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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





December 2018

  1. Reshmi Sen

    Non keratinocytes are a group of cells in the oral mucosa which exhibit unique structural features and perform various functions. The Melanocytes, Merkel Cells, Langerhans Cells and Inflammatory cells constitute the group of oral non keratinocytes. These cells are also called clear cells and do not take part in epithelial maturation. Proper synchronization of the keratinocytes and non keratinocytes is essential for maintaining the epithelial homeostatsis. The non keratinocytes of the oral mucosa have been discussed here with a view to explore their origin, structure and functional characterestics in a concise pattern.

  2. Gupta Sonam and Mishra Sunita

    The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value markets. Energy bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking energy bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, ragi flour, wheat flour & sattu flour with honey and jaggery. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65ºC, packed in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 90 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. The results showed that a 25g cassava flour based nutrient energy bar enriched with other flours such as wheat, ragi, sattu flour can meet a high value of energy for athletes.

  3. Dr. Hemlata Gupta and Dr. Ram Krishna Gupta

    Background- One of the primary pathologies associated with hypertension is a complex autonomic malfunction with evidence of sympathetic hyperactivity and/or vagal withdrawal. Objectives- To assess the possibility for early detection of hypertension in children of hypertensive parents based on analysis of effect of Isometric Hand Grip (IHG) and heart rate variability. Material and Methods: 100 young, normotensive male offspring of normotensive parents (control group) and 100 young, normotensive male offspring of hypertensive parents (test group) of similar body mass index participated in this study. Heart rate variability was recorded at baseline, during Isometric hand grip and after 5 minutes after isometric hand grip. Results: There was no significant difference seen in both groups in baseline parameters of heart rate variability. Low frequency in normalised unit (LFnu), Low frequency/ High Frequency (LF/HF) ratio were significantly increased and High frequency in normalised units (HFnu) was significantly decreased during isometric hand grip in test group. Conclusion: These results indicate the early existence of malfunctions in both branches of autonomic control in individuals at increased risk of hypertension.

  4. Burcu Ak Çimen and Oya Işık

    The diatoms collected and isolated from the Yumurtalık Bay at Northeastern Mediterranean at Gulf of Iskenderun, and species were cultivated under laboratory conditions, identified using molecular techniques, and their growth and biochemical composition were investigated. Sampling was carried out using a plankton nets having 20 μm and 55 μm mesh size for 10 minutes at different depths, horizontally. Salinity, temperature and pH were measured with a YSI model salinometer at each station. The isolation of the required species were done by serial dilutions and applying agar plating methods. Isolated diatom species were cultured in the different media. To purify the species, antibiotic (Ampicillin sodium and Kanamycin) media were used at 5 different rates (200 mg/L, 400 mg/L, 600 mg/L, 800 mg/L, 1000 mg/L). At the same time, acid/base treatment (pH2, pH3, pH4, pH5, pH9, pH10 and pH11) were applicated to the samples. These cultures were maintained at room temperature (20±1°C) under 40 µmol photon m-2s-2 light intensity at 12:12-h light/dark cycle and were aerated continuosly. Isolates were identified morphologically. Isolated diatom species were detected following morphological and molecular identification. Genomic DNA extractions were performed with a DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, Tokyo, Japan) following the manufacturer’s protocol. Then DNA isolated from the cells was and amplified by PCR. Identifications of the species were made with phylogenetic analyses depending on nucleotide sequences of small subunit of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Nucleotide sequencings were performed commercially by Macrogen Inc. (Korea) with the same primers used for PCR amplifications. To evaluate the phylogenetic relationships among isolates Neighbor-Joining (NJ) were used. Experiments were carried out by cultivation of 104 cells mL-1 of Chaetoceros sp. and Nitzschia sp., in 1 L cylinder tubes containing sterilized Si-F/2 medium with a salinity of 30 ppt. The specific growth rate and biomass and biomass productivity, cell density, chlorophyll a, total carotenoid, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and lipid productivity, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and fucoxanthin contents were determined and showed significant differences (p<0.05) between these two species. The best growth and biochemical composition were obtained from the diatom Chaetoceros sp., while the highest amount of fucoxanthin was found in Nitzschia sp.

  5. Teklu Adamu, Temesgen Adafrie and Alemayehu Demere

    Introduction: Academic performance is an individual’s inherent potentials in terms of intelligence combined with other sociological factors. In this era of globalization and technological revolution, education is considered as a first step for every human activity. It plays a vital role in the development of human capital and is linked with an individual’s well-being and opportunities for better living. It ensures the acquisition of knowledge and skills that enable individuals to increase their productivity and improve their quality of life. Objectives: The aim of this study is to predict the performance of high school students towards mathematics in Illubabor and BunoBedelle zone. Methods: The study was conducted in Illubabor and Buno Bedelle zone secondary schools. For this study data were collected by using questionnaires. So, the researchers were used primary data collection method. In this study, the researcher applied simple random sampling and stratified sampling technique which is used to select samples from the target population and the sample size used in the study was 375 observations. The researcher is primarily used based on quantitative research, which constructed multiple regression models to identify and measure the predictors of performance of students towards mathematics in the study area. Results: A total of 375 health workers were included and the frequency and percentage of age Below 15,Between 15 to16, between 16 to18,and 18 to 20 are 34(9.1%) 188(50.1%),122(32.5%) and31(8.3%) respectively. Among those, most of the age of students is between 15 to 16. From descriptive analysis the average score results for students during the study period is about 60.9 and the standard deviation is 10.9. Therefore, this implies that there is no absence of moderate variations among the values of average score across the performance of students towards mathematics included for this study. As illustrated in the correlation analysis of performance of students indicate that, there is statistically and significantly positive correlation between age, marital status, grade level, economic status and classroom instruction with average score of student’s results. This means that as these variables increase average score results of students also will increase and vice versa. Concussion: Grade level, economic status, father education background, mathematics remedial test, and distance from school have statistically significant effects on the average score results of students.

  6. Dr. Ravi thakkar, Dr. Chetan shah and Dr. Kamlesh Patel

    <p>Background: Nicotine use is a major public health problem that increases medical morbidity and mortality. Compared to the general healthy population, the prevalence of smoking is found to be much higher among people with psychotic disorders. In Given its effect on modulating dopamine and glutamate, nicotine may have an impact on the negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. In fact, schizophrenia patients may use nicotine to self-medicate negative symptoms. Schizophrenia is associated with poor attention to and processing of sensory stimulation. Nicotine transiently improves sensory gating in schizophrenia.<br />
    <br />


  7. Dr. Coulibaly Doppon Ali and Nanan Doh N’guessan Gérard

    This paper focuses on child labor in artisanal coal factories, with the aim of contributing to a better knowledge of children at risk by presenting the working conditions of children in artisanal charcoal factories in Tiassalé. This research work was based on a sample of 90 respondents and was determined using the reasoned choice method. Four (4) modes of data collection were retained: documentary research, observation, questionnaire, and interview. As for the analysis of the data, the mode of treatment is qualitative and quantitative. At the outcome level, it was noted that the activities carried out by the children include the collection of the stems of wood, the participation in the construction of the kiln, the maintenance of the furnace, the collection of the charcoal, and the transport of the bags of charcoal. Concerning the working conditions, it was noted that the children carried out a dangerous work because of its arduousness and the long hours devoted to the activities. Also, the environment in which this work is carried out, namely the bush, exposes them to accidents of all kinds. Finally, it was an unpaid work for majority of them. As explanatory factors of child labor, the study shows that poverty, the desire to teach children a trade, and the trafficking and exploitation of these children are the causes of their daily involvement in the activities of artisanal coal factories in Tiassalé.

  8. Dr. Varun Rastogi, Dr. Nilotpol Kashyap, Dr. Nisha Maddheshiya, Dr. Nishant and Dr. Racchna Sharma

    Dermatoglyphics is an art and science of fingerprints which involves the study of fine dermal ridge pattern and configuration of digits, palms and soles. It was derived from Latin words “derma” means skin and “glyphics” means carvings. The term “Dermatoglyphics” was coined by Cummins and Midlo (1991). Dermatoglyphics may be of immense clinical implication to separate those persons who are at a higher risk for developing oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma at early stage. The present study on palmar dermatoglyphics in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma has few significant parameters. Depending on the results following conclusions have been drawn from our study. Significant findings in patients with oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma in both hands: • Increase in frequency of arches. • Increase in frequency of loops. • Decrease in frequency of whorls. • Increase in frequency of loops in I2, I3, I4 area. No significant difference was observed in the following findings in both hands: • Hypothenar pattern. • Thenar/I1 area pattern. • Total finger ridge count • atd angle. • ab count. Thus these findings would help us to identify an individual with or at risk for developing oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. So that high risk individuals can be identified and preventive measures can be instituted at the earliest to prevent the occurrence of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Subject Area: Oral Pathology.

  9. Yadav Nidhi, Anchalia Priyanka and Preetham, K.

    Background: Avedis Donabedian defined the quality of care as the kind of care, which is expected to maximize an inclusive measure of patient welfare, after taking into account the balance of expected gains and losses associated with the process of care in all its segments. According to the World Medical Assembly, physicians and health care institutions have an ethical and professional obligation to strive for continuous quality improvement of services and patient safety with the ultimate goal to improve both individual patient outcomes as well as population health. National Accreditation Board for Hospital and Healthcare Providers (NABH), is a constituent board under Quality Council of India set up to establish and operate accreditation program for healthcare organizations to assure quality of care. The tertiary care centre where the study was conducted, is accredited by NABH since January, 2012. Aim: The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of NABH accreditation on the hospital services as per the healthcare workers employed in the centre, the effect they observe post NABH accreditation and the level of job satisfaction among them post NABH accreditation. Methodology: A cross sectional study using simple random sampling was done among employees consisting of pool of doctors, therapists, nurses, pharmacists and administrative staff. A total of 151 staff participated in the study. A self-administered, pre tested, structured questionnaire with 10 questions was used for data collection. Only staff (doctors, therapists, nurses, pharmacists and the administrative staff) working for more than 5 years i.e. who were associated with the organization before and after NABH Accreditation were included in the study. Results and Conclusion: More than 80% of participants perceives that there is positive effect of NABH accreditation on the hospital services and the processes has improved in the hospital post NABH accreditation. 85% participants felt an impact on the level of job satisfaction among them post NABH accreditation.

  10. Dr. Nischal Chovatiya, Dr. Shyam Shah and Dr. U. S. Gediya

    A 30 year old female patient presented with complaints of weakness of all four limbs, swelling and pain on movement, difficulty in walking since last one month. She was investigated and diagnosed as a case of inflammatory myositis, she was treated with steroids, she showed good response to steroids and was discharged.

  11. Riyadh M. Kadhim Nassrawi

    Uses of certain herbal folk remedies is well known in rural area in Iraq & other countries this mostly due to lack of medical education among lay peoples and sporadic distribution of small districts & villages which are faraway from primary health centers .for examples of theses remedies are seeds, plants, berries, roots, banks, these remedies are widely used for treatment and prevention of various disease. The long life adventure of SAGWA (which is prepared from mixture of boiled animal parts of urchin, tar, drug lomotil, rose water, & cow feces) this strange mixture widely used by some midwives & elderly woman in rural areas as part of traditional knowledge & wrong believes for treatment of prolong gastroenteritis despite of its known harmful effect with serious complications like nephrotoxicity & neurotoxicity. In children hospital daily receivesmany cases of SAGWA poisoning from country side around Baghdad with various sign of presentation & complication include dehydration, sepsis, & sever electrolytes disturbances & bleeding with renal failure that warrant emergency PD dialysis which very common presentation. In this case of SAGWA poisoning child presented with serious sign of disturb level of consciousness and oliguria were admitted to emergency department then transfers to ICU, & treated as encephalitis.

  12. Dr. Pragnesh Patel,Dr. Chirag Adroja,Dr. Sameer Tapariya and Dr. P V Lakum

    The patients with essential hypertension are increasing all over the world. There may be development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in essential hypertension. An association between essential hypertension and defective insulin secretion has been identified. Clinical Studies have shown that about 50% of hypertensive individuals have hyperinsulinemia orglucose intolerance, whereas up to 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes have hypertension.

  13. Rahul Gajanan Kamble and Vikas S. Minchekar

    Academic stress and depressions are the burning causes of suicide and suicidal attempt for college students. There are lots of cases reporting by media about the college students’ suicide in daily newspapers that make too much pressure and stress on parents, society, institutions and maybe also in government. Keeping in this view it is today’s need to investigate the causal factors that affecting psychologically on students mentality which can help us to understand that what kind of thoughts running inside the mind of students, because of this, the present study is designed to study the academic stress and depression among college students. 360 participants (180 male, 180 female) age ranged 17 – 21yearswere administered tostudy. Students were asked to solve Academic Stress Scale for College Students (ASSCS) and Depression Scale (MDS).The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, student ‘t’ test and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Results revealed that there is a significant gender difference between academic stress and depression among college students. There is a significant positive relation between academic stress and depression among college students. The level of academic stress is significantly affected by student’s depression. Findings from present study help to recover the students suffering from academic stress and depression.

  14. Dr. Lamyaa Malik Mohammed, Dr. Sura Mustafa Abbas and Dr. Ali Abdulhammeed

    Background: Intravenous regional anesthesia(IVRA) technique is easy, reliable and cost effective with a high success rate of 94–98%when used in short operative procedures of hand or forearm ( Mahmoud et al., 2015; Scott, 2014). Many adjuvant drugs have been added to local anesthetics, such as, NSAIDs, paracetamol, opioids and adrenergic receptor agonists. Objective: To evaluate the effect of paracetamol on sensory and motor block onset time, sensory and motor recovery and postoperative analgesia, when added to lidocaine in IV regional anesthesia (IVRA). Patient and methods: 60 patients were enrolled in simple randomized double blinded prospective clinical study in Baghdad in AlAlYarmouk teachinghospital from 1st of February 2016 to 1st of December 2016. They were ASA I and II patients with upper limb(forearm and hand)elective surgery the expected time of surgery was 20 – 60 min planned for intravenous regional anesthesia. The patients were divided into 3 groups; Group 1: patients received IVRA 40 ml of 0.5% lidocaine with normal saline, Group 2 :received IVRA 40ml 0.5% lidocainewith 300mg paracetamol, Group 3: received IVRA 40 ml of 0.5% lidocaine solution with normal saline with systemic 300 mg paracetamol. Results: There was no significant differences noted among the three groups regarding the age, sex, height, weight, BMI and VAS score. There were a significant differences in sensory block onset time between group 2 and group 1(more rapid sensory block onset time in group 2 as p value < 0.001) and between group 2 and 3(more rapid sensory block onset time in group 2 as p value was 0.023) and between group 1 and 3(more rapid sensory block onset time in group 3 as p value was 0.001). There was a significant differences regarding sensory recovery between group 2 and 1(prolonged sensory recovery in group 2 as p value < 0.001) and between group 2 and 3(prolonged sensory recovery in group 2 as p value < 0.001) but no difference between group 1 an 3 (as p value 0.994). There was a significant differences regarding motor block onset time, between group 2 and 1(more rapid motor block onset time in group 2 as p value < 0.001) and between group 2 and 3 (more rapid motor block onset time in group 2 as p value < 0.001) but no differences between group 1 and 3 as(p value 0.507). Also there was a significant differences regarding motor recovery between group 2 and 1(prolonged in group 2 as p value < 0.001) and between group 2 and 3 (prolonged in group 2 as p value < 0.001), but no differences between group 1 and 3 as (p value 0.088). There was no differences in VAS score among all groups as p value more than 0.05. There was a significant differences in the time for the first analgesic request between group 2 and 1(prolonged in group 2 as p value < 0.001) and between group 2 and 3(prolonged in group 2 as p value < 0.001) and between group 1 and 3(prolonged in group 3 as p value < 0.001). Conclusion: IVRA paracetmol cause a decrease in sensory block onset time, motor block onset time, and increase in motor and sensory recovery time with no change in VAS score postoperatively as compared with systemic paracetmol or lidocaine alone.

  15. Dr. Lamyaa Malik Mohammed and Dr. Mariam Ali Mohammed

    Background: Inguinal hernia repair is associated with considerable postoperative discomfort. The perioperative management of pain following abdominal surgery can pose a challenge to anesthesia providers. Conventional practice has involved the use of opioids as well as neuraxial analgesic techniques. Unfortunately, these therapies are not without potential risks and side effects. Aim of the study: To compare the postoperative pain relief provided by Ultrasound guided TAP block technique with ultrasound guided ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve blockade in adult undergoing unilateral hernia repair surgery regarding duration. Patient and method: A prospective randomized controlled study of 60 male patient undergone elective unilateral inguinal hernia repair, 30 of them under ultrasound guide TAP block anterior approach at the end operation using 20 ml of 0.25% plain bupivacaine was done. 30 of them under ultrasound guide TAP block posterior approach at the end operation using 20 ml of 0.25% plain bupivacaine was done. Then Vital signs, numerical pain score and analgesia requirement were recorded at recovery,2nd, 4th & 8th hours postoperatively. Result: By applying null hypothesis, using the t-student test of independent two samples, Pain score and Request for analgesia show no significant difference in both methods for postoperative pain relief. For vital signs there was no significant difference for both groups. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between both methods. Those two methods provide good analgesia with less postoperative other medication use without any significant side effect.

  16. Kapil kamalkishor Fafat, Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale, Bhupendra K. Lokhande and Pratik A. Burad

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a chronic sleep related breathing disorder which requires long term, multi disciplinary management. The most common clinical procedure involves continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Orthodontic management of OSA syndrome could be provided to children as a preventive and interceptive modal or to adults by an interdisciplinary management. Oral appliances are simple, non invasive, cost effective and reliable treatment method compare to all other airway pressure therapy and surgical approach.

  17. Mansour A. Binfayed, Mohammed Azmathullah and Mohammed Kashif Habeeb

    Pressure ulcers are a localized area of tissue necrosis that develop when soft tissue is compressed between a bony prominence and an external surface. This condition has been recognised for at least 5000 years and its incidence has been on the rise due to an increasing geriatric population. All the while the cost of managing pressure ulcers has also been on the rise, overburdening health care delivery systems worldwide, especially more so in developing nations. Currently pressure ulcers are seen as a preventable entity, therefore prevention should be a priority in their management. The management of established pressure ulcers has progressed over the past 50 years and todays practice consists of serial wound dressings with debridement if required. More orthodox reconstructive surgical procedures are reserved for grade 3 and 4 ulcers. There has been a drastic reduction in the associated mortality and morbidity associated with pressure ulcers, but literature still reports complications in long standing cases such as acute sepsis, heterotopic ossification, joint sepsis, malignant transformation and the development of osteomyelitis of the underlying bone. This review article aims to outline the mechanism of development, presentation, aetiology, diagnosis, prevention and management, both non-surgical as well as surgical and newer advances in treatment of pressure ulcers.

  18. Dr Ujwal Yeole and Akshay Adsul

    Background: In an elderly, muscle strength is a main determinant in the performance of everyday tasks. Lack of muscle strength said to be associated with increased risk of fall in elderly. Objectives: This study was done to evaluate the effect of resistance training on exercise intolerance and risk of fall in elderly using 6 Minute walk distance (6MWD),VO2 MAX, Time up and go(TUG) test, Functional independence measure (FIM) scale,10 Repetition maximum (RM). Methods: Senior citizen clubs across the city were approached for evaluating risk of fall in elderly. Total number of 60 elderly were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and were randomly divided into Experimental Group A (n=30, 67.30±5.26) and Control Group B(n=30, 67.96±4.51). Experimental Group was given Resistance Training for major group of muscles of Lower Limb along with ergonomic advice for prevention of fall whereas the Control Group was given ergonomic advice only. All the participants were evaluated pre-post intervention for 10 RM, 6MWD, Predicted VO2 MAX, TUG test, FIM scale. Results: There was significant improvement in 10 RM Hamstring (2.65±0.73), Quadriceps (2.46±0.43), 6MWD (325.17±51.23), Predicted VO2 max (32.73±4.67), TUG (12.36±3.43), FIM (125.77±0.50) of Group A as compared to 10RM Hamstring (1.85±0.54) Quadriceps (2.20±0.50), 6MWD (278.9±37.66), Predicted VO2 max (29.42±4.38), TUG (13.36±3.56), FIM (122.0±2022) of Group B. Conclusion: Resistance training program showed significant improvement in Exercise intolerance and risk of fall in elderly.

  19. Maha Mohamed Abd Al-Raof, Noha Mohamed Osman and Muhamed Adel Abd Al-Azim Amin

    Mammography is rapid and inexpensive, but it is of limited usefulness in detecting implant rupture in women with silicone implants. It is very inaccurate for intracapsular rupture and will reliably detect extruded silicone only in an extra capsular rupture.

  20. Abdelmajid Bouzerda, Amin Ahmindache, Jawad Ngadi, Ilyass Asfalou, Zouhair Lakhal, Mohammed Asseraji, Laila Bendriss and Ali Khatouri

    Amyloidosis is characterized by extracellular accumulation of insoluble protein fibrils in various tissues and organs. Cardiac involvement is the most serious localization and the leading cause of death, requiring early diagnosis that may be difficult. We report the case of a patient presenting Waldenstrom's disease complicated by cardiac amyloidosis and we review the cardiac involvement in immunoglobulin related amyloidosis.

  21. Shraddha Roy, Rajiv Ranjan, Yash Shah, Soumendu Bikash Maiti, Amit Jain and Sangeeta Keshkar

    As we become more civilised, there’s been an gradual increase in crime rate leading to gross injustice owing to shortfalls in terms of identification. With advances in field of dentistry it aids in identification and providing evidences of the crime to the law firm. The pattern on the lips has individual characteristics. The finger prints in the beginning were the only means of identification but now investigators can also rely on cheiloscopy as evidence. Cheiloscopy also known as quiloscopy which is defined as a method of identification of a person based on characteristic arrangement of lines appearing on the red part of lips. The tremendous research done in the field of cheiloscopy highlight the fact that the possibilities to use the lips to identify a human being are wider than it is commonly thought.

  22. Dr. Ketul Vinodbhai Joshi, Dr. Shyam Shah and Dr. Jyotin Shah

    It is a case of ARVD in young patient diagnosed with classical signs and symptoms correlated with ECG and 2D Echo findings, treated accordingly. ARVD can be found in association with diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma, and woolly hair, in an autosomal recessive condition called Naxos disease, because this genetic abnormality can also affect the integrity of the superficial layers of the skin most exposed to pressure stress.

  23. Salami Gafaar Adesola R.N. PhD. and Adetunji, Hamed Ademola PhD, MPH, FRSPH

    Objective: Caregivers of persons with intellectual disability are faced with multiple challenges, and their works are highly frustrating, especially in Nigeria where caregivers have no defined scope of service and supports. There has not been much study on care-giving and depression among caregivers of children with intellectual disability. This study, therefore, examined the conceptual (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and self-esteem) factors as predictors of depression among the caregivers of persons with intellectual disability in the Southwest, Nigeria. Method: Descriptive survey design was used. Fifty-five primary schools for persons with intellectual disability and 293 caregivers (140 males, 153 females between ages 20 and 65) were purposively selected in the Southwest, Nigeria. Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, General Self-efficacy, Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence, Rosenberg’s Self-esteem scales, and Beck Depression Index II were instruments used for the study. Data were analyzed with multiple regressions at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The levels of independent variables to the dependent variable in terms of weighted mean are openness to experience (x ̅ = 4.38), conscientiousness (x ̅ = 2.90), extroversion (x ̅ = 3.45), agreeableness (x ̅ = 3.24), neuroticism (x ̅ = 2.71), and self-efficacy (x ̅= 3.33). Years of experience (r = 0.10), gender (r=0.16), openness to experience (r=0.25), conscientiousness (r=0.19), extroversion (r=0.17), agreeableness (r=0.26), neuroticism (r=0.16), self-efficacy (r=0.29), emotional intelligence (r=0.15), and self-esteem (r=0.16) had significant positive relationships with depression among caregivers of persons with intellectual disability. Conclusion: Openness to experience, extroversion, self-efficacy, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, self-esteem and emotional intelligence influenced depression among caregivers of persons with intellectual disability in the Southwest, Nigeria. Therefore, governments at various levels should factor these variables into the environment where caregivers working with persons with intellectual disability function.

  24. Vinil Upendrababu

    "Red man syndrome" (RMS) or Red neck syndrome is the most common adverse reaction to vancomycin, characterized by flushing of the upper body, pruritus, mild to profound hypotension, chest pain, and muscle spasm. Rapid intervenous (IV) infusion of vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, is the most common cause of this syndrome. Even though it is not an allergic reaction, this syndrome most often looks like an Allergy. Some oral drugs, also, release histamine in the body which can result in red man syndrome nevertheless it occurs predominantly during parenteral administration of vancomycin. Discontinuation of the vancomycin infusion and administration of diphenhydramine can be useful to abort most of the symptoms. Slow intravenous administration of vancomycin should minimize the risk of infusion-related adverse effects. Hence Practitioners using vancomycin should be aware of this known drug reaction, its prevention, and treatment.

  25. Dr. Manjula C., Dr. Jyoti S Kabbin and Dr. Ambica R.

    Background: Neonatal sepsis refers to systemic infection of the newborn. It is characterized by nonspecific symptoms, and documented by positive blood culture. An estimated 1.6 million deaths occur due to neonatal infections worldwide, 40% of them being limited to developing countries. The incidence of neonatal sepsis in our country is around 30 per 1000 live births. These children are more likely to have neuro developmental side effects. Therefore it is important to diagnose and treat the condition as early as possible. Objective: The aim of the present study is to determine the microbiological profile of neonates with sepsis and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern using automated systems-BacT/ALERT and Vitek 2 systems. Materials and Methods: This study is a Retrospective study conducted between December 2017 and February 2018 at NICU, Vani Vilas hospital, BMC&RI, Bengaluru. All admitted neonates with clinical signs and symptoms of sepsis at the time of admission or who developed sepsis during their hospital stay were included in the study. Blood samples were collected aseptically from neonates suspected with neonatal sepsis. Samples were inoculated into pediatric automated blood culture bottle “pediatric” (yellow, 30 ml, BacT/ALERT PF). Cultures with positive results were streaked on blood and Mac Conkey agar. Identification and antibiotic sensitivity were done using Vitek-2 systems. Results: In this study blood samples were collected from 253 neonates admitted to NICU ofVanivilas hospital, 72 samples were found to be culture positive. The most common organism isolated from both Early onset sepsis(EOS) and Late onset sepsis(LOS) was Klebsiellapneumoniae57% and 53% respectively. Most of the Klebsiella organisms were sensitive to Piperacillin-tazobactum, Amikacin and Imepenem. The next most common organism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus in EOS and Enterococcus species in LOS. The most important risk factors found were preterm and low birth weight, with respiratory distress being the most frequent presentation. Conclusion: Appropriate identification of sepsis source, prompt antibiotic prescription and aggressive management can effectively prevent adverse events following neonatal sepsis. There is requirement of simple and sustainable intervention to reduce the burden of multidrug resistant pathogens causing sepsis. The implementation of hand washing, barrier nursing and antibiotic stewardship policies is need of time.

  26. Dr. Aarushi Mahajan, Dr. Roopa R Nadig, Dr. Yashwanth Gowda, Dr. Chandni Gupta and Dr. Nawal Abdul Aziz

    Purpose: This clinical report presents and describes the case where the minimally invasive infiltrant resin technique was used for hypoplasia white stains related to traumatic dental injuries. Results: The Hypoplastic stains showed visually perceptual improvements. The general clinical outcomes of the case was considered successful and recovered the patients’ self-esteem. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, it could be concluded that the resin infiltration technique shows promising results and could be considered a minimally invasive procedure for mild-to-moderate fluorosis and hypoplasia stains. Clinical significance • This case study allows a better understanding of the concept of resin infiltration technique applied in hypoplastic and porous lesions • Increasing its use as a therapeutic alternative for esthetic purposes in the philosophy of minimally invasive dentistry. • This treatment aims upon both prevention of caries progression and improving aesthetics by diminishing the opacity.

  27. Malaika Varma, Dr. Seema Sathe Kambala and Dr. Anjali Bhoyar Borle

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the post operative complaints in diabetic and non diabetic complete denture wearers. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare problems faced by diabetic and non diabetic complete denture wearers. Materials and Method: This study was done with a sample of 100 patients out of which half were diabetic and half were non-diabetic. A self-administered structured questionnaire pretested through a pilot survey was used in the study. The data was analyzed using the Graphpad Prism 7.0 version. Results: results show significant difference in almost all of the questions except appearance of white or reddish lesion, pain while eating, difficulty in speech, difficulty in chewing which were non significant between diabetic and non diabetic patients. Conclusion: Diabetic patients experienced more problems after wearing a complete denture as compared to non diabetic patients. The most frequent problem listed by 78 % of diabetic patient was bad smell.

  28. Gouranga Sarkar and Mousumi Dutta

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is presented with thrombocytopenia, recurrent foetal loss, arterial & venous thrombosis. Primary APS is common compared to secondary one. Here we presented a 25 years old male with progressive exertional chest heaviness over last one year and diagnosed as chronic stable angina. Coronary angiography (CAG) revealed acute thrombotic occlusion of proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery and underwent primary percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTCA) and stenting. Subsequently he received dual antiplatelet and anticoagulant.

  29. Dr. Gouri V. Anehosur, Dr. Pragnya Medappa, Dr. Salian Bhavya Keshav, Dr. Roseline Meshramkar, Dr. Aishwarya Nayak and Dr. Lekha, K.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hardness and flexural strength of yttrium stabilised zirconia ceramics after various low temperature aging using computerised micro hardness tester and universal testing machine respectively. Materials and methods: The study included blocks of yttrium stabilized tetragonal zirconia from two manufacturers (n=15) Group A-AIDITE (Qinhuangdao Technology Co., Ltd, Hebei, China) and Group B-UPCERA (Shenzhen Upcera Dental Technology Co., Ltd, Guangdong, China), for each brand were machined, sintered and glazed according to manufacturer’s specifications to mimic a final polished crown. The sintered blocks were of 40mm (length) ×5mm (width) ×3mm (height) in dimensions approximately. Specimens were artificially aged in distilled water by heat treatment at temperatures of 100°, 150° and 200°C for 10 hours each in order to induce phase transformation. These specimens after aging were individually evaluated for hardness using computerised microhardness tester (Reichert Austria microhardess tester) and flexural strength using universal testing machine (Unitest-10). Results: The results from hardness testing showed that the hardness was highest without aging. There was a considerable decrease in hardness in group B when compared to group A. The results from flexural strength evaluation showed a decrease in the mean flexural strength with aging in Group A. On the contrary, flexural strength was higher without aging. Furthermore, the flexural strength in group B kept fluctuating and was the highest when aged at 100°C. A sudden decrease in the flexural strength was noted when aged at 150°C. Conclusion: The in vitro tests conducted reveal that when low temperature aging was carried out at a temperature of 100°C for 10 hours, the hardness of Y-TZP ceramics decreased whereas the flexural strength increased. However, beyond this temperature of 100°C especially at 150°C and above, the flexural strength of both the materials started to decrease.

