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May 2019

  1. MártonVeress and SzilárdVetési-Foith

    The genetic classification of the cave openings in the Bakony Region is described. The applied methods are the following: studying the relation between the distribution of phreatic caves and the quality of the host rock and in case of antecedent valley sections, making theoretical geological longitudinal profiles. The phreatic caves developed at the margins of the buried karst terrains of the mountains. The streams of these terrains created epigenetic valleys, while their seeping waters created karst water storeys over the local impermeable beds. Cavity formation took place in the karst water storeys. Phreatic cavities also developed in the main karst water of the mountains. The caves are primarily of valley side position, but they may occur on the roof or in the side of blocks. The cavities of valley side position were opened up by the streams downcutting the carboniferous rocks (these are the present caves of the gorges). While cavities of block roof position developed at the karst water storey at the mound of the block.

  2. Merhun Lamaro and Tagesse Sawo

    This review paper focuses on available feed resources, feeding practice, trends of supplementary feeding, nutritional constraints and water sources and watering practice of village chicken in Ethiopia. There is no purposeful feeding of chickens under the village conditions in Ethiopia and scavenging is almost the only source of diet. From different research reports or findings, the common existing feed resources are cereal grains (dominantly maize and sorghum) followed by wheat, rice, worms, insects, grass, vegetables. Village chickens are also supplemented with different available cereal grains and food leftovers or kitchen wastes and different parts of vegetables and fruits, leaves of green crops. Almost all of the smallholder farmers or chicken owners provide supplementary feed indiscriminately to all classes of chicken on bare ground or floor. Shortage of feed supply and poor nutritional quality, limited skill of feeding system, unaffordable cost of feed ingredients, indiscriminate feeding of the different age classes of chickens’ together, lack of routine hygiene management, lack of clean water, water and feed trough are the major constraints of feeding. The objective of feed supplementation practice is mainly to increase egg yield, meat yield and to minimize mortality in some cases. River and rain water, tap and bore hall water, locally constructed underground water, spring, and well water are the major water sources of village chicken.

  3. Amit Prasad Timilsina, Ghanashyam Malla, Bishnu Prasad Paudel, Alok Sharma, Rameshwar Rimal, Achyut Gaire and Hemlal Bhandari

    Climate change is becoming an imminent threat to Nepalese agriculture. Climate change on farmer’s view and their strategies to combat against it helps to make effective plan and policies for the anticipated weather and climate. Therefore, survey research was conducted in 2017 at Kapilvastu district of Nepal including sixty-three farmers to get informed with their knowledge on climate change and various adaptation mechanism they are currently practicing. Though only about one-third respondent was aware of the meaning of climate change, they felt the impact of climate change in various ways. Farmer experienced increased temperature in summer and winter season. The duration and magnitude of the rainfall have felt to decrease in recent years. Farmers have faced dry irrigation canals. The unusual delay of the rainfall onset delayed the time of rice transplanting by one to two weeks. They have noticed a higher incidence of insects and pests in their agricultural land than before. To combat against the various negative impact of climate change, farmer’s were practicing some adaptive strategies like the cultivation of improved, abiotic resistant crop varieties as well as crop diversification. Therefore, there is still a need for an awareness program on climate change, its consequences and effective means to combat climate change to minimize the negative impact in Kapilvastu district.

  4. Yogesh Kumar Pandey and Neha Kaushik

    Non- radiographic spondyloarthropathy (nr-SpA) and Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are subtypes of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). patients with AS exhibit radiologic abnormalities consistent with sacroilitis, with no evidence on plain radiograph. Instead, in nr-axSpA, the diagnosis is supported by evidence of active inflammation of sacro-iliac (SI) joint on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or a combination of other findings. Clinical importance of considering the two conditions differently is to understand the critical question whether inflammation and new tissue formation in SpA are linked or uncoupled processes. This case was treated considering both the pathologies as the stages of same disease, hypothesized as active inflammation at the joint (due to mechanical stress and/or degeneration) occurring primarily. This along with environmental factors trigger the genetic determinant which in turn activate the immune system and polymorphisms in cytokines and cytokine processing molecules that lead to either more severe inflammation or delayed clearance of inflammation. Auto immune responses induce abnormal surrogate tissue formation at the stress site lead to ankylosis of spine. Treatment done considering the primary stage as sandhivata which developed as its complicated form aamavata showed substantial relief in pain and functional ability of the patient.

  5. Nício Roberto S. Santana, B. Pharm, Emilly Bianca O. Farias, B. Pharm, Rodrigo S. Damascena, MSc, Nadielle S. Bidu, M. Pharm and Rafael Luiz de A. Rodrigues, SC

    Background: The Pharmaceutical Assistance is an aggregate of actions aimed at the promotion, prevention, and recovery of health, whose adequate performance, organization and management are essential to achieving their objectives. An aligned and well-informed health management team is primordial for the proper functioning. This research aimed to analyze the situation of the management capacity and planning of the Pharmaceutical Assistance management in the city of Tremedal, Bahia. Methods: A cross-cut, quantitative, descriptive and exploratory research was carried out, applying a questionnaire to nine managers in January 2019. Results: There is a pharmacist to support all demand of the city and carry out large-scale in the community. The dispensing in the units is performed by the nursing technician. All managers know the Municipal Drug List, and 60% of the unit managers do not recognize the existence of monitoring and evaluation of assistance actions. Conclusion: Despite the advances in Pharmaceutical Assistance throughout the country and the city of study, there are much more to be done, so that problems do not compromise the quality of the service. So, the representatives of government need to commit themselves to implement proposals in current policies and the reports of health conferences.

  6. Annasaheb S Gaikwad, Yogesh R Thombare, Nisha S Mhaske and Mahendra B Datir

    A simple, sensitive, linear, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Zaltoprofen and Paracetamol in bulk and tablet formulation as developed and validated. Chromatographic conditions used are stationary phase Grace C18 column (250mm × 4.6mm, 5µ particle size. The mobile phase Methanol: Phosphate buffer (PH 3.0) in the ratio 75:25 v/v and flow rate was maintained 0.8ml/min, detection wavelength was 241nm. The retention times were 3.101min and 5.838min for Zaltoprofen and Paracetamol respectively. Calibration plot were linear R2 =0.9994 over the concentration range 10-18µg/ml for Zaltoprofen, R2 = 0.9994 for the Paracetamol 40-72µg/ml. No interference from any component of pharmaceutical dosage form was observed. The proposed method has been validated as per ICH guidelines, validation studies revealed that method id specific, rapid, reliable and reproducible. The developed method successfully employed for routine quality control analysis in the combined pharmaceutical dosage form.

  7. Nwafor Johnbosco Ifunanya, Obi Chuka Nobert, Obi Vitus Okwuchukwu, Ibo Chukwunenye Chukwu, Ugoji Darlington-Peter Chibuzor, Onwe Blessing and Egbuji Chima

    Background: Uptake of postpartum family planning remains low in sub-Saharan Africa. Little is known about how postpartum women in Abakaliki arrive at their decisions to adopt postpartum family planning. Hence this study is important so as to identify gaps, and to improve engagement with reproductive health services, particularly in helping women align their contraceptive choice with their expressed need. Methods: It was a hospital based cross-sectional study which involved 55 reproductive-age women who gave birth in the last 24 months prior to the study period. The collected data was coded and entered and analyzed using Epi Info version 7.0 (CDC, USA). Results: The mean age of the respondents was 28.2±4.3 years. The prevalence of contraceptive use among postpartum women was 34 (61.8%). Forty-eight (87.3%) women received family planning counselling at antenatal and postnatal care sessions. Fear of side effects (42.9%) and spousal disapproval were the main reasons for not using contraceptive methods. Educational level, parity, antenatal care and postnatal visits, family planning counselling during ANC and PNC, knowledge of postpartum family planning and experience of side effects in previous contraceptive use showed significant and independent association with postpartum family planning use. Conclusion: This study calls attention to the importance of increased need for family planning in Abakaliki as significant number (38.2%) of respondents were not on any contraceptive method. The persistence of unmet need for family planning, particularly the high rate of unmet need amongst these women points to an important gap in service provision.

  8. Mr. Shibu Puthenparamil and Dr. Baburaj

    Introduction: The leading causes of mortality and morbidity among young people can be traced to several preventable health risk behaviours that are often initiated during youth and may extend into adulthood. Intermittent monitoring of health risk behaviours at the youth level is important for the planning and evaluation of national health promotion intervention programs. Half of the premature death from the 10 leading causes in developed countries is caused by preventable factors such as tobacco use, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary habits etc. Aim: The aim of the study was to understand the life style and extend of health risk behavior among youth in Bangalore. Methods: A cross –sectional study was conducted in selected six Business school students of Electronic city of Bangalore using multistage sampling technique for selecting 165 students who pursuing Master of Business Administration during September -November 2015. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 17. Result: The study reveals that, more than one third (36.4%) of the students had smock at least once. Only negligible proportion of the students had experienced on chewing tobacco or pan. Less than half of the students (46. 7%) were consumed alcohol. It was quite hurting that 7.9% had taken drugs at least one time in their life. High prevalence of health risk behaviours and increases in some of them should call for intensified college health promotion programmes to reduce such risk behaviours. Health-promotion activities should be established to decrease the occurrence of these behaviours and prevent their future adverse health outcomes.

  9. Maria Clara Pereira Teixeira, Arielly Rayanne Amaral Alves Santana, Anne Karolline Ferreira Santos, Beatriz Rocha Sousa, Larissa Alves Guimarães, Ramon Alves Pires, Mauro Fernandes Teles, Felipe Oliveira Bittencourt, Iaggo Raphael David and Stenio Fernan

    This study is a fraction of a project titled Systemic Evaluation of Chronic Diseases in the population of southwestern Bahia and aims to evaluate the profile of carbohydrate consumption and insulin resistance in adults of both genders. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative approach, carried out in the city of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. The sample consisted of 81 individuals, of whom 23 were males and 58 were females. To obtain the data, we used socioeconomic questionnaires and eating habits as well as biochemical tests to measure the individuals' glucose. The results obtained through the Pearson Chi-square test showed that carbohydrate consumption is not related to glucose alteration. With the modernization of society, the world population began to acquire new eating habits, such as consumption of foods rich in calories and to spend little energy in daily activities, so, as a result of this lifestyle, the prevalence of chronic diseases in the population grew. The present study is a fraction of a project titled Systemic Assessment of Chronic Diseases in the population of southwestern Bahia and aimed to evaluate the carbohydrate consumption profile and insulin resistance in adults of both genders. After evaluations of the questionnaires and biochemical tests, it was evidenced that in the population with a mean age of 51.5 years, with a standard deviation of 3,898, it is not possible to positively associate carbohydrate consumption and increase in blood glucose levels.

  10. Mosab S. Amoudi and Rasmieh N. Anabtawi

    Objectives: The main objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of using back belts, and performing back massage in reducing low back pain among operative room nurses. In addition to determine the risk factors that contributed low back pain among operative room nurses. Methods: Interventional study method was used (pre-test and post-test) to evaluate the effectiveness of back physiotherapy and using back belts in preventing and reducing low back pain among operative nurses. Assessment in the pre-test was performed to identify the operative nurses who had low back pain, the participated nurses had sessions of back physiotherapy twice weekly for 3 months’ duration, in addition to using back belts during their working hours. In post-test evaluation for the effectiveness of the interventional methods was performed. Results: The results showed that there was no significant relationship between using back belt and performing back physiotherapy in preventing and reducing back pain among operative nurses. Discussion: there were changes in the results according to the location of pain and intensity of pain. Bending was the highest risk factor that contribute low back pain, this result was manipulated by using the interventional methods of the study. Previous studies supported the findings of this study as documented that physical therapy and support low back may be helpful in reducing back pain, while other studies revealed that the low back pain is a psychosomatic symptom which is relieved by rest or sleep.

  11. Karunananda, H.T.A.R., Gunawardena, M.P. and Samarakoon, H.M.T.R.

    The use of pesticides has increased rapidly over the past few decades. Especially, in tropical regions pesticides are used extensively to control mosquitos which spread harmful diseases such as dengue and malaria. In Sri Lanka, mosquito borne diseases is a major concern. Infact, during the time period of January to July 2017, the Epidemiology Unit of the Ministry of Health has recorded 80,732 dengue victims and 215 deaths. A technique known as fogging/space spraying is used to control mosquito populations in urban areas. A chemical containing the active ingredients D-tetramethr in and cyphenothrin is mixed with diesel and fogged extensively to control mosquitos in Sri Lanka. This chemical can exert toxic effects on non-target species including butterflies which are a vital component in a balanced ecosystem. Therefore, this research was conducted to determine the toxic effects of the chemical using butterflies as indicator species. Butterflies were chosen because they are very sensitive to environment changes. The 5th instar larvae of Tirumala limniace exoticus (Blue Tiger) were used as the test species. The larvae used for the experiment were obtained by breeding the adult species in a butterfly cage. The larvae were exposed to 6 different formulations which included ‘Aged Aerated Water’ as Control, Diesel as Solvent Control and 4 increasing concentrations of the commercial pesticide (10, 100, 500 and 1000 ppm). A volume of 1μl was applied to the thorax region of the larvae (4 per each concentration). The chemical was allowed to air dry for a few seconds and observations were recorded. The larvae that were exposed to all the concentrations of the commercial pesticide including the solvent control did not manage to survive. This study concludes that the chemical has an effect on butterflies, thus on ecosystem. However, further studies including Acute and Chronic toxicity assessments must be conducted. The outcomes will be important in establishing conservation plans to protect butterflies as well as other insects that play a vital role in a balanced ecosystem.

  12. Maja Pejkovska Ilieva and Vesna Antovska

    Introduction: Preeclampsia is the main cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the world. Its etiopathogenesis is multifactorial and is still a challenge and subject of research. Purpose: To predict the occurrence of preeclampsia in patients in the second trimester of pregnancy who are asymptomatic with the help of immunological biomarkers. Materials and Methods: Total of 100 patients is being examined and is divided in two groups. An examined group of 50 patients was with notch of the uterine artery and the interaction of the more pro-inflammatory with anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-2, IL- 6 versus IL-4, IL-10). The ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) methodology is used. Also a control group of 50 patients without uterine artery notch is examined for comparison and drawing appropriate conclusions. Results and Discussion: The obtained results of increased proinflammatory and reduced regulatory anti-inflammatory immune cells and cytokines, creates an uncontrolled state of inflammation. The rise in IL6 together with TNF-α with a significance of p <0.01 and the decrease in mean in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL4 and IL10) compared to the control group with the investigated group are important and credible parameters for the expected further development of the preeclampsia state. This disorder is thought to contribute to the overall preeclampsia pathophysiology. Conclusion: Uterine Doppler together with immunological biomarkers increases the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostics of the clinical preeclampsia syndrome.

  13. Maan Taqi Rafeeq

    Background: A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time. The term chronic is often applied when the course of the disease lasts for more than three months. Chronic diseases constitute a major cause of mortality worldwide. Objectives: to determine the incidence of chronic diseases among displaced people in sulaymaniyah province. Methods: A study was performed on patients with chronic diseases register in the chronic disease center in sulaymaniyah province. During the period between23th January 2016 to 10th October 2017.Atotal of 3546 patients, 1888 female and 1658 male constituted the study group. Results: there were ( 53.25%) females patients and ( 46.75%) males patients. the prevalence of chronic disease among displaced people in sulaymaniyah province was (10585) per million population The prevalence of the various causes of chronic disease in this study was ;hypertension (41.55 %) ,diabetes mellitus (25.12%),ischemic heart disease (17.11%),epilepsy (6.68%),thyroid disease (4.14%),asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(2.83%),chronic renal failure and renal transplant (1.77%),multiple sclerosis (0.52%),diabetes insipid us (0.28%). Conclusions: The incidence of chronic disease among displaced people in sulaymaniyah province is high .most of displaced people lives outside the camps. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus constituted the top of these diseases. There are a large number of displaced patients from Anbar and Ninawa governorate.

  14. Bindhu Joseph

    Introduction: As the Internet progressively becomes part and parcel of our lives, Internet addiction disorder has received much attention. The general reasons and consequences of this disease can be similar to that of alcohol addition, drug abuse, and obsessive viewing of television. Persons who are addicted to internet may come from all walks of life and as a result they are suffering in the main aspect of everyday life in situations such as school, family, work and relationships, emotional problems like depression and anxiety. Though it is used for education, entertainment, social networking, and sharing of information, its excessive use among adolescents is becoming a major concern. Internet addiction is an impulse control disorder and develop an emotional attachment to on-line friends. Hence the cordial relationship in the family and the society is curtailed. As a result, many of them have turned out to be very aggressive and engage themselves in various types’ unhealthy practices. Blue whale game (suicide game) is one example for this. Hundreds of deaths were reported to be connected to the so-called "suicide game". Aims & Objectives: Since internet addiction has received much attention in present day situation, it is an urgent necessity to consider obsessive internet usage as a complete and distinct mental illness. With this background the present study was conducted to study the internet use and addiction among students of higher secondary schools. Material & Method: The internet addiction test ( by Dr. Kimberly Young) which is the reliable and validated measure of severity of internet addiction, was conducted in 200students of Higher Secondary Schools of Prayagraj city, of which 111 were male students and 89 were female students. Students were in the age group of 16-19 years. Based upon the six point scale, the response that best represented the frequency of the behavior described in the 20 items was selected. The severity of internet addiction was found out. Results: Approximately 57% of the students were suffering from mild Internet addiction, 38% were suffering from moderate Internet addiction, 0.5% were suffering from severe Internet addiction and 4.5 % were suffering from no Internet addiction.Conclusions: Internet addiction in Students of Higher SecondarySchoolsare increasing and requires timely remedial action. Comprehensive program for students should be carried out to increase awareness of internet addiction.

  15. Liuhong Guo, Shujian Zhang, Zhongda Chen, Yong Song, Xiaohu Niu, Mengzhuo Guo, Pengtao Xue and Xianjun Gu

    As a newly developed road material, epoxy resin modified-asphalt emulsion (ERMAE) shows great promise of being applied to cold-mix asphalt. In this paper, the cold-mix asphalt using ERMAE (hereinafter referred to as the Subject) is evaluated in terms of Marshall Stability, moisture resistance, high-temperature performance and low-temperature performance with a series of tests, all of which are proven satisfactory. Its Marshall Stability is approximately equal to that of the hot-mix asphalt, and far greater than the traditional cold-mix asphalt. Its moisture resistance has reached the requirement for the hot-mix asphalt. Its performance at low temperatures is similar with that of the hot-mix asphalt while the performance at high temperatures even matches that of polymer-modified hot-mix asphalt. Also it is found that its optimum laboratory performance comes with a dosage of 30% of curing agent.

  16. Florent Nsompi, Folly Messan, Tchazou Kpatcha, Fabien R. Niama and Mohamed M. Lawani

    Background: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a constriction of the bronchi that occurs in response to dehydration of the airways. EIB is characterized by a very common inflammatory condition in athletes. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the variations in circulating inflammatory cells and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels before and after EIB in a population of endurance athletes. Materials and Methods: The study involved 16 athletes (23.56 ± 3.55 years, 171.62 ± 6.81 cm and 60.68 ± 5.53 kg). To determine the prevalence of EIB, the subjects were subjected to a laboratory stress test that consisted of a continuous treadmill run from 7.5 Km.h-1 with an increment of 1.5 Km .h-1 every 3 minutes until exhaustion. Respiratory functional explorations were carried out before and at 5 minutes after the effort using a Spirobank G spirometer. Blood samples were taken before exercise, immediately after exercise and at 2 hours after exercise, and EIB diagnosis was based on a reduction in blood pressure of at least 10% of the first-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) in relation to the pre-exercise value. Subjects who presented this criterion were determined as sensitive to bronchospasm and formed the EIB (+) group. Subjects who were not identified as such were considered non susceptible and formed the EIB (-) group. Inflammatory cell counts were performed using an Elite3 automated system, and IL-6 plasma concentrations were determined using an IL-6 ELISA kit. Results: The prevalence of EIB was 37.5%. A significant mean decrease in the post exercise FEV1 of 16.31% was observed in the EIB (+) group compared with that in the EIB (-) group, confirming EIB in these individuals. For leukocytes and lymphocytes, the mean values were recorded immediately after exertion, and those obtained before exertion showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) in EIB (+) athletes, whereas in EIB (-) athletes, the mean values of leukocytes and lymphocytes observed immediately after exertion were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those recorded before exercise. In the EIB (+) group, the mean concentrations of total granulocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and IL-6 observed immediately after exertion were increased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to those measured before the effort . The mean leukocyte values recorded at 2 hours after exercise were significantly higher than those obtained before exercise in EIB (+) athletes. In the EIB (+) group, the mean value of the lymphocytes observed at 2 hours after exercise and the value recorded before exercise did not show a significant difference (p > 0.05), while in the EIB (-) group, the average value of lymphocytes obtained at 2 hours after exertion was significantly lower than the value recorded before exercise. The mean concentrations of total granulocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils observed at 2 hours after exercise were significantly increased (p < 0.05) compared with those obtained before exercise in EIB (+) athletes. Conclusion: The occurrence of exercise-induced bronchospasm mobilizes a significant increase in inflammatory cells and IL-6 levels. Therefore, the immune system of athletes sensitive to EIB is strongly solicited.

