the Internet, through YouTube videos, chat rooms, discussion forums on professional sites, Video Conferencing. In E-learning through VR in biological sciences a techno centric model based on technique and equipment was experienced, alongside with a computer-focused strategy and various methodologies made up by combining a variety of teaching methods such as CAI, demonstration, simulation, experiment, observation, modeling, working with electronic school book, electronic Interactive System of Noting for Efficiency of Reading and Thinking (ISNERT), computer discussions and debates. This research on E-learning and VR in Biology contribute to this area by numerous examples of biological learning units, lessons and courses based on them, but also by the functions, advantages, disadvantages, limitations of E-learning and Virtual Reality, as well as by ways to counteract these limitations identified in Biology. The E-learning and Virtual Reality bring a cognitive and affective plus, contribute to sustainable education, demonstrated by the results of the tests.

  41. Mariana Iancu

    This research on sustainable ecological and environmental education has been realized with students from BIOTERRA University of Bucharest and with high school students from Ion Luca Caragiale (ILC) National Collegium from Bucharest, being used qualitative and quantitative research methods. The research on ecological education and environmental education shows the correlation between them, and for sustainable them are very necessary to develop and complementarity of the three types of education-formal, non-formal and informal. Sustainable formal ecological education and environmental education, realized in framework of the courses, seminars, practical laboratory work, lessons involve numerous educational ways, by applied of practical-heuristic and interactive methodologies based on participation-active methods, student-centered methods, mainly on investigations and projects maked by students in team and group. Also, has been applied and identified as better didactical ways, the SMART methodologies with of aid of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and of numerous modern methods, e.g. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) through applications of the High School Educational Assistance (HSEA), multi-media demonstration, practical electronic works correlated to modeling of some object models with aid of electronic means, what is constituted in smart methodologies, through which can be realized Smart Sustainable Ecological and Environmental Education. All these methodologies identified, respectively the practical-heuristic and interactive methodology and SMART methodology brings one cognitive and affective plus, contributing to sustainability of ecological and environmental education, to sustainable and SMART education, demonstrated by results of assessment tests.

  42. Dr. Ibourahema COULIBALY, Dr. Elisée Kporou KOUASSI, Dr. Elyse Amoin N’GUESSAN, 4Dr. Ibrahim KONATE and Pr. Daouda KONE

    Isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from poultry suburbs farms of Adiopodoumé-Abidjan (Ivory Coast) was carried out. LAB were cultivated on lactic acid medium (MRS) and were characterized based on colonies morphology, cells morphology and biochemical tests. Lactic acid bacterial strains were isolated from soils, chicken faeces and feathers.Out of fifteen samples analysed, thirteen (86.6%) harboured LAB. All isolates were obtained by sequential screening for catalase activity and Gram-staining.Out of (86,6%) which five (33,3%) were established to be homofermentative by the gel plug test. Four isolates (26,6%) were identified by use of the API 50CHL kit and threeLactobacilli strains and one Lactococci (0,066%) strain were selected to study their growth and lactic acid production profiles in a time course experiment. The Lactobacilli strains, both isolated from faeces and fresh intestine, produced higher amounts of cells and lactic acid from soils as compared to theLactococci strain isolated from feathers. L(+)-lactic acid is the only optical isomer for use in pharmaceutical and food industries because is only adapted to assimilate this form. The opticals isomers of lactic acid were examined by L(+) and D(-)-lactate dehydrogenase kit. Lactobacilli strains produced combination of both optical isomers of lactic acid. Among them, Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei produced the low amount of D(-)-lactic (2%). The optimum rates of glucose for lactic acid production by Lactobacillus strains were 180 and 120 g/L for Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paraplantarum, respectively.

  43. Kinjal Bhadresha, Manthan Trivedi, Bhaumik Vaghela, Rakesh Rawal and Nayan Jain

    Helicobacter pylori, a gastric pathogen that colonizes approximately 50% of the world’s population. Infection with H.pylori is the strongest known risk factor for some GI disorders including gastric cancer. Probiotics have considerable potential for preventive or therapeutic applications in various gastrointestinal disorders. So, the aim of this study was in vitro study of the potential inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus strains on H.pylori Growth. The aim of the potential inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus strains on H.pylori by using a standard antimicrobial plate well diffusion assay and liquid media assay. Among the two, L. acidophilus showed maximum zone of inhibition of a diameter of 22 18 mm against H.pylori. When the supernatant of the culture media of L. acidophilus was diluted with PBS, the zone of inhibition was decreased. On the other hand, L. rhamnosus showed maximum zone of inhibition of 23 mm in diameter against H.pylori. Unlike L. acidophilus, supernatant of the culture media of L. rhamnosus did not show any zone of inhibition upon dilution with PBS. Bacteriocins from Lactobacillus strains were found to be heat-stable (1210C for 15 min) and active over a wide pH range of 5.0-9.0. Addition of surfactants (EDTA, SDS, CTAB) up to 1% to crude supernatant containing Bacteriocins showed increase in antibacterial activity; whereas NaCl concentration of 2% increased the antibacterial activity. Study concluded that the growth of the cancer bacteria H.pylori can be controlled by Lactobacillus strain but still requires optimization.

  44. Roaa A. Alkhairat, Fatimah M Yousef and Heba A Sindi

    Background and Aim: Elderly people are susceptible to cognitive impairment making them a particularly vulnerable group. The number of older people had cognitive impairment and dementia is increasing worldwide. Salvia officinalis (Sage) is a plant in the family of Labiatae. It contains a large array of active compounds that may enhance cognitive activity and protect against neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to assess the effect of the orally received sage tea extract for 4 weeks on improving the cognitive performance in elderly people. Methodology: Cross-sectional intervention study was conducted, one hundred participants 47 males and 53 females (aged 60 and older) received of S. officinalis (tea bag contain 2.5g), participate were received 2 cup/day for 4 weeks. Cognitive performance measured was assessed by the change in The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score before and after received sage tea. Results: The mean age to all participants was 70.16±7.05. The cognitive performance was improve after received S. officinalis, there was a statistical significant difference (p< 0.001) for the MMSE score in both gander before and after one month of receiving sage with total score (22.57 and 25.25, respectively). Conclusion: Salvia officinalisis has potential health benefits; it improved cognitive performance for elderly participants. Further investigation is essential to help in elucidation the potential of this commonly ingested herb to enhance cognitive health and wellbeing.

  45. Sulthana Begam, M.

    Natural products have been a major source of new drugs. Plants are used medicinally in different countries and are a source of many potent and powerful drugs. Medicinal plants are used by 80% of world population as the only available medicines especially in developing countries. Over the past twenty five years, interest in medicinal plants has grown enormously from the use of herbal products as nature cosmetics and for self-medication by the general public for their biological effects. Trigonellafoenum commonly known as Fenugreek used as a spice and the leaves are edible and used as vegetable in many part of India. Fenugreek seed is reported to have anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-parasitic, anti-fertility, lactation stimulant and hypocholesterolaemic effects. In Ayurveda, both fenugreek seeds and leaves are used to prepare extracts or power for medicinal use.

  46. Vaishali S. Panchwate

    The side-effect of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) on certain enzyme activities of a freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis was studied for a period of 24,48,72,and 96 hr, at sub lethal concentration. During the exposure period the alkaline phosphates and acid phosphates content in the liver, muscle and intestine of treated fish showed decreasing trend. The alterations of these biochemical parameters can be effectively used as nonspecific biomarkers against plant extract toxicity stress and also help safer usage of plant extracts in aquaculturefarms.

  47. Nagamani, S., Aniel Kumar, O. and Snikdha, V.

    Genetic relationships between five genotypes (Abrus Precatorius. L) with different seed coatcolours (Red with black eyespot, black, white brown and maroon) were collected from different places of Andhra Pradesh were analyzed using RAPD and ISSR markers. Ten RAPD (decamers) and five (ISSR) primers were prescreened for their amplication potential. Of which 3 RAPD and 3 ISSR primers produced clear and reproducible amplified products. For RAPD analysis, 3 random primers (OPA – 02, OPA – 16 and OPC – 09) were used which amplified 25bandsof which 15 were polymorphic with and ever age polymorphism of 60.00%. the amplified products varied size from 500 – 3000 bp. For ISSR analysis, 3 primers were used which produced 32 bands, 23 of which were polymorphic (71.87%). The size of amplified bands ranged from 500 – 3000 bp. The efficiency of primers in generating sufficient information for genetic diversity analysis was computed using discriminatory power (Di), which ranged from 0.00 – 0.24 for RAPDs and 0.00 – 0.28 for ISSRs. The date analysis based on Jacquard’s similarity coefficient and UPGMA Clusters analysis revealed that genotypes with Red and brown on seed coats were more diverse as compared to other three genotypes (RAPD Clusters) while as in ISSR cluster analysis. Maroon and red seed coats were more diverse as compared to black. Because maroon and coated genotype was collected from Seshachalam Forest, which is located inChittor District, while the rest with four genotypes were collected from east Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh.

  48. Mahal, M.F., Rushnan Alam, Khatun, M.S., Akter, S., Zia Hasan, S.M. and Sikdar, B.

    Jute is known as the Golden fiber of Bangladesh. Pathogen poses a great problem to the cultivation of jute by inflicting severe yield losses. To control this pathogen, the antifungal effect of plant extracts of three plants species were determined by in vitro study using cold water, hot water, cow urine and ethanol. All concentrations of ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica showed 100% growth inhibition against M. phaseolina. The ethanol and cow urine extract of T. patula at 15, 20 and 25% concentrations showed 100% inhibition. T. patula extract showed most effectiveness than A. indica and A. vasica extract. Ethanol extracts were most effective to controlling M. phaseolina than cold water, hot water and cow urine extracts. The antifungal effects were also determined by in vitro study using three fungicides at different concentrations. Among the three fungicides, Cupravit were most effective to controlling M. phaseolina than Dithane M45 and Redomil.

  49. Anam Javed and Ayesha Kabeer

    Skin which is a collection of layers serves as barrier against external and internal stimuli. In case of any fluctuation, its normal functioning suffers and causes resistance in its regulating and protective role. In current review, skin wounds, their healing and after wards dermal regeneration process was focused. To speed up the process of wound healing them edicinal flora of Pakistan contributes a lot and assists as healing boosters along with recovery of other diverse skin ailments. That is why, future investigations should be made to gain benefit from this local herbal treasure to serve humanity at low cost.

  50. Ruchi Yadav and Samreen Rizvi

    WASH in the urban areas Multiple sclerosis is an unpredictable potentially disabling disease that causes disruption of the myelin that insulates and protects nerve cells of spinal cord and brain and permits electrical impulses to be conducted along the nerve fiber with speed and accuracy. So this disease disrupts central nervous system by damaging or demyelinating the insulated covers of nerve cells. In this paper we have made network of interacting proteins of more than 300 interacting proteins identified from protein interaction database .Initially 14 proteins were identified from Uni Prot database that were involved in multiple sclerosis disease . Gene Cards database was used to study pathways of proteins involved in network and new network was made that classifies interacting proteins on the basis of pathways involves. We found Three proteins, APBB2, APBB3 and MMP15 having no information about pathway and disease in which they are involved. New Network was designed to predicted pathway of these novel proteins, APBB2, APBB3 and MMP15, network mapping shows that these proteins connects directly to LRP4, that belongs to GPCR Signaling in Alzheimer’s disease pathway. This suggests that these proteins are involved in multiple sclerosis and also other diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. Further work can be done to identify potential drug target and can be used for drug designing.

  51. Hooren, D., Sowmiya, V., Keerthana, S. and Sathya, S.

    Green synthesis is an effective concept towards ecofriendly synthesis, as chemical synthesis is toxic and harmful. The work focuses on the green synthesis of magnesium oxide nanoparticles from red spinach and Aloe vera with magnesium nitrate as precursor of magnesium. The UV-Visible Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were performed for characterization of nanoparticles. The synthesized magnesium oxide nanoparticles are implemented in the treatment of polluted water. The bacteria were isolated from polluted water and antibacterial susceptibility test was performed to measure the zone of inhibition. Thus, the present study mainly focuses on the treatment of polluted water using magnesium oxide nanoparticles.

  52. Leny Thomas, Johnson, W.M.S. and Sridhar Narayanan

    Introduction: Parkinson’s Disease is an age related extra pyramidal neurological manifestation resulting in motor impairment. The scope of non motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease has been explored in depth in recent times. Several symptoms including sleep disorders, anxiety, olfactory dysfunction, visual impairment etc are often ignored. This study aims to evaluate the magnitude of non motor symptoms among the patients with Parkinson’s disease. Methodology: This hospital based study was carried out among 150 patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease visiting the tertiary care center. The patients were grouped as treated and drug naïve. All the patients were evaluated for cognitive functions, sleep, olfactory, visual, anxiety, etc using appropriate scales. Independent samples t test and ANOVA was used to analyze the statistical significance between the variables using SPSS ver 16 software. Results: Out of 150 total PD patients, 115 (76.7%) were males and 35 (23.3%) were females. The majority of the patients belonged to age group 61-70 years (n=69, 46%). The majority of the PD patients had duration of illness between 1 - 5years (n=97, 64.7%). The mean MDS-UPDRS scores (Part 1, 2, 3) were significantly lower in drug-naïve as compared to treated PD patients Conclusion: This study has thrown light on the magnitude of the non motor symptoms among patients with Parkinson’s disease. This study has also effectively helped in sub typing the non motor symptoms.

  53. Miss. Sharvary Kheni, Dr. Shivsagar Tewary, Dr. Karuna Pawashe and Dr. Pronob Sanyal

    Aim: A survey was conducted to develop measures in expansion of dental facilities to rural population. Materials and Method: A questionnaire based study was conducted among the dentists practicing in Karadtaluka and Karad rural area to explore the need and difficulties for extending the dental facilities to the rural area. The survey was conducted on 70 dentists practicing in Karadtaluka in Maharashtra. Results: Out of the total participants, around 41.4% dentists were willing to extend their dental services in rural areas of Karad. 48.6% dentists were not willing for the same,out of which 10% dentists believed that it was not feasible, 14.3% dentists thought it has high input low outcome while 8.6% felt poor dental awareness among the rural population. Conclusion: The genuine problems faced by the dentists in the rural areas should be taken into consideration and dental awareness should be created in the rural areas.

  54. Mahima Eliazer and Sheshadhari, T.K.

    Background and objective: Selfie is the most trendy mode of technology which is being used now a days by all the individuals for various uses. It is used to express themselves, to build their self-image, to enhance their confidence or sometime to avoid the boring situation. In building self-esteem, individual experience play an major role. It allows people to face the life situation with more confidence, optimism and this is an easy step to reach their goals and self-actualize about themselves. Possessing little self-regard in people can lead to become depressed, to decrease their potential or to tolerate abusive situation and relationships, whereas on the other hand, too much self-love results in an inability to learn from their failures. This paper aims to assess the relationship between the selfie and self-esteem. Methods: Pub Med-Medline and EBSCO were searched for reviews in finding the relationship between selfies and self-esteem among the adolescent till 2017. Search strategy specific to each database were used. Results: Out of 7 articles, 6 research studies supported the positive relationship between selfie and self-esteem. Interpretation and Conclusion: The review concludes that there is positive relationship between selfie posting and the self-esteem of the individual, whereas in some cases the negative relationship also be noticed.

  55. Dr. Quazi Billur Rahman, Md. Ahsan Habib and Dr. Shailesh Gautam

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer that affects the head and neck region with highest mortality rate among all malignancies and it is the sixth common malignancy reported worldwide. Aims: To evaluate the level of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: This prospective study was done in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) during the period of July 2015 to June 2017. Fifty six patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. After the clinical evaluation, all patients were undergone to either unilateral or bilateral neck dissection. The excised lymph nodes along with fibrofatic tissue were examined histopathologically according to level base to find out the lymph node status. Result: Lymph node metastasis was significantly increased with the increases of tumour size in OSCC. Histopathologically this study showed, 57.1% cases had lymph node metastasis, where 53.1% patients had lymph node metastasis at level-I, 25.0% patient had metastasis at level-II, 15.6% patients had lymph node metastasis at both level-I and II and 6.3% patients had metastasis at both level-II and III. In this study no lymph node metastasis was found at level-IV and level-V. Conclusion: Selective supraomohyoid neck dissection (level I-III) should be done as an elective treatment in T1-T4. Lymph node Level IV should be included only when there is preoperative suspicion of level II or III nodal involvement.

  56. Dharmaraya Ingale

    Medical education that too in the subject of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology is very important as far general medical practice is concerned. A Doctor has to be trained to meet demands of the State and Central government rules regulations and Legal obligations of Doctor. Once upon in recent past there was hue and cry as to reducing teaching of this subject to choice of the undergraduate or not necessary at all. Hence there is need to establish how important is teaching of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology to all the undergraduates across the country. Hence this subject of Assessment of Need of Forensic Medicine expertise in day today Medical Practice and Teaching was elected and done among the professionals in practice. Nine questionnaires’ ware prepared and given to participants to answer yes or know. Results were tabulated, percentage calculated and analysis was done. Almost all medical practitioners stated teaching of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology subject is essential should be mandatory in under graduate curriculum with clinical posting to casualty under this subject. So that every medical practitioner shall get confidence in dealing with medico-Legal cases in day today practice.

  57. Piyush Paul

    Phenological behaviour of five dominant tree species has been studied in a mixed dry deciduous forest of Orchha, Tikamgarh (M.P.). All five tree species bear new foliage in dry months from March to June. The leaf fall was seasonal and various studied tree species shed their leaves at different intervals during study period. The leaf fall period covered the month from last week of September to end of March. The leaf retention period, in present study, exhibited that A. pendula, C. fistula and T. grandis retained fully mature green leaf for three months and three weeks and B. monosperma retained fully mature green leaf for longest period while L. coromendelica retained fully mature green leaf for shortest period. The leafless period of trees illustrated that L. coromendelica stayed leafless longest period. The flowering was found seasonal and various studied tree species had flower at different intervals during study period and fruit fall occurred from December to first week of July in different tree species

  58. Loay M.Mohammd Altaay and Najlaa Najat Al-Baety

    Background: Daily dietary intake of zinc that absorbed by the nursing mother is always associated with good lactation and with the quantity and quality of the milk produced. Objective: The purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of dietary zinc intake on zinc content of breast milk and determine the association between maternal dietary zinc intake of zinc and content of zinc in breast milk. Methods: Nursing mothers of (infants) volunteered to take part in this study selected from those who were cared for at Al-Takiah Maternal and Child Health Center, Baqubah city- Diyala Governorate, during July 2015 till February 2016. Individual samples of breast milk were obtained from 50 mothers at different times postpartum for zinc estimation, dietary intake were collected using quantitative 24 – hours food recalls. Results: The result revealed that the mean zinc distribution (zinc intake) of the nursing mothers in this study was (11.26± 2.13 mg/day) and its’ mean concentration in brunt milk was (0.6± 0.2 mg/100 ml. The relationships between maternal zinc intake and milk zinc content was obtained with a significant positive correlation (r = 0.61 p < 0.01). Conclusion: The results show that there is a need to increase the consumption of food rich with zinc content. Thus a regular monitoring of zinc breast milk level is the appropriate application.

  59. Tewodros Ayalew and Tarekegn Yoseph

    Background and objective: Planting method plays an important role in the placement of seed at proper depth and distance thereby affecting the germination and plant population dynamics. As a result, it ultimately affects crop growth and yield performance through the influence it has on the competition among plants for limited amount of nutrients in the soil with resources. A study was conducted in 2016 cropping season at experimental site of College of Agriculture, Hawassa University to investigate the effect of planting method on growth performance and grain yield of wheat. Materials and Methods: The treatment studied includes two planting methods(i) conventional-broadcasting and ii) drill planting by using 15cm and 20cm row spacing. The treatments arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatment means were compared through least significant different test at 5%probability level. Results: Analysis of the results revealed that planting method have a significant effect on plant height, number of tiller, fresh weight, dry weight, and grain yield. However, marked difference was not detected on number of spikelet per spike due to planting methods. A row spacing of 20cm showed higher effective tiller number (8.33), number of spikelet per spike (16.66), dry weight (2.46) and grain yield (3.24) compared with the remaining treatments. Conclusion: Based on the results of the current experiment, it can be concluded that using 20cm spaced row planting is advantageous for wheat crop production for the study area, provided that all the agronomic practices are kept optimal.

  60. Kabulo, K.D.M., Temuna Patrice, John N tambwe, Patrice Ntenga, Samuel T Malanda, Zimani, N. and Kazadi KN Kalangu

    Male circumcision has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of HIV infection through heterosexual intercourse by as much as 60% and medical male circumcision strategy was adopted as an additional prevention intervention in Namibia since 2009. Fournier’s gangrene defined as a polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, perianal or genital areas, is rare but life-threatening disease. We report a case of 14 years old male who developed Fournier’s gangrene four days after male circumcision performed using the dorsal slit technique under local anaesthesia, in a local primary school during a circumcision camp, patient recovered following early debridement done under general anaesthesia and coverage on broad-spectrum antibio-therapy followed by daily dressing.

  61. Upasana Saha, Purva Sudesh Dharwadkar, Susmita Sur, Vishaharini, V. and *Madhu Malleshappa

    High-temperature cooked meat contains NOCs, heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In rodents, a high intake of such compounds induces prostate tumours. In this article the association between heterocyclic amines, a common meat mutagen and prostate cancer is studied. The normal cells from the prostate gland are extracted and are treated with the above mentioned mutagens to study the cell viability, proliferation and the effects of the mutagens on the chromosomes. The cells showing increased proliferation rate and showing some chromosomal aberration in the metaphase plate indicates its conversion from normal to cancerous cells. The rate of conversion of normal cells to cancerous cells by a specific mutagen determines its mutagen city.