  30. Kamlesh Kunjbihari Nigam, Anshuman Sharma and Sanjeev Kumar Gupta

    Introduction: In year 2013, it was assessed that hospitals and medical institutes in Delhi were generating 70 tonnes/day of biomedical waste, of which only 10.7 tonnes/day were being treated properly.Violation of biomedical wastes rules by some hospitals was evident in some of the medical institutes. So, a study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Bhopal. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and awareness regarding biomedical waste management among health care workers in tertiary care hospital and to identify the areas of concern to take requisite corrective action. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in RKDF institute of medical sciences and research centre Bhopal. Sample size was 100 health care workers. Results: Among 100 questionnaires distributed, 30 respondents comprised of Doctors, 30 Nurses, 40 other (i.e technicians and paramedical staff). Period of work experience varied from less than 5 years (51%), 5–10 years (42%) and more than 10 years (7%) among the Health Care Workers. Conclusion: Knowledge and awareness among health care workers is required for managing hospital waste.

  31. Anna Zakrocka

    The maximum ability to utilize oxygen (VO2max) was observed in active duty marine reserves before and after the implementation of a high intensity interval training program (HIIT). Eleven males volunteered for this study of 32± 6 years of age and heights of 1.77 ± 0.08.With the implementation of HIIT in marine training protocol there was a significant difference seen in VO2max pre and post HIIT training p =.00. Paired t-tests were used to find differences between pre and post HIIT protocol on VO2MAX (alpha = 0.05). This is suggestive that HIIT is effective in improving VO2MAX. Further research should be done on HIIT and its effectiveness on VO2MAX. This should include but not be limited to larger sample sizes, control groups, and high volume training groups.

  32. Dr. Chetana H.K., Dr. Ranjani Shetty, Dr. Shivaprasad, S. and Dr. Ashok, L.

    Venous malformations are slow growing benign tumors of aberrant venous connections. They are clinically present in adults as bluish, soft, compressible lesions typically found on the face, limbs, or trunk. Rapid growth may occur during puberty, pregnancy or traumatic injury. Calcifications can be seen in these malformations. Here, we report a case of slow flow venous malformation in the floor of the mouth manifesting as a small bluish swelling which was subsequently treated with 3% sodium tetra decylsulfate. This paper provides a overall understanding regarding the presentation, investigations and management of small vascular lesions in the or ofacial region.

  33. Jose Maria Pereira de Godoy and Ana Carolina Pereira de Godoy

    The aim of this study is to warn about the evolution of meningococcal infection to sepsis and fulminant purpura which required the amputation of both legs. The case of a 2-year-11-month-old female infant is reported who was referred to the pediatrics emergency department of Hospital de Base in São José do Rio Preto, Brazil. The child was admitted to hospital without pulses in the lower extremities and changes in coagulation, thereby limiting any possibility of an surgical intervention involving the limbs. After four days of hospitalization, the distal cyanosis of the legs and feet progressed to necrosis. Bilateral infragenicular amputation was performed on the 26th day of hospitalization. The current case emphasizes the evolution of meningococcemia to bilateral infragenicular amputation. Despite all evolution in science over the last few decades, meningococcemia continues to result in high morbidity and mortality rates.

  34. Dr. Chandramouli, K., Dr. Pannirselvam, N., Dr. Vijaya Kumar, D., Sagar Reddy Avuthu and Anitha, V.

    The objective is to connect the two noteworthy streams of the state – Godavari and Krishna – to profit ranchers of Krishna and Guntur locale. Its essential goal is to utilize Godavari's surge waters for the adjustment of Krishna delta district that faces intense deficiency of water for water system from June to August. At present, an expected 80 TMC of the 3000 TMC of the Godavari's surge waters goes squander into the ocean consistently. Once the venture is settled, the overabundance water will be occupied to dry spell inclined Rayalaseema area. The development of the venture was finished at a quicker pace. The primary pump was authorized and water was conveyed from the Godavari into the Polavaram Right Main Canal, on 18 September 2015, inside 161 days from establishing the framework.

  35. Vinil Upendrababu, Sibbi Rani and Lakshmi R. Nair

    Congo fever is a widely distributed vector borne viral disease, seen in different regions of the world. CCHF virus (CCHFV), which belongs to the Nairovirus genus and Bunyaviridae family, is causative agent for this fatal condition. As this virus is highly pathogenic and easily transmissible it forms a threat on Human society and it has a fatality rate of 40-70%.The virus can be transmitted to human being either from animal which is exposed to tick or directly from tick. Human to human transmission is also common through their body secretion, this risk is more common among health professionals. The major symptoms include headache, hyper pyrexia, stomach ache, muscle pain, low blood pressure and flushed face. As the disease progresses, there is appearance of most severe hemorrhagic symptoms such as petechiae, ecchymosis, epistaxis, bleeding gums and emesis. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, antigen detection, serum neutralization and isolation of the virus by cell culture are the common diagnostic measures used for identifying viral infection. Even though there is no specific management is available for CCHF, immunotherapy and ribavirin have been approved by the World Health Organization for the treatment of CCHFV infection. Nevertheless educating the public regarding the risk factors and control measures can easily help to reduce the spread of this disease to a greater extent, It is very true particularly in developing countries as there is less resources.

  36. Dr. Geetha, K.R., Dr. Prabhu, R., Aravind, C. and Arun, T.

    Introduction: Edentulism is a common problem in geriatric patients. In order to restore function and esthetic of an edentulous patient, complete dentures are provided. One of the most important step in fabricating a complete denture is Impression making. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate common clinical practice concerning choice of impression materials and impression techniques used for complete denture fabrication by prosthodontists, general dental practitioners and other Dental specialists in Chennai. This survey is intended to know how the prosthodontists differ from general Practioners and other specialists on the basis of material selection and impression techniques undertaken while recording complete denture impressions. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2017 and June 2018 through self-administered surveys. The survey was sent to a random sample of 200 dentists residing in Chennai. Results: The results indicated that Prosthodontists when compared to other specialists and general Practioners adhering to conventional impression protocols. Conclusion: Most of the prosthodontists follow the conventional protocols and deliver the complete dentures in 6 visits along with Post insertion follow up. Skipping of the conventional protocols may lead to inaccurate prosthesis.

  37. Aulakh, B.S.

    The field of animal reproduction especially that dealing with dairy sector, has seen the application of many innovative and sophisticated techniques in the recent past. Sexing semen is one such technology that has attracted the attention equally of dairy professionals and farmers as well. This is based on the principle of flow cytometry combined with the X and Y sperm separation techniques that are available in the domains of standard physics and biological sciences. The well known particle counting machines in fluid media like Coulter Counters are employed in this methodology not primarily to count the particles passing through the medium but instead charging them differentially and then to coordinate and guide their motion to respective electropositive and electronegative sides of such an elaborate set up which also includes equipments like micro jet throwers and laser lights; also involving chemical treatments of sperms with chemicals like fluorescent dyes. The particles in this technology are no doubt the sperm cells and the entire process is based on the assumption that a size difference does exist between X and Y sperms because X sperm have nearly 3.8% more DNA than the Y one. This difference is then utilized in a way to differentiate such sperms, X or Y and assign different charge, positive or negative to them and then direct them to different electric fields and hence separate them. Sperms are very delicate structures and are likely to have their DNA damaged or tempered and hence get genetically modified and impaired and obviously various repercussions of such methodologies are nothing but well known. This will certainly have ominous fallouts for present and future generations.

  38. Dr. Luma Alsarraj and Dr. Amal M. Hammode

    Objective: To define the tubal factors as a cause of female infertility and compare between HSG and laparoscopy as valid diagnosis for tubal disease. Study setting: Infertility centre at Al-Batool Teaching Hospital in Mosul. Design: Descriptive case serial study. Study Participant: Three hundred infertile women attending Al-Batool infertility centre in Mosul. Intervention: (300) infertile women enrolled for this study from November 2006 to May 2008 (1.5 years), their age were between 17-43 years old. All the patients were evaluated by full history, medical and social, complete physical examination and investigation that include tests for ovulation, hormonal assay, Hysterosalpingography to detect tubal patency and laparoscopy once indicated. Both partners are seen at the initial visit. Main measures: evaluation of tubal patency, associated pelvic and peritoneal disease and to compare the validity of HSG versus laparoscopy in the diagnosis of tubal factor in the infertile women. Results: this study revealed that tubal factor was accounted for to 28.67% of female infertility, mainly in primary infertility in 72% of patients for a duration for more than 3 years of infertility. The site of obstruction in the right tube in 37% in compare to left tube in 23% of patients and distal more than proximal tubal obstruction in 59.31% and 40.69% respectively. The accuracy of HSG versus laparoscopy in the diagnosis of tubal factors in female infertility was in a sensitivity of 71.79% and a specificity of 95.53%. Conclusion: When comparing HSG and laparoscopy, laparoscopy should be considered as more perfect in the diagnosis of tubal pathology in the infertile women.

  39. Dr. Sanchit Menon and Dr. Deepshikha

    Allergic Rhinitis (AR) represents a global health problem. It is an extremely common disease worldwide, affecting 10 to 25% of the population. AR constitutes approximately 55% of all allergies seen in India. However, in India, AR still does not receive the attention it deserves by both patients, as well as, clinicians. This hospital based cross sectional retrospective study was done on 2525 patients who had attended E.N.T. OPD at a tertiary care hospital of Central India, with aim to study clinical profile and demographic factors of allergic rhinitis. Majority (72%) of the subjects were suffering from seasonal allergic rhinitis and 28% from perennial allergic rhinitis. Majority of the subjects (62%) belonged to low income category, followed by Middle income category (25.6%), and rest were upper income category (12.4%). The study reveals most common symptom in seasonal allergic rhinitis is nasal obstruction (p=0.0001) and in perennial allergic rhinitis is sneezing (p=0.18) and rhinorrhea (p=0.01) and these results are statistically significant. The symptom of rhinorrhoea was frequently seen in allergic rhinitis patients. Also nasal obstruction was distinct feature which could easily show the presence of allergic rhinitis. It was found that sign of transverse crease can also help us to find cases of perennial allergic rhinitis. Allergic shiners and allergic salute were also mostly seen in patients of allergic rhinitis which can also help us to distinguish cases of various type of rhinitis. The disease was more commonly found in younger age group and low income category.

  40. Bencharef, H., Bendari, M., Khoubila, N., Cherkaoui, S., Lamchaheb, M., Rachid, M., Quachouh, M., Madani, A. and Quessar, A.

    Background: Major hypercalcemia is a rare therapeutic emergency in lymphoma, its two most common causes are hyperparathyroidism and bone metastases, its clinical signs are not specific, which stresses the difficulty to formally establish a diagnostic etiology. Case presentation: we report a case of a 46-year-old man who presented with tumefaction of the left leg with inguinal lymphadenopathy of the same member, concluding to the diagnosis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) associated with major hypercalcémia (3,9mmol/l), the patient was hospitalized in intensive care, the serum calcium level was normalized only after the administration of two doses of bisphosphonates and a significant rehydration at the rate of 3l/ m2/24h. Conclusion: This case report shows, that hypercalcemia can revealed malignant hemopathy, and its draw attention to the difficulties of initial therapeutic management, which constitutes a real challenge between the establishment of rapid symptomatic and etiological treatment because any delay can put the patient's vital prognosis at risk.

  41. Sheshaprasad, Ruchika Nerurkar and Anuradha Pai

    The environment contains various microbial agents that have potential of causing diseases. Immunity plays an important role of protecting body from various causative agents by recognizing foreign agent and eliminating them from the body but sometimes these immune system acts against self-antigens. Thus, resulting into auto-immune diseases which affects multiple organs including oral cavity. Knowledge of these diseases is not only important to diagnose the diseases but also helps in treatment. This review was undertaken to highlight the hematological investigations used to assess the autoimmune diseases presented with oral manifestations.

  42. Charlene Rodrigues, Usha Krishnakumar and Josephine Wilson

    Background: Diabetes is emerging as a new epidemic in today’s era with the increase in obesity and sedentary lifestyles, affecting a large proportion of the female population extending to reproductive age group. It is well known to have short and long term consequences for the fetus and mother. Thus, proper control of diabetes in pregnancy is essential to ensure better obstetric outcomes. Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine the significance of HbA1c levels in third trimester in predicting adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Methods: It was a Prospective observational study of 100 pregnant women with diabetes who attended the antenatal clinic and delivered at St. Isabel’s hospital, Chennai from May 2017 to Oct. 2017. Pre-gestational diabetes was diagnosed according to ADA criteria and testing for GDM was done with 75g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) according to IADPSG criteria at the first visit and at 24 -28 weeks. Patients with diabetes were managed according to hyperglycemia control. Hba1c value in late third trimester or at time of delivery was noted and a value of < 6% was considered normal. Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes were noted and the data was compared using Chi-square test. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were used to compare association of HbA1c with various maternal and neonatal complications. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationship among various categorical variables. Results: Fetomaternal outcomes were compared among patients with HBA1c ≥6% and <6%. Adverse maternal outcomes when HbA1c was ≥6% included hypertension (42% vs. 6%, p<0.001, OR=11.7) and preterm labour (35% vs. 14%, p=0.01, OR=3.24). Spontaneous onset of labour (19% vs. 42%) when HbA1c was ≥6% with greater percentage of vaginal deliveries when HbA1c <6% (80% vs 20%). Neonatal outcome analysis revealed higher birth weight (51% vs. 39%, p=0.013) and greater incidence of LGA (45% vs. 3%, p<0.001, OR=27.5) with HbA1c ≥6%. Adverse neonatal metabolic complications included hypoglycemia (39% vs. 7%, p=0.001, OR=8.08), hyperbilirubinemia (58% vs. 29%, p=0.006, OR=3.39) and hypocalcemia (16% vs. 3%, p=0.016, OR=6.44). Regression analysis of various maternal and neonatal complications showed highest relation of third trimester HbA1c with maternal hypertension (p=0.002) followed by LGA (p=0.01). Conclusion: HbA1c is a sensitive tool for prediction of foetomaternal complication in patients with diabetes and should be advised to ensure optimum outcomes when self monitoring of blood glucose is not feasible.

  43. Dr. Bhavya Sharma, Dr. Ashutosh Nirola

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) have been discovered to induce strong angiogenic activity and proliferative capacity in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the regenerative effect of bFGF with and without synthetic alloplastic bone graft (bioactive glass) in periodontal infrabony defects. Methods and Material: Following initial periodontal therapy, 16 systemically healthy patients in the age group 20-65 yrs., having bilateral intrabony defects, were randomly assigned to two treatment groups using a split mouth design i.e. Group A treated with bFGF and bone graft and Group B treated with bFGF with absorbable collagen sponge (ACS). All the clinical parameters and radiographic measurements were performed at baseline and at different time intervals following surgical therapy. Results: In both thegroups, all clinical and radiographic parameters statistically improved from baseline. There were statistically insignificant differences in the values of plaque and gingival indices of both groups, but reduction in probing pocket depth and attachment gain were statistically significantly higher in group A than in group B at 24th week from baseline. Gain in height of alveolar bone was statistically significantly higher in group A than in group B at all the time intervals Conclusions: Although, both interventions resulted in greater clinical and radiographic improvement at various follow up visits., but impregnation of bFGF onto a bioactive glass improved the efficacy of FGF-2, this combination has potential for clinical applications.

  44. Voinov, V.A., Karchevsky, K.S. and Isaulov, O.V.

    A In acute lung injuries there is depression of surfactant activity, exacerbating respiratory failure. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that the main mechanism to reduce the surfactant activity is toxic pulmonary edema with the lung vessels porosity increase, allowing toxic substances to pass into the alveoli followed by inactivation of the surfactant. Exogenous surfactant preparations used are also inactivated by these toxic agents. Detoxification therapy is more pathogenetically justified, which helps to eliminate toxic porosity of the pulmonary vessels and resolve respiratory distress syndrome, including in newborns, without the need for exogenous surfactant preparations.

  45. Kavipriya, G.

    Background and purpose: Dengue virus is the fastest growing vector-borne disease today. According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are an estimated 400 million dengue infections each year in over 125 countries. The purpose of the present study is to assess the level of Knowledge and Practice about Dengue Fever among people. Materials and Method: A Quantitative descriptive design was adopted for the study. Health centres were selected randomly and a total of 60 samples were selected using convenience sampling technique. Structured questionnaire with interview schedule and 5 point rating scale was used to collect the data. For analyzing the data, descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) were used. Results: The result revealed that 33(55%) samples had fair knowledge, 27(45%) had good knowledge on dengue fever, 57(95%) samples had good practice and only 3(5%) had very good practice on Dengue Fever. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the level of Knowledge was fair but their Practice was good among peopleto control and prevent Dengue fever.

  46. Dheerendra Kumar Singh, Pavan Kumar Singh, Komal Khatri, Priyashree Joshi, Soumendu Bikash Maiti and Pragnajyoti Das

    Literature aims to have a comprehensive representation of wide array of orthodontic wires available for correcting dental irregularities or preserving the maintaining the existing tooth or teeth positions. The properties of these materials is explained in terms of stress strain relationship in response to external load. Wires considered to be one of the active components differ on the basis of various mechanical and physical properties under various stages of operation. The wires discussed are cobalt chromium wires, stainless steel wires, nickel titanium wires, alpha titanium wires and gold wires.

  47. Tejal Rajandekar, Pragati Ferwani and Dr. Umanjali Damke

    Background: Specifically, poor cervical posture during sleep, which is believed to increase biomechanical stresses on the cervical spine structure, can produce cervical pain, stiffness, headache and scapular arm pain resulting in low quality of sleep. A neutral position of spine maintains cervical spine curvature prevents any cervical waking symptoms by minimizing end range positioning of spinal segments. Maintenance of normal cervical curve is a good cervical posture and will maintain a healthy neck. Normal lordosis with neck in neutral position with respect to rotation and side flexion leads to relaxed spinal cord. Alterations in the cervical posture can lead to headache, arm pain, maybe even mid back pain problems. So it is important to know about the type of pillow being used by the person. Foam pillows tend to retain their shape and have more bounce; they do not offer much support to the spine. The type of mattress a person uses also affects the cervical spine curvature. All these factors may lead to increased stresses on the cervical spine. Objectives: To analyse and compare the effect of improved sleeping posture with respect to cervical spine as an intervention to pharmacological treatment on a. Pain at rest and movement in cervical region. b. Ranges of motion of cervical flexion, extension, side flexion (left and right) and rotation(left and right). c. Tightness of trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, levators, scalenes and pectorals in patients of cervical pain. Methodology: Patients coming to Orthopaedic OPD, GMCH Nagpur and complaining of cervical pain and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were divided into two groups. The patients were shown the proforma of study in a language they understood and their consent was taken. There was random allocation of subjects into two groups, that is, the patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were divided as per the following- Even number of patients were alloted to Group A and odd number to Group. They were assessed for the sleeping posture assumed by them during sleep by asking them about their sleeping posture as per the proforma and were asked to demonstrate their sleeping posture on the treatment table. The patients were enquired about type of pillow used by them, surface on which they slept and the position of neck in Supine, Side lying and Prone. Group A and Group B received pharmacological drugs namely analgesics, antacids and calcium as prescribed by the orthopaedician. Group B was put on an intervention of modified sleeping posture and head support conjunction with pharmacological treatment. Pre intervention measures of cervical range of motion, pain at rest and movement and tightness of the muscles were taken at the start of the study and post intervention measures were taken 7 days later for Group A and B. The results of the two were compared. Results: The relief in pain at rest and movement post 7 days for Group A was not significant but was significant for Group B. However the cervical range of motion and tightness of muscle showed no significant difference pre and post intervention for Group A and B. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that modification in the sleeping posture as an intervention to pharmacological treatment seems to be better at relieving cervical pain but seems to haveno effect on increasing on range of motion of cervical spine and relieving the tightness of the muscles, specifically trapezius, pectorals, scalene, sternocleidomastoid, levators.

  48. Dr. Swetha, T. S., Dr. Sathya Anandam and Dr. Vidya Pai

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common pathogens causing nosocomial infections. Metallo-β lactamases (MBL) have recently emerged as one of the most troublesome resistance mechanisms owing to their capacity to hydrolyze all β-lactams including carbapenems.. Objectives: To know the antibiotic susceptibility pattern in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Also, to detect MBL production and biofilm forming ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from various clinical isolates from our hospital. Materials and methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Microbiology, Yenepoya medical college, Mangalore, Karnataka for a period of three months (December 2017 to February 2018). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified from the clinical samples by standard microbiological techniques. The isolates were further subjected for antibiotic susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar. Phenotypic detection of Metallobetalactamse (MBL) was carried out by Combined Disk Diffusion Technique (IPM CDST) using imipenem (10μg) and imipenem (10μg) +EDTA (750μg) discs. Biofilm formation was detected using Tissue Culture Plate method. Results: In our study, total of 155 isolates of P.aeruginosa were collected. Most of the isolates were collected from pus samples(52.2%), followed by sputum & ET tip (20%). Maximum resistance was observed for ceftazidime (38.7%) and ciprofloxacin(34.8%) whereas polymyxin B(7.7%) and piperacillin-tazobactum(20.6%) showed lowest resistance. 19(12.2%) isolates exhibited ≥ 7 mm zone size enhancement indicating a positive MBL test.MBL production was seen highest among isolates from pus ( 42.1%),followed by urine(31.5%). MBL isolates were most sensitive to Polymyxin B (57.8%), followed by piperacillin –tazobactum 8(42.1%). 114(73.5%) isolates were strongly biofilm positive, 20(12.9%) were moderate and 21 (13.5%) were weak isolates. Out of 19 MBL producers, 14(73.6%) were strong biofilm forming isolates and 5 (26.3%) were moderate biofilm forming isolates. Conclusion: Though the prevalence of MBL in our study is lower when compared to other recent studies, an association between biofilm production and MBL production was observed. Routine detection of MBLs will ensure optimal patient care and timely introduction of appropriate infection control practices. The detection of biofilm production among P. aeruginosa may help in introducing newer techniques based on interference with biofilm formation.

  49. Dr. Kajol K. Shah, Dr. Snehal Amberkar, Dr. Devanand Shetty, Dr. Suyog Dharmadhikari and Dr. Arvind Shetty

    So far dental implants have taken over the field of dentistry as the most approachable method for replacement of missing teeth wherever possible. However as newer advances are being made to combat the existing hurdles of aesthetics and durability, a newer material for dental implants has been in revision. Zirconia has emerged as a new material for dental implants. This review article aims to review Zirconia based on its aesthetics, mechanical properties, surface roughness standards, biocompatibility, integration, bacterial colonization, soft tissue responses and compare it to the existing widely used titanium implants. Based on the reviews we conclude that zirconia has earned a valuable place in the field of dental implantology and further research and awareness of the same needs to be done to enhance the treatment standards provided to patients.

  50. Dr. Suad Abdul Zahra’a Al- Kaseer, Dr. Basima Al- Ghazali and Dr. Muna Kadhum Farhood

    The aim of our research is to study the OR in infertile patients by assessing hormonal status including basal FSH, LH, ovarian volume ,ovarian diameter, no. of small antral follicle, endometrial thickness, CCCT and femara challenge test. It was carried in the fertility center of Al-Saddar teaching hospital of Al-Najaf city from January 2009 to August 2009. A comparison was done between three groups: Control group (25 patients) without treatment. CCCT group (25 patients) with induction of ovulation by clomiphene citrate tab. And lastly femara challenge test group treated by letrozole tab. In day 2 of MC history was taken about age, cause of infertility, type of infertility, and duration of it. After history, measurement of hormonal level of FSH, LH and TVUS done to all patients and measured ovarian diameter, ovarian volume, endometrial thickness and no. of small antral follicle. In day 10 of MC all these measurement repeated, divided our studied groups into 2 groups according to FSH level (< 12mIu/ml regarded as normal FSH groups and >12 mIu/ml regarded as abnormal FSH groups) and study the effectiveness of CCCT and femara challenge tests in assessing OR by measurement of ovarian volume, ovarian diameter, no. of antral follicle and endometrial thickness. We conclude that CCCT and femara challenge tests had better predictive value than measurement of basal FSH day 2 in assessment of OR.

  51. Harish Kumar Hanumappa, Rakesh S Ramesh, Sunder Raj Ellur, Pradeep Hopkins, P., Diviya K Kariappa and Raxit sringeri and Sushil joseph rao

    Background: Cutaneous malignancies are relatively rare in Indian subcontinent compared to western part of the world. Rarity of its incidence could be due to protective effects of melanin.Though it is the largest organ by surface area, occurrence of cutaneous malignancy is quite less compared to other organs. Presentation is usually earlier due to the fact that it is easily noticeable. Objective:To determine the age and sex incidence, common site of presentation, type of histology,optimal management and its outcome, also avoidable risk factors. Methods: It is retrospective analysis of all the cutaneous malignancies diagnosed and managed in the department of surgical oncology at tertiary care hospital from January 2016 to December 2018. Results: With this background, we present 15 cases of cutaneous malignancies which were managed over period of 3 years.3 cases were melanoma and 9 cases were squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma was the final diagnosis in another 3cases. Surgical excision with adequate margins were done in 13 cases and palliative chemotherapy was given in one case and no cancer directed treatment was given in a case which had extensive skin lesion on scalp with poor general condition of the patient. Conclusion: Increasing incidence of cutaneous malignancy should alert the clinicians to create awareness regarding warning signs of skin cancer. Nonsurgical options needs to be considered especially in syndromic conditions and inoperable situations. Surgery with adequate margins offers the best option of cure.

  52. Dr. Sujatha BK, Dr. Mayurnath T Reddy and Dr. Pooja Pathak

    Aims: To assess the perception about career opportunities in public health dentistry among post graduate students. Settings and Design: A cross sectional survey was carried out in the Department of public health dentistry among the post graduate students in the Dental Institutions in Bangalore city. Methods and Material: The survey was carried out using self-structured, pre-tested, close-ended questionnaire administered to 79Post Graduate students which included written consent to participate in the study, demographic details & questions pertaining to perception about career opportunities which were 12 in number. Statistical analysis used: Chi-Square test was done for categorical variables using SPSS version 22. Results: In the present study, majority of the Post Graduate Students perceived that they have a role in clinical procedure, health education at clinical level, to train other health professionals, regarding oral health, to provide oral health information at media level, planning & evaluation of public health programs and role of Public Health Dentist at school whereas, only a few were unaware that they have a role to play in teledentistry, fiscal measures, advocacy and lobbying. Conclusions: The specialty needs to be projected well among post graduate students to increase their interest in the discipline as an attractive and viable career option.

  53. Dr. Poonam Muniya, Dr. Ravi Thakkar, Dr. Naren Amin and Dr. Kamlesh Patel

    Background: Some psychiatric disorder has been started during childhood. Often they have long duration of illness and if not treated it affect children’s ability in achievement of school, developing relationship in society and family and lead to significant impairment in personal life. Assessment of psychiatric behavior and treat co morbid psychological condition may lead to improved functioning and prevent chronology. Aims • Assessment of Psychiatry behaviour in pediatric patients of 6-12 years age. • Early recognition and prevention of impairment in social-occupational and interpersonal life of their future. Material and Methods: Study was carried out in C.U. Shah medical college and Hospital Surendranagar .The participants were the pediatric patients who were attending the pediatric OPD. Study was carried out in 2 month .The guardian of the patients were explained about the study, consent was taken and then information gathered regarding behavior from guardian. The patients were detailed evaluate for behavior and mental status examination was done. The diagnostic criteria of DSM-5 was used for clinically assess the behavior problem. Results: Study included 50 patients of which 30 were male children and 20 were female children. The age of participants was 6-12yrs.The behavior problem was found to be 36%. Male children were found to have learning disability, school refusal, headache, ADHD, mood disorder (Bipolar disorder), intellectual disability. Female children were found to have conversion disorder, intellectual disability, schizophrenia, depression, Obsessive and compulsion spectrum disorder, school refusal. Conclusion: As early assessment of psychiatric problem and behaviour prevent chronology of disorder, and provide appropriate treatment through psycho-educating the parents about illness and it’s prevention.

  54. Dr. Sudesh Sharma, Dr. Sonali Sharma, Dr. Shashi Sudan, Dr. Konika Razdan, Sourab Singh Sambyal and Dr. Priyanka Sharma

    The rapid emergence of more and more resistant strains of microorganisms is a matter of concern for the scientists world over. As the advances in science are coming up with better and better antibiotics, the irrational use by the clinicians for fast relief makes them ineffective and resistant as the organisms mutate in their genetic process. The emergence of MRSA and multidrug resistant strains of most bacteria such as Superbug’s has become an utmost challenge to mankind. Bone infection is resistant to treatment due to multiple reasons inherent to bone itself. Therefore, before the infective organisms make deep inroads in the bone, it’s important to recognise these microbes early when they are superficial and put the patients on appropriate bactericidal drugs to which they are sensitive, for adequate length of time so as to ensure complete recovery. The present study gave us overall insight to the prevalence of various microorganisms and their sensitivity and resistance pattern, in our region. The study highlighted that Staphylococcus aureus was more prevalent in bone infections (29.1%) and MRSA formed 35.7% of it. Another factor to take care was high prevalence of Gram negative organisms with high percentage of resistant strains (14%).

  55. Dr. Indu Dhiman

    Introduction: Head and cervical posture relationship has been a concern for many years because changes in head posture and its functional alterations can be related to craniofacial morphology. Changes in head posture also affect the upper and lower lip pressure which can presumably influence the inclination of the incisor .So, the aim of the present study was to investigate association between head posture, dental arch crowding and inclination of incisors. Material and Methods: The sample for the study consists of 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) were divided into two groups: group 1 crowding larger than 2mm (50 males & 50 females) and another with crowding smaller or equal to 2mm (50 males & 50 females) as determined by Nance space analysis. Difference in variables studied on lateral radiograph which was taken with subjects made to stand in Natural Head Position were analyzed using Student’s unpaired “t” test. Results: The results shows significant association of head posture with dental arch crowding and inclination of incisors (p<0.05). Conclusions: (1) There is significant association between an increase in craniocervical angulation and dental arch crowding and inverse relationship between an increase in craniocervical angulation and inclination.