  17. Bushra Shamshad and Junaid Sagheer Siddiqi

    In this paper we discuss the use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for simulating random samples from multivariate normal distribution, using mean vector and covariance matrix. Sampling is an important aspect in the field of Statistics. We can generate random samples from various univariate distributions either discrete or continuous. We can also generate samples from bivariate distributions for that purpose there are different tables available. But, sampling in that manner is troublesome. In this article we use PCA; a multivariate technique for the purpose of sampling. Furthermore, various properties related to the multivariate normal data can be verified by simulating the samples.

  18. Dr. Vilas B. Dhone

    This paper describes the key structures and mechanisms needed for the sound academic policy in the institution of higher education. Drawing on the literature in the domain of educational change it highlights various bodies; and helping sub-organisations needed in the institution. The paper is exploratory in nature.

  19. Dr. Gavisiddappa Anandhalli and Latha

    Lotkas law of Scientific Productivity is Bibliometric study, it has been used to calculate the number of authors against the number of publications contributed by the authors was plotted on a logarithmic scale. The points were closely distributed around the straight line having a slope of almost 2. The present study tests the conformity of Lotka's law for authorship distribution in the field of neuroscience using the web of science core collection database. There are 57640 publications contributed by 132481 authors. Lotka’s law was tested by with help methods given by Pao and Maximum Likelihood method as reported by Nicholls. Later the data was organized according to authorship pattern with the help of MS Excel. The value of c and exponent n is calculated with help of collie and Pao formula. It is observed that the number of authors publishing n papers was 1/n2 of those publishing one paper. The present study is almost following the same pattern. Hence, it can be concluded that Lotka’s law of Author productivity is well fitted/followed in the field of Neuroscience.

  20. Olkeba Assefa

    The study was conducted on Grade ten English language reading lesson implementation in Abdi Bori Secondary School in Mettu town. The central intention of this research was to examine the implementation of English language reading lesson in relation to the students’ textbook. To attain this objective, descriptive research method was employed. Four Grade ten English language teachers were taken using comprehensive sampling technique. Thirty per cent of the students (240) were randomly selected by lottery method to be the sample of the study. Necessary data were gathered using observation, interview and questionnaires. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result of the study revealed that most of the teachers rarely implement reading lessons in line with the procedures prescribed in the Teacher’s Book. Moreover, English teachers in the school under study were observed sometimes jumping over some reading lessons though they prepared lesson plans. As a result, the three phases of reading lesson presentation procedures suggested in the textbook for teaching reading were rarely, or totally not at all, practiced in grade ten in the school under study.

  21. Tulus Tambunan

    This paper is based on a study which aims to explore the use of the Internet by micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in Indonesia. More specifically, it addresses the following four research questions. First, how many MSEs in Indonesia use the Internet for their businesses? Second, does the intensity of Internet usage by MSEs vary by business, region, age and education of the owners? Third, is the profit or income earned by MSEs that use the Internet greater than that earned by MSEs that do not use it? Fourth, what are the main reasons of MSEs that do not use ICT? As an exploratory investigation, it adopts a descriptive analysis. It analyses secondary data obtained from official government publications and primary data collected from interviews with randomly selected 482 owners of MSEs in various cities and types of businesses. services. The interviews took place in 2018. The study results show that as many as 563 thousand MSEs, or only about 2.14 per cent of total MSEs in Indonesia, have utilized the internet media; although it varies by province and type of business. From the analysis of primary data, it reveals three important findings. First, manufacturing industry is the type of business with the most Internet usage. Second, young and high educated respondents use the Internet more than older and low educated respondents. Third, about 36.9 % of the sample do not use the Internet for various reasons such as (i) no need, (ii) lack of knowledge about the internet, and (iii) lack of capital. The novelty of this research is that it is the only extensive research in Indonesia on MSMEs use of the internet with secondary and primary data.

  22. Bindhu Joseph and Dr. Marion Mathew

    Introduction: Adolescence is a transitional period from childhood to adulthood and is considered as a period of ‘storm and stress’ which is characterized by many changes and challenges. Because of their rapid growth and development, most adolescents experience adjustment difficulties in emotional, social and/or educational aspects of their life. Aims & Objectives: The present study is taken up to find out the Emotional, Social and Educational adjustments of Higher Secondary Students and if there is any gender difference in their adjustment level. The sample comprised of 200 (16-18years) adolescents drawn from eight schools of Prayagraj City. Material & Method: The Adjustment Inventory for School Students (AISS) developed by Sinha & Singh (2007) was administered to assess the adjustment levels of the Higher Secondary Students. The sample comprised of 200 Higher secondary students further classified into two groups: male (n=111) and female (n=89) in the age range of 16-18 years, respectively. Participants were chosen from Eight Schools of Payagraj Results: The findings of the study revealed that Female students are emotionally unstable in comparison to the male students but female students are good in their social adjustment and they are interested in school programmes while male students are poor in their social adjustment and they are poorly in adjusting with their curricular and cocurricular programmes.

  23. Lorna D. Capito

    The study was conducted du ring the first half of the calendar year 2016. It was spearheaded by the college of Education, in collaboration with the College of Arts and Sciences. The study aimed to discover the level of participation and the professional training needs of the COED and CAS Faculty in instruction, research, and extension. The study employed proportional sampling and took 75% of the faculty of both colleges as representative sample. The findings of the study revealed that the respondents were highly involved in instruction activities, moderately involved in research activities and highly involved in extension activities. The study was also able to find that the respondents were highly in need of professional in-service training in the areas of instruction, research and extension. The results of the study implied that the COED and CAS faculty are taking their involvement seriously in their mandated functions of instruction, research and extension. They manifest a high level of involvement in instruction and extension, and are moderately involved in research activities. These levels of involvement are echoed by their needs, which are reported to be high, especially those under research training needs.

  24. Dr. Shilpa Jain, Ms. Nitya Khurana and Mr. Deepak Gupta

    Background: People, everday are inumdated with making decisions whether they are big or small. Cognitive psychology plays a major role in how people make their choices. Cognitive bias is known to have an effect on decision making. These biases are based on memory which create a systematic deviation in thinking and processing information. Objective: This paper aims to identify the effect of select cognitive biases i.e., Overconfidence bias, Endowment bias, Ambiguity Aversion bias and Recency bias on General Decision Making of a person as well as Financial Decision Making. The study also explores the differences and similarities in cognitive biases working during general decision making and financial decision making. Method: For this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 416 people and analysis and conclusions were drawn based on it. Results: The results shows that there a significant difference in the style of decision making when financials are in consideration rather than routine decision making. Also Only Overconfidence bias has an influence on both Financial and General decision making. Conclusion: Any decision, be it financial or general is shaped by personality and behavioral charateristics of a person. And, people tend to make decision based on recent information registered in their mind.

  25. Juan José Díaz-Perera, Heidi Angélica Salinas-Padilla, Mario Saucedo-Fernández and Salvador Bautista-Maldonado

    There exists a problem that is faced by many higher education institutions in Mexico, this problem is known as drop-out, to tackle this situation there has been done a lot of research of this topic. Following the same line of inquiry, it is presented here a study done with students that belong to the Facultad de Educación of Universidad Autonoma del Carmen-UNACAR during the autumn 2018 term. There was done a transectional and descriptive study using the data mining with the Cluster k-means technique to regroup the participants. The participants were a total of 105 students whose main characteristic was to have at least one failed course of their curricula. The instrument consisted of a questionnaire which the following objective: to identify the factors that involved the failing rate of the academic, social, family, and motivational types. The results do show that the academic factor is the most detected and being identified that the explanations of the topics by the teachers are not so clear for the students, the topics explained are not so clear, dropping-out at the middle of the term, missing classes, homework and tasks not done by the students, lack of time to study. In relation to social factors, there were identified as problematic the use of social networks and working problems reasons. Among the family factors, the findings do show that economical problems in the family is the cause, and finally the motivational factor is the lack of information that students have of the topics treated in class. Due to the diversity of factors involved in the causes of failing a course it was necessary, and optimal, the use of the data mining in order to determine those causes of that failing.

  26. Dr. Le Tien Dat, Dr. Nguyen Dac Thanh and Dr. Nham Phong Tuan

    Managerial competencies are among the most commonly investigated types of management research. This is because it plays an important role in any business success. This study examined the impact of managerial competencies on business success in the context of SMEs in Vietnam. The aim of study is to explore main factor affecting on performance of SMEs. The research used multiple linear regression model with a sample of 124 SME entrepreneurs, the result found that both organising& leading and relationship competency influenced positively on business success of SMEs, finally some managerial implication were recommended. Managers should be aware of the importance of competencies associated with organising& leading and relationship domain, business owner also need to develop a strong and positive relationship with SMEs community in exporting agricultural product.

  27. Dr. Salem Alhrbi

    The pricing of marine port infrastructure services is one of the most important aspects that occupy the mind of port administrations and port authorities and is one of the most controversial aspects of the global economy Discussions are currently focused on the extent to which mergers and homogeneity are created between the economic impacts of development and investment in infrastructure, cost recovery mechanisms and rules in developed countries and economic zones. In general and periodically, the mechanisms of public investment must be reviewed and the role assigned to them, Infrastructure services, especially in the area of seaports and the huge expenditures required to meet the requirements of the huge technological development of both port equipment and the technological development of ships on these ports, The present paper is based on the development of mechanisms on how to adopt the marginal cost of marine port infrastructure as a basis and reliable pricing rules to achieve the concept of marginal cost recovery and is introduced as a criterion for fair competition among private and single-seaport ports as a principle of competition in the quality of port services By means of its large infrastructure, as well as to ensure a greater range of transparency of the accounting systems in the operation of ports. It is therefore possible to rely on statistics from those ports and to maintain competition in port infrastructure investments .

  28. Sandeepan Mukherjee, Rahul Chavan and Abhay Chowdhary

    Virus is responsible for causing large number of morbidities and mortalities across the globe. Although there are effective anti-virals against the virus, the high rate mutation leads to constant changes in the viral protein structures. This may lead to development of resistance against the existing drugs. The present study was undertaken to assess the in vitro anti-influenza virus activity of Mangiferaindica (Mango), Aegle marmelos (Bael) and Ricinus communis (Eranda). Methanol extracts of the leaves from these plants were prepared using the Soxhlets apparatus. Total proteins were extracted using commercially available kit. Experiments were performed using Influenza Virus A/H1N1/PUNE/2009; standard virus obtained from National Institute of Virology, Pune, India. Pre and post exposure assays were carried out on Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) Cells. Reduction of Hemagglutination Titre was used as a marker for anti-viral activity. The methanol extract of Mango and protein extract of Bael have potential anti-influenza virus activity, as exhibited by hemagglutination inhibition. Even at 100 g/mL the HA titre of 1:64 of the Virus control was reduced to 1:8 in case of methanol extract of mango. Protein extract of Bael exhibited a 1:8 titre at 1000 g/mL. In the event of constant mutations in the influenza virus novel antivirals will be useful in case of future epidemics.

  29. Dr. Umar Nazir, Dr. Rouf Hussain Rather, Dr. Shazia Benazir and Prof. Mohammad Salim Khan, S.

    Majority of Elderly population aged 60 years and above will be in the developing countries as their population will reach 1.2 billion by the year 2025(1). Major health issues which they face in this age group are Non-communicable diseases like hypertension, coronary artery disease, strokes, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancers, cataracts, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, chronic obstructive airway disease, benign hyperplasia of prostate, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Senile Dementia and depression (2). It has been estimated by W.H.O that by 2020, heart disease and stroke will become the leading causes of death and disability worldwide, and the number of fatalities projected to increase to more than 24 million by 2030 (3).Burden of diseases is shifting from communicable to non-communicable in the developing countries of Asia because of the Demographic and epidemiological transitions taking place in this part of the world India's poor are at heightened risk of acquiring NCDs owing to high rate of smoking, tobacco use and high salt intake. So this paper analyses the links between sociodemographic correlates and non-communicable diseases in block Hazratbal, district Srinagar. Objectives:1) To estimate the prevalence of NCDs among study population.2)To find out the socio-demographic correlates of NCDs in the study population. Study design: A Community Based, Cross sectional study. Study population: Elderly (≥60 years) persons residing in selected geographical area. Results: In this study, majority of the elderly study population were suffering from Hypertension/Ischemic/Other heart diseases (52.2%) followed by COPD (11.4%), Arthritis/other Musculoskeletal problems (10.6%), Diabetes mellitus (10.4%). Gastritis (9.8%), Hypothyroidism (9.6%), Benign prostrate hypertrophy (9.4%). The main reason for high prevalence of Hypertension/Ischemic heart disease could be that we take lots of salty products in our daily diet. Other causes could be living in a conflict area or genetic susceptibility. Most of elderly study subjects 446(89.9%) were on drugs for their chronic diseases.

  30. Houssam Laachach, Abdelmalik Elyandouzi, Bachrif Mohamed, Benahmed Ilham, Mouedder Fadoua, Chaymae Toutai, Saida Amaqdouf, Alaa Fliti, Nabila Ismaili and Noha Elouafi

    Acute coronary artery disease is a real obsession to any practitioner because of its heavy complications. Right ventricular infarction is a pathological entity distinguished by several diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic features. These differences can be explained by the anatomical structure of the right ventricle and the physiopathological peculiarities in the occurrence of an infarction. Recent literature has focused on the subject in its details with sometimes inconsistent results. The ECG (18 leads) echocardiography and especially coronary angiography contribute intensively to the diagnosis. Urgent management of ventricular infarction is based on urgent recanalization, maintenance of a good right ventricular pre-load, it tends to reduce the high intra-hospital mortality.

  31. Surendra Kumar Ghintala and Dr. Mohd Arif

    Diabetes Mellitus is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia caused by absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Lack of insulin affects the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat and can cause significant decrease of water and electrolytes homeostasis Various thyroid abnormalities may co-exist and interact with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus affects thyroid functions at many sites, from hypothalamic control of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), release to T3 production from T4 in the target tissues. The study was carried out in Department Of Medicine, Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya Medical College, Churu, Rajasthan, from 11 Oct. 2017 to 10 Oct. 2018 for a period of one year. It was a hospital based cross sectional observational study. We have selected 120 cases (60 males and 60 females) of T2DM following the inclusion and exclusion criteria of our study protocol from medicine ward. Serum glucose was estimated by GOD-POD method. Serum HBA1c was measured by HPLC, and thyroid hormones were measured by ECL technology. It was a hospital based cross sectional observational study.It was observed that high incidence of abnormal thyroid hormone levels were seen among T2DM subjects. Out of all patients having thyroid dysfunction, maximum number of T2DM patients had subclinical hypothyroidism.

  32. Dr. Munaza Shafi, Dr. Nawal Khan and Dr. Shahnaz Nabi

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to study the synergistic effects of SRP (Scaling and root planning) and Cur cumin Gel applications in comparison with SRP alone. Materials and Methods: Two sites in the contra lateral quadrants having probing pocket depths (PPDs) of ≥5 mm were selected in thirty patients. Application of cur cumin gel on a single side followed full mouth scaling and root planning (SRP). Evaluation of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), PPD and Relative attachment levels (RALs) were done at baseline and after 4 weeks. Results: There was a significant improvement in the PI, GI, PPD and RAL for both quadrants treated only with SRP or combination of SRP and Cur cumin in all patients. However, test group presented lower GI, PI, PPD and RAL than the control group at the end of study period. Conclusion: Higher reduction in plaque accumulation, gingival index and pocket probing depth was seen with Cur cumin as an adjunct to SRP as compared to SRP alone.

  33. Ramesh, CH., Koushik, S., Shunmugaraj, T. and Ramana Murthy, M.V.

    The increasing anthropogenic activities, especially plastic dumping and fishing operations in the ocean have become potential threats to several marine animals including sea turtles. Directly or indirectly, turtles are reported to face mortality due to the lack of regular monitoring of coastal activities, mainly the fisheries operations. The present study documented the mortality of two sea turtles, the green turtle Cheloniamydas (Linnaeus, 1758) and olive ridley sea turtle, Lepidochelysolivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) due to entanglement of fish nets. The infestation of epibiotic obligate commensal turtle barnacles, Chelonibiatestudina (Linnaeus, 1758) was also found on dorsoventral sides of sub-adult green turtle Cheloniamydas, while there were evidence of barnacles infestation on adult L. olivacea. We infer that effective monitoring of fishing operations, implementation of conservation awareness programs and training on rescuing turtles will protect these endangered and long-lived animals.

  34. Dr. Sarah Aburaisi, Tala Odeh, Damouh Sabbagh, Tasnim Al-Moughrabi and Sara Al Duraibi

    Aims and objectives: To measure the ability of REU dental students and interns to match the dental shade under three light sources (daylight, clinical unit light, and corrective light source), to assess the importance of clinical experience on shade-matching accuracy, to assess the influence of the three standard light sources on the matching ability of the shade tabs. Methods: Cross-sectional (observational).Two hundred twenty-two female students (level7 to 12) and dental interns at REU participated. Any student with a color deficiency disease was excluded after taking the Ishihara eye test. Results: In this study, 222 interns and female dental students participated. The interns gave the most (100%) correct answers, followed by the level 9 students (92.8%); level 12 students (68.4%); level 11 students (35.2%), and the level 10 students reached the fewest correct answers (20%). Surprisingly, level 7 and 8 students had a high percentage of correct answers as well: (71.4%) and (83.4) respectively. The percentage of correct matches for each light source was corrective light (38.62%),daylight(63.83%), and clinical light(32.81%).The number of correct choices under the corrective light source was significantly higher than the two other light sources (p < 0.0001).At the same time, there was a highly significant difference between natural light, clinical light, and corrective light in significant correlation. Conclusion: As our research showed that the corrective light source was ideal for shade matching, we recommend using it to match the shade taken in daylight, along with improving knowledge of the different shades. It is also beneficial to practice shade-matching while r every 30 seconds by looking at a blue object such as a blue napkin. In this way, we can assure that the patient will get the maximum benefit and the aesthetic results would be optimal.

  35. Dr. Sunitatemhunna Dr. Rashmi Tiwari and Dr. Kamna singh

    Agni is defined as Nayteparin ‘aamayateeti’ means agni is the one which brings about transformation of consumed AahaaraVihaaradiDravya of Vijaateeya (incompatible) origin to Sajaateeya (homogenous) nature. External (sun) & internal (pitta) agni is the basis of life. Acharyacharak says about agni extinguishing the Agni is Death it means life is directly proportional to Agni. According to acharyaSushrutaagni in the body is Pitta. The pitta expressions of heat & digestion sustain the life. According to fundamental principal of Ayurveda Agnis has important role in the physiological functioning of body. In modern era life becomes fast & mechanical. This is thereason why can’t give proper attention to daily & seasonal regimes, exercise and diet. This change in lifestyle is responsible for replacement of Shad-rasatmakAhara by preserved & fast food, bakery products, shift duties (i.e. ratreejagaranevamdivaswapn), stress & strain full lifestyle. All these factors causesAgnimandhya& making them more and more susceptible for disease. According to AcharyaCharakmandagni is root cause of every disease. If jatharagni is weak it will result into improper formation of Rasdhatu and consequently uttarotardhatu formation hampers. This is the reason why AyurvedicSamhitas has given a lots of importance to agni.