  62. Dr. Raazia khan, Dr. Praveen Singh Samant, Dr. Ayush Razdan Singh and Dr. Raju Chauhan

    Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder- Margaret Hungerford. A smile has been said to be one of the most important interactive communication skill of person. The ultimate objective of aesthetics in dentistry is to create a beautiful smile, with teeth of pleasing inherent proportion to one another and a pleasing tooth arrangement in harmony with the gingiva, lips and face of the patient. Patients now demand not only a healthy mouth but also a perfect smile. The smile, which represents the most primitive form and the essence of human communicative ability, appears early in life in young children. Smiles and later facial expressions express transient feelings and emotions. Esthetic Dentistry demands attention to the patient’s desires and treatment of patients desires and treatment of patient’s individual problems. Goldstein states “Esthetic dentistry is the art of dentistry in its purest form”. The purpose is not to sacrifice the function but to use it as a foundation of esthetics. Through technological advances, it is now possible to enhance and strengthen the health and function of a patient's appearance and smile conservatively. The true understanding of all aspects of comprehensive esthetic/cosmetic dentistry and the integration of the philosophical triad of "health, function and beauty" will assist the dentist in providing optimal dental care.

  63. Malekani, A.

    The study was carried out in Masasi and Nachingwea districts to provide empirical evidence of how local communities access indigenous knowledge (IK) on management of agro-biodiversity surrounding them. The paper specifically sought to determine how local community’s access and share indigenous knowledge related to agro-biodiversity at local levels. The study employed a mixed method approach (case study and cross sectional survey). The research findings of the present study showed that farmers mainly relied on the local (internal) sources of knowledge to acquire IK, as compared to external and formal sources of knowledge. In terms of frequency of access, the responses showed again the predominance of the parents/guardian/family, neighbour/friends, social groups and village meetings as primary sources of IK they most frequently consulted. Finally the study suggests some recommendations as detailed in the paper.

  64. Tesfaye Tekola,Tarekegn Yoseph and Walelign Worku

    The increasing costs of inorganic fertilizers and their effect on the environment have resulted in an ever increasing interest in the role of biological fertilizers as a source of plant nutrients and soil fertility restoration. In this regard, identifying varieties which adapt to growing areas and agronomic inputs such as bio-fertilizer and optimum phosphorus rates could potentially improve soil fertility and productivity of legumes including soybean. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Bradyrhizobium inoculation and phosphorus application on growth, symbiotic and yield performance of soybean varieties grown at Assosa, Western Ethiopia. The treatments included three soybean varieties (Gizo, Belessa-95 and Local), two inoculation levels (uninoculated and inoculated with Bradyrhizobium strain; MAR-1495) and three phosphorus levels (0, 10 and 20 kg P ha-1). The experimental units were arranged using factorial randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results revealed marked varietal differences on growth, yield and yield components. Of the three soybean varieties Belessa-95 showed better response for nodule number, nodule dry weigh, plant height, shoot dry weight, hundred seed weight and grain yield when compared to Gizo and Local varieties. The inoculation with Bradyrhizobium strain MAR-1495 and application of higher P rates (20 kg P ha-1) resulted in marked improvement on most of the studied parameters. For instance, the highest yield (2.31, 2.70 and 2.53 ton ha-1) was recorded with the variety Belessa-95, the application of 20 kg P and Bradyrhizobium inoculation, respectively. It could, thus, be deduced that the use of Bradyrhizobium strain MAR-1495 and Belessa-95 variety with application of 20 kg P ha-1 markedly improved the yield and related components, and which in turn improves the nutrition and food security of small scale farmers in the study area.

  65. Dr. Santosh Kumar, Dr. Vijayendra Pandey, Dr. Sushma, K. N., Dr. Praveen Kumar Dr. Namita Shrivastava and Dr. Chintu Kumar Singh

    Background: The most common and difficult aspect of general practice is the diagnosis and treatment planning. One of the commonest complaints presented to the practitioner is pain. This article attempts to account for cases with wrongly diagnosed dental pain as trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: Cases from the nearby Government Hospital, Garhwa under treatment for trigeminal neuralgia in the last 6 months were studied reviewed and followed after dental intervention using radiographs and tests to diagnose as pain from odontogenic origin. Results: The patients found absolute relief from the pain after treatment was rendered to their dental problems. These cases were found to be wrongly treated for neuropathic pain. Conclusions: It is crucial to exclude orofacial pain from odontogenic origin before planning treatment for neuropathic pain emphasizing the importance of differential diagnosis and treatment planning in the patient’s initial visits.

  66. Deeksha Naik, Kasturiba, B. and Usha Malagi

    The paper investigates Nutritional status of Nomadic Tribal women residing in North Karnataka. 30 nomadic adult women aged 19 to 45years from 6 districts of North Karnataka were selected. Nutritional status in terms of Anthropometry was assessed. Results revealed that 40% of the women belong to underweight category of BMI. Poor nutritional status of women makes her more susceptible to infectious diseases. Ultimately it affects the productivity of women and in turn development of the community and the Nation.

  67. Hima Rasheed and Deepa Palengara

    The study was conducted to assess the nutritional value, phytochemical compounds and invitro regeneration in Navara. The major nutrients in dehusked rice were Ca (10.3%), Fe (2.81%), Zn (2.78%), P (197%), VitB1 (0.77%), VitB2 (0.16%), VitB3 (1.26%), protein (8.8%), fat (2.4%) and carbohydrate (72.7%).GC-MS analysis of hexane extract of Navara revealed the presence of 113 phytochemical compounds, of which the major compounds were Cyclotrisiloxane hex methyl (52%), 5,7,9(11)-Androstatriene,3-hydroxy-17-oxo- (64%) and Olean-12-ene-3,16,21,22,28-pentol, 21-(2-methyl-2-butenoate), [3a,16a,21a(Z),22a]- (66%).To observe the callus induction and plant regeneration, different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators were added in MS medium. Better callus induction was observed on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D 1mg/l, while MS medium supplemented with BAP1mg/l+NAA0.5mg/l induced the highest somatic embryogenesis. Better shoot multiplication was observed on MS medium containing BAP 0.5mg/l + IBA 1mg/l. Effective root regeneration was on MS + IBA 1mg/l. Present study provides a protocol to conserve and multiply this nearly extinct medicinal rice variety.

  68. Singh, A.K., 2Bhaglani, D.K., Kumar, R., Kumari, V. and Chawla, S.

    Background: The disease Tuberculosis tends to concentrate among the poorest, the marginalized and the most vulnerable populations such as those residing in the slums, migrant labour class, and industrial workers. Being one of the top ten causes of deaths worldwide, Tuberculosis is the biggest public health challenge of the present times. Continuous disease surveillance and monitoring comprehensively help in the approach for Tuberculosis management. Under one such operational research, assessing the treatment seeking patients of a Directly Observed Treatment Centre of a hospital of an industrially dominated area, it was revealed that 41 patient were diagnosed and initiated on TB treatment by Designated Microscopy Centre (DMC), the Tuberculosis diagnostic laboratory of another Health Centre, 5 kilometers apart. In fact active case finding was zero at this hospital. Distant DMC was significant impediment for follow up sputum microscopy and contact screening. As a result many tubercular patients went missing and the public health system had difficulty in capturing these cases. This was proving a major hindrance in tuberculosis management in this industrial township. Objectives: (1) To enhance active case finding in the hospital (2) To enhance active and passive case finding in the community. Methods: A DMC in the public health hospital was started, Medical staff was sensitized and community mobilization initiated by roping in an NGO in “Sputum pick up and transport scheme” of the Public Sector, in 7 slum areas, for prompt diagnosis of TB. Results: Active and passive case finding rose from zero to 52 and 20 respectively in the year 2015 and it was 204 and 56 cases respectively in 2016. Slide positivity rate was 8.2% in 2015 with 6 New Smear Positive cases and two positive follow up cases whereas it was 8.8% in 2016 with 18 new and 16 follow up positive cases. 15 out of 179 Presumptive cases found by active search, four suspected follow up cases and 6 out of 56 Passive cases were positive for TB. Conclusions: Public private partnership increases active and passive case finding in industrially dominated area by minimizing the challenges of loss of working hours, absenteeism from work and cost of travelling. The strengths of the private and public sector thus can go hand in hand for tacking the constraints of the resources of an area.

  69. Neena Gupta, Shaily Agarwal, Dr. Apurva Agarwal, Uruj Jahan, Fatima Usmani and Poonam Verma

    Background: Prophylactic blood component therapy, “A saviour for obstetric patients with non overt DIC”. {Dr Neena Gupta, Dr Shaily Agarwal, Dr Apurva Agarwal, Uruj jahan,Fatima Usmani, Poonam) Aims: To evaluate the role of prophylactic blood component therapy in nonovert DIC patients to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. Methodology: This study was conducted on total 274indoor obstetric patients in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of UISEMH Kanpur from January 2016 to August 2017. Results: In Group IB, majority were managed in ward (72.41%) only 13.79 % patients required ICU care but mortality was nil. While in group IA 20.63% needed ICU care and mortality was 1.59%. In group II (overt DIC) all required ICU care and mortality was 59.38%. Patients in group IB (prophylactic blood component therapy) had shorter duration of hospital stay as compared to group IA and II. 40.18% in group II (overt DIC), 33.92% in group IA and 6.92 % in group IB patients had hospital stay for more than 10 days. Conclusion: Prophylactic blood component therapy corrected the coagulation abnormality and prevented them from landing up into established DIC.

  70. Haftu Hailu, Hideki Tabuchi, Hiroshi Ezawa, Kassu Jilcha, and Tewedros Hailu

    The purpose of the project is to minimize existing long delivery time of shoe Venice model by integration of 7QC tools and Quality control story formula. At this time most of Ethiopian manufacturing industries are facing big challenges to exceed their customers’ expectations. For the reason that these industries could not achieve the delivery time that fixed by the customer. Sheba leather Industry PLC is one of Ethiopian leather and shoe manufacturing industry facing this problem. As well, generating skilled manpower capable of continuously solve problems analytically. At the time of the project, there was customer complaint. This was originated from not achieving delivery time of Venice model shoe. It takes more than three months to dispatch 240 pairs of Venice model shoe. In addition, there was concentration of wastes like transportation, waiting, defect and inventory. The methodology followed for this project is problem solving approach. Tensteps of quality control story formula integrated with quality control seven tools were used. The findings of the project after the completion of nine month implementation period, the team confirmed the result with set target by holding again process analysis. 38 activities were non-value adding that are wastes. Due to this reason, the delivery time is shortening by 18,236.55 min with 51.08 % improvement. In addition, process analysis and application of quality control process chart were familiarized. Any manufacturing industries can similarly use and follow the problem solving approach and 7 QC tools to eliminate wastes. Due to time constraint, the project is only focused on Venice model shoe, however there were more than 30 model shoe types. At the end, the cross functional team members should solve another chronic problem by practicing problem solving approach. The top management should monitor and evaluate the activities in order to sustain intermediate level kaizen implementation.

  71. Amran bin Hasan, Ibrahim bin Abu Bakar, Nor Azura Md Ghani, Saadi bin Ahmad Kamaruddin, and Mohd Fuad bin Miskon

    Background: The hygiene level of the premise reflect the safety and quality of the food served in the food services kitchen and the poor sanitary condition can contribute to food poisoning outbreaks. Recently, many food poisoning cases reported from food services sector and most of the cases are from institutional food services. These premises sometimes are graded as clean or very clean which can be questioned, mostly at institutions such as schools. Objectives: The aim of this research is to establish mathematical models using multiple linear regression (MLR) technique to determine the food safety level and premise grading of active caterers in Pahang State, using artificial neural network. Methods: In this research, the premises have been categorised into 3 categories namely institutional, event caterers and premise at Rest and Rescue Area (RnR) along the East Coast Highway. A total of 268 premises were involved in this study with 139 (51.87%) institutional, 63 (23.51%) event caterers and 66 (24.63%) RnR. The instrument used in this research is based on the official risk based premise inspection form currently used by Ministry of Health Malaysia. The important focusing items in the inspection form are process control, building and facilities, equipment and utensils, cleaning and maintenance, as well as food handler’s requirements. These items consist of a total thirty (31) elements with respected weight age score based on risk to food safety. In this research, stepwise method is used where several significant models will be developed. Results: The results show that the best and significant model is the 33rd model where the independent variables explain 100% of the dependent variables (R-square=1.00, p-val=0.00). Conclusion: As a conclusion, it is expected that this system will help the related authorities by confirming national standards and create more uniformity in catering inspections. In the future, it is suggested that the result can be improved by revising Part A: Process Control, in the Malaysian premise inspection form where the elements should be elaborated more details by comparing to the ones used in other countries.

  72. Morad Farhat Mosa Elfantazi, Burak Aricak, Cigdem Ozer Genc and Faisal Ali Mohamed Baba

    Today, the increase in population and in the number of vehicles in the cities has increased the air pollution to such an extent that it has become one of the most important problems of the modern age. Many pollutants emerge from city roads due to exhaust gases, car wheels and vehicle wear, and these pollution sources adversely affect the development and health of living beings inhabiting the surrounding areas. The heavy metals tend to bioaccumulate and some of them have toxic effects even at very low concentrations. Therefore, it is utmost important to monitor the change in heavy metal concentration. Usually, plants are used as biomonitors in determining heavy metal pollution. This study tries to determine the possibilities of using Morus alba as a biomonitor; Morus alba is frequently used in landscaping. For this purpose, concentrations of Ni, Cd, Zn, Fe, K, Mg, and Mn elements have been determined by analyzing the leaves and branches of Morus alba collected from areas with no, little, and heavy traffic.

  73. Idibie C.A., Nwaokobia, K., Ogboru R.O. andOmoregie P.O.

    Many plant essential oils show a broad spectrum of activity against pests or insects. These oils have a long tradition of use in the production of stored products against pests or insects. Recent investigation indicates that some chemical constituents of these oils interfere with the octopaminergic nervous system in insects. Pure essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Mentha piperita have been investigated for their efficacy levels against mosquitoes (Anopheles). The two aerated jars labeled a and b, were place 40 mosquitoes each and the Cymbopogon citratus oil and Mentha piperita oil was sprayed inside them respectively. The mortality rate of both green insecticides was then recorded, with respect to time. The above procedure was thus repeated using varying doses of the green insecticide and their mortality rate were also recorded. Result showed that both Mentha piperita and Cymbopogon citratus oils have insecticidal properties, comparatively however, Mentha piperita oil achieved greater mortality (2fold) compared to Cymbopogon citratus oils at the same dose application. It can be concluded that both Cymbopogon citratus oils and Mentha piperita oil are promising natural repellents due to its safety advantage over chemical repellents. Result gene optimum level of 1.0 ml and 1.3ml respectively for (PPO) Mentha piperita oil and (LPO) Lemon Plant oil were recorded, showing that at such concentration, the greatest killer of man can be checked.

  74. Neha R. Tikhe

    Phase angle controlled converter using back to back Thyristors or Triacs are being widely adopted to control the speed of voltage controlled single phase Induction Motor used for domestic Fan / Blower loads. This method suffers from the disadvantages of low input power factor at lower speeds due to low power factor. The fan draws more current than the required one. This leads to higher I²R Cu losses occurring in the stator of the single phase motor. The proposed techniques of High Frequency PWM Controlled are proposed. This motor is expected to draw lesser current at higher input power factor as compared to the existing firing angle controlled speed controlled techniques. In this way, the motor would operate at higher efficiency, yielding a low Cu loss, high input power factor, reduced low order harmonics and reduced torque pulsation.

  75. Dr. Saurabh Singh Parihar, Dr. Amit Kalra, Dr. Gaurav Jasoria, Dr. Ashish Jain, Dr. Arun Kumar Gupta, Dr. Ankur Matta, Dr. Apit Shrivastava and Dr. Akanksha Singh

    Introduction & Objective: Cephalometric analysis generates 2D images results which are sufficiently reliable & may be an alternative to 3D imaging in the evaluation of soft tissue and upper airway morphology. In recent years new interrelations between respiratory function and malocclusion have developed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between hard and soft tissues and upper airway morphology in patients with Angle’s Class I, II,and III malocclusion. Material & Methods: 50 Pre-treatment radiographs were taken. ANB and WITS analysis were used to divide the radiographs into skeletal Class I, II, and III. Rickets E-line , Upper and Lower pharyngeal airway space were also measured on these radiographs.. Results: Spearman’s correlation co-efficient was performed to find out the correlation between ANB, Pharyngeal airway space and Ricket’s E-line. It was found that there was strong positive correlation between Ricket’s E-Line (upper) and Pharyngeal space (lower) in Class I sample (p<.05) . In Class II sample there was a negative correlation between Ricket’s E-line (upper) and Pharyngeal space (upper)mm(p<.05) .While in Class III sample it was found that there was strong positive correlation between Ricket’s E-line (upper) mm and Ricket’s E-line (lower)mm.(p<.05) Conclusions: Through this study we conclude that there is a strong positive correlation between Ricket’s E-line(upper) & Pharyngeal space (lower) in Class I & negative correlation between Ricket’s E-line & Pharyngeal space (upper) in Class II While in Class III samples strong positive correlation between Ricket’s E-line (upper &lower ) was found.

  76. Pardeep Mahajan, Shivangi, Prashant Monga, Fatinderjeet Singh, Megha Mahajan and Mannat Dhillon

    A dynamic relation exists between sugars and oral health. The resultant action of consumed sugars is the beginning of tooth deminalisation. Many factors in addition to sugars affect the caries process, including the form of food or fluid, the duration of exposure, nutrient composition, sequence of eating, salivary flow and oral hygiene. Many modifying factors such as fluoride and dental hygiene came up to reduce the risk of dental caries, but these would not be needed if we tackle the single cause- sugars. So the aim of this article is to provide a narrative view of association between sugar intake and dental caries in modern society and certain dietary recommendations to reduce it.

  77. Tassew Belete, Arif Abrahim and Tasfaye Hailemariam

    Pumpkin is one of the most economically, nutritionally and medicinally important vegetable crops world wide and grown in temperate and tropical region. The purpose of this study was to determine minerals in its leaf and fruit parts. Samples were collected, grineded and dried at 105 0C. Instruments (AOAC official methode: 923.03-Air–Acetylene FAAS, 923.03-Flame Photometer, ESISO 1871:2013) Agilent technology were used to detect the minerals in the samples. Microwave digestion was used by taking1g sample, 6 mL 70 % HNO3, 1 mL 30 % H2O2 to 60 mL vessels. 50 W, 165 0C (10 min); 80 W, 190 0C (20 min); and 0 W, 50 0C (10 min) were adjusted and clear soltions were kept for analysis by FAAS, Flamephotometry EDTA-titration K (5609.72 mg/kg) > Ca (5290.70 mg/kg) > Mg (2500.24 mg/kg) > Fe (249.64 mg/kg) > Na (98.28 mg/kg) > Zn (48.80 mg/kg) > Mn (38.43 mg/kg) > Cu (12.06 mg/kg) in leaves and Ca (4393.95 mg/kg) >K (3869.21 mg/kg) > Mg (2208.93 mg/kg) > Na (132.87 mg/kg) > Fe (89.89 mg/kg) > Zn (14.18 mg/kg) > Mn (12.70 mg/kg) > Cu (9.38 mg/k) in fruits were determined. Leaves of pumpkin had somewhat higher levels of mineral than fruits and comparable with those of common leafy vegetables. Both parts of the plant (leaf and fruit), are rich in minerals and recommended to be taken for healthiness. Higher potasium content could serve as better diets for hypertensive. High concentration of calcium also indicates that the pumpkin diet could be recommended for a person with tooth and bone problems.

  78. Marcelo Paim Sodré, Wagno Alcântara de Santana and Eduardo Martinez

    Parasitic infestations are the most common causes of diseases that affect humans, especially children, because at this stage of life the immune system is still developing and is not competent to prevent infection. The clinical manifestations generated by enteral parasitosis vary from simple to severe signs and symptoms and may even lead to death of the host. The objective of this study was to identify the main parasites affecting children and adolescents of school age and design intervention measures to avoid new parasitic infestations. A cross-sectional study carried out during the period from March to December 2017collected fecal samples from 39 students and submitted to a diagnostic technique for spontaneous sedimentation. After the analyzed samples, in 57%, parasites were identified, and in 32% of them, more than one parasite were identified. The parasites were: Ascaris lumbricoides (64%), Giardia lamblia and Schistosoma mansoni (4.55%) each, Endolimax nana (41%) and Entamoeba coli (31,82%). The high occurrence of enteral parasitosis shows the need for basic sanitation and adequate treatment of water used by the community. It was understood the need to articulate health and education policies in order to contemplate the real needs of individuals in this age group of peculiar development.

  79. Achyut Dave

    To detect and count people, carries on to be a troublesome exercise, this difficulty has been promptly manifested by nearly all the analyses over and done with in the extensiveness of counting a large number of people. Presently very much popular is the monitoring of passages or premises, by the use of traditional systems, putting into service video footage capture. This article demonstrates a solution wherein getting a headcount of crowd will no longer need people to strain their vision; requires two steps: Face Detection and Face Tracking. Our proposed software identifies nearly all the relevant features of likely faces in the frame, and tests have put on display the software is advantaeous when put in applications to maintain count in case of emergencies like earthquakes or fire hazards; or high security places such as Military Base, government banks, etc.

  80. Dr. Aher, V.D., Dhage, G.P., Pradeep R Balage, Mate A.A. and Lokhande, D.S.

    A 5-year-old Khillar bullock that accidentally fallen in a 4 feet deep pit that resulted in to lower lip avulsion. Clinical examination revealed lower lip separation from the mandible, swollen mandibular area. The bullock was dehydrated, profusely salivating and unable to eat or drink. The animal was subjected to surgical operation and postoperatively treated with fluids, antibiotics and NSAIDs. The animal completely recovered after 12 days post-operative.

  81. Dr. Ashish Shrivastava

    The existing theory about the concept of gravity in outer space is that of MICROGRAVITY. This theory is supported by NASA and has been accepted worldwide. Most of the concepts in science are based on hypothesis and assumptions and sometimes it’s not possible to prove the concept. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that the gravity in outer space is not micro but MACROGRAVITY. This large gravitational force is keeping all the elements including big stars and planets in equilibrium. But, their effect on small objects is negligible causing a feeling of weightlessness. This can be best explained by Tyndall effect on dust particles, as they move in the atmosphere like weightless due to tiny weight compared to the large gravity of earth.

  82. Md. Shahin Alam, Al-Mizan, Mahmuda Parvin, Md. Tushar Uddin and , Md. Zahangir Alam

    Tannery effluents such as chrome and dye liquor are mostly responsible for water pollution. At present, there is growing interest in using low cost, commercially available adsorbent for the adsorption of contaminants. Activated cow bone adsorbent was prepared and characterized by infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Different parameters of chrome and dye liquor such as BOD, COD, TDS, TSS and electrical conductivity were measured before and after adsorption with activated cow bone charcoal. From the experimental results, it reveals that BOD, COD, TSS, TDS and electrical conductivity (EC) of chrome and dye liquor were reduced significantly after adsorption with activated cow bone charcoal. Thus the activated cow bone charcoal may be used for treating the tannery effluents to mitigate environmental pollution.