  56. Dr. Nehal R. Parikh, Dr. Harsha Makwana, Dr. Shikha V. Sood, Dr. Supriya D. Malhotra and Dr. Pankaj Patel

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a serious mental disorder characterized by episodes of depression, hypomania/mania and mixed episodes, with inter episodic recovery. For over 60 years, lithium carbonate has been used as first-line therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder as mood-stabilizing drugs. Lithium is probably more effective in preventing mania than depression, and reduces the risk of suicide in people with BPD. Neurological disturbances caused by lithium range from simple side effects to acute neurotoxicity. Here we have reported case report of A 57-year-old Hypertensive female presented to the emergency department with lithium toxicity. This adverse drug reaction (ADR) after excluding other causative factors was categorized under “ Probable” category and reported via vigiflow. All the medications were stopped immediately and she was then subjected to two sessions of hemodialysis. She was also given IV fluid hydration with normal saline. On discharge she was conscious and psychologically stable. Being vigilant for the early signs and symptoms of lithium toxicity can help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment. Narrow therapeutic index remains a major limitation of lithium treatment as it requires close monitoring and identification of neurologic adverse events.In clinical practice it has been observed that valproate is replacing lithium for elderly patients with bipolar disorder because valproic acid offers comparable efficacy, and the advantage of greater safety.

  57. Dr. Gazanfer Ali Shah, Dr. Suhail Majid Jan and Dr. Reyaz Ahmad Mir

    Background: Furcation area offer unique and challenging problems, creates situations in which routine periodontal procedures are somewhat limited and special procedures are generally required. Materials and Methods: This study is comparative evaluation of DFDBA+ CGF +PRF versus open flap debridement with PRF in grade II/III furcation with follow up of 12 months. The study population included 30 subjects, who visited the out-patient department of periodontics, Govt Dental College and Hospital Srinagar with complaint of bleeding and sensitivity, diagnosed as chronic periodontitis. After conducting routine examinations, Relative attachment and probing depth were measured. The measurement of Relative attachment was made with ocllusal stent as guiding value. Probing depth was made with UNC-15 periodontal probe. Furcation depth was measured with Probe (UNC-15). Furcation defect was filled with CGF+PRF+DFDBA in test group and open flap debridement with PRF in control group, flap was coronally advanced in both test and in control group. Results: Concentrated growth factor and PRF with DFDBA have been shown to be a promising and successful approach for the treatment of furcation defect. Its gaining clinical attachment significantly manages both the gingival recession and furcation involvement simultaneously. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, significant improvement with autologous CGF+PRF+DFDBA implies its role as a regenerative material in the treatment of furcation defects.

  58. Nachammai, SM., Dr. Karthika Jayakumar, Vinithra Suresh and Kousalya, M.

    Background: E. coli accounts for up to 80% of UTI. Emergence of MDR and ESBL enzyme producing E. coli is increasing which are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Phenotypic expression of the gene depends on gene regulation. Aim: To determine the prevalence of UPEC, rate of MDR strains, to characterize phenotypic screening and genotypic characterization of the ESBL producing genes among uropathogenic E. coli. Materials & Methods: Urine samples from suspected UTI patients were inoculated in Blood agar, MacConkey agar, Hicrome agar for identification and confirmation done by biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility done using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method against 14 antibiotics and phenotypic ESBL screening, confirmation detected using double disc synergy test. DNA extraction was done by boiling lysis method. ESBL genes - bla TEM, bla SHV, bla CTX-M detected using PCR. Results: 423 (45.8%) were culture positive from 924 samples, with E. coli 212 (50.1%). Based on the results of antibiotic susceptibility test 65 (30.6%) were MDR E. coli. Phenotypically, 133 were non-ESBL and 79 (37%) ESBL producing isolates. Genotypically, 81 (38%) isolates had bla TEM (55.6%), bla SHV (11.1%), bla CTX-M (61.7%). Isolates possessing single type of gene and combination among three genes were also noted. Conclusion: E. coli being more prevalent and CTX-M found in many isolates. Variation in phenotypic expression and genetic detection were observed. Further studies are necessary for insight knowledge of phenotypic and genotypic importance, emergence of other uncommon ESBL genes.

  59. Françoise Schmitt, Emilie Eyssartier, François Bastard, Jean-Claude Granry and Guillaume Podevin

    Background: Simulation in laparoscopic training has gained wide acceptance but long-term retention after basic skills training for novices has seldom been explored, and transfer to more complex surgical interventions remains controversial. Objective: To assess (i) skills retention at more than six months after initial training and (ii) skills transfer to a simulated surgical procedure. Methods: Prospective comparative study of simulated surgical training. Nine six-year medical students had two training sessions on the Simbionix LAP Mentor™'s "basic skills". They completed a 4-task workshop six months later as well as a cholecystectomy module. For the latter, their results were compared to those of another group of 9 participants who had never trained on laparoscopic simulation. Evaluation was assessed by the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) global rating scale and by LAP Mentor™'s metrics. Results: For basic skills training, the median OSATS score improved from 17 (10-21) during the first session to 25 (2-27) in the second one (p=0.009), remaining at 24 (19-26) in the third session 6 months later. These results were consistent with metrics scores such as total time and path length of instruments. As regards completion of the cholecystectomy, median OSATS scores were comparable between trained and novice participants (21 vs. 23), and LAP Mentor™'s metrics even showed a tendency towards better performance for novices. Conclusions: Laparoscopic high fidelity simulation seems efficient for long-term retention even after short training, but has not proved to be effective on skills transfer to more complex surgical procedures for non-experienced students.

  60. Ashish Mahamuni, M.I. Parkar, Nilesh Patil, Kumar Nilesh and Sanika Kulkarni

    Aim – The aim was to compare the efficacy of anti-inflammatory effect of dispersible Piroxicam and dispersible Diclofenac sodium in patients undergoing surgical removal of mandibular third molar. Materials and Methods -The study comprised of thirty patients with bilaterally impacted mandibular third molars. Split mouth study design was employed. The right side served as the Study Side, given tablet Piroxicam 20 mg twice daily and the left side served as the Control Side given Diclofenac sodium 50 mg thrice daily. Subjective and objective evaluation were carried out for pain, swelling, and trismus for the postoperative period at 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, and 1 hour, 1st, 3rd and 7th days. Results -Pain intensity postoperatively at 15 min, 30 min, 45 min,1 hour, 2nd, 3rd and 7th day was less on Study Side than Control Side and the difference in intensity was statistically significant (p<0.001). Also, there was statistically significant reduction in the swelling on 7th day. However, there was no significant difference in trismus seen on both sides over the follow up period. Conclusion - Piroxicam 20 mg given 12 hourly after the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars provided a profound degree of analgesia. Piroxicam had superior analgesic effect when compared with Diclofenac.

  61. Dr. Vignesh, T., Dr. Gopalakrishnan and Dr. Rashmi gaur

    Background: Maternal Mortality and Morbidity remains high even though several national programmes exists for improving maternal and child health in India. This could be related to several factors, an important one being is non-utilisation or poor utilisation of antenatal health-care services, especially among rural population. Objectives: To estimate the utilisation of maternal health care services in the rural area. To assess the factors influencing their utilisation of maternal health care services. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study among 284 mothers in the field practice area of Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, whom were selected using simple random sampling technique. The data regarding the utilisation were obtained using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Results: In this study 35% were illiterates, nearly 60.21% have got registered with the Government sector, 59.51% of the mothers had four or more antenatal visits, 64.08% have received two doses of tetanus toxoid, and 73.24% have taken iron and folic acid tablets, proportional of women who received full antenatal care is 41.2%. The factors which were identified to have statistically significant association with better utilisation of antenatal health services were age >30 years, higher educational status, skilled workers, those having their first child and higher socioeconomic class. Conclusion: From this study, it had been identified the fact that antenatal health care services were not utilised fully by the population in the rural area of Kanchipuram district. So, strengthening of awareness regarding the maternal health care services and its importance of reducing the maternal mortality and morbidity is still required in rural area of Tamil Nadu.

  62. Neera Samar, R.L. Meena, Gurdeep Kaur, Gautam Bunkar, Satish Kumar, Mayank Sharma, Neeraj Nirala, Shiv Shankar Sarkar, Yogesh Kumar Mishra and Rohit Jain

    Objective: Comparative study of the adverse effects of antiretroviral drug regimen ZLN and TLE as first line ART in the initial 3 months of starting of therapy in 300 patients in MBGH,Udaipur, Rajasthan. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. Patient’s records were obtained from ART Centre, MBGH Udaipur from starting of HAART to 3 months of treatment for clinical and laboratory evidence of toxicity as per NACO protocol. Results: Total 300 patients were observed. Most common side effect was anemia mostly associated with Zidovudine based regimens followed by drug hypersensitivity and hepatotoxicity which was with nevirapine based regimen. Least was neuropsychiatric side effects which was with Tenofovir and Efavirenz based regimen. Drug hypersensitivity seems to be the most serious of the early toxicities & is the most common causes for interruption in ART. Conclusion: With introduction of new NACO guidelines in November 2014, TLE regimen was chosen over ZLN in all new HIV patients. The reason for such an important step taken by NACO can be easily understood by the results and observation of this study as TLE regimen is superior to ZLN regimen.

  63. Kanniyan Binub

    Background: Substance abuse has a broader perspective than an individual, emphasizing the role of society and culture. And the relevance of substance abuse in medical students is of more growing concern. Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitude and practice substance abuse among medical students. Materials and Methods: A Cross Sectional study was done among 200 medical students with predesigned questionnaire. Respondents were graded in to good knowledge and attitude, if they responded to at least 50% of the questions correctly and poor knowledge and attitude if less than 50% of the medical students fail to answer. Practice was reported good among students, if more than 80% of them were not consuming the substances and bad if about 30% were involved in substance usage. Results: Majority of students have adequate knowledge and positive attitude towards substance abuse. 4.5% students are males who were found to be smokers. None of them use alcohol or any form of addictive drugs. Conclusion: Since few of the students are smokers adequate counseling sessions have to be arranged .Some do not have adequate knowledge regarding substance abuse, so more training sessions need to be incorporated into medical curriculum.

  64. Dr. Sundus Jasim Mohammed

    Background: Squint (strabismus) is deviation of one of both eyes which can be paralytic (incomitant) or non_paralytic is due to many causes one of them the refractive error ( hypermetrobia, myopia and astigmatism).Strabismus may be esotropia (inward deviation of the eye) exotropia (outward deviation of the eye) / hypertropia ( upward deviation of the eye) or hypotropia (downward deviation of the eye).Hypermetropia (long-sightedness): Is a common eye condition where nearby objects appear blurred, but the vision is clear when looking at things further away. Hypermetropia in children. Is usually genetic. Babies and young children may suffer from hypermetropia, but this should eventually correct itself. This happens as the eyeballs lengthen as they grow. However, a lazy eye may develop as a result. This is because the eye with the weakest vision is ignored by the brain. If this is not corrected in young children, there is a risk that the weaker eye will never see as the other eye, where is squint happen. Objective: this study amid to detected the correlation between squint and hypermetropia as the hypermetropia is the major cause of squint of children under 6 years old age. Method: This study conducted from November 2017 to March 2018. 100 cases from Ibn AL_Haytham hospital 45 male (45%) 55 female (55%) with squint (esotropia) their age from 5 months to 5 years are examined their refractive error. Results: in this study 100 cases of squinting eye of children age from 5 months to 5 years (45 mal and 55 female) where examine in Ibn AL_Haytham hospital from November 2017 to March 2018 according to the age and sex the result that 99% (mostly esotropia) got hypermetropia. Conclusion: There is correlation between squint and hypermetropia mostly in children so in this study 100 cases of squinting eye of children age from 5 months to 5 years (45 males and 55 female) where examine in Ibn AL_Haytham hospital the result that 99% (mostly esotropia) got hypermetropia (1.25 diopter to 8 diopter). This study highlights the close associations between refractive error (hypermetropia) and the prevalence of Squint (esotropia), which should be considered when managing childhood refractive error.

  65. Janarthanan, P., Vairavan, K., Ladha J. K., Agnesh Padre, Ravi, V. and Rajendran, R.

    On a global basis, the combined agricultural emissions of Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) account for about 20% of the annual increase in radiative forcing of climate change. Quantification of these gas emissions from soil is difficult because of their large spatial and temporal variability. Field experiments were carried out at Tamil Nadu, South India during 2010-2011 quantifies the green house gas (GHG) emissions from conventional flooded rice – rice and futuristic maize – rice cropping systems with minimum tillage. Futuristic system reduced seasonal methane emission in rabi rice by ten times (66.6 to 6.5 kg CH4 ha-1) as compared to conventional rice-rice system. Significant amounts of N2O emission were also observed during the early stage of the kharif rice under conventional system (9.98 kg N2O ha-1) that might probably due to nitrate accumulation from previous black gram crop. Seasonal N2O emission in maize increased from 2.47 to 8.07 kg N2O ha-1with increasing N levels from 0 to 300 Kg N ha-1. The CO2 emissions measured were only from dark respiration since opaque chambers were used. It was only in the maize plots that significant CO2 emissions were detected. The CO2 emission rates were higher at initial stage of crop growth with maximum rate of 10066 mg m-2 d-1. System rice equivalent yield increased by around 58% under the futuristic as compared to the conventional system mainly due to better rice yields during rabi rice under the futuristic as compared with the conventional system.

  66. Edwin-Wosu, N. L. and Nkang, A. E.

    Several contributions on the ecological interaction between hydrocarbon and soil habitat-water relationship in different parts of Niger Delta have been revealed. Based on demonstrated remediation potential of plants species, this study was aimed evaluating the suitability of three species (Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) Heyne, Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) De wit. and Crotolaria retusa Linn.) of the Fabaceae family for the restoration of infiltration rate of crude oil impacted Niger Delta soil habitat. Standard field and laboratory methods of data collection and analyses were adopted. Result showed varying increase in water repellency with increased time across pollution levels. It has also evaluated the trajectories of water movement in the phytoapplication restoration based on species biological performance and infiltration time rate of the species treated sandy loam soil. Peltophorum pterocarpum among the species recorded greater performance due to its restoration potential of the infiltration dynamics of the post-polluted soil. This was attributed to its ability in the improvement of the soil porosity, texture, structure, particle density (PD), and reduces bulk density (BD), organic matter (OM), highest hydrocarbon removal efficiency (low THC content), enhanced accumulation quotient and root formation. It can thus be proposed as part of a bioremediation integradation in environmental restoration programme.

  67. Grzegorz Wałowski

    The issue of the mechanism of biogas flow through the adhesive bed was described and flow analogy was made for the porous structure model. With regard to the problem of biogas flow through the adhesive bed, the process issue was recognized in the description of the mechanism of gas movement in the porous structure for the development of a new generation of alternative energy sources, especially biogas production from swine slurry. The paper presents preliminary results of experimental tests in the field of hydrodynamics evaluation of biogas flow through an adhesive bed. The gas flow resulting from overpressure forcing this flow was assumed as the basis for the assessment of hydrodynamics of biogas flow. The measurement results indicate a clear influence of the flow resistance in relation to the gas permeability coefficient of the bed.

  68. Femi-Adepoju, A. G., Adepoju, A. O., Fatoba, P. O. and Olayemi, V.T.

    Plants that serve medicinal purposes contain phytoconstituents. These phytoconstituents are responsible for therapeutic uses of them. Nanomedicinal focus has majorly been on higher plants. Recently, nanomedicine have gained global attention in medicine. In this study, a cost effective and eco-friendly technique for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using 1mM, 2mM and 5mM AgNO3 solutions with the extract of a fern Phymatode scolopendria as reducing and capping agent was described. The silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR), Energy Dispersive Spectrum (EDS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and XRD. The biosynthesized nanoparticles also were subjected to antimicrobial activities and compared with standard antibiotics. The result showed that the fabricated AgNPs as shown by the TEM image are spherical nano particles with an average size of 12.41nm. The XRD result shows that the AgNPs are considerably crystalline and polydispersed. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activity against the bacterial pathogens Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli but showed least activity against the fungus Candida albicans, hence, Phymatode AgNPs are good antimicrobial agents.

  69. Patil, U. S. and Kutemate, O. G.

    The present study attempt to evaluate the preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial studies in tuber extract of Corallocarpus epigaeus (Rottl. and Willd.) Hook. f. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of samples in different solvent extract confirms the presence of various phytochemicals like Carbohydrates, Saponins, Tannins, Flavonoid, Alkaloids, Glycosides, Proteins, Phytosterol, Steroids, Phenols and Terpenoids. The solvent Petroleum ether, Benzene, Acetone, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate and aqueous extract showed good results. Disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity against Salmonella tiphy, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, antifungal activity against Candida albicans, and antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica. It has been observed that the samples in different solvent tuber extract showed antibacterial, antifungal, and antiprotozoal activities by the formation of inhibitory zone. It may be attributed due to the presence of phytochemicals and may be used as antimicrobial agents.

  70. Pratibha and Anjali Mathur

    Child neglect also called psychological abuse which is defined as a failure by a child's caregiver to meet a child's physical, emotional, educational, or medical needs (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2012). Forms of child neglect include: Allowing the child to witness violence or severe abuse between parents or adult, ignoring, insulting, or threatening the child with violence, not providing the child with a safe environment and adult emotional support, and showing reckless disregard for the child's well-being (Child Neglect and Psychological Abuse, 2011). The present study aims to assess the socioeconomic status and gender negligence among children of Allahabad city. A total sample of 300 children comprising of 100 children each (50 boys and 50 girls) from lower, middle and upper socio economic groups were selected using stratified random sampling technique for the study. Socio Economic Status scale by Kuppuswamy (1962) revised by Gururaj and Maheshwaran (2014) was used to ascertain the socio economic status of the selected respondents. To assess the socio economic status and gender negligence, a self made questionnaire was administered to the selected children in the age group of 7-12 years. The study revealed a highly significant gender variation in neglect among respondents belonging to lower, middle as well as upper socioeconomic groups, wherein girls were subjected to higher level of neglect in case of all the three socio economic groups.

  71. Dr. Moussavou Guy, Dr. Okoua Béatrice Perpetue and Dr. Ekondi Fulbert

    Evalation is defined as a process which enables to get an award on developed competences in order to decide or to act. This study has bean performed upon the analysis of the evalution of reading activity concerning the Elementary Primary Studies Certificate (Certificat d’Etudes Primaires Elémentaires). It starts from hypothesis: there is a gap between the Institutional prescription about the evaluation of reading activity and the reality of that evaluation concerning the Elementary Primary Studies Certificate. Some inquiries have been hold through semi-controlled conversations in Brazzaville with both scolar Circumspections of Madibou and Makélékélé I, by Inspectors, Heads of scolar circumpections, Inspectors in charge of pédagogical activities, Principal Pédagogical Counsellors, Headmasters and active teachers with a sample of forty (40) topics. The results obtained through this research show that the oral examination of reading is not done upon the basis of protocole of evaluation officially prescribed with non-standard tools. The examiners oral instructions. By the same token, scientic community should provide to examiners a scale of marks about reading. They should first be trained before the oral evaluation not without developing their intellectual intuition.

  72. Rwigema Pierre Celestin, Mike A. Iravo, Gregory Namusonge and Ephantus Wanderi

    Background: The general objective of the study was to examine the role of political leadership in electoral process and political stability in the East African Community States. To achieve the general objective this study was evaluate the relationship between post-election phase processes and political stability in the East African Community States. This study adopted a quantitative approach of both descriptive and correlation designs. The target population consisted of 123 individuals working within the electoral commissions of different EAC Countries and the EAC Legislative Assembly. Primary data was collected using self-administered questionnaire. The study used primary data, which was collected using questionnaires. The questionnaires were both open and close ended. The study used email, phone calls and meeting procedure with the targeted respondent in EAC Countries and the EAC Legislative Assembly to follow up. Data collected from the field were coded, cleaned and categorized according to questionnaire items. A pilot test was conducted to detect weaknesses in design and instrumentation. The gathered data was analyzed using computer aided IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 premium. Both descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyze the data collected. Descriptive statistics involved computation of mean scores, standard deviation, percentages, cross tabulation and frequency distribution which described the demographic characteristics of the organization and the respondents. Inferential statistics was used to determine the relationships and significance between independent and dependent variable. Correlation and linear regression were used to analyze the data with F-test being applied to the test hypothesis at 5% level of significance. Content analysis was used for the qualitative data. The data was presented using tables, graphs and charts. The data was presented using tables, graphs and charts. Regression analysis was performed in order to determine whether the independent variable, election phase processes could be reliable for explaining the change in the dependent variable, political stability in East Africa region. Regression analysis was performed in order to determine whether the independent variable, post-election phase processes could be reliable for explaining the change in the dependent variable, political stability in East Africa region. The coefficients obtained indicate that the correlation coefficient (R) between the independent variable and the political stability was 0.811 which is a positive correlation relationship. Table 4.24 shows a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.658, which means that this variable alone can explain up to 65.8% of the variations in the dependent variable, political stability. Recommendation for improvement can be drawn from the study conclusions; moderating role of political leadership was reported to be persistent in the study area, the government should consider extending the law branch to the rest of the east Africa community state through screening, supporting of law moderation groups locked out by stringent east Africa community state program approval procedures in order to ensure that most people are reached out in the program.

  73. Onyemata, E.K and Ibrahim, R.O

    Aims: This study was carried out to examine the fungi associated with the spoilage of some fruits in Wuse Market, Abuja. Materials and Result: In this study, five different kinds of fruits were collected from Wuse market and examined for Fungi growth using Potato dextrose agar and the pathogenicity of the isolated fungi was confirmed using Koch's postulate. Six fruits spoilage fungi were isolated and identified as follows: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger complex, Mucor racemosus, Mucor species and Fusarium species Aspergillus species had the highest occurrence in various fruits with the frequency 52% followed by Mucor species with frequency 33% and Fusarium species had the least occurrence with the frequency of 13%.However, more than one fungus colonies were found associated with some fruits sample like Pineapples and Apples while fruits like oranges and watermelon had just one colony of fungi isolated from them and no fungi were isolated from fruits like tomatoes. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Mucor species were isolated from fruits like Apples. Mucor species and Mucor racemosus from Oranges, A. niger complex, Mucor species, Fusarium species and A. flavus from pineapples, and Fusarium species was found isolated from one out of three of the watermelon samples. Conclusion: The pathogenicity test revealed that each fungus isolate was capable of causing plant diseases in healthy fruits and otherwise poses a potential environmental health hazard and less desirable for human consumption. Significance and Impact of Study: The alarming rate of food poisoning in Nigeria necessitates that more awareness is created to mitigate the rise in this malady. This research conducted in the metropolitan market of Abuja serves as a public awareness to the populace and also the regulatory bodies, the possible impact of consumption of unhealthy fruits.

  74. Buhari Armiyau Khalid, Yahaya Kaka and Hashim Tukur

    This study was conducted to analyze the resource use efficiency of cassava production in Kebbi State, Nigeria. One Local Government was selected from the Four Agricultural Development Zones of Kebbi State. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting the five (5) villages and the five (5) farmers. Inputs-output data was collected from fifty farmers each from one Local Government, making a total sample size of 200 farmers. Data was analyzed using production function model and marginal analysis model. The double-log regression functional form of the production function analysis was selected as the equation that best fit the data. Results shows that fertilizer and labor are significant at 5% (p<0.005) level while cuttings and agro chemical inputs are significant at 1% (p<0.001) level of significance. The efficiency ratio for fertilizer, cuttings, labor and agro chemicals are 3.8, 7.2 1.8 2.8 respectively, which shows that the resources were under-utilized to the economics optimum level. While the efficiency ratio for farm tools were 0.032 which show over utilization of these resources to the economics optimum level. The elasticity of production was 1.5 indicating increasing returns to scale.

  75. Sudhir Chandra Das, Shreya Das and Jagatpati Tah

    Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) is a precious timber plant which has been serving the world’s population since human civilization. It (S. album L.) grows in sandy alluvial or laterite soil having adequate edaphic as well as environmental factors. But it ensures its survivility when host plants are available in its surrounding root zone. It has also been found that host is no more required for its growth and development after 3-4 years. Demand for sandalwood and oil is increasing and the gap between demand and supply is widening. To bridge the gap, afforestation programme is aimed at for increasing the productivity. Considering all these facts a venture was undertaken to conduct an experiment for its mass cultivation in the forest gardens under Bankura(S) and Bankura(N) Forest Divisions in West Bengal. The aim and objective of the study is to observe the influence of soil nutrients of the locations on the growth and development of Santalum album L. in this tract.

  76. Navjot Kaur

    Thalassemia are forms of inherited autosomal recessive blood disorders, characterized by abnormal production of hemoglobin and associated with low hemoglobin production and excessive destruction of red blood cells. Parents of thalassemic children have concerns regarding treatment for their children. There is a significant psychological impact on parents like emotional burden, hopelessness, and difficulty with social integration. They experience negative thoughts about their life, guilt, increased anxiety and low self-esteem. The immense medical cost makes a huge financial burden on the families of thalassemic children, which is of a major concern for the poor families. An exploratory study was conducted on 60 parents of 1-18 years old thalassemic children visiting thalassemia unit of DMC & Hospital, Ludhiana for treatment. An interview schedule was used to collect data. Results revealed that 35.0% of children were between age group 1-6 years. More than half of the children i.e. 57.7% were males, 58.34% of the parents had mild psychosocial burden, and Majority i.e., 70.00% of parents of thalassemic children feel some difficulties meeting the expenditure on their child’s treatment.

  77. Moumita Chattopadhyay and A. K. Mandal

    Dry dressing treatments in harvest fresh mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.). R. Wilczek) seeds (cv. chaiti) with chemicals (viz., bleaching powder, ferulic acid, Iodinated calcium carbonate, Calcium carbonate), pharmaceutical formulations (viz., aspirin), finely powdered crude plant materials (viz., red chilli powder, amla powder ) and wet treatment (viz., soaking-drying, moist sand conditioning drying and moist sand conditioning soaking drying) effectively controlled the loss of seed deterioration after subsequent storage under ambient conditions. The field performance and productivity of dry and wet treated seeds were also significantly improved than the untreated control. Among the treatment, amla, red chilli powder and ferulic acid have shown better results in extending longevity and increasing field performance and productivity. Physiological and biochemical studies revealed that a significantly reduced leakage of electrolytes and sugar along with lower volatile aldehyde production and higher dehydrogenase enzyme activity by the dry and wet treated seeds than the untreated control after subsequent accelerated ageing. On the basis of the results, pre-storage dry treatments with amla powder @ 2g/kg of seed, red chilli powder @ 1g/kg of seed and ferulic acid @ 500mg/kg of seed may be suggested for improved storability and field performance of mung bean seeds.

  78. Buhari, A. K., Gindi A. A. and Adamu, A. J.

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the chicken marketing in BirninKebbi Local Government Area. The specific objectives include describing the socioeconomic characteristics of chicken traders, estimation of the market structure, conduct and performance of chicken marketing. To address the aforementioned objectives, econometric models were employed. Alternative marketing channels and their systematic linkages and relative importance in the flow of birds and egg from the point of production to the end users were identified and mapped. Whole sellers and retailers played crucial roles in the sample markets in the transaction of chicken from producers to consumers. Strong oligopolistic behavior is observed in the study area due to the short and inconsistent supply of chicken that inhibits new entrants to engage in the business. Chicken trading in Birninkebbi and Ambusa also shows modest oligopolistic behavior due to the involvement of whole sellers who transport their chicken from villages to the sample markets that comparatively demands high capital and information than the makera and gulumbe chicken market places. Business support services such as credit, extension, input provision and information access in the production and marketing of village poultry are poorly developed or almost nonexistent in the study area. The village poultry subsector provides ample opportunities for smallholder farmers since it utilizes resources that are abundant in rural areas and the anticipated rising price and demand in domestic and international markets. The subsector was also constrained by various challenges. According to the market survey, traders face lack of capital, short and inconsistent supply and, poor information and infrastructure development such as diseases storage, and transportation facilities. Despite the numerous challenges the subsector still remains profitable business for the rural poor.

  79. Korablev, G.А.

    On the basis of the first law of thermodynamics, an analysis of the orientation of structural interactions was carried out. In the systems in which the interaction proceeds along the potential gradient (positive work), the resultant potential energy is found based on the principle of adding reciprocals of corresponding energies of subsystems - there is a corpuscular mechanism. In the systems in which the interactions proceed against the potential gradient (negative performance) the algebraic addition of their masses, as well as the corresponding energies of subsystems is performed - there is a wave mechanism. Act of quantum action expressed via Plank’s constant is narrowed to the energy equilibrium-exchange redistribution between the corpuscular and wave processes, that is demonstrated via the angular vector of such motion. Еnergy characteristics of functional states of bio-systems are defined basically by P-parameter values of atom first valence electron. The principles of stationary biosystem formation are similar to the conditions of wave processes in the phase. Under the condition of the minimum of such interactions, the pathological (but not stationary) biostructures containing the molecular hydrogen can be formed.

  80. Pooja Jha, Sunita Adhikari and Ram Kumar Deshmukh

    Cereals and legumes contain high amount of phosphorus in the form of phytic acid or phytate. Due to the absence of phytatse enzyme, monogastric animals cannot digest phytic acid which is the nutritional constituent of animal diet. Phytic acid act as an anti-nutritional chelating agent of different metal ions like Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn. The main objectives of the research were to isolate and characterize phytase producing bacteria from traditional fermented foods like idli and jalebi batter, and optimize phytase production by the isolated strain of bacteria. A total of 10 samples collected from fermented idli and jalebi batter were streaked on phytase screening medium (PSM). Total 50 isolates having apparently different colony morphology were collected and screened based on their morphological properties. The selected 22 isolates were further evaluated among them, 4 isolates PR2, PR6, PR16, PR24 could be grown on PSM plate with 2.5% agar after incubation of 24 hr at 37°C temperature and shown phytase activity in shake flask experiment. Upon screening of 4 potential phytase producing strains, one isolated strain (PR6) was selected and was identified as Lactobacillus sp. PR6 through morphological and physiological characterization.PR6 showed 378 U/mL enzymatic activity upon enzymatic assay. This result was optimized the performance of this isolated at different parameters. PR6 showed best results at pH 5.5 and temp 40°C with glucose and sucrose as carbon source and yeast extract as nitrogen source.