  36. Dr. Sameera Tariq Suhail, Dr. Manar Abdulwahid Alnakeep and Dr. Hayam Tho- Alkofil Alkalil

    Background: Birth trauma can be defined as injury to infant resulting from mechanical forces (such as compression or traction) during the process of birth. Objectives: To identify the risk factors associated with birth trauma and to find out the most common type of birth trauma in our locality. Patients and methods: A prospective case control study conducted over a ten months period from the 1st of March to the 31st of December 2006 in Al-kansaa maternity and pediatric teaching hospital in Mosul on 240 babies aged between (0-72 hours) of both gender (120 babies delivered with birth trauma and 120 babies delivered without birth trauma for the control group). Results: Birth trauma is found in 0.8% of the total deliveries in our study. Trauma of cranium was the most Common type of birth trauma, of which caput succedaneum (42.5%) was the most common one. Conclusion: The significance of any of the risk factors whether related to mothers, the babies or the labor, leads us to identify the birth trauma earlier that prompts us to urgent diagnostic and therapeutic measures to decrease the morbidity and mortality.

  37. Dr. Syed Saima, Dr. Gazanfer Ali Shah, Dr. Suhail Majid Jan and Dr. Roobal Behal

    Background: Buccal fat pad (BFP) is a specialized vascular tissue adequately present in buccal space and is close to the maxillary posterior quadrant. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the utility of pedicled BFP (PBFP) in the treatment of Class II and III gingival recession Materials and Methods: Ten systemically healthy patients with age ranging from 35 to 55 years with Class II and Class III gingival recession in the maxillary molars were selected. Before the surgical phase, patients were enrolled in a strict maintenance program including oral hygiene instructions and scaling and root planing. A horizontal incision of 1–1.5 cm was made in the buccal sulcus of the maxillary molar region; buccinator muscle was separated bluntly to expose the BFP. The fat was then teased out from its bed and spread to cover defects adequately. It was then secured and sutured without tension. Clinical parameters such as probing depth, recession length, and width of keratinized gingiva were recorded at baseline and at 6 months postoperatively, and weekly assessment was done at 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and after 4 weeks for observations during the postoperative healing. Results: Treated recession defects healed successfully without any significant postoperative complications. Decreased gingival recession length from baseline to six months. values were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Percentage of root coverage average was 85%. There was a statistically significant decrease in length of recession. Conclusion: Pedicled buccal fat showed promising results as the treatment modality in the management of Class II and Class III gingival recession of maxillary posterior teeth.

  38. Dr. Munaza Shafi and Dr. Nawal Khan

    Aims and Objectives: Biologic width (BW) as defined by Cohen is the part of the supracrestal gingival tissues that occupy the space between the base of the gingival crevice and the alveolar crest; it includes the junctional epithelium and the connective tissue element. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the positional changes of the periodontal tissues, particularly the biological width, following surgical crown lengthening in human subjects. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial study involving 15 patients was carried out for a period of 3 months. Sites were divided into3 groups: treated (TT) sites, adjacent (AD) sites and non-adjacent (NAD) sites. Free gingival margin (FGM), attachment level, pocket depth, bone level, biological width (BW) were recorded at baseline, 1 and 3 months. Direct bone level after flap reflection was recorded before and after osseous resection at baseline only. Level of osseous crest was lowered based on BW, and supracrestal tooth structure needed using a combination of rotary and hand instruments. Results: Overall, apical displacement of FGM at TT, AD and NAD sites was statistically significant compared to baseline. The apical displacement of FGM at TT site was more when compared to that at AD and NAD sites at 3 months. The BW at the TT site was smaller at 1 and 3 months compared to that at baseline.

  39. Dr. Salah Hardan Ahmed

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a common autoimmune disease that is associated with progressive disability, systemic complications, early death, and socioeconomic costs. The cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, and the prognosis is guarded. However, advances in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease have fostered the development of new therapeutics, with improved outcomes. The current treatment strategy, which reflects this progress, is to initiate aggressive therapy soon after diagnosis and to escalate the therapy, guided by an assessment of disease activity, in pursuit of clinical remission. However, several unmet needs remain. Current conventional and biologic disease- modifying therapies sometimes fail or produce only partial responses. Reliable predictive biomarkers of prognosis, therapeutic response, and toxicity are lacking. Sustained remission is rarely achieved and requires ongoing pharmacologic therapy. The mortality rate is higher among patients with rheumatoid arthritis than among healthy persons, and cardiovascular and other systemic complications remain a major challenge. Molecular remission and the capacity to reestablish immunologic tolerance remain elusive. Elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms that initiate and perpetuate rheumatoid arthritis offers the promise of progress in each of these domains. Rheumatoid arthritis is predominantly classified on the basis of the clinical phenotype. This is A literature review of previous studies.

  40. Dr. Rahul Kumar

    • Diabetes mellitus, is a chronic disease majority affecting the individuals worldwide. • In 2012, 1.5 million individuals died because of high blood glucose level resulting in CVS & other systemic diseases. • Globally cost of diabetes mellitus was Us.31hillium in 2015. Aim • This article utilizes the prevalence data of diabetes mellitus from the world health Organization & International Diabetes federation.

  41. Dr. Dawood Ahmed Dawood Sulaiman and Dr. Alaa Adrees A. Al-Dhannoon

    Background: Currently, spinal anesthesia is an acceptable method for cesarean section (CS) throughout the world, since general anesthesia is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality rates. The current study was aimed to compare the side effects of general vs. spinal anesthesia during caesarean operation. Materials and methods: This study was performed on women who were candidates for elective Caesarean section at Nineveh private hospital, inMosulcity, Iraq. Informed consents were obtained from all the patients and the risks and side effects of both spinal and general anesthesia were explained preoperatively, One day after the operation, all mothers were examined with respect to the variables. A total of (100) randomly selected participants, Half Of them (50) participants referred as case group A (undergo operation with general anesthesia), and the other half (50 ) participants were referred as case group B (undergo operation with spinal anesthesia). Blood samples were collected before and after the operation to see the differences in Hemoglobin concentration and platelets count, Blood pressure and body temperature were also measured after operation, other parameters were collected from patient's thick report or by direct interviewing questionnaire. Results: The Mean Age Of Participants Was 32.5 Years Old With A Range Between 25-40 Years. The Mean Age of Participants with Spinal Anesthesia Was 32.32 While for Participants with General Anesthesia was 32.72. Majority of them have their first or second caesarean section. 46/50 (92%) of spinal anesthesia was decided with the doctor while 40/50 (80%) of general anesthesia was chosen the patient's themselves. Local pain and headache were clearly observed in spinal anesthesia while vomiting, fever, ICU admission and infection were very rare when using both types of anesthesia. Marked differences were observed in the hemoglobin concentration and platelets count when using the two techniques of anesthesia before and after operation. In our study, we observed in 44 % of participants suffered from pain and 36 % suffered from headache after operation in both groups A and B. No remarkable difference was noted on blood pressure range (but some participants have slightly decrease in BP). All participants have slight changes in platelets count, and Hemoglobin concentration. Conclusion: We should cautiously consider that general anesthesia may be associated with slightly increased in peri-operative room time , hospital stay & the differences were observed in the tested parameters between general and spinal anesthesia regarding postoperative pain at injection site , headache , lumbar pain , vomiting ,fever ICU admission & infection So it is highly recommended to leave the decision of type of anesthesia to the doctor upon patients' clinical condition.

  42. Dr. Yasser F. Zidan, Dr. Muthanna A. Al-Sharbaty, Dr. Ahmed Tariq and Dr. Ahmed Muhanna

    Background: After major gastrointestinal surgery the patient can start traditional late oral feeding (TOF) or start early oral feeding (EOF) which seems to be safe and beneficial with promising results. Aim of study: This study was performed to evaluate early oral feeding after upper gastro intestinal surgeries. Patients and Method: This prospective clinical case series study conducted in Mosul teaching Center for two years and 4 months in which 67 patients divided into 2 groups (36 start oral feeding early and 31 with late oral feeding)and results including hospital stay and return to normal life ,nausea, vomiting, tolerance of oral intake, fever and ileus were observed and the incidence of re admission and complications were recorded. Results: Both groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, with surgeon preference toward traditional late oral feeding after open surgery; there are significant difference in terms of NG tube removal ,start of oral feeding, ileus and hospital stay and passage of gas while no difference detected in terms of nausea, vomiting, tolerance of feeding and hospital re admission. Conclusion: Early gastric feeding is shown to be safe and decrease postoperative ileus with short hospital stay and can be applied safely for patients with upper gastrointestinal surgery.

  43. Dr. Cauvery .Karbhari and Dr Naveen Karbhari

    Objectives: To identify the health messages based on scientific evidence and the priorities of health messages among Indian school textbooks. Materials and Methods: The health messages published in primary and secondary schools of CBSE and AP syllabus were included. The quality of content was compared with best health care practices which included EBM, EBD and consensus-based practices from the Trip database containing information that was classified in terms of evidence, such as clinical practice guides and systematic reviews. Results: 51 messages were identified among 179 textbooks used in primary and secondary schools. Among the books, there was a top priority for messages related to human health and related diseases (30%) followed by messages related to food and its habits, hygiene, nutrition and storage (25%). Around 69% of the messages were based on evidence without assigned level, and 21% were based on unknown evidence. Oral health messages occupied 6% of the total messages and most of them were based on evidence with assigned level. Conclusion: Majority of the health messages included in the textbooks were based on scientific evidence without assigned level and coverage on oral health, tobacco and alcohol abuse was found to be very minimal.

  44. Vinodkumar, K.

    The project entitled ‘A Study on the Perception of Operational Efficiency Among White Collar Employees in ADNOC, Al Ain, UAE’ is a study of the operational efficiency of the white collar employees in different categories in order to measure the efficiency with reference to the operational side of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company at Al Ain, a province of United Arab Emirate. The researcher conducted this study amongst 30 White collar employees of the company with the help of Questionnaire method of data collection consisting of 20 closed ended and one open ended questions in the relevant areas of the study. The operational efficiency is one of the important and crucial area of the management of an organisation in the operations management that influence the success, survival and efficiency. This area is of most important in the present era of the globalised and privatized business environment globally. In this study, the researcher conducted the data collection and analysis of operational efficiency with respect to the, product design, redesign, planning, material planning, handling, control and the distribution, logistical issues, maintenance management, and the utilisation efficiency of ADNOC, Abudhabi.

  45. Ranjan Dissabandara

    The brand equity concept is used by many companies worldwide. Having brand equity within the organization will help to produce better competition in the market and also the sensitivity of the consumer will change, so through brand equity functions the company is hoping to gain brand loyalty. This study attempts to link a positive relationship between Brand Equity and purchase intention. In south Asian developing countries Sri Lanka has been the first to have an open economy policy. A study shows that developed countries customers prefer domestic products whereas developing countries prefer foreign products rather than the domestic products.(Bilkey and Nes,1982). With this situation Sri Lankan has had a very high competition for good international products. Therefore a product with high brand equity can have a big market share and high level of brand loyalty for its brand. A brand has been defined in many different terms. “a name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them” that can be useful to identify the goods from supplier in view of differentiating those suppliers from their competitors (Kotler and Keller, 2006). Further explanations, a powerful brand influence attitudes of customers and makes a strong product association through the brand (Ukperbor and Ipogah, 2008).

  46. Dr. Sravani, Dr. Shivraj More, Dr. Sujatha P and Dr. Nina Kate

    Background: Copper Intrauterine Contraceptive Device is a form of long acting reversible contraceptive device and is considered to be one of the most effective forms of birth control available. Copper T 380A has lowest pregnancy rate among all copper IUDs and can be used for a lifespan of 10 years The advantages of post placental insertion include the assurance that the women is not pregnant, high motivation, convenience and eliminates the 6 week post partum wait. This study examines the factors associated with acceptability of post partum IUCD insertion according to their socio-demographic and obstetrics characteristics and the rates of perforation, expulsion, pelvic infection, lost strings and displacement following insertion among acceptors till 12 months. Objective: To assess the safety, efficacy and complications of post placental Copper T 380A insertion following caesarean section. Study Design: This was a prospective study conducted on 500 women who underwent LSCS and were willing for CuT 380 A insertion after proper counselling in a tertiary care hospital. After placental delivery CuT was inserted into the endometrial cavity through the incision. The study participants were then followed up after discharge at 6 weeks, 6 month and one year postpartum. Any complaints if present were noted and pelvic examination and Ultrasonography were performed to verify the presence of IUCD and to check for any signs of infection or bleeding. Results: Of the 500 patients studied, 487(97.4%) patients came for follow up at 6 weeks, 454(90.8%) at 6 months and 411(82.2%) at 12 months. 15(3%) patients had expulsion of Cu T, of which 3(0.6%) expelled within 6 months, 10(2%) expelled in between 6-12 months and 2(0.4%) expelled at 12 months follow up. A total of 37(7.4%) patients removed the IUCD, 12(2.4%) due to increased bleeding per vaginum, 8(1.6%) due to displacement, 4(0.8%) due to abdominal pain, 1(0.2%) due to leucorrhoea and 12(2.4%) patients removed due to their misperceptions like discomfort, fear of displacement into the abdomen and social pressure. Complications were seen in 162(32.4%) patients such as bleeding in 20(4%), strings not visible in 105(21%), pain abdomen in 5(1%), leucorrhoea in 4(0.8%) and 15 (3%) expelled the IUCD. Pregnancy occurred in 3(0.6%) patients out of which 2(0.4) patients had intrauterine pregnancy and 1(0.2%) ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Post placental Copper T 380 A insertion following caesarean section is a safe, effective. low cost and convenient method of long term reversible contraception with a low incidence of expulsion and high continuation rates.

  47. Santosh Pal

    This research paper is an attempt to study the conflict management style of pupil teachers. D.El.Ed. course students (N=96) were tested on Conflict Management Style. Conflict Management Style was assessed with the help of self-made Conflict Management Style Inventory. T-test and ANOVA were used to analyze the data and for post hoc analysis LSD test was used to determine the significance of intergroup differences. Study reveals that male and female pupil teachers of D.El.Ed. course give equal preference to adoption of ‘Avoiding’, ‘Compromising’, ‘Collaborating’, ‘Integrating’, and ‘Reasoning’ conflict management style. However, male pupil teachers give more preference to adoption of ‘Dominating’, and ‘Obliging’ conflict management in comparison to female pupil teachers. D.El.Ed. III semester pupil teachers adopt more ‘Avoiding’, and ‘Compromising’ conflict style than pupil teachers of D.El.Ed. I semester but students of both the semesters give equal priority to ‘Collaborating’, ‘Integrating’, ‘Dominating’, ‘Obliging’, and ‘Reasoning’ styles of conflict management. Pupil teachers of different localities and social background give equal preference to various conflict management styles.

  48. Chandrika Sailaja, K., Yoganarasimha Rao, B., Pujitha, S., Akhil Kumar, P., Yashwanth, G., Ratna Kumari, Y., Srikanth, I. and Suresh Kumar, J.N.

    A review is presented on different analytical techniques used for quantitative analysis of novel Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4) - Saxagliptin. Efforts have been made to collate all the relevant references to the extent possible. The review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the cited analytical techniques, which will help to give insights into the methods used for estimation of saxagliptin, from clinical isolates and from its dosage forms. The review highlights the basic as well as advanced techniques performed for estimating saxagliptin. The techniques illustrated here have been demonstrated to be useful for quantitative determination of saxagliptin and may find application in analyzing other related properties.

  49. Dheepa V., Prabavathy S. and Dr. Renuka K.

    Background: School children face a lot of emotional issues during the period of development. India is home land to more than 243 million adolescents of the country’s population. School children were reported high Stress for 37% and children of 16-19 years experienced more Anger. Thus addressing the impact of Stress and Anger, Thought Field Therapy helps the children maintaining a balance in emotional and behavioural factors. Aim: To evaluate the Effectiveness of Thought Field Therapy on Stress and Anger among School children. Methods: A quantitative research approach with True-experimental research design was adopted for the study. Initially 110 school children were selected by using Simple random sampling technique. The pre and post test level of Stress was assessed by Cohen Perceived Stress Scale and Anger was assessed by Modified Clinical Anger Scale. In that 55 school children in experimental group who received Thought Field Therapy and 55 school children in control group who had no Intervention. The data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: In both subgroups, significant results (p<0.002) were observed and most of the symptoms of Stress and Anger was reduced in the experimental group than control group. Conclusion: This study proves that Thought Field Therapy was effective in reducing the level of Stress and Anger among school children.

  50. Abdullah Fathi Dawood, Ali Yaseen Hashim and Mayson Ghanim Mohammad Al-Ubaidy

    The thalassemia syndrome are heterogenous group of disorders of hemoglobin synthesis, with a considerable frequency in middle eastern countries. In this study a total of 56 patients were studied, 32 males (57%) and 24 females (43%), aged between (0.3- 30) years, they were divided into three groups: non transfused, group I- (n=11), transfused non splenectomized, group II- (n=34) and transfused splenectomized, group III- (n=11). In non transfused , group I, 90.9% had severe to moderate anaemia, and in transfused non splenectomized, group II, 88.2% had severe to moderate anemia, while in transfused splenectomized, group III, 72.7% had severe to moderate anaemia, and blood transfusion requirements were reduced in 81.8% after splenectomy.

  51. Evah Norotiana Andriamiakatsoa RAOBELLE, Jean Maximillien TATA, Lantonirina RAVAOARISOA, Nambinina Hajamanantena RASOLOFOTSIALONINA, El-C Julio RAKOTONIRINA and Bertille Hortense RAJAONARISON

    Violence against women is a major problem of public health and, according to the World Health Organization, just over a third of women report having been exposed to physical or sexual violence from their partner. Marital violence against women is a complex social phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing the onset of this form of violence. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted from 210 married women living in the urban community of Imerintsiatosika in 2016. This study found that three quarters of women experienced spousal violence. Psychological and physical violence were most reported by these women. Education level, household size, association membership, spouse's childhood, women's knowledge and attitudes are related to spousal violence. In Madagascar, the statistical data on spousal violence remain very fragmentary, but are nevertheless essential. Also, the analysis of domestic violence-related factors provides a useful basis for health and education programs to help combat this type of violence.