  83. Sergio Fasullo

    The author describes the problems that the patient has to face and compare them to experiences of vulnerability which can be particularly intense and lead to a serious coercion of the resumption of living, far beyond and reasonable limitation imposed by objective conditions. Depression is also biggest untreated risk factor in heart disease after heart attack.The depressive elaboration of the situation after the heart attack can enable the individual to reorganize his\her investments starting from the upset caused by the eruption of death anguish.

  84. Mohabat Doost, D. and Pourabdollahtootkaboni, M.

    Some recent studies suggested that resilience could put an end to sustainability. Sometimes resilience is considered as one of the indicators of sustainability. However, the correlation between these two is complicated and this vagueness may weaken both concepts. The objective of this study is to clarify the correspondence of sustainability and resilience by doing a comparative analysis, in order to demonstrate the importance of considering both concepts simultaneously. Resilience is considered as the ability to become strong, healthy or successful again, after an unpredicted turbulence occurs. Additionally, sustainable development includes three main pillars; environmental protection, social equality and economic development. The correlation of sustainability and resilience in this paper, is studied for each of these three pillars. At the end, the importance of assessing any project from both points of view to have a real sustainable and resilient community is demonstrated.

  85. Yudhvir Singh Kotwal, Farooq Ahmed Jan, Ghulam Hassan Yatoo and Sangita Kotwal

    Background: India faces the biggest newborn health challenge of any country in the world as one fourth of global neonatal deaths occur in India. The common cause of neonatal mortality in India are asphyxia, prematurity and low birth weight, infections like pneumonia and gastroenteritis and a variety of surgical problems. It has been observed that improved level of newborn care can bring down the mortality rates. A study of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) was undertaken at SKIMS Srinagar to determine the case fatality among the neonates at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Jammu & Kashmir. Material and Methods: A descriptive case series hospital based prospective study was conducted over a period of one year from with effect from 1st January 2013 to 31st December 2013 in NICU of SKIMS Srinagar by administering a predesigned standardized questionnaire proforma to one or both parents of admitted neonates in a NICU of Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS) Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir-India. Results: Neonatal Jaundice (NNJ) (26.7%) was the most common cause of morbidity and admission to NICU followed by Septicemia (19.1%) Prematurity (12.5%), Birth Asphyxia (7%) and Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) (5.7%). It was observed that out of 1017 neonates admitted most were discharged (90.07%) whereas as 9.73% expired and only 0.2% left against medical advice (LAMA). Being insignificant in numbers the two neonates that left against medical advice (LAMA) were excluded from further analysis for the case fatality rate. It was observed that the case fatality rate was maximum in MAS (33.3%) followed by Congenital Anomalies (23.1%), Prematurity (18.9%), Birth Asphyxia (15.5%), RDS (15.5%), & Septicemia (9.3%). TheChi-squared test (χ2) static value was 89.49585 and the p-value was less than 0.0001 indicating that type of disease is very strongly associated (p<0.0001) with the case fatality of a neonate. Conclusions: The case fatality rate was maximum in MAS (33.3%) followed by Congenital Anomalies (23.1%), Prematurity (18.9%), Birth Asphyxia (15.5%), RDS (15.5%), & Septicemia (9.3%) and thetype ofdisease is very strongly associated (p<0.0001) with the case fatality of a neonate.

  86. Ashenafi Emiru Teka, Eyasu Gebrie Ajebe and Teshale Assefa Biru

    Human activities such as industrial production, mining, agriculture and transportation, release high amounts of heavy metals into surface and ground water, soils and ultimately to the biosphere. In the present study the levels of some selected heavy metals (Mn, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb) in soil and irrigation water sampled from selected Woredas of Gurage Zone (i.e.Meskan, Mareko, Sodo, Muhir and Cheha Woredas), Southern Region, Ethiopia were analyzed. 1 kg from every sample was air-dried, mechanically ground using a stainless steel roller and sieved to obtain 2 mm fraction. A 20–30 g subsample was drawn from the bulk soil (2 mm fraction) and reground to obtain 200 μm fraction using a mortar and pestle. The digestion method optimized for soil sample by FAO- Aqua-regia Digestion method has been used for extraction of heavy metals from the soil samples. Accordingly 0.5 g of dried and homogenized soil sample was taken in to a flask and treated as follows. To each 6 mL of aqua-regia (3:1 ratio of 37 % HCl to (69-72 %) HNO3 respectively) and followed by 1.5 mL of 30 % H2O2 were added. The mixture was digested on a Kjeldahl digestion apparatus with optimized parameters such as temperature and time. The contents of the minerals in the digests were analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). The following concentration ranges (mg/kg) were found in soil: Zn (110.97 - 177.55), Cu (14.6 - 28.4), Mn(740 - 1972), Cr (49.2 - 70.4), Ni (36.6 - 67.6), Pb (2 - 18) and Cd were ND( i.e. Below method detection limit) in all woreda samples. In this study, all heavy metals were not found (below method detection limit) in water samples. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil which was collected from sites in which vegeTable s grown was determined in this study. The range level of Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Pb and Ni found in soil samples were 110.97 - 177.55, 14.60 - 28.40, 740 - 1972, 49.2 - 70.4, 2.000 - 18.00 and 28.8 - 67.6 mg/kg respectively. The soils of the study were found to contain high concentration of Mn followed by Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb. However, Cd was not detected (below detection limit) in soil samples. Levels of heavy metals determined in soils were compared with standard values and found below the tolerance level.

  87. Dr. Hayagriva Rao, B., Dr. Kadali Satyavara Prasad, Dr. Jammu Kodanda Ram and Dr. Santosh Kumar, G.

    Posterior fossa head injury is relatively less common and accounts for less than 3% of total head injuries. Among traumatic posterior fossa head injuries Extra Dural Hematoma is the most common, accounting for 10% of all Extra Dural Hematomas followed by sub dural haemorrhages (1% of head injuries) and sub-arachnoid haemorrhage with cerebellar contusion. In the days before the advent of CT scan, Posterior Fossa head injuries often escaped diagnosis in alive patients. It was very difficult to diagnose based on clinical examination alone. It is unfortunate as it is an easily preventable cause of mortality. The history of posterior fossa operations, as compared with the entire history of neurosurgical procedures, is relatively brief. This is not surprising, considering the vulnerability of the vital neural structures found in the posterior fossa. Surgical manipulation of the cerebellum, brainstem, and cranial nerves resulted in forbiddingly high mortality prior to the sophisticated techniques and operative environment available in the modern neurosurgical era. Even with the diminished risk associated with contemporary technological advancements, surgical procedures involving the posterior fossa continue to carry higher morbidity than elsewhere in the central nervous system.

  88. Forough Jomhe Farsangi, Avinash S. Thorat and Rachayya M. Devarumath

    Sugarcane is a cash crop in India and salinity affects its productivity and crop growth. Identification of molecular markers linked to salinity tolerance traits has provided plant breeders a new tool for selecting cultivars with improved salt-tolerance and hence, molecular characterization of eighteen sugarcane genotypes of salinity tolerant and susceptible was carried out using thirty combinations of 5 TRAP markers related salinity tolerant ESTs and 3 arbitrary primer combinations. Out of 124 alleles, 81 (65%) were found polymorphic and The PIC values were ranged from 0.10 to 0.41 with an average of 0.30 furthermore Rp value varied from 0.33 to 4.33 with an average of 1.48. Also, the range of polymorphism was found about 25% to 100%. The genetic similarity coefficients ranged from 0.53-0.91 with an average of 0.72 which revealed the existence of limited genetic variation among 18 sugarcane genotypes. Abbreviations: ESTs: Expressed sequence tag MA: Monomorphic Alleles P: Percentage Polymorphism PA: Polymorphic Alleles PCR: Polymerase chain reaction PIC: Polymorphic Information Content PIC: Polymorphism Information Content RAPD: Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Rp: resolving power TA: Total Alleles TM: Temperatures of primers TRAP: Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase

  89. Dr. Avishek Sengupta, Dr. Sangita Biswas, Dr. Soumitra Ghosh and Dr. Sudipta Banerjee

    Background: Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Normal pregnancy is associated with high metabolic demand and elevated requirement for tissue oxygen. There is increased production of reactive oxygen species and increased oxidative stress. Plasma Ascorbate, Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane Redox System and Ascorbate Free Radical Reductase System are some of the antioxidants. Objectives: In our study we wanted to evaluate the change in these antioxidents’ levels in different trimester of normal pregnancy in respect to non pregnant women. Methods: The methodology includes measurement of PMRS activity by Avron and Savit’s procedure; Vitamin C by Teitz and AFR reductase activity by guidline of May et al. Results: In respect to control group there was no significant difference in 1st trimester and 2nd trimester, but there was significant difference in 3rd trimester in PMRS values. Vitamin C levels showed no significant difference in 1st trimester but there was significant difference in 2nd and 3rd trimester compared to controls. In respect to control group there was significant difference with 1st,2nd and 3rd trimester in AFR Reductase activity. On correlation study NADH Values ( AFR reductase activity was measured in terms of NADH oxidase) had negative correlation with PMRS and positive correlation with Vitamin C in both non pregnant and pregnant women. Conclusion: In present study it can be concluded that as the trimesters progress there is increase in PMRS level, AFR activity and decrease in Vitamin C level with increase in oxidative stress.

  90. Shikha Kanodia

    Objectives: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the incidence of dentinal defects caused by different nickel titanium rotary systems like ProTaper, WaveOne and OneShape files. Methodology: In this study, 150 extracted human mandibular second premolar teeth were selected and decoronated using diamond disk with water cooling, leaving roots approximately 16 mm from apex. Teeth which showed cracks were excluded. Root canal was prepared with K files, ProTaper files, Wave One files and One Shape files. The root canals which not prepared at all were taken as Control group. Then teeth were sectioned horizontally at 3 mm, 6 mm and 9 mm from the apex. To evaluate cracks, cut cross sections were visualized under Stereo Microscope and images were taken with camera attached with microscope. The chi-square test was performed to compare the appearance of cracked roots between the experimental groups. Results and Conclusion: No defects were found in the unprepared teeth and teeth prepared with hand files showed very less defects. Teeth prepared with ProTaper, WaveOne and OneShape resulted in dentinal defects in percentage 57.78%, 23.33% and 35.56% respectively. No complete crack was found in any sample. More defects were seen in coronal and middle third group. Very fewer percentages of cracks were seen in apical third of all the groups

  91. Rashi Juneja and Singh, D. C.

    Background: Different patterns of childhood neglect and abuse are related with the level of seriousness of mental issue in adulthood. An investigation of this nature is essential to understand developmental trajectory of neglect and abuse and to base any intervention plan for affected individuals and to build up a risk alleviating techniques as primary prevention. Aim: To examine relationship of Childhood Neglect and Abuse with Emotion Regulation and Emotional Recognition in adolescents. Method: A purposive sample of 140 children studying in English and Hindi medium schools located in Delhi and NCR region (India) was taken to test the hypotheses. Willing individuals of age range from 16 to 18 years of either sex were administered a set of self-administered questionnaires, viz., General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA) for collecting the data. Results: The analysis indicated that GHQ cut-off score did not differ significantly on any of the study variables; and the examined constructs (sexual abuse, physical abuse, parental loss with difficult in emotion regulation and neglect, physical abuse with alexithymia) were positively correlated with Difficulty as measured on Emotion Regulation Scale and Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Results also indicated that sexual abuse and physical abuse were significantly predicting difficulty in emotion regulation (R2 = 0.38, p = 0.01) and alexithymia (R2 = 0.35, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Deficits in emotion regulation and emotion recognition were ubiquitous in children reporting of adverse childhood experience such as neglect and abuse. Sexual and physical abuse emerged as significant variables, accounting for maximum variance in criterion variables viz. emotion regulation and recognition.

  92. Dr. Manoj Kumar and Srishti Rai

    Background: According to Bichat, there are three modes of death, depending upon whether death begins in one or the other of the three systems (circulatory), (respiratory) or (nervous system) irrespective of what the remote cause of death may be. These modes are: (1) Syncope (2) Asphyxia (3) Coma Case Report: Putrefied remains and partially skeletonized body of a male came to the Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi in March 2018 for the purpose of identification and to determine the cause of death. Three bones were retained and cleaned of adhering tissue debris. The putrefied remains were estimated to be of a male aged21-24 years with a gutter fracture along with linear fracture of 4 cmand petrous part of the temporal bone was found to be missing. The most likely cause of death was opined to be coma as a result of head injury caused by firearm. Time Since death was estimated to be more than four weeks based on the ambient temperature, site of disposal of body, entomology and semi-skeletonized condition of the body. Conclusion: The case has been reported in the view of the fact that a highly putrefied body with unknown cause of death came to us for the purpose of identification, opinion about cause of death and time since death turns out to be of a male having bullet injury in skull and a case of possible homicide . Hence, thorough autopsy is recommended as negligence leads to obscure autopsy.

  93. Prasad V. Sonar, Swapna Mahale, Pooja Kadam and Dipali Chaudhari

    The keratinized oral gingival epithelium provides effective protection against both mechanical trauma and bacterial invasion. The horny cell layer acts like a film of plastic wrap, allowing the body to retain moisture and protecting it from invasion by foreign substances and comprises various substances such as keratins, produced by the epidermal keratinocytes and lipids. The epidermal keratinocytes divide in the basal layer, produce keratins and differentiate, and migrate to the upper layers as they mature by a process called keratinization. The present review discusses the structure of keratin, the process of keratinization and their distribution in gingival epithelium.

  94. Nuzhat Parveen, Yasmeen Muraizeq, Monerah Alshammari and Asma Almutairi

    Objective: Objective of present study is to explore preconception care prospective in women living in Hail, Saudi Arabia. Methods and materials: It is a cross sectional study including 415 reproductive aged participants who were planning to conceive or not using any contraception. Women interviewed and responses collected from October 2017 to March2018. Results: Women of 30-45 years of age years showed maximum contribution (356). 63% of the responders were well educated from college level onwards. Nulliparous women made 9.9% while rest 90.1% were multiparous women of which 28 % had 2-4 children. Among 415 women 54% (224) had vaginal deliveries before, 17.8 %( 74) delivered by cesarean section. the women who had experience of both modes of delivery (vaginal and cesarean) made 18.8 %( 78) and 9.4 %( 39) didn’t had any delivery before. A good percentage 59.35% was familiar about this care while 39.8% had received it ever during their life. Majority of women 80% thinks it is beneficial and can affect future pregnancies positively, 79.8% expressed their wishes of getting it while planning their upcoming pregnancy. A large proportion 93% were convinced of its pay off and desired to recommend it to their family and friends and to help achieving healthier generations. Conclusion: We conclude that the awareness in regard to pre conception care, education is the main factor which is directly related to knowledge and understanding. Focus on the education of females can increases awareness as well as acceptability.

  95. Zeraatian, S., Kamalzadeh, N., Mesbah, M.,Hosseini, M., Naseripour, M., Haghighikian, M., Granhed, H. and Pazooki, D

    Endocarditis in heart transplanted: While heart transplant recipients are immunosuppressed, the development of endocarditis is a relatively rare event compared to other infections. Infective endocarditis (IE): In patients without Transplantation is a rare and serious complication with high morbidity and mortality. More than 15 percent of patients with chronic kidney disease who receive central venous access catheters have complications such as infection, arterial puncture, thrombosis and pneumothorax (McGee and Gould, 2013). Right-sided infective endocarditis: (RSIE) is less common than left-sided infective endocarditis (IE), encompassing only 5–10% of cases of IE and is classically related to intravenous drug use (Habib et al., 2009). We review a case reports of 60 years old woman with cardiac transplantation for 10 years ago which developed chronic renal failure with hemodialysis 3d/weekly. She developed symptoms as endocarditis. We discuss even the etiologic agents, clinical findings, treatment, and outcome of infective endocarditis in solid organ transplant recipients.

  96. Zeraatian, S., Kamalzadeh, N., Mesbah, M.,Hosseini, M., Naseripour, M., Haghighikian, M., Granhed, H. and Pazooki, D

    Endocarditis in heart transplanted: While heart transplant recipients are immunosuppressed, the development of endocarditis is a relatively rare event compared to other infections. Infective endocarditis (IE): In patients without Transplantation is a rare and serious complication with high morbidity and mortality. More than 15 percent of patients with chronic kidney disease who receive central venous access catheters have complications such as infection, arterial puncture, thrombosis and pneumothorax (McGee and Gould, 2013). Right-sided infective endocarditis: (RSIE) is less common than left-sided infective endocarditis (IE), encompassing only 5–10% of cases of IE and is classically related to intravenous drug use (Habib et al., 2009). We review a case reports of 60 years old woman with cardiac transplantation for 10 years ago which developed chronic renal failure with hemodialysis 3d/weekly. She developed symptoms as endocarditis. We discuss even the etiologic agents, clinical findings, treatment, and outcome of infective endocarditis in solid organ transplant recipients.

  97. Zeraatian, S., Kamalzadeh, N., Mesbah, M., Hosseini, M., Naseripour, M., Haghighikian, M., Granhed, H. and Pazooki, D

    The cardiomyopathy is often observed after intense stressful events such as a major surgical procedure. In a recent study, demographic and clinical course data in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy were compared between the United States and Japan. Few Japanese patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy had a history of overt coronary disease (CAD) and family history of early-onset CAD (Kazuo Komamura et al., 2014). Methods: An Iranian 78 years old woman with Hypertension and IDDM, with previous CVA suddenly showed a greatly increased heart rate, and an electrocardiogram revealed elevated ST-segments. After preoperative examination she accepted for emergency CABG. We diagnosed the condition as takotsubo cardiomyopathy (acute left ventricle apical ballooning syndrome), possibly caused by catecholamine release and regional stress-induced ischemia. We reviewed the literature on takotsubo cardiomyopathy as a complication of major cardiac surgery procedures. Core tip: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) occurs more often in postmenopausal elderly women, is characterized by a transient hypokinesis of the left ventricular (LV) apex and is associated with emotional or physical stress. TCM is an important disease entity that differs from acute myocardial infarction. Wall motion abnormality of the LV apex is generally transient and resolves within a few days to several weeks. The prognosis of TCM is generally good. It has been suggested that coronary spasm, coronary microvascular dysfunction, catecholamine toxicity and myocarditis might contribute to the pathogenesis of TCM. However, its pathophysiology is not clearly understood.

  98. Dr. Siva Kumar, Dr. Sweta. Yadav and Dr. Aarti, C.R.

    Pyogenic granuloma is one of the inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. The term is a misnomer as it is not related to any infection, does not contain pus and is not a true granuloma and in reality it occur in response to various stimuli such as chronic low grade trauma, physical trauma and hormonal factors. Clinically these lesions usually present as single nodule or sessile papule with smooth or lobulated surface and may be seen in any size from a few millimeters to several centimeters. As lesion matures the vascularity decreases and the clinical appearance are more collagenous and pink. The condition is frequently associated with recurrence. Due to its frequent occurrence in the oral cavity, especially in the gingiva, this article presents a case report of a large pyogenic granuloma of the gingiva and its management in a eldery male patient with an follow up period of 1 year without recurrence.

  99. Sally Abdallah AbdelAziz, Amany Atwa, Iman Elshabrawy, Mahmoud Elbendary and Mohamed A. Zahran

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. With a rising rate, it is a prominent source of mortality. Patients with advanced fibrosis, predominantly cirrhosis and hepatitis B and C infections are predisposed to developing HCC. Genes of Synovial sarcoma X chromosome (SSX) are one of cancer testis associated genes; which are a subgroup of tumor antigens with a restricted expression in testis and malignancies. Limited studies were done about SSX genes expression in Egyptian HCC patients. Objectives: Therefore this study aims to estimate the SSX-1 and SSX-5 mRNA expression in the blood of Egyptian HCC patients and to evaluate any probable association between the expression of these genes and other clinical and biochemical parameters. Methods: A case control study was done on 40 patients with HCC, 20 patients with post HCV liver cirrhosis and 20 healthy persons. Assessment of SSX1 and SSX5 mRNA expression in the peripheral blood was done by reverse transcription real-time PCR. Results: SSX -1 and SSX-5 mRNA were expressed in 47.5 % and 42.5 % of HCC patients respectively. Both genes were not expressed in cirrhotic patients and healthy controls. There was no considerable association between SSX-1 and SSX-5 gene expression and alpha fetoprotein level (P = 0.09& 0.29), size of the tumor (P = 0.56& 0.08) and tumor stage (P = 0.28& 0.22). Conclusion: SSX-1 and SSX-5 mRNA are exclusively expressed in peripheral blood of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, thus both genes are considered as a tumor-specific markers to detect HCC in Egypt.

  100. Dr. Vineeth V. Thundukattil, Dr. Anil Gangadharan and Dr. Amala Rose Vattakuzhi

    Bilateral symmetry is a most manifest morphological characteristic of the human body and especially that of the head. Due to large biological variations, either inherent in the developmental process or caused by environmental disturbances, such symmetry is rarely encountered. A number of causal factors have been highlighted in the development of facial asymmetries. The diagnosis of functional asymmetry should be accomplished by a thorough clinical examination and an analysis of various diagnostic records to determine the extent of involvement of dental, skeletal, soft tissue and functional components. Determination of the underlying cause of the asymmetry must be an important ingredient in the process of formulation of an appropriate treatment plan. Cases of facial asymmetry may be managed by orthodontic or surgical means depending upon the degree of severity and the patient’s expectations regarding their treatment. A detailed clinical examination and formulation of the correct diagnosis would help the clinicians to achieve the desired treatment goals.