  81. Nurun Nabi, Rimon Sarkar, Marium Akter Hasan Sheikh and Asma Ansary Asha

    The main objective of this study is to review the present marketing mix applies particularly to the marketing. This study provides an idea to the marketers and can be used as tools to assist them in pursuing their marketing objectives. The survey research design method was used in this study which involves using a self-design questionnaire in collecting data from sixty 30 respondents. All respondents are using products form OFFICINA for several months. The instrument used in this study is a close-ended questionnaire that was designed by the researchers. The result showed satisfaction level of customers with different marketing mix elements of OFFICINA. Subsequently, recommendations were made to the management of OFFICINA (BD) LTD that they should continue produce superior products; charge competitive prices, position appropriately, promote widely, and provide other distinctive functional benefits to customers.

  82. A. Moungache, 1B. Bayard, Abakar Mahamat Tahir, C. Thron , S. Robert, F. Gambou

    The three-detector microwave ellipsometer working at 30 GHz frequency is an experimental bench used to characterize dielectric materials. This paper is aimed at showing the reliability of the measurement of this original bench. Thus, the latter is described first. Then, error sources and their influences on the measurement are studied. We finally show that a numerical correction used for calibration guaranties the reliability of the measurement.

  83. Dr. Libia, P.

    This study has examined the effect on employee participation in decision making and its impact. The implications of this study include the need for manufacturing firms to demonstrate high level of commitment to employee involvement in decision making for performance enhancement. Data were generated by means of questionnaires. The sample for the study was 160. Out of the 160 questionnaires 150 were found to true and other to be flaw. The studies were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation, regression analysis and chi-square test. The findings also reveal the involvement of participating firms in employee involvement in decision making.

  84. Shobana Sivaraman and Dr. Arindam Das

    Background: India is harnessing a hard and strenuous path since the launch of National family planning program which was later integrated into Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent health (RMNCH+A) strategy. In this context Odisha, geographically located at the southeastern coast of the country with a population of 42 million is selected for the research study. Odisha has significantly high Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) of 180per 100000 live births (SRS 2014-2016) and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) of 44 per 1000 live births (SRS 2016), Under 5 Mortality Rate (U5MR) 49 (National Family Health Survey (NFHS) IV, 2015-16). Objective: The research paper aims to study the use of modern limiting, spacing and traditional methods of contraceptives in association with age, education, place of residence, wealth status among tribal and non-tribal population of Odisha. It also attempts to study the factors associated with the current use of modern methods of contraceptives among tribal and non-tribal women. A district wise trend for modern use of contraceptives among tribal and non-tribal women is mapped using ArcGIS. The reason behind lack of contraceptive usage is studied in terms of barriers, opposition to use, knowledge, fear and complications related to contraceptive usage. Methods: The NFHS IV (2015-16) data published by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) is used for the study. The data on family planning is accessed from woman questionnaire of the survey with a sample size of 33,721 women of Odisha. The data is analyzed using SPSS by applying binary logistic regression method. Results: It is found that use of modern contraceptives increases significantly with education, wealth index, among the young couples of both tribal and non-tribal married women. Use of contraceptive has reduced with increasing number of births of daughters among tribal and non-tribal showing a significant preference towards the birth of son. Unmet need for tribal and non-tribal married women is analyzed for High Priority Districts (HPS’s). It was found that unmet need for limiting and spacing is high among the tribal women in Gajapathi, Koraput, Nuapada and Rayapada (HPD’s). Conclusion: The finding of research study will contribute to identify the various socio cultural, demographic and community-based interventions which can significantly improve the contraceptive usage among married couples of Odisha.

  85. Ndorere N., Agbomahena M.B. and Kounouhewa, B.

    The semiconductor materials adapted to the tropical zone according to their optoelectronic properties and especially their gap energies and their molar composition were chosen. To cope with the low efficiency encountered in single junction solar cells, these materials were used in the choice of a geometry of a Ga0.67In0.33P/GaAs/Ga0.70In0.30As tri-junction solar cell adapted to our area study. We have made the optimization of this solar cell efficiency by taking into account only the gap energies of the materials constituting the sub-cells and the temperature of the cell as the only design variables while setting the other parameters. An analytical model has been proposed for this purpose to determine the output parameters of the cell namely: the open circuit voltage (Voc), the short circuit current density (Jsc), the fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency (ƞ).A conversion efficiency found after optimization of the tandem cell was reported and compared to that of literature. The influence of the temperature on these parameters was studied and a coefficient of variation of the voltage as a function of the temperature of - 6.7mV /° K and the decrease of the efficiency (ƞ) of - 0.072% / °K for the tri-junction solar cell were found.

  86. Ankit Singh, Ashish Gaur and Shubham Pandey

    Background: The demographic profile of a state helps in analyzing trends in order to plan programmes to benefit its people. In present study, demographic profile of Uttarakhand and its division is studied. Material and Methods: In this study,z-test for proportions is used for comparison of estimates of population and basic household characteristics between Kumaun and Garhwal division of Uttarakhand. Result: Between the two divisions, Garhwal has improved population and demographic profile. The socio economic determinants were highest in Dehradun while lowest in Tehri-Garhwal district. Kumaun, on the other hand has poor socio economic standing where Almora and Pithoragarh has deplorable states. Conclusion: Uttarakhand has achieved a lot in terms of health care is such small frame of time, but still various socio economic determinants in many hilly and rural districts of the state are far from being satisfactory. Improved socio-economic profile of a state is indicative of its improved health; hence, measures should be taken to improve identified areas.

  87. Muhammad Syukran Mohd Rosli, Nawal Hanim Abdullah and Shazali Johari

    The conservation of Giant Panda has the potential to support various factors such as increase in protecting Giant Panda from exclusivity and economic perspectives especially tourism revenue in ecotourism and conservation (Ahmad et al., 2016). Findings of this study focus to develop a new measurement scale for locals’ perception about Giant Panda conservation. Previous studies on wildlife conservation perception were combining with newly found factors through local community to develop a new measurement scale. Data were analyzed through factors analysis. Significant variables found, extracted and regrouped accordingly to eight (8) factors groups and generated a new measurement scale. As a result, 35 statements were significantly contributed to determining the locals’ perception on Giant Panda Conservation Centre (GPCC). The scale on locals’ perception on conservation of Giant Panda would be indispensable to conduct further studies.

  88. Mercedita Alberto

    Statement of the Problem: The issue on the continuing degradation of the earth’s natural resources and the environment are being recognized as world’s serious problem. Our country is not left out in acknowledging this thus; several efforts have also been made. These include the creation and implementation of environmental laws, RA 9003(Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000). Environmental awareness is quite a distortion but through proper and massive information dissemination, the aim can be attained. This evaluative study aims to evaluate the coverage of environmental issues present in the articles of the campus and local municipal newspaper. The environmental articles cover topics on the general environmental issues such as pollution, flooding and storm, tree planting and solid waste management. Since these articles generally have their own nature or purpose, the language functions embedded were also identified. Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: The main method used in the study is qualitative-content analysis. Campus papers in a state university and the municipal local government were surveyed from 2011 to 2014 to determine the coverage of campus and the local government paper in promoting environmental awareness and initiatives. There were 36 environmental articles examined for this study. Articles include news, development communication, features, opinion, and literary articles. One of the aims of the study was to identify the language functions, different emotions and mental attitude. From the lines of the selected articles presented in the study help the reader to inform different environmental issues and disasters. An informal interview to the students, advisers and people in the locality were conducted to support the results of the content analysis. The study revealed that campus papers, as evident in environmental articles promote and inform readers, thus heightening their awareness and perception of the risk. Furthermore, the study also revealed that environmental corner of the newspaper was very useful in promoting information to develop the people awareness thus, motivate them to work on their initiatives to promote environmental protection. Students and local journalist with the creativity and proper framing of the environmental issues can serve on different purposes as seen in the different language function. With the needs of times, journalism is surely here to stay. It is recommended that journalists must be encouraged to be aware of environmental issues and concerns. The prominence of environmental articles should be sustained and prioritized in the campus paper.

  89. Ankita S. Bunage and Prof. R. V. Mante

    The wild development of multimedia content is pushing forward the worldview of cloud-based media facilitating nowadays. Due to developing time of web and the ease of using it, the copyright assurance and confirmation of content has become exceptionally imperative issue. To unravel the issue of copyrights, digital watermarking has been used over quite a while. Still, the issue of secured outsourcing isn't completely illuminated since replicating media substance is nearly cost-free, and the authorized clients afterward redistribute the media content misguidedly. Therefore, it is imperative to bestow secure cloud-based media sharing with the competence of tracing illegal content redistribution. In this paper, a brief introduction to digital watermarking and their techniques are given. Also, we studied all the previous methods for detecting the illegitimate content redistribution and reviewed their limitations. To improve the security of the content and for preventing and detecting the content leakage, we give a brief idea about a new proposed solution- cloud based secure content sharing application with the media player for halting the unauthorized access.

  90. Sakshi R. Awadhiya and R.V. Mante

    In this work, Private Information Retrieval (PIR) problem is being studied in the presence of third party for secure distributed storage systems. Secure distributed storage systems is designed to protect both user privacy from the databases and data security from an eavesdropper. In addition, secret sharing scheme is also used for security purpose. Secure Erasure coding method is used for node failure as well as for reduced backup storage.

  91. Kajal S. Rathod and Mante, R.V.

    Cloud computing become more popular over the world. It provides services over the Internet. Cryptographic techniques provides protection for data of users in public cloud, but there are some issues, such as secure data group sharing and fine-grained access control of time-sensitive data. In this paper, we proposed a secure corporate cloud based data sharing system for employees in which multiple companies can use cloud document sharing system. In our system we proposed a novel technique of encryption in which we are combining broad cast encryption technique and Attribute based encryption technique with each other. Along with the security of the system we proposed auto leakage control system to prevent the document leakage before release time. Here, we are using identity based data group sharing scheme, in which data owner can send encrypted message over a group of receivers at one time by specifying these receivers’ identities.

  92. Devyani S. Dhokey and A. V. Deorankar

    In healthcare industry, clinical decision support system plays an important role. As the clinical data is confidential data, there is a huge requirement of a secure data security system which can maintain secrecy of data. In this paper, we propose a homomorphic encryption technique which is able to perform the different operations on data by preserving the privacy of data. As, the data privacy is the primary concern. All the operations are performed on the encrypted data. An innovated homomorphic encryption algorithm which supports large integer, small integer as well as text data encryption will be designed. We will perform operations on encrypted data rather than decrypting it during processing. As our proposed algorithm includes large integer as well as text data, our system will be more efficient than existing system.

  93. Sonal S. Gulkari and Prof. R. V. Mante

    We proposed a secure cloud-based application to enhance revocable attribute-based encryption technique. Along with it to boost the security of the document we proposed a modified AES algorithm with some pre-encryption modifications in document to make system more secure and efficient. In our paper first, there is designing of a revocable attribute-based encryption (RABE) scheme with some modification in previous RABE algorithm together with the characteristics of ciphertext relegation by some effort and exclusively combining some techniques to scale down the computation overhead. Then there is presentation of fine-grained access control together with data sharing mechanism for on-demand services along with dynamic user groups in the cloud. Specifically, in this paper the main focused on advancement of RABE scheme which plays an important role in cloud-based application. Furthermore, in this user revocation there is new concept of addition and deletion of users. The comparative data proves that our proposed innovation is more effective and scalable than existing one.

  94. Shingadgaon, S. S., Jadhav, S.L., Thete-Jadhav, R.B., Zambare, N.S., Daspute-Taur, A.B., Babare, M.G. and Chavan, B.L.

    The potential ability of aquatic plants naturally grown in marshlands and wetlands receiving municipal sewage from Solapur city were sampled. These macrophytes were exposed to a mixed test bath of metals and examined to know their potentialities to accumulate heavy metals for judging their suitability for phytoremediation technology. Potentialities for metal absorption, accumulation, magnification and enrichment were found to be dependent on the plant species and metal types. The studies were conducted from June 2014 to June 2018. The plant species tested in present investigation for accumulation of heavy metals were Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Salvinia molesta, Chara vulgaris, Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes and Ipomoea aquatic from the group of floating macrophytes, Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogetor pectinatus, Potamogetor perfoliatus, Sagittaria sagittifolia L. and Colocasia esculenta from the group of Submerged macrophytes and Cyperus esculentus, Typha domingensis, Phragmites australies, Cyprus alopecnroide, Cyperus longus, Echinochloa stagninum, Typha angustifolia L., Typha lotifolia and Iris pseudacorus from the group of Emergent macrophytes. Metals in all species were higher in roots than shoots. The highest level of Fe phyto-absorption was 1475.9 µg/g in Salvinia auriculata and 1134.6 µg/g in Eichhornia crassipes in the roots whereas the measured lowest level of 0.06 µg/g was observed in the leaves of Cyprus alopecnroide species.

  95. Elemasetty Uday Kiran and Mediga Haritha

    The Different mathematical function gives analysis of equation for next sequence of order in positive and negative mode in expansion of the system consequent of elemental method for 1st order is continued with 2nd order finite conduction mode as alpha functions with system identified specific functions. Regularity of esteemed function gives variation of real function and constant function with study factor in simpler tends exponents solution starts from first margin point and last margin point in multiplicative fundamental identity in applied mathematical system. The occurrence of object is positive identity with associate of functions in parabolic identifications in operator in radical system. Constant functions gives the variations and constants with lesser and greater sequence in finite elemental modes. Anova equation gives the length of exponential orders in domain and FCM modulation technique.

  96. Simge AKŞİT and Beril S. AKIN

    Global climate change is a situation caused by natural causes and human activities. There is a balance between the light coming from Sun and beam of light reverberated from Earth’s surface to the atmosphere. The main reason for global climate change is that the current balance is not protected due to external factors. The aim of this research is to determine the rate of global climate change on Ankara. In this study, the stationary temporal climate series of temperature, precipitation and evaporation series for Ankara were analyzed using by Box-Jenkins method. The analysis completed using temperature, precipitation and evaporation data for Ankara, which are taken from Meteorology General Directorate, until 2017. There is a relation between temperature, precipitation, evaporation data, and global climate change trends. Using by Box-Jenkins method, future predictions are made. For temperature data, predictions include the next 15 years data (2018-2033). 15 years predictions are made for evaporation data (2018-2033). And for precipitation data, predictions include just 5 years period, that is because of previous data of precipitation includes 14 years process. According to Box-Jenkins (ARIMA) method, the findings indicated as, a decrease of 0.6 0C in temperature, an increase of 21.54 mm in evaporation and a decrease of 19.91 mm in precipitation have been predicted. According to these analyses, the Ankara city will be affected by global warming and there will be a drought climate for the feature.

  97. Nikolai Kobasko and Anatolii Moskalenko

    In the paper, a physics of the “poker” effect was investigated experimentally and discussed by authors. Some unusual effects were discovered during experiments when heated end of the probe was quenched in an electrolyte of the optimal concentration. It’s impossible to explain the results obtained using solutions of the parabolic heat conductivity equation. The physics of the “poker” effect can be clearly explained if to take into account an existence of free electrons in the metal and the instant formation of a double electric layer. It is shown that the discovered effects can be used for an accurate evaluation of the relaxation time, which is constant for a given material. The discovery can be also used for predicting film boiling processes. A proposal is formulated to combine the evaluation of the material physical properties and Jominy curves. The importance of continuing further theoretical and experimental investigations in this field is underlined.

  98. Tomoyuki Nishizaki

    The newly synthesized naftopidil analog HUHS1015 has been developed as an anticancer drug. The present study aimed at understanding the mechanism underlying HUHS1015-induced cell death in CW2 and Caco-2 human colonic cancer cells. HUHS1015 reduced cell viability in CW2 and Caco-2 cells in a concentration (10-100 μM)-dependent manner. HUHS1015 decreased pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) protein, and the effect was inhibited by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. PKM2 deficiency activated caspase-3, -4, -8, and -9 in Caco-2 cells, although such effect was not obtained with CW2 cells. Moreover, PKM2 deficiency induced early apoptosis and late apoptosis/secondary necrosis in CW2 cells and primary necrosis, early apoptosis, and late apoptosis/secondary necrosis in Caco-2 cells. The results of the present study show that HUHS1015 decreases PKM2 protein due to autophagic degradation, to initiate cell death such as necrosis and caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis in CW2 and Coco-2 cells.

  99. Anish Chandran

    “The real cause of hunger is the powerlessness of the poor to gain access to the resources they need to feed themselves.”-Frances Moore Lappe India is primarily an agrarian country where around 55 percent of the population depending on agriculture as their livelihood. The very popular “Lal Bahadur Shastri’s slogan “Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan” highlighted and stressed the importance of farmers in the country. According to the 2011 census, around 68.84% of Indians lives in rural areas. Majority of people in India are still dependent on farming for their livelihoods. 54.6% of the total workforce in India (263 million, is engaged in the agriculture sector. The latest data shows that the sector contributes only 13.7 percent to the overall GDP of India, as compared to 52% in 1950- 51, highlighting that relative productivity in agriculture has declined dramatically.. Several economists have claimed that farmers are the most vulnerable group in the country. The misguided priority of the policy makers resulted in the collapse of agriculture sector in the country. The strategies of inclusive growth and financial inclusion are limited in papers only as far as the conditions of poor farmers are concerned. The farmers indebtedness is found to be the main cause behind farmers suicide in India The farmer’s suicide rates are much higher than that of others in the country.

  100. Seifu Zinab

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the practice of continuous assessment strategies on students’ EFL reading skills performance. It was conducted in ten Secondary Schools of Ilubabor Zone involving 500 students. The study was guided by the following basic research questions: First, what continuous assessment strategies were being practiced in Secondary Schools of Ilubabor Zone? Second, what is the relationship between the continuous assessment strategies practiced and students’ performance in Secondary Schools in Ilubabor Zone? Qualitative descriptive survey research design is used to collect and analyze the data. The data was collected from students using questionnaires, focused group discussions, and observations to elicit opinion of the students. The information from the questionnaires was presented in figures and percentages in tables while information obtained from interviews and focused group discussions were analyzed using qualitative techniques. The findings of the study revealed that: 1) different continuous assessment strategies were being practiced in Secondary Schools. 2) The findings of the study also showed a positive relationship between some of the continuous assessment strategies practiced in EFL Reading Skills classroom and students’ performance. Based on the findings, the researcher concluded that continuous assessment strategies positively contribute to performance of students’ EFL Reading Skills. Finally, it was recommended that regulations and policies need to be put in place so that all schools can benefit from the practice and a uniform policy should be emphasized. What is more training for teachers should be encouraged especially in the practice of continuous assessment strategies.

  101. Raphael D’silva, Syed Danish, Deah Jain and Dr. Varsha Agarwal

    Systematic Investment Plan is a recurring investment pattern. By implementing this style of investing, a great deal of risk can be reduced. The paper’s main objective is to understand how a systematic investment plan works and the importance of awareness of this style of investing amongst young inexperienced investors. It also shows how inculcating a disciplined routine of investing could decrease risk and help save a lot of money. Through primary data collection in this study we also try to understand the preference and choices of young investors and the risk they are willing to take. A detailed mathematical comparison is shown between a systematic investment plan and the traditional lump sum investing. Although it may affect the upside return too, majority of people who do not have advanced knowledge and working of the markets should make it a must to adopt this pattern of investing.

  102. Nurul Afifah Nordin, Ahmad Shuib, Nawal Hanim Abdullah and Puvaneswaran Kunasekaran

    This study aims to identify the factors influencing revisit intention of visitors in Tasik Kenyir as an ecotourism destination. A conceptual framework based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to investigate the factors that influence revisit intention of visitors to Tasik Kenyir. A structured questionnaire was designed as the instrument to gather data for the study and were distributed to the visitors in Tasik Kenyir chosen using the non-probability convenience sampling method. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to analyse the collected data. There are significant positive relationships of the awareness towards natural resource conservation, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, private sector occupation, and the use of houseboat and chalet towards revisit intention to Tasik Kenyir. The findings can be used as a basis for further development of ecotourism services and facilities and for recommendations of management options for ecotourism development in Tasik Kenyir. This study can also assist policy makers to formulate better marketing strategies to increase repeat visitors to Tasik Kenyir, Malaysia.

  103. Aphu Elvis Selase and Bienmali Kombate

    Beyond to highlighting on the public institutions organizational structure and the challenges of reform implementation in Ghana public sector agencies in this paper, the researchers emphasized their analysis in the previous empirical investigation and scholar literature(s). Samiatu S. (2010),George a. (2006), The study revealed that Ghana public institutions while having an organizational structure, there are still some threats as potential challenges to reforms implementation such as: lack of professional competence and skill, weak management information system, incompatible human and institutional capability, and limited finance and budget. Public institutions organizational structure whether well designed or change internal rules are not enough to foster ownership and promote sustainable reform. To secure an effective reform implementation, the reformer shall setup mechanisms which promote public agency capacity building to improve public sector performance.

  104. Mathieu A. AKADJE, René S. SAHI and Hermann MOULI

    The digital revolution is accompanied by a pernicious evil which is '' browsing ''. As a criminal activity that generates income, "grazing" has become a "professional" activity among some young people in Abidjan. The objective of this study is to know the sectors in which the money acquired through the "browsing" is generally injected and to know the beneficiaries. The methodology is based on a documentary and field research among the populations. The analysis of the data, in this case the qualitative analysis, was very useful in the conduct of this study, because it allowed to analyze the speeches of the respondents. The results show that the sums of money illegally acquired by the "grazers" are used differently by the latter. If some people use this money to lead a merry life by distributing them in social parties, others instead reinvest it in several sectors of activity. Through these various investments, cybercriminals certainly create jobs, but such investments or financing constitute money laundering. Such a situation raises a real ethical problem which calls for reflections.

  105. Normaziah Binti Che Musa, Siti Nor Bayaah Ahmad and Ezenne Chinenye Christiana

    Technological advancement and globalization have caused major changes in the world of economy as well as the traditional business model. The present study examined the influence perceived value, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived trust and perceived security towards online consumer repurchase intention among youths in Malaysia. A total of 200respondents responded to the questionnaires. Statistical software SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) and Microsoft Excel system were used for the analysis of collected data. The result of the study shows there is a significant influence between perceived value, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived trust towards online consumer repurchase intention. Meanwhile there is no significant influence between security and online consumer repurchase intention. This study is very important as it contributes to extensive literature regarding the advancement of online business, which is expected to grab the attraction of other researchers to conduct research in the area.

  106. Sukhneet Kaur and Dr. Sukhdev Singh

    The Government of India implemented a drastic change in the economic environment on 8th November,2016, by demonetizing the high currency notes of Rs 500 and Rs 1000. Demonetization was a step taken by the honourable Prime Minister to eradicate black money or in other words to get rid of corruption in someway and to flush out the fake currency being in circulation from the economy. The objective of this paper is to deeply go through the issue of demonetization and to study the hardships being faced by the rural people due to demonetization. Various websites, journals, articles, write ups of famous personalities, news in newspapers have been consulted to write this paper. This paper concludes that respondents suffered very bitter experience of demonetization. According to the respondents demonetization was not a good step as they had problem in operating digital economy and also this process failed to generate fruitful results.

  107. Dr. Gopal Chandra Mandal, Mir Azad Kalam and Saptamita Pal

    Background: Children are essential assets of a country, because they are the future human potential required for its future development. Children belong to 5-15 years ago group are vulnerable because of their rapid growth rate. In the absence of parents, orphanages are an alternative, which provide care and support for these vulnerable children. An estimated 153 million children in the world are orphans. Being an orphan may make children more vulnerable to under nutrition as maternal and paternal level factors, and household food availability which are linked to child nutritional well – being are more likely to be inadequate. Objective: As there is a paucity of data on the nutritional status of the orphan children as a whole, especially among the Muslim population in India, we have conducted a preliminary study on the nutritional status (based on thinness) of the Muslim Orphan boys of Kolkata. Besides, it will also help to generate relevant information and data on health status of children living in orphanages. Materials and methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 150 boys of the orphanage within the age groups of 8 to 15 years from Calcutta Muslim Orphanage, Kolkata, India. Results: Based on thinness, irrespective of grade, 32.0% boys of the studied participants were undernourished. Out of this, 2.0% orphan boys were severely undernourished (Grade III) and 9.3% were moderately undernourished whereas, 20.7% boys were in Grade I condition. Conclusion: Although, the prevalence of under nutrition as measured by low BMI for age (thinness) was not so alarming but, in comparison with other studied on orphan children from various countries, it is not in a healthy position and the result could be useful to nutrition policy makers and intervention planners to target children who are more vulnerable to under nutrition.

  108. Durgvijay Yadav and Ashok Kumar Singh

    Incubated soil samples from different treatment combinations were showed that pH of both alluvial and black soil have very small variation but T2,T11 and T14 were appeared in decrease the alkalinity and to continued upto 60 DAT. The EC of treated soil with different combination of organic acid and fly ash in both alluvial and black soil have not much showed more decreasing trend but minimize the soluble salt content. The available sulphur amount have increasing by all treatment combination from 20 to 60 DAT in both alluvial and black soil but treatment T4 ,T12 and T14 have greater release than the control pot.

  109. Mr. Kouamé Toto, Gooré Bi Gouli and N’Zi Konan Gervais

    Background: The present study is the first of the genre in the upper course of Cavally. Objectives: It aims to make a systematic inventory of shrimps. Methods: Samplings were made on the upper portion of the river in a mining environment and then upstream and downstream of this area between September 2015 and August 2016. Shrimps were caught monthly using dip nets and keep nets. Results: Totally 1051 individuals were harvested. They belong to the families of Palaemonidae and Atyidae. Five valid species (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, M. macrobrachion, M. felicinum, M. thysi and M. dux) and five invalid species (Caridina sp, Macrobrachium sp1, M. sp2, M. sp3 and M. sp4) have been identified. Their distribution along the river seems to be negatively influenced by the mining area where fewer numbers species were recorded than those of the upstream and downstream sites. Conclusion: This study revealed the existence of new taxa for Côte d’Ivoire.

  110. Dr. Agbadou Nakpon Joceline-Boli

    In the mid-1980s in Africa, the issue of combating the phenomenon of child labor is making news in Côte d'Ivoire. From a phase of denial, this country has moved to an effective fight against this phenomenon in agriculture and other sectors of economic activity. In this context, the policy of compulsory schooling was developed in order to substitute school for child labor. This article aims to describe the policy on the one hand and analyze its impact on children's schooling and their involvement in child labor on the other. Methodologically, the literature search, the questionnaire, the observation and the interview were used to collect the data. Content analysis has been favored in data processing. The results of this study focus on three points: the policy of compulsory schooling which admits a compulsory school, free and quality education and the absence of accompanying measures of the said policy as well as the persistence of child labor as a consequence from this absence.

  111. Dr. Naheed Anjum Chishti

    The main theme of the research paper is to highlight the challenges faced by the global community in Global prosperity and development. The study focuses on the Sustainable Development Goals. The objective of the research paper is to discuss the prim indicators of the development. The research has national and International significance. The research also discusses the pitfalls and hurdles to find out the Development Goals. This is the general phenomenon of the developing countries to meet the challenges like Poverty, Hunger, Health, and Education. The study also elaborates the importance of peace and Social Justice. The Research analyses the economic systems in this regard. The approach is descriptive and analytical. The original and secondary sources are used. The findings and suggestions are in the end.

  112. Dr. Saoud Chayed Mashkour, Dr. Aqeel Hameed Jaber and Dr. Mohamed Hassan Rashem

    The aim of the research is to know the role of social capital as one of the main pillars of the economic development process, which requires the treatment of the causes of underdevelopment, reducing unemployment and economic inflation, and to bring about a radical change in society in order to elevate it to certain levels to achieve its aspirations to live in welfare according to accepted health, educational and social standards. The concept of economic development is based on the fact that it is a dynamic social activity that involves material and qualitative changes in the life of the community within a certain period of time. The economic development is a conscious and deliberate process of society, as well as structural transformations that lead to the formation of a material base that is used to expand self-productive capacities to achieve a systematic increase in the average productivity of the individual and the capabilities of society, within a framework of social relations that emphasizes the correlation between efficiency and effort, and deepening requirements participation for the purpose of providing basic needs (material and immaterial) for individual and social security. The Iraqi economy faces a number of challenges due to the lack of diagnosis of structural errors and imbalances of different economic sectors accurately. The decline in petrol prices has caused negative effects on the development plans in Iraq because of the significant decline in petrol revenues. This has hindered the development process due to the lack of indicators of the economic performance of the economic sectors, the widespread phenomenon of unemployment, inflation and financial and administrative corruption. This economic variables led to the increase and multiplicity and diversity of challenges that have negatively affected the Iraqi economy in various economic sectors. The study reached a number of conclusions, the most prominent of which is the observation of the increase in operating expenses on investment expenditures in the Iraqi state budget. These expenditures are not consistent with the size of the planned targets for economic development in Iraq. Based on this conclusion, the study recommended that financial returns should be invested in raising the indicators of economic development, including human development in education, housing, health and reconstruction. It is necessary to reduce dependence on petrol exports, which is considered a phenomenon of rent, by adopting strategic planning to employ petrol revenues in non-petrol investments, and industry in order to achieve comprehensive economic development.

  113. Surendra Mahato

    The study determined how students assess the various components of their learning environment. It also identified how the learning environment affects students' lea rning achievement. A sample of 152 MBA students randomly selected from a population of Tribhuwan University, Kathmandu University, Pokhara University and Purbanchal University’s students. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, regression analysis, Multicollinearity and F-test. Findings revealed that students could assess the four components that contribute to their academic performance, which is: curriculum activities (6 items), Management (10 items), learning process (6 items) and faculty (10 items) factors. The result showed that there is positive relationship between students’ achievement and curriculum activities learning styles, and faculty. The findings are discussed with a view to improve the quality of the learning environment and students’ achievement.

  114. Angel M. Dávila and Erika V. Espinoza J.

    This research article examined the effects of intensive guided use of the technique known as shadowing to improve overall English pronunciation, intonation, word stress, and sentence stress in the EFL classroom. The research participants were 20 level A1 students from an Ecuadorian university. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed utilizing an exploratory sequential mixed methods research design. Qualitative data were gathered through structured interviews. Quantitative data were collected analyzing videotapes recorded by the chosen sample. Both data collection methods were intended to investigate the pronunciation, intonation, word stress, and sentence stress of the respective participants. The findings demonstrated that intensive guided use of English shadowing is an effective technique that can be utilized to help EFL learners improve their overall speaking intelligibility in terms of pronunciation and sentence stress. As far as pedagogical implications is concerned, this study suggests that incorporating the use of the shadowing technique under instructors’ guidance may be beneficial to English learners to boost their spoken English skills.