  52. Sunita Vashist, Bachu Narayan Singh, Arya, R. K., Gupta, G. K., Singh, N. and Arora, R.

    Background: Cancer of cervix is a common cancer that affects Indian women physically, psychologically, socially and financially. The disease affects not just the women but also her family and society. Aims and Objectives: This study was designed to study status of uterine cervical dysplasia amongst women attending gynae OPD at CHC Muradnagar, Ghaziabad, U.P. Materials and Methods: This study was done at the community health center (CHC), Muradnagar. It was a cross-sectional study done by using VIA (visual inspection using acetic acid) technique on uterine cervix on 1250 women aged above 30 years of age attending gynecology OPD of CHC Muradnagar, Ghaziabad U.P. Purposive sampling was used to enroll all the women who were attending the gynecology OPD at CHC and were coming in the eligibility criteria. Results: Out of 1250 women, 14 were found to be VIA positive, out of which 4 cases came out to be positive for dysplasia after doing biopsy under colposcopy. Three biopsy positive cases were found in the age group of 41 to 50 years and one case in age group of 51-60 years, two biopsy positive cases were found amongst participants who had no literacy and two were found positive amongst females who had at least taken intermediate level or higher education, all the four biopsy positive cases were found amongst participants who were Hindu by religion, two biopsy positive cases were found amongst participants who were not working and two were found positive amongst females who were working, two biopsy positive cases were found amongst participants whose husbands were working as a professional and two cases were found positive amongst females whose husbands were working as either skilled/semi-skilled/unskilled labours or unemployed, two biopsy positive cases were found amongst participants who belonged to Class I Socio-economic status and two cases were found positive amongst females who belonged to Class III Socio-economic status. Conclusion: Our epidemiological study revealed that many socio demographic variables such as increasing age, literacy status, religion, working status of participant and her husband, socio-economic status are important factors that significantly showed higher proportion of dysplasia that can influence development of cervical cancer. In addition, these factors are supported by several epidemiological studies as important risk factors for development of cervical cancer, specially done in low resource settings. Recommendation: Mass health education and behaviour change interventions should be conducted at the community level in order to make all women of childbearing age aware about cervical cancer and its screening. The benefits of early diagnosis and treatment must be made aware to women so that they are encouraged to take cervical

  53. Nally YGF Erbabley, Junianto, Edy Afrianto and Iskandar

    Vibrio harveyii and Pseudomonas fluorescence bacteria are pathogenic bacteria that are often a problem in aquaculture, so effective antibacterial compounds are needed to inhibit their growth. Brown algae of Sargassumfilipendulla have bioactive compounds that can function as antibacterial compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the phytochemical content of S. filipendulla of algae extract from Southeast Maluku waters and to determine the antibacterial activity of S. filipendulla extract to V. harveyii and P.fluorescence bacteria. Phytochemical test parameters were carried out quantitatively; antibacterial activity was carried out using agar diffusion method (Kirby Bauer). Data from the inhibitory zone test results were analyzed using the ANOVA (Analysis of variance) test followed by the Least Significant Difference (LSD) test. The test results showed that the brown algae of S. filipendulla originating from the Southeast Maluku region, produced extracts in the form of green paste to blackish green with the highest rendemen value in ethanol extract. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the compounds contained in S.filipendulla extract were phenolic, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, triterpenoid, steroid and alkaloid compounds; with the dominant compounds in the three reactants were saponin compounds .The results of the research of inhibition zones showed that the concentration of 100% had the highest inhibition zone value and the lowest inhibition zone at a concentration of 75%. Ethanol extract has a high value to inhibit pathogenic bacterium V.harveyi and P. fluorescence and the lowest on ethyl acetate extract, whereas positive control is suspect against bacteria and negative control does not affect pathogenic bacteria. The 100% concentration of ethanol extract gave a significant effect on inhibiting pathogenic bacteria V.harveyi and P. fluorescence (P <0.05). The 50% concentration gives a significant difference between ethanol and ethyl acetate extract, at the level of 0.05 (P <0.05), while the n-hexane extract gives a non-significant result of ethanol and ethyl acetate extract. The average extract value to inhibit the highest pathogenic bacteria is in ethanol extract and the lowest is in n-hexane extract. Of the three extracts used, ethanol extract is an extract that is good for inhibiting pathogenic bacteria and has bacteriostatic properties.

  54. Ndukwe Orji Dibia

    This study examined the dynamic relationships between insurance market development, and economic growth in Nigeria using the Johansen approach to cointegration analysis, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), and Granger Causality test on yearly data over the period 1985 to 2017. Two indicators of insurance sector development (total insurance premium and insurance density) were employed.The results show that total premium (life and non-life) to nominal GDP exerts positive and significant impact onreal GDP in the long run. Insurance Density exerts negative and significant impact on real GDP. The granger causality test indicates that there is a weak unidirectional causality running from, insurance density to real GDP. The study established weak relationship between insurance development and growth in Nigeria. The study recommends the need to establish financial institutions that would strengthen and resolve the institutional and structural problems in the economy and create structures that would sustain other causal factors that mediates growth and financial intermediation (insurance side) where appropriate

  55. Nurtjahjo D Sasongko, Siti Samiarsih and Nettyani Naipospos

    Indonesia, the second largest mega diversity in the world. It has a wide array of plants species including Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L) DC). Here, this crop is cultivated in many areas though they are not consumed daily leads to very limited effort to develop it. Developing this crop may attract people to cultivate and so consumption like as source for industrial oil. Selections for high fatty acids content seeds, so far are done by selecting good quality of seedlings through selection of the whole seeds. Current study initiated the use of half seed analysis on gas chromatography (GC) to collect data of high fatty acids content of winged bean. Six genotypes were collected from Sumatera (SMT 1 and 2), Java (1 and 2), Bali and West Nusa Tenggara (WNT), and used as the research material. The SMT genotypes are long pod genotypes (27 and 20,5 cm), Java have either long or short genotypes (27 cm length and 10.3 cm). Bali and WNT genotypes were not clear as they were collected as seeds instead of pods. The long pod genotype has total 8-22 seeds but only 6-8 seeds for short type. The SMT seeds germinated 100% but other genotypes showed lower rate of germination (65% and 55%). of those fatty acids, the Sumateran seeds contain40-50% palmitic acids but only few numbers of seeds from other genotypes. Three individuals were high in palmitic and oleic acids content. The high palmitic acid content reflected the present of putative genes with with four or 3 dominant alleles (PPPP, PPPp) in few individuals. This data showed if half seed was able to be used as source for GC analysis.

  56. Faustina da Costa., Lucas da Costa and Fernando Dias Gusmao

    Concerns for userpassport and border pass trust in government are at the core of Timor-Leste Government. Public distrust is often blamed on the bad functioning of public services, and in political discourse wellfunctioning public services are said to create trust in government and many communities that not have a passport and using the national idefication and border pass during visit to Indonesia for ten days maximal living in Indonesia. The link between performance and good gavernance can only be made when very specific conditions are present. The core of the discussion deals with causality it is obvious that performance of the government has a certain impact on trust in people, but existing levels of trust in government may also have an impact on perceptions of government performance. This research aims to know the principle of implementing Good Govenance and obstacles faced in the context of participation, transparency and responsibility of the local governments in the Municipio of Bobonaro, Timor-Leste. The methods used in this research is a qualitative method for analyzing case appears. The variable in this study was Good Governance (X) with indicator for participation, transparency and accountability toimproved performance of Government (Y) and using the regression and corelation to analyze the data. Technique analyse data using collection data, data presentation, data reduction and verification, is a technique to process and simplify the data that has been retrieved into a form that is easily read and interpreted. The results of the study indicated the rules of the passport service of process, cost and transportation, lack of friendliness in serving, lack of human resources, and the director has no authority to sign the passport, the passport very urgent users must take their own electronic passport in Dili, may benefit its users because there is no problem when the over the limit or the Immigration Office, security guaranteed, a total of user passports avalable on 1022 people. Users of the Border Pass to visit to the neighboring country only by foot, without having to go through the Immigration Office. Passport service of process in accordance with the rules of human resources have not yet adequate, there are still many communities that do not have a requirement to take care of passport fees, passport does not reach take care of society, yet no authorization from the Ministry of of Justice, the community snapping passort himself in Dili. Manners and ethics in serving the public is less satisfying, the availability of facilities and infrastructure supporting the Office still less become obstacles for the realization of Good Governance.

  57. Romeu Marques Daci, Jose Cornelio Guterres and Leoneto Madeira Martins

    Transportation regulation had applied, however, it’s not been implemented properly, because, for any business person free to determine the price rates under their own decision, even rules of the rate has been set by the Government of Timor-Leste. The purpose of this research was to analyze human resource capabilities, performance work that impacts on improving the quality of services public in Dirrecção Nacional de Transporte Terestre Dili.The methods used to quantitative with multiple regression analyses and supported with some research instrument test. Human resource capability (X1) and performance (X2) as the variable exogen (X), and service quality (Y) as an endogenous variable. Based on the analysis, the study found that human resource capacity is a significant influence on the quality of service as evidenced by t-test > t-table value significance 3.819. The performance of the Work has a significant influence on the quality of service, with a confidence level of 95%, and 5% error rate with a value of 9,917. The magnitude of the contributions as human resource capabilities of the variables (X1) and variable performance work (X2) on quality of service as seen from the R square value adjusted of 0826 or 82.6% either then other contributions amounted to 17.4% was explained by other variables which are not examined in this research model. In testing simultaneously both variables have a significant influence on the value of 19,984. Rather than the human resources capability and work performance vital to quality service in any institution ranging from small to large scare since it is well known that no business can exist entirely without the human being also that one of the major functions of human resource development is the engagement of people to work to achieve performance work and service quality.

  58. Dr. Kavita Sharma and Dr. Shahjad Pathak

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different peroxide bleaching regimens and subsequent remineralization on the hardness of human enamel. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty extracted human teeth were taken and divided into four groups i.e. group I- control and group II, III and IV- experimental groups bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide, 30% carbamide peroxide and 30% hydrogen peroxide respectively. After bleaching experimental groups were further divided into three subgroups, based on remineralization: subgroup A-stored in artificial saliva, subgroup B-application of CPP-ACP (Tooth mousse) and subgroup C-Reminpro respectively. The effects of each product were evaluated by calculating the change in average microhardness (AMH) of these groups after their application. Statistical analysis: It was performed by using paired t-test for intragroup comparisons and ANOVA for intergroup comparisons followed by Post-hoc Tukey’s test and Bonferroni for groupwise comparisons. The significance level was taken at p value 0.05.Results: When comparing the effects of bleaching agents on enamel, all of the three regimens showed statistically highly significant decrease of mean AMH with statistically significant higher difference for in office bleaching regimens as compared to at home regimens. On comparing the effects of remineralizing agents on post-bleached enamel, CPP-ACP and Reminpro revealed statistically significant recovery of baseline values of mean AMH in all three experimental groups. No statistically significant differences were found between CPP-ACP and Reminpro. Conclusions: Demineralization produced by bleaching agent is dependent on concentration of peroxide and use of remineralizing product after bleaching is an imperative step.

  59. Prof. Bhagaban Sahu

    The snake charmer is an ancient art form which is prevalent in the Indian society since the puranic days. But it is more popular and vibrant in the Odishan society. Odisha- a land of high hills and dense forests, is infested with gigantic snakes like Ahiraj (King of snakes), pythons, Sankhachuda, and poisonous snakes like Cobra, Tampa, Chiti, Ardalia, Boda, etc. The sapua kelas (snake charmers) of Odisha maintained their livelihood by hunting snakes and demonstrating their games in different villages and cities of Odisha. The sapua kelas are found throughout the length and breadth of Odisha. But, they are mostly concentrated in the villages around Champua subdivision of Keonjhar district and Patia near Bhubaneswar of Khurda district which may be called as the country of sapua kelas. An attempt has been made in this paper to portray the social significance of the snake charmers’ songs of Odisha.

  60. Dheerendra Kumar Singh, Komal Khatri, Anit Khatri, Pavan Kumar Singh, Sarvjeet Kaur and Soumendu Bikash Maiti

    The present study has been undertaken to determine the most appropriate oral hygiene motivation method (OHMM) for maintaining good oral hygiene during fixed appliance orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods- The study group was divided into four groups in accordance to their OHMM such as- GROUP I. Only verbal information (V). GROUP II. Only written information (W). GROUP III. Demonstration on model (M). GROUP IV. Audio Visual Aids and Self application by the patients (AV). Proper hygiene instructions were then provided and clinical examination was performed (baseline,1st ,3rd ,and 6th month). The examination included recording of Plaque Index (PI) for each sample at each examination. Results: At 1st, 3rd , 6 th months group V had the highest mean PI score while the lowest mean PI score was observed in Group AV and the difference between the groups was significant. Conclusion: The preventive, educational and motivational actions undertaken in this study proved statistically effective in improving the oral health of orthodontic patients. The most effective method is demonstration by audiovisual aids.

  61. Dr. Syed Saima, Dr. Dolly, Dr. Aqrib Mushtaq and Dr. Mumtaz Ali

    Background: Multiple approaches have been used to replace lost, damaged or diseased gingival tissues. The connective tissue graft (CTG) procedure is the gold standard method for root coverage. Although multiple sites often need grafting, the palatal mucosa supplies only a limited area of grafting material. To overcome this limitation, expanded mesh graft provides a method whereby a graft can be stretched to cover a large area. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and the predictability of expanded mesh CTG (e-MCTG) in the treatment of adjacent multiple gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients aged 20-50 years contributed to 55 sites, each site falling into at least three adjacent Miller's Class 1 or Class 2 gingival recession. The CTG obtained from the palatal mucosa was expanded to cover the recipient bed, which was 1.5 times larger than the graft. Clinical measurements were recorded at baseline and 3 months.

  62. Dr. Syed Saima, Dr. Mumtaz Ali, Dr. Aqrib Mushtaq and Dr. Dolly

    Background: Marginal gingival recession can cause major functional and esthetic problems. Advanced flaps are the simplest, yet unpredictable procedures for managing these conditions. The predictability of root coverage can be increased by combining coronally advanced flap (CAF) or its modified approach with other regenerative techniques. Objective: To ascertain the potential benefits of platelet‑rich fibrin (PRF) on modified CAF for the treatment of gingival recession. Materials and Methods: Study comprised of 12 patients with Millers’ class I and class II gingival recession in two non-adjacent anterior teeth having a minimum 3 mm width of attached gingiva. Following split‑mouth design, one tooth with gingival thickness (GT) were recorded at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Results: VGRD, GRW, CAL, and GT improved significantly from baseline to 1 month in both test and control groups. However, change in these parameters from 1 month to 3 months and 3 months to 6 months were statistically non significant in both groups. On intergroup comparison, only the change in GT was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) at all three post-treatment visits. gingival recession was subjected to CAF, while another was treated by CAF with PRF. The clinical parameters, i.e., plaque index, modified sulcular bleeding index, vertical gingival recession depth (VGRD), gingival recession width (GRW),clinical attachment level (CAL), and gingival thickness (GT). Conclusion: Benefits of the combined technique in terms of increased GT appear to justify the use of PRF along with modified CAF for the treatment of mild to moderate gingival recessions.

  63. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Krishnamoorthy, S H., *Dr. Nikhil Das, K.R., Dr. Ramesh, R., Dr. Vinisha Vinod and Dr. Monika G Reddy

    Background: Out of the several factors that contribute to dental caries the alignment of teeth in dental arch plays a pivotal role in dental caries progress. The naturally occurring physiologic space and primate space in primary dentition help in the prevention of caries it avoids retention of plaque in interproximal areas. However, in early childhood caries it is not a reality, so the influence of inter dental spacing in spread of dental caries is. Aim: The aim of our study is to evaluate the relationship between interdental spacing and dental caries in primary anterior teeth. Methodology: A sample of 100 children with primary dentition who are mentally and physically healthy were evaluated for the presence of interdental spacing and dental caries. The presence of interdental spacing and dental caries recorded. Later all the data are compiled and statistical analysis was done. Statistical Analysis: The data was statistically analyzed using Chi square test. Result: The association between interdental spacing and dental caries was significant in 26% cases, where as in 17% of cases it was highly significant (p<0.01) and in 9% of cases it is significant(p<0.05). The presence of caries is more in classification 3 and 4 (C3 and C4) than classification 1 and 2.

  64. Osugiri, I.I., Ben-Chendo, G.N., Okwara, M.O., Anyanwu, G.U. and Utazi, C.O

    The study was conducted in Southeast Nigeria which is located in the rainforest zone of Nigeria and made up of five states Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu and Imo state out of the 36 (Thirty Six) states in Nigeria. It analyzed the trends of climatic variables in Southeast Nigeria. The time series data on means of annual temperature and rainfall for a period of 42 years (1972-2014) in southeast Nigeria were collected from the Nigeria meteorological agency (NIMET) within the zone. Data collected were analyzed with trend analysis using Ms, Excel, Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15 and STATA. Results showed that there had been high inter-annual variability in rainfall volume over the years with insignificant correlation (0.049) between volume of rainfall and time. However, the trend of rainfall intensity over the period was significant at (p=0.01), with the correlation of (0.54) and trend coefficient (0.48). The trend of temperature within the period (1972-2014), shows an increasing trend and statistically significant at (P=0.01). The Coefficient of correlation of temperature and time was (78.7%) which indicates existence of warming in southeast Nigeria. These findings would guide farmers to take advantages of most favourable climatic condition (weather), for their farm activities, especially crops cultivation and solve the hitherto problem of unpredictability of the season amongst farmer in the region. However, the study recommends that periodical weather forecasts from meteorological agents of government should be made known to farmers.

  65. R.A. Singh, R.K. Singh, P.V. Singh, Jitendra Singh, Asha Yadav and Jitendra Singh

    An experiment was carried out during Rabi season of 2002-2003 and 2003-04 at Regional Research Station, Mainpuri, C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur. The experimental soil was sandy loam, having poor fertility status. The two genotypes i.e. Udai and Alok were tested at four levels of nutrients integration (RDF + 15 kg S + 30 kg Ca + 0 q FYM, RDF + 15 kg S + 30 kg Ca + 50 q FYM, RDF + 15 kg S + 30 kg Ca + 100 q FYM and RDF + 15 kg S + 30 kg Ca + 150 q FYM/ha). The integration of FYM @ 50 q/ha, 100 q/ha and 150 q/ha significantly increased the kernel yield of chickpea in comparison to without integration of FYM. The pooled results of two years displayed that both cultivars at different levels of nutrients integration confined the kernel yield beyond 50 q/ha FYM. Thus, application of 25 kg N + 50 kg P2O5 + 15 kg S + 30 kg Ca in the integration of 50 q/ha FYM significantly improved the grain yield of cv. Udai by 2.51 q/ha or 21.92% and cv. Alok by 2.99 q/ha or 25.04% over non integration of FYM. The significant response noted between yield of Udai (13.87 q/ha) and Alok (14.43 q/ha) under poor edaphic condition. The growth and yield contributing characters were concordance to the kernel yield of chickpea.

  66. Ué Claver Zéa Bi, Nahoua Issa Ouattara and Siaka Berté

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of different types of commercial feed on the zoo technical performance on Brazil strain larvae of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in breeding conditions in Côte d'Ivoire. The study focused on four commercial foods, Ivograin, Skretting, Raanan and Real with 17%, 48%, 48%, 48% and 60% protein respectively. The average larvae 17.38 ± 1.92 mg were fed rations of 50% (1st week), 40% (2nd week), 30% (3rd week) and 25% (4th week) of their total biomass for 28 days.The results showed that the best zootechnical performance was obtained with the Skretting feed, followed by the Raanan feed. The final average weights achieved were 1020.44 ± 24.66 mg; 1615.55 ± 86.34 mg; 1478.44 ± 232.30 mg; 969.99 ± 369.29 mg respectively with Ivograin, Skretting, Raanan and Real. Larvae fed Ivograin feed had a high survival rate than those fed Skretting, Raanan and Real feeds. On the other hand, the nutrient quotient was significantly higher in larvae fed Ivograin and Real compared to other foods. The economic analysis showed that the cost of the feed distributed to larvae and the cost of the feed to produce the kilogram of fry were relatively higher with Skretting feed compared to Raanan, Ivograin and Real feed.

  67. Lahari P. S. and Hanumantha Rao B.

    Various abnormal stomata distributed among 60 species of 39 genera of Scrophulariaceae are recorded. These are categorized into 5 major types viz., contiguous stomata, stomata with single guard cells, stomata with both guard cells degenerated, heteromorphic stomata and stomata with polar deposits. The probable factors and reasons leading to the formation of such stomata in the foliar epidermis have been discussed.

  68. Luis Núñez Oreza, Betty Sarabia Alcocer, Estephanie Ayanegui Robles, Paulino Tamay Segovia, Selene Blum Domínguez, Ruth López Alcántara, Baldemar Aké Canché, Javier Maldonado Rivas and Patricia M. Garma Quen

    Various infections in the hospital are caused by bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Some strains of this species have the capacity to produce biofilm, causing infections related to the contamination of various materials or surgical devices due to their difficult eradication of the infected site. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of slime or biofilm in strains of Staphylococcus aureus carriers of the icaA and icaD genes by means of two different phenotypic methods to identify the sensitivity of each of them. In the present study, 76 strains from different clinical isolates were evaluated, being found by the gold standard test of detection of biofilm producing strains used by the PCR method by the detection of the icaA and icaD genes, which was applied to all staphylococcal strains tested. Regarding the gold standard test, the results indicated that the sensitivity by the CRA method with 800 mg/L, was the lowest with 64.0%, but that by increasing the concentration of the dye to 1200 mg/L in the CRA modified, the sensitivity increased to 86%, being almost the same as the highest sensitivity obtained by the detection of biofilm in polystyrene plates by crystal violet as a developer, with a sensitivity of 89%.