  101. Dr. Ramandeep Singh, Dr. C Anand, Dr. Sanjeev Laller and Dr. MunBhawni Bagga

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess examiner or observer reliability and to correlate the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection by digital bitewing and panoramic radiographic images. Methods: In this study, digital bitewing and panoramic radiographs of 168 subjects were used. The radiographs were evaluated for the depth of proximal caries by two examiners. Diagnostic accuracy of two modalities was analyzed by means of percentage agreement and discrepancy index. Examiners reliability was assessed using Kappa statistics and Chi Square test. Results: Digital bitewing radiographs were more efficient in diagnosis of dental caries involving enamel and outer third of dentin. However, digital panoramic radiography had comparable accuracy with bitewing radiographs when lesion involved inner portions of dentin. Conclusion: Panoramic survey alone was not sufficient for the diagnosis of proximal caries of the entire dentition, but it showed significant diagnostic value in the detection of dentinal carious lesions. Hence, panoramic radiography can be endorsed for detection of proximal carious lesions with moderate to advanced tooth structure loss.

  102. Mr. Tom Thomas and Mrs. Thongam Kapeelta Devi

    Adolescents are involved in more violent types of crime than ever before. The world of fantasy has always attracted kids and children. The thrill of playing videogames gives an adrenaline rush and that is completely incomparable. To some extent, it may serve the purpose of entertainment to kids and may keep them busy. But let us not forget the adage, “excess of anything is bad”. In some cases, it may be worse. The level of violence in video games has been increased a lot these days, and effects more on those who play a lot. Gaming is not passive, in order to play and win, the player has to be the aggressor first. There is a dare need for the parents to review assess the selection of video games to prevent aggressive behavior among children which in turn can help in developing a better responsible generation.

  103. Sarita Yadav

    Introduction: Resistance to broad-spectrum antimicrobials is a well recognized problem among Enterobacteriaceae. Carbapenems have served as an important antimicrobial class for the treatment of these organisms. The emergence and dissem¬ination of carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in recent times represents a serious threat to public health. Aim: The study was conducted to detect the prevalence of carbapenem resistance in members of Enterobacteriaceae and to detect the enzymes Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) and Metallo-Beta lactamases (MBL) in resistant isolates Material and methods: The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, at Bhagat Phool Singh Govt. Medical College for Women, Haryana. The bacterial isolates, obtained from various clinical samples, were identified according to standard microbiological procedures. All isolates belonging to Enterobacteriaceae family like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Citrobacter species were included in the study. All these isolates were screened for carbapenem resistance by disc diffusion method according to CLSI. Results: A total of 54 (13.77%) isolates of CRE or¬ganisms were obtained among 392 Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The carbapenem resistance rate was highest among ward patients. Maximum CRE was cultured from urine samples (50.0%), followed by pus samples (24.0%). The most predominant species among CRE isolates was Escherichia coli in the present study. Conclusion: Over the past decade, the emergence of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae has become a formidable threat to public health. As a first step towards control, the capacity for resistance detection and surveillance in low-resource countries needs to be improved in order to collect more reliable data on the worldwide distribution of CRE.

  104. Dr. Chitra, S.M. and Dr. Anbu, N

    Dietary choice remains the basis for maintaining a healthy lifestyle and well-being, The South Indian traditional foods are based on Siddha system of medicine, which in natural way aims in achieving physical and mental wellness. The systematic consumption of traditional functional food provides an excellent preventive measure to ward off many diseases. Due to industrialization and market economics; food in traditional food systems derived from local, natural environments is declining in use. This research analyzed the impact of respondent’s food habits on their health and to give insight on benefits of consuming traditional foods. In this research it is found that the majority of the consumers have good opinion on taste of traditional food compare to other foods. There is a positive correlation in doing regular exercises with health condition and there is a positive and strong relationship between the consumption of junk food and health related issues faced by the consumers.

  105. Dr. Jagvinder Singh Mann, Dr. Sonal Maurya, Dr. Ashok Suman and Dr. Sunakshi Sharma,

    The root canal treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and technically challenging (1). Normally the permanent mandibular first molar has two roots, mesial and distal. However it may sometimes have an additional root located lingually (the radix entomolaris) or buccally (the radix paramolaris).This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a mandibular first molar with a Radix Entomolaris (RE), which poses an endodontic dilemma for the clinician with respect to diagnosis and subsequent treatment. Clinicians should be aware of these unusual root morphologies in the mandibular first molar which needs strategic treatment as unfilled canals remain a nidus for infection and can compromise treatment outcome (2).

  106. Dr. Jagvinder Singh Mann, Dr. Sunakshi Sharma, Dr. Sonal Maurya and Dr. Ashok Suman

    The aim of a dental restorative material is to simulate the biological, functional and esthetic properties of healthy tooth structure. Silver amalgam which has a long record of clinical success is gradually phasing out because of its disadvantages including its metallic grey colour, lack of adhesion and mainly the controversial debate on its safety. Resin based composite have also become a popular alternative to amalgam in posterior teeth however they are also perceived as expensive, time consuming, technique sensitive and exhibit failure related to excessive wear, polymerization shrinkage and microleakage. Cention N is a recently introduced, tooth coloured, direct filling material for posterior load bearing restoration. It is analkasiterestorative which utilizes alkaline filler which is capable of releasing acid-neutralizing ions and an isofiller which reduces polymerization shrinkage. It is a self-curing filling material with optional light curing. Cention N is a cost efficient substitute of amalgam for posterior load bearing restoration.

  107. Ahmed Abd El Aziz, Mohamed Gomma, Dina Sabry, Azza El ameer, Omar El-Tookhy, Ashraf Shamaa, Gehan G Shehab, Marwa Sameer Moussa and Marwa M. Abd El Hameed

    Background: Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) have been applied in the treatment of many diseases including injured articular cartilage. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used to treat everything from plantar fasciitis to rotator cuff repair. But its effects differ, depending on the musculoskeletal structure and the composition of the PRP itself. The objective of this research was to compare the efficacy of single intra-articular injections of Preconditioned BMSCs with PRP and BMSCs without PRP in the treatment of surgically induced articular cartilage defect in animal model. Methods: 18 adult dogs of both sexes, in good general health condition, weighing between 25-35 kg and aged 3-4 years were used in this study. BMSCs were isolated, cultured and expanded from canine bone marrow aspirate. PRP was collected and activated from canine peripheral blood. BMSCs preconditioned with or without PRP were transplanted into canine with surgical induced articular cartilage defect. Real time PCR was used to quantify transforming growth factor--β (TGF-β), collagen II and aggrecan genes expression in transplanted cartilage defects. Histopathology was performed to assess cartilage regeneration. Results: PRP promoted BMSC differentiation into chondrogenic cells that highly significant expressed (P-value ≤ 0.001) TGF-β, collagen II and aggrecan compared to BMSCs transplantation alone. As a result, PRP-preconditioned BMSCs improved healing of surgical induced articular cartilage defect in canine models compared with that of unconditioned BMSCs. Conclusion: Preconditioning of BMSCs with PRP transplantation is an efficient and important preclinical step toward the use of autologous BMSCs with PRP in the treatment of articular cartilage defects. Glossary of abbreviations: BMSCs: Bone marrow-derived stem cells DMEM: Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium ECM: extra cellular matrix FBS: fetal bovine serum IGF-1:insulin growth factor-1 IL1: interleukin 1 OA: Osteoarthritis PBS: phosphate-buffered saline PRP: Platelet-rich plasma RT–PCR: Real time PCR TGF-β: transforming growth factor TMJ: Temporomandibular joint TMJ –OA: temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis TNFα: tumor necrosis factor α

  108. Diksha Sharma and Shweta Agarwal

    The nasal cavity is covered by a thin mucosa which is well vascularised. This facilitate to quick transfer of drug molecules across the single epithelial cell layer directly to systemic blood circulation without first-pass hepatic and intestinal metabolism. In this way the effect of a smaller drug molecule can be achieved in five minutes. The nasal administration therefore can be used a better route than oral drug administration. The present study is all about the compilation of existing knowledge about nasal anatomy and mecahahis routnism of absorption through nasal rout nase. The study is also about the present formulations for nasal administration.

  109. Ors, A., Colak, T., Bal, E., Colak, S., Sivri, I., Tasdemir, R., Yener, M.D., Guzelordu, D., Aksu, E., Bamac, B. and Medisoglu, S

    Boxing is one of the most severe branches of contact sports. For this reason, boxing athletes have a very high injury rate. Epidemiologically, they may sustain permanent injuries in their sports lives. In our study, we aimed to find out the anatomical characteristics of amateur boxing athletes, their hand paw muscle strengths, the region and frequency of injuries they encountered during their sports lives. We investigated whether there is a relationship between anatomical region, anthropometric features and muscle strength. The physical characteristics, anthropometric features and hand paw muscle strength of 69 amateur boxing athletes (age:25.03 ± 10.6) that consist of 15 female and 54 male were measured. In order to determine the injury region and frequency, the data were obtained by a sportsman questionnaire. This study examines the correlation between these data. The most injured regions were the hands and the wrists. We found that boxers were injured during training rather than during competitions (p<0.05). Statistically, we found a positive correlation between extremity length and hand paw muscle strength. We found a significant correlation between injury type, recovery time, right hand strength, and left hand strength with sport age. Knowing the anatomical regions and frequency of injuries will help the boxers to avoid them by taking necessary measures.

  110. KOUAKOU Konan Isidore

    This reflection is part of the context of the analysis of phenomena related to vulnerable people, particulary the social exclusion of children with intellectual disabilities. It aims to analyze the determinants of this phenomenon. From a theoretical point of view, the study is based on Erving Goffman’s stigma theory. Methodologically, it is based on a field survey consisting of semi-structured interviews with 140 people, before proceeding to their analysis. The tested sample was constructed using the nonprobability method and by reasoned choice. The data collected were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. In terms of results, it appears that social exclusion (isolation, neglect, discrimination) of children with intellectual disabilities finds its meaning in the negative perceptions that members of the living environment have of these children. A triple governmental action (Awareness of the population, Creation of conditions favoring the schooling of children with intellectual disabilities, capacity bulding of trainers (social workers, teachers)) would help to improve the situation of children with intellectual disabilities.

  111. : Sonia Khan, Noor Jahan, Mehjabeen, Mansoor Ahmad, Mahayrookh Asif, Farah Owais

    Diabetes is very common disease in Pakistan and abnormalities in lipid profile is one of the most common problems. Many oral hypoglycemic are available for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This study is conducted on drug which is used for the management of diabetes that is Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitor, Sitagliptin. In this study hypolipidemic effect of combination of sitagliptin and Szygium cumini seed is compared with sitagliptin alone administration. The effect of drugs was observed on diabetic rabbit models. In animal models diabetes was induced by induction of alloxan. In comparision of combination of sitagliptin and Szygium cumini seed effects were examined on the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and plasma lipoproteins (HDL, LDL and VLDL). It may be concluded that cholestrol HDL ratio, triglyceride, VLDL value reduced in combination as compared to sitagliptin alone in which these values are increased, that is dangerous for health. HDL reduced in sitagliptin alone but in combination, its value increased that is a good marker.

  112. Duaa N. Almansour, Asma M. Alshamri, Shadiah N. Alrashidi, Anfal H. Alhobera and Rania A. Abdalla

    Background: Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer that causes death among women in developing countries. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is responsible for more than 90% of the cases of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer have a significant drop by roughly 70-80% in developed countries as a result of intensive cervical screening programs. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and attitude to cervical cancer screens (Pap smear) andHuman papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among women living in Hail City-Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved the distribution of 501 questionnaires randomly among women 20 years and above throughout the general population of Hail, Saudi Arabia from October 2017 to January 2018. Data entry and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: The knowledge of all respondents about cervical cancer screening (Pap smear) as a screening test for cervical cancer was low, only 167 women (33.3%) know about cervical cancer screening. Among those 40.1% (n=67) known about Pap smear from the internet and TV. Whereas about 430(85.8%) don’t know if HPV is related to causing cervical cancer or not. The number of women did cervical screening only 90 (18%).The main reason for not having a Pap smear was the lack of awareness. Conclusion: The knowledge about cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccine is low; there is a need for education programs to improve awareness of cervical cancer screening in this population.

  113. Shree Vardhan, Mahesh Sharma, Dheeraj Lamba and K. Immanuel Jeya Singh Raj

    Background: Physiotherapy is also known as rehabilitation science, which helps to improve an individual’s ability to lead an active and a healthy lifestyle. Physiotherapists especially in india, are relying on the physicians as their primary source of reference. A physician can help the patients by timely referring them to a physiotherapist, which can help in proper and effective rehabilitation of the patient. Therefore this study was conducted, in order to know how aware the physicians are in terms of need of physiotherapy for their patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Jalandhar city, a district in Punjab state, involving 102 physicians of the city by a questionnaire format, over a period of 6 months from February 2017 to July 2017. All willing general practitioners from various streams along with super specialists were included in the study. Results: There was awareness regarding physiotherapy among general practitioners of Jalandhar city. With respect to various branches of physiotherapy, Neurology was the most known to physicians accounting for 84(82.3%) out of 102 physicians knowing about it, followed by orthopedic physiotherapy known to 82(80.3%) physicians, followed by awareness of Sports rehabilitation in 54(52.9%) physicians. Conclusion: The study concludes that there is lack of awareness regarding need of physiotherapy in Ayurvedic, Homeopathic physicians. Allopathic physicians and surgeons are very much aware of the need of physiotherapy in improving the quality of life of the patients.

  114. Divya Sahni, Yashika Bhatia, Mohini, Varun Yadav, Nidhi Yadav and Ghalaut, P. S.

    Objective: To study the cytomorphological features of acute leukemia patients and relating them to their immunophenotypic features. Results: Out of 50 cases of acute leukemia, 32(64%) cases were diagnosed as AML, 18 (36%) cases as ALL. Clinical features like fever, generalised weakness, bleeding tendencies, pain abdomen and loss of appetite were observed. On clinical examination pallor, bony tenderness, organomegaly and lymphadenopathy were seen. In peripheral blood examination: anemia, leucocytosis, and thrombocytopenia were observed. Cyto-morphologically, 48.2% ALL and 51.8% AML cases were diagnosed, classified according to FAB as ALL L1 (72.2%) and ALL L2 (27.8%). In AML cases, AML M2 (77.5%) was followed by AML M4 (12.4%). B-lymphoid lineage CD markers included CD19, CD79a and CD34 in (100%) followed by CD10 (86.4%), CD79a (63.6%), HLA-DR (85.61%), Tdt and CD10 (76.9%), CD20 in (46.5%) of cases. In T-ALL all 5 (100%) cases expressed cyCD3 and CD5. In AML cases markers were CD13 in (93.7%) followed by CD34 (81.2%), MPO and CD33 (78.1%) each, CD117 in (71.8%), HLA-DR in (75.8%). CD 64 was a sensitive monocytoid marker being positive in 100% of cases of AML-M4. Two of 50 cases of acute leukemia got lineage correction on FCA. 1(2%) case of ALL L2 and 1(2%) case of AML M2 diagnosed on morphology were reassigned lineage to AML M2 and T-ALL respectively. Conclusion: The study concluded a concordance between cytomorphology and immunophenotyping. However a detailed evaluation from peripheral blood film to cytochemistry and morphology on bone marrow and immunophenotyping is necessary for diagnosing acute leukemia.

  115. Nikhil, V. and Ananda Rama Rao, B

    Sugarcane i Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) represents an alternative method to optimize conditions for wound healing. Delayed wound closure is a significant health problem, which is directly associated with pain and suffering from patient's aspect, as well with social and financial burden. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is used to promote wound healing in a wide range of difficult to manage acute and chronic wounds. This data review reports the results of 10 patients who were treated with Vacuum-Assisted Closure Ò (VAC) negative pressure therapy system.

  116. Dr. Dalia Biswas and Dr. Prakash, A. Nikose

    Background: This study was taken up to compare the hearing threshold in developmentally retarded children with severe hearing loss using conventional audiometry and brain stem evoked response audiometry. Method: It was a Cross sectional, comparative study involving 20 developmentally retarded children in the age group of 6-12 yrs of age. Sample size was 20. Using BERA the hearing threshold in decibles (dB) of each ear was found seperately (Based on appearance of wave V at minimum stimulus intensity). Pure Tone Audiometry was used to measure hearing acuity over a range of frequencies (500 – 6000 Hz). The results were plotted on an audiogram, which displayed the auditory threshold at each frequency for each ear. Result: The comparision report between BERA and PTA showed that 55% of cases had an agreement between the two (BERA and PTA) findings. 30 % showed no agreement between the 2 testing methods (BERA and PTA). In 15% of the cases estimation of hearing threshold could be made only by BERA test. Out of this 15% cases, 5% cases showed inconclusive PTA and the rest (10%) showed no response by PTA. The comparative finding of hearing threshold using Mann Whitney U Test as regards to PTA and BERA was found to be significant. Conclusion: This indicates that BERA can provide a more conclusive information as compared to PTA regarding hearing threshold in severely deaf developmentally retarded children.

  117. Ambaga, M. and Tumen-Ulzii, A.

    By our suggestion the membrane redoxy potential three state dependent 9 stepped full cycle of proton conductance have been divided in two parts as A part and B part. The specifity of A part of the membrane redoxy potential three state dependent 9 stepped full cycle of proton conductanceis distinguished by electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane as at first : complex I-NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase, two electrons are removed from NADH and ultimately transferred to ubiquinone (UQ) - complex I also translocates four protons (H+) across the membrane, thus producing a proton gradient -NADH is oxidized to NAD+, by reducing Flavin mononucleotide to FMNH2 in one two-electron step-FMNH2 is then oxidized in two one - electron steps, each electron thus transfers from the FMNH2 to an Fe-S cluster, from the Fe-S cluster to ubiquinone (Q) - during this process, four protons are translocated from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space, at second: Complex II-succinate-CoQ reductase, but unlike complex 1, no protons are transported to the intermembrane space, at third: Complex III -cytochrome bc1 complex or CoQH2-cytochrome c reductase, two electrons are removed from QH2 at the QO site and total four protons are translocated, at fourth: Complex IV-cytochrome c oxidase, four electrons are removed from four molecules of cytochrome c and transferred to molecular oxygen (O2), producing two molecules of water, and eight protons are removed from the mitochondrial matrix, only four are translocated across the membrane, at fifth: Complex V of the electron transport chain. The FO component of ATP synthase acts as an ion channel that provides for a proton flux back into the mitochondrial matrix. The efflux of protons from the mitochondrial matrix creates an electrochemical gradient (proton gradient). In such way, all biological events, which have been occurred within first 7 stages of the membrane redoxy potential three state dependent 9 stepped full cycle of proton conductance are conditioned by reaction equation as “Donators (glucose, aminoacids, fatty acids) + membrane redox potentials three-state line system + acceptor as O2 + ADP + Pi + H+ + nH+memb.space = (ATP + heat energy) + H2O + nH + matrix + CO2” The specifics of B part of the membrane redoxy potential three state dependent 9 stepped full cycle of proton conductance is distinguished by involvement of such reactions as Hb-4O2+nH+<=>Hb-nH++ 4O2 and CO2 + H2O <=> HCO3-+ H+ in last 8 stage and 9 stage of the membrane redoxy potential three state dependent 9 stepped full cycle of proton conductance .

  118. Shaimaa Fouad, Fadia M. Anwar, Neimat M. Amer, Nahed F. Farrag, Zeinab H. Fahmy, Mona Magdy, Magda Azmy and Soad Ismail

    Blastocystis is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the human intestinal tract. Various epidemiological surveys have recorded 50-60% prevalence in developing countries. Nitazoxanide is a commonly used drug in treatment of Blastocystis infection especially in metronidazole treatment failure. However, undesirable side effects and treatment failures were reported. To investigate the effect of probiotics, Oregano oil and Quillaja saponaria (QS)as natural compounds against isolated Blastocystis in comparison to nitazoxanide , fresh stools samples positive for Blastocystis were processed for in- vitro cultivation using locke serum media. Three criteria were used to test the drug’s efficacy, Living cell count (LCC), Living cell rate (LCR) and ultra-structural changes as seen by transmission electron microscope (TEM). All the tested compounds used at higher concentrations showed a significant reduction in both LCC and LCR with p value< 0.001 and significant ultra-structural changes as seen by TEM. The tested compounds were arranged according to their LCR % on day one as follows: QS (1000 μg/ml) (47.1%), oregano oil (3200μg/ml) (49.5%), probiotics (500μg/ml) (57.0%) and nitazoxanide (0.776μg/ml) (62.5%). It was found that Quillaja saponaria (QS), oregano oil and probiotics are promising new herbal therapeutic agents against Blastocystis.

  119. Dr. Brajesh Kumar, Dr. Vivek Bhasker, Dr. Manoj Kumar Paswan, Dr. Jalandhar Mehra, Dr. Amit Kumar Dubey and Dr. Chandan Kumar

    Introduction: This study is aimed at finding the incidence of IGBC in RIMS, Ranchi. This will help us to lay down guidelines for histological examination of gallbladder specimen after cholecystectomy. Material and methods: 120 Gall-bladders obtained after cholecystectomy in study population was sent for histopathological examination. HPE reports were analyzed and documented. Result and conclusion: In our study 2.5% cases of cholecystectomy were diagnosed as incidental carcinoma of gallbladder. Based on the findings it can be concluded that all GB specimens should be sent for HPE examination after cholecystectomy.

  120. Deeptara Pathak Thapa

    Introduction: Cutaneous Warts are viral infection caused by human papilloma virus (HPV). In multiple warts or recalcitrant warts most of the destructive methods are painful therefore it is inappropriate. Materials and Methods: All patients clinically diagnosed as having multiple or recalcitrant warts were included in the study. Digital photographs were taken and all data recorded in the predesigned proforma. Results: There were total of 50 patients. Commonest age group of presentation was seen between 15 and 25years (should be deleted). Commonest age group of presentation was seen between 15 and 25years, 27(53%) patients, mean years of presentation was 36 years. Females were 60%. Commonest site of lesions was seen over face in 32%. 10 to 20 lesions were seen in 36% and more than 40 in 6%.Most common morphology of lesions were papules in 38%. In three month follow-up mild (25%) improvement was seen in 8%, moderate (50%) improvement in 34%, good (75% )improvement in 28% and excellent (100 %) improvement in 3(6%). Mild gastrointestinal side effects were seen in 4%.Drop out rate was 8%. Conclusion: Oral Zinc sulphate is a novel therapeutic option for treatment of multiple and recalcitrant wart with fewer side effects compared to other surgical modality.