  115. Tamer Mohammad Al-Jarrah, Noraien Mansor, Rania Hassan Talafhah, Jarrah Mohammad Al-Jarrah, Fedaa Mahmoud Al-Shorman

    English teacher should think hard how to make the teaching process be interesting and lively in order to reach the goal of teaching. CALLA (Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach) strategy is recommended to be applied in teaching writing especially writing composition, cause this strategy has three components; curriculum content, academic language and learning strategies that the teacher can combine them in the teaching with the five phases; preparation, presentation, practice, evaluation, and expansion. This study aims to investigate the effect of using CALLA instruction based on metacognitive writing module on 12th-grade students' achievement in Almazar secondary. The researcher used a quasi-experimental design, the participants in this study were assigned randomly into 2 group: experimental group (22) students in each and control group (22) students in each. The control groups studied the writing traditionally, while the experimental groups studied the writing through CALLA. A pre-test was administered to the groups to make sure that there were no significant differences between their performances in writing achievement and satisfaction achievement scale. Data were submitted to the independent Mann-Whitney U test followed by Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test analysis. The results revealed the positive effect on the experimental group's writing performance. Mann-Whitney U test results are presented by the r value (r = -.872) showed that the effect was a large on students writing performance in experimental group. Meanwhile, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test results are presented The effect size of r = 0.630 represents a large effect on the students use of metacognitive strategies in writing. Therefore, CALLA model and metacognitive strategies are still practical and relevant to be used as the teaching approach in Jordanian English classes and hoped to improve the English language communication amongst the students in Learning environment.

  116. Dr. Iqbal Abed Fahad, Muna Sami Rahman Abu- Rageef, and Kareema Ali Abbas AL- Jadiri

    Background: The standard screening test for cervical cancer is the Pap smear and cervical cancer is a significant health issue worldwide. Early sexual activity, multiple sexual partnerships, parity, young age at first pregnancy and early marriage are traditional risk factors for developing cervical cancer. Aim of study: To determine the benefit of pap smear in diagnosis and management of precancerous cervical lesion. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 45 women who attended the private clinic in al-Kut city, Wasit for the period from January 2017 to April 2017. Data were collected through Of stored data. Results: Mean age of studied women was 43.5 years. Abnormal Pap results were reported in 20% of them. Pap test results associated with age group 41 - 50 years. Conclusion: In our study of a range of experimental results on women of different ages who were suffering from different symptoms, we found that the majority are symptomatic and asymptomatic of benign diseases and often in their average age. Pap test is very important screening test to detect various precancerous cervical lesion. The rest of the results showed that a percentage of women in different ages are infected, Malignant diseases and varying degrees.

  117. Dr. Patil N. A., Dr. Suryawanshi D. S. and Dr. Chavan, R.B.

    Literacy is a sensitive indicator of cultural advancement of an area. It develops the personality and rationality of individuals, qualifies them to fulfil certain economic, political and cultural functions and, thereby, plays an active part in the socio-economic transformation of a society. According to the 2011, Census of India, Literacy has been defined as “A person aged seven and above, who can both read and write with understanding in any language, is treated as literate”. Lack of literacy breaks the economic, political and all development process of that society or a region. Therefore, present study is focus on identifying spatio-temporal pattern of literacy in Jalgaon District. This study is to examine the tahsil-wise decadal literacy rate of Jalgaon District during 1991 to 2011. Jalgaon District is socio-economically one of the developed districts in Maharashtra. It has attained a relatively good position in literacy as compared to other districts of Maharashtra in 2011 i.e. Aurangabad Beed, Dhule, Jalna, Latur, Nanded, Parbhani, Osmanabad, Solapur and Nandurbar Districts.

  118. Dr. Chelliah, S.

    This paper projects Swami Vivekananda as a preacher of spiritual idealism laying focus on Indian spirituality and his stature as a key person and tallest figure in bringing out social and religious reformation by adding preaching and practice as twins for spiritual idealism which is part and parcel of ancient Indian thought, philosophy and culture. It also analyses how he brings home an important point that spirituality is an essential part of life to lead a peaceful and happy life. No doubt Swamiji stands out as an unique figure in his conception of the importance of physical nature of man which is due to the presence of spirituality innate in man. As a spiritual leader he longed to see a dynamic religion which is beautifully picturised in this paper.

  119. FAYAMA Tionyélé, BELO Adiola and OUEDRAOGO B. C. Valerie

    As paradoxical as it may seem, marriage and divorce are two very common terms in common parlance, but to be seen closely, few people can identify them well. This is perhaps due to both the conception and the practice of these two phenomena. Indeed, marriage is a data that over time and in the social environment is apprehended and practiced differently by the people. Divorce being intimately related to marriage follows this same logic. From this observation, one is straight line to question what is marriage today and by implication divorce? What are its duties? Its typologies? Its history and implications in terms of the family and the two individuals who contract it?. Through a purely documentary search and adopting Mendes ' approach that science does not derive its scientificity solely from a field investigation, our objective with regard to this article is to provide insight into the Concepts of marriage and divorce by analyzing the writings from different backgrounds. These two concepts are dealt with on the one hand from the social point of fact according to Durkheim (ways of doing and acting having a power of coercion on the individual) and on the other hand from the total social fact angle in reference to Mauss (social fact which affects all the society’s compartments).

  120. Raghavendran, M. and Andal, S.

    Introduction: Cataract derives from the Latin cataracta meaning "waterfall" and the Greek kataraktes and katarrhaktes, from katarassein meaning "to dash down". Cataract is an opacity within the lens the patient may have a cataract in one or both eyes. If present in both eyes one cataract may affect the person’s vision more than other. Most of the cataracts are age related or they can be related or they can be associated with other factors the development of cataract is mediated by number of factors. In senile cataract it appears that metabolic processes within the lens can cause an accumulation of water, alterations in lens fiber structure, these changes affect lens transparency causing vision changes. Objectives: To assess the pre test knowledge on home care management among the patients, To assess the effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on home care management and to find out the association between the level of knowledge on home care management with selected socio demographic variables of patients who undergone cataract surgery. Methodology: In this study Quasi –experimental one group pre test and post test design was used. It was conducted at Government hospital Kumbakonam. 50 Cataract patients who had satisfied the inclusion criteria were selected as sample by using simple random sampling technique. Results: The results of the study shows that in pre test the level of knowledge on home care Management among Patients under gone cataract surgery. Out of 50 patients 35 (70%) of them had inadequate knowledge and 12 (24%) of them had moderately adequate knowledge and only 3 (6%) of them had adequate level of knowledge. In post test the level of knowledge on home care management among Patients undergone cataract surgery. Out of 50 patients 5 (10 %) of them had inadequate knowledge and 20 (40%) of them had moderately adequate knowledge and 25 (50%) of them had Adequate level of knowledge. The chi – square test revealed that there was no significant association between the level of knowledge and the demographic variables.

  121. Josephine Marasigan

    Student Teaching Program (STP) caps the professional practice in the Teacher Education Curriculum. Hence, STP needs to be assessed in regards to the following components: Program Objectives, Administration, Supervision, Policies and Guidelines, Instructional Activities, and Methods of Assessment towards the development of Student Teaching Manual (STM). The study employed a descriptive method of research using a normative survey technique with documentary analysis. Unstructured interview was used to supplement the data. Results indicated that the level of effectiveness of STP in relation to its component was generally very effective except for policies and guidelines which is only effective. As rated by the stakeholders, supervision was consistently ranked 1st, very effective. It is therefore implied that opportunities for improvement of the implementation of STP could still be explored through the development of a Student Teaching Manual.

  122. Pratibha, Mukta Garg and Dr. Suman Prasad Maurya

    Maturity is the ability to respond to the environment in an appropriate manner. Maturity also encompasses being aware of the correct time and location to behave and knowing when to act, according to the circumstances and the culture of the society one lives in Wechsler, David (2000). Adult development and maturity theories include the purpose in life concept, in which maturity emphasizes a clear comprehension of life's purpose, directedness, and intentionality, which contributes to the feeling that life is meaningful (Adler, Nancy 1997). For Present study A list of different zones that exist in Kanpur Nagar was obtained from Kanpur Nagar Nigam office. The sample comprised of 120 respondents, 60 adolescent girls from the rural area and 60 adolescent girls from the urban area were selected for the study. Random sampling was used for selection of school respondents. This test was constructed by the Dr. Nalini Rao’s .90 close ended questions were there in this test.

  123. Katta Eswar Srikanth, Jagadeeswara Rao, D., Sk. Rameeza Begum, Seetha Ramaiah, V. and Rama Krishna, Y.

    Computational Chemistry plays an important role in the research of new possible medicines. In this work, anti cancer activity and molecular docking analysis was carried out to study the effects of anthracene derivatives namely 9-Chloroanthracene and 2,6-Dimethoxyanthracene on effect of anticancer. The binding interactions in the targets active sites were reported. Results show that 9-Chloroanthracene and 2,6-Dimethoxyanthracene are promising leads, so the study of these compounds is recommended.

  124. Dr. Nasib Al Shibli.

    Small bowel perforation may be suspected according to patient’s clinical presentation with high index of clinical suspicion, or existence of extra luminal air foci on diagnostic imaging usually performed to evaluate abdominal pain such as CT scan with double contrast or by help of focused abdominal Sonography for trauma (FAST) exam or diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL). Blunt traumatic perforation following motor vehicle accidents (MVA) can occur with severe abdominal trauma mostly related to part of the gastrointestinal tract is compressed against a fixed bony structure. Although single isolated perforation ( blowout) of the jejunum(IJP) following blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is uncommon ,We present a case of isolated jejunal perforation (IJP) in a young Saudi male who was admitted to our facility with severe abdominal pain following MVA, although erect chest X-ray was unremarkable for free air abdominal CT scan revealed evidence of extra-luminal air foci (pneumoperitoneum).Exploratory laparotomy that followed revealed isolated 3 cm long perforation of the proximal jejunum, approximately 40cm from Treitz ligament and managed appropriately, so high index of suspicion and suitably timely surgical intervention led to successful outcome.

  125. Temesgen Adafire, Teklu Adamu and Alemayehu Demere

    Education is one of the most powerful weapons that have no alternative to attack poverty, step up global development and identify the bad and good sides of the world. The development of any country relies largely on education particularly, on quality of education. The purpose of this study was to Assessing factors hindering attitude of students towards mathematics .Specifically, it was intended to investigate the relationship between achievement and attitude of secondary and preparatory school students in mathematics, to identify the existence of significant difference in attitude towards mathematics between male and female secondary and preparatory school students and to differentiate the most challenging component(s) of attitude in the selected secondary and preparatory schools in I/A/Boor. The research was designed in a descriptive survey method. Participants of the study were 341 grade 10 and 12 students of the selected schools and all mathematics teachers engaged in teaching the respective grades. Semi stratified, purposive and random sampling techniques were employed in order to select sample participants. Four instruments were used for data collection from sample students. Secondary data were used to assess achievements in mathematics. The findings of the assessment of secondary and preparatory school student s attitude towards mathematics in the selected schools indicated that at most of the sample students responses mean value greater than 3 for positively phrased statements and less than 3 for negatively phrased statements with respect to the three components of attitude. Data were also analyzed by using t-test for the assessment of attitude of male and female students. The results indicate that, there is no significant mean difference in attitude towards mathematics between male and female, as well as between secondary and preparatory school students. Moreover, it also implies that, the action (behavioral) component of attitude towards mathematics is relatively the most challenging area of secondary and preparatory school students in learning mathematics.

  126. Nandini M. Ukey and P.P.Shelke

    Most of the researchers used diverse procedures for finding pertinent information and find the keyword based search, which are not able to fetch the relevant search result because they do not know the real meaning of the term or expression and relationship between them in the web search. Data processors are stimulated to move their byzantine data from local repository to commercially available open cloud. We need to search and retrieve all the files which are semantically linked to user demanded query along with proper storage and secured access. We present a review on semantic search and security of data. We perform an exhaustive review to understand the problems and solving techniques of searching and why semantic search is more proficient. The algorithms and targeted challenges of cloud security producing improvised results and future work will use more advanced algorithms with change in day to day technology.

  127. Hiralal Jana and Debabrata Basu

    The North East Region (NER) constitutes eight states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. Its population of 45 million (2011 Census) constitutes 3.8% of country’s population. Rural Population of 327.71 lakh is 84.34% in NER as against 72.20% in India. Agriculture provides livelihood support to 70 % of region’s population. It produces only 1.5 % of country’s food grain production and continues to be a net importer of food grains even for its own consumption. Agricultural land including fallow is 22.20% as against 54.47% in India. Cultivators [41.61%] and agricultural labourers [13.07%] together constitute the majority of the workforce as against 31.65 % and 26.55% respectively in India. Land is held almost by all. Share of marginal and small farmers is 78.92 %.Land distribution is mostly egalitarian rooted in the principle of community way of living and sharing. This region is inhabited by 100 major tribes and immigrant communities. Due to topographical and environmental conditions this region is rich in biodiversity and is one of the hot spots of the world. Mostly tribal people and immigrant communities depend on farming and forest products for their food and livelihood. Local people have been maintaining traditional agricultural practices, agro-biodiversity and knowledge. Generally farmers practice jhum or shifting agricultural system with other sedentary agricultural practices. Other agricultural system are wet rice cultivation which is practiced in valley land and Aji system where rice and millet are cultivated with fish in deep water. In valley land mono cropping as well as mixed cropping is practiced by farmers. Terrace land cultivation system introduced by government could not get wide acceptability by farmers due to high input of labour and fertilizers. Farmers also have cultivation systems such as home-gardens and agro-forestry that link their families to the forest ecosystem. Recently government and nongovernmental organization have introduced agri-horti-silvipastoral system for good harvest and yield. The current scenario of agriculture, horticulture, irrigation, institutional infrastructure-suggests strategic action plan is needed to accelerate the process of agricultural development.

  128. Tamer Mohammad Al-Jarrah, Noraien Mansor, Rania Hassan Talafhah, and Jarrah Mohammad Al-Jarrah

    Metacognition has been an area of interest to educational researchers for more than 40 years. A large body of literature exists on this topic, both theoretical and empirical. However, there are few studies that summarize specific instructional practices for improving students’ capacity for metacognitive thinking. Similarly, there is a dearth of evidence showing how specific practices are implemented to affect student achievement. This review addresses gaps in these areas by identifying instructional approaches in the empirical literature that promote metacognitive thinking in primary and secondary student populations using analytical literature review methods. The review of empirical studies is considered as an important aspect of any research. It is a fact that review of past knowledge and studies will helps us equip ourselves for the present. A review of related studies helps the Investigator to eliminate the duplication of what has been done so far, review of literature is an essential component of a research process. For the purpose of the study, the literature regarding metacognition has been reviewed to ascertain whether metacognitive process has been found to be associated with improved student outcomes in the secondary school setting.

  129. Jarrah Mohammad Al-Jarrah, Rania Hassan Talafhah, Tamer Mohammad Al-Jarrah

    The purpose of this mixed-methods sequential explanatory study is to explore the perceptions of ESL parents regarding the use of educational mobile applications to help ESL elementary school students develop their language skills. Quantitative data were collected via surveys taken by a sample of 72 ESL parents from Unity Point Elementary School, Carbondale, Illinois. Later, qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews from eight ESL parents from Unity Point. Participants reported positive perceptions of using educational mobile applications to develop the language skills of students. This study provides some recommendations for the successful integration of technology in English learning and teaching.

  130. Shankar, D.R.

    treatment. The Decompressive hemicraniectomy at a earlier time significantly reduces the mortality. Materials & Methods: About 812 patients who underwent any type of craniectomy from May 2016 to May 2018, at the Institute of Neurosurgery, Madras Medical College, Chennai, TamilNadu, India were retrospectively studied. Various pre-operative prognostic factors were studied. Observation: Post operatively, the outcomes were assessed by univariate and multi variate analysis. Results: History of Diabetes, hypertension, Myocardial infarction, midline shift more than 10mm, involvement of dominant hemisphere carried grave post operative prognosis.

  131. Shankar, D.R.

    Introduction: Cervical Corpectomy is a rewarding surgery for Cervical compressive Myelopathy. Increased signal intensity in T2 weighted MRI indicates significant prognosis. Materials and Methods: About 100 patients of cervical compressive myelopathy, who underwent cervical corpectomy, from June 2014 to June 2018 at "The Institute of Neurosurgery, Madras medical College, Chennai, were retrospectively studied. Pre-operative MRI signal changes and post operative functional outcome by Nuricks grade were analysed. Results: Increased signal intensity is seen in about 83 patients. T1 weighted MRI signals does not carry significance. Increased signal intensity in T2 weighted MRI is an independent predictor of functional outcome. Conclusion: Pre-operative T2 weighted signal changes helps to assess the postsurgical outcome following cervical corpectomy. Subject Area: Neurosurgery.

  132. Emmanuel Ayodeji Ekundayo

    Arising ethnic and cultural conflicts has become an important phenomenon that has drawn the world’s attention. The political insensitivity of leaders and negligence has caused a lot of civil unrest. This paper focuses on the complexity and sensitivity of culture and how it defines people’s identity. It explains the interdependence of culture and society and how a society is stratified into majority groups and minority groups. This research further gives a list of various problems minorities face in a society and the legal instruments that protects the rights of minorities. The second chapter of this research gives the salient signs by the government to assimilate Anglophone Cameroonians and the current actions by the government. It also includes the results of the just concluded presidential elections in Cameroon and lapses that influenced the result. It further discusses the legal document that protects minority rights both international and adopted national rights. Literature review of cultural identity and the importance of language to culture is been considered. A methodological analysis was further carried out using a sampling instrument of one on one interview with randomly picked Cameroonians which helped to deduced certain conclusions and recommendations.

  133. Dr. Prachi A. Shenoy, Dr. Devanand G. Shetty, Dr. Arvind Shetty, Dr. Snehal Amberkar, Dr. Pooja Wadkar and Dr. Juhi Gundavda

    Surgical Reconstruction of the lost interdental papilla is the most difficult and elusive goals of periodontics in the field of reconstruction, regeneration and esthetic aspect of periodontal therapy .Loss of interdental papilla could result in patient complaints such as phonetic problems, food impaction, functional problems and esthetic concern. It is clinically represented by open embrasures and is often referred to as the "black triangle". Periodontal plastic surgery offers both surgical and non surgical approaches in the treatment of "Black triangle .Treatment of marginal tissue recession, excessive gingival display, deficient ridges, ridge collapse, and esthetic defects around teeth and implants are some of the esthetic problems associated with the interdental papilla that have to be corrected in todays scenario which has been discussed in this

  134. Anil Lamba

    Cyber-secure, resilient energy is paramount to the prosperity of the United States. As the experience and sophistication of cyber adversaries grow, so too must the US power system’s defenses, situational awareness, and response and recovery strategies. Traditionally, power systems were operated with dedicated communication channels to large generators and utility-owned assets but network connectivity in today’s industrial entities, including electrical utilities, has exposed many digital communication and control aspects to the threat of cyber-attacks. When forward-looking improvements including smart grid, smart meters and other advancements are considered, security is of foremost concern. In fact, governments around the world have recognized the existing vulnerability and need to protect the grid infrastructure. To solve the problem, regulations and standards are being developed to ensure that the proper security steps are taken. In addition, cyber attackers have targeted crude oil and natural gas (O&G) companies, with attacks growing in frequency, sophistication, and impact as the industry employs ever more connected technology. But the industry’s cyber maturity is relatively low, and O&G boards show generally limited strategic appreciation of cyber issues. This research paper documents the current Cyber security gaps across Energy, Oil & Gas sector systems spread throughout US, highlights required security enhancements and recommendations to foster Cyber Security & Resiliency of our Critical Infrastructure.

  135. Dr. Nayar Islam, Dr. Nilishashukla, Dr. Amyn Chamadia and Dr. Sanket Deolkar

    Objective: The purpose of the present study is to compare the efficacy of three commercially available mouth rinses containing chlorhexidiene , herbal &sodium fluoride-triclosan- xylitol respectively against salivary bacteria, streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methodology- A sample of 60 subjects was selected from the single school of Jodhpur city and was randomly equally divided into 4 groups. The subjects were instructed to rinse the mouthwash 10 ml of mouthwash for one minute twice daily for fifteen days. Number of colony of Streptococcus mutans were counted by using Mitis Salivarius agar plate, at the beginning and at the end of the study period. Inter group and intra group comparisons were done. Intra group comparisison was assessed using Wilcoxon signed rank test (non-parametric equivalent to paired‘t’ test) whereas the difference between three groups was assessed using Kruskal-Wallis Annova. Results: In the present study, no statistically significant difference was found between the three mouthwashes with regard to their efficacy in reducing Smutans. Conclusion – All the three commercial available mouthwashes are equally potent in reducing s mutans counts effectively.

  136. Manjula, M. and Prakash, K.

    Effective treatment of a disease entails the development of new pharmaceuticals or some potential source of novel drugs. Commonly used medicinal plants of our community could be an excellent source of drugs to fight off this problem. This study is focused on exploring the antimicrobial properties of the plants that are commonly being used as traditional medicines. The antimicrobial potential of four different plant extracts was screened against twelve pathogenic microorganisms and two reference bacterial strains. Methanol extracts of Trianthemapentandra and Rubiacordifolia were subjected to a test of their antimicrobial properties by agar well diffusion method. The result indicated that most of the extracts exhibited antimicrobial properties. The highest potential was observed in the methanol extract of Rubiacordifolia against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis with zone of inhibition (ZOI) of 15.4 ± 1.43, 15.3± 2.43 mm, respectively. Rubiacordifolia also showed the highest MIC against test organisms. The methanolic extract of of Trianthemapentandra showed efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis. The experiment confirmed the efficacy of two selected plant extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggested the possibility of employing them in drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by the test organisms.

  137. Vani, M. and Dr. T. Manikandan

    Acanthus ilicifolius is very potential mangrove plant species. Traditionally used in treatment of several diseases (Hepatoprotective, Anticancer and antimicrobial). The present study was carried out to investigate qualitative and quantitative phytochemical profile of leaves of A. ilicifolius. The leaves powder was successively extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol solvents. Results preliminary phytochemical analysis for carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins, steroids and phytosteroids, phylobatannins, anthraquinones and phenols both solvent extracts. Whereas, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, quinones, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids and phytosteroids, phylobatannins and anthraquinones were deficient in A. ilicifolius. Also, cardiac glycosides, were absent in only ethyl acetate extract. In the case of quantitative phytochemical analysis studies highly observed in total phenolics and followed by total flavonoids, total tannins, and total antioxidants. It can be concluded that the species is effective in anti-oxidant anticancer and anti-microbial potential effects.

  138. Dr. Shakil Ahmed, Dr. Zahida Choudhary, Dr. Shokia Jehav Ul Nesa and Dr. Rahil Muzaffer

    Acute epiglottitis is a life threatening disorder. There is inflammatory edema of the arytenoids, aryepiglottic folds and the epiglottis. Acute epiglottitis can occur at any age. The responsible organism used to be Hemophilus influenza type B, but infection with group A b-hemolytic streptococci has become more frequent after the widespread use of Hemophilus influenza vaccination. There were 20 patients, 12 males and 8 females. The main presenting symptoms were sore throat, odynophagia , muffled voice and fever. In the majority of cases, examination of the larynx showed a edematous, erythematous epiglottis and edematous aryepiglottis folds and false cords. . Two patients required intubation and admission to the intensive care unit. Both patients were extubated successfully after 72 hours. The antibiotic regimen used in our series was intravenous cefotaxime and metronidaole.

  139. Nirmalkumar, K.

    Marine soil sample from different depths at two different sites were collected and all the samples were subjected for the analysis of the actinomycetes diversity. This reseach revealed that costal region of Cuddalore to Rameswaram is a potential source for wide spectrum of antimicrobial and anticancer metabolite producing actinomycetes. Findings of the present study conclude that marine environment actinobacteria are the potential ecosystem for antagonistic actinobacteria which deserves for bioprospecting. Isolation of actinomycetes from marine sediment of Cuddalore costal region to Rameswaram was successfully achieved. Screening of the actinomycete strains for antimicrobial activity shows positive results and one of the most promising potential isolate was selected and partially Characterized by followed International streptomyces project. The isolate NKC2 was aerobic, Gram-positive and grew well on PDA. Aerial mycelium was grey to black; basal mycelium yellowish orange; reverse side of the colony yellow. Light yellow diffusible pigment was produced; no melanin was produced. Tolerated 0-10% NaCl level but grew well at 2% NaCl concentration. It can grow in a wide range of pH 4-12, with optimum growth at pH 7 and 9. Growth in different temperatures showed that growth occurred between 20-35ºC, with optimum at 27ºC. The isolate also hydrolysed lipid, casein and starch and catslase positive. Utilised wide range of sugars as sole source of carbon.

  140. Ufaque Muzaffar and Farhat Jabeen

    Background: Abruptio placentae defined as the preterm partial or complete separation of normally situated placenta from the uterine wall, complicating 1 in every 200 pregnancies (0.5-1%) in western nations, with rates as high as 4% in developing nations. Methods: This was a descriptive observational hospital-based study design with a follow-up component conducted over a period of 16 months, from January 2016 to April 2017 in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at GMC Srinagar, India comprising of 83 cases. Results: A total of 83 cases of abruption placentae were present out of 9102 deliveries at department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at GMC Srinagar, India between January 2016 to April 2017. The incidence of abruption placentae in our study is 0.9%. Overall global incidence of abruptio placentae ranges between 0.5 to 2 % with more in developing countries as compared to the developed nations. (1a,6a,17a). Fetal adverse outcomes of abruptio placentae observed during study period were perinatal mortality 75.9%, prematurity 71%, low birth weight 69.8% and asphyxia 3.6%. Out of 83 cases, 59 deaths occurred in utero while 4 died in the first week of life. Conclusions: Abruptio placentae is one of the gravest hemorrhagic complications of pregnancy. Incidence in alarmingly high in resource poor set ups of developing countries like ours. The predictors of maternal adverse outcomes were found to be malnutrition, anemia, PPH, DIC and maternal shock. Predictors for perinatal death were low birth weight, birth asphyxia, low APGAR score, retroplacental clot volume more than 500 ML.

  141. Dr. Brijesh Mahawer, Digpal Singh Chundawat and Jaydeep Joshi

    Background: Depression is an extremely common illness affecting people of all ages, genders, different socioeconomic groups and religions in India and all over the world. Globally, an estimated 322 million people were affected by depression in 2015.Since ancient times, India, has given importance to the health of people and has highlighted the need for a physically and mentally healthy society. The maxim, “there is no health without mental health” underlines the fact that mental health is an integral and essential component of health. Mental health, hither to neglected, is now recognised as a critical requirement and is engaging the attention of policy-makers, professionals and communities in India and across the globe.1 Aims &Objectives: To find out the Prevalence of depression among patients attending outpatient department in pacific medical college and hospital, Udaipur (Rajasthan). Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in outpatient department in pacific medical college and hospital, Udaipur (Rajasthan). Adult male and females attending outpatient department were included and psychotic, critically ill patients were excluded. Results: Out of the 180 study participant’s majority are females (63%). The Prevalence of depression in the current study is 66%. 34.45% of males and 65.55% of females among the study group are depressed. 57% of unemployed participants are depressed. Conclusion: The study shows the importance of routine screening for depression in all patients in all healthcare settings and implementation of intervention for proper management and prevention of depression in those patients.

  142. Syed Rehan Hafiz Daimi

    Background: Exploring anatomical variations in human body is interminable. Slight variations are observed in the individuals especially in the veins. Knowledge of these variations is a need of modern days advance medical science to conduct innocuous procedures or to avoid needless complications. Aims: This is a case report of a 60 year old male cadaver having variations in the superficial veins of the neck. Materials and methods: During routine dissection on the male cadaver we noted deviation in normal morphology, formation and termination of superficial veins unilaterally on the left side. Results: The retromandibular vein continues downward as external jugular vein without dividing into anterior and posterior divisions. The facial vein instead of terminating into internal jugular vein joined external jugular vein. And the external Jugular vein besides terminating into the subclavian vein terminates at the jugulo-subclavian confluence. Conclusion: Presence of such variant course in the veins may cause difficulties in the invasive procedures. So it is advisable to have prior knowledge of these variations for safe conduction of procedures.

  143. Anshul Kishor Jaiswal, Surekha Godbole, Anjali Bhoyar Borle, Seema Sathe and Mithilesh Dhamande

    Aim: To evaluate the smile aesthetics in central Indian population. Materials and Methods: Static photographs of posed smiles were taken in natural head position, with camera lens perpendicular to the occlusal plane. The following smile parameters were quantified using Adobe Photoshop ruler software: • Maxillary incisor exposure (mm) • Smile index (SI) (mm) • Smile arc • Most posterior maxillary tooth visible • Anterior height of the smile (%) • Posterior height of the smile (%) Statistical Analysis: The data obtained through questionnaire was synchronized and analyzed statistically. The software used in the analysis was SPSS 17.0 version. Conclusion: The dentist’s knowledge of the smile aesthetics among a particular population is essential while restoring a patient’s intraoral harmony so as to achieve functional and aesthetic balance. Clinical significance: The knowledge of particular parameters are important for comprehensive diagnosis treatment planning and execution for the same in the given population.

  144. Dr. Patil, S. B., Dr. Nilesh Guru, Dr. Vinay Kundargi, Dr. Bhushita Lakhkar, Dr. Patil, B. S. and Dr. Swapnil Kadam

    Background: Ultrasound of abdomen and pelvis is a commonly advised investigation in our clinical practice. Bladder wall thickness (BWT) can be easily assessed by ultrasonography. A consensus on the normal values of bladder wall thickness is lacking. There are no studies regarding normal BWT in Indian subpopulation. Objective: Our aim was to determine normal bladder wall thickness by ultrasound in adult healthy Indian subpopulation and to study the impact of age and sex on the normal bladder wall thickness. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting, and Participants: We studied 200 patients, undergoing ultrasound (USG) of abdomen and Pelvis for non-urological causes from January 2016 to January 2017. At a bladder volume of >250ml; anterior, posterior, right and left lateral bladder wall thickness were measured. Mean of all the four wall thickness was taken to obtain the mean bladder wall thickness. Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using Excel software. The differences of the mean analysis variables were tested with t- test, ANOVA and p- value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results and Limitations: Mean BWT in our study population was 3.08 ± 0.76mm. Gender did not have a significant impact on the normal bladder wall thickness. Conclusions: Bladder wall thickness as measured by ultrasonography offers a simple, non-invasive and reliable method to predict various pathologies. In lieu of different wall thickness of different walls of bladder, one needs to measure the thickness of all the four walls and take their mean to obtain the mean BWT. Bladder wall thickness of any individual above the normal deduced values in our study should raise a suspicion of pathology. Patient Summary: We studied 200 patients undergoing ultrasound (USG) abdomen and pelvis for non-urological causes. We found that mean BWT in our study population representing Indian population was 3.08 ± 0.76mm.