  69. Eleciana Rosa dos Santos Barros, Débora Maria Santos Azevedo, Janielle Oliveira Caldeira, Beatriz Rocha Sousa, Felipe de Oliveira Bittencourt, Viviane Figueiredo Vieira, Stenio Fernando Pimentel Duarte and Larissa Costa Fogaça

    Eggplant flour (Solanum melongena, L.), rich in fiber, minerals, and vitamins, is a viable alternative for food enrichment, since its processing allows the maintenance of important nutritional characteristics, leading to benefits to consumers of its products. This study’s objective was to evaluate the sensory acceptance of cookie type biscuits manufactured with eggplant flour in different concentrations. Eggplant flour was produced in laboratory and incorporated in cookies dough, in substitution of oat flour, in the percentages of 5, 10 and 15%; a control formulation was also made, without addition of eggplant flour. The cookie type biscuits were evaluated through sensory assessment by affective acceptance test, for aroma, color, taste, and appearance attributes. The results were statistically evaluated by the linear regression method at 5% of probability and demonstrate, by the analysis of variance, that the biscuits differed significantly, however, the color and aroma did not have mathematic models adjusted, showing consistency between the formulations produced. For taste, quadratic model was adjusted, with higher scores for the biscuit with a portion of 15% of eggplant flour in substitution of oat flour. The appearance presented a cubic model, with interference of non-standardization of the biscuits. The use of eggplant flour in food products with the purpose of formulations enriching was shown to be viable from a sensorial perspective, and should be an alternative to increase daily intake of dietary fiber.

  70. Tomoyuki Nishizaki

    The newly synthesized anticancer drug HUHS1015 decreased pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) protein in MKN28 and MKN45 human gastric cancer cells in a treatment time (10-60 min)-dependent manner. The effect of HUHS1015 was clearly inhibited by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. HUHS1015 increased LC3-II, that is required for the autophagosome formation in the autophagic processes, in a treatment time (10-60 min)-dependent manner. PKM2 deficiency induces cell death including apoptosis and activated caspase-3, -4, -8, and -9. Taken together, the results of the present study show that HUHS1015 decreases PKM2 protein due to autophagic degradation, which contributes to caspase activation and apoptosis induction in MKN28 and MKN45 cells.

  71. Amrotus Soviah and Hary Yuswadi

    The production of Arabica coffee in Bondowoso regency generates high value. Coffee productivity has increased every year. Coffee plants are used for flood prevention. Planting arabica coffee is done to re-grow new trees. The high economic value of Arabica coffee has madepeople used to plant Robusta coffee switch to plant Arabica coffee. Management of Arabica coffeeis carried out by the regency government. The research used qualitative descriptive and took place in the district of Ijen. The informants were officers atThe Department of Forestry, officers at Regency Government, officers at Village Government, and farmers. Optimizing policy implementation was carried out in seven ways including; (1) partnership development carried out to empower and increase added value through production, processing, quality and marketing, institutional activities; (2) providing market access for farmers; (3) providing access to capital; (4) fostering and supervising production and quality; (5) management of coffee plant cultivation; (6) implementation of harvest and post-harvest; and (7) grants of machinery, fertilizers and seeds. The results of farmers’ coffee productions have led to their enhanced prosperity.

  72. Dr. Varsha S. Zanvar and Pradnya Dhutmal

    A study was conducted on assessment of hematological status of selected women of Nanded district of Marathawada region of Maharashtra state. A study was combination of anthropometry, food and nutrient intake, hemoglobin status and intervention program .Total 300 households were selected to record anthropometric measurements and food and nutrient intake. Diet survey was carried out by 24-hour recall method. Intervention study was carried out for a period of 90 days on selected 75 household women who were suffering with anemia i.e based on the HB content of women. Subjects belonging to experimental group received developed product, experimental control group neither received tablet nor product and normal control group received tablet. After the feeding trail was over the blood sample was collected with the help of trained personnel. The collected blood was immediately analyzed for HB, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC content. The result showed that the mean height and weight ranged between 148.2 to 150.80 cm and 43.55 to 49.57 kg. Whereas women belonging to almost all group recorded normal BMI i. e. 19.02 to 21.10. The mean food intake of i.e. cereals, pulses, green leafy vegetables, root and tubers, other vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products, fats and oil and sugar and jaggary was ranged between 277.58±25.80 to 290.64±63.00, 38.29±9.97 to 41.22±9.12, 20.15±13.2 to 30.85±13.27, 21.47±8.09 to 22.52±9.33, 39.38±15.13 to 40.86±14.04, 2.46±8.48 to 11.16±14.64, 57.5±14.87 to 68.87±17.82, 17.26±2.74 to 20.33±1.21 and 20.00±00 to 20.45±1.43 respectively. Fruits intake was very low than the other food groups. Whereas mean intake of different nutrients were energy (1975.23±222.18 to 2053.11±164.27), protein (44.99±4.89 to 46.84±6.70), fat (24.26±8.87 to 35.30±11.65), β-carotene (1422.85±637.59 to 1553.13±931.03), ascorbic acid (36.97±6.02 to 39.10±6.93), calcium (390.79±83.07 to 441.22±61.93) and iron (19.78±2.06 to 21.34±61.96) respectively. More than 50 percent (54.66%) rural women showed mild grade of anemia i.e having Hb level (10-12gm/dl) and 33.33percent rural women showed moderate grade of anemia having Hb level (7-10gm/dl). However urban women showed mild grade of anemia (30.66%). The experimental women exhibited 2.95 percent increment for hemoglobin. Mean values of RBC and MCV were improved by 0.44 percent and 4.00 percent. The highest increment was noted with respect to MCH content (23.67 percent) followed by MCVC (14.89 percent).

  73. Shardendu and Niraj Kumar

    Bihar state (Part of eastern India) is a part of Bengal Delta located at 85º 32’ E and 25º 11’ N latitude of the earth. This region is less industrialized and 70% of the people are dependent for their livelihood on agriculture. The major source of irrigation is contaminated underground water, so form of Arsenic passes through food chain to human beings. This is through both primary and secondary production. Chakraborti et. al., 2004 had reported adverse effect of Arsenic in the form of skin lesion and neurological disorder from the people of Simaria ojha-patti(a village) of Bihar state. B.licheniformis DAS-2 also degrades the different types of waste product and shows both reductase as well as keratinolytic activity. The above enigmatic property of this rhizospheric bacteria is that it converts more toxic form of pentavalent Arsenic (AsV) such as arsenate to less toxic form of trivalent Arsenic (AsIII) called as arsenite because it secretes an enzyme arsenate reductase. Although this bacterial strain also shows keratinolytic properties. It degrades the the keratin containing animal waste product such as feather, hairs, hoofs, Nails etc. Since keratin protein is essential for the making cosmetics, leather industry. Feather waste is a major animal food stuff polluted the environment that is degraded by B.licheniformis DAS-2. Eventhough it is mesophilic, gram positive, nonpathogenic, rhizospheric in nature but it shows above unique properties. So this is the novel characteristics of this bacterial strain. Soil with long term exposure of As (V) and As (III) may result in this evolution of diverse arsenic resistant strains. Relative abundance of different form (III and V) in the soil is influenced by microbial transformations. Transformation of arsenic in different chemical species might be the best survival strategy of soil bacteria in arsenic contaminated environment. So it may concluded that this bacterial strain involved in enigma of toxic environment.

  74. Eyouléki Tcheyi Gnadi Palanga, Koffi Sagna, Adekunlé Akim SALAMI and Koffi-Sa Bedja

    This article raises the importance of the use of ICT in the management of citizenship and especially the identification of the individual in a lineage based on biometric elements. To do this, we propose a modeling platform of the family tree that associates the blood group and an inherited disease, sickle cell disease. These two elements are typical examples used to identify a descendant or establish the descent of an individual in ancestry or descent. These elements can be known at the birth of an individual and mentioned in his personal file in the construction of the family tree. They would be able to prove at this stage his filiation with his ancestry already knowing the similar information of his ascendants. This same information could also be very useful for medical services, documentation or police and serve a variety of purposes.

  75. Magdiel Marcos Oliveira Guimarães, Desaine Munis Santos Leite Guimarães, Flávio Costa Fernandes, Iaggo Raphael David, Stenio Fernando Pimentel Duarte and Rafael França Andrade

    Water as drinking water is the essential and important element for health. For this reason, it is essential to evaluate its quality through physical-chemical analysis, especially in rural areas where this process is more difficult to perform. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical parameters of drinking water in the village of Matinha, rural area of the municipality of Vitoria da Conquista, and to compare them with the parameters established by the Consolidation Ordinance nº 5/2017. Three water collection points were evaluated (P1 = source 1, P2 = source 2 and P3 = community reservoir). The physical-chemical parameters evaluated were: Hydrogenionic potential, electrical conductivity, total solids dissolved, turbidity, alkalinity, edurity. The materials used were conductivity meter, conductivity meter with STD meter, pH meter, turbidimeter and glassware to analyze electrical conductivity and electrical resistivity, total dissolved solids, pH and temperature, turbidity and total hardness, respectively. The method used was based on the Manual of Procedure for Sampling and Physical-Chemical Analysis of Water of 2011. After analysis, the results presented acidic pH for the springs and neutral for the reservoir (P1 = 5.54, P2 = 5.66 (P1 = 108.7 μS / cm, P2 = 112.0 μS / cm and P3 = 151.3 μS / cm), the STD and the P3 = 6.20), the electrical conductivity presented above that preconized by the (P1 = 26mg / L, P2 = 23mg / L and P3 = 39mg / L), respectively (P1 = 55mg / L, P2 = 55.5mg / L and P3 = 77mg / L) . The turbidity was of P1 = 5.94 uT, P2 = 1.93 uT and P3 = 2.79 uT, and the hardness presented hard water to the spring and moderate hard to the reservoir (P1 = 220 mg / L, P2 = 148mg / L and P3 = 52mg / L). However, the water consumed through the spring and the community reservoir is suitable for human consumption in relation to the parameters evaluated.

  76. Dr. Konika Razdan Dr. Jamwal, V.S. and Pathania, S.S.

    Background: Dengue fever is a serious public health problem in terms of its morbidity and mortality as it is reported from almost all countries and is endemic in the tropical countries. The present study is a hospital – based retrospective study in a district hospital which aims to describe the frequency, distribution of dengue fever based on the variables such as age, sex and year. Out of 350 reported cases of dengue, 72% were males and 28% were females. In both males and females, the high proportion of cases were reported in adult age groups (>20 years). Conclusion: More cases of dengue fever were reported in the adult age group (20 years and above) and in males compared to low age groups (<20 years) and Females. It highlights the involvement of work component in the occurrence of disease. Community-based action program is required for source reduction activities in the outdoor area for arresting the breeding and multiplication of Aedes mosquitoes and thereby to reduce the morbidity and mortality of dengue fever.

  77. Dr. Hana’a Ali Niamah Al-Janabi

    Background: Implanon is a subdermal contraceptive implant involves the delivery of a steroid progestin (68 mg of etonogesterel) from a single rod placed under the skin at the inner side of the non-dominant upper arm and the hormone diffuses out slowly at a stable rate providing contraceptive effectiveness for 3 years. Advantages of Implanon includes long term contraceptive action without requiring the user's or provider's attention, low dose of highly effective contraception without use of estrogen and fertility is readily reversible after the removal of implant. Objectives: to assess contraceptive efficacy, safety and acceptability of Implanon. Materials and methods: the study was conducted in Iraq- Al-Samawa and Al- Diwaniya maternity and pediatrics teaching hospital, family planning clinics and privet clinics from the period of October 2012 – October 2014 that includes 41 sexually active women 18-45 years seeking for contraception with normal menstrual cycles, no history of ischemic heart disease or stroke and no history of breast or genital tract malignancy. Results: contraceptive efficacy of Implanon was 98% over 2 years follow up and the most common adverse experience was abnormal bleeding pattern in 100% of women, as amenorrhea affects 51.22%, infrequent bleeding 26.82%,prolonged bleeding 12.20% and metromenorhagia 9.76%.. Discontinuation rate was 2.44% because of menstrual bleeding abnormality. Other adverse experiences after Implanon insertion were weight gain of ≤ 5kg in7.32% after 2 years follow up, acne in 31.71%, mood changes in 21.95% and headache in 12.20%. Conclusions: Implanon is a safe, highly effective and rapidly reversible new method of contraception and the safety profile is acceptable and not essentially different from progestogens in general.

  78. Rongrong Wu, Yongxiang Li, Mingyang Zhang, LiliXue, Zhen Zhou, Li Shen and Jimin Gao

    To study the protective effects and associated mechanisms of curcumin on hepatic fibrosis disease in rats. Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, a model group and a curcumin group. The control group was fed a normal diet, the model group was administered CCl4 in combination with a high fat diet to induce a hepatic fibrosis model, and the curcumin group followed the methods of the model group but was orally administered curcumin starting at 10 weeks. After 14 weeks, the effects of curcumin on lipid accumulation, hepatic fibrosis gene expression and Smad-3 activities were evaluated by biochemical analysis, HE-staining, quantitative real-time PCR and western blot.Curcumin treatment significantly alleviated the serum liver fibrosis index, hepatic steatosis, fibrosis and cell necrosis in CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis rats. Moreover, curcumin reduced the mRNA levels of collagen I, α-SMA, and Smad3 as well as the levels of α-SMA and Smad3 proteins in the hepatic fibrosis livers. Curcumin was effective in preventing CCl4-induced increases in hepatic fibrosis. The effect was related to decreased lipid deposition, and it relieved liver fibrosis via inhibiting the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in the hepatic fibrosis livers.

  79. Suriya Gubendiran, K., Karuna Moorthi, R. and Nandhini, C.

    The real world application is mainly depends on Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs).The Data Collection Scheme is the major task used in WSN. In Earlier system The Velocity Energy-efficient and Link-aware Cluster-Tree (VELCET) scheme and dynamic clustering scheme is used for data collection in WSNs. The VELCET scheme failed to mitigate the problems of coverage distance, mobility, delay, traffic, tree intensity and end-to-end connection. On the other hand the VELCT select the cluster head statically. Then the dynamic clustering used to select the cluster head dynamically. At a certain amount of time, the clustering changes the cluster head dynamically. The Data Collection Tree (DCT) is useful to gather the information and based on the information tree formation is initiated. The dynamic cluster head is created from the tree information in the cluster. The Proposed scheme decrease the energy exploitation, end-to-end delay and traffic in cluster head in WSNs by effective usage of the DCT. Adding security to dynamic protocols is challenging because they dynamically, randomly, and periodically rearrange the network’s clusters and data links. Therefore, providing steady long-lasting node-to-node trust Relationships and common key distributions are inadequate for dynamic CH protocols. The proposed system uses the concept named SNCAHDA (Securing Node Capture Attacks for Hierarchical Data Aggregation). The key idea of SNCAHDA is it does not changes from static CH to dynamic CH rather it maintain the processing center for each static CH. In case of failure of static CH the processing center acts as a backup device and provides the data without network or node failure. This scheme also authenticate the encrypted sensed data, by applying digital signatures to message packets, which are efficient in communication and applying the key management for security.

  80. Monica, V., Kalai Selvi, T. and Arun, C.M.

    Due to limited resources and scalability, security protocols for Internet of Things (IoT) need to be light-weighted. The cryptographic solutions are not feasible to apply on small and low-energy devices of IoT because of their energy and space limitations. In this paper, a light-weight protocol to secure the data and achieving data provenance is presented for multi-hop IoT network. The Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) of communicating IoT nodes are used to generate the link fingerprints. The link fingerprints are matched at the server to compute the correlation coefficient. Higher the value of correlation coefficient, higher the percentage of secured data transfer. Lower value gives the detection of adversarial node in between a specific link. Data provenance has also been achieved by comparison of packet header with all the available link fingerprints at the server. The time complexity is computed at the node and server. Level, which is O(1). The energy dissipation is calculated for IoT nodes and overall network. The results show that the energy consumption of the system presented in this paper is 52 mJ to 53 mJ for each IoT node and 313.626 mJ for the entire network. RSSI values are taken in real time from MICAz motes and simulations are performed on MATLAB for adversarial node detection, data provenance and timecomplexity. Experimental results show that up to 97% correlation is achieved when no adversarial node is present in the IoT network.

  81. James Konya Akhwaba, Omondi Bowa and Peter Keiyoro

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate influence of leadership skills on execution of fibre optic infrastructure implemented by mobile telecommunication and internet service providers in Nairobi County, Kenya. The objective of the study wasto determine how leadership skills influence execution of fibre optic infrastructure. The research design that guided this study was cross-sectional survey. The study adopted mixed methods research and pragmatism paradigm approach. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data while interview schedule and document review guide were used to collect qualitative data. Prior to data collection, preliminary testing of research instruments was done using content analysis and test retest principle to respectively ascertain validity and reliability. Census was used to select 187 respondents from a target population of 187 functional staff in fibre optic infrastructure departments of mobile telecommunication and internet service companies through stratified and purposive sampling. The study used summary statistics to analyze descriptive data. Inferential statistical analysis were performed using simple regression and hypothesis tested for significance using F tests. To ensure validity of statistical investigation, tests of statistical assumptions were performed prior to data analysis. With R2 = 0451, β = 0.626, p-value = 0.000 < 0.05, the nullhypothesis, which stated that Leadership skills have no significant influence on execution of fibre optic infrastructure(H01), was rejected and conclusion made that leadership skills have a significant positive influence on execution of fibre optic infrastructure. It was recommended that mobile telecommunication and internet service companies should consider leadership skills when recruiting project leaders. It was also recommended that the companies should develop training programs to improve leadership skills of the current project leaders. The study further recommended that the companies should develop coaching and mentoring programs. This study was delimited to consider the influence of leadership skills on execution of fibre optic infrastructure in Nairobi County, Kenya. It was therefore suggested that more studies should be conducted on other factors that may influence execution of fibre optic infrastructure in Kenya. The study also recommended that additional and comparable studies should be conducted in other counties in Kenya.

  82. Adriana Jaramillo Alcantar, Adolfo Eduardo Obaya Valdivia, Lucila Giamatteo and Yolanda M. Vargas-Rodríguez

    Instructional Design ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation) based on Flipped Classroom is presented, raising the subject “From minerals to metals: chemical processes, usage and relevance” in the Chemistry III subject at UNAM´s Colegio de Ciencias y Humanidades High School. This paper was developed in five stages: initial analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation. During the first phase, previous knowledge and learning style tests were carried out, taking also into account motivation. For the second phase, didactic and educational materials were designed, selected and developed. Subsequently, this was implemented in 2019-I semester in a group of 17 students. When evaluated, didactic efficiency and Hake´s normalized gain were higher than 80%, indicating that the instructional design used influences positively in acquiring concepts, abilities and competencies by stimulating critical thinking, collaborative learning and self-learning.

  83. Gearles Silva Cunha, Iaggo Raphael David, 1Ramon Alves Pires, Stenio Fernando Pimentel Duarte, and Rafael França Andrade

    Understanding the importance of water for human consumption, and the problems related to the contamination that humans cause in them and ends up harming it, this study aims to analyze the physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of the water of three points of supply in the municipality of Anagé in Lindo Horizonte Bahia, comparing with the norms of quality of the 518 portaria of the ministry of health. Without proper treatment and proper care, water becomes a vehicle for disease-causing microorganisms. For the accomplishment of this work three samples were collected, being of the truck kite that and supplies the town, of the rain collected in an appropriate reservoir and of the local dam. The analysis was made with the following physical-chemical parameters: Electrical conductivity, turbidity, hydrogen ionic potential, electrical resistivity, chlorine content determination, total alkalinity, total hardness and dissolved solids content. For the microbiological analysis, the total and fecal coliforms were tested according to the methodology (SMEWW-SM9223). According to the analyzes carried out, the water from the dam is not suitable for human consumption in accordance with current legislation, due to the high turbidity content and the presence of Escherichia coli. The analyzes of the other supply points are also not in adequate drinking conditions according to the parameters required by the legislation. New analyzes can be carried out to reinforce the results obtained and the population should be made aware of the quality of the water being consumed and the importance of the same for the human being.