  121. Amitabh Kumar Upadhyay, Nidhi Gupta, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Vijay Jagad, Seema Chhabra and Parneet Singh

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are rare tumors of the ovary, arising from sex cord stromal cells and account for 3-5% of all ovarian tumors. These tumors were first described by Rokitansky. There are 2 types- adult variety and juvenile variety. Adult GCTs are 95% of total GCTs and are most commonly found in age group of 50-55 years. Juvenile GCTs are rare tumors occurring in young girls usually before menarche and account for 5% of all GCTs. These are functional tumors which secrete estradiol which leads to various manifestations like isosexual precocious pseudopuberty in juvenile type and abnormal vaginal bleeding (menometrorrhagia) in perimenopausal & postmenopausal women in adult types. Due to prolonged hyperestrogenic state, there is evidence of endometrial hyperplasia leading to well differentiated endometrial carcinoma in 5 % of patients. We are reporting case of an 80 years postmenopausal female with moderately differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma endometrium with less than 50% myometrial invasion with stage 1A granulosa cell tumor of left ovary in final histopathology post surgery. These tumors have different biology and clinical presentation than that of epithelial ovarian cancers that are stage III at diagnosis in most of the cases. Most of GCTs are stage I at diagnosis (80-90%). There is delayed recurrence potential in these tumors. There are 4 times increased risk of developing breast cancer as well as due to hyperestrogenic state. There are very few cases of synchronous GCT and endometrial carcinoma in literature and with best of our knowledge, no such case has been reported from India.

  122. Deeptara Pathak Thapa

    Introduction: Cutaneous Warts are viral infection caused by human papilloma virus (HPV). In multiple warts or recalcitrant warts most of the destructive methods are painful therefore it is inappropriate. Materials and Methods: All patients clinically diagnosed as having multiple or recalcitrant warts were included in the study. Digital photographs were taken and all data recorded in the predesigned proforma. Results: There were total of 50 patients. Commonest age group of presentation was seen between 15 and 25years (should be deleted). Commonest age group of presentation was seen between 15 and 25years, 27(53%) patients, mean years of presentation was 36 years. Females were 60%. Commonest site of lesions was seen over face in 32%. 10 to 20 lesions were seen in 36% and more than 40 in 6%.Most common morphology of lesions were papules in 38%. In three month follow-up mild (25%) improvement was seen in 8%, moderate (50%) improvement in 34%, good (75% )improvement in 28% and excellent (100 %) improvement in 3(6%). Mild gastrointestinal side effects were seen in 4%.Drop out rate was 8%. Conclusion: Oral Zinc sulphate is a novel therapeutic option for treatment of multiple and recalcitrant wart with fewer side effects compared to other surgical modality.

  123. Sharma Preksha, Mahal Rajinder Kaur and Maheshwari, S.K

    Introduction: Family caregivers of cancer patients provide extraordinary uncompensated care that is physically, emotionally, socially, and financially demanding and results in the neglect of their own needs. Satisfaction of caregiving need of family caregiver is important for quality care the patient. In this direction present study was aimed at identifying the level of satisfaction with perceived need-fulfillment related to cancer caregiving among family caregivers of cancer patients. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the level of need-fulfillment among 225 conveniently selected family caregivers of cancer patient receiving chemotherapy and radiation therapy in a tertiary care hospital of Punjab by using socio demographic data sheet and Family inventory of Needs (FIN) scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation. Results: The family caregivers were predominantly male (61.8%), married (80.9%) and belonged to Sikh religion (75.6%). Two third (64%) family caregivers had their perceived important needs only partially met. Mean (SD) of need-fulfillment was 39.22 (9.2) and it had significant association with gender of family caregivers (p= 0.028), distance of subject’s residence from hospital (p= 0.032) and provision of unpaid help in caregiving activities (p= 0.019*). Conclusion: Majority of family caregivers had their important needs only partially met. Health care system needs to focus on the family caregivers and their perceived needs. Study recommends that oncological nurses should regularly assess the need-fulfillment of caregivers of cancer patient so that appropriate interventional strategies can be planned.

  124. Chowdhary Sonal, Srivastava Tulika, Nain Naveen and Sharma Rekha

    The aim of this study was to assess the patient’s attitude and follow the progress of patient’s adaptation to discomfort with the use of fixed twin block. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients undergoing treatment with fixed twin block rated their experiences after 7 days, 14 days and 30 days of appliance insertion. Results: The majority of respondents reported being affected by (in descending order) sore teeth, pain in the jaw, headache, muscle pain and sleep discomfort. These negative effects generally decreased over time. Discomfort with functional activities seemed to be at its maximum during the initial days with all the patients having discomfort while eating. 75% and 85% patients had discomfort while speaking and tissue soreness respectively. However, functional activities improved with progressive use of the appliance. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that most patients experience some discomfort and functional limitations; however, the effect generally diminishes with time and patients adapt to the appliance

  125. Himabindu, M.

    The delivery and consumption patterns of healthcare services have undergone a sea change over the past decade. One major change is movement of people across national borders in pursuit of medical treatment and good health. Developing nations including India are moving to the forefront of world health tourism sector. This paper highlights the Indian scenario, advantages and government initiatives regarding the health tourism sector. The work is based on review of literature from various secondary sources.

  126. Subhramaya Nayak and Dr. Gouri Sankar Lall

    Investors rely on the price reflected on the stock prices but it should be backed a thorough analysis of the efficiency of the stock market. Researchers have been attempting to establish the efficiency of the stock market in different countries. In India also huge work has been done in this respect. In this paper attempt has been made to test the week form of market efficiency on the Indian stock market by taking data from the NSE and BSE. The period of study covers a period of ten years from 2007 to 2017. Statistical tools such as Durbin Watson test, run test for normality and ADF unit root test has been used to derive the result for the efficiency of Indian stock market. The result shows that Indian stock market does not satisfy the week form of market efficiency hypothesis.

  127. Dr. Carina Alcantara Romarate

    Effective organizational communication plays a fundamental role for the attainment of organizational goals. This study determined the levels of organizational communication, work pattern and teaching efficiency among the JRMSU faculty, determined the significant relationship between the profile and the level of organization communication and determine the significant difference between the level of organizational communication, work pattern and teaching efficiency of college instructors. The research design used in this study was descriptive-correlational utilizing both qualitative and quantitative approach to determine the organizational communication, work pattern and teaching efficiency. Results showed that majority of the respondents are 21-30 years old, female, married, Master’s Degree Holder, faculty with an income of Php26,000 – 30,000 and belong to the CAS. There is a high level of organizational communication, very high level of work pattern and teaching efficiency among faculty. Further revealed that there is no significant difference of the organizational communication, work pattern and teaching efficiency. The perceived factors affecting organizational communication, work pattern and teaching efficiency is centered on experience, attitude, dedication, commitment and continuing education. It is recommended that proposed measures must be implemented.

  128. Dédou Zozo Alain

    This study focuses on formal regulatory institutions related to juvenile delinquency in the District of Abidjan. The purpose is to highlight the impact of dysfunctional formal regulatory institutions on the evolution of juvenile delinquency in this District. A survey based on semi-structured interviews with sixty-two (62) people, selected using the network sampling method, has allowed to collect and analyze data. In terms of results, it appears that more there are dysfunctions at the level of formal regulatory institutions, more juvenile delinquency increases and persists.

  129. Dr. Chelliah, S.

    This paper is an attempt to explore the fictional forte of E.M. Forster who has skillfully picturized the relationship between reality and symbolic vision in his The Longest Journey and show how he talks about the comradeship and truth which is the main vision focused in the novel. It neatly focuses on the conflict between men and women as well as truth and falsehood. Bringing back home, all the elements focused in this novel visualize the reality of characters.

  130. Ralimongla and Pandey, N.

    The Tertiary rocks of Changki Valley constitute a part of belt of Schuppen - a most prominent morphotectonic unit of Naga Hills stretching along the western margin of Nagaland State. The Barail Group (Tikak Parbat Formation), Changki Formation and Tipam Group (Tipam Sandstone Formation) have been studied for their petrographic features and tectonic provenance. Based on the study, it may be inferred that the Tertiary sediments under question are mostly lithic in nature and received their detritus from a recycled orogen , especially the collision orogen provenances. The coal bearing Tikak Parbat Formation appears to have derived its detritus from the newly risen NHO to the east as well as the newly uplifted Himalaya and Trans – Himalayas to the north. The Changki Formation calls for a foreland uplift province besides recycled orogen whereas a collision orogen provenance together with uplifted igneous & metamorphic terrenes adjacent to the crustal suture may be assigned to the Tipam Sandstone Formation.

  131. Dr. Preeti Malik

    Today’s finicky banking customers will settle for nothing less. The customer has come to realize somewhat belatedly that he is the king. The customer’s choice of one entity over another as his principal bank is determined by considerations of service quality rather than any other factor. He wants competitive loan rates but at the same time also wants his loan or credit card application processed in double quick time. He insists that he be promptly informed of changes in deposit rates and service charges and he bristles with customary rage if his bank is slow to redress any grievance he may have. He cherishes the convenience of impersonal net banking but during his occasional visits to the branch he also wants the comfort of personalized human interactions and facilities that make his banking experience pleasurable. In short he wants financial house that will do more than just clearing his cheque and updates his passbook: he wants a bank that cares and provides great services. So does HDFC bank meet these heightened expectations? What are the customer perceptions of service quality of the banks? Which dimension of service quality of HDFC bank is performing well? This research paper tries to find out answers to these questions. A lot of surveys have been done in the past to understand the aspect of customer satisfaction and to find out the customer friendly banks but the main purpose of this paper is to find out the service quality of HDFC Bank.

  132. Joseph Salvel R. Campiseno and Ed Neil O. Maratas

    Graduate tracer studies constitute an important tool for educational planners, as they provide valuable information for evaluating results of the higher education and training institutions. The study aimed to determine courses in demand by industry and organizations. The researchers utilized a modified survey questionnaire developed by the Office of Department of Labor and Employment and some of the items were taken from related studies served as the data gathering instrument. There were 566 graduates from the different satellite campuses of JRMSU involved in the study. They were drawn randomly from the final lists of 5503 graduates of the different academic program offerings from School Years 2010-2011 to 2013 - 2014. The findings of the study revealed that majority were females with good standing in terms of academic performance. Majority were employed as contractual workers. Most of the graduate’s work in industries and organizations related to education, wholesale and retail trade, financial intermediation, manufacturing, and public administration. Majority of their current job is aligned to their bachelor’s degree earned at JRMSU. Arts and Sciences had the highest percentage of employed graduates. However, in terms of graduates with highest initial earnings, Teacher Education, Criminology Studies, HRM and Tourism have the most employed. Graduate Tracer Study should be a regular activity of Jose Rizal Memorial State University on a college – wide level in all campuses.

  133. Boyagoda, E.W.M.S.

    This research seeks to explore environmental awareness and practices among University students. In order to carry out the objectives of the research, qualitative methodology was employed and primary data were collected through semi-structured questionnaires. The researcher tries to find the answers to the problem whether undergraduates are aware of environmental issues and following habitual practices towards environmental sustainability. The research concluded that the awareness level on the environment and environmental issues of participants were moderate. Both female and male students are having environmental friendly habitual practices towards the environment. According to their native places (urban and rural), there are some differences in environmental awareness level. University students who live in urban areas have more awareness on waste disposal, motor vehicle pollution, water pollution, air pollution, deforestation and natural disasters but less awareness of biodiversity. Contrary, University students who live in rural areas have more awareness of deforestation and soil erosion.

  134. Pathan, A.C., Khanvilkar, A.V., Bhokre, S.M., Hande, S.T., Patodkar, V.R. and Bhalerao, S.M.

    The present study entitled “Growth performance and behaviour pattern of Sangamneri goat under different rearing systems” was undertaken. For this study, twenty one (21) adult female Sangamneri goats around two years of age with uniform body weight were under taken. These goats were randomly distributed into three groups of equal number (7 each). Group (T0) allowed to browse on “jungle grasses” and for (T1) group allowed to browse on “jungle grasses” with supplementation of commercial concentrate and (T2) group allowed to complete stall feeding with supplementation of commercial concentrate. The experiment was conducted during summer season for a period of three months (90 days). The parameters studied were behavioural patterns and body condition score under different rearing systems. The average rumination and resting (idling and sleeping) time (min/day) of goats are higher in stall feeding system than browsing systems. The average daily total water intake (lit/day) and behavioural parameters like total feeding (browsing and grazing), drinking and walking time of goats were significantly (P<0.05) higher under browsing (T0) and browsing with concentrate supplementation (T1) group than stall feeding with concentrate supplementation (T2) group. The rearing systems does not affect the weekly average defecating and urinating behavior as well as does not show much variation in body condition score (BCS) of Sangamneri goats. Thus, from above findings, it can be concluded that, stall feeding with concentrate supplementation and browsing with concentrate supplementation systems are a better option for rearing Sangamneri goat breed.

  135. Anyim, C. O. and Odoemelam, L.E.

    The paper examined the training needs of rural women farmers on small ruminant production in Abia State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was distributed to one hundred and eighty small ruminant women farmers using multi-stage random sampling techniques. Data obtained were analysed using simple descriptive statistics (mean and percentage) and multiple linear regression analysis. The result of the analysis shows that, majority of the women (57%) were married, 34.4% were within the age range of 40 – 50 years and 45% of them is within 15 – 20 years of enterprise experience and 36.1% had between 15 – 20 flock size. Majority of the farmers practiced extensive system of management. The study revealed that the training needs in order of priority, treating of animal disease (x ̅ = 3.55), oestrus/birth synchronization (x ̅ = 3.45), prevention of animal diseases (x ̅ = 3.66), product disposal (x ̅ = 3.37), feeding of animals (x ̅ = 3.37), ration formulation (x ̅ = 2.23), waste management (x ̅ = 2.27), improve carcass quality (x ̅ = 2.13), artificial insemination (x ̅ = 2.17) and use of modern technology (x ̅ = 1.92). Regression result reveals that accessibility to market, educational level, farming experience, membership of association and access to credit were significantly related to small ruminant production (R2) = 0.863. The findings suggest that improved small ruminant production could be achieved by giving considerations to those training needs and significant variables, and also by creating enabling environment through provision of micro-credit, and regular training of the women organised by extension agents in the study area.

  136. Dr. Havvanur Feyza ERDEM

    The theoretical and empirical macroeconomic literature has focused on three main questions about the relationship between export instability and economic growth for developed and developing countries. One of them implies that a higher degree of export instability negatively affects economic growth. Second one attracts attention if export instability is transmitted to the rest of economy, this would be reflected by a high degree of economic instability. According to the third one, export instability is detrimental per se to economic growth. In this context, the purpose of this study is to re-examine the relationship between export instability and economic growth for the period of 2003-2017 (quarterly) of Turkish economy. In this study, Kalman Filter Technique wasapplied to obtain export instability series. The econometric framework is explained as follows: Optimal Box-Jenkins model for export variable firstly was statistically estimated. Then, export instability series were obtainedby using Kalman Filter Technique under optimal Box-Jenkins model. Finally, the probable relationships between export instability and economic growth were investigated by using Granger Causality Analysis. According to the results of this study, there are no relationship between export instability and economic growth for Turkish economy in short-term.

  137. Charbel Semaan and Nour Ismail

    The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of using PowToon in classroom where students learn English as a foreign language (EFL). After the researchers noticed problems in comprehending new concepts due to poor language skills, PowToon seemed a great tool to both promote active reading and engagement and integrate project-based learning (PBL). The implementation of the study has showed positive effects on the learners’ level of engagement, comprehension and developing reading strategies.

  138. Geeta and Sanjay Mishra

    The need and demand for good governance has increased with the rapid expansion of the economy and the growing awareness and assertion of rights by an increasingly educated population. Accountable, participatory and good governance is critical for ensuring social inclusion. The significant rise in expenditure on programmes for social inclusion in recent years needs to be matched with improved implementation for enhanced impact at the local level. The role of Panchayats, the constitutionally mandated local self-governments at the grassroots level, is critical in this context.

  139. Aysha AL Mahmoud

    The origin of the idea of modern social care traces back to Western Europe, to the age of enlightenment and the concept of bio-power introduced by the French philosopher, Michel Foucault. I will track the development of social rights by trying to provide a meaningful insight into their history and conceptualization in Western Europe. This theoretical and historical introduction will be followed by an analysis of the general social conditions of the modern West. During this evaluation we will see the tendencies and typical social problems that the states in Europe have to cope with. Also, I try to summarize the means by which the social care programs intend to tackle the newly emerging problems. To balance my analysis, unsuccessful attempts and constant problems of the contemporary society is also worth mentioning. This essay intends to define a fundamental idea and form of activity, namely the social care and find its historical focus points. It is a challenging task to do so owing to the diversity of historical records, therefore my narrative necessarily contains a certain amount of reduction. This analysis aims to describe the governmental and communal forms of social responsibility and does not intend to shed light on the individual forms of care connected to social history. My aim is first to follow the historical developments of social care from its beginnings in the Early Modern Age until the formation of the European Economic Community and then the European Union that intends to extend the system to an international level.

  140. Jane T. Aquino

    The effort of colleges and universities in ensuring the employability of graduates does not stop until graduates are employed. Employer’s feedback on the graduates’ performance is an indicator of the university’s mandate to develop students into professionals in their respective career fields. The study determined the Education graduates’ batch 2010 to 2014 based on quality, quantity, adaptability, cooperation, dependability, attendance, and punctuality. This study involved 58 employed graduates from the Secondary and Elementary Education programs in and out of the Province of Zamboanga del Norte, Philippines. A descriptive research was used to interpret the study through percentage and mean. A five point Likert scale questionnaire was utilized to gather feedback from employers. Results revealed, all (100%) of the employed graduates were of age 20-23 years of both the Secondary program of batch 2014 and the Elementary program of batch 2012. Employed graduates from both programs revealed employer’s rating as outstanding in their work performance in terms of quantity (Secondary= 4.3, Elementary = 4.3), adaptability (Secondary = 4.4, Elementary = 4.3), attendance and punctuality ( Secondary = 4.3, Elementary = 4.3 ). However, employed graduates were rated as good in terms of quality of work performed, cooperation and dependability. These qualities are basic indicators of high performing employees. Result of the t-test revealed that there is no significant difference between the work performance rates of all the employed graduates. A training on professionalism and valuing competitive attitude towards work prior to the deployment on internship maybe addressed.

  141. Jane T. Aquino

    The status of farming practices in five municipalities of Zamboanga del Norte, Philippines is the point of interest on this study. It further identified the determinants that affect the farming preferences and their choices based on efficiency, cost efficiency, accessibility (personal or financial) and availability of raw materials and its substitutes. Through government interventions, problems were also solicited. A descriptive-purposive method was employed. The data were gathered with the use of validated questionnaires that were distributed to the 3293 registered farmer-respondents through on site survey. Percentage and weighted mean average were used to analyze the data. Results showed that in Rizal, 65% of the respondents (107) resorted to organic farming, the 35% applied inorganic practice. In Piňan, 41 % of the respondents (108) applied inorganic practice, 54% utilized the organic practice and 5% used the sustainable practice. In Roxas, 66.4% of the respondents (125) were applying inorganic farming, 27.2% utilized sustainable farming, and 6.4% applied organic farming. In Manukan, out of 125 respondents (125), 55.2% used inorganic farming, 33.6% used sustainable farming, and 11.2% used organic as their farming system. In Liloy, 49.55% of the total respondents (2828) applied inorganic practice, 32.77 % applied the sustainable practice and the remaining 17.65% used organic practice. The inorganic farming practice is the most preferred choice among the farmer-respondents as they claimed that this practice is efficient in diminishing the pests in the farm. Jose Rizal Memorial State University (JRMSU) College of Education Extension Unit would collaborate with the Local Government Units (LGUs) and Department of Agriculture (DA) on the proper training on organic farming method to attain efficiency in production and transform the farmers as environmental-friendly users.

  142. Nayana, N. and Dr. Veena, K.P.

    The Global growth continued to remain sluggish in every year. Weaken business environment near stagnation in growth dynamics. According to the latest IMF projections, the world economy is poised to grow at 3.2% in 2016 and pick up to 3.5% in 2017. There is growing evidence of concern by the SBI group on the declining profitability of the banking system due to unsecured loans and advances. The RBI pressures on banks profitability and suggest various methods to reduce the unsecured loans and advances, with changes in the social and economic objective of Indian commercial banks particularly of SBI group. It becomes extremely over and finds remedial measures to reduce the profitability in the value of current banking philosophy. The approach of policy makers towards profitability has changed, with the result that low profits have become a fact of life. Therefore, it is a time to concentrate on analysis of the profitability performance. Hence, in the present paper an attempt has been made to analyze the profitability performance of SBI. The objectives of the paper are to study the profitability position of SBI and to analyze the profitability performance of SBI. The data collection of the paper is primarily based on secondary data with various data tool using R for the period from 2003-04 to 2015-16.

  143. Dewi Nurhayati, FirmanSolihat, M., Sundara Mulia, Y., Wibowo and Syamsuar

    Pineapple is widely known by Indonesia people because the plants are widely grown in tropical climates Indonesia. Pineapple is often used as meat diggers because it contains a component of bromelin enzyme which has a sulfhidril (-SH) protease that can hydrolyze peptide bonds in proteins into bundles of amino acid compounds are simpler so that it can make meat softner and help the process of digestion. The aim of this study was to isolate bromelin enzyme from pineapple tubers and pineapple skin which is pineapple waste with ammonium sulphate salt with four treatments (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%) and three repetitions for having rendemen and activity enzyme. Calculated rendemenanalyzed by one way Anova. The most optimal ammonium sulfate concentration for isolate enzyme is at 60% concentration, with rendemen of 1.67% and enzyme activity of 3.33 U/mL. The concentration of 40% has a rendemen of 0.37% with enzyme activity of 6.67 U/mL, 80% concentration with 0.91% rendemen with 1.67 U / mL enzyme activity, and 100% concentration has 0.94% rendemen with activity enzyme 1.67 U/mL.

  144. Dr. Murat Ertekin

    University campuses are important urban spaces established in or around the city. Like other urban spaces, these spaces, which contain a large young population, affect the socio-cultural structure of the city and contribute to the formation of urban identity. Especially the universities with multiple campuses have adverse conditions in terms of the common use of resources as well as administrative difficulties. Spatial disarray drifts apart common spaces. Environmental design is needed to establish connection between spaces and to increase the availability of common areas for all users. In addition, planning open and green spaces in university campuses as a park is important for the faculty and students in terms of quality and safety. This also reflects positively to the quality of education and training. In this study, a landscape project has been prepared for Necmettin Erbakan University July 15 campus and recommendations are made in order to transform the campus to a place that meet the academic, social, artistic, cultural, and sportive needs of the users comfortably in all periods.