  145. Kasirajan, G.,

    Six years old male child known case of β – Thalessemia Major from 6 months of age, who is on repeated blood transfusions admitted with failure to thrive, breathlessness and reduced activity. Complete investigation was done for this child who showed microcytic hypochromic anemia, thrombocytopenia, prolonged bleeding and clotting time, abnormal liver function test and Tricuspid regurgitation grade III with moderate pulmonary hypertension and cardiomegaly. With the above high risk complications the child was posted for elective splenectomy and managed successfully.

  146. Pavan Kumar, D., 1Naga Jhansi, T., Srinivasa Rao, G. and Kirti Kumar Jain

    The objective of this study was to develop a robust, rapid and validated reverse phase liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of related substances of Abacavir sulfate. Reverse phase method was developed and optimized with chromatographic conditions as column of YMC Pack Pro C18, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 3µ particle size, 0.05% Phosphoric acid in water as mobile phase A and 100% Acetonitrile as mobile phase Column flow fixed as 1.0mL/min in gradient mode. The column temperature was maintained at 45°C. Detection wavelength was set at 220 nm and the injection volume was 10 µL. Water and Acetonitrile in the ratio 90:10(v/v) was used as a diluent. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to ICH guidelines. In this method the LOD and LOQ values for abacavir and all its related impurities were ranged from 0.004µg/mL to 0.013µg/mL and 0.023 µg/mL to 0.076 µg/mL respectively. The percentage recovery for all impurities was ranged from 92 to 112 % w/w. The test solution and mobile phase were observed to be stable up to 48 h after preparation. The validated method produced good results of precision, linearity, accuracy, robustness and ruggedness. The proposed method was found to be suitable precise, sensitive and accurate for the quantitative determination of related impurities in the bulk samples of abacavir sulfate API (1)(2).

  147. Zeyad Alsughier, Wael Ahmed Khumayes and Samah Hamad Alaqeel

    Background: It is well known that dental fear is a common phenomenon among children and adolescents. CFSS-DS is the most widely used scale for measuring dental fear in children. Objectives: To investigate the agreement between parental rating of dental fear and self-rating of their 6-12-year-old children and to assess the relation of dental fear with child’s age and gender. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among primary school children between 6 and 12 years old, in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. A total number of 536 child/mother pairs were enrolled. The child version of CFSS-DS was filled by students in school setting. While, the parental version of the CFSS-DS was filled at home by child’s mother on behalf of them. Results: The mean dental anxiety score reported by the children was (29.88 ± 12.49), whereas the parents’ assessment of their children was (27.31± 7.77), (P= 0. 001). The intraclass correlation coefficient between the child and parental version of CFSS-DS was 0.25. The mean dental fear score reported by males was (27.21 ± 11.99) and by females (31.65 ± 1349), (P=0.001). Parents of low anxious children overestimated their children’s fear, while parents of high anxious children underestimated their children's fear. The most fearful dental items reported by the children and their parents were injections, the dentist drilling and choking. Conclusions: Poor agreement in dental fear assessment between parents and their 6-12-years-old children, with a tendency of parents to underestimate their children dental fear. Female children scored significantly higher dental fear than males.

  148. Dr. Ruchi Gulati, Dr. Madhu S. Ratre and Dr. Pratik A. Chaudhari

    Modern era is the period of aesthetics with the increased awareness and enhanced desire to look good. The demand for cosmetic therapy of gingival hyperpigmentation is common. Various methods have been used for depigmentation; each method has its own advantages and limitations. The selection of a technique for depigmentation of the gingiva should be based on clinician’s expertise, patient’s affordability and individual preferences. The present case report is an attempt to compare and discuss the effectiveness of different techniques for gingival depigmentation.

  149. Luis Núñez Oreza, Betty Sarabia Alcocer, Rosita Tovar León, Paulino Tamay Segovia, Selene Blum Domínguez, Román Pérez Balam, Karla Baz Chablé, Francisco Góngora Ek and María G. Maldonado Velázquez

    Introduction: In Mexico, one of the main causal agents of nosocomial infections belong to the genus Staphylococcus, bacteria that in many cases have multiresistance to antibiotics and also produce biofilm. Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of Staphylococcus spp isolated from various biological samples from patients hospitalized methicillin resistant by detecting the mec A gene and biofilm production by phenotypic detection Agar Congo Red. Materials and Methods: This work was carried out in the Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology of the Center for Biomedical Research of the UAC. We studied 143 strains of staphylococci donated by the Clinical Analysis Laboratory of a Hospital of the City of San Francisco de Campeche from January 2015 to December 2015. Staphylococcal strains included in this study were isolated from biological samples from patients hospitalized. To phenotypic characterization, strains were cultured on CRA plates in duplicate; while to genotypic detection of gene mecA was done by PCR reaction. Results and conclusions: Our results show that the staphylococcal strains included in this study from infectious processes hospitalized patients have a high frequency of methicillin resistance by detecting the mecA (80.4%) gene and more than half are able of expressing biofilm (55.2%). This gives them not only a resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics but also the ability to produce biofilm, increasing their chances of survival in the face of various adverse events and the use of antibiotics.

  150. Dr. Srivalli Natarajan, Dr. Ajit Sinha and Dr. Vishakha Devrukhkar

    The Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) Hypermobility is very unpleasant and distressing condition, which causes hypertranslation of the mandibular condyle anterior and superior to the articular eminence during mouth opening. It can be classified according to its reduction as subluxation or dislocation. In recent times, various treatment modalities are available for its management. Surgery is considered as a last resort for TMJ Hypermobilty but recent recognition of its failures has developed the interest and research in ‘Prolotherapy’ (PrT). PrT has been used for treating ligamentous laxity and related musculoskeletal conditions. Objective: This study was conducted on a 25 years old male patient to check whether the PrT therapy is effective in treating the TMJ hypermobility. Method: 1 ml solution of 25% Dextrose was injected around the Left TMJ area for 2 sessions at a interval of 2 week and patient was recalled for regular follow-up. Results: The patient was evaluated at each follow-up for subjective symptoms like mouth opening, frequency of locking episode, Visual Analogue Scale for Quality of life and pain on function, chewing efficiency and for clicking sound, on follow–up it was found that the subjective symptoms improved within short period of time. Conclusion: The results of this case report show that PrT can be used as an efficient, simple, and conservative method to treat TMJ Hypermobility.

  151. Dr. Koné Moussa

    Since independence, the Ivory Coast has developed an urban framework dominated by the city of Abidjan. Under the influence of decentralization, secondary cities began to develop little. In fact, Biankouma, a secondary town in the Tonkpi region, is not immune to this situation. The objective of this study is to analyze the urban changes made in the city of Biankouma which is subject to urban renewal. To conduct the study, we used the hypothetico-deductive method to conduct an exploratory and descriptive research combining the quantitative and qualitative approach. The surveys were conducted with 20 resource persons and administrative officers from the city of Biankouma. This study showed the progress of the city of Biankouma in terms of infrastructure and basic equipment.

  152. Dr. Ikram Bin Ismail, P.T., Dr. Soumithran, C.S. and Dr. Sasidharan, V. P.

    Background: Autologous blood transfusion is a proven method of blood conservation in elective surgical procedures. Moreover due to increasing concerns about the transmission of blood borne diseases through homologous blood transfusion, autologous blood donation has now become more popular among the patients. This study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India to assess the feasibility of autologous transfusion in elective maxillofacial surgeries. Objectives: This study was designed to compare the efficacy of pre-operative autologous and homologous transfusions in restoring the blood parameters such as hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet count in patients undergoing elective maxillofacial surgeries and to compare the post operative complications associated with both type of transfusions. Methods: Fifteen patients reported at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College, Kozhikode from March 2012 to September 2013 for elective surgical procedures were selected as the study group. Fifteen control patients reported during the same period were selected, who received homologous blood transfusion during surgery. The hemoglobin level, hematocrit and platelet count were measured pre-operatively and on 1st and 7th post-operative days. The present study assessed the mean change in hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet count from the baseline values at two points of time: first post-operative day and one week following surgery. After the blood transfusion, temperature was also monitored and all the post-operative complications were registered in both groups of patients. Results: This study showed that there was no significant difference in the ability of two types of transfusions in restoring the pre-operative hemoglobin on the first and seventh post-operative days. Although the reduction in hematocrit was comparatively lesser in the study group, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups on the seventh post-operative day. The increase in platelet count was comparatively more in control group on the first and seventh post-operative days. It was also noted that none of the patients in the study group encountered any complications either during donation or after transfusion. But three patients in control group developed febrile reactions during the post-operative period. Conclusion: Autologous blood donation by using pre-operative autologous blood donation is a safe, simple and easy procedure, in elective maxillofacial surgical procedures with anticipated high intra-operative blood loss and in which blood transfusion is likely. Although pre-operative autologous blood donation reduces, it does not totally eliminate the need for homologous transfusion for elective maxillofacial surgery.

  153. Dr. Tejinder Kaur, Dr. Sarika Kapila, Dr. Ramandeep Singh Bhullar, Dr. Era Arora and Dr. Amneet Sandhu

    Introduction: Primary tuberculous osteomyelitis of mandible is an extremely rare condition, particularly in comparison to pyogenic infections and neoplastic diseases involving the mandible. Osteoarticular tuberculosis accounts for 1–2% of all the types of bone tuberculosis. Bone tuberculosis forms about 10% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, of which 50% occur in the spine. Tuberculosis of the flat bones of the skull is uncommon and that of the mandible is especially rare as it contains less cancellous bone. Case report: A 9 year old female patient presented with complaint of gradually increasing swelling and persisting pus discharge from sinus on left lateral border of mandible and submandibular region since 2 months with accompanying low grade fever. Extraoral examination revealed a unilateral diffuse swelling over the left body of the mandible. The overlying skin was erythematous and showed the presence of a fistula with a serosanguinous discharge. Routine laboratory investigations were grossly unremarkable with raised total leucocyte count. There was no evidence of regional lymphadenopathy. Radiographic examination revealed carious deciduous molars with periapical abscess, CT mandible revealed marked periosteal thickening with change in trabecular pattern followed by chest examination and radiograph. Curettings from the lesion sent for histopathological examination showed collection of epitheloid cells alongwith Langhan type of giant cell and multiple granulomas. Tentative diagnosis of primary tuberculous osteomyelitis of the mandible was made and patient had been put on antitubercular drug therapy. Due to its rarity and clinical interest one should always have a suspicion of mycobacterial infection in the back of mind when dealing with chronic maxillofacial infections not responding to the usual antibiotic course and local debridement.

  154. Dr. Keshava H. K., Dr. Vinay Babu C.S., Dr. Varun Manjunath, Dr. Rajesh Kiran, K. V., Dr. Sushmitha Anantha Murthy, Dr. Vasudha K. V. and Dr. Aisiri Anand

    Aims and objectives: To determine the prevalence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in liver cirrhosis with ascites in KIMS hospital Bengaluru. Materials and methods: 58 patients with liver cirrhosis with ascites, who were admitted to KIMS hospital Bengaluru from March 2017 to August 2018) were studied retrospectively. The diagnosis of liver cirrhosis was established on the basis of clinical evaluation, biochemical parameters, abdominal ultrasound and viral markers. All the patients had abdominal paracentesis done within 48 hours of admission under aseptic condition and the data obtained were analysed. Results: The mean age of the studied population was 52±12 years (age range 32-66 years). Of the 58 patients 9 patients had SPB (15.5%), Among SBP patients culture is positive in 44.4%, while CNNA was found in 55.6% patients. The prevalence of MNB was 13.8% (8/58) in this study. Of those with SBP, 83.3% had monomicrobial infection with E.coli (60%) being the predominant organism followed by Klebsiella species (20%). Gram positive organisms Streptococcal species and Staphylococcus aureus both together contributing for 20 % of SBP. Patients with SBP had significantly lower platelet count when compared with those without SBP (p < 0.05). Also, international normalization ratio (INR) was significantly higher in those patients with SBP compared with those without SBP, (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Patients with cirrhosis of liver with ascites are at increased risk of developing SBP. Hence it is imperative to do diagnostic abdominal paracentesis in any cirrhotic patients with ascites and suggestive symptoms compatible or suggestive of SBP.

  155. Rachana Mishra, Anushree Jain and Saheli Podder

    Aims and objectives Comprehensive treatment plan is required before the start of endodontic treatment. Grossly mutilated teeth pose assess problems and restorative boundaries. This paper includes two clinical cases which were reffered to department of conservative dentistry and endodontics. Endodontic treatment was achieved for the tooth and restorative management with composite buildup without post was planned and further porcelain fused to metal crown was given in both cases and futhur follow up was carried on for eight months in respective teeth. This paper describes a simpler, easily available and economic and yet effective alternative to the endodontic management and restorative rehabilitation of grossly mutilated teeth.

  156. Dr. Monika Koul, Dr. Anil Singla, Dr. Vivek Mahajan, Dr. Harupinder Singh Jaj, Dr. Sabyata Khajuria and Dr. Indu Dhiman

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the reliability of retromolar space as a predictor for lower third molar eruption among subjects with different anteroposterior skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: The material included orthopantomograms (OPG) and lateral cephalograms (LC) of 90 patients in which a total of 180 lower third molars were studied. The subjects were grouped according to the (ANB) angle and sub grouped according to the level of third molar as compared to the occlusal plane. On the OPG, mesiodistal crown width of third molar, retromolar space, space width ratio, third molar and second molar angulations, inclination between the lower second and third molars and gonial angle were recoded. Angles of maxillary and mandibular prognathism (SNA, SNB), ANB, and various mandibular lengths were calculated using lateral cephalogram. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that there is a strong correlation between the retromolar space and the eruption of mandibular third molar. Also retromolar space, mandibular lengths and third molar angulation were all increased in class III subjects. A strong correlation was found between gonial angle and the molar impaction rate. Conclusion: Retromolar space is the most valid, reliable and reproducible factor for predicting the impaction or eruption of lower third molars. Most of the linear and angular measurements favoring eruption were found in class III skeletal pattern.

  157. Dr. Sumedh Lone, Dr. Amit Saragade, Dr. Avadhesh Tiwari, Dr. Monica Mahajani, Dr. Kuldeep Patil, Dr. Manisha Rathod, Dr. Devendra Warghane and Dr. Siddharth Narote

    Mouth is considered as the mirror of general health. For good oral and systemic health, proper maintenance of good oral hygiene is very important. The standard Western medicine has had only limited success in the prevention and treatment of a variety of oral diseases. Ayurveda is considered as the most ancient indigenous medical system of India. Ayurveda includes therapies for treatment of these Orofacial Diseases such as oral cleansing, extractions, excisions, flap surgeries etc. Ayurveda also recommends daily use of therapeutic procedures as preventive measures such as Dant dhavani, Jivha lekhana, Gandoosha or oil pulling and tissue regeneration therapies. In this article, an attempt has been made to review various herbal plants mentioned in Ayurveda and therapeutic procedures that can be used as an adjunct for the maintenance of oral health.

  158. Dr. Teena Thomas Luke and Dr. Pragati Upasham

    Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of mastitis and estimate the frequency of lesions diagnosed as tuberculous mastitis solely on FNAC. Methods: A total of 506 randomly selected cases of breast lumps over a retrospective period of 5 years were evaluated clinically and subjected to FNAC. The clinical, cytological, and histopathological data of these patients were studied. The smears were stained with H&E, Papanicolaou, and Giemsa. Data was collected from the cytology section of the Pathology Department and smears retrieved were reviewed and differentiated as acute, granulomatous or tuberculous mastitis. Histopathological confirmation was done wherever possible. Results: Out of 506 cases, inflammatory lesion of breast was detected in 30 cases. The most commonly encountered lesions were acute mastitis or abscess (46%), followed by granulomatous mastitis (36%), followed by tuberculous mastitis (10%), and 6% of acute on chronic mastitis. Histopathological follow up was available for 2 patients. Conclusion: It is a well-established fact that FNAC helps confirm tuberculosis in the presence of necrosis. From the study it can be concluded that FNAC is an efficient, minimally invasive and cost-effective method in the diagnosis of acute and granulomatous mastitis. FNAC prevents delay in initiation of therapy and complications of the disease. Our study has shown us that careful screening of FNAC smears for the presence of necrosis will aid in the confirmatory diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  159. Dr. Riyaz, N.N. and Dr. Vinil, R.

    Background: We present the study of development of trigger finger in post Carpal Tunnel Syndrome release patients with diabetes mellitus hypothroidism as risk factors. Patient and Methods: 103 patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in age group 45-55 with no trigger finger prior to surgery selected, underwent Carpal Tunnel Syndrome release and followed up for 3-5 months and developed triggering of the finger. Results: All patients are selected with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome with no prior trigger finger underwent Carpal Tunnel Syndrome release by Mini Palm Carpal Tunnel release technique and most the patients developed have diabetes mellitus as the main risk factor. Conclusion: Diabetes Mellitus is a major contributing factor in patients developing triggering of the finger in the post carpal tunnel syndrome release hand.

  160. Mustafa Girgin

    Objective: In this prospective, secuentially randomized study, acute and chronic pain, testiculer arterial flow measurements and sexual functions were compared between Kugel and Lichtenstein hernia repair which are tension free, with Shouldice repair technic which is tensioned classical repair technic. Patients and methods: A prospective series of 92 inguinal hernia repairs performed in 66 patients. Shouldice repair performed to 19, Lichtenstein repair performed to 24 patients and Kugel repair performed to 23 patients. Results: No recurrence was seen in the 66 patients for all three groups. Postoperative 2nd hour (p< 0.001) and 24th hour (p< 0.05) VAS scores were significantly lower in the group K. For the evaluating of the chronic pain in the first year, incidence and limited activity were not significantly different between groups, but we found lesser pain intensity in the group K (p<0.01). There were not any erectile dysfunction in all patients. Erectile function results were also better in the Kugel group first year postoperatively, but these differences between groups were not significant. (p> 0.05) In the Doppler ultrasound measurements, testicular artery volumes were not different in all groups, but decrease of the flow measurements in Shouldice and Lichtenstein groups were significant. Testicular artery flow decreased in all groups at the postoperative period. Conclusion: The technic of preperitoneal Kugel patch repair, is new repair technic which has more satisfied results with less acute and chronic pain, less hospitalisation time, and less time to return to normal daily activity. It is interesting that the three different technics of hernia repairs cause decrease in the testiculer artery flow and volume, and it is significant in Shouldice and Lichtenstein groups, whereas it is not significant in the Kugel group. All repair technics in this study were not effected the erectile function, and there were no differences between groups. It is also interesting that, Kugel patch repair has more advantages on the patient comfort compare to the Lichtenstein repair technic which was accepted a new challenge in the inguinal hernia surgery.

  161. Dr. Farul Sarkar, Swagata Gayen, Sanchita Kundu, Rudra Prasad Chatterjee and Mousumi Pal

    Ameloblastoma is the most common benign but locally aggressive odontogenic neoplasm affecting the jaws, accounting for 1% of all tumors of the maxilla & mandible and 11% of all odontogenic tumors. Though nearly half of the tumors do occur between the ages of 20 and 40 years, it is relatively rare in paediatric patients and accounts for approximately 10-15% of all reported cases. Recurrence frequently appears after inadequate treatment. A case of plexiform ameloblastoma in a eleven years old male child with it’s clinical, radiological, histopathological features and treatment modalities have been discussed herewith.

  162. Dr. Ankur Pankajbhai Bambhania, Dr. Paras S Shahm, B.B.S., Dr. Shyam N Shahm, B.B.S. and Dr. Jyotin S Shahm, B. B. S.

    India has always been a land of exotic snakes. Snake bites become a very important preventable public health hazards as a result of urbanization and cutting down of forests. However, it is believed that in India about 2 million people are bitten by snake and about 35000-50000 cases prove fatal. This amply reflects the magnitude of the problem. It is mainly due to unawareness about the snake and snake bite management. As a result of this there is delay in correct treatment and failure to perform necessary interventions.

  163. Dr. Vijayakumar, N.

    Baseline morphometric information at a sub basin level is essential to develop an appropriate strategy for sustainable, socially acceptable, ecologically benign and economically viable development of a river basin. The present study was carried out in one of the less studied Thirumanimuttar river sub-basins of Cauvery river in the state of Tamilnadu, India. We used GIS and RS tools to study the morphometric characteristics of the basin. The seventh order main river is formed by several lower order streams forming a dentritic flow pattern. The mean bifurcation ratio is 3.61 indicating the basin is largely controlled by structure. The basin has medium drainage density of 0.996 per km2 and is elongated in shape. The length of overland flow values of the basin is 0.502, indicating high relief. The study has strengthened in understanding the hydrological, geological and geomorphological characteristics of the Thirumanimuttar drainage basin.

  164. Dr. Khawla Natheer Hameed Al_Tawel

    Purpose: to evaluate the efficacy of scintigraphy, ultrasound and fine needle aspiration in thyroid nodule detection and determination whether it is benign or malignant , in order for malignant to get timely diagnosis and be adequately treated in early stages of the disease, reducing morbidity and mortality and avoiding unnecessary procedures, including unnecessary surgical treatments of benign ones .

  165. Dr. A. Madhu Mitha, Dr. Rahul Manchanda, Dr. P. P. Singh, Dr. Jagdeep Balyan, Dr. Amit Singh Malhotra and Dr. Preeti Yadav

    Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA), or Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS), is a rare congenital mullerian and mesonephric anomalies presenting with a characteristic triad of uterine didelphys, unilateral obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis .suspicion and knowledge of this anomaly are essential for a precise diagnosis. Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) is characterized by a wide range of abnormalities including partial absence of sacrum or coccyx with no apparent associated anamolies to extensive deformity of the lower vertebrae, pelvis and fused lower limbs (sirenomelia).Herein we report a case of 16 year old girl, a case of CRS mimicking OHVIRA.

  166. Nagalaxmi Velpula, Faisal Taiyebali Zardi, Madhuri Kanakagiri and Roshni Tandon

    Background: Canalis sinuosus is a neurovascular canal in the anterior maxillary region. The importance of this anatomical variation can be considered during the surgical interventions in the anterior maxilla. Injury to this canal results in the paresthesia after surgery. CBCT plays a important role in evaluating these anatomical variations as it provides reliable images of maxillomandibular complex. CBCT helps the clinician to evaluate CS for treatment planning and to prevent the intra and post operative surgical complications. Objectives: To assess the anatomical variations of Canalis sinuosus (CS) by using Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to emphasize CBCT is necessary before invasive procedures to preserve important anatomical structures. Materials and methods: The study involved the evaluation of 63 CBCT scans by carestream 3D software. Presence, occurrence, position and distance of CS from its emergence to nasal cavity floor, buccal cortical bone edge, crest of alveolar ridge were noted in saggital plane and distance from incisive foramen was noted in axial plane. Results: Out of the 63 scans performed Canalis sinuosus was present in 39.7%. Unilateral and bilateral occurrences were 30.2% and 9.5% respectively. The side predilection was more on the left side (22.2%). Position of CS near lateral incisor region is 12.7% on left side and 12.7% on the right side. There was no significant difference in the mean distance of CS from its emergence to nasal cavity floor, buccal cortical bone edge, crest of alveolar ridge and incisive foramen. Conclusions: Canalis sinuosus is a rare anatomical variation in the anterior maxilla region. Clinicians should carefully assess these variations and it should be highlighted that CBCT is necessary prior to any surgical intervention to decrease the risk of complications and to preserve important anatomical structures.

  167. Dr. Twinkle M. Patel and Dr. Chirag Shah

    Background: Diphtheria is an acute infection caused by Corynebacterium Diphtheria spreads by human contact. During 2007-2011, a total of 55 countries worldwide, reported >20,000 cases of Diphtheria and among them India reported the most cases (n=17,926).Objective: To study the frequency, clinical profile, progress and the outcome of neuropathy amongst Diphtheria cases. Methodology: A retrospective study of 26 patients who developed weakness following acute Diphtheria was done. Result: The incidence of Diphtheritic neuropathy in survived cases of diphtheria in our study was 29.8% (N-26/87). Maximum numbers of Children with neuropathy in this study were in the age group of 5-10 years (16/26) with median age of presentation being 7 years. The incidence is more in Male in our study (19/26). 25 out of 26 patients were partial/ unimmunized. All 26 children had features of bulbar palsy. Amongst them, 14 children had features of isolated palatal palsy. One child had unilateral lower motor neuron facial palsy and one had 6th cranial nerve involvement & Quadruparesis was seen in 4. Among these 26 patients, majority (19/26) of patients had received ADS during their hospital stay. Conclusion: Diphtheria is a vaccine preventable disease so, Routine vaccine administration, prompt diagnosis, early treatment, early administration of ADS and early recognition of complications and treatment of such will reduce associated morbidity and mortality.

  168. Salem K. AlEnzy and Adel N. AlEnzie

    Background: Work-related stress is a serious problem that affects the health and well-being of employees as well as the productivity of organisations. Stress has a huge impact on the performance and productivity of emergency health workers. Paramedics are routinely exposed to a range of highly stressful incidents, as they have to deal with unpredictable and non-specific threats. Objective: The objective of the study was to explored the factors associated with stress and identified the effects of stress and burnout on Red Crescent ambulance workers. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among ambulance workers in Riyadh, Saudi Red Crescent centres across four regions of the Ar-Riyadh province of Saudi Arabia. Structured Questions about sociodemographic information, working conditions, the level of burnout, and job stress were included in the questionnaire. Result: A total of 627 employees participated in the study, 95% participant were Emergency medical technician, 46.7% participants had worked for their present employer from 3 years to less than 6 years and 2.6% worked more than 12 years. Full - time permanent employee was 41.6%, and rotating 12-hours shift 64.6%. Corresponding with the result found in this study, the risks of stress, anxiety, and depression faced by a paramedic were usually associated with long working hours, unpredictable emergencies, and changing sleep patterns. Conclusion: Stress level and work-related burnout was a leading cause of poor performance and resulted in the inability of employees to perform assigned tasks.

  169. Dr. Preeti Pardeshi Dr. Varsha Jadhav, Dr. Prashanth Shetty, Dr. Seema Yadav Dr. Aishvarya Hajare Dr. Shrawani Chouhan and Dr. Jignesh Tate Author

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of Pomegranate juice and Chlorhexidinegluconate as ultrasonic liquid coolant on aerosols in comparison with normal saline clinically and microbiologically. Method: Thirty chronic periodontitis patients were divided into Group 1: normal saline, Group 2: pomegranate juice, Group 3: 0.12% chlorhexidinegluconate, used as ultrasonic liquid coolants. One blood agar plate was kept in fumigated chamber 10 minutes before scaling. Calibrated face shield was used by clinician to evaluate face contamination during scaling. Two agars at distance of 0.4 meters on either side and one 2 meters behind dental chair during scaling were evaluated for colony forming units (CFU) on agar. Results: At baseline, no significant CFUs were detected. Mean CFU reduction in Group 3 (26.53 ± 6.65) and group 2 (29.6 ± 3.03) but results obtained were not statistically significant. CFU were highest in group 1 (123.9 ± 9.13). More CFU were found on agar which were kept on right side in all the three groups. The area near the ala of the nose and inner canthus of eye has more contamination on face shield. Conclusion: Pomegranate juice is potent antimicrobial agent andcan be used as an ultrasonic liquid coolant during scaling.

  170. Khaydarov Izzatillakhon Maxmutaliyevich

    The four common In the period of Soviet government, Uzbekistan has had not only the weak economy even it had not rights to use its natural wealth. The mineral wealth of Uzbekistan was considered a proper of the All Union, even “…the profit from buying and manufacturing gold, precious and non-ferrous metals, materials with strategic significance, other invaluable products being very consumption in the world market had not come to the treasury of Uzbekistan. So, this article discusses the problem of concerning the industry of the gold in Uzbekistan in 1940-1970, a period of 30 years. Also, digging and using the gold of Uzbekistan by Russians in that period will be analyzed.

  171. Renu Pattanshetty and Ashton Fernandes

    Background and Objectives: Low back pain can be defined as pain localized below the line of the twelfth rib and above the inferior gluteal fold, with or without leg pain. Nearly 76% of Computer professionals from India reported some kind of musculoskeletal discomfort in various epidemiological studies. This present study is aimed to investigate if there was a correlation between BMI, posture and working hours of administrative workers in being a risk factor for low back pain. Methodology: Administrative workers who use computer for their daily work were considered for the study. Out of the 100 participants 26 were male participants and 74 were female participants. Demographic data like age, BMI, working hours was recorded in data collection sheets. Postural assessment was done in sitting and standing by observational and plumb line method respectively. Low back pain intensity was evaluated using visual analogue scale and Modified oswestry disability index. The correlation analysis was done between BMI, posture and working hours of each participant. Results: No significant correlation was found between body mass index, posture and working hours of administrative workers in being a risk factor for low back pain. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that there was no significant correlation between body mass index, posture and working hours of administrative workers in being a risk factor for low back pain. However the present study indicated that increased body mass index and static posture during sitting may result in low back pain

  172. Is’hoqov Mirsodiq Mirsultonovich

    The article deals with issues of logical and substantive contradictions in the texts of the Zoroastrian canon of Avesta. It also provides a comparative analysis of the levels of social relations of Vedic and Avesta societies.

  173. Ateeq, M.A., Suresh Kumar, M., Konda Amarnath, Visalakshi, G.

    Aim: To compare and evaluate the efficacy of two miniplate and one large plate in treatment of mandibular body and symphysis fractures. Materials and Methods: A Prospective cohort study was performed on patients who were surgically treated for mandibular fractures from the year 2015 to 2017. The primary predictor variable was fixation technique, which was conventional 2.0 two miniplates and one large plate with bicortical locking screws. The outcome variables were complications, stability and wound dehiscence. Results: Out of 20 cases 10 were included under Group A and 10 under Group B. In Group A patients were treated with two miniplates and in Group B patients were treated with one large plate. There were no statistically significant differences in occlusal or osseous healing outcomes. However, there were significant differences intreatment outcomes for several variables, including wound dehiscence, plate exposure, the need forplate removal, and tooth root damage between the groups. Conclusion: The use of 2 miniplates was associated with more postoperative complications than the use of 1 stronger plate, but both techniques produced sufficient stability for healing

  174. Nguyen Thi Dung

    On the basis of using data of Bac Giang Department of Agriculture and Rural Development. The article uses descriptive statistics method in oder to evaluate reality of citrus trees (orange and pomelo) production development in Luc Ngan district of Bac Giang province and shows thatareaand harvest of orange and pomelo increased but productivity on for products had a drop and theseproductivity fluctuated in the period 2011- 2015. The orange and pomelo average productivity tended to increase slighly. This does not match its inherent potential. Caused by climate change, the application of scientific and technological progress in production is limited, small and fragmentary production scale…So the government of Viet Nam and producers should have solutions in order to improve the efficiency of citrus production in the district.