  84. Senthilkumar, P., Shrihas, R. and Gurkirpal Singh, M.

    Implant-supported fixed restoration is a well-established treatment method for edentulous patients. Long-term clinical studies have shown that this type of restoration can be successful for many years.1-3Full-arch rehabilitation, a term used by many practitioners, has become a popular restorative option in dental settings. There have been many reports in literature on the use of full-arch4-5, fixed implant-retained prostheses. While planning for implant in maxilla and mandible, the quality of bone, ridge proximity to the maxillary sinus and the inferior alveolar/mental nerve position has to be assessed and implant has to be placed keeping in mind these anatomic factors. We hereby describe a case of edentulous maxillary and mandibular atrophic ridge that was treated with bilateral direct sinus lift surgery, bone graft placement, bilateral inferior alveolar nerve repositioning and all on 6 implant placement

  85. Senthilkumar, P., Shrihas, R. and Gurkirpal Singh, M.

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the salivary glands is an uncommon type of monomorphic adenoma. It derives its name from the basaloid appearance of tumor cells and accounting for 1-2 % of all salivary gland epithelial tumors. It’s most frequent location is the parotid gland, followed by the upper lip; while it is very rare in the minor salivary glands. It usually appears as a firm and mobile slow-growing mass. Histologically, it is seen as nests of isomorphic cells and interlaced trabeculae with a prominent basalmembrane. There is also slack, hyaline stroma with absence of a myxoid or chondroid component. In this article, a case of basal cell adenoma of palate with 6 month follow up has been discussed. This report emphasizes the rare site of occurrence of this tumor and briefly reviews the literature.

  86. Senthil Kumar, P., Gurkirpalsingh, M., Selvakumar, S., Damotharan T. and Rukmini, S.

    Ameloblastic fibroma is an extremely rare, true benign mixed odontogenic tumor with male predilection that can occur in either mandible or maxilla but most frequently found in posterior region of mandible. It usually occurs in first two decades of life. It exhibits both epithelial and mesenchymal components. This lesion was previously considered to be benign lesion with very limited recurrence rate and malignant transformation.

  87. Alharazi Majd, Almalki Nouf, Alhabashi Hutaf, Felemban Rahaf, Qasim Raghad, AssasAsala, Hetta Reham, Hafiz Lubna and Alhindi Yosra

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is considered an epidemic disease in the gulf countries. Its prevalence in Saudi Arabia is becoming the highest in the world affecting around 30% of adults (1), (3). Indeed, diabetes is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, management of diabetic dyslipidemia, a well-recognized and modifiable risk factor, is an essential factor in the multifactorial approach to prevent CVD in individuals with type 2 diabetes (4). Several meta-analyses studies have clearly shown the benefits of statin therapy (3). Aims: To assess the results of the prescription of simvastatin for patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 168 diabetic patients was conducted in Hera General Hospital. Data were retrieved from medical records from January 2018 until December 2018. Data analysis was performed using Ecxelsoftwares. Results: Most of the sample population (95%) was older than 40 years old. Nearly all patients (97%) were on statin treatment. The treatment goal for LDL-c <2.5 mmol/l was achieved in 42 (21%) patients. Diabetic men were more likely than diabetic women to be given a prescription for a statin (P<0.05). Conclusion: Data from 2018 elucidate that diabetic patients at HGH were associated with a statin prescription. However, only a small proportion of patients with diabetes reaches the LDL-c treatment target. These results emphasize the need for better monitoring, better utilization of available medication and for new treatment options for a better quality of life.

  88. Noura Saud Alshammary, Sulafa Tarek Alqutub, Iman Mohmad Wahby Salem and Manahil Nouri

    Background: Obesity is not just an individual’s problem but a public health issue. The healthy eating habits that are acquired in early childhood contribute to similar habits later in life and influence adult health. Therefore, young children are particularly at risk for obesity because they are fully dependent on adults for their nutritional needs both at home and school environment. Objective: to evaluate differences in eating behaviors according to children’s weight, gender, age and parents’ weight at public kindergartens in Jeddah city in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in public kindergartens in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia, from October to November 2018. The Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) was used to assess eating behaviors. Measurements for height and weight were taken twice for each child and the average was used. Results: Parents of 198 children completed the questionnaire, 81.3% of children were normal weight, while 8.6% were obese. In terms of gender, the emotional undereating (EUE) was the only subscale that showed statistical difference between boys and girls, boys had a higher score (3.22 ± 0.79) than girls (2.91 ± 0.76) with p value< 0.001. It was observed that children with excess weight had higher scores at the subscales “enjoyment of food”, p value < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that children in this sample had marked obesogenic-eating behavior that are related with excess weight as well as parental weight, this behavior is considered as modifiable risk factors that needs early interventions to eliminate obesity related risk factors.

  89. Dr. Ritoban Saha Bhowmick, Dr. Sumit De and Prof. Dr. Samiran Ghosh

    Condylar fractures are the most common fracture site of mandible. open reduction and internal fixation(ORIF) provides better outcome to those of conservative treatment for displaced condylar fractures. The risk of facial nerve palsy is one of the main Post-operative complications to ORIF. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of TMAP approach in terms of rate of facial nerve injury (FNI) when performing (ORIF) of mandibular condylar fractures in comparison to other extraoral surgical approaches.

  90. Jaideep Poonia, Gunjan Soni and Manak Gujrani

    Introduction: Pleural effusion is one of the most commonly encountered clinical conditions in pulmonary practice. In India common causes of pleural effusion are tuberculosis, Para pneumonic effusion, malignancy, congestive heart failure, renal failure, connective tissue disorders and pulmonary embolism. As many as 15–20% of all pleural effusions remain undiagnosed at various level despite intensive effort. To solve the dilemma of these undiagnosed cases of pleural effusion, we have two options in the form of closed pleural biopsy (CPB) and thoracoscopic pleural biopsy (TPB). So this study is planned to compare the diagnostic yield, safety of either technique. Material and methods: This was a hospital based prospective interventional study. It was carried out from JAN 2018 to DEC 2018 at tertiary care hospital & medical college (Department of Respiratory Medicine of Sardar Patel Medical college) Bikaner, Rajasthan. We have taken 100 cases ( age 18 to 70 years) reported to Department of Respiratory Medicine for undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion. Initial closed pleural biopsy was done on these patients. Patients with negative initial closed pleural biopsy was randomized into two groups, Group A and Group B. Group A has been subjected to closed pleural biopsy with Abrams needle and four to six biopsy specimens has been taken. Group B was subjected to Medical Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy. Diagnostic yield of both procedures was calculated and comparison has been done with the help of appropriate statistical tools and conclusion has been drawn. Results: In our study, diagnostic yield of medical thoracoscopy

  91. Prachi Dixit and Dr. Usha Gupta

    Background: Persistent exposure to the chlamydia infection results in chronic inflammatory response and increases the risk of tubal damage. Although a few studies have been conducted correlating previous chlamydial infection with laparoscopic findings for TFI no such study has been done from the Indian subcontinent, Methodology: 150 women attending the Gynecology outpatient department of Lady Harding Medical College for female factor infertility were enrolled in the study. Estimation of chlamydial antibodies in blood was done for IgG, IgA, and IgM by commercial ELISA kit. Indirect ELISA technique was performed in house to detect IgG antibody against cHSP60. Laparoscopy was done in all these patients to determine the incidence of TFI and to relate it to seroprevalence of Chlamydia. Further the different chlamydial antibodies were related to the TFI Observations and results Out of 150 patients total of 62 patients were found chlamydia antibody positive. The type of Chlamydia antibody found in 62 Chlamydia positive patients, was IgM antibody in 28(45.1%), IgG antibody in 20(32.2%) and IgA antibody in 14(22.5%) patients. On studying the laparoscopic findings in 62 Chlamydia positive patients it was observed that there were 43(69.3%) with TFI as against 19(30.7%) patients who did not have TFI. When Chlamydia antibody negative patients were correlated with TFI it was found that out of 88 patients 44 had TFI and 44 had NTFI. When the prevalence of type of Chlamydia antibody was studied in TFI and NTFI it was observed that there was no significant difference in the IgM antibodies, which is a marker of recent infection, between TFI and NTFI being 16(57.1%) and 12(42.8%) respectively. On the other hand IgG and IgA antibodies which are observed to be marker of past and persistent infection were significantly higher in patients of TFI as compared to NTFI. IgG antibody against cHSP60 was found to be positive in 29 out of 62 Chlamydia positive patients. Only 1 of the patients who was positive for IgM antibody was also found to be positive for cHSP60 antibody. On the other hand, out of 25 IgG positive patients 19(79.2%) tested positive for cHSP60 antibody while 100% patients of IgA antibody were positive for cHSP60 antibody as well Conclusion In the present study the best antibody which could predict tubal damage accurately was observed to be IgA. Other antibodies IgG and cHSP60 also had strong association with TFI therefore they can also be considered good markers for predicting tubal damage in an infertile patient. These patients should have early diagnostic laparoscopy without delay for optimum management.

  92. Ajendra Suresh, Isha Thakur, Ramamurthy, T.K. and Satheesha Reddy, B.H.

    Aim: The objective of this study was to compare Radiovisiography (RVG) with Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in detecting periodontal bone loss by comparing measurements of the distance from the cemen to enamel junction (CEJ) to the alveolar crest (AC) and thereby exploring the diagnosticvalues of RVG and CBCT in the determination of periodontal bone loss. Materials and Methods: This study incorporated 50 adult patients having periodontal disease determined by intra oral examination of these patients, standardized digital intraoral periapical radiographic images and CBCT images were obtained. The images thus obtained were analyzed by a single examiner for the distance between the CEJ and AC for selected sites. Statistical Analysis Used: The data collected was subjected to the independent ‘t’ test. Results: Statistical analysis showed statistically significant difference between alveolar bone loss measurements on RVG and CBCT in the following teeth 12,26,34,35 & 47 with a P value of 0.008, 0.015, 0.010, 0.019 & 0.05 respectively, while no statistically significant difference was seen in the remaining teeth with a Pvalue > 0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded from this study that the 2 methods (RVG & CBCT) differ when detecting the distance from the CEJ to AC, with CBCT having a superior image recording capabilities compared to RVG and also allowed for an analysis of the buccaland lingual/palatal surfaces and an improved visualization of the morphology of the defect.

  93. Dr. Soumya L.S., Dr. Anupama S Gopinath, Dr. Karthik Jaya, Dr. Ancy A., Dr. Aruna V P. and Dr. Kanchana Devi, A.

    Mandibular premolars have always been considered as an “enigma to endodontist”. The numerous variation in anatomy of roots and canals are challenging to treat them endodontically. This is a case report presenting with the treatment of trifurcation of mandibular first premolar in the apical third.

  94. Dr. Aman Abrol, Dr. Charanjeet Singh, Dr. AnjulaJain and Dr. Neha Abrol

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of 5% proanthocyanidin-rich extract (grape seed extract [GSE]) and 10% sodium ascorbate on dentin and thereby to evaluate the bond strength and stability of the adhesion of fiber posts to the root canal dentin. Selected thirty extracted human single rooted teeth were decoronated below the cementoenamel junction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. The roots were cut to a uniform length of 14 mm from the apical end. Pulp tissue and predentin were removed and the root canals were obturatedupto achieved working length. Post space was prepared 5 mm short of working length.Then specimens were divided based on the surface treatment of dentin prior to bonding as follows: Group I (n = 10, control): No prior dentin surface treatment; group II (n = 10): Dentin surface pretreated with 5% proanthocyanidin; and group III (n = 10): Dentin surface pretreated 10% sodium ascorbate. Push out bond strength of the specimens was tested using universal testing machine and the data were statistically analyzed.The results showed that the mean push out bond strength values of experimental Group 1 (GSE)(8.30 ± 2.33), Experimental Group(SA) (7.56 ± 2.33) were significantly higher than the mean push out bond strength value in the control group (6.42 ± 2.60).It can be concluded that dentin surface pretreatment with both 10% sodium ascorbate and 5% proanthocyanidin resulted in significant improvement in bond strength of resin composite to deep dentin.

  95. Dr. Luay Hashim Jasim

    Background/aims: To investigate the presence of asymmetrical accommodation in hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia. Methods Accommodation in each eye and binocular vergence were measured simultaneously using a PlusoptiX SO4 photorefractor in 26 children aged 4–8years with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia and 13 controls (group age-matched) while they viewed a detailed target moving in depth. Results Without spectacles, only 5 (19%) anisometropes demonstrated symmetrical accommodation (within the 95% CI of the mean gain of the sound eye of the anisometropic group), whereas 21 (81%) demonstrated asymmetrical accommodation. Of those, 15 (58%) showed aniso-accommodation and 6 (23%) demonstrated ’anti-accommodation’ (greater accommodation for distance than for near). In those with anti-accommodation, the response gain in the sound eye was (0.93±0.20) while that of the amblyopic eye showed a negative accommodation gain of (−0.44±0.23). Anti accommodation resolved with spectacles. Vergence gains were typical in those with symmetrical and asymmetrical accommodation. Conclusion The majority of hyperopic anisometropic amblyopes demonstrated non-consensual asymmetrical accommodation. Approximately one in four demonstrated anti-accommodation.

  96. Naveen Gupta and Shilpi Gupta

    Background: Acute appendicitis is the most recurrent cause of persisting progressive abdominal pain in all ages. However, there is no way to prevent the development of appendicitis, the only way to reduce the morbidity and to prevent the development of appendicitis, is to perform appendicectomy before perforation or gangrene has occurred. Objective-To evaluate and compare the advantages anddisadvantages between laparoscopic appendicectomy andopen appendicectomy in general surgical practice. Methods-A prospective randomized controlled comparative study was conducted in the Department of Surgery in Multi- speciality hospitals in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh from August 2017 to July 2018 a period of One years. Thetotal population group included 100 patients with a mean age of 39 years (Age group between 18-60 years). Epi-info 7 was used for analysis. Results: Patientsbetween 18 years and 60 years of age were candidates for randomization. The study was carried out as an openrandomized single centre study.In the present study patients were not blinded to the surgical technique employed but were equally informedto resume normal activity and work as soon as possible at their discretion. The results show that time to return toheavy work was significantly reduced by the laparoscopic approach. Less pain in the post-operative period was themajor contributing factor. In the present study, laparoscopic appendicectomy was associated with improved cosmesiswhen compared with open appendicectomy (P <0.01). Conclusions: Laparoscopic appendicectomy is a safe procedure with lower morbidity it is also an excellent trainingtool in laparoscopic technique and with enough experience takes no longer than open appendicectomy.

  97. Srishti Tyagi and Naresh Gaur

    Plasma protein-C is a natural anticoagulant in our body & has inhibitory effects on factors V and VIII. Hereditary protein C deficiency is transmitted as an autosomal dominant disorder. In Homozygous individuals it usually manifests as purpura fulminans in newborns whereas heterozygous protein C-deficient individuals are at increased risk for venous thrombosis. We are presenting a case of young male patient with heterozygous protein-C deficiency who experienced right sided hemiparesis due to cranial venous sinuses thrombosis without underlying major risk factors. Cerebrovascular accidents in young without underlying major risk factors should be evaluated for thrombophilia including protein C deficiency.

  98. Anil Gupta, Simran Preet Singh, Navdeep Singh and Mohinder Singh Chib

    Introduction: Various treatment modalities are available but no consensus has been reached for optimal treatment of lateral third clavicle fractures. Precontoured locking plates with broad lateral end for multiple screws fixation is a newly designed plate for lateral third clavicle fractures. The objective of our study was to analyse the functional outcomes as well as complications of this technique in a significant number of cases with long follow-up duration. Materials and Methods: Forty-six patients with distal third clavicle fractures were treated by precontoured clavicular locking plate with broad lateral end. Functional outcomes were assessed on the basis of Constant-Murley Shoulder Outcome Score and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Rating Score, active shoulder range of motion, time for fracture union and coraco-clavicular distance. Results: The mean Constant-Murley score was 92.56�4.47 (range: 79-98) for injured side and 96.22�2.23 (range: 90- 100) for normal side with p-Value 0.56. Mean coracoclavicular distance at final follow-up was 10.52�1.13 mm (range 9.7 to 11.7 mm) in injured side and 10.25�0.98 mm (range 9.6 to 11.2 mm) in normal side. Mean UCLA Shoulder Rating Score was 32.55�2.12 (range: 27-34) for injured side and 33.46�1.88 (range: 31- 35) on normal side with p value 0.58. No major complications that necessitated revision of surgery occurred in our study. Conclusion: This newly designed plate seemed extremely useful in successful union of lateral third clavicle fractures, with reduced rate of complications like fixation failures, iatrogenic rotator cuff injury, AC joint osteoarthritis and sub-acromial bursitis, with good functional outcomes.

  99. Anil Gupta, Simran Preet Singh, Navdeep Singh and Mohinder Singh Chib

    Introduction: Although the treatment of choice for unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients has been internal fixation for a long time, several studies have shown mechanical and technical failures. Primary cemented bipolar (PCB) hemiarthroplasty has been proposed as an alternative with some advantages concerning earlier mobilization and minimal postoperative complications. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective cohort hospital-based study conducted at three tertiary hospitals over a period of two years. A total of 98 patients were enrolled in the study, 38 patients treated with Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) and 60 patients treated with PCB hemiarthroplasty. Intraoperative events (e.g. duration of surgery and blood loss), hospital stay, weight bearing, Harris Hip score and post-operative complications were used as predictors of final outcome. Mean follow-up was 13.66±5.9 months in hemiarthroplasty group and 11.8±2.7 months at internal fixation group. Results: The two groups were comparable in age, sex, comorbidity, mode of trauma, and classification of fracture. Early mobilisation was significantly better in hemiarthroplasty (p<0.001) where 93.3% of patients started partial weight bearing on postoperative Day 1, while in the DHS group, 73.7% of patients started partial weight bearing after two weeks postoperatively. At the final follow-up, the mortality rate did not differ between the two groups, but general and mechanical complications were more common in the DHS group. The mean Harris Hip score was better in the hemiarthroplasty group (91.14 vs 74.11). Conclusion: Primary cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty is a safe and valid option in treating unstable intertrochanteric fracture. Although it has been shown to have some advantages over DHS in certain circumstances, lack of randomization and difficulties in standardization of patients and treating surgeon raise a need for more studies with bigger sample size and proper randomization.

  100. Ramija, B.

    Women entrepreneurship has been recognized as an important source of economic growth. Women entrepreneurs create new jobs for themselves and others and also provide society with different solutions to management, organization and business problems. However, they still represent a minority of all entrepreneurs. Women entrepreneurs often face gender-based barriers to starting and growing their businesses, like discriminatory property, matrimonial and inheritance laws and/or cultural practices; lack of access to formal finance mechanisms; limited mobility and access to information and networks, etc. Women’s entrepreneurship can make a particularly strong contribution to the economic well-being of the family and communities, poverty reduction and women’s empowerment, thus contributing to the Millennium development goals. Thus, governments across the world as well as various developmental organizations are actively undertaking promotion of women entrepreneurs through various schemes, incentives and promotional measures.

  101. Abdulbary M. Jasim, Riyadh H. Alzakar and Hanada G. Ahmed

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorders which is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrates, fats and proteins metabolism resulting from defect in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both causing a significant disturbance of water and electrolytes homeostasis. This is a case control study conducted on 150 diabetic patients of both sexes, 87 (58% ) were males and 63 (42%) were females, 50 patients were only on insulin therapy (group 1), 50 patients were only on oral hypoglycemic agent therapy (group 2) and 50 patients were on insulin and hypoglycemic agent therapy (group 3). Renal function test ( blood urea, serum creatinine and serum electrolytes ) were measured for all patients and compared with each other and with 50 apparently healthy control. Regarding the results of renal function parameters, there were higher levels of serum urea (5.43) mmol/L and creatinine (82.3) µ mol in group 3 (p<0.001,p<0.05) respectively, with higher values of S.Na+ (142.36) mmol/L and K+ (5.15) mmol/L in group 2 (p<0.001, p<0.05) respectively, all in comparison with the control group. There was no significant difference in S.urea and S.creatinine level in all groups while significantly higher level of S.Na+ and S.K+ was found in group 2 (p<0.001). A part from significant higher level of S.creatinine in males of group 3 (86.75) µ mol (p<0.001), there was no significant difference in all other parameters between males and females. In group 1 S.urea (6.23) mmol/L and S.K+ (4.96) µ mol were higher in those with 5-10 years of disease duration (p<0.05), with higher level of S.Na+ (145.0) mmol/L in those of < 5 years of disease duration (P<0.05) in group 2, while no significant difference was seen in group 3. Also ultrasonography had shown no significant differences between the patients groups themselves and between them and the control group.

  102. Eugene Iheanacho, PhD

    This study examines the impact financial variablesand economic growth in Nigeria over the period 1981 – 2017 using the classical learn regression this study found indicators of financial variables; credit to private sector and broad money supply triggers economic growth. A unidirectional causal relationship exists amongst them. We recommend as follows that the government should duly make policies that are aimed at increasing the availability of credit provided to private sector. This is because it will aid rational economic decisions that will aim at increasing productivity within the sectors of the economy.

  103. Dr. Shazia Mir, Dr. Sandeep Kaur Bali, Dr. Ankush Jamwal and Dr. Muzamil Gulzar

    Introduction: For successful denture therapy an understanding of the common denture follow up problems and their rectification is important. Studies have shown regional differences in the frequency of occurrence of different denture related problems. The aim of the present study was to find out the frequency of chief denture follow up complaints in the Kashmiri population and their comparison among both sexes. Material and Methods: A survey was conducted in the form of a questionnaire including 136 denture follow up patients. The response was collected, accumulated and analyzed statistically. Results: Based on the survey conducted on 136 denture wearing patients included in the study, pain/discomfort related complaints were highest in occurrence 37.5% closely followed by complaints of retention 27.9%. The esthetics and phonetics related complaints were comparatively less with 17.6% and 16.9% respectively. Female population group had a higher occurrence of esthetic complaints as compared to males. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study it was found that the most common complaints of denture follow up patients were related to pain/discomfort. This study should help the local practitioners to understand the needs and desires of the local population, thereby minimizing failure rates.

  104. John Rick B. Ogan

    This paper is focused on the study of success determinants of homegrown food enterprises in Bacolod City, Negros Occidental. The study utilized the quantitative technique wherein the data was analyzed using different statistical tools such as frequency, percentage, weighted mean, and Chi-square test. Purposive sampling technique was employed to identify the participants of the study. Inclusion criteria were established in the selection process such as the number of years, number of employees, and number of branches. The list of participants was taken from the Business Permits and Licensing Office of the New Government Center of Bacolod City. A total of 30 participants were included in the study. The validity and reliability of the instrument were conducted prior to administering it. The researcher-made instrument underwent validation from five panel of experts and was rated 4.44. Reliability of the instrument was established by calculating Cronbach’s Alpha in the pre-test stage score of the instrument which scored 0.806, thus considered reliable. Findings of the study revealed that entrepreneurial skills were very evidently practiced by business owners, while personal attributes were discovered to be very highly possessed by them. Findings showed that the critical contributing factor to business success was the personal attributes of the business owners. These personal attributes of the business owners include motivation, perseverance, goal orientation, flexibility, determination, tolerance to pressure, energy level, compassion, and ability to communicate. Significantly, the results of the study showed a strong positive relationship between the number of branches to the personal attributes of business owners. Subject Area: Business and Management of chickpea.

  105. Mesfin Balgu

    School counseling service in the secondary school has fall in with numerous challenges due to attitudinal problems of stakeholders in the contemporary schools throughout the globe. The purpose of this study was to identify the present status of counseling in secondary and preparatory schools in Ethiopian context. In line with the purpose, a qualitative – explanatory research design has been used to evaluate the presence status of counseling service in the secondary schools. Generally, twenty-one school counselors and three zonal education officers have been parted in the study by using selective purposive sampling techniques. Counselors have some professional defects in the area of knowledge, skill and practicing of professional counseling services in secondary schools. Professional marginalization and discrimination is a common practice in the secondary schools that in other way hinders the professional growth and advancement of profession. Moreover, attitude towards counseling service, weak promotional ladder in education environment, lack of supervision and coaching, were the genuinely reported problems in the secondary schools. Scientific systems and structure has to be establishing to empower counselors to downgrade the upgrading status of psychological and social pathologies in the contemporary secondary schools. Procedurally and contently structured counseling guideline and counseling text books has be developed to expand counselors knowledge and skills in the secondary schools. On the other hand, universities should revisit their curriculum in how to delivering the courses in psychology and in the way how to rendering community service to raise community mobilization and participation.

  106. Ranjita Devi, Hishey L Bhutia, Razil D. Passah, Gloria I. Wankhar, Bidyapati N. Devi, Heema Kharga, Basanti Sundas , Manisha Syangden, Yankeela Bhutia, Swastika Rai, Kalpana Rai, Neetu Chettri, Karuna Sharma, Bobby Dewan, Shajeena Kirat Rai, Indrani Baru

    Background: Nursing is a health care profession, which focuses on the care of individual, families and communities. The profession which was once an epitome of dedication and devotion, the association with which was considered respectable, is now a remote reality. There is a paradigm shift in the perception regarding the profession. Graduates may perceive nursing as a noble profession but may not consider it rewarding. Understanding the students perception on nursing profession at the beginning and at the end of the programme is very interesting. Objectives : to assess the Perception on Nursing Profession among the first year and final year nursing students, to compare their perception on Nursing profession and to assess their Career Plans after graduation. Methods: Descriptive survey design and a Non-probability convenient sampling technique for data collection was used. After obtaining informed consent from each of the participants, Personal profile were collected using a Structured Questionnaire, a 4 point Likert Scale was used to assess Perception on Nursing Profession and Semi Structured Questionnaire was used for assessing the Career Plans among 177 B.Sc. nursing students in selected nursing institutions of Sikkim. Results: The findings of the study revealed that 100% of the first year and 99% final year B.Sc. Nursing students had a positive perception towards the Nursing Profession. On comparison, both the groups had a positive image on the profession. Majority (92%) among the first year students and majority (83%) among the final year B.Sc. nursing students, were not in favor of changing their profession to non-nursing profession later in life. Conclusion: Considering the students positive attitude towards the Nursing Profession, it can be understood that the future of the Nursing Profession is bright. Though some of the students cited that it is stressful and hectic yet they would not change their profession

  107. Dr. Ankita Bajaj, Dr. Arjun Agarwal, Dr. Cheena Garg, Dr. K. Y. Giri and Dr. Jitendra Kumar diwakar

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity frequently metastasize to the cervical lymph nodes level I II III IV, which are the first site of arrest of tumor cells that have invaded the lymphatic, hence the strongest predictor of disease prognosis and outcome. Case Series A case series of 5 patients who were diagnosed with primary squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity with extensive cervical lymphadenopathy. Conclusions: Lymph node involvement is an important prognostic factor, the rate of lymph node invasion is related to the initial N staging. In the oral cavity tumors, metastatic LNs are most often present in level I II III. Bilateral metastasis is frequently encountered in tumors of base of the tongue Subject Area: oral cancer Keywords: Cervical lymphadenopathy, oral cancer, lymph nodes.

  108. Dr. Gaurav Arya, Dr. Ashish Gupta, Dr. Gaurav Sharma, Dr. Suresh Sharma and Dr. Garvita Dubey

    Saliva is a biologic fluid secreted from the salivary glands in the oral cavity performs various functions such as protection, digestion and lubrication. It is a necessary factor for adequate speech articulation. The environment of the oral cavity is to a large degree created and regulated by saliva. Any disorder and symptoms of any disease can be easily diagnosed from the abnormal secretion of saliva and function. Hence the knowledge of salivary glands, secretion and function is important. The aim of this article is to review the composition, functions and its influence in diagnosis and the orthodontic implications.

  109. Amrutha, B.

    Esthetic concerns about the smile often are the patient’s main reason other than pain for seeking dental care. Esthetic problems in childhood and adolescence can have significant effect on psychosocial development and interaction with peers. A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available in the market for restoring primary incisors. So knowing in detail about the knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician’s ability to make the best choice of selection for each situation.

  110. James E. Archibong

    In 2009, a group of armed jihadists called Boko Haram revolted against the Nigerian government and unleashed terror, deaths and destruction on civilians, mainly in the northeast of the country. The Nigerian security forces, backed by a militia, responded with great force. In the attacks and reprisal, war crimes and crimes against humanity have allegedly been committed by all sides. National prosecutions are slow or non-existent, with a handful of detainees facing prosecution in makeshift courts located at military bases. Individuals culpable for the monstrous crimes still elude arrest. The ICC in a preliminary examination identified eight cases of potential war crimes and crimes against humanity in the conflict but has not preferred charges. Amidst this passivity, the victims are yearning for justice. It is recommended that the ICC should augment the initiatives of the Nigerian government by prosecuting the leaders and sponsors of the group, especially those taking refuge outside Nigerian territory. The Court can deploy its expertise and international warrants to secure their arrest and prosecution. For the victims of the conflict, justice is imperative and the assured path to peace, stability and reconciliation.

  111. Waweru Muriithi, Owen Ngumi and Catherine K. Mumiukha

    The regaining of the social and personal competencies lost during the alcoholic’s life is critical in the rehabilitation process and is instrumental in prevention of relapsing back into alcoholism. An understanding of how addiction counsellors characteristics influence the development of competencies among recovering alcoholics is therefore key to their reintegration into society. The range of competencies include specific skills and abilities to general constructs such as self-esteem that reflect an improved adjustment to deal with issues in the family, school, work and in society at large The study adopted behavioural, Adlerian and person centred theories for its theoretical framework. The study employed the ex-post- facto correlational research design with an accessible population of 202 recovering alcoholics and 81 addiction counsellors in 17 rehabilitation facilities in Central and Nairobi regions employing the 12 step facilitation approach. Census sampling method was used for the addiction counsellors with the entire population participating in the study. A sample size of 134 respondents calculated using Yamane simplified formula was used for the recovering alcoholics. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire for the recovering alcoholics and addiction counsellors. The instruments were validated and adjustments done after the pilot study, while reliability was determined using the Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient at 0.860. The data was analysed using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Pearson correlations were used to test the relationship between the dependent variable (recovering alcoholics competencies) and the independent variable (addiction counsellors characteristics). Addiction counsellors characteristics were established to be statistically significant at p=0.000<0.05 with a strong positive association (r=0.649). The study recommends the need for rehabilitation centres engaging addiction counsellors’ with better understanding of the rehabilitation process as well as strengthening counselling services in an attempt to improve recovering competencies of the alcoholics in their facilities.

  112. Arunoday Kumar, Dharmendra Kumar Sinha, Ashish Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, Barun Kant and Shishir Kumar

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the RRR in terms of Height, width and inter-arch space for men and women of Manipur on anti-oxidant rich and anti-oxidant deficient diet. This study also aimed to evaluate the relative percentage of RRR after 6 months of tooth extraction in men and women of Manipur on anti-oxidant rich and anti-oxidant deficient diet. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 edentulous patients (30 male and 30 female) with age range of 50-60 years were included in this clinical trial which was completed in four phases (clinical and radiographic diagnosis, surgical extraction of grade III mobile teeth, OPG on the day of extraction and bone level measurement phase, OPG in the 6th month after extraction and bone level measurement phase). The eligible patients were randomly allocated in two equivalent groups of 30 participants each per group. The allocation was in 1:1 ratio via randomized chit method. Group I included the case group, that is patients on anti-oxidant rich diet, and Group II included the control group, that is anti-oxidant deficient diet. A total of 60 conventional complete denture were fabricated and delivered one month after extraction and were divided into Group I and Group II in the ratio 1:1. Digital OPG were used for measuring the bone level in terms of height, and bone mapping to know the width and inter-arch space was measured at mandibular 1st molar area immediately after extraction and in the 6th month of follow up after tooth extraction and data was collected. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that in Men and women on Antioxidant Rich diet, there was not much of significant difference in the Residual alveolar ridge resorption when compaired between the 1st day and 6th month of edentulism (p> 0.05) whereas Residual alveolar ridge resorption was significant (p< 0.05) for the Men and women on Antioxidant Deficient diet. Residual Aveolar Ridge Resorption in Men and Women after 40 years of age is minimal, because of their high antioxidant rich diet (beta carotene and ellagic acid) which prevents alveolar bone resorption and promotes bone remodelling after tooth extraction. Women though on menopause after 40 years of age, the Residual Ridge Resorption was minimal because of their antioxidant rich diet and Vice versa. Statistical analysis also revealed that there was not much of significant difference in the percentage of ridge resorption (in the 6th month of edentulism) when compared in Male and Female patients of Manipur (p> 0.05). Both sexes reacted equally to the Residual Ridge Resorption.

  113. Dr. Arti Khurana

    Background: HRCT with its excellent imaging quality and the ability to eliminate bone and soft tissue, is the best method for evaluating the mastoid air cell system. It helps in accurate assessment of pathology prior to surgical exploration regarding location, extent and complication of the disease. HRCT is now established as the most useful and versatile procedure for showing bony detail in the petrous pyramid, soft tissue abnormalities in the middle ear and the extension of the disease into the cranial cavity. Objective: The objective of the study is primarily to understand the capability of HRCT in diagnosis and detection of pathologies of the temporal bone. Methods: The study was conducted in 60 patients with symptoms of mastoiditis, in the department of Radio-Diagnosis and Imaging in co-ordination with the department of Otolaryngology GMC Jammu. Contiguous 0.5-1mm thick slices were obtained using an ultra high algorithm in the axial axis. Coronal images were obtained perpendicular to the axial plane from the cochlea to the posterior semicircular canal. Intravenous contrast were administered wherever necessary to study for intracranial or extracranial extension of middle ear disease. Results: In our study population, age of patients ranged from 7 years to 64 years. There were 40 males ( 66.5%). There were 20 (33.5%) females. Male to female ratio of study population was 2:1. Patients with infections (n=36), cholesteatoma was seen in 20 cases and mastoiditis was seen in 9 cases. Combination of both cholesteatoma and mastoiditis was seen in 7 cases. Total 27 cases of cholesteatoma (20+7) and 16 cases of mastoiditis (9+7) were seen. HRCT diagnosed opacified mastoid air cells were seen in 16 cases however only 8 cases with associated cholesteatoma were operated and 8 cases of mastoiditis alone were treated conservatively. Conclusion: HRCT produced high quality images of soft tissue lesions in air spaces. HRCT has outdated the conventional modalities of investigations by providing better soft tissue contrast and is ideal for evaluation of Temporal Bone lesions.

  114. Dr. Arti Khurana

    Background: HRCT with its excellent imaging quality and the ability to eliminate bone and soft tissue, is the best method for evaluating the mastoid air cell system. It helps in accurate assessment of pathology prior to surgical exploration regarding location, extent and complication of the disease. HRCT is now established as the most useful and versatile procedure for showing bony detail in the petrous pyramid, soft tissue abnormalities in the middle ear and the extension of the disease into the cranial cavity. Objective: The objective of the study is primarily to understand the capability of HRCT in diagnosis and detection of pathologies of the temporal bone. Methods: The study was conducted in 60 patients with symptoms of mastoiditis, in the department of Radio-Diagnosis and Imaging in co-ordination with the department of Otolaryngology GMC Jammu. Contiguous 0.5-1mm thick slices were obtained using an ultra high algorithm in the axial axis. Coronal images were obtained perpendicular to the axial plane from the cochlea to the posterior semicircular canal. Intravenous contrast were administered wherever necessary to study for intracranial or extracranial extension of middle ear disease. Results: In our study population, age of patients ranged from 7 years to 64 years. There were 40 males ( 66.5%). There were 20 (33.5%) females. Male to female ratio of study population was 2:1. Patients with infections (n=36), cholesteatoma was seen in 20 cases and mastoiditis was seen in 9 cases. Combination of both cholesteatoma and mastoiditis was seen in 7 cases. Total 27 cases of cholesteatoma (20+7) and 16 cases of mastoiditis (9+7) were seen. HRCT diagnosed opacified mastoid air cells were seen in 16 cases however only 8 cases with associated cholesteatoma were operated and 8 cases of mastoiditis alone were treated conservatively. Conclusion: HRCT produced high quality images of soft tissue lesions in air spaces. HRCT has outdated the conventional modalities of investigations by providing better soft tissue contrast and is ideal for evaluation of Temporal Bone lesions.

  115. Dr. (Mrs.) Nishta Rana and Mrs. Suman Devi

    Emotional Intelligence among B.Ed. students had been observed as important aspects of personality. The study would provide substantial information on B.Ed. students’ emotional intelligence in relation to the academic achievement and gender. Descriptive Survey Method of research has been employed for the present study. Stratified Random Sampling Technique has been used to select a sample of 200 B.Ed. students from four Private Colleges by selecting 50 B.Ed. students from each college. A standardised tool namely Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS) by Hyde, Pethe and Dhar (2007) has been used. The data collected has been analysed by employing Mean, Standard Deviation and t-Test. The present study revealed that most (98.5%) of the B.Ed. students have high level of Emotional Intelligence. B.Ed. students with high academic achievement have been found to be significantly more self-aware, more empathetic, more emotionally stable, more self-developed, more value-oriented, more committed than B.Ed. students with low academic achievement. Overall emotional intelligence of B.Ed. students has been significantly higher in comparison to B.Ed. students with low academic achievement. Similar results have been observed for gender differences in favour of female B.Ed. students.

  116. Solomon Tadesse and Tekalign Assefa

    Ethiopian montane rainforests are economically valuable repositories of biodiversity, especially of wild Coffea Arabica populations, and they are vanishing at accelerating rates. The general objective of this study was to examine the existing sustainable forest management practices, challenges and opportunities in Nono Sele woreda, southwest of Ethiopia. A two-stage random sampling technique was employed to select the 241 sampled households from five rural kebeles. Questionnaire survey, key informants interview, focus group discussions and personal observation were employed to collect primary data. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 23) was used to analyze the data. Results revealed that the major sustainable forest management practice were both indigenous practices namely, Kobo system and other conservation ways includes exercise non-timber forest production, implementation of PFM project, controlling forest fire, creating environmental awareness to manage the natural forests. The findings also indicated that increase demand for farmland, rising demand for coffee prices, lack of management system and weak institutional arrangement were the main challenges to sustainable forest management, while ecotourism, economic benefits, ecological benefit and REDD+ implementation identified as the potential opportunities of sustainable forest management in the study area. Thus, this study suggests that the government should acknowledge and integrate indigenous forest management practice into future sustainable forest management and conservation strategies.

  117. Jyotika Bahl

    Ethics in business decisions has been implied and accepted in all areas of business operations. Social responsibility of corporates had been considered as the ethical domain of business. Over the years the corporates have been responsible for unethical activities like financial and business scams, adulteration of food stuff, climate change, pollution, deforestation and ecological imbalance, etc. These alarming instances of unethical acts by corporates have led to the need for regulation and legislation. This paper focuses on CSR being one dimension of ethical code for corporates to follow and how their failure to comply with this ethical discharge of social responsibility lead to regulation and legislation.

  118. Hong Thi Phuong Bui

    Health insurance is one of the most important types of insurance for students. Without proper health insurance, an illness or accident can put them in a severe health condition and financial situation. The treatment and therapy bills can cause debt problems for whole families. Many factors are influencing to the decision of health insurance purchasing. In this paper, we introduce and examine the impacts of six factors affecting to students' willingness to buy health insurance, including price, quality of health service, payment policy, propagation, the role of the university, the competition with commercial health insurances by surveying with 120 respondents. The paper also determines the relationship between the profile of students and student’s action and the relationship between proposed factors and their willingness to buy. We find that, except the price, remain proposed factors influence significantly the willingness to buy health insurance of students in Thai Nguyen province. Further, the profile of students also affects significantly to their choice and decision. Base on results, we suggest that to improve the willingness to buy, the health insurance companies should improve their quality, extend payment mechanism, improve communication and the roles of university in orienting the purchasing decision.

  119. Dr. Neeraj Mahajan and Dr. Arti Khurana

    Background: Conservative treatment by closed reduction and cast application is the gold standard treatment for tibial shaft fracture in children. Surgical intervention is required in tibial shaft fractures associated with multiple long bone fracture, head injury, unstable tibial fracture, compound tibial fracture, failed closed reduction and cases of compartment syndrome. Titanium elastic nails (TENS) are the ideal implant for paediatric tibial fractures as it maintains alignment and rotation without causing damage to open physis. Method: The present study was conducted in Department of Orthopaedics GMC Jammu on 25 patients presenting with tibial fractures. Paediatric tibial fractures were fixed with two titanium elastic nails through proximal tibia preserving the physis. Results: Twenty five patients were treated with TENS. There were 14 male and 11 female. Commonest mode of injury pattern is road traffic accident. Nail prominence and skin irritation is the commonest complication encountered in 4(16%) patients, delayed union 2(8%), malunion1(4%) and infection at entry portal 1(4%) patient. Evaluation of the results were done were by Flynn criteria. In 17 (68%) patients excellent results were seen, 8 (32%) patients satisfactory results were seen and poor result was not seen in any patient. Conclusion: Titanium elastic nail achieve satisfactory results in management of paediatric tibial fractures in which surgery is indicated. TENS is the treatment of choice in children with compound fractures or soft tissue injuries as it allows rapid healing of tibial fracture with minimal complications.

  120. Wagner Matheus Silva Domingues, Iaggo Raphael David, Stenio Fernando Pimentel Duarte and Luciano De Oliveira Souza Tourinho

    With the approval of law 12.737 / 2012, the crime of invasion of computer devices in Brazil was typified. The approval of the law by the National Congress and occurred after the repercussion given to the subject after intimate photos of the famous actress Carolina Dieckmann, have been released on the internet without his permission. It is a criminal type with many elements open, which need to be limited and clarified for a correct application to concrete cases. The purpose of this study was to analyze the crime brought by article 154-A, and added to the Criminal Code by Law No. 12,737, of November 30, 2012, known as the "Carolina Dieckmann Law", through which it was possible to verify existing ambiguities in the caput of that article, as well as the penalty imposed which does not comply with the principle of proportionality and renders the law ineffective.

  121. Shabir A Shiekh (MD, DM), Zafar A Wani (MD, DM), Mushtaq Ahmad Laway (MD, DM), Shafat Sideeq (MD, DNB) and Majid Khalil (MD, DNB)

    Background: Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs) have revolutionized the treatment of chronic hepatitis-C infection.Genotype-3 is the most common genotype found in India and Kashmir as well and it has the more aggressive nature and leads to increased riskof steatosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Aims and Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety in chronic hepatitis C genotype-3 infection in Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods: An observational, Prospective, Open label, Hospital based study carried over a period of two years. Treatment naïve Chronic Hepatitis-C genotype-3 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided in two groups. Group-A: Non-cirrhotics who received Sofosbuvir (400 mg daily) with Daclatasvir. Group BCirrhoticswho received Sofosbuvir (400mg daily) with Daclatasvir (60mg daily) and weight based Ribavarin. Results:260 patients were enrolled. Both males(n=133) and females(n=127) were almost equal in distribution. We observed 97 % (203/210) SVR12 in non-cirrhoticswho received Daclatasvir plus Sofosbuvir treatment regimen. Cirrhotics who received Sofosbuvir plus Daclatasvir along with Ribavirin observed SVR of 86 % (43/50). All patients tolerated the drug regimens well without any serious adverse effect. Conclusion: Once daily oralSofosbuvir plus daclatasvir based therapy is highly efficient and safe in both cirrhotics and non-cirrhotic hepatitis C patients.

  122. Marcos Rogério Ribeiro Cardoso, Matheus Santos Marques, Iaggo Raphael David and Stenio Fernando Pimentel Duarte

    The elderly presents a more susceptible profile to the multiplicity of chronic diseases, besides the deterioration of their hepatic and renal functions, compromising the metabolism and the excretion of the medicines. However, this article aims to identify the drug interactions in elderly people using polypharmacy registered in a health. The methodology used in this work aims to describe how the study was conducted, as well as the means used to collect the data. This study is an applied research. "An applied research indicates research of practical interest, where its results are solved”. Once the search for ideas and/or thoughts is perfected, this research is exploratory. The questionnaires were preceded by the informed consent form, and applied by the researchers, in a formal and direct way to the users of the health service. Among the 241 patients analyzed, only 160 answered about the drug therapy administered, the remaining 81 patients did not report when approached. The 160 prescriptions showed a total of 357 potency drug interactions, with an average of 2.23 interactions per patient. Another study performed in intensive care unit patients reported a mean of 2.3 interactions per patient, corroborating with the results found, since drug interaction is one of the main variables that affect the therapeutic result and the higher the number of medications administered , consequently the greater the possibility of its occurrence. However, the pharmacist plays a fundamental role in pharmacotherapy, accompanying patients with polytherapy, analyzing each case in order to identify possible health risks by undue administrations and associations of medications, and thus intervene in pharmacotherapy when necessary.

  123. Kouser Benazir and Shazia Ashraf

    Background: Among intravenous agents, propofol has been the drug of choice in view of better safety profile, relaxation and depression of upper airway reflexes. Sevoflurane on the other hand, with pleasant odor, nonirritating to the airways and with bronchodilator property are best among the volatile induction agents. Objectives: To compare the induction characteristics and ease of laryngeal mask airway insertion with halothane and sevoflurane in pediatric patients. Methods: A prospective randomized study of 200 American Society of Anaesthesiologists’ Class I and II patients was conducted equal distribution among two groups with 50 each undergoing gynecological procedures under general anesthesia. Group P received injection propofol and Group S received sevoflurane. Results: Sevoflurane took a longer time for induction and jaw relaxation than propofol. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups, with respect to LMA insertion time, and conditions. Apnea time was more in propofol group. Fall in heart rate and mean blood pressure was more in propofol. Conclusion: Propofol is associated with faster induction while sevoflurane is associated with good hemodynamic stability.

  124. Anderson Das Dores Reis, Eduardo Xavier Freita, Elias Silva Gomes, Estevão Soares De Amorim, Kaique Sousa Dos Anjos, Wilton Guimarães Dos Santos, Carlos Alberto Kelencz and Marco Aurélio Paganella

    The practice of stretching before and after physical activities has been increasingly recommended by Physical Education professionals, as well as physicians and physiotherapists, either for muscle preparation for applied force training in order to prevent injuries or, as they discuss some authors, to improve performance in training. Stretching exercises contribute to increase muscle flexibility and its effects have been exhaustively studied by professionals in the area, with "studies highlighting the influence of muscle warm-up prior to stretching, its influence on sports performance and injury prevention. The research carried out, through the literature review, to identify importance of the stretching for the quality of strength training in bodybuilding to prevent injuries during the practice of physical activity. We will carry out a bibliographical research on the topic of stretching, with descriptors on stretching, bodybuilding, strength training. After analyzing the articles found, it was identified that some authors report that pre and post workout stretching can prevent muscle injuries, increase muscle elasticity and allow for range of motion.

  125. Golam Sarwar Khan and Francis Baindu Essacu

    Ever enduring supremacy of tribal chiefs and presumably the patriarchal authority of men over women in Papua New Guinea (PNG) have still been persisting. This persuasive nature of male dominance in all aspects of family lives in PNG got its primordial values indoctrinated to women’s relegation at all times. The Melanesian society sanctioned this unsolicited female domestic slavery usurped for centuries. Global expansionism and consumerist economic exercises in postmodern states could hardly make any impact on the traditional condiments of customary tribal practices in PNG. Although, there are ample instances of women’s’ domestic slavery in many other societies even with the least or absence of inelegant tribal family traits of ‘male dictate’ over the female folks. The extreme form of gender discrimination has been prevailing in PNG incongruent to the usual trend of liberal attitudes towards women in the developed world. This paper attempts to critically appraise the women’s pecuniary as well as sociocultural status in PNG society alongside tribal specificity. This research is determined based on selected ethnographic accounts covering major provinces/regions of PNG. Basic information enduringly associated with PNG women’s extreme forms of compliance to men are collected through intensive interviews utilizing structured and open-ended questions.

  126. Prakash Yalavatti

    The cooperative banks conduct banking business on principle of cooperation. The success of cooperative banks depends on many factors and one among these factors is employees’ performance. The employee performance has great influence on performance of cooperative banks being unit in service industry. The employee performance is subject to the satisfaction level of an employee’s towards job. The result of research study shows that only some employees of urban cooperative banks are most satisfied on few aspects. The majority of urban cooperative employees are just satisfied with their job.

  127. Dheerendra Kumar Singh, Komal Khatri, Anit Khatri, Pavan Kumar Singh, Sarvjeet Kaur and Soumendu Bikash Maiti

    The present study has been undertaken to determine the most appropriate oral hygiene motivation method (OHMM) for maintaining good oral hygiene during fixed appliance orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods- The study group was divided into four groups in accordance to their OHMM such as- GROUP I. Only verbal information (V). GROUP II. Only written information (W). GROUP III. Demonstration on model (M). GROUP IV. Audio Visual Aids and Self application by the patients (AV). Proper hygiene instructions were then provided and clinical examination was performed (baseline,1st ,3rd ,and 6th month). The examination included recording of Plaque Index (PI) for each sample at each examination. Results: At 1st, 3rd , 6 th months group V had the highest mean PI score while the lowest mean PI score was observed in Group AV and the difference between the groups was significant. Conclusion: The preventive, educational and motivational actions undertaken in this study proved statistically effective in improving the oral health of orthodontic patients. The most effective method is demonstration by audiovisual aids.

  128. Dr. Shibu Puthenparambil and Sruthy S Babu

    Introduction: Depression is an increasingly prevalent public health concern, affecting an estimated 350 million people globally. The 2011 World Mental Health Survey of 17 countries found that approximately one in 20 people have experienced a depressive episode. Depressive symptoms have a considerable impact on mortality risk for suicide and cardiovascular and other diseases as well as impaired cognitive and social functioning. Substantial evidence shows that people living with physical disabilities are at least three times more likely to experience depression compared to the general population. Aim: To study the depressive symptoms present among students with intellectual disability in the age group 10 to 18. Methods: A cross sectional observational study was conducted among 50 sample students with mild to moderate level of disability in Kozhikode district, Kerala using simple random sampling. Result: From the study it was found that out of 50 sample population, 40% have mild depressive symptoms, 32% have moderate depressive symptoms, 16% have severe depressive symptoms and 12% have minimal depressive symptoms. It was also found that about 70% of the sample populations do not have any associated diseases. It was also found that among the participants 64% of the sample population has genetic disability.

  129. Fouzia Haider, Bashayer Matar Quhimea Al-huthali, Reem Ahmed Khalaf Alghuraybi, Ghadeer Jassim Mohammad Zahiri and Wejdan Mustafa bakur Barnawi

    Background: Escherichia coli accounts for majority of community and hospital acquired urinary tract infections in many parts of the world. It has developed resistance against antimicrobial agents and it is necessary to have up to date knowledge of drug resistance pattern for treatment of UTIs caused by this organism. Objective: To determine and compare antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary. E.coli isolated from patients with community and hospital acquired UTIs in Makkah Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This prospective descriptive study was performed for a period of three months. A total of 92 Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples were collected from four hospitals of Makkah. The clinical and demographic information of the patients was collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Isolates were confirmed by using bacteriological methods and API 20E kits. All E.coli strains were subjected to in vitro susceptibility testing using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method as described in CLSI guidelines. Results: The study was performed in patients of all age groups and both the genders. Majority of the patients were in age group1-10 years and 21-30 years in community acquired infections and1-10 years followed by 21-30 years and 70-80 years in hospital acquired infections. A predominance of female patients (73%) compared to male patients (27%) was seen. Majority of the urinary tract infections were community acquired (55%) compared to hospital acquired (45).Over all antibiotic resistance data of 92 isolates showed low to high resistance to all drugs tested (2.17-100%). The highest resistance was exhibited by ampicillin (100%) followed by cephalothin (65.2%) and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (64.1%). The rates of drug resistance for other antibiotics were: cefuroxime 36.9%, norfloxan29.3%, levofloxacin 28.2%, ceftazidime 18.4 %, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 14.1%and cefoxitin 11.9%. Among all antibiotics tested imipenem showed lowest resistance (2.17%). In summary, highest resistance was seen against ampicillin followed by cephalothin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and least resistance was shown against imepenim. Moreover, higher resistance was seen in hospital acquired infections compared tocommunity acquired infections. Very high level of MDR was also seen (60%) among isolates from all the hospitals. Conclusion: This study showed low to high drug resistance of E.coli isolates from various hospitals of Makkah. Alarming rates of MDR among community acquired as well as nosocomial isolates call for continuous periodic monitoring in Makkah region to know the developing resistance pattern which, will help in deciding the most adequate therapy for E.coli urinary tract infections.

  130. Dr. Enas Sami Al- Modaris and Dr. Saba Hashim Mahmood

    Background: ultrasound (U/S) is non invasive technique that used to assest the eye & orbit in opaque ocular media. Objective: Is to assess the validity of ultrasound (U/S) in the diagnosis of different ocular diseases, to study the incidence of posterior segment pathology in eye with advanced cataract and to see whether certain features could be used as predictor for an abnormal posterior segment on U/S. Patiants & method: The study was done in Department of Ophthalmology in AL- Zahrawi Teaching Hospital form (Janu) 2005 to (Sept) 2006, One handred and four patients who were refered for ophthalmoscopic examination; the findings were compared with ocular U/S examination. Result: The total number of patients are 104 patients, 55 males (52.88%) and 49 females (47.11%), their ages range from (5 months- 79 years). 56 patients (53.84%) had negative ophthalmoscopic findings due to dense cataract and 48 patients (46.15%) had positive ophthalmoscopic findings. 82 patients (78.84%) had abnormal U/S findings and 22 patients (21.15%) had normal U/S findings.25 patients (24.03%) had retinal detachment (R.D) alone, 19 patients (18.26%) had posterior vitreous detachment (P.V.D) alone, 15 patients (14.42%) had mixed lesion, 11 patients (10.57%) had vitreous hemorrhage (V.H), 3 patients (2.88%) had posterior staphylloma, 3 patients (2.88%) had retinoblastoma, 2 patients (1.92%) had optic disk cupping, 2 patients (1.92%) had lens dislocation, 1 patient (0.96%) had choroidal detachment and 1 patient had asteroid hyalosis. Conclusion: Ocular U/S is the most important imaging test that evaluates the posterior pole ineye when the ophthalmoscopic findings are negative due to opaque ocular media. Ocular diseases are more common in age group from (60- 69 years) 22patients (21.15%) due to these patients having high risk factors like diabetes mellitus, hypertention…etc. and more common in males 55 patients (52.88%) due to risk of trauma and the commonest ocular disorders are retinal detachment 25 patient (24.03%), posterior vitreous detachment 19 patients (18.26%).

  131. Ahmed A. M. Nasr and Mahmoud Fouad

    Background: Dystocia remains the most common indication for emergency cesarean section especially for primigravidae. As such, it is a major contributor to operative and instrumental intervention. Type of Study: A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 2 spasmolytic drugs, Drotaverine and Hyoscine-N-Butylbromide on shortening of first stage of labor. Setting: Obstetrics and Gynecology Departments of Al-Azhar university hospital (Assiut), Egypt. Patients & Methds: 150 full term primigravidae in labor (cervical dilatation 3-4cm with regular progressive uterine contractions 3-4/ 10 minutes, each lasting for at least 40 seconds) were recruited for this study during the period from June 2018 to december 2018. Patients were divided into three equal groups (50 patients for each). Group I: Received (40mg) drotaverine hydrochloride by slowly IV infusion. Group II: Received (20mg) hyoscine-n-butylbromide by slowly IV infusion. Group III: (control): Received Sterile water for injection (placebo). Results: the rate of cervical dilation was significantly higher in group 1&II compared to the control group; also duration of 1st stages was significantly shorter in the same groups while no significant difference in duration of 2nd stage were present among the 3 groups, the degree of severe pain and the need for oxytocin augmentation doses were significantly lesser in both groups compared to control (p<0.001). The neonatal outcomes in the form of APGAR score was higher and need for NICU admission was significantly lower in group I&II compared to group III. Conclusion: both drugs used in this study have significant effects on shortening of 1st stage of labor with lesser units of oxytocin needed for augmentation with good analgesic effect and good neonatal outcome, however, Drotaverine hydrochloride was better as it was more effective beside it has the strongest labor pain relieve and lesser maternal adverse effects. Recommendations: We recommend using of either drug in enhancing first stage of labor however; Drotaverine hydrochloride is preferable as it is more effective with minimal maternal adverse effects.

  132. Dr. Nayar Islam, Dr. Nilishashukla, Dr. Amyn Chamadia and Dr. Sanket Deolkar

    The Complete edentulous population comprises more than 10% of the adult population, a vast majority of these patients are treated with complete dentures. However, most patients find it difficult to adapt to mandibular denture due to lack of retention and stability. Recent scientific studies carried out over the past decade have determined that the mandibular implant supported over denture as the treatment of choice in the edentulous patient regardless of the most clinical situations and has become the minimum standard of care for most completely edentulous mandibles.

  133. Premalatha, M. and Lakshmi, S.

    This study aimed to determine the antibacterial activity on Carica papaya leaves. The objective of the study uses bacteria to resistant or susceptible characteristic over the phytochemicals obtained from the papaya leaf by applying two different solvent systems. The study also targets the reactive oxygen species antioxidant role of the leaf extracts as a bioactive component in removing off the free radicals with various chemically obtained free radicals by in vitro study by evaluating the capability by absorption spectrum. The activity of the extracts calibrated with its activity upon the bacteria S.aureus by locating the type of phytochemicals present in the extract and its role on the bacteria been studied with studying the fingerprinting by thin layer chromatography.

  134. Muath A.hazmi, Ali Suan Mugrabi, Abutalib Hassan Zarban, Nawaf Omer Hamzi, Mohd Abdu Ayoub Hakami, Nasser Ibrahim Hakami, Wafaa Y. Hagawi, Muhessin Ibrahim Hakami, Yehia A. Maghlat and Ali. H. Muslami

    This study aimed to know the attitude of students at Jazan University towards Khat use in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, an analytical descriptive approach has been used, an electronic questionnaire has been developed to reveal the attitudeof students towards Khat use, The questionnaire was applied to a random sample that estimated about (296) male and female students from the University of Jazan who were using Khat. The study showed that the proportion of male use is more than female use. the main reason for students to use Khat for the first time are the social events that some people exploit to spread such habits, and the current study indicated that male and female Khat users spend a long time of 4-6 hours per day spent chewing Khat. Which thought by respondents it does not negatively affect the academic level, but also it doesn’t increase understanding. Also revealed that the main reason behind addiction to Khatuse is to keep up with friends. However, it revealed that family disintegration is not a motivation for the student to use Khat, and one of the most important reasons that drive students to use Khatis the location of the city of Jizan near the Republic of Yemen. Likewise, the failure to apply punishment to users is among the trends that push students to use Khat. Also, the legal ruling that did not issue a clear ruling regarding the explicit prohibition of khat in some Arab countries is among the trends that motivate male and female students to abuse Khat. Researchers recommended: to eliminate this phenomenon more effort is needed for educating the individual about the danger of Khat on health, strengthen parents monitoring of their behavior and selection of family friends and conducting training seminars that explain the damages Khat, holding sporting events and competitions.

  135. .

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