  145. Muhammad Mohsin

    Government should be give special attention for healthcare sector. Admistriative of hospital should take step to improve the overall quality of service give to patientcare. On daily basis take feedback from patient. This study examines the stratifications level of patient from service quality they received from hospital. The main focus in this study satisfaction is measured in both government and private hospital. Therefore, 200 respondents were selected for this study. Results showed that private hospitals are giving better quality if service to their patients as compare to government hospital. The government sector institution should increase the quality of service in healthcare sector.

  146. Salma Muslim, Amogh P. Kumar and Paul Lazarus, T.

    Farmers in Kerala extensively used bio inoculants for the management of diseases and for promotion of growth in black pepper, vanilla, cardamom, betel vine, ginger, rice and vegetables. The study entitled “Constraints in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) production using microbial inoculants in Idukki district of Kerala” is worth due to the role of microbial inoculants in sustainable agriculture presumes special significance. The present study which is an attempt to understand the challenges of MI application in black pepper production in Idukki district. The major constraints in the adoption of MI are lack of awareness about practical utility and lack of technical expertise on MI. Farmers in the study area are incognizant about all types of MI. The narrow knowledge about this technology was the major challenge which has led to the adoption of only few types of bio inoculants.

  147. Uma Sheokand

    Agriculture is becoming increasingly ‘feminised’ globally as men move out of the sector more quickly than women. The reasons for increasing female representation in agriculture vary from voluntary and involuntary withdrawal of men from farming, to growing wage opportunities for women in export-oriented non-traditional crops and activities. An attempt has been made in paper to discuss the condition of women working in agriculture sector in India with special reference to Haryana. The women working in agriculture sector have to face much more problems as compared to women in any other sector. The central focus of the paper is to throw light on the state of women while critically analysing their condition in terms of their socio- economic status in contemporary globalised society. Generally, there is lack of formal education, skills and knowledge among women working in agriculture sector. Beside lack of proper legislations, there is also lack of awareness of rights among women working in agriculture sector. The problem of improving the condition of women working specially in agriculture sector seems to be extremely complex in developing nations like India. Very little efforts are made in for the women working in agriculture sector. It calls for serious attempt on improving their financial and social condition. Actions such as recognition of labour; more facilities to poor rural women for land, agricultural and livestock extension services; separate education policy to enhance women's literacy rate; Priority to women in accessing credit on soft terms from banks and other financial institutions for setting up their business, for buying properties, and for house building and involvement of women in decision-making bodies that have the potential to introduce structural changes could bring some changes in the gender relations in the society.

  148. Jayadatta, S. and Cherian Xavier

    As of today climate change is one of the most important global environmental challenges of the present century. Water and food security indeed are key challenges under climate change as both are highly vulnerable to continuously changing climate patterns. As per the recent study it has been predicted that the average global temperature may increase by 1.4-5.8 degree Celsius and there would be also substantial reduction in agricultural yield and fresh water resources by the end of the 21st century. It is believed that approximately 75% of the Himalayan glaciers are on retreat and will also disappear by 2035. The rainfall could drop by 10% which would reduce drainage by 17% in Africa (Sub Saharan Africa) by 2050. The latest IPCC report concludes that climate change is projected to increase threat to human health, particularly in lower income countries. It will have implications on water supply, food production, air quality, coastal settlements and human health. As two third of the Indian population depends directly on the climate sectors like fisheries, agriculture and forests, it is also bound to have an adverse impact. The basic elements required for maintaining good health like portable water, clean water, adequate food and shelter can be affected by the changing climate. Recently India reported an increase in the incidence of decrease in crop production, vector borne diseases, more frequent extreme weather events which could be necessarily attributed to changing climate. Over the last 100 years or so, though India has contributed only 2 percent of the total carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning, still it is likely to experience greater effects from the ‘extreme weather’ events. Recent Heat waves in odisha and Andra Pradesh have caused an estimated 2000 and 3000 deaths respectively. Climate change is projected to bring increased temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, evaporation and salinization of water sources through rising sea levels. Over the years, water supplies stored in snow cover and glaciers are also projected to decline. This will also reduce water availability to populations supplied by melt water from some of the major mountain ranges. Addressing climate change will certainly need promoting adapting and mitigation strategies without hampering economic development, good scientific evidence as well as coordinated action by multiple stakeholders.

  149. Parul Gupta, Tuneera Bhadauria and Ajai Kumar

    Drosophila punjabiensis is as such common pest reported from India. Pesticides induce minor changes in the structure of reproductive organ of Drosophila, Here we examined the effect of Malathion and Chloropyrifos on Drosophila at 50% lethal concentration and control condition and influence results were obtained. Thus this study can be used for similar different common pests and induce effective pest management by using Drosophila as model organism.

  150. Sameer A M Abdulrazaq, Aswati Binti Hamzah and Zainudin Mohd Isa

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of moral intelligence and self-efficacy on leadership skills among Saudi Middle Schools' Gifted Students. Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted among Saudi middle schools' gifted students in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The study explored the moral intelligence, self-efficacy and leadership skills of gifted students using validated and piloted self-administered questionnaires. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 122 out of 733 male gifted students in 89 schools. Data was analysed using SPSS. Results: The study included 46, 42, and 34 first, second and third level middle school students respectively. The results indicated that the respondents had moderate score in the self-control (4.225 ± 0.463), tolerance (3.899 ± 0.515), conscience (3.625 ± 0.453), respect (3.666 ± 0.535) and empathy (3.418 ± 0.484) domains whereas fairness (2.665 ± 0.664) and kindness (2.570 ± 0.721) had low mean scores. The students demonstrated moderate levels of self-efficacy and leadership skill. Self-efficacy, self-control, respect and tolerance were significant predictors of leadership skills. There was no significant impact for interactions of moral intelligence dimensions and self-efficacy on leadership skills score. Conclusion: Saudi middle schools' gifted students demonstrated moderate level of self-efficacy; leadership skills and moral intelligence. The students were found to possess moderate level of self-control, tolerance, conscience, respect and empathy while the level of fairness and kindness was low. Significant predictors of leadership skills were self-efficacy, self-control, respect and tolerance. Self-efficacy had no moderating effect on leadership skills among Saudi middle schools' gifted students.

  151. Sameer A M Abdulrazaq, Aswati Binti Hamzah and Zainudin Mohd Isa

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of moral intelligence and self-efficacy on achievement motivation among Saudi Middle Schools' Gifted Students. Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted among Saudi middle schools' gifted students in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The study explored the moral intelligence, self-efficacy and achievement motivation of gifted students using validated and piloted self-administered questionnaires. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 122 out of 733 male gifted students in 89 schools in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Data was analysed using SPSS. Results: The study included 46, 42, and 34 first, second and third level middle school students respectively. The results indicated that the respondents had moderate score in the self-control (4.225 ± 0.463), tolerance (3.899 ± 0.515), conscience (3.625 ± 0.453), respect (3.666 ± 0.535) and empathy (3.418 ± 0.484) dimensions, whereas fairness (2.665 ± 0.664) and kindness (2.570 ± 0.721) had low mean scores. The students demonstrated moderate levels of self-efficacy and achievement motivation. Regression analysis showed that overall score of moral intelligence (OR: 1.069; 95% CI: 1.039 – 1.100; P < 0.001), and self-efficacy (OR: 1.081; 95% CI: 1.044 – 1.120; P < 0.001) were significant predictors of achievement motivation among the students. There was no significant impact for interactions of moral intelligence dimensions and self-efficacy on achievement motivation. Conclusion: Saudi middle schools' gifted students demonstrated moderate level of self-efficacy; achievement motivation, and moral intelligence. Overall score of moral intelligence and self-efficacy are significant predictors of achievement motivation. Self-efficacy had no moderating influence on achievement motivation among Saudi middle schools' gifted students.

  152. Sameer A M Abdulrazaq, Aswati Binti Hamzah and Zainudin Mohd Isa

    Objective: To evaluate the difference in moral intelligence dimensions, leadership skills, achievement motivation and self-efficacy among Saudi Middle Schools' Gifted Students. Methods: This study included Saudi middle schools' gifted students in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. It assessed the difference in moral intelligence, leadership skills, achievement motivation and self-efficacy among the three levels of Saudi middle schools' gifted students. Validated and piloted self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 122 out of 733 male gifted students in 89 schools in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Data were analysed using SPSS. Results: The study included 46, 42, and 34 first, second and third level middle school students respectively. In the moral intelligence scale, self-control (4.225 ± 0.463), tolerance (3.899 ± 0.515) and respect (3.666 ± 0.535) had the highest score. Saudi middle schools' gifted students were rated moderate in the leadership skills, achievement motivation and self-efficacy scales. The third level students demonstrated significantly (0.010) higher mean score (176.24 ± 17.280) than the first (174.98 ± 20.004) and second (164.95 ± 16.420) level students in the leadership skills scale. The overall score in the moral intelligence dimensions varied significant (P = 0.009) across the three levels. The third level had the highest mean rank (74.12), followed by the first (63.32) and the second (49.30) level. However, differences in self-efficacy and achievement motivation were not significant. Conclusion: Third level Saudi middle schools' gifted students demonstrated significantly higher mean score in the moral intelligence, and leadership skills scales. There were no significant differences in self-efficacy and achievement motivation between the three levels.

  153. Sameer A M Abdulrazaq, Aswati Binti Hamzah and Zainudin Mohd Isa

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of academic achievement on moral intelligence dimensions, leadership skills, achievement motivation and self-efficacy among Saudi Middle Schools' Gifted Students. Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted among Saudi middle schools' gifted students in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The study explored the moral intelligence, leadership skill achievement motivation and self-efficacy of gifted students using a validated and piloted self-administered questionnaire. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 122 out of 733 male gifted students in 89 schools in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Data was analysed using SPSS. Results: The study included 46, 42, and 34 first, second and third level middle school students respectively. The highest academic achievement was A+ which represents 60.7%, followed by A- (27.9%), B+ (9%) and B- (2.5%). The students demonstrated moderate level of moral intelligence dimensions, leadership skills, achievement motivation and self-efficacy. The leadership skills are as follows: B- (156.33 ± 26.690); B+ (163.27 ± 13.951); A- (171.32 ± 19.957); A+ (174.04 ± 17.983). ANOVA tests revealed that there were no significant differences based on the academic achievements (P = 0.140). Self-efficacy mean rank for B-, B+, A- and A+ academic achievement were (23.50); (52.82); (64.76) and (62.83) respectively. This implies that students who had A- academic achievement had higher self-efficacy than others; however, this difference was not significant (0.210). Similarly, there were no significant (P = 0.452) differences in the achievement motivation. Students who had A+ had higher mean rank (64.24), followed by A- (57.26), B- (49.83) and B+ (48.91). The overall score of moral intelligence domain was similar across the four levels of academic achievement. Students who had A+ had the highest mean rank (63.75), followed by A- (61.46), B+ (56.18) and B- (26.00); P = 0.311. Conclusion: Academic achievement had no significant impact on moral intelligence dimensions, leadership skills, achievement motivation and self-efficacy among Saudi Middle Schools' Gifted Students.

  154. Mengistu Burka, Taye Gebremariam and Zeleke Arficho

    The main purpose of this research was to study Sidaamu-afoo interference in learning writing in English. To be specific, the study was intended to identify the aspects of the language interference and to describe the frequency of the interference of the aspects. It is a descriptive type of research. Three secondary schools found in Arbegona Woreda were purposively selected. From each of these schools, one section of grade nine was randomly selected to give a total of 176 study participants. Data were collected by a writing test and analyzed by using contrastive analysis and error analysis approaches; moreover, the data were put in tables and quantified and changed into percentile. The findings indicated that aspects such as L1 (Sidaamu-afoo) induced spelling errors, structural interference, lexical interference, wrong word use, and omission errors were committed by the students’ English language writing. The kind of transfer that dominated was spelling, structure, and omission errors. Accordingly, recommendations have been made.

  155. Peter Njiraini, Dr. Jacob Omolo AND Dr. Paul Gachanja

    Growth of micro and small enterprises (MSEs) is fundamental to the Kenyan economy. These enterprises play a pivotal role in Kenya’s overall economic growth. In spite of the role that MSEs play, their growth is usually constrained by a host of factors. One avenue through which enterprises enhance their growth and survival is through technological innovation. In Kenya, the knowledge on how technological innovation can be harnessed to facilitate MSEs growth is nascent and inconclusive at best. This paper uses a knowledge production function approach to analyze factors that can be used to drive the innovation capability of MSEs. It uses a bivariate probit model and data from World Bank Enterprise Survey data for 2013 to examine some of the key drivers of process and product innovations amongst MSEs. Results from the study identified enhanced capital intensity, increased foreign partnership, listing in the capital markets and a focus beyond local markets as some of the factors that influence technological innovations. Meanwhile policies aimed at enhancing technological innovation should target more of the newly established MSEs.

  156. Dr. Ahmad El Zein and Silvan Aridi

    Employee engagement is a work place approach where the employees feel attached to their work, motivated to contribute to organizational success and try to give their best each and every day for the success of the company. The core purpose of this research is to define what employee engagement is and if it has any effects on job performance mediated by employee's satisfaction. And for that study to be delivered we have chosen 4 random banks in Beirut and gathered statistics through closed ended questionnaire. About 200 questionnaires were distributed to the staff but only 87 questionnaires were suitable for the study. The study at the end shows that employee satisfaction has a great and important impact on job performance especially in banks, nevertheless, the relation between job engagement and satisfaction was not validated.

  157. Renna Magdalena

    Information Quality is the main factor in assessing the success of an information system. Poor information may lead companies to make wrong decisions while good information could help companies to assess the company's condition, understand what the company needs, help company to set appropriate target and help decision maker to make right decisions. This study aims to assess the quality of information from new accounting information system technology used by one of the 4 star hotel chain in Bali using AIMQ methodology. AIMQ methodology is a method to assess the quality of information and consists of three components: PSP / IQ model, Questioner and Gap analysis. AIMQ evaluate IQ from four dimensions: sound, dependable, useful, and usable information. Through this research, the company will be able to identify which quality dimensions requires improvement and assess the overall performance of the quality of information generated by the new AIS.

  158. Kirandeep Dhami

    Forests ecosystem is the baseline of any healthy terrestrial ecosystem on earth on which the survival of different species including human beings depend. Despite the fact that forests are critical for a healthy ecosystem, forests are being allowed to disappear from the surface of earth without appropriate concern and consideration. While the world lost 129 million hectares of forests between 1990 and 2015, the Indian state of Punjab lost 9 lakh trees between 2011 and 2017 on its 50362 sqKms of geographical area. Due to this huge deforestation for various developmental projects, the state is left with very small forest cover on its land that hardly makes 3.65% of its geographical area. As the tree cutting continues in the state, this percentage is approaching even a smaller value with each passing day. With this small canopy cover and a population of 28 million to support, the state has already started observing some of the serious consequences tree cutting brings; be it unhealthy air, water scarcity, depleting water table, global warming and/or unpredictable weather patterns. This article reviews the alarming bells that the deforestation has begun to ring for the imbalance in nature that reduced forest cover has started to generate in the state of Punjab.

  159. Bakary Ouattara

    This study aims to identify the factors of resistance to change among drug dealers in Côte d'Ivoire. Becker's economic theory of crime (1968) and Cusson's theory of social control (1983) validated the results of this study. The survey sites are Abidjan, Grand Bassam and Abengourou. 189 people were interviewed on the basis of a network sample. The survey of the actors of the traffic makes it possible to provide the following results: The financial advantages drawn, the low probability of arrest and condemnation and the social recognition offered constitute all elements to explain the persistence of the actors in the sales activities of drugs. Actions focused on increased political will, job creation and effective treatment of drug users could contribute to retraining dealers.

  160. Dr. Prodjinonto Vincent, Dr. Allognon Elizabeth Akoivi, Dr. Akowanou Christian Djidjoho and Pr. Vianou Antoine

    In this document, four samples of composite materials of cement - fiber of the ronier are manufactured to thicknesses of 10; 12; 15 and 20 cm. They are kept in the laboratory (LEMA) for two months. They are subsequently wrapped in glass wool, instrumented and exposed for five days to solar thermal stresses. Flow and temperature data are collected and processed. Curves of external and internal temperature variations as a function of time as well as those of variations in phase shift and damping as a function of the thicknesses are plotted. The analysis of the data processing and the interpretation of the curves shows that the damping is a decreasing function of the thickness whereas the phase shift increases with the thickness of this material. However, we note an asymptotic limit to these variations, which shows that beyond a certain value of the thickness these parameters do not change any more.

  161. Tahmazova, T.H.

    This article considers the Coriolis acceleration’s impact on lateral corrosion which slightly affects this process. On the base of calculations digital value of river beds’ displacement is approximated in a definite time. The results of conducted work allow to come to practical conclusions on alluvial placers search.

  162. Saya Lee

    Dtr. Historian assessed all the kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel as 'evil kings in the sight of the LORD', while giving the six kings of Judah in the southern kingdom a good assessment of their 'honesty in the eyes of the Lord'. This illustrates the religious judgment of Dtr. Historian on the north and south kingdoms. However, among the kings of the Southern kingdom, there are two kings who have received the highest praise for comparison with other kings. One of them is the thirteenth King Hezekiah(715-687 B.C.). The other one is Josiah. Josiah was judged by Dtr. Historian as 'the king who, with all his heart, turned his heart to the LORD, following all the laws of Moses with all his heart'(2 Kings 23:25). These two kings, who were evaluated by Dtr. Historian "the best king ever" and never before, are the kings of the great Reformation in the history of Israel in the Old Testament. I will examine Hezekiah's religious reforms and the spirit of reform that modern churches and Christians should look back on.

  163. Tomoyuki Nishizaki

    The PKCε activator 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) stimulates vesicular transport of α7 ACh receptor. The present study was conducted to explore the underlying mechanism using rat hippocampal slices. DCP-LA enhanced serine phosphorylation of the motor protein myosin Va, that moves on the actin filament towards the plus-end (the plasma membrane) and carries cargos, and the effect was abrogated by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. DCP-LA increased an association of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) and myosin Va, but not myosin VI, in a PKC-dependent manner. Moreover, DCP-LA increased an association of myosin Va and α7 ACh receptor in a PKC-dependent manner. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that PKCε, activated by DCP-LA, phosphorylates myosin Va, to increase assembly of NSF/myosinVa/α7 ACh receptor. This may account for DCP-LA-induced stimulation of vesicular transport and exocytosis of α7 ACh receptor.

  164. Rajesh K. Vishwakarma

    The study takes into account Hindu aeon; Indian epics; instances of god creation; astronomical dates; peculiar behavior and sculpt, besides circumstantial evidences of scientific nature as a medium of the litmus test to demystify religion. A radical rethink by holistic view provide a clearer picture of the truth by assaying religious dogmatism as the swag of unreality. Observation for that includes these: when the Hindu aeon is imaginary, astronomical dates are highly inconsistent due to fictive characters throughout the epics (Ramayana and Mahabharata) and the place (Africa) where the humanity originated do not document various gods of the prominent religions, then the gods’ presence is quite alike the fakes on the flat earth, the half man-half beast, eternal wealth and so on so forth. In furtherance to this, the result by various reasons with respect to an ape-made bridge over the man-made sea, between India and Sri Lanka, appear as much myth-made as the pantheon of non-Vedic gods created by Hindus. Means, god as mystic is actually mythical part of religion. Therefore, Hindu gods not older than 500-100 BCE is perceived far later than the Harappan civilization (> 2,000 BCE) and the rural Aryan-clan’s Vedic civilization (1,500-500 BCE). Also, in contrast to the super-human role in making of a bridge by stacking 7,000 years old rocks on the sandbar of 4,000 years old age, it is observed the older rocks are naturally deposited, and these do not exemplify the magical ape-made bridge made for the king Rama’s army during the Hindu aeon Treta yuga (1,296,000 years BP) when the Earth itself saw no modern humans. Likewise, the Hindu aeons, such as Satya yuga (1,728,000 years BP) and Dwapara yuga (864,000 years BP) cannot be related to the sea made by a king and existence of super-human respectively. These findings offer a new insight into the realm of the god-centric religion; that is, religion and myth have been virtually neck and neck. So is the reason, despite loud claim of unworldly wonders, religion by any wonder did not recognize human evolution. Still beliefs on myths of varying nature by default behavior continue; as if good for everything, and it thrives because one loses sense of reality with religiosity. Which is why, any theology stifling truth despite clear-eyed facts needs to be nixed. By being involved in reality, flash of scientific spirit may alone enlighten the world in a better way.

  165. Switbert R Kamazima and Method R Kazaura

    The assumption that sex buyers and sex workers are exclusively men and females respectively has for a long time informed societies, researchers and policy makers. As such, prostitution or sex work theories, research, policies, laws and interventions targeting the sex industry have exclusively focused on males as consumers of sexual services offered by females. However, with the emergence and expansion of sex tourism and female sex tourism, other categories of sex workers and sex buyers have been recognized: men who sell sex to men, men or women who sell sex to female clients and women who exclusively buy sex from or sell sex to women. Unfortunately, there is scanty information on this scenario in Tanzania and the study area in particular. We conducted a qualitative study that sought, among other objectives, to establish the typologies of sex workers and sex buyers to inform health promotion and communication interventions targeting the sex industry in the Tanzania-Uganda borderlands. Findings include 17 categories of sex workers and six categories of sex buyers. We believe the typologies presented will be user-friendly and adequately comprehensive to inform health intervention programs aiming at improving the health status of individuals in the sex industry in the Tanzania-Uganda borderlands and elsewhere.

  166. Zilpah Kageha Andiva, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Tony O. Okwach

    The implementation of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001:2008 on Quality Management Systems in education has become a debated issue on whether or not the certification is appropriate for the Education sector. Some scholars consider its adoption as a strategic decision by educational institutions to ensure delivery of quality service therein while others do not. Complaints by some academic staff in public universities in Kenya on the impact of ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management Systems casts doubt on their level of satisfaction with it based on non conformities. For instance between 2012 and 2015 one university recorded 2100 non-conformities and another recorded 2300 non-conformities which were higher than other Universities that recorded below 1820 non-conformities in examination processing procedures. The objective of the study therefore was to establish the influence of ISO 9001:2008 on Quality Management Systems on academic staff’s service delivery in management of examinations in public Universities in Kenya. The site for the study was university E and university F that had the highest non conformities recorded. The study established that ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management Systems had significant influence on academic staff’s service delivery in management of examinations. Thus, for every one unit increase in ISO 9001:2008 quality management systems conformity in management of examination processing improved service delivery in examination management by .966 units. This means that when non conformities decline there is improvement in academic staff’s service delivery in examination management in public universities. ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management Systems was a significant predictor of academic staff’s service delivery examinations management (F (1,252) = 32.942, P<.05). The study concluded that ISO 9001:2008 quality management systems improved service delivery in examination management in public universities. The study recommended that public universities should strive to minimize non conformities for excellent service delivery. This study provides information to lecturers, Kenya Bureau of Standards and University management on the way forward in improving management of examinations in public Universities.

  167. Dr. Priya Makhija

    Objective: Stress causes the disruption of the physical and mental well-being of people. Stress is triggered when an individual is expected to perform tasks beyond the prescribed levels of mental intake and physical execution. The circumstances, the causes and the perpetuators of stress are called stressors, that may drastically change a person’s attitude and behavior towards a specific task or objective. However, in certain circumstances, stressors also stand to motivate as they positively contribute towards the well-being of people (Darshani, 2014). Positive stress, also called eustress, is caused when a stressful situation is perceived as an opportunity to perform and yield an advan-tageous outcome; whereas, negative stress, also called distress, is caused when a stressful situation is perceived as a threat often re-sulting in disadvantageous results. Eustress enables an individual to perform extraordinarily and achieve outstanding results whereas distress causes psychological imbalance that leads to various health related disorders. Every individual has his/her own endurance levels for withstanding stressful conditions in which some people perform well and excel under stress, while some people buckle under pressure and fail to achieve outcomes expected from them (Krishnan, 2014). The characteristics, attitudes and mental approaches of individuals play an important role in the management of stressful circumstances. The effective procedure of identifying and handling stressful events depends on the personality and characteristics of the concerned people and this fact is affirmed by various studies that suggest that a person experiences harmful stress only if the situation is perceived as a threat and not as a challenge or a stimulant (de Jong and Emmelkamp, 2000). With regards to above concept an effort has been made to do comparative analysis and its impact of organisational stress level among corporate and academic sector by using t-test.

  168. Shakira Begum, S. and Dr. Naga Subramani, P.C.

    This study examined the association of ICT skills among college students. The sample was 888 college students selected from Chennai district, Tamil Nadu, India. Stratified random sampling method was adapted to select the sample for the present study. Scale for assessing ICT skills (SAIS) was constructed and validated by the investigator with Dr.P.C.Nagasubramani. Data collected were analyzed using t- exist between ICT skills and demographic variables such as gender, Residence, locality of home, subject group, type of family, internet users and nature of Institution.

  169. Areej Daoud, Abdelakareem A. Rabo, Suhair A. Ahmed and Safa Wdidi

    Leukemia one of the malignancies starts in blood but extend to other body organs as blood is the major of body supply of oxygen and nutrients. Leukemia can be divided according to many considerations but the important on is the set of the disease to acute and chronic and then type of cell involved in its occurrence to myeloid and lymphoid type. This study concerned about acute leukemia in Khartoum state and the status of renal and liver function tests. The study involved 100 patients 42% females and 58% males. After approval and formal consent obtained by Alneelain University, Khartoum Nuclear and Radiology hospital and patients of acute leukemias, blood samples were used to measure urea and creatinine as renal parameters and liver function tests included bilirubin, protein and enzymes. All parameters among acute leukemia patients presented increased than normal range. Patients were in different age levels and still abnormality of measured parameters presented

  170. Maryna V. Kachaeva, Stepan G. Pilyo, Bogdan A. Demydchuk, Volodymyr M. Prokopenko, Victor V. Zhirnov and Volodymyr S. Brovarets

    The available 2-acylamino-3,3-dichloroacrylonitriles when treated by sodium hydrogen sulfide undergo cyclization into the 4 cyano-1,3-oxazole-5-thioles. These latter compounds were converted into the 2-aryl-4-cyano-1,3-oxazole-5-sulfonamides using a standard reaction sequence. Synthesized compounds were screened for anticancer activity against a panel of 60 cancer cell lines at the National Cancer Institute, USA.

  171. Zilpah Kageha Andiva and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    The adoption of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001:2008 Quality Management Systems in education has become a debated issue on whether or not the certification is appropriate for the Education sector. Some scholars consider its adoption as a strategic decision by educational institutions to ensure delivery of quality service therein while others do not. Complaints by some academic staff in public universities in Kenya on the impact of ISO 9001:2008 quality management systems on teaching casts doubt on their level of satisfaction with it based on non conformities. For instance between 2012 and 2015 one of the public universities recorded 340 non-conformities and another 360 which were higher than those recorded in other certified public universities. That is, the other certified public universities recorded below 270 non-conformities in teaching. The objective of this study therefore was to establish the influence of ISO 9001:2008 quality management system on academic staff’s service delivery in teaching in public Universities in Kenya. The two public universities that had the highest non conformities were used as the site for the study. The study established that ISO 9001:2008 quality management systems had significant influence on teaching on academic staff’s delivery in teaching such that for every one unit increase in ISO 9001:2008 quality management system conformity in teaching, improved service delivery in teaching .882 units. This means that when non conformities decline there is improvement in academic staff’s service delivery in teaching in public universities. ISO 9001:2008 QMS was a significant predictor of academic staff’s service delivery in teaching (F (1,252) = 32.328, P<.05). The study concluded that ISO 9001:2008 quality management system improved service delivery in teaching in public universities. The study recommended that public universities should strive to minimize non conformities for excellent service delivery. The findings of this study provides information to lecturers, Kenya Bureau of Standards and University management on the way forward in improving teaching in public Universities.

  172. Dr. Subrat Samal and Dr. Snehal Samal

    Aims and Objectives:-To study effects of conventional physical therapy versus proprioceptive exercises and conventional physical therapy in patients having knee osteoarthritis To Compare the effects of conventional physical therapy Verses proprioceptive exercises in knee osteoarthritis patients. Sample size: 40 patients (20 in each group), Study Design: Interventional Study, Study setting: A 1950 bedded tertiary care teaching hospital with well equipped medical and surgical intensive care unit and musculoskeletal department, Sample and Sampling method: 40 patients were randomly selected and assigned in 2 groups, as Group 1(control group), Group 2 (Interventional group) in equal numbers Exclusion Criteria: The total subjects of 40 were included in the study the inclusion & exclusion criteria were Inclusion Criteria: Patient diagnosed as a case of osteoarthritis, Subjects with both grade 2 and grade 3 OA knee & Exclusion Criteria were :Any inflammatory or other unilateral band bilateral Knee osteoarthritis, Patients in age group of 35-70 years, Patient with locomotor diseases, Any significant peripheral and CNS disease, Any other joint involvement, Uncontrolled hypertension and cardiac problem, Any previous knee injury, Patient less than 45 yrs and more than 65 yrs. Result: Mean angle of proprioceptive acuity at (baseline) pre treatment in patients in left knee at 130,250,220,190 was 3.40, 4.43, 5.93, 6.90 and in post treatment 4 week was 2.56,3.20,3.73,3.73.Conclusion: propriceptive exercises superiror than conventional exercise

  173. Medhavi Aggarwal, Dr. Megha Mahajan, Himanshi Handa, Paarth Sharma, Mridul Sharma and Harsimranjit Kaur

    Collaboration between dietetics and dental professionals is necessary for oral health promotion and disease prevention and intervention.. Oral health and diet of a person have a synergistic bidirectional relationship. Oral infectious diseases, as well as acute, chronic, and terminal systemic diseases with oral manifestations, impact the functional ability to eat as well as diet and nutrition status. Likewise, nutrition and diet may affect the development and integrity of the oral cavity as well as the progression of oral diseases. A balanced diet is correlated to a state of oral health (periodontal tissue, dental elements, quality, and quantity of saliva). Vice versa an incorrect nutritional intake correlates to a state of oral disease As we advance in our discoveries of the links between oral and nutrition health, practitioners of both disciplines must learn to provide screening, baseline education, and referral to each other as part of comprehensive client/patient care. Dietetics practice requires registered dietitians to provide medical nutrition therapy that incorporates a person's total health needs, including oral health.

  174. Deepali Vaishnav, Shrirang Holkar and Manjusha Hivre

    Background: Caring for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is challenging and affects family life. Aim: To explore the adaptive behaviors and beliefs of parents toward their child with autism. Material and Method: Parental Concerns Questionnaire (PCQ), a scale composed of 20 items relating to core and behavioral symptoms of autism were used. The answers were in the form of ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Result: Findings revealed that parents who have a child with autism experienced multiple challenges in different aspects of care, impacting on parents’ stress and adaptation. Conclusion: Parents physical and psychological well-being was observed to be affected, both positively and negatively, while raising a child with autism in the childhood period.

  175. Dr. Khalid Aljohani

    Objectives: The aim of the study is to assess diabetes disease management in AlMadinah's primary health care sector. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted at all primary health care centers in AlMadinah City from 2nd February until 27th February 2016. This study utilizes the chronic care model (CCM) framework to examine the extent to which diabetes healthcare services are implemented. Seventy-five physicians representing chronic care clinics participated in this study by responding the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were derived as instructed by the instrument's guidelines. Results: The overall Assessment of Chronic Illness Care mean is 6.12 (SD=2.4) and the highest subscale mean is 7.2 (SD=2.2) for the organization of the health care system while the lowest mean is 5.5 (SD=2.4) for the self-management subscale. Lowest items scores were community programs and partnership with community organizations, 4.3 (SD=3) and 4.8 (SD=2.2) respectively. Conclusion: The study results revealed reasonable implementations of the chronic care model with questionable community participation effectiveness in managing diabetes. However, further studies are needed to provide more in-depth assessment of each component of the CCM including patients' perceptions and nurses' roles in managing chronic illnesses.

  176. Tridibesh Tripathy, Anjali Tripathy, Khuswant Singh and Jyoti Khare

    WASH in the urban areas has been a recurring concern in the current Swacch Bharat Mission (SBM), the flagship program of Government of India regarding WASH issues being implemented under the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MODWS). The current study was done in 2017 with the objective of a situational analysis and study of WASH in the slum areas of Lucknow. The study areas constituted of urban slums of Lucknow. The study was supported by Ankur Yuva Chetna Shivir (AYCS), a NGO working on WASH issues with slum areas of Lucknow. The current study is a qualitative study. It cited out what is to be done in future regarding WASH by the civic authorities like Lucknow Muincipal Corporation and NGOs based upon the discussions held at two levels viz, the community and stake holders like the staffs of civic authority like Lucknow Nagar Nigam (LNN) and Front Line workers of public Health system like ASHA, ANM and AWW. The community level included FGDs of men and women, stake holders included staffs of Lucknow Muincipal Corporation and Public Health System of UP.

  177. Dr. Avtar Singh Clair, Dr. Kapil Bhargava, Dr. Dilip Jain and Dr. Pradeep Kurmi

    Objective: The aim of this study was to calculate the incidence of pulmonary hypertension and its age distribution in isolated atrial septal defect (ASD) patients in our population. Methods: A total of 124 ASD (secundum type) patients were included in the study. The diagnosis was made with echocardiography. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure was obtained by Doppler echocardiography. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was estimated with the relation of MPAP to PASP as (mPAP = 0.61×PASP + 2 mm Hg). Results: Severe PA hypertension (mean pressure > 40 mm Hg) was found in 12 patients (9.67%), age range was neonate to 60 years but most of them were less than 30 years old. Conclusion: It was seen that pulmonary pressure increases with age.

  178. Siddharth K. Sheladia and ivek A. Patel

    The Universe is all about space, time and their contents like planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. While the actual size of the entire Universe is still unknown, it is only possible to measure the observable universe. The physical Universe is defined as all of space- time. The contents contains various types of energy, such as electromagnetic radiation and matter, and so planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and the contents of intergalactic space. The Universe also includes the physical laws which influence energy and matter, such as conservation laws, classical mechanics, and relativity. The universe is all about totality of existence, things which had been exists or which will exists. It would also include the concept of cosmos, world. With further experiments, it is known from its result that our sun is one of trillion stars present in our galaxy called the “milky way”, which perhaps is one of trillion galaxies of universe. So there are many stars which have their own planets. At large scale the galaxies are spread uniformly in all the direction, which suggests that there is neither a centre and nor the edge of universe.

  179. Rajendra Madane and Tapasya Bharati

    Anaemia is a potential hazardous hematological disorder that may occur in pregnancy. It is important risk factor for uteroplacental insufficiency and is associated with late abortions, prematurity, low birth weight and stillbirths. The present study aimed to assess the histological changes of placentas associated with maternal anaemia (mothers with Hb level < 11 g/dl) were fifty (50) and those collected from control mothers were fifty (50). All the deliveries were at full term (37-41 weeks) periods and without any obstetric complications or diseases. Microscopic analyses of the placentas were done and these findings were compared. Statistical analysis was performed by using t-test for comparing the mean values of fetal weights, placental weights and placental indices of the maternal anaemia group with those of control group. It was observed that the mean fetal weight of pregnancy with anaemia group was less than those of the control group. The mean placental weight in pregnancy with the anaemia group was more than the control group. Also, the mean placental index of the maternal anaemia group was higher than that of the control group. Histopathology study revealed decreased villous vascularity, excessive syncytial knots, increased fibrinoid necrosis of the villi, increase in villous stromal fibrosis in placentas of anaemic mothers as compared to those of the controls. Incidence and severity of the above lesions increases with increase in severity of anaemia. We concluded that maternal anaemia resulted into bigger, heavier placentas and smaller fetuses, whereas placental morphological changes showed signs of chronic hypoxia and placental insufficiency.

  180. Shafiqul Alam

    Since the commissioning of last unit of hydroelectric power plant of aggregate capacity of 230 MW in 1988, installed capacity of renewable energy based electricity in Bangladesh has only been increased by 276 MW, mostly from off-grid solar home systems. The formulation of renewable energy policy and establishment of Nodal Agency to administer the sector have, in fact, not been able to bring any revolution in the sector even during the time of falling price of renewable energy in the world. This paper provides a review on the status quo of renewable energy based electricity generation in Bangladesh. It has looked into the reasons within the existing policy frameworks and concludes that necessary incentive is missing to provide price signal to drive investment in the sector. By examining policy instruments of different countries, the paper recommends that policy push through Feed-in-Tariff for large scale grid connected projects and in the form of net metering for solar roof-top projects would help address the challenges of the sector. While existing refinancing scheme, which is a common scheme for different products, can only motivate investors of very small scale renewable energy projects, a dedicated funding scheme with attractive interest rate shall be designed for large scale projects.

  181. Rodolfo Georgevich Neto, Camila Correia dos Santos, Halbert Villalba, Mônica Grazieli Corrêa and Elcio Magdalena Giovani

    The human papilloma virus (HPV) has a high potential for transmission and contamination among the population. HPV infection is closely related to host cell differentiation and remodeling. The virus changes the proliferative capacity of the epithelium, the more superficial stratified layers remain proliferative, including the most differentiated strata, generating exophytic epithelial growth. The oncogenic potential is related to the insertion of viral DNA into the host genome. HPV integrates into the genomic DNA of the host epithelial cell and mediated by two viral proteins from the E6 and E7 viral region, prevents cell cycle arrest. HPV 16 and 18 subtypes have a high incidence in detections of malignant neoplastic lesions. This work assisted a case of HPV detection in a preventive process of malignant neoplasias, being part of the research supported by the Brazilian PROSUP / CAPES program. Clinical dentistry and laboratory procedures are described in detail in order to understand the possible relation between HPV and carcinogenesis in the oral region. The key role of patient follow-up after the appearance of an HPV lesion is highlighted.

  182. Kamran Ahmed Khan, Salman Ali Khan, Loveneesh Talwar and Yuvraj Singh Chib

    The today’s world is heading towards better environmental conditions through reduction of degrading factors of it. One of such initiative for cleaner environment is more acceptances of renewable resources rather than the traditional ways of using exhaustible resources. The Solar Roadway is a great innovation leading towards clean energy and cleaner environment. Solar energy has been the subject of great development in the past years, which led to the concept of Solar Roads. The Solar Roadway is a series of solar panels which is used to drive upon. The purpose of presenting this paper is to take a survey of solar roads which uses the solar panels to absorb the solar energy for working of solar road. This new technology road consists of solar panels, photovoltaic effect, LEDs and microprocessor chips. Basically, the idea of using solar road is to replace all current petroleum based road, parking lots, etc with latest technological road i.e. Solar Roadway made of solar panels. These solar panels collect energy from sun which can be used in our homes as well as businesses. By using solar energy the requirement of fossil fuel can be reduced which is being used for the generation of electricity as well as it will reduce the use of oil/diesel for driving the vehicle. Reduction in use of fossil fuel as well as oil/diesel will reduce the greenhouse effect nearly to half. Solar power generation has emerged as one of the most rapidly growing renewable sources of electricity solar power generation has other advantages over another form of electricity generation. A solar roadway is an intelligent highway infrastructure which is capable of self-healing decentralized power grid which eliminates the need for fossil fuels in future. It also features wildlife preservation, the elimination of impervious surfaces, law enforcement, DUI detection, counter-terrorism, etc. Therefore, it’s time to update our infrastructure (especially roads & power grids) with the latest technology roads utilizing the solar energy i.e. “Solar Roadways”. Solar power production generates electricity with a limited impact on the environment as compared to other forms of electricity. The solar roadways are eco-friendly, feasible & reduce the 70%accident.

  183. Dr. Chethan Aradhya, Dr. Frankantony. P. Britto, Dr. Varsha R Shetty J. and Dr. Sachin Naik

    Odontogenic tumors are the lesions that are derived from the tooth-producing tissues or their remnants that remain entrapped either within the jawbones. The assumption of being Odontogenic in origin derives from the fact that they are only found in the jaws having a relation to teeth and teeth-bearing tissues. Further their relationship to the teeth is fairly clear-cut, both histologically and radiographically. The pathogenetic mechanism of Odontogenic tumors is close¬ly related to the developmental processes of teeth. As a result, the molecular signaling mechanisms for normal enamel organs and Odontogenic tumors have been closely compared. With advances in the elucidation of molecular signaling mecha¬nisms in cells, the cytodifferentiation of epithelial tumor cells in ameloblastomas can be identified using different biomarkers. Therefore, it is suggested that comprehensive pathological observation including molecular genetic information can provide more reliable information for the propagation and prognosis of ameloblastomas. This article is aimed to re¬view the current concepts of ameloblastomas and to discuss their clinico-pathological features relevant to tumorigenesis and prognosis.

  184. Thiago Scremin Boscolo Pereira, Vanessa Belentani Marques, Elizandra Moura dos Santos and Eduardo Martini Romano

    The incomplete duplication of the ureter, also known as bifid ureter, is one of the most common anatomic variations of the urinary system, and it affects 1% to 2% of the world population. The present study aims to report a case of incomplete duplication of the ureter. During a practice of dissection at the Laboratório de Morfofuncional da Faculdade de Medicina Faceres (FACERES Medical School Morfofunctional Laboratory), the presence of an incomplete duplication of the ureter has been observed. Two distinct ureteric ducts were found in the renal hilum of the left kidney. They merged in the distal third of the abdominal portion of the ureter. This piece of information is important because it complements the scientific knowledge of health professionals and provides support for clinical diagnosis and surgical treatment.

  185. Dr. Kalpana Sinsinbar

    Ranula is a non-cancerous cyst like space in mouth that contains mucus; usually caused by obstruction of a salivary gland. The term ranula is derived from Latin word “Rana” meaning frog,as the swelling may resemble a frog’s translucent under belly. It occurs usually in the floor of the mouth. Clinical types of ranula- • The simple ranula-it has an epithelial lining • The plunging ranula-it is an extravastion pseudocyst.

  186. Pallavi Ambhore, Dr. Lata Kale, Dr. Sonia Sodhi, Dr. Rashmi Phadnis and Dr. Aishwarya Kale

    Objective: To evaluate the association of phychosocial stressors like anxiety and depression with oral lichen planus. Material and Method: Two groups were made A and B. In group A 30 healthy individuals were included and in group B 30 histopathologically proven oral lichen planus patients were included. Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale was used to evaluate anxiety and depression levels in both the groups. Results: Mean anxiety score-Group A -5.2Group B -13.9P value- <0.001(highly significant). Mean depression score Group A–2 Group B -11.9 P value- <0.001(highly significant). Conclusion: This study indicates that, high level of anxiety and depression was found in OLP patients suggest that psychological stressors play an important role in causation of OLP.

  187. Dilsath Begum, M. and Sulthana Begam, M.

    Its great potential to improve the overall performance of data transmission with its dynamic and adaptive spectrum allocation capability in comparison with many other networking technologies, cognitive radio (CR) networking technology has been increasingly employed in networking and communication infrastructures for smart grids. However, a secondary user (SU) of a CR network has to be squeezed out from a channel when a primary user reclaims the channel, which may occur in a randomized fashion. The randomness of the appearance of licensed users, disruptions to both licensed and unlicensed communications are often difficult to prevent. So traffic may cause packet losses and delays for secondary user’s data. Primary users (PU) are the users who are licensed with certain bands of the current spectrum, while secondary users (SU) do not have the licenses for the utilization of those spectrum bands. SU sensed channel state is either free or occupied by other users based on checking ON or OFF state of communication channel using Automatic Generation Control (AGC) of smart grid. It implement two implementations logic. 1. Request to the server where resource is allotted to the secondary user if primary user is not available. Handoff scheme is implemented when primary user comes in the picture. 2. Request to the primary user here main server plays a role in fixing the optimum cost & identification of best primary user based on recommendation scheme incentives are provided to the best primary user as well as secondary user who have given the feedback.

  188. Dr. Danasu, R., Sathiyakala, K. and Sharmila, P.

    Many mental health problems emerge in late childhood and early adolescence. Recent studies have identified mental health problems - in particular depression, as the largest cause of the burden of disease among young people. Poor mental health can have important effects on the wider health and development of adolescents and is association with several health and social outcomes such as higher alcohol, tobacco and illicit substances use, adolescent pregnancy, school dropout and delinquent behaviours. A study to assess the mental health characteristics among late adolescents at selected college in puducherry. A qualitative research approach was considered as appropriate for the present study. Non experimental research design selected for the study. The Selection of setting was done on the basis of feasibility of conducting the study. The target population for the study comprises of all the late adolescent students in selected college. Sample consists of 60 students. Convenient sampling technique was used to select the sample of this study. Rating scale was used to assess the mental health characteristics it was considered to be the most appropriate instrument to elicit response from the students. Demographic data consist of 12questionaries such as age, gender, religion, type of family, diet pattern, number siblings, medium of education in higher secondary, extra-curricular activity, additional courses, father education, mother education, residency. The mental health characteristics among late adolescent students reveals that 30(50%) had flexible mental health character, 30(50%) had suitable mental health character and none of them had unambiguous mental health character.

  189. Prof. B. M. Roy

    In this paper, a new method of finding solutions of a solvable standard quadratic congruence of composite modulus which is a product of two different odd primes and also as a product of twin primes are discussed. Actually, a new formula is discovered to find all the solutions of the congruence. It is found that the method is simple and takes less time as compared to the existed method. A comparative study is made by giving suitable numerical examples.

  190. Dr. Faima Banu, Dr. Parimala Kumar, Dr. Nandini Manjunath, Dr. Fathimath Nishana K., Dr. Thasneem, A.A. and Dr. Megha Vanasi

    Aim: Aim of the present study is to investigate the clinical and radiological (bone fill) effectiveness of autologous PRF along with the use of alloplastic bone graft material (HA+β TCP) in the treatment of intra bony defects. Material and methods: A randomized case controlled clinical trial of subjects with 10 intrabony defects which were assigned to group I consisting of intrabony defects treated with PRF alone and group II consisting of 10 intrabony defects on which treatment was done PRF+ bone graft (HA + β TCP) after the initial oral prophylaxis. Evaluation was done at baseline 3 months and 6 months using clinical parameter which included Plaque index (Silness and Loe), Gingival index (Loe and Silness), Probing depth and Relative attachment levels (distance between the most apical portion of the stent and the base of the pocket) and radiographical evaluation was done using a CBCT after 6 months to measure the amount of bone gain obtained. Results: The statistical result showed significant reduction in plaque and gingival index both in group 1 and 2 and the difference between the group was insignificant. Pocket depth showed statistically significant reduction both in group 1(3mm, 3.10mm at 3 and 6 months) and group 2(4.5mm, 5mm at 3 and 6 months) and group 2 showed significant reduction than group 1(1.5mm and 1.90mm at 3 and 6 months). RAL gain was statistically significant both in group 1(3.10mm and 3.90mm at 3 and 6 months) and group 2(3.70mm, 6.5mm at 3 and 6 months) and group 2 showed significant reduction than group 1(0.60mm, 2.6mm at 3 and 6 months). Statistically significant bone gain was seen in both the groups (1.2mm and 1.32mm at 6 months) but on comparison there was no significant difference between the group. Conclusion: Therefore, based on the result of this study it is clear that both PRF and combination of PRF+ bone graft (HA + β TCP) are effective in treating infrabony defect and able to improve the clinical and radiographic parameter. However, the improvement in the parameters were better in group 2 compared to group 1, which was due to the better gain in soft tissue in the group 2 than the defect fill.

  191. Aisha Mohamed Abd Elkawy and Mohamed Mohamed Abd Alla

    Ficuscarica L. fam. Moraceae is one of the most important horticulture crops in the arid and semi-arid regions in the world. In order to study the drought resistance in two fig varieties (Soltani and Abiad), experiment has been conducted to achieve a method for multiple-shoot induction under drought stress using polyethylene glycol with apical buds collected from mature trees of Ficuscarica L., using Morashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with different growth regulators benzyl adenine (BA). Growth factors were affected by presence of PEG in media and there were negative relationship in survival percent, shootlets number, shootlets length, fresh weight, dry weight and rooting percent with 8% PEG concentration in media, while the root length was longer and thick at the high concentration of PEG in media. Proline content as drought genes expression increased positively with PEG. The shootlets number decreased to 19.88% and 20.18% in soltani and abiad respectively at 8% compared with control. Plantlets that generated from study can tolerate drought with healthy growth to 4% PEG.

  192. Udeh, Nkeiruka Emmanuela

    Background: Crateva adansonii leaves have been used for many years traditionally in treating of headaches and inflammation. Objective: To determine the free radical scavenging effect of crude extract and fractions of Crateva adansonii leaves. Methods: The free radical scavenging activities of the methanol crude extract and fractions of the plant leaves were investigated in this study using 1,1-diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) photometric assay. Results: The percentage yield of the leaves was 13.87 w/w. 35g of the crude methanol extract was subjected to solvent-solvent partitioning to yield 7.5 g, 2.0 g, and 3.1 g and 8.56 g of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions respectively. All fractions showed dose-dependent increases in antioxidant activity. However, ethyl acetate fraction had the highest anti-oxidant activity, with mean percentage antioxidant value of 97.58±0.03 and 98.55±0.12 at 200 and 400 µg/ml respectively which was higher than that of ascorbic acid, 95.62±0.22 and 96.67±0.07 at 200 and 400 µg/ml respectively. Conclusions: The high anti-oxidant activities of the crude extract and fractions of the plant could be responsible for its wide use as an anti-inflammatory therapy in ethno-medicine.

  193. Naif M. Alhawiti, Ibrahim W. Alanzan R. S, Abdulrahman A. Alharbi, Mohieldin Elsayid, Dr. Raniah S. Alotibi, Maaged A. Akiel, Dr. Hassan S. Alamari and Dr. Shoeb Qureshi

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by insensitivity to insulin, which is linked with many pathological alterations leading tocardiovascular diseases. Consequently, enormous studies indicated that patients with T2DM are significantlyassociated withblood vascular diseases, in particularthromboembolic complications. Aim of study: This study was designed to study the prevalence of thromboembolic complications among Saudi patients diagnosed with T2DM andidentify the most common types of thromboembolic complications in patients with T2DM. Methodology: Retrospective cohort study was performed onmedical records of 150 Saudi patients diagnosed with T2DM at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabiabetween January 2015 and January 2017. Review included demographic data, biochemical, hematology, coagulation profilesand thromboembolic complications. Results: A total of 150 patient records with T2DM were interrogated in this retrospective study. All patients showed significantly increased fasting glucose and HbA1c levels. Around18 diabetic patients (7.33% males and 4.66% females)developed thrombotic events between January 2015 and 2017. Hematological results demonstrated that most subjects were diagnosed with anemia based on levels ofhemoglobinand red blood cell count. Reduction in platelet counts were observed among T2DM patients suffering from thrombosis compared tocontrol subjects, which suggests increased consumption of platelets in patients with thrombotic complications..Consequently, coagulation profiles showed hypercoagulability state in T2DM patients with thrombosis in comparison to controls. We also observed deep vein thrombosis in 38.9% of T2DM patients with thrombotic events. This observation infers that deep vein thrombosis is the most common type of thromboembolicevents amongT2DM patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of thromboembolic complicationsis greater among Saudi patients who are diagnosed with T2DM in which represents a major clinical health problem and a healthcare burden. Although the high incidence and serious nature of thethrombosis, anational prevention program should be developedto understand the risk factors of thromboembolic eventswithin T2DM patients and to find out a proper management and treatments.

  194. Dr. Chandra Deo Ram and Dr. Piyush Kumar Sengar

    Background: The patients who were in need of perineal and abdominal surgery were selected for this present study. Objective: Pain relief to patients who were to undergo abdominal and perineal surgeries. Methods: A Review was performed on 32 perineal and 18 abdominal surgeries. Haemodyanamic, duration of anaesthesia, sensory and motor block was observed. Results: 87.5 per cent of the perineal cases developed analgesia in 5 to 6 minutes while patients requiring abdominal surgery took 15 to 21 minutes to develop analgesia. The systolic blood pressure remained above 100 mm Hg in 96.9 per cent of patients requiring perineal sugery while in 77.8 per cent of the abdominal cases systolic blood pressure remained. Complete an aesthesia developed in 90.6 per cent of patients of perineal series while 55.6 per cent patients of abdominal surgery. Complete muscular relaxation was obtained in 90.6 per cent of the perineal cases and 55.5 per cent patients of abdominal series. Conclusion: The present series concludes that caudal epidural block in an easy procedure and safe for operative procedure on limbs and perineal operations like fistula, piles, posterior colporrhaphy, normal painless deliveries, and etc. but as far as abdominal surgery is concerned, lower abdominal cases can be taken up for this procedure provided the cannula is already in the sacral apace. Upper abdminal surgery is not tried looking to the face that it requires larger does which may be toxic and fatal to the patients.

  195. Dr. Upendra Hoshing, Dr. Suvarna Patil, Dr. Anil Munavalli, Dr. Pramod Mohite and Dr. Ruchika Gupta

    Aim: To present a case with variation in the canal configuration and morphology of maxillary third molar, which was diagnosed and endodontically treated successfully. Knowledge about root canal anatomy and morphology of root canal system plays an important role in the prognosis of endodontic treatment and its success. There are many variations in number of roots and canal configuration in maxillary molars. Undetected anatomical variations of roots or root canals which remain untreated are one of the main reasons for endodontic failure. Moreover, treating the third molars present a great challenge for endodontists because of their known inaccessibility and variability. The present paper describes a case of a right maxillary third molar with a canal configuration rarely reported in the literature. The tooth had four different roots with four root canals, two individual palatal roots one mesiopalatal and one distopalatal.

  196. Dr. Sukhjinder Kaur, Dr. Sunita Bhargava and Dr. Nitin Chaudhary

    Background: Placenta is considered throwaway product but it provides insight about maternal and fetal disorders. Severe anaemia during pregnancy can lead to poor fetal outcome and the changes are reflected in the placenta. Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate morphological and histological changes in placenta during pregnancy. Methods: 100 placentae from term mothers were studied over a period of one year, of which 75 placentae were from anaemic females (Hemoglobin <11g/dl) and remaining were from mothers with Hemoglobin ≥ 11g/dl. Severity of anaemia was judged according to WHO criteria. Placentae were examined grossly, processed, tissue sections prepared and examined after Haematoxylin and Eosin staining. Results: Anaemic females delivered low birth weight foetuses and heavier placentae as compared to non-anaemic females. Grossly, infarction and calcification was more frequent in the anaemic group. Histopathological study revealed significantly increased syncytial knots, fibrinoid necrosis, stromal fibrosis, calcification, hyalinization of villi in the placentae of anaemic females. Conclusion: The better outcome of pregnancy depends upon the adequate and timely treatment of maternal anaemia which can prevent low birth weights, premature births, still births and intrauterine growth retardation.

  197. Dr. Bharathwaj, V.V., Dr. Prabu, D., Dr. Sunayana Manipal, Dr. Rajmohan, Dr. Harini Priya, A.H., Dr. Nesa Aurlene and Dr. Sindhu, R.

    Background: HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis-Bare major health problems worldwide. The number of infected people are liable to increase day by day. Awareness towards prevention and control of these diseasesare necessary among both educated and illiterate people. This study is concerned with a special branch of folk medicine in Tamilnadu, India which is formerly peripatetic hunter community settled all over South India. Objectives: This study is aimed at assessing the awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis-B among the Narikuravar population residing at Thirunelveli district. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based study was conducted amongst the Narikuravar Gypsies population residing at Valliyur, Thirunelveli district. Out of 212 members of both the sex, 108 respondents who were above 18 years of age were included in the study. A close ended questionnaire of 20 self-administered questions was given. Results were statistically analyzed using chi square test. The level of significance was set at p value <0.05. Results: A total of 108 subjects of 52 male and 56 female were recruited. Out of 108 participants all were aware regarding HIV/AIDS and that it transmits through Blood. But still almost 50% of participants had superstitions regarding sharing food and hugging or shaking hands with HIV/AIDS patients. Conclusion: This showed the level of awareness about HIV/AIDS among the Narikuravar Gypsies population residing at Valliyur, Thirunelveli district. The awareness regarding the HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis-B was less and superstition regarding the same was more compared to other population. Thus it is necessary to break such superstition about the disease in order to bring a complete awareness of the disease.

  198. Dr. Bheem Prasad and Dr. Padamjeet Panchal

    Background: Atlas is the first cervical vertebra. Arcuate foramen transmits vertebral vessels and sympathetic plexus. Any additional foramen on atlas other than foramen transversaria is termed as arcuate foramen. Presence of arcuate foramen in various countries giving an incidence from 8 to 24 % by various authors. Embryological variations in the presence and passage of the vertebral vessels will manifest as variant foramen. Objectives: To find the incidence of arcuate foramen in the first cervical vertebrae. Knowledge of this foramen is important in clinical diagnosis and surgical procedure for neurophysician and neurosurgeon. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in adult 45 dried atlas vertebrae of unknown sex in the Department of Anatomy, AIIMS Patna. Result: The incidence of as arcuate foramen was 17.77% and was bilateral in 11.11% whereas unilateral in 6.66%. Conclusion: Awareness of this type of variation is essential for orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons and radiologists to avoid misdiagnosis in their clinical practice.

  199. Javid Ahmad Peer, Asgar Aziz and Ifrah Davood

    Hernia repairs are day to day procedures performed by General surgeons. Mesh hernia repairs have brought significant improved outcomes than primary hernia repairs. A limiting aspect associated with mesh hernia repair is chronic mesh infection. Such patients pose management challenge and are difficult to treat. Here we report our experience in treating one such a patient with chronic mesh infection after 10 years of initial laparoscopic Hernia surgery

  200. Dr. Jasmine F Jawade and Dr. Jyoti Tembhurne

    Replacement of anterior teeth is challenging for patients with traumatic injuries when there is loss of soft tissue along with teeth. To achieve esthetics and phonetics, closure of the defect is necessary either with fixed or removable prosthesis. Due to periodontal considerations and extent of the defect, fixed prosthesis is not always feasible; whereas removable prosthesis is also less retentive and normally uncomfortable. So fixed removable prosthesis (Andrews Bridge) can be used to overcome these issues. The Andrews system is basically composed of two components: Fixed component (retainers on abutments joined by bar) and removable component. Hereby, we are presenting a case of missing maxillary anterior teeth with Seibert’s Class III ridge defect rehabilitated using Andrews Bridge. Andrews Bridge permits rehabilitation of congenital and acquired esthetic defects and fulfils both hygiene and esthetic requirements.

  201. Andrey M. Zemskov, Vladimir M. Zemskov, Konstantin N. Pronko, Veronika A. Zemskova, Yana V. Kulintsova and Katerina S. Dyadina

    The paper discusses the immunosuppressive effects of pharmacological drugs. The task is to reduce the possible side effect of drugs due to annually increasing public access to medicines as a result of a large number of OTC drugs available for sale accompanied by a lack of objective information about their possible negative consequences. Here, we present information on the study of immunosuppressive effects of various pharmacological groups and their impact on public health. To a certain extent, this information allows predicting the effect of drugs on the body’s responsiveness, and their contribution to aggravation or elimination of initial immune disorders in patients.

  202. Dr. Seema Bisane and Dr. Silpi Basak

    Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization of Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an emerging technology for Clinical Microbiology Laboratory. In most of the Microbiology Laboratories, The identification of microorganisms is done by phenotypic method conventionally or by molecular methods in most of the Microbiology Laboratories even today. The phenotypic methods are based on isolation of the microorganism in culture followed by biochemical tests for bacteria which are time consuming. The molecular methods require expertise and new variants may not be detected. Moreover, rapid and accurate identification of bacteria is necessary for diagnosis and efficient treatment of the patient which may be life saving. MALDI-TOF MS is an easy, rapid and efficient method for identification of bacteria which are even difficult to grow, typing of bacteria, fungi and viruses. In this review, the principle, mechanism, uses, limitations and future perspectives of MALDI-TOF MS have been discussed.

  203. Kumar S Abhishek and Anita Chakravarti

    Background: Dengue a mosquito borne viral fever is caused by Dengue virus of family Flaviviridae. It has a wide spectrum of sign and symptoms ranging from acute self-limiting infection to fatal complications in few cases like Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS). Several Rapid immuno-chromatographic and ELISA based diagnostic kits are available for laboratory diagnosis in clinically suspected cases. Due to threat of developing fatal complications, rapid diagnosis becomes important in order to prevent such complications. Objective: Evaluation of Rapid immuno-chromatographic test kits taking ELISA (NS-1 Ag and IgM Antibody) as reference. Materials and Method: Cross-sectional study. ELISA and SD BIOLINE- Dengue Duo Rapid immunodiagnostic test kit as per manufacturer’s instruction. Result: Sensitivity and Specificity for NS1 antigen 89.6% and 98% and for IgM antibodies 94.7% and 100% respectively were observed using SD BIOLINE- Dengue Duo Rapid immunodiagnostic test kits taking NS-1 antigen and IgM anti-dengue antibody ELISA as reference. Conclusion: During an outbreak where rapid diagnosis is needed, rapid diagnostic kits are good alternative to ELISA based tests.

  204. Shweta Singh, Raju Chauhan, Tanushri Saxena, Shomaila Ahmad and Neelam Ojha

    Background: A strong causal relationship exists between cigarette smoking and the development of oral cancer. Most of the cases of oral cancer are diagnosed at advanced stage that results in an unfavorable prognosis and high mortality rate. In such cases certain noninvasive procedures such as Exfoliative Cytology plays an important role in the detection and monitoring of initial alteration and for the establishment of adequate treatment. The purpose of this study is to compare exfoliative cytology from oral mucosa of smokers and non smokers, with evaluation of proliferative activity by PAP (Papanicolaou) and AgNOR. Materials and method: The study was conducted in the department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology between 2011-2013 in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The detailed information of each patient was noted in a pretested Performa. Exfoliative cytology specimens were obtained from clinical normal mucosa from the lateral border of the tongue in 60 nonsmokers and 60 smokers ranging from 30 to 50 years of age using cigarettes for at least 10 years. The cytologic specimens were evaluated by Papanicolaou staining and AgNOR quantification.The data collected was analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics version 22 (Armonk,NY:IBM corp).P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Statistical analysis of chi- square (χ2) test, Student t-test and One way ANOVA by running post hoc test were applied. Result and observation: Statistically significant increases in mean number of AgNOR /nucleus were found in smoker and non smoker patient according to cytologic evaluation. Cytologic specimens evaluated by PAP also showed the presence of inflammation, dysplasia, keratinisation and higher proliferative activity in smokers than non smokers. Conclusion: AgNOR quantification increases sensitivity and specificity by reduces the chances of false negative or positive and can be used as an adjunct diagnostic tool over routine PAP staining in cytopathology to assess cellular chnages in oral mucosa.

  205. Niharika Ved, Rajesh Sharma and Anil K Gupta

    Objective: Renal artery resistive index evaluation in patients with diabetes mellitus and control group along with its correlation with microalbuminuria. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of 50 cases of diabetic mellitus (NIDDM) in age group of (40-60 years) and 50 cases of age match control of non-diabetic patients. Total 100 cases underwent duplex ultrasonography. Both groups of 50 cases each were tested for blood urea, serum creatinine, urine proteinuria and microalbuminuria. Results: In our study 50 diabetics were further divided into two groups based on their RI values. Group 1 were the patients with RI value above 0.7 and group 2 with RI less than 0.7. 30% patients had RI value more than 0.7 and 20% patients had RI value less than 0.7. mean age of the patients in group 1 was 55.73 years and 54.05years in group 2.66% patients with diabetes were male and 34% female. 77% of group 1 patients and 20% in group 2 had overt proteinuria. 23% of group 1 and 60%of group 2 patients had microalbuminuria. There were 20% patients in group 2 which showed normal RI values and no overt or microalbuminuria. Patients with overt proteinuria had mean RI of 0.75. Microalbuminuric patients with mean RI of 0.69 and patients with no proteinuria had mean RI value of 0.64. Among diabetics, patients with RI more than 0.7 had mean blood urea of 34.5 mg/dl and 30.2 mg/dl in group 2. Among diabetics mean serum creatinine value in group 1 patients is 2.28 mg/dl and 0.99 mg/dl in group 2 patients. Mean RI of control group was 0.62 and 0.71 in diabetics. Conclusion: High RI is significantly associated with micro and overt proteinuria. Thus, RI value can be used as an additional parameter for early detection of diabetic nephropathy similar to that with microalbuminuria. There is potential role of renal RI in identifying diabetic patients who are developing diabetic nephropathy.

  206. Satish C. Pant, Dr. Dheeraj Lamba, Ritambhara K. Upadhyay and Dejene Kassahun

    Objective: fasciitis Technology and Biomedical Sciences, Dehradun. Total 30 patients between the age group 20 to 50 years both males and females having been Myofascial release therapy and Group B received Static stretching technique for 4 weeks. There was a statistically significant difference of pre which was treated with myofascial release technique (MFR) when results were viewed on visual analogue scale and Foot Function Index showed significant improvement in the plantar fascia symptoms in comparison to Group B who received stretching exercises, while standard deviation values within the groups, Group A showed significant decrease in VAS as compared to Group B. treating patients with plantar fasciitis; how better than stretching in 4 weeks intervention

  207. Dr. Rajender Kumar

    In recent years, rural markets have acquired importance, as the overall growth of the economy has resulted into considerable increase in the purchasing power of the rural people and preferences of rural people are also getting changed. So, every marketing player is keen to invest in rural markets. Though there is huge potential and substantial growth opportunities in the rural markets, yet there are some challenges too, which caused hurdles in tapping rural markets. This study is a step forward in exploring various strategies to be adopted in the rural market along with the current scenario of rural marketing, highlighting key challenges related to rural marketing. This paper presents a review of rural markets environment, problems and opportunities in India. The paper describes the challenges and strategies of rural marketing in India. Rural marketing has become the latest mantra of most corporate even MNCs are eyeing rural markets to capture the large Indian market. The rural market consist 70 percent population, twice as entire market of USA and would become bigger than total consumer market in countries like South Korea, and Canada in another 20 years. It exhibits linguistic, regional and cultural diversities and economic disparities. Increase in purchasing power fuelled lot of interest, several companies are exploring cost effective channels like HUL/ITC/Colgate/Godrej/ Nokia/BPCL.

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