  175. Nodir Karimov Rakhmonkulovich

    In Islamic world, there are six most reliable hadith collections. In particularly, they are Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abi Dawud, Sunan al-Nasa’I, Sunan al-Tirmidhi and Sunan ibn Maja. Other than Sahih al-Bukhari very little has been written about the other five collections. The reason of that only just recently that a full translation of the Sunan al-Tirmidhi has become available in English [1]. However, Isa Tirmidhi’s ideas were famous for its reliability in European scholars until its publication. About Hadith and its importance, there are also different thoughts among researchers. Some says they are main sources after Qur’an and others say they are fabricated stories. When the talk goes on about Hadith and its importance, most scholars prefer to clarify their ideas with Sunan al-Tirmidhi. When and how was Abu Isa Tirmidhi known in Europe? And what kind of reasons persuaded to study Sunan al-Tirmidhi? This research intends to analyze works about Abu Isa Tirmidhi that published in European countries. It will be an attempt to analyze and compare scientific works how they explained Abu Isa Tirmidhi and his Hadiths. More than ten works of European scholars that discussed to show the research levels of Abu Isa Tirmidhi. The qualitative study used the literature review framework and obtained research data through document analysis. In general, Abu Isa Timidhi’s scientific legacy can be proven as the most vital sources to learn and explain Hadith in Europe.

  176. Alimova Rahima Ruskulovna

    This article provides information about the purpose of the Russian Empire in the Fergana region in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, its policies and achievements.

  177. Eugene Iheanacho

    This study examines the dynamic effects of crude oil price on energy consumption in Nigeria over the period 1981-2017 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach. The results are mixed. On the first part, there is a short causal impact between financial sector proxy by industry variables and bank performance. However in the second phase, the results suggest that all the variables are unable influence return on assets except Central Bank asset to GDP in the long run. In general, the results highlight the underdevelopment state of the financial sector in resource mobilisation and allocation and in driving profitability in banking sector. This study has some important policy implication: Banks should lower the level of liquidity to increase the income from loan. In other words, a bank can increase lending to the public thereby reducing cash tied up to liquid asset.

  178. Sia Modeste GNATO

    The notion of social networks alludes to a free exchange platform where Internet users exchange at ridiculous cost without geographical and ethnic barriers. For this fast mode of communication, text is the main means used to convey a message. The present study makes a descriptive and explanatory analysis of some enunciative sequences of the text and shows that it is particular text because of the combined use of the alphabetic and numerical systems. In this variety of writing, the creation of lexical units and syntagmatic sequences are multiple and respect no grammatical rule. Thus, we note the construction of syntagms by the use of the syllabogram, the logogram, the truncation by apocope and by apheresis without excluding the multiple omissions of vowel and consonant whose texting is enamelled. Moreover, the whimsical and playful dimension linked to the production of utterances whose form varies according to the creative genius of each writer makes it difficult to decode the messages conveyed. At a time when the use of NICT essential in the field of communication, the study suggests that linguists lead in-depth reflections to sit a text grammar whose rules will serve to put all users at the same level of competence in encoding and the decoding of utterances.

  179. Retchiel O. Zabala

    This study presents the results of the experimental study on the efficiency of gamification as a teaching approach in the teaching-learning process and curriculum delivery of Mathematics. This was taken in order to establish and determine the level of performance in Mathematics in the pre-test of the experimental and control group, the level of performance in Mathematics in the post-test of the experimental and control group, the significant difference in the level of performance in Mathematics in the pre-test and post-test of the experimental group, and the significant difference in the post-test performance of the experimental and control group. Subjects were Grade 9 Junior High School learners and used purposive – total population sampling technique. Data needed for this study were obtained through standardized test. As to comparing the groups, independent and paired sample t-test was used in determining the significant difference of the scores between groups. After data were tabulated and analyzed, found were: the level of performance in Mathematics in the pre-test of both the experimental and control group exhibited an average result, the level of performance of the post-test of both the experimental and control group revealed a difference in their mean score, the experimental group gained a high rating while the control group is average, a high significant difference between the performance of the experimental group in the pretest and post-test, and the post-test of the experimental group elicited a statistically increase compared to their pre-test. Statistically, with the significant difference, it shows that the experimental group has a better performance. The results suggest that gamification is more effective in attaining optimum learning compared to the use of the traditional method of curriculum delivery or teaching learning process.

  180. Alia S. Altyib and Ali Abdulla Alhakim

    Background: This paper, discuss the application of risk management on EPCC construction projects executed in Sudanese oil field and its effect on the projects objectives. Methodology: Descriptive study design based on 18 individual interviews face to face covered the study population, the interviews conducted on January, 2018. Results: The contractors practice of projects management in general depends on their organization process assess and the organization culture, for the risk management the researcher founds that none of the contractors follows a risk management stander practice, the OEPA and the operators are not satisfied from the contractors process in terms of risk management practice but they didn't force any regulation to guide the contractor or training programs in risk management, as much as the PMC team is well trained and professionals but the projects managers in the fields need intensive training in risk management and need to adopt a risk management culture for this projects to be more beneficial for the contractors organizations first, the operators and the OEPA.

  181. Ambati Sai Vishwagna and Dr. M. Sudhir Reddy

    The present paper is an attempt to study the consumer behavior towards online shopping. The objectives of the study are: to identify the relationship of demographical factors that influence online shopping, to study the preferences of the consumers toward online shopping and to study the satisfaction level of the consumers while they shop online. To achieve the objective, null hypothesis ‘Online shopping is not reliable and trustworthy to the consumers’ was tested. The present study has been conducted among the consumers of Karimnagar District. Convenience sampling method has been used to select the sample. The primary data was collected from 100 respondents by means of a structured questionnaire having 15 questions. The collected data was analyzed using Excel and SPSS software. The major findings of the study are: Cash on delivery is found most popular payment method for online shopping among consumers. The price of the products is the most influencing factor on online purchase and online shopping is getting popular in the younger generation. Majority of the respondent’s buy from flipkart and Amazon which are the leading online shopping websites in India. Online shopping is very popular for electronics items followed by movie tickets and clothes. Unreliable online delivery system as well as personal privacy or security concerns have a significant impact on online shopping. The main barrier in the process of online shopping is the payment safety and privacy issue

  182. KOUADIO Amani Augustin and KOUAKOU Issouf

    This study aims to analyse social logics that condition the reconversion of the activity of syndical auxiliaries in fund extorsion. To do this, a survey was carried out with syndical auxiliaries in the district of Abidjan especially in Abobo. Qualitative approach through open interviews, allowed us to collect necessary data to achieve the following results: liberalization of urban collective transport carried away proliferation of syndical structures formed of actors with divergent objectives in sight of obtaining incomes of this sector. Profit-seeking led some syndicates to redeploy themselves in fund extorsion actors to the detriment of defending interests of drivers.

  183. Khurshidbek Egamberdiyevich Khodjamberdiev

    The article analyzes the socio-political situation of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the eve of achieving the independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan (1986-1990), the policy of the USSR government and the Communist Party’s policy of tyranny towards Uzbekistan. The article also analyzes the socio-political and economic situation in Uzbekistan for the independence of Uzbekistan.

  184. Botirjon Muhammadaliyevich Tajibayev

    In this article has been expressed military activity of Samarkand qurboshis and also given their ideas which belong about Independence and freedom.

  185. Yohannes Joressa

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether teachers use authentic materials while they teach reading skill. For this reason, this assessment is on teachers’ use of authentic materials for reading skill. The study was conducted in a sample of 40 purposefully selected grade eleven students of Ayertena secondary preparatory school. To collect the required data for the study, interview, and questionnaire and document analysis were used as an instrument. Moreover, four kinds of questionnaires, which focused on teachers’ opinion on teaching reading with authentic materials, frequency of teachers’ use of authentic materials in their English class, factors that hinders the teacher to teach using authentic materials and students’ opinion on how often their teachers’ use different reading strategies to engage them with the reading materials were administered. The data indicated that majority of the teachers believed the relevance of using authentic materials in teaching reading skill. However, teachers’ use them very rarely. In addition to this, most of the students perceive that the materials can expose them to real language and communication, increase their knowledge of vocabulary items which they need in real situation and doing reading activities with the materials as activities which are important to them. Consequently, the researcher has recommended that teachers should use authentic reading materials if they need to create interesting and interactive lesson to happen in the class. And to boost their students’ interest teachers need to adapt and prepare authentic reading materials.

  186. Imam Sayuti, Bambang Supriyono, Susilo Zauhar and Andy Fefta Wijaya

    The objective of article is to analyze and describe quantitatively administrative and legal provisions concerning driving license (SIM) service in the region of East Java Police Department. Research methodology uses qualitative approach, while data analysis utilizes Miles-Hubberman Model. Result indicates that: (1) legal base for SIM Service is yet to be obeyed by the people, and the consequence is that the people is not very supportive to the service orderliness and also to the importance of good driving behavior; (2) legal base for SIM Service is yet to be carried on as it should be, and the consequence is that SIM Service cannot afford the required quality standard, which therefore, SIM supplicants are lacking of knowledge about good driving behavior; and (3) the mechanism of procedures and requirements of SIM Service is not yet implemented as it is expected to be, and therefore, SIM Service shall find its quality standard decreasing and fail to increase drivers’ knowledge about good driving behavior.

  187. Dr. Yugandhar, K.

    Acquiring English language is effective with careful observation and imitation of effective users of the language. Classic English literature can be used in the class for students to improve their language skills. Literature is surely not an end in itself but the means of beginning a creative process in the minds and emotions of the students and assist them in grasping the language with ease and effortlessly. Information and Communications Technology – ICT plays a major role in facilitating enormous material in different formats and thus has initiated new possibilities into the English classroom. Students are facilitated to listen, speak, read and write good English with the helping hand of various ICT tools in e-class. This paper proposes the integration of literature and ICT as an essential aid for the effective teaching learning of English language. E-class enables learners to navigate interactive, self-learning material with the helping hand of the Internet at their own pace and path. Learners are provided with suitable literature with choice, control and interaction using various ICT tools to understand various elements of language and to practice/use the same. Use of e-class with resources and interactive tools make the learning more interesting, enthusiastic and effective.

  188. Dr. Aswathy Satheeh

    The United States developed and grew from thirteen colonies to fifty states and has, gone through so many discoveries, explorations and settlements. The Immigration has played an important role in American history, and has the most open immigration policy in the world. The extensive explorations in US were from many lands like Spain, Great Britain, Holland and Sweden. In 1875 it was declared the regulation of immigration was a federal responsibility. After that there was series of Immigration acts and programmes were implemented. The national-origins quota system passed of 1921, Bracero programme 1942, McCarran–Walter Act of 1952, The immigration act of 1973, Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA ) of 1986, 1990 Immigration Act, Illegal Immigrant Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) of1996, the Border Protection, Anti-terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005, Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006 (CIRA), and the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007. The legislations passed from time to time by US government has controlled the level of migration into the country from Mexico both legal and illegal. Donald Trump for keeping a campaign promise, signed an executive order on January 2017 which immediately but temporarily banned citizens from seven countries – Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen – from entering the U.S. The Mexicans are the largest single group of those living illegally in the country. During his first 100 days in office, President Trump has taken a sweeping set of actions on immigration, ranging from imposing a travel ban to cutting refugee admissions and travel ban. This policy affects mainly on Mexicans in US. The Chief Justice John Roberts opined positively and he made justification for Trum’s decision and has withstood court scrutiny. But he also declared the endorsement of decision has constitutional ground. But the sudden policy shift triggered chaos at international terminals in U.S. airports nationwide, and several immigrant-rights groups sued on behalf of refugees and other migrants.

  189. Bora Erdem

    The advent of social media, most notably, platforms such as Facebook and Twitter, has been cherished by liberals and progressives alike as the dawn of a new age for free speech and expansion of domain for more civic and efficient communication between diverse groups of individuals and people. The euphoria that defined the prevalent mood in the 2000s later devolved into a more sober and realistic attitude among champions of unrestrained free expression. Once seen as engines of freedom of thought and speech, social media, and Facebook as the subject matter of this paper, are no longer regarded as flawless platforms after the rise of right-wing populism, the ascendancy of inflammatory and hate-driven speech, the prevalent intolerance and online mobbing, and most significantly, the meteoric rise of the post-truth politics in our daily life and political conduct. Not surprisingly, Facebook has found itself at the heart of a sprawling academic and media controversy about the pernicious ramifications of social media on major tenets of social setting and body politic. It now stands trial of a rigorous questioning over its possible role for the reverse of tide regarding free speech. Is Facebook responsible for the current predicament that gripped the platforms and modes of civic social conduct? To what extent, can Facebook be held accountable for the deterioration of free speech, violation of individual rights and encroachment on individual privacy? What would be the limit for free speech or should be any? Should Facebook intervene to remove the content of a hate speech or endorse, no matter what the content is, of unlimited right to free expression? These questions constitute the main structure of this essay. It aims to analyze the central pillars of the current debate regarding the boundaries of free speech and Facebook’s role to define what would be the limitations to restrict what could be written and what not. I’ll dwell upon the arguments of both sides, and will try to show merits and shortcomings of the approach pushing for more interference by Facebook against xenophobic groups while also taking on the stance of those who staunchly oppose any editorial meddling by the social media platform on people’s posts. Furthermore, this essay seeks to explore the roots of setbacks and unwinding of the promising aspects of social media and Facebook in terms of advancing our socialization in public domain. The rise of autocratic leaders around the world, the resurgence of strident populist nationalism has injected new relevance to the debate. Though not for same reasons, Facebook’s CEO and founder Mark Zuckerberg found himself being grilled by a group of bipartisan senators in the U.S. Congress over Facebook’s failure to protect private data of tens of millions of users (Roose and Kang, 2018). The ever-growing reach of social media giants have deepened the sense of urgency for reforms to curb their unlimited power over citizens’ private spheres. Facebook, Twitter, Google, Youtube, Apple and Amazon are companies with a staggering amount of data over consumers and people’s habits, attitudes and preferences. Reining in market-driven and unlimited commercial impulses of these companies, according to many observers and politicians, has become an imperative. But this paper is more interested in Facebook’s role in shaping and defining parameters of free speech in today’s world, with its ramifications for social and political conduct. In this respect, it will only focus on Facebook’s role regarding the subject matter. The study draws on a literature review and contains a critical approach regarding existing materials and articles expounding on the issue. While this essay praises the vast opportunity provided by Facebook to widen our social and civic dialogue, it also reminds the existence of perils that woefully break down social decorum and augment xenophobic and hate speech, exactly because of the nature of the same platform, Facebook, which is widely used by marginal groups, white supremacists and fringe nationalists to advance their political goals.

  190. Bhushita Lakhkar

    Background: Sickle cell anemia induces sickling of red cells due to polymerisation of sickle haemoglobin. Renal medulla is hypoxic and hypertonic and hence RBC are more prone to sickling. Some authors observed that changes in renal doppler indices {resistive index (RI), Pulsatility index (PI)} occur earlier than rise in biochemical parameters, hence this might be a better screening tool. Aims: correlation of renaldopplerindices in sickle cell anemia patients with biochemically normal, lower than normal and high renal function parameters. Methods: 108 Sickle cell patients between 6 month to 50 yrs, were subjected to Complete haemogram, renal function tests, ultrasonography of kidneys, followed by renal doppler study. Results were analyzed using SPSS software 23.Analysis Result: Of 108 patients,67.5% belonged to homozygous and 32.4% belonged to heterozygous group. Maximum patients belonged to an age group of 10-19 yrs and 1-9 yrs. RI and PI of the renal vessels were studied. Earliest changes were detected in interlobar artery. 43.6% patients of SS type and 27.2% of AS type had abnormal doppler changes. Increase in RI and PI was seen maximum in age group of 5-14 yrs (66 and 56% respectively) and 15-19 yrs. On comparission of renal indices with biochemical parameter, mean RI and PI were higher in children with low and high biochemical parameters as compared to children with normal biochemical parameters indicating more severe vascular changes. Conclusion: Study of renal indices in sickle cell patients is very useful in detecting early renal damage.

  191. Alessandro Nogueira, Claudio da Silva Pereira, Fábio Luiz Chimento, Gilvan Germano Silva, Magno Félix França, Wesley Moreira Lacerda and Carlos Alberto Kelencz

    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, characterized as an important public health problem today. Due to lack of physical activity and eating habits, also related metabolic dysfunctions that increase the possibility of developing diseases. Studies using HIIT (High-Intensity Interval Training) have the advantage of promoting adaptations similar to continuous aerobic training, but in a time-efficient way in obese individuals. Carry out a narrative review of periodical publications on HIIT training as a control of obesity and metabolic dysfunctions. Literature review, to answer the following question "How can HIIT training control obesity and metabolic dysfunctions?" The literature search occurred through the electronic search resources in the following databases: Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and PubMed - National Library of Medicine, from 2000 to 2016. Eight articles selected, one of which addresses that most people do not perform more than 10 minutes of mild or moderate activity in daily life, another states that obesity is a complex disease, of multiple etiologies and common enough to constitute a public health problem. Two papers from selected studies show that HIIT enhances the mitochondrial and oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle and improves performance and endurance in exercise and performance. Four of the studies selected indicate that HIIT decreases fat levels, increases lean mass, reduces hyperglycemia in type 2 subjects, and lowers HDL cholesterol levels. The results found in this study demonstrate that HIIT is efficient for the reduction of fat levels in obese, decrease of metabolic dysfunctions and improvement of performance and resistance in exercise and performance, being shown as a possible solution in the control of obesity and metabolic dysfunctions.

  192. Ramesh Reddy, R., Murthy, S.G.S., Prashanth Kumar, R. and Thimmaiah Gari Aditya

    A blend of concrete is prepared with 20% of Ground-Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (GGBS), 10% of Silica fumes asmineral admixtures and 5% of organic admixture (Trigonella Foenum Graecum) replacing cement. An experimental program was conducted to study the variation in compressive strength of concrete with combination of mineral and organic admixtures in alkali and acidic environment. 21 specimens each of controlled concrete and of concrete with combination of mineral and organic admixtures were cast and compressive strengths were tested after 28 days. 6 specimens of each type were exposed to alkali and acid attack for next 28 and 56 days. Investigation with respect to acid and alkali resistance was carried out on concretes with mineral and organic admixtures and their performance benchmarked against controlled concrete are presented in this paper. Their performances were measured with respect to the loss in compressive strength and weight of concrete cubes. In later stages concrete with mineral and organic admixtures showed better resistance to alkali and acid attacks when compared to controlled concrete.

  193. Murali Krishna, N. and Prashanth Kumar, R.

    As on date the most widely used construction material is still Reinforced cement concrete. Concrete is strong in compression and week in tension, steel is placed in concrete where ever tension is anticipated, the process become cumbersome time consuming and expensive process. Fiber reinforced concrete has emerged as consequence which offers improved tensile strength in addition to compressive resistance. Tiny Twin Twisted steel fiber with more frictional resistance are added in concrete matrix to improve tensile strength of concrete. In these paper, experimental results of Compressive strength and Tensile strength of different grade concrete with different dosages of micro steel fibers are presented.

  194. Dr. Maheshwari, S. K. Mandeep Kaur and Anil Kumar

    Background: Online shopping provides all types of items to be available in the virtual world. It is just like a shop in the neighborhood, selling all type of goods but with some prominent differences. Self efficacy of a person affects his/ her shopping behaviour. Person generally avoids tasks where self efficacy is low but undertakes task where self efficacy is high. AIM: This study is aimed to assess the relationship of online shopping and general self efficacy among para medical teaching professionals at Punjab. Methods: Quantitative descriptive cross-sectional survey approach was used to assess online shopping and self efficacy by using socio demographic data sheet, general self efficacy scale and Bergen shopping addiction scale. Results: One third (31.5%) of the subjects were unable to resist the sales and more than one third (40.5%) of the subjects purchase something instead of saving. Minimum (21.5%) of the subjects continued to shop or spend despite having debts whereas more than one third (37%) of the subjects were told ourselves this is my last time” and still over-shopped or overspent again. Majority of the subjects preferred amazon site visit online shopping sites once a month, spend average 500-1000/- Rs per month and mostly preferred things fashion (men/ women) for purchase online. Majority of the subjects were shopping from 1-2 years, they choose online shopping because of availability of wide variety of products. The subjects neither are too low self efficacy and nor more self efficacy. There was very weak statistical non significant difference between self efficacy and shopping addiction. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is non significant relationship of self efficacy and online shopping addiction.

  195. KRA Kouamé Daniel, Toualy Marie Noël Yeyeh and GUEYE Kéassa José-Roselin

    Côte d'Ivoire produces cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in peri-urban areas. The cultivation is threatened by a disease which symptoms are similar to a virus disease despite the use of varieties so-called resistant to virus diseases. In order to implement a control method, a comprehensive diagnosis was made. After assessing the extent of the disease in two large cucumber production areas on the outskirts of the city of Abidjan, two direct and indirect diagnoses were made. The first one was made on the basis of observation and description of the characteristic symptoms of viral infection. As for the second one, samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves were randomly collected from infected plots. Molecular analyses were done using PCR followed by reading on an electrophoresis gel. 92.42% of cucumber plants were infected in the plots with a high average severity of 4. The direct diagnosis led to conclude that the cucumber was CMV-infected. PCR products showed the presence of CMV virus responsible for cucumber mosaic in infected leaves. The symptoms developed by cucumber plants and the identification of the viral agent associated with the symptoms justified an infection of cucumber plots in peri-urban areas of Abidjan by CMV with a much stronger pressure than 31 years earlier.

  196. Sutar Kanchan

    Dandoba hill which is also known as Dandakaranya is famous for the temple of lord Shiva covered by unique flora. This forest is conserved for its bioasthetic value. There occurs great diversity among the Angiosperms. Present work is a piece of taxonomic work based on critical field studies of members of family Capparaceae from Dandoba hill. Amongst the members of family Capparidaceae, the genus Capparis and Cadaba were recorded commonly from the study area which might be, due to the typical dry environment of the study area. Genus Capparis commonly known as ‘Caper’. Members of this genus showed variation in their habit ranging from small trees, climbers upto the large shrubs. Members of genus Cadaba were small shrubs. During the present study, four species of Capparis and one species of Cadaba were collected and identified. Their morphological descriptions, notes on identifications, present ecological status and medicinal importance were also cited.

  197. Nagaraj, A., Srinivas, S. and Neelofer R.

    A series of new 4-(5-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-2-aryl-2,3-dihydro-1,5-benzo- thiazepine 6(a-j) have been synthesized from (E)-1-(5-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-3-aryl-2-propen-1-one 5(a-j). The structures of the synthesized compounds have been confirmed via IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS spectral analyses. Further, all compounds have been assayed for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bactiria. The antibacterial screening data revealed that, compounds 6 which contain 4-chlorophenyl (6b), 4-methoxyphenyl (6e) and 2-hydroxyphenyl (6f) moieties on benzothiazepine ring might be the reason for the significant inhibitory activity. Most of these new compounds showed appreciable activity against test bacteria and emerged as potential molecules for further development.

  198. Yousif Rojeab, Cal Von Stein, Elaina Gollmar, Jessica Fernandez, Alexandria Dingess, Elaine Chiu, Taylor Hoffman, Deirdre Myers

    Ibuprofen is one of the most commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to alleviate pain and inflammation. Faster disintegration and consequently dissolution of an ibuprofen-containing oral tablet is expected to speed up relief from pain and/or inflammation. The purpose of this study was to 1) compound series of ibuprofen-containing tablet formulations for oral administration with varied types and amounts of disintegrants and 2) thoroughly evaluate ibuprofen’s dissolution rates and extents from those formulations compared to a commercially available tablet. United States Pharmacopeia (USP) type II dissolution apparatus was implemented in the dissolution studies where samples were collected at predetermined time points and analyzed for ibuprofen content using a validated High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. Statistical analyses of dissolution results were performed based on single-factor ANOVA. Three of the six compounded formulations; ones with starch 5%, starch 20% and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) 10% as the disintegrants, demonstrated higher rates of dissolution compared to the commercial product (p< 0.0003, 0.0032 and 0.0043, respectively). For dissolution extents, two formulations; ones with MCC 20% and hypromellose 2910 USP (E4M) 5% as the disintegrants, showed enhancement over commercial tablet (p< 0.001 and 0.0103, respectively). These results demonstrate the feasibility of compounding ibuprofen-containing tablets for oral administration with enhanced dissolution characteristics over a commercially available tablet, thereby potentially reducing time to pharmacologic effect. More importantly, our results demonstrate that sound formulation optimization of a compounded tablet formula can be directly guided by in vitro dissolution evaluations.

  199. Rasha Khalid Abbas

    Refined groundnut oil was used in the frying of chicken. The physiochemical properties of both raw and fried oils were studied under similar conditions. Chemical tests of the fried groundnut oil showed a rise in the acid value from 3.81% to 4.54% as oleic, the saponification value which decreased after frying from 144.45 to 88.35 mg KOH/100g, due to the broken of the ester bonds by the heat during frying, the iodine value decreased from 7.29 to 4.88 g/100g as a result of thermal oxidation of the unsaturated fatty acids and an increase in the peroxide value from 1.4 meq/kg to 2.6 meq/kg. Physical tests showed changes in the fried oil, an increase the viscosity after frying from 37.95 to 40.91 centipoises. However slight increase in the refractive index and the relative density.

  200. Dr. N. Vijayakumar

    Groundwater chemical quality studies were carried many watersheds in India. In this study sixty groundwater samples were collected out in from dug and bore well during pre and post monsoon seasons. The samples were analyzed for various water quality parameters such as pH, Electric Conductivity, Total dissolved solids, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium Bicarbonate, Carbonate, Sulphate and Chloride. The present study have concentrated in hydrogeochemical comparative studies in Calcium and Magnesium concentration in and around of the Salem district, Tamil Nadu, using Geospatial Techniques.

  201. Shishu Pal Singh, Shivraj Singh and Rajesh Kumar

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the soil fertility status of the Varanasi district. The study consisted of field survey for collection of soil samples and their analysis for chemical and physical properties at department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Soil fertility evaluation of an area is an important aspect in context of sustainable agriculture production. The macro nutrients govern the fertility of soils and control the growth and yields of crops. In the present investigation four blocks was selected in the district Varanasi of Uttar Pradesh and studied the available macronutrient status in the soils using Parkers Nutrient Index approach made with the study of 30sub-surface soil samples collected from farmers filed from different villages of Harhua, Baragaon, Pindra, Araziline block with the help of khurpi in zigzag motion. Collected soil samples were analyzed for pH, Electrical Conductivity,(EC) Organic Carbon (OC), Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K)The Results reveals that the pH ranged from 6.6-8.7 with mean of8.0 slightly acidic in nature, E.C. (dS m-1) ranged from 0.144-0.320 with mean of 0.22, Organic carbon ranged from 2.78-15.39 with mean value of 7.82 gkg-1and available nitrogen, phosphorus, and Potassium were ranged from 158.4-455.5, 17.10-133.4 and 122.40-157.42 kg ha-1, respectively.

  202. Kamal Teja Pothamsetty, Gopi Manideep, M., Goutham Kumar, K., Uhanjali, A. and Manasa, D.

    Background: Approximately 80 million people currently live with epilepsy worldwide. The estimated proportion of the general population with active epilepsy (i.e. continuing seizures or with the need for treatment) at a given time is between 4 and 10 per 1000 people. Globally, an estimated 2.4 million people are diagnosed with epilepsy each year. In our study we are considering the prevalence, adherence, risk factors. Method: The study was conducted in rural areas of Amaravathi capital, AP. Socio-demographics, drug therapy, disease pattern, risk factors, socio-economic status were considered during the process of data collection. Results: During the study period 703 subjects of either sex were enrolled. Out of 4000 study population 703 were suffering with epilepsy remaining 1797 were not suffering with epilepsy. It was found that epilepsy distribution was more between ages of 10-40 yrs of age. In our study it was found that 441(63) were males, 262(37) were females. Finally, it was found that epilepsy was more distributed in males than in females. The prevalence of epilepsy in rural areas in and around Amaravathi region was 17.575%. The prevalence epilepsy in rural areas of Amaravathi region per person day was 0.006276. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained our study Strongly concludes that The prevalence of epilepsy in rural areas in and around Amaravathi region was 17.575% by October-December 2017. The prevalence epilepsy in rural areas of Amaravathi region per person day was 0.006276.The prevalence epilepsy in rural areas of Amaravathi region per person year was 2.2910.

  203. Ramesh, A., Sukumaran, M. and Rengarajan, R.

    Heavy metals are common pollutants of estuarine ecosystems where they induce adverse effects on the aquatic biota. Copper is one of the most toxic heavy metal to fish and consumption of fish after copper treatment in water may pose a serious risk to human health. Fishes are generally used as pollution indicators in water quality management. Chronic effects include reduced growth, shorter lifespan, reproductive problems, reduced fertility and behavioral changes. Estuarine fish, Mugil cephalus is an important fin fish species of Uppanar estury in Cuddalore region having good nutritional values. Fishes living in close association with the sediment may accumulate copper sulphate. In the present observation, the toxic effects of the copper sulphate LC50 35 µg/L (CuSO4) on (10% and 30%) two sublethal concentrations of total protein in gill, liver and muscles tissues of the estuarine fish, Mugil cephalus were estimated during the periods of 5, 10 and 15 days exposure. There is decreased in all tissues on comparison with control. The results indicated the toxic nature of the heavy metal copper sulphate.

  204. Babitha John, Dr. Vetriselvi, P. and Dr. Adhisivam, B.

    Background and Objectives: Infants born preterm are particularly vulnerable to procedural stress and pain exposure during neonatal intensive care unit stay at a time of rapid and complex brain development. The low tactile threshold in preterm infants when they are in NICU renders them more vulnerable to the effects of repeated diagnostic and therapeutic invasive procedures. The aim of present study was to assess the effect of breast milk feeding on pain during heel stick procedure among late preterm neonates. Materials and methods: A randomized clinical trial was adopted with random sampling to select 128 late preterm neonates who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Infants were randomized to control and experimental groups. For the neonates in the control group, PIPP assessment had done 15 minutes before heel stick and repeated 5 and 15 minutes after the procedure. For the neonates in the experimental group, baseline pain assessment had done 15 minutes before heel stick procedure. Direct breast milk feeding or Paladai feed of 5 ml expressed breast milk of own mother provided 5 minutes before heel stick procedure. Pain score assessed 5 minutes and 15 minutes after the heel stick procedure using Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). For analysing the data, descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, median, and interquartile range) and inferential statistic (Mann Whitney u test, Pearson chi-square) were used. All the statistical significance were carried out at 5% level of significance. Result: The comparison of median pain scores between control group and experimental group, 15 minutes before and 5 minutes and 15 minutes after heel stick procedure showed that 15 minutes before heel stick procedure median pain score in control group and experimental group were 1 (1, 1) and 1 (0.5, 1) respectively with a statistical significance p=0.864. 5 minutes after heel stick procedure in control group median pain score was 6 (5, 6), where as in experimental group median pain score was 3 (2, 4) with a statistical significance of p<0.001. 15 minutes after heel stick procedure in control group and experimental group median pain scores were 2 (2, 3) and 2(1, 2) respectively with a statistical significance of p<0.001. Conclusion: The study concluded that breastmilk feeding is effective in reducing the pain during heel stick procedure among late preterm neonates. Breastmilk feeding can be adopted as a cost effective and non-pharmacological measure during heel stick procedure among late preterm neonates.

  205. Richard Rutto, David M. Kungu and Michael Chesire

    Development is a multi dimensional process involving the up ward movement in the entire social system. Therefore, the realization of Millennium development goals calls for project management strategies that will lead to project success and thus millennium development goals becoming a reality. For this to be achieved, effective project implementation strategies have to be put in place so as to assure and ensure project success without which the project can not see the light of day. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the contribution of project integration services on the successful implementation of CDF projects. To meet the purpose, the study sought; To find out the project integration services used in CDF projects for successful implementation; To establish the techniques of project integration services used in CDF projects; and to find out the challenges faced in using project integration services. The study had a target population of 540 respondents consisting of project managers, project committee members, and community members of projects funded by CDF. From the target population, a sample size of 162 was selected using stratified and simple random sampling. Data for the study was collected using questionnaires and analysed descriptively by use of percentages and frequencies. The paper found out that project integration services include project appraisal services, risk analysis services, technical specification services and analysis of spill over. It also found out that the common techniques used are joint appraisal of projects by stakeholders, project proposal by the community, risk analysis by stakeholders and cost estimation through consultations and that the effects of project integration include less costs of evaluation and implementation and quality projects. The study recommends that the CDF should implement training to workers, that corporate governance policies should be provided to workers through seminar and that continuous auditing of projects should be done to identify problems early enough. It further recommends that politicians should not take part in the project appraisals and that competent managers with proficient knowledge in project management should be actively involved in the management of CDF projects and finally, enough finances should be provided so as to implement project integration in the constituency.

  206. Premalatha M. and Lakshmi, S.

    This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity as well as the phytochemical constituent of Carica papaya leaves. Extraction was performed by successive maceration methods using soxhlet solvent. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay. Based on the phytochemical analysis, it showed that extract of Carica papaya contains alkaloids, phenolic, flavanoids, tannin and its derivative anthraquinone. The result showed that papaya extract plant samples displayed, these phytochemicals has the tendency to inhibit the infections microorganism the minimum inhibitory concentration. The inference depicts that the papaya leaf phytoextracts do not have the bacterial effect else the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus more resistant to the phytoconstituents. The phenolic content achieved also a satisfactory result which also aid in antioxidant benefit.

  207. Initial Checks
    1. Scope
    2. Format
    3. Quality of tables & figure
    4. Reference style
    5. Copy right form
    6. Plagiarism (Ithenticate)

    Assign a “Reviewer”
    1. high standard and quality
    2. Compliant with aim and scope of Journal
    3. Ethical requirement

    Reviewer’s Report
    1. Review Report is sent to author for re-submission
    2. Manuscript is accepted unconditionally
    2. Rejection notification to author

    Final approval – Editorial Office
    1. Send to Chief Editor for final Comments

    Acceptance and Execution
    1. Article published online
    2. Galley proof sent to the Author for Proof Reading
    3. Careful final corrections by Author
    4. Corrections done
    5. PDF is published online

    Release to final print in press


  208. Publishing ethics

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    J-Gate Oaji CiteFactor DAIJ
    IIFS JOUR Sherpa SOA
    Ulrich Cosmos POLSKA BIBLIOGRAFIA NAULOVA Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI)
    III Factor

    International Journal Impact Factor(IJIF)

    Science Library Index Scientific World Index
    International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF Scholarsteer General Impact factor Global Impact Factor
    Journal Quality Factor ROAD DocFoc Open Access Library
    Indian journals Index Electronic World Cat BOAI
    Research Junction  Root Indexing  Journal Factor  Geneva foundation for medical education and research
  210. NEW!​ We are seeking professionals to join our Editorial Board. You will be entitled following benefits while working with us as an editorial board member of the journal.
    1. You are enforced to read carefully various manuscripts in your area of importance and interest. This is the way you are routinely forced to keep yourself up-to-date while checking and suggesting the changes in manuscripts.
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  213. Instructions to authors

    1. Aims and scope
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    3. Format of contributions
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    6. Peer review
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    Please note that the journal now encourages authors to complete their copyright licence to publish form online.

    The International Journal of Current Research (IJCR) is a multidisciplinary journal aimed at attracting contributions from multidisciplinary. Authors are cordially invited to submit full length paper, Original and unpublished research articles, based on theoretical or experimental works, are solicited for publication in the journal. Submission of article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or academic thesis) and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. The journal provides a forum for discussion and debate of current international public health issues, with a focus on the world.  Monthly issues contain peer-reviewed original articles, editorials, commentaries, book reviews, news, letters to the editor, announcements of events, and various other features.

    Submission procedures

    Manuscripts must be submitted online. Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions below please visit the online submission web site.  

    Manuscripts containing original material are accepted for consideration with the understanding that neither the article nor any part of its essential substance, tables, or figures has been or will be published or submitted for publication elsewhere. This restriction does not apply to abstracts or short press reports published in connection with scientific meetings. Copies of any closely related manuscripts should be submitted along with the manuscript that is to be considered by the IJCR. The IJCR discourages the submission of more than one article dealing with related aspects of the same study.

    The IJCR only accepts online submission of papers. Authors are encouraged to refer to the instructions on submitting your manuscript online.

    During the online submission procedure, authors are asked to provide: a) information on prior or duplicate publication or submission elsewhere of any part of the work; b) a statement of financial or other relationships that might lead to a conflict of interest or a statement that the authors do not have any conflict of interest; c) a statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors; d) the name, address and telephone numbers and e-mail address of the corresponding author who is responsible for negotiations concerning the manuscript. The manuscript must be accompanied by copies of any permission (see Permissions below) to reproduce already published material, to use illustrations or report sensitive personal information about identifiable persons.

    All papers submitted to the IJCR are checked by the editorial office for conformance to author and other instructions all specified below. Non-conforming manuscripts will be returned to authors.Before submission, please use this check list to avoid the most common reasons for non-conformity:

    Please check that…

    … there is a minimum font size of 11 throughout the contribution, including the reference list, the tables and figures.
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    … the word count and maximum number of references are within the limits for the contribution type, in accordance with the quick guide below (Table 2).
    … there is a maximum of 4 medium-sized tables/figures in total (additional tables figures can be added as online-only supplementary files).
    … there is a title page in the main document, including the information stated in the Instructions to authors.
    … the abstract is structured under the following headings: Background, Methods, Results, Conclusion.
    … the main text is structured under the following headings: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion.
    … relevant ethical issues are mentioned in the manuscript.
    … there are conflict of interest and funding statements under the subheadings Conflict of interest and Funding respectively. They are placed after the main text, before the references
    … there are three to five bulleted key points after the main text, before the references. The same bulleted key points are inserted in the provided space in the online system.
    ... any figures are uploaded in separate files, using the file formats specified in the Instructions to Authors.
    … the tables and figures are appearing only once throughout the documents. Tables may be either in the main document or in separate files, and the figures in separate files only, but there may not be any duplicates.

     Format of contributions* Other instructions apply for other contribution types regarding the maximum number of tables/figures, headings etc, in accordance with instructions below. However, the instructions regarding font size and line spacing applies to all contributions types.

    The International Journal of Current Research (IJCR) welcomes submissions of the following types of paper: original articles including systematic reviews or meta-analysis, short reports, commentaries, and letters to the editor. In addition, the IJCR also commissions editorials, ‘viewpoint’ papers, and book reviews.T Please see the text below for more detailed instructions.

    Guidelines for Research Articles

    • Research articles are articles written based on the empirical/secondary data collected using a clearly defined research methodology, where conclusion/s is drawn from the analysis of the data collected.
    • The information must be based on original research
    • Article/s should provide a critical description or analysis of the data presented while adding new and rapidly evolving areas in the field.

    Manuscript Formatting

    • 4500 word limit (excludes the abstract and references)
    • Microsoft Word file
    • Times New Roman 12pt font; double spaced

    Title Page (1st page)

    • Title (without abbreviations no more than 150 characters with spaces)
    • 10 author limit unless a justification is provided; please include the academic degrees and affiliations, including institution, department and division, for each author
    • Conflict of interest statement and source of funding
    • Corresponding author’s complete contact information
    • Clinical trial registry number (if applicable)
    • Article word count ( text only )

    Structured Abstract (2nd page)

    • 400 word limit
    • Background: describes what is known and what is the question
    • Objective(s): describe the hypothesis or the purpose of the study
    • Methods: specify the study design and statistical methods
    • Results: present the outcomes and any statistical findings
    • Conclusions: convey the relevance and importance of the results
    • Abstract word count
    • Keywords: no more than 7-10 keywords
    • Include a section break for next page

    Glossary of Abbreviations (3rd page)

    • Provide a list of abbreviations arranged in alphabetical order.
    • Include a section break for next page

    Text (4th page)

    Text should be arranged as following sections.

    • Introduction
    • Materials and Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Conclusion
    • Acknowledgement (optional)
    • Conflict of Interest statement
    • Funding statement


    • Starting on a page following funding statement
    • Include a section break
    • 40 references limit

    Tables and Figures

    • 10 tables and/or figures
    • Each table must be on a separate page
    • Each table must be build using the “ Add a table ” function in Microsoft Word
    • Include footnotes for each table where applicable.
    • Provide figure legend within manuscript file after tables.
    • All figures must be submitted separately as .TIF or .JPG file types
    • Figures must be in 200 DPI
    • Figures size must not exceed 30MB for each
    • Color figures are recommended

    Review Articles

    • Submissions should be a critical, systematic review of literature concerning issues that are relevant to the current research. Reviews should be focused on one topic
    • Maximum length:5000 words
    • No more than 50 references
    • Up to 3 tables, charts, or figures

    Case Study

    • Submissions should describe situations where individuals or organizations responded to a health care challenge. Articles should describe the challenge, the options, the thought process behind the decision made, and the lessons learned. Results are not required. Submissions that focus on the process of implementation are encouraged.
    • Organization: Background, Organizational Context, Personal Content, Problem, Solution, Unresolved Questions and Lessons for the Field
    • Abstract sections: 3-5 key insights for delivery leaders that emanate from the case
    • Suggested length: 1500 words


    • Editorials are concise commentaries on a currently published article/issue on Current Research. Editorial office may approach for any such works and authors must submit it within three weeks from the date of receiving invitation.

    Letters to the Editor/Concise Communications

    • Letters to the editor should be limited to commentaries on previous articles published with specific reference to issues and causes related to it.  It should be concise, comprehensive and brief reports of cases or research findings. It does not follow a format such as abstract, subheads, or acknowledgments. It is more a response or the opinion of the reader on a particular article published and should reach the editor within 1 months of article publication.


    • Commentaries are opinion articles written mostly by the veteran and experienced writers on a specific development, recent innovation or research findings that fall in line with the theme of the journal. They are very brief articles with the title and abstract that provides the gist of the topic to be discussed, with few key words. It straight away states the problems and provides a thorough analysis with the help of the illustrations, graphs and tables if necessary. It summarizes the topic with a brief conclusion, citing the references at the end.

    Acknowledgement: This section includes acknowledgment of people, grant details, funds, etc.

    Note: If an author fails to submit his/her work as per the above instructions, they are requested to maintain clear titles namely headings, subheading.

    Only articles in English are considered for publication. British spelling conventions (Oxford Dictionary) are used. Examples: standardise (not standardize), colour (not color), paediatrics (not pediatrics), foetal (not fetal), etc.

    Prepare your manuscript, including tables, using a word processing program and save it as a .doc, .rtf or .ps file. Use a minimum font size of 11, double-spaced and paginated throughout including the main text, references and tables, with margins of at least 2.5 cm. The text should be left justified and not hyphenated. Number pages consecutively, beginning with the title page. Begin each of the sections on separate pages.

    Original articles

    Original articles should be presented in the following format: title page; abstract with keywords; introduction; methods; results; discussion; funding; conflicts of interest; key-points; references; tables (each table on a separate page, complete with title and footnotes); figure legends; figures.

    Original articles should only in exceptional cases exceed 5 pages in print. This implies a word limit of appr. 3000 words in the main text of the paper, and a maximum of 4 medium-sized tables/figures.

    According to the type of the article, we recommend authors to adhere to the following reporting guidelines:

    • The manuscript of original articles should be presented in the following order: 1) title page; 2) abstract with keywords; 3) main text (introduction; methods; results; discussion); 4) funding; 5) conflicts of interest; 6) key-points; 7) references; 8) tables (each table on a separate page, complete with title and footnotes); 9) figure legends; 10) figures.

    The title page should carry a) the title of the article, which should be concise but informative; b) first name, middle initial, last name and institutional affiliation of each author; c) name of department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed if not already stated under b); d) disclaimers, if any; e) name, address, telephone and fax numbers of author responsible for correspondence about the manuscript.

    The abstract should be structured under the following headings: Background, Methods, Results, Conclusion. The word limit is 250 words. Add three to five key words or short phrases to the bottom of the abstract page, which will assist us in indexing the article and which may be published with the abstract. Use terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus when possible.

    The main text should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. More information on the structure and content of these sections can be found in the Uniform Requirements for manuscripts. Relevant ethical issues should be discussed in the manuscript and necessary permissions and authorizations declared.

    If any acknowledgements are stated, authors are responsible for obtaining written permission from persons acknowledged by name because readers may infer their endorsement of the  data and conclusions.

    Funding information should be declared under the heading ‘Funding’. If there is no funding source, this should be explicitly stated.

    A statement on conflicts of interest should be included in the manuscript. Either mention: ‘none declared’, or specify the authors’ financial or other interests which should be known to the readers. See below for further details.

    Keypoints should be presented in the form of 3 to 5 bulleted, short statements which summarize what this paper adds to what was already known. Include at least one implication for public health policy and practice.

    For the references, see the separate guidelines at the end of the author instructions. There is a limit of 40 references for original articles.

    Type each table with double spacing on a separate page, and provide a title for each. Do not use internal horizontal and vertical rules. Abbreviations in tables should be explained. Place the tables at the end of the main document or upload them in a separate text file. Excel format is not accepted.

    Excessive tabular data are discouraged: a maximum of four medium-sized tables/illustrations is allowed. Do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Additional tables/figures can be presented on the journals’ web-page if needed. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. Do not indicate “statistical significance” with bold or otherwise altered font. If you use data from another published or unpublished source, obtain permission and acknowledge fully.

    Figures should be professionally designed, using a well-known software package for standard personal computers. Three-dimensional figures are not allowed. Provide the figures in separate files, not as part of the main text. The following figure formats are allowed in the first submission: .jpg, .gif, .tif, .eps or .doc/.docx. However, if the manuscript is accepted, .tif format is required.

    Symbols, lettering, and numbering should be clear and large enough to remain legible after the figure has been reduced to fit the width of a single column, i.e. 7 cm. The figure legend should be provided in the submission system when uploading the figure, or at the bottom of the main document, and should not appear in the figure. If a figure has been published earlier, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. If photographs of patients are used, their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use the picture, whether the patient is identifiable or not. 

    Colour figures are accepted, but the authors will be required to pay the cost of the reproduction (£350/$600/€525 per figure). Alternatively, if the colour is not critical for the image's scientific understanding, colour can be published online only, as Supplementary data, with a black and white version being published in the print version of the journal.

    Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses

    The review should be less than 5000 words (not including abstract, references, and tables). There should be a structured abstract of up to 250 words (using the headings: Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions). There should be 3-5 keywords and up to 40 references. Additional references exceeding 40, for example those listing included papers, can be presented as online supplementary data. Please follow instructions on the submission site on how to upload supplementary material.

    Short reports

    Short reports should have the same format as original articles, but should not exceed 1200 words, and contain a maximum of one table/figure. Abstracts of short reports should not be structured, and should be no longer than 100 words. The maximum number of references is 10.


    Commentaries are opinion pieces which reflect on papers previously or currently published in the International Journal of Current Research (IJCR), or on issues of general interest to public health science or policy. Comments on specific papers should in general be given directly under the published paper (please see “E-letters” below).

    Their format is free, but they should at least contain a title page, the main text, funding information, a conflict of interest statement, and references. They do not need an abstract. The main text should not exceed 1200 words. The maximum number of references is 10.


    Editorials are written by associate editors or commissioned. They reflect on issues of general interest to public health science or policy, or on issues of special interest to the membership of EUPHA. They should be written in a crisp, lively style. They should have a maximum of 800 words, and not more than 5 references.

    Viewpoint papers

    Viewpoint papers are usually commissioned. Viewpoint sections in the International Journal of Current Research (IJCR) usually consist of two or three contrasting pieces which reflect in issues of general interest to public health science or policy. They should be written in a crisp, lively style. They should have a maximum of between 800 and 1200 words, and not more than 5 references.

    Book reviews

    Book reviews are usually commissioned. They should have a maximum of 500 words.


    E-letters are comments on papers published in the European Journal of Public Health. They should be no more than 500 words and 5 references. E-letters, or comments, are submitted directly on the European Journal of Public Health website.

    Please locate the article on the journal website, sign in or register via the top right bar of the Oxford Academic website and click on the “Add comment" button at the end of the article.


    All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship. The order of authorship should be a joint decision of the coauthors. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. One author will be asked to act as the corresponding author. This needs not be the first author. All communications from and to the editorial office, the editors, Oxford University Press etc. will go through the corresponding author. Increasingly, multicentre trials are attributed to a corporate author. All members of the group who are named as authors should fully meet the criteria for authorship as defined in the Uniform Requirements.

    During the submission procedure, authors will be asked to grant a licence to publish to the International Journal of Current Research (IJCR), the owner of the IJCR and to declare copyright ownership (author, public domain, employer).

    After acceptance of the paper, all authors will be requested to sign an authorship statement.


    Authors are reminded that it is their responsibility to comply with copyright laws. It is essential to ensure that no parts of the submission have or are due to appear in other publications without prior permission from the copyright holder and the original author. Materials, e.g tables, taken from other sources must be accompanied by a written statement from both author and publisher giving permission to the IJCR  for reproduction.

    Peer review

    All original papers, short reports and commentaries are evaluated by two or three external referees, who are asked to comment on originality, validity, presentation, and importance and interest. The International Journal of Current Research (IJCR) is working towards a system of open peer review. Manuscripts are not blinded to reviewers. Reviewers are encouraged to sign their reviews.

    Conflicts of interest

    IJCR policy requires that authors of all manuscripts reveal any financial interests or connections, direct or indirect, or other situations that might raise the question of bias in the work reported or the conclusions, implications, or opinions stated - including pertinent commercial or other sources of funding for the individual author(s) or for the associated department(s) or organization(s), personal relationships, or direct academic competition.When considering whether you should declare a conflicting interest or connection please consider the conflict of interest test: Is there any arrangement that would embarrass you or any of your co-authors if it was to emerge after publication and you had not declared it? Please provide details of potential conflicts of interest to the editorial office. If the manuscript is published, this information will be communicated in a statement in the published paper.


    Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at IJCR Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form.

    Technical information

    Abbreviations and footnotes

    Do not use abbreviations in the title or the abstract. Except for units of measurement, abbreviations are discouraged. Use only standard abbreviations. The first time an abbreviation appears it should be preceded by the words for which it stands.

    Footnotes are permitted only in tables. Use lower case characters - a, b, c, etc. - to indicate each footnote.

    Units of measurement

    Authors of articles must express all measurements in terms of the International System of Units (SI units), but they may include older conventional units in parentheses if they desire.

    Numbers and percentages

    All numbers in the text should be written in numeric form except numbers 0-10. Use % symbol instead of writing out the words per cent.

    Drug names

    Generic names should be used. Authors who wish to do so may insert brand names in parentheses.


    References must be typed with double spacing and must be numbered consecutively as they are cited (Vancouver style). References first cited in tables or figure legends must be numbered so that they will be in sequence with references cited in the text. Authors are discouraged from citing material that is not commonly available, e.g., databases, patents, computer files etc. Numbered references to personal communications, unpublished data and manuscripts in preparation or submitted for publication are unacceptable. The style of references is that of Index Medicus. List all authors when there are six or fewer; when there are seven or more, list the first three, then 'et al'. Identify references in text with superscript Arabic numerals. Sample references are as follows:

    1. Standard journal article: McIsaac, SJ., Wilkinson, RG. 1997. Income distribution and cause-specific mortality. int J Curr. Res., 7:45-53.
    2. Organization as author: The Royal Marsden Hospital Bone-marrow Transplantation Team. Failure of syngeneic bone-marrow graft without preconditioning in post-hepatitis marrow aplasia. Lancet 1977;2:742-4.
    3. No author given: Coffee drinking and cancer of the pancreas [editorial]. BMJ 1981;283:628.
    4. Article in a foreign language: As above. Include an English translation in parentheses after the original title.
    5. Supplement article: Magni ,F., Rossoni ,G., Berti, F. 2000. BN-52021 protects guinea-pig from heart anaphylaxis. Pharmacol Res Commun, 20 Suppl 5:75-8.
    6. Volume with part: Hanly C. Metaphysics and innateness: a psychoanalytic perspective. Int J Psychoanal 1988;69(Pt 3):389-99.
    7. Book reference: Colson, JH., Armour, WJ. Sports injuries and their treatment. 2nd rev ed. London: S Paul, 1986.
    8. Chapter in a book: Weinstein L, Swartz MN. Pathologic properties of invading microorganisms. In: Sodeman WA Jr, Sodeman WA, editors. Pathologic physiology: mechanisms of disease. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1974:457-72.
    9. Conference paper: Harley, NH. Comparing radon daughter dosimetric and risk models. In: Gammage RB, Kaye SV, editors. Indoor air and human health. Proceedings of the Seventh Life Sciences Symposium; 1984 Oct 29-31; Knoxville (TN). Chelsea (MI): Lewis, 1985:69-78.
    10. Scientific or technical report: Akutsu T. Total heart replacement device. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health, National Heart and Lung Institute; 1974 Apr. Report No.: NIH-NHLI-69-2185-4.
    11. Dissertation: Youssef NM. School adjustment of children with congenital heart disease [dissertation]. Pittsburgh (PA): Univ of Pittsburgh, 1988.
    12. Newspaper article: Rensberger B, Specter B. CFCs may be destroyed by natural process. The Washington Post 1989 Aug 7;Sect A:2(col 5)
    13. Legal material: Toxic Substances Control Act: Hearing on S.776 Before the Subcomm. on the Environment of the Senate Comm. on Commerce. 94th Congr., 1st Sess. 343 (1975).
    14. Map: Scotland [topographic map]. Washington: National Geographic Society (US), 1981.
    15. Dictionary and similar references: Ectasia. Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 27th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1988:527.
    16. Classical material: The Winter's Tale: act 5, scene 1, lines 13-16. The complete works of William Shakespeare. London: Rex, 1973.
    17. Lillywhite HD, Donald JA. Pulmonary blood flow regulation in an aquatic snake. Science, in press.
    18. Website: Federal Ministry of Labour, Health and Social Affairs, Austria: Accessed [Date (i.e. date reference item accessed on organization website)].

    The number of references used in a paper are limited to the following:

    Original Articles: 40 references
    Systematic reviews: 40 references. Additional references can be accommodated in the online versio
    Short Reports: 10 references
    E-Letters/Comments: 5 references

    Supplementary material

    Supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader, can be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. There is normal fees for the publication of online-only supplementary data/tables/figures. Such material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, or additional figures (including colour).

    All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats. Further information about preparing Supplementary material can be found here. All material to be considered as Supplementary material must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication. Please indicate clearly the material intended as Supplementary material upon submission. Also ensure that the Supplementary material is referred to in the main manuscript where necessary. Please note that we do not edit supplementary files and publish them online exactly as they are received (including track changes, highlighting, etc.). Please therefore ensure that you submit the final version.

    Language editing

    Particularly if English is not your first language, before submitting your manuscript you may wish to have it edited for language. This is not a mandatory step, but may help to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. There are many specialist language editing companies that offer this service and you can use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.

    Author self-archiving/public access policy from May 2005

    For information about this journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving policy page.

    Open access publishing

    International Journal of Current Research (IJCR) authors have the option to publish their paper under the Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory licence to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access.

    Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences. Authors publishing in the International Journal of Current Research (IJCR) can use the following Creative Commons licences for their articles:

    • Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC BY)
    • Creative Commons Non-Commercial licence (CC BY-NC)
    • Creative Commons non-Commercial No Derivatives licence (CC BY-NC-ND)

    Proofs,  Reprints and manuscript charges

    Electronic proofs will be sent (e-mail attachment) to the corresponding author as a PDF file.  Page proofs are considered to be the final version of the manuscript. With the exception of typographical or minor clerical errors, no changes will be made in the manuscript at the proof stage.  Because IJCR will be published online, authors will have free electronic access to the full text (PDF) of the article. Authors can freely download the PDF file from which they can print unlimited copies of their articles. Each accepted paper is required to pay the processing charge which is very nominal fees. The fees depends upon the number of pages, number of authors, images etc. Before the accepted paper is published we will intimate the fees in the Invoice.

  214. Statement of Informed Consent

    Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published. Authors should identify Individuals who provide writing assistance and disclose the funding source for this assistance.

    Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note.

  215. Conflict of Interest in Peer-Reviewed Journals

    Conflict of interest (COI) exists when there is a divergence between an individual’s private interests (competing interests) and his or her responsibilities to scientific and publishing activities such that a reasonable observer might wonder if the individual’s behavior or judgment was motivated by considerations of his or her competing interests. COI in journal publishing affects everyone with a stake in research integrity including journals, research/academic institutions, funding agencies, the popular media, and the public. Journals are interested in COI as it relates to a specific manuscript. Some manuscripts may be chosen for inclusion in continuing education activities offered by the appropriate organization. The journal therefore complies with the criteria set forth by the credentialing center.

    Everyone has COIs of some sort. Having a competing interest does not, in itself, imply wrongdoing. However, it constitutes a problem when competing interests could unduly influence (or be reasonably seen to do so) one’s responsibilities in the publication process. If COI is not managed effectively, it can cause authors, reviewers, and editors to make decisions that, consciously or unconsciously, tend to serve their competing interests at the expense of their responsibilities in the publication process, thereby distorting the scientific enterprise. This consequence of COI is especially dangerous when it is not immediately apparent to others. In addition, the appearance of COI, even where none actually exists, can also erode trust in a journal by damaging its reputation and credibility.

    This statement summarizes the main elements of COI policies with examples and options for disclosure and management.

  216. Ethics and Malpractice

    Our publication ethics and publication malpractice statement is mainly based on the Code of Conduct and Best-Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors (Committee on Publication Ethics, 2011).

    Editors' Responsibilities

    Publication decisions- The editor is responsible for deciding which of the papers submitted to the journal will be published. The editor will evaluate manuscripts without regard to the authors' race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy. The decision will be based on the paper's importance, originality and clarity, and the study's validity and its relevance to the journal's scope. Current legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism should also be considered.

    Confidentiality- The editor and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate.

    Disclosure and conflicts of interest- Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted paper will not be used by the editor or the members of the editorial board for their own research purposes without the author's explicit written consent.

    Reviewers' Responsibilities

    Contribution to editorial decisions- The peer-reviewing process assists the editor and the editorial board in making editorial decisions and may also serve the author in improving the paper.

    Promptness- Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and withdraw from the review process.

    Confidentiality- Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be disclosed to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.

    Standards of objectivity-Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.

    Acknowledgement of sources- Reviewers should identify cases in which relevant published work referred to in the paper has not been cited in the reference section. They should point out whether observations or arguments derived from other publications are accompanied by the respective source. Reviewers will notify the editor of any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.

    Disclosure and conflict of interest- Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions associated with the papers.

    Authors' Duties

    Reporting standards- Authors of original research reports should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.

    Data access and retention - Authors could be asked to provide the raw data of their study together with the paper for editorial review and should be prepared to make the data publicly available if practicable. In any event, authors should ensure accessibility of such data to other competent professionals for at least ten years after publication (preferably via an institutional or subject-based data repository or other data center), provided that the confidentiality of the participants can be protected and legal rights concerning proprietary data do not preclude their release.

    Originality, plagiarism and acknowledgement of sources - Authors will submit only entirely original works, and will appropriately cite or quote the work and/or words of others. Publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work should also be cited.

    Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication - In general, papers describing essentially the same research should not be published in more than one journal. Submitting the same paper to more than one journal constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Manuscripts which have been published as copyrighted material elsewhere cannot be submitted. In addition, manuscripts under review by the journal should not be resubmitted to copyrighted publications. However, by submitting a manuscript, the author(s) retain the rights to the published material. In case of publication they permit the use of their work under a CC-BY license [], which allows others to copy, distribute and transmit the work as well as to adapt the work and to make commercial use of it.

    Authorship of the paper - Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. The corresponding author ensures that all contributing co-authors and no uninvolved persons are included in the author list. The corresponding author will also verify that all co-authors have approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

    Disclosure and conflicts of interest- All authors should include a statement disclosing any financial or other substantive conflicts of interest that may be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.

    Fundamental errors in published works - When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and to cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper in form of an erratum.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

Advantages of IJCR

  • Rapid Publishing
  • Professional publishing practices
  • Indexing in leading database
  • High level of citation
  • High Qualitiy reader base
  • High level author suport


Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari