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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





July 2019

  1. Pallavi R. Baviskar and Vinod R.Patil

    Aim: Pharmacological evaluation of neuro protective effect of Ferulic acid in animal model of neuropathy. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg). Neuropathic pain was assessed in diabetic rats by pin prick method, cold allodynia and hot plate method. Pain was developed at 4th week. At the end of experiment animals were scarified and biochemical changes (Lipid peroxidation, SOD, reduced glutathione and CAT content) in sciatic nerve were evaluated. Animals were treated with Ferulic acid doses (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg i.p) for 4th week. Results: Treatment with Ferulic acid at doses of 50,100 and 150 mg/kg significantly restored the reduced body weight, food, water and elevated blood sugar level. Further the drug Ferulic acid showed dose dependent reduction in pain threshold tested by mechanical, cold and thermal hyperalgesia. The level of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, SOD and CAT content was significantly prevented. The blood serum level on sodium, potassium, urea, uric acid and creatinine content was significant prevented. Conclusion: The result of present study suggests the antidiabetic, antioxidant and neuroprotective property of Ferulic acid in laboratory animals.

  2. Dr. Megh Mehta, Dr. Vilas Pattar and Dr. Aditi Mahajani

    A healthy smile provides a boost of confidence to an individual. Gingival hyperpigmentation is a common complaint among individuals when esthetics is a prime concern. Gingival depigmentation is a periodontal plastic surgical procedure whereby the epithelium is denuded of pigment cells so as to produce a more desirable pink colour of the gums. The current review aims at providing a wholesome knowledge of gingival pigmentation, its physiology, pigments in the human body, classification and treatment modalities available for gingival depigmentation. The authors have introduced a novel classification system taking into account both the etiology and the region affected.

  3. Dr. Abdulrahim Aljayar, Dr. Mohamed Guaila and Dr. Moattaz Aljayar

    Local skin flaps are the best covers for digital soft tissue loss, meeting the goals of reconstruction, in providing adequate stable cover with similar skin quality, preserving adequate tactile gnosis sensibility, functional lengths, and acceptable cosmetic appearance. out of total 94 operated cases, at Aljala teaching trauma hospital and Ebn- Sina private hospital, between (2011 and 2016), are selected to report both objectively and subjectively the functional and cosmetic outcome, using local flap techniques in reconstruction of significant digital soft tissue loss, after an average follow up period of 1 year.

  4. Sidqui, M., Rhattas, S., Chafi, I. and Zerouali, K.

    The condition of the oral and oropharyngeal cavities is inextricably linked to the general health and well-being of an individual. Colonization by pathogenic microorganisms or an imbalance of the physiological microbiome in the oral cavity can play an essential role in the development of biofilms as well as many common oral and oropharyngeal conditions, as diverse as dental caries, periodontal diseases and diseases gingivitis. The objective of our work was to test the efficacy of Eludril ® and Betadine ® on Streptococcus Mitis by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) and to evaluate the action of these drugs. Two molecules face bacterial adhesion on dental surfaces as well as on implant surfaces.The results of our study showed an Eludril® MIC of 0.12 μg / ml and a MBC ® with an interval of [0.25-0.125] μg/ml, the MIC of Betadine was 20 μg/ml with a MBC of one interval. of [40-20] μg / ml. Both antiseptics were effective on bacterial adhesion on enamel surfaces as well as on titanium surfaces, the results also showed the importance of surface characteristics and more specifically the influence of surface roughness on bacterial adhesion. To conclude, the use of mouthwashes with Eludril® or Betadine ®has shown an important role in the fight against the formation of biofilms whatever the surface and an optimal microbial activity against S. mitis strains.

  5. Dr. Muna M. Daood, Dr. Noor-Alhuda A. Jargees and Dr. Marwa Kh. Taha Al-Ameen

    Uterine fibroids, also known as leiomyomas, are the commonest uterine neoplasms. Although benign, they can be associated with significant morbidity and are the commonest indication for hysterectomy. They are often discovered incidentally when performing imaging for other reasons. Usually first identified with USG, they can be further characterized with MRI. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most accurate imaging technique for detection and localization of leiomyomas. On T2-weighted images, nondegenerated leiomyomas appear as well-circumscribed masses of decreased signal intensity; however, cellular leiomyomas can have relatively higher signal intensity on T2-weighted images and demonstrate enhancement on contrast material–enhanced images. Degenerated leiomyomas have variable appearances on T2-weighted images and contrast-enhanced images. The differential diagnosis of leiomyomas includes adenomyosis, solid adnexal mass, focal myometrial contraction, and uterine leiomyosarcoma. MR imaging also has a role in treatment of leiomyomas by assisting in surgical planning and monitoring the response to medical therapy. Knowledge of the different appearances of fibroids on imaging is important as it enables prompt diagnosis and thereby guides treatment.

  6. John Rick B. Ogan

    The study was designed to investigate if there existed a significant difference in the assessment of the level of participation, benefits and challenges encountered in participating community extension program when grouped according to profile variables. A total of 185 were selected as the respondents using stratified proportionate sampling. The study utilized the quantitative technique wherein the data was analyzed using different statistical tools such as frequency, percentage, weighted mean, and Analysis of Variance. The finding of the study revealed that no significant difference existed in the level of participation when grouped according to age. However, a significant difference existed in the problems encountered by the students in terms of funds and location at 0.05 level of significance when grouped according to sex. Further, a significant difference existed in the level of participation (p-value = 0.000); benefits in terms of recognition and appreciation (p-value = 0.013) and personality (p-value = 0.023); and, problems encountered by the students in terms of location (p-value = 0.013) at 0.05 level of significance when the students are grouped according to year level.

  7. Megha Rastogi, Swati Sharma, Abhijit Das, Madhu Sinha, Man Mohan Mehndiratta

    Background: Hepatitis is a serious public health problem worldwide and major causes of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for 40-50% of HCC and 20-30% cases of cirrhosis in India. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection accounts for 12-32% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 12-20% of cirrhosis. Materials and method: It is a prospective study conducted in the department of Microbiology at tertiary care hospital, New Delhi over a period of one year from January 2018 to December 2018.About 5ml of blood was aseptically collected by venepuncture from each subject. All serum samples were tested for HBsAg and IgM anti-HCV by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA).Those samples which were reactive by CLIA were again tested by rapid card test principle of which is immunochromatography. Results: Out of 3566 patients screened for HBsAg,126 patients were reactive to HBsAg, this includes 80 (3.58%) males and 46 (3.46%) females. Out of3524 patients were screened for anti-HCV, 157 patients were reactive to anti-HCV, this includes 96 (4.33%) males and 61 (4.67%) females. The distribution of HBsAg according to age showed that those between 21-30 years had higher prevalence of 7.39% followed by 11-20 years 5.38%, 70-81 years 3.82%, 41-50 years 3.11%, 31-40 years 3.06%, 51-60 years 2.57%, 61-70 years 1.74%, 1-10 years 0%, 81-90 years 0% and 91-100 years 0%.The distribution of anti-HCV according to age showed that those between81-90 years had highest prevalence of 7.41% followed by 31-40 years 4.95%, 51-60 years 5.30%,41-50 years 5.16%, 31-40 years 4.95%, 61-70 years 4.09%,21-30 years 3.75%, 11-20 years 2.16%, 71-80 years 1.57%, 1-10 years 0% and 91-100 years 0%. Conclusion: Keeping in view, the increasing burden of this disease, there is need to increase the public awareness as to how the infection can be prevented by taking simple precautions.

  8. Gazissou R., Adjia Z. A. and Noumi G. B.

    The study concerns the adsorption of methylene blue which is an organic dye by the corn cobs activated at the base powder (BACCP). The analysis of the time parameter allowed us to determine the adsorption equilibrium time which is 15min. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained is 11.904 mg / g at a normal pH of 6.5 and at the temperature of 25 °C. Experimental data are analyzed by the Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. The kinetic model of pseudo second order and Elovich were applied with the correlation coefficients of R2 is more than 0.99. The reactions are made according to the models of pseudo second order and Elovich suggesting the hypothesis that the mechanism of the reactions are done in three phases: • The diffusion of the MB towards the surface of the adsorbent; • The diffusion of the MB into pores ; • The interaction between the adsorbate molecules (MB) and the surface of the adsorbent. And that adsorption sites increase exponentially with adsorption, which implies multilayer adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters have shown that MB adsorption on corn cobs is spontaneous (ΔG˂0), endothermic (ΔH˃0) and physical in nature (ΔH˃50 KJ/mol) (Djidel, 2011) in the temperature range of 298K and 338K.

  9. Fouad El Mejjatti, Rim Ouajdi, Rachid Jabi, Mohamed Mouhoub, Tijani El Harroudi, Ali Sbai and Loubna Mezouar

    Introduction: Paragangliomas(PGLs) are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms originating from cells of the primitive neural crest. Head and neck PGLs represent nearly 20% of all PGLs. Retroperitoneal localisations are rare and represent less than 2% of all PGLs, and are known to be exceptionally nonfunctional. Case report: In this article we report a case of a 46-year-old female who presented, in 2013, a jugulotympanic PGL for which radiotherapy was delivered. In 2016, a second PGL occurred in the retroperitoneum and was completely resected by surgery alone. 6 year follow up showed a stability of the jugulotympanic PGL and no retroperitoneal recurrence. Conclusion: Current knowledge of different management modalities is especially relevant for patients with multicentric PGL. Notably, potential benefits and risks of available treatment options should be taken into consideration for every individual patient in order to provide personalized care. Recently, genetic screening particularly SDH mutations has shown a positive impact in the management of this disease as well as in predicting survival outcomes.

  10. Xi-Xian Lou, Meng-Chu Zhu, He-Ping Lin and Chang Cai

    Objective: To explore the possible mechanism of lentinan in improving the immune function of patients with advanced NSCLC through a variety of pathways related to lung cancer immunity, and to provide a theoretical basis for the improvement of immunity of lentinan and its anti-tumor effect. Methods: The subjects were the same as the Part Ⅰ. The fasting venous blood was taken before and after treatment. The PBMNCs were obtained after PBMNC separation, centrifugation and washing. The expression levels of PD-1 protein, PD-L1 protein, Jak2 protein, Jak3 protein, Stat3 protein, P13K protein, p-AKT protein in PBMNCs were detected by Western blot. The expression levels of PD-1 mRNA, PD-L1 mRNA, Jak2 mRNA, Jak3 mRNA, Stat3 mRNA, P13K mRNA, p-AKT mRNA in PBMNCs were detected by Real-time quantitative PCR. Results: In the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway, the levels of PD-1 protein, PD-1 mRNA, PD-L1 protein and PD-L1 mRNA in PBMNC were significantly lower after treatment (P<0.05). The levels of PD-1 protein, PD-1 mRNA, PD-L1 protein and PD-L1 mRNA in the treatment group were lower than those in the control group. The difference of PD-1 protein, PD-1 mRNA, PD-L1 protein and PD-L1 mRNA before and after treatment was higher than that of the control group. (P<0.05).In JAK/STAT signaling pathway, the levels of Jak2 protein, Jak2 mRNA, Jak3 protein, Jak3 mRNA, Stat3 protein and Stat3 mRNA in PBMNC were significantly lower than those before treatment (P<0.05). Comparison between groups showed combination therapy. The levels of Jak2 protein, Jak2 mRNA, Jak3 protein, Jak3 mRNA, Stat3 protein and Stat3 mRNA in PBMNC group were lower than those in control group. The difference between Jak2 protein, Jak2 mRNA, Jak3 protein, Jak3 mRNA, Stat3 protein and Stat3 mRNA before and after treatment was higher than that of control. Group (P < 0.05).In the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, the levels of P13K protein, P13K mRNA, p-AKT protein, p-AKT mRNA in PBMNC were significantly lower than those before treatment (P<0.05). The comparison between groups showed that the levels of P13K protein, P13K mRNA, p-AKT protein, p-AKT mRNA in PBMNC of the combined treatment group were lower than those of the control group, P13K protein, P13K mRNA, p-AKT protein, p- The difference of AKT mRNA levels before and after treatment was higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Lentinan may improve the immunity of NSCLC patients through PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway, JAK/STAT signaling pathway and PI3K-AKT signaling pathway.

  11. Mrudula Mohanty

    Within hours of the 9/11 terror attacks on New York and Washington D.C., American commentators were already comparing the event to a new ‘Pearl Harbor’. The comparison of September 11 with Pearl Harbor was natural because both were surprise attacks that killed many Americans, but most interesting about it was its implication: that an age of innocence and isolation had passed, and that American invulnerability was gone. Just as was the case after the Japanese attack, September 11 seemed fated to change radically and permanently the degree to which, and the way in which, the United States engaged with the rest of the world. Foreign policy arguably changed direction within days of 9/11 with the most immediate and most obvious change being the shift in focus towards terrorism. The focus had been foreign economic policy under Clinton but 9/11 produced a dramatic movement away from diplomacy and towards military solutions via the War on Terror. This change provides evidence of an immediate shift in US interests and this manifested in foreign policy. As such, this is an extremely important change post-9/11, especially as it emerged out of the first response to the attack and served to dictate US actions abroad for more than a decade afterwards. In this analytical article, the author examines the US foreign policy that changed in some very noticeable ways after the terrorist attacks on American soil on Sept. 11, 2001, most noticeably by increasing the amount of intervention in foreign wars, the amount of defense spending, and the redefinition of a new enemy as terrorism. Yet, in other reflective ways, the author also observes, how the foreign policy after 9/11 is viewed by major researchers as phenomenally a continuation of American policy since its beginnings.

  12. Dr. Pradnya V. Bansode, Dr. Seema D. Pathak, Dr. M. B. Wavdhane, Dr. Darshana Kale

    Laminate veneers are considered highly functional and esthetically indirect restorations that treat unaesthetic anterior teeth with minimally invasive preparation. The more improvement in ceramic material, adhesive luting cement and preparation techniques offer many options for clinicians. The success of veneer cases depends on proper case selection, resolution of initial esthetic issues, patients satisfaction and good integration of a restoration with surrounding tooth and soft tissue. These can be achieved through more focusing on the recent trends in ceramic materials and techniques based on adhesive dentistry, minimal tooth preparation technique which preserve the tooth structure and offer better results.

  13. Ambala Vennela, Ajmera Rama Rao and Ciddi Veeresham

    The quality of herbal products which varies with the time under the influence of environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, moisture, other ingredient or excipient in the dosage form, microbial contamination, adulteration, lack of good manufacturing practices, poor quality control procedures, poor agriculture and post harvesting methods. Therefore qualitative and quantitative evaluation of herbal drugs can serve as an important tool for monitoring the safety herbal formulations. The present study was performed quantitative assay, method development and validation of Boswellic acids using HPLC and HPTLC and also its application in various marketed formulations of Boswellia. Method Validation was performed as per the ICH guidelines. From all the validation parameters it is very clear that the HPLC and HPTLC method developed was sensitive, accurate, precise, linear, rugged, robust, and convenient and it could be applicable for quality control studies of marketed formulations of Boswellia.

  14. Wambui Keiyoro and Prof Peter N. Keiyoro

    The Level of formal education can influence one’s perceptions to causes and approaches to diseases and wellbeing. Communities or individuals who have high level quality education are of tenlikely to seek medical attention and treatment of certain diseases. This is because they are able to read and comprehend instruction hence could even self-medicate and appreciate the need for healthcare. This study investigated how the level of formal education attainment influenced parental health care seeking behaviour among parents whose children were diagnosed with Tungiasisinfection in endemic areas in Kenya. The study adopted a mixed mode research design. A representative sample of 327 parents whose children were diagnosed with Tungiasis were randomly drawn from clusters of households in the administrative wards in Kikuyu Subcounty, Kiambu; Kenya. This was done through cluster simple random sampling. Fifteen clusters were selected through simple random sampling from 25 clusters. This was followed by identifying 384 children who were suffering from tungiasis from these households and questionnaires were used to collect vital data. Response rate was high (95%) because only 12 parents (5%) withdrew from the study. A total of 327 parents of children diagnosed with Tungiasis were selected for the study. For those who were not able to fill the questionnaires, discussions and interviews facilitated qualitative data collection. Apart from the children the gender of the participants were 34.1% males while females were 65.9%. It was found that those with non-formal education were 3.3% (11) of the respondents. The respondents with an undergraduate degree or a college diploma/ Certificate were 42.8% (140) while 40.2% (131) of the respondents did not have any previous knowledge of Tungiasis until they encountered Tungiasis infections at home. The other 59.6% (196) had a previous knowledge of the disease. Majority (43 %) of the respondents admitted getting information about the disease from other secondary sources like the village talk, parents, books, journals and web recourses. The researchers found that the level of formal education attained by an individual influenced medical seeking behavior. The study found that the level of educational increased the visitations to health care facilities that were available in the constituency to seek medical care for children diagnosed with tungiasis infection.

  15. Anita Andriany, Erna Mutiara and Halinda Sari Lubis

    Background: Low back pain is a pain syndrome occurring on the low back regions are the result of a variety of reasons. It is often experienced by those who work with the wrong posture. Based on data known to the high proportion of physiotherapy visits disobedience do physiotherapy in patients LBP (71.7%) in the General Hospital Pirngadi Medan year 2016. Object: To identify relationship between family support and adherence to physiotherapy in low back pain patients. Methods: the research used descriptive correlation quantitative with cross sectional approach. The instrument used questionnaires. Data were taken on 125 respondents with the randomly selected a simple (simple random sampling) and analyzed by Chi-square test, Results: The result showed ratio prevalence 95% CI family support between adherence to physiotherapy were 1,792 (1,031-3,114), and correlated with significantly p=0.046. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between family support with adherence to physiotherapy.

  16. Deribe Debella, Endale Berhanu and Ashebir Bezabih

    Cheating in internal and external examination is by now growing at alarming rate. Thus, the main objective of this study is to investigate the cause and techniques of cheating in examinations in the secondary schools of Wolaita and Dawuro zones. To this end, 4 schools, 12 students, 8 teachers 4 principals were selected. All sample respondents were selected by purposive sampling. Interview and documents were data gathering tools employed to solicit the required information from sample respondents. The study identified the cause of cheating as school, student, teacher and social related while the major cheating techniques as traditional and modern. Finally, the study recommended the concerted action of schools, teachers, students, woreda education department, and civic, social and legal organizations to minimize or if possible, to eradicate the act of cheating in examinations.

  17. Dr. Maria Vasilievna Kushnareva, Dr. Galina Mihailovna Dementyeva and Dr. Elena Solomonovna Keshishyan

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common chronic lung disease in premature babies, especially those with very low body mass. Being a multifactorial disease, BPD requires complex pathogenetic, syndromnal, and symptomatic pharmacotherapy. In addition to oxygen therapy, it should include anti-inflammatory and antibacterial treatment, sparing prescription of glucocorticosteroids. It is also advisable to use antioxidants, proteinase inhibitors, drugs for the relief of apnea, diuretics. When prescribing pharmacotherapy, it is necessary to take into account the severity of the disease, the development of complications, the tolerance of drugs, the therapeutic response of the infant’s body to treatment. However, the effect of treatment can vary from very good to extremely weak.

  18. Dr. Priyanka Madale, Dr. Manoj Likhitkar, Dr. Ashwini Kelode, Dr. Milind Ambhore and Dr. Vivek Tattu

    Dental Anomalies are most commonly observed in maxillary anterior region. Palatogingival groove is one of them seen with maxillary lateral incisor either unilaterally or bilaterally. It is an artifice for plaque accumulation which leads to osseous defect. Diagnosis – proper diagnosis is base for treatment plan, which is made on the basis of clinical examination, along with radiographic examination as well as CBCT scan. Treatment –treatment is based on (i) complete eradication of microbials, (ii) permanent and thorough sealing of the root groove that communicates between the root canal and the periodontium, and (iii) periodontal regeneration and complete healing of the periodontium. In 2003, Kerezoudis et al. summarized the treatment interventions needed in cases of relatively shallow PGG: (i) Surgical removal of granulation tissue and irritants, (ii) A gingivectomy and apically positioned flap, (iii) Surgical exposure and flattening of the groove by grinding, with or without application of guided tissue regeneration techniques, (iv) Positioning a restoration in the groove and (v) Orthodontic extrusion of the tooth.

  19. Dr. Iqbal Singh, Dr. Amarpreet Singh, Aditya Bali M., Dr. Robindera Kour and Dr. Ashish Bali

    Introduction: Every eight seconds someone, somewhere in the world, dies as a result of tobacco use. It has been reported that there is an increased trend of tobacco habits among the heathcare students perusing healthcare education like any other youths. Methodology: A questionnaire based study to assess the prevalence of tobacco use among undergraduate students of Indira Gandhi Dental College Campus in Jammu on 170 students. Global Health professional students survey (GHPSS), survey questionnaire given by (CDC) centre for disease control Athlanta which is a standard pre-tested questionnaire for assessing prevalence of tobacco use among health care professionals around the world was used. Results: The present study showed 34.7 % prevalence of smoking and 17.6 % prevalence of chewing tobacco. This reflect alarming situation and demands urgent anti tobacco & tobacco cessation measures to be adopted by health professionals, who happens to be health promoters & health role models for society.

  20. Dr. Sohil Gala, Dr. Sanjay Gala and Dr. Khushboo Gala

    Introduction: Dizziness is a subjective feeling of postural instability or of illusory motion of self or environment either as a sensation of spinning or falling. It can be caused by a wide spectrum of peripheral and central disorders. BPPV is one of the commonest causes. Dizziness affects the quality of life of the patient and hence a subjective assessment using Various Scales is essential. Methodology: We have assessed 30 patients of BPPV using the Dizziness Handicap Inventroy (DHI), and used the same for determining treatment outcomes. Results and Discussion: Majority of our patients were females with a mean age of 52. DHI scores were severe especially with lateral canal BPPV. The Physical Parameters were most affected in the DHI Scale. Treatment had a great impact on the DHI Results. Summary: DHI is a easy to use, effective and reliable scale to assess patients of dizziness especially BPPV and also for treatment response.

  21. Waseem Raja, Pervaiz Ahmad Shah, Rohey Jan, Muzaffer Maqbool and Rakash Koul

    Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, commonly found in males above the age of 60. Increased life expectancy due to better health care and aging population will see a proportional rise in case of PD in India during next three decades making it a major health problem. Objectives: There was no well designed longitudinal study on PD from Kashmir, North-India. Therefore, we planned to determine the prevalence, type of PD & associated probable risk factor for PD in the Kashmir valley, North India, on a stratified random sampling through a door-to-door survey. Material and Method: A prospective community - based study was conducted over a period of three years from May 2010 – May 2013 after obtaining approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee & informed written consent. The study population consisted of all subjects above 7 years of age. The screening was conducted in 2 stages, initially a validated questionnaire was pretested and subjects were interviewed & clinically examined by team of Doctors. In later stage, cases with both typical and atypical features of PD underwent detailed examination by a neurologist at SMHS Hospital, a tertiary referral centre and requisite investigation done wherever deemed necessary. Results: The total number of subjects screened were 13710, out of them 39 were found to have PD, with overall prevalence of 0.28 % (280/100,000). The peak prevalence of PD was in the age group of 70-79 years with male prepondance M:F ratio (1.4:1) , Predominant symptom was Tremor (74.4%) followed by bradykinesia. The distribution of parkinsonism in our study was idiopathic PD 59%, drug induced PD 17.9%, Parkinson plus syndrome 15.4% and vascular Parkinsonism in 7.7%. The Prevalence of PD was more in rural population compared to urban. Exposure to agricultural chemicals, Pesticides, and prolonged well water consumption were also possible risk factors for PD. Conclusion: The prevalence of PD in our part of world is less as compared to Europe and western world. This study documents the epidemiological data of PD in Kashmir valley (Hazratbal Block). It represents varied geographical, social, economic, cultural ethnicity among rural/urban population. There is low literacy rate, predominant rural population and insufficient health infrastructure where PD poses an invisible but major health problem for policy makers.

  22. Adah Musati Makokha

    The child narrator is a popular narrative technique in children’s literature, especially magical stories and fantasies. However, most authors prefer adult narrators when narrating issues like political instability, gender-based violence, the AIDS scourge and religious exploitation, as this voice projects a feeling of seriousness and authority of experience to potentially attract a bigger readership, especially the adults in the society. Nevertheless, child narrators are an interesting choice because of the degree of emotions they inject in a story, which gives it an earnest tone and makes the reader want to empathize and sympathize with the narrator. Further, since their identities are in the process of formulation, the reader can see, understand and critique how ideologies play a role in the formation of identities and worldviews. Child narrators also appeal to child readers who form a large section of any country’s population and future leadership. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the deployment of the child narrative voice in NoViolet Bulawayo’s novel, We Need New Names (2013) to interrogate its effectiveness in (re)presenting Zimbabwe’s history. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of the child narrative voice in (re)presenting Zimbabwe’s history in the novel.

  23. Leli Herawati, Siti Saidah Nasution and Asrizal

    Background: Stoma is a disorder that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and the opening results are made by surgery of the intestinal tract where the effluent (dirt, mucus) is diverted out of the body by using artificial openings. One of the stoma management strategy is education in the hope of increasing knowledge of self-care, by involving the patient's active role in the various self-care management strategies in managing and maintaining the patient so that the self-care ability can be fulfilled. Aims: to analyze the influence of education about stoma on self care ability in patients with colostomy. Methods: The results showed that there was a difference of self-care between before intervention with after stoma patient education intervention with p-value <0.05. Stoma education interventions have an effect on the improvement of self-care ability of patient with stoma. Conclusion: It is expected that the role and active efforts of health workers, especially nurses, to help stoma patients by providing education about stoma so that the involvement of patients in management of disease management can increase and give a positive impact on improving the health status of stoma patients.

  24. SAÏ Servais Sontia, ANGO Privat Désiré, KONAN konan Dénis, KONE Nabitou, KOUAME Kouadio Antoine, BOUA Narcisse

    Les lésions orthopédiques sont réputées thrombogènes et constituent l’une des indications majeures de la prophylaxie thrombo-embolique. De ce fait, la survenue des embolies pulmonaires (EP) en milieu orthopédique n’est pas rare. Nous rapportons un cas d’EP grave consécutive à un traumatisme fermé du fémur négligé dans un milieu à ressources financières limitées. L’angioscanner pulmonaire a permis de poser le diagnostic. En l’absence de thrombolytique, l’intubation orotrachéale, la ventilation mécanique et la dobutamine ont constitué les mesures thérapeutiques réalisées en urgence, compte tenu de la détresse respiratoire et circulatoire. L’évolution clinique sous héparinothérapie relayée avec du Rivaroxaban était favorable.

  25. Mohamed A. El Sekily, Sohila H. Mancy and Nagwa M. M. Hamada

    A series of novel pyrazol-3-yl-pyrimidine, pyrazole, and pyran derivatives have been synthesized in good yields. Thus, the reaction of 5-oxo-1-phenyl-4-(2-phenylhydrazono)-4.5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-3-carbaldehyde(1) with malononitrile mixture with thiourea, guanidine hydrochloride, barbituric acid, thiosemicarbazide, or phenyl thiosemicarbazide in one-pot synthesis produced the corresponding compounds (2-6). treatment of (2) with o-bromobenzoic acid gave compound (7). Similarly, treatment of (1), malononitrile mixture with hydrazine hydrate, o-nitrophenyl hydrazine, isonicotinoylhydrazine, p-sulphamylphenylhydrazine, or phenyl hydrazine yielded the corresponding (8-12). In the same time, treatment of (1), malononitrile mixture with cyclohexanone, dimedone or acetophenone, afforded the pyrazolyl-pyran derivatives (13-15). In addition, treatment of (15) with methylhydrazine gavemethylaminopyridine-5-carbonitrilederivative (16). The Reaction of (1), malononitrile mixture with hydroxylamine hydrochloride gave 2, 3-dihydroisoxazole-4-carbonitrile derivative (17) and with oxamic acid gave5, 6-dioxo-5, 6-dihydropyridine-5-carbonitrilederivative (18). The structure of all target molecules (2-18) have been confirmed by various spectral techniques and elemental analyses. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity.

  26. Alifian Rizzalul Ahmad, Djoko Poernomo and Edy Wahyudi

    The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of entrepreneurial orientation factors on the performance of the company through a variety of innovations and competitive advantages in Jember cafes in East Java, Indonesia. The sample consisted of cafe owners in the Kaliwates sub-district, Sumbersari sub-district and Patrang sub-district which numbered 41 people. The results using path analysis show significant results with the highest number of variables in entrepreneurial orientation towards company performance through competitive advantage, while those through innovation variables have lower results. Further studies are needed to increase the number of cafes and expand the research area.

  27. Shelke, G. B., Deshmukh, G. D. and Patil, D. R

    This paper presents synthesis, thick film fabrication and characterizations of the nanostructured SnO2 powder by disc type ultrasonicated microwave assisted centrifuge technique. The selected material is low cost and readily available. Synthesis procedure is quite simple. The obtained SnO2 particles are in nanometer scale and dispersed with very large surface areas. Nano-scaled grains exhibit high surface to volume ratio. Thick films of as synthesized powder were fabricated by simple screen printing technique followed by the calcinations at 500oC for 1 hr. Optimizing the particular conditions, the thick films can be used for gas sensing applications. The film samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis by X rays (EDAX), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), etc.

  28. Sree T. Sucharitha, Balaji Arumugam, Suganya E. and Shirley P.

    Background: Wearable devices for tracking fitness are currently used among young adults such as health care professionals for their ease in self-monitoring of individual fitness goals. Objectives: To determine the usage and attitudes towards wearable fitness tracking devices among health care professionals. Methodology: A Google docs survey using a pre-tested questionnaire was designed and survey link was shared using social media networks. The respondent data was received in real-time and analyzed. Results: Out of 588 respondents, 377(64.11%) were in ages 18-22 years, 296(50.3%) were males, 380 (64.6%) were medical undergraduates. Majority participants 493 (83.8%) heard about wearable fitness tracking devices and only 132(22.8%) ever used wearables. Among ever users of wearable devices, only 54(35.8%) were wearing devices to track fitness on a daily basis. Proportion of participants, using wearable fitness tracking device for a duration, between 2 months to 2 years were motivated more for being physically active than those using for a period of less than 2 months and more than 2 years respectively, and this difference was found to be statistically significant having a p value of <0.05. Conclusion: The study reveals the minimal usage of wearable fitness devices among health care professionals on daily basis.

  29. Dr. Vinay Bhardwaj, Dr. Nishant Nadda, Dr. Nidhi Chauhan and Dr. Saurabh Rattan

    Background: The epidemiologic transition from communicable to non-communicable disease has become a major public health concern. Diabetes is one of the causes for the increased burden of NCD’s. Among the many complications of diabetes, hypomagnesemia is a manifestation which is overlooked. Objectives: This study was designed to assess the effect of glycaemic index on serum magnesium levels. Methods: The Observational Cross-Sectional study was conducted in the Internal Medicine, of tertiary care center of Northern India, through October 2017-September 2018, among thenewly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus patients. Results: The mean magnesium in patients with HbA1C levels <7 % was 2.07 ± 0.125, in those with HbA1C 7-9 % was 1.94 ± 0.318 and those with HbA1C >9 % was 1.92 ± 0.286. It indicates inverse relationship between serum magnesium and HbA1C levels. Conclusion: Comparison of serum magnesium levels with glycaemic index of newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus patients was done with the concluded that, serum Magnesium levels decline as the HbA1Clevels increases. Based on this finding we could recommend diet rich in magnesium to avoid complications.

  30. Sarita Yadav and Sudha Yadava

    α-L-rhamnosidases cleaves terminal α-L-rhamnose specifically from a number of natural glycosides. Most of α-L-rhamnosidases reported so far have their pH optima in the acidic pH range. α-L-rhamnosidases with different physicochemical properties are suitable for different applications. Therefore, there is a scientific need to identify different sources of α-L-rhamnosidases with different properties suitable for different applications. The α-L-rhamnosidase has wide occurrence in nature and has been reported from animal tissues, plants, yeasts, fungi and bacteria. In this study we reports α-L-rhamnosidase secreted by Aspergillus terreus MTCC-3374 are potential catalysis in hydrolysis of naringin content present in orange peels. α-L-rhamnosidase from the culture filtrate of a fungal strain, Aspergillus terreus MTCC-3374 has been purified to homogeneity. The procedure involved concentration by ultrafiltration and anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE. The purified enzyme gave 16 fold purification with 30% recovery of the activity correspond a single protein band to molecular mass of 79.0 kDa in SDS-PAGE analysis. The native PAGE analysis of the purified enzyme also gave single protein band confirming the purity of the enzyme preparation. The Km and Vmax value of the enzyme were 1.5 mM and 34.5 µmole/min/mg, respectively, using p-nitrophenyl α-L-rhamnopyranoside as the substrate. The kcat value was 31.03 s-1 giving kcat/Km value of 2.07 ×104 M-1s-1. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 3.5 and 55.0°C, respectively. The purified enzyme preparation successfully hydrolyzed orange peel naringin in to de rhamnosylated product prunin.

  31. Patil, V.A., Gikawad, D.K. and Shinde, M.Y.

    Grape is one of the most commercial horticultural crops of the world. Grapes are very nutritious, rich source of minerals and different vitamins. It revels from the figure, the Thompson seedless raisins treated with Changes in the hydroxyl ion scavenging potential in the Thompson and Sonaka seedless raisins treated with different chemical compounds on the basis of percent inhibition are presented are shown in Figure. It revels from the figure, that the Thompson seedless raisins treated with K2CO3+sulphur has a greater hydroxyl ion scavenging potential than the raisins treated with other compounds, while Sonaka seedless raisins treated with CaCO3 shows higher OH- ions scavenging potential than the raisins treated with other compounds.

  32. Dr. Hussain Doshi, Dr. Abdurhman Mohammed Salim, Hassan A. Suwadi, Noor Kharezi, Attah Ahwas, Hafiz Syed, Osama A. Harbi, Ali Shubaili, Hussain Y. Rayani and Seham A. Habeeb

    Background: Diabetes is a major worldwide health problem, that needs to comprehensive medical care and patient self-management, education and support. Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the factors influencing the diabetic diet knowledge among diabetic patients attending Primary Health Care Centers in Central Sector in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out primary health care centers in central sector in Jazan region including 400 diabetic patients. The validated self-administered questionnaire was distributed for the patients. Data was collected and coded, then analyzed and tabulated using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 20). Descriptive statistics was applied in the form of frequencies and percentages for categorical variables and mean with standard deviation (SD) for normally distributed continuous variables. The chi-squared test was used to compare categorical data and Group t-test was conducted to assess the significance of differences for continuous variables. P ≤ 0.05 was used as indictors of statistically significant differences. Results: The present study included 216 (54%) males and 184 (46%) females with a total number of 400 diabetics. The majority of diabetic patients had poor dietary knowledge as shown by the low percentage of correct answers for most questions. More than half of patients gave wrong answers for foods that should be used with hypoglycemia (50.5%), suitable time to drink juice (50.5%), symptoms of hypoglycemia (57.2%), and drinks permitted with unlimited amounts )65.5%). Also, More than half of patients gave Incomplete answer for recommended type of snacks (78.5%), role of snacks in diabetic diet) 70%) and Foods rich in fat )58.5%). The results show that patients’ educational leveland income were the only significant predictors of the dietary knowledge. Also, the participants dietary knowledge score (p-value= 0.000) and the educational level of diabetes (p-value= 0.006) were the factors most influencing attitudes (beliefs). Conclusion: The results conclude that, the majority of diabetic had poor dietary knowledge, and patients’ educational level and income were the only significant predictors of the dietary knowledge which justify the need for an educational program to improve the knowledge of diabetic diet.

  33. Zargar, N.D. and Khan, K.Z.

    Dicoumarol (3) obtained from 4-hydroxy coumarin (2) through different routs has been found pharmacologically active and responsible for anticoagulant properties. Mechanistically interesting 2-nitroso-2-methyl-1,3-indandione dimer (11) has been synthesized by the nitration of 2-methyl-1,3-indandione (9) when the reaction is carried out at 00C. In a patent work phthalimide derivatives (13) synthesized from the reaction of phthalimide with hydrazones have been found to be potent insecticides. Phthalimide esters of the type (14) have also been synthesized and evaluated as potential prodrugs. In a substitution reaction 1H –isoindole-1,3-(2H) dione (12) replaces chloride from chloroacetonitrile to yield N-cyanomethyl phthalimide (15).

  34. Dwie Novitaroza, Zulfendri and Nurmaini

    Background: preparedness faces an illness that will impact Extraordinary Events along with the elements as the cause by applying an epidemiological surveillance technology used in strengthening responsiveness to alertness, prevention efforts and outbreak control activities that are fast and precise. Aims: Implementation of Early Dengue Disease System in the work area of Dumai City Health Office. Methods: this study used a qualitative approach method with descriptive. Thirteen informants who voluntered to participate in this study. Data collection used the method of in-depth interviews. Data analysis used the following stages: data reduction, data presentation, evaluation, withdrawal conclusion. Results: the implementation of the DHF Early alertness System in the prevention and control of dengue disease found: data usage; periodic larvae check; disease daily census; monitoring or sanitation inspection; annual case monitoring. Conclusion: The implementation of the Early Alert System will be used as the basis for determining the policy of monitoring the local area which has the risk of dengue outbreak by carrying out epidemiological investigations and fogging.

  35. Ismuntania, Arlina Nurbaity Lubis and Farida Linda Sari.

    Background: Some factors which cause nurses’ intense turnover are organizational commitment and satisfaction. Nurses who have low commitment will withdraw from an organization and will eventually retire from the hospital. Likewise it is with job satisfaction where the feel dissatisfied with their job tend to leave an organization. When the condition of dissatisfaction continues, they will leave the organization. Aims: to find out the influence of organizational commitment and job satisfaction on nurses’turnover intention at Malahayati Islamic Hospital, Medan. Methods: The research used causality design. The population in this study were all nurses at the Malahayati Islamic Hospital in Medan, namely 160 people. The sample size was determined using the power analysis method and obtained a sample of 126 people. The sampling technique used proportional random sampling. The data were analyzed by using descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: The result of the research showed that the most dominant organizational commitment of nurses was affective commitment of 40 people (31.8%) and the strength of these commitments was mostly in the moderate category as many as 71 people (56.3%), quite satisfied as many as 59 of them (46.8%) and had moderate turnover intention of 52 of them (41.3%).It was also found that, partially, there was negative and significant influence organizational commitment on nurses’ turnover intention at p-value = 0.00 < 0.05, and there was negative and significant influence of organizational commitment and job satisfaction on nurses’ turnover intention simultaneously at p-value = 0.00 < 0.05. Conclusion: It is expected that hospital management can improve organizational commitment by increasing nurse affective, continuance, and normative commitment. Furthermore, management must also increase nurse job satisfaction through increasing nurse satisfaction with satisfaction with salary and remuneration, recognition and promotion and work conditions.

  36. Sanjib Chakraborty

    Tulaipanji is one of the oldest indigenous aromatic rice varieties of the state of West Bengal, India mainly cultivated in some scattered restricted pockets of Uttar Dinajpur and Dakshin Dinajpur district of the state. Cultivation of this rice is being done here for more than 100 years back. Thus, this rice variety adapted and evolved itself in its microhabitat or niche. Though its productivity is less than half of the HYVs of rice, but due to its taste and aromatic quality, its market value, sometimes reaches to thrice than any of the HYVs of rice cultivated in this area. So that farmers are even showing interest in its cultivation. Its restricted cultivation area makes it so limited and so unique that already this rice had got Geographical Indication (GI) no. which is 530. The cultivated area of this rice is found maximum in Raiganj CD Block in Uttar Dinajpur district in comparison with other CD Block of both the above mentioned districts. Using GIS techniques and DEM besides intensive field survey, this paper attempts to highlight the salient geographical features of the ecological niche of Tulaipanji in the study area to reveal the causes behind its cultivation in some scattered restricted pockets and to suggest the potential zone for its cultivation by following the way of sustainable agriculture.

  37. Dr. Chaitany Patel, Greeva Andharia and Priyangi Patel

    Purpose: To obtain the normal time period for 5 time sit-to-stand in diabetic neuropathy patients. Objectives: To study the performance of 5 time sit-to-stand test in healthy individual and diabetic neuropathy patient and compare the 5 time sit-to-stand test performance in healthy individual and diabetic neuropathy patient. Methods: Cross Sectional Study design assigned by convenient samplingwith30 Subjects in each group. Outcome Measure: Five times sit to stand test. Results: The average time of 5 time sit to stand test taken by healthy individual was 14.36 second and diabetic neuropathy patients was 21.06 second. Conclusion: The aim of the study is to compare the time taken by healthy individual and diabetic neuropathy with the help of 5 time sit-to-stand test. We conclude that diabetic neuropathic patients take more time compare to healthy individual to complete 5 time sit-to-stand test.

  38. Awadhesh Kumar, Umesh Verma, Chinmoy Sahu, Dipesh Kumar, Ismat Rehana, Hemant Verma and Dhole, T.N.

    Dengue is one of the major public health threats in India. Every year, blood samples with dengue-like illness are referred to us from different medical colleges and hospitals in Uttar Pradesh for the detection of dengue infection in them by PCR. A total of 198 samples were referred to us for that purpose. All the samples were tested for the detection of IgG antibodies and by antigen by ELISA method, followed by RT-PCR test for the detection of serotypes. 72 samples were ELISA positive. Out of 32 antigen positive samples, all were RT-PCR positive. None of the antibody positive samples were positive by PCR. All were typed as Dengue 3 by in-house PCR.

  39. Kevin Mbuh BAILACK and Zephania N. FOGWE

    Land resources in montane highlands often represent common property prerequisites for the survival and sustenance of the human in communities that are dependent thereof. The Oku and Mbessa communities on the northern fringe of the Ijim-Kilum citadel have in the course of manning their respective base resources sowed a spectre of edgy perceptions and practices of ownership entitlements that have hatched land resource conflicts. Their recurrence and abatement attempts within the past three decades has rather enshrined ugly hallmarks of shady peace deals between communities to an extent that planners of contemporary community resources find it hard to stay aloof. This study posits that if the conflicts are not holistically resolved, such issuant and commonplace signatures would continue to exacerbate the current tragedy of the commons to profit advantaged communities in this increasingly global economy where general welfare of all and sundry ought to be valued and preserved.

  40. Ahmad Ishfaq, Bulusu Radhika and Kole Tamorish

    Subclavian arteryinjuryis uncommon as it is protected by the subclavius muscle, the clavicle, the first rib, and the deep clavicle fascia, as well as the costo – coracoid ligament, a clavi – coraco - axillary fascia portion[1]. It is a challenging complication of blunt and penetrating trauma. Physical examination of the upper limb, as well as diagnostic imaging techniques like Contrast CT are of diagnostic importance. While arteriography offers both a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic approach. Immediate identification and emergent repair of an injured subclavian artery, is of utmost importance as arterial rupture could be life – threatening as well as limb – threatening.

  41. Emmanuel Hakwia Kooma

    Objectives: To determine a frame work for significant prison environment and health systems factors influencing transmission of HIV/STI/TB and Drug Abuse in prisons. Methods: Data base: Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and WHO Journals, Reports/Policy. Documents that review the progress of prison health care were identified. The sources for the study were chronologically examined under historical development of prison health care trends since 1900. The documents were reviewed and organized around Knowledge, Attitude and Practice, Legal &, Prison Systems, Prisons Health Care, Interventional areas and Practice Topics or Issues, not the chronology of the research. Results: Prison health frame work on HIV/STI/TB environmental factors was extensively studied and was found suitable for the 21st century prison health care in accordance with the WHO guidelines. The construct was analyzed to provide the needed knowledge, attitude and practice. The problems for implementing prison health are: lack of committed leadership, lack of strategic planning and a locative efficiency by the Ministry concerned, coupled with no or lack of resources and amnesty decisions on patients. Conclusion: Better understanding of the three infectious diseases must produce effective prisoners and prison staff in reducing HIV/STI/TB transmission. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice facilitate early diagnosis of the disease. Inmates lack understanding of the transmission of these diseases. Overcrowding, poor nutrition, inadequate and lack of ventilation and light must be prevented or controlled. Prisons lack of clear policies on how to reduce transmission, modified attitude towards human rights and to strategically promote good prison health and also provide a basis for promoting equity of access to health care and quality systems, performance monitoring and evaluation of prison health care, practices and quality activities.

  42. Randy Delostrico

    Vital to Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach is the emphasis that leaning is most effective when learners put theory into practice. This research established what PBL approach in teaching Chemistry can contribute in learner’s skills and competencies and determined the benefits and challenges in the utilization of PBL. This is an experimental research which utilized the Quasi-experimental research design specifically the Non-equivalent Control Group Design with Pretest and Posttest. There were twenty-five (25) research respondents in experimental group and twenty-five (25) research respondents in the control group. The experimental group was exposed to project-based learning method while the control group was exposed to conventional approach. The reliability and validated – tested pretest were given prior to their exposure to PBL and conventional Approach methods. Posttest was administered after the instructional interference. The data collected from the pretest and posttest performance were analyzed using the mean, t-test, and z-test. Based on the results of the pre-test and post-test of Conventional Approach and PBL groups, a significant difference exists between the academic performance of learners exposed to each group, in favor to Project-based learning group. According to the interview conducted by the researcher, the evident challenges for both learners and teacher were the Clarity of Instruction, Focus of the students to learn, Time Management, Knowledge of Technology Used, Facilitative Skills; and the benefits were: Collaborative Learning with the students, Social participation, Strengthen the bond between students, Critical Thinking Skills. As discovered in the findings of the study, Project-Based Learning is an effective teaching strategy that can be utilized in teaching chemistry to enhance the performance of the learners when it comes to academic.

  43. Noralhuda Ahmed Hamzah, Hiwa K. Saaed and Dhafer Ibrahim Hasan

    Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) that includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary Embolism(PE) is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in hospitalized patients, and It is often under diagnosed due to lack of information on VTE risk and prophylaxis. International recommendations suggested that active monitoring of VTE prophylaxis can improve the quality of it is practice in Hospitals and prevent death (Bottaro and Emery, 2012; Dorfman and Chan, 2006). Aim of the study: Study aimed to: 1) Assess the prevalence of VTE risk in acute hospital care setting in AL-Sulaimaniyah, 2) Determine proportion of at-risk patients receiving prophylaxis, 3) Assess the type of prophylaxis measures used and compare it with London Hospitals, 4) Implement an Internal prophylaxis Guideline in Kurdistan to put a positive impact on patients safety and lower the incidence of VTE occurrence in hospitals. Hoping to be depended by Iraqi health system. Patients and Methods: The current cross sectional study was carried out in two parts on 350 patients; 1st part conducted in AL-Sulaimaniyah Hospitals including Medical, General Surgery, and Orthopedic Teaching Hospitals on 250 patients from December 2012 to March 2013, and 2nd part was conducted in London Hospitals including Medical, General Surgery, Cardiovascular, Plastic and Orthopedic on 100 patients, from April to May 2013. Risk factors profile and total risk score determined are stratified in four risk groups based on Caprini Scoring Risk Assessment Model. Low risk (from 0-1point), Moderate risk (2 point), Higher risk (from 3-4 point), Highest risk (from 5 point and more). Descriptive statistics (numbers and percentage) were calculated for all variables, as well as analytical statistics was done to find the relations between variables by using fisher exact and Chi square test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Patients in AL-Sulaimaniyah Hospitals revealed that most of the patients were at highest risk score > 5, and only small percentage of them receiving prophylaxis (31%) The differences between prophylaxis measures used in two cities regarding most types of measurements in two specialty medical and surgical were highly significant (P value of all <0.001). Conclusion: Because lack of prophylaxis measures and non-implementing a Unique National Guideline like that done in London, the results of the study showed that the risks for DVT and PE were high in patients of AL-Sulaimaniyah Hospitals.

  44. Gazalla Altaf, Aaquib Hussain, Mehrajud Din Bhat and Mehak Anand

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among health sciences students and to identify the associated factors. Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted among 1163 students from five health sciences colleges during the academic year 2016–2017. Self-administered questionnaire was conducted and included 4 sections: demographic characteristics, risk factors, Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and Oswestry disability questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Mean age was 20.74 ± (1.59 years). 70.9% of students were female. Lifetime prevalence of LBP was 56.6%, 12-month prevalence 48.8%, and point prevalence 21.2%. Dentistry students had highest lifetime prevalence of LBP (67.6%) with significant p value (<0.001). Male were found to have higher lifetime prevalence compared to female (p ≤ 0.001). Spending more than 10 h on computer or tablet was significantly associated with LBP (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.30–3.70; p = 0.003). Feeling discomfort on bed was associated with LBP (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.38–2.38; p ≤ 0.001). Uncomfortable college furniture was associated with LBP (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.09–1.79; p = 0.008). Using heavy backpack was found to be associated with LBP (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.01–2.03; p = 0.011). Most of students LBP (90.3%) found to cause minimal disability on Oswestry scale. Conclusion: Dentistry students at higher risk of developing LBP compared to other students

  45. Renu Mishra, Rajni, Manu Gupta and Raman khare

    Introduction: Prediction of gestational age (GA) based on sonographic fetal parameters is the cornerstone of modern obstetrics. In the third trimester all the individual parameter measurements become less accurate but recent studies have shown that fetal transcerebellar diameter is one such parameter that has remained consistently superior in prediction GA in both singleton and twin gestation. Aims and Objective: To predict gestational age using TCD & HC measurement in third trimester &correlated the prediction of gestational age by comparing transcerebellar diameter (TCD), Head circumference (HC) and LMP. Materials and Methods: Present study was done on 100 pregnant women in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, SIMS, Hapur from the month of October 2016 to March 2017. Study group included antenatal women between 28 to 40 weeks of gestation by applying simple random technique.Ultrasonography (USG) was done between 28 to 40 weeks of POG, after filling PNDT form. Result: Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.894 for TCD and 0.856 for HC. Although correlation was found to be statistically significant in both TCD and HC groups but GA had better correlation with TCD than the HC (p<0.001). Conclusion: The present study has revealed that TCD shows good correlation with the LMP for the prediction of gestational age in third trimester, however TCD has a better correlation with LMP than HC for the gestational age estimation.

  46. Milind Vinayak Gokhale

    Background: Brand recognition is one of the key components for the development and growth of a startup venture. This research paper aims at creating brand recognition for a startup venture of construction chemicals and its related new products for developing sustainable building protection solutions. Further, this research aims to recognize a brand establishment strategy for start-ups that can promote brand awareness and loyalty in Indian market. Method: The samples are collected from the set of 30 start-ups from the B2B sector. The study uses both qualitative and quantitative research technique. Results: The study gives insights into various aspects of brand establishment arrays such as customer’s psychology, emotional intelligence, customer preferences, engaging the customers, market connections and dynamics, following company’s vision, etc. Conclusion: According to the study, emotional quotient of the company is the most important ingredient for all the start-up companies. This includes company’s vision, commitment, and relationship with customer, etc. which a crucial factor affecting a buying decision for the new product line in construction chemical industries.

  47. Emmanuel Ikechi Wonah

    The paper examined the participation of women in Trade Union in Nigeria. The main argument is that rather than attribute the low participation of women in Trade Union on biological, cultural, economic and educational factors, Trade Union and indeed women should be held responsible. The paper relied on secondary sources of data and adopted structural functionalism as an analytical construct which presupposes the fact that the structures (parts) that make up a system perform specific functions for the adaptation, stability and sustenance of the system. The paper notes that the anti-democratic posture of trade union and indeed the passive and incompatible attitude among women are responsible for their low participation in Trade Union. The paper recommends among other strategies that women should embark on intensive and extensive awareness campaign and see themselves as formidable and indispensable force to be reckoned with not only in trade union but also in the socio-eco- political landscape of Nigeria.

  48. Dr. Sanjoy Chowdhury, Dr. Madhumita Srivastava and Dr. Nilanjan Chowdhury

    Terson Syndrome is subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with sub retinal hemorrhage flowing through channel. Reduced vision in such fresh case is due to hemorrhage itself, blocking macula / other photo receptors in the long run macular cellophane retinopathy which causes profound visual loss. SAH causes neurological problems which can become a risk factor for evacuating blood from vitreous. Hypertension is commonest cause to cause Terson Syndrome, but trauma is also devastating cause as it can lead to irreversible visual consequences like total loss of perception of light or blindness. Here we describe a case of Terson Syndrome plus disease features SAH in frontal lobe. When there is traumatic pneumocephalocele, it gives space to blood to imbibe towards bony optic canal and form hematoma around nerve sheath which causes compression around the same and leads to optic atrophy. Optic nerve can be injured by direct traumatic dissection during RTA, but even without that blood may accumulate around optic nerve and in turn leads to formation of hematoma and subsequently pressure induced optic atrophy. Moreover blood can slowly travel to subhyaloid space / sub retinal space with gliosis covering typical boat shaped blood. Gliosis may resolve through three injections of Tricort in the orbital floor near apex, but optic atrophy snatches vision. Thus diagnosis of Terson syndrome plus disease was established by addressing all features on CT scan and MRI. Plus features include pneumocephalous, optic nerve sheath hematoma, optic atrophy and gliosis over subhyaloid hemorrhage, typical boat shaped.

  49. Manal Al-Labadi, Wasim Audeh and Anwar Alboustanji

    Let R be a ring with unity and let M be an R-module. Let R(+)M be the idealization of the ring R by the R-module M. In this article, we investigate when Γ(Zα(+)M) and Γ(Z_(p^(α_1 ) ) α(+)Z_(p^(α_2 ) )) are divisor graphs.

  50. Dr. Raveendra, K.R., Dr. Karthik, G. and Nandan Kodur

    Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) represents a substantial burden to the Health care system. Pneumonia imposes a staggering clinical and economic burden to our community. Despite being the cause of significant morbidity and mortality, pneumonia is often misdiagnosed, wrongly treated, and underestimated. No perfect bio-marker or scoring system is available to this date to evaluate the severity of CAP patients. The incidence of hyponatremia at hospital admission among CAP patients is found to be 28%and is associated with not only prolongation of hospitalization but also an increase in hospital mortality. Aim of the study: 1. To evaluate hyponatremia as a possible bio-marker to assess severity of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). 2. To compare hyponatremia with CURB-65 as an initial screening tool for assessment of severity of CAP. Materials and methods: 100 patients with CAP who were hospitalized were included in study. Serum sodium levels were measured on day 1,3 and 7 after initial assessment of patients and were analyzed with the clinical profile and outcome in these study groups. Results: CAP was more commonly seen between age group 31-40 years (22%), among males (61%), Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the major co morbidity associated (23%), smoking was an important risk factor (33%). Majority of them belonged to Pneumonia severity index (PSI) risk class 3 and above. Serum sodium levels showed a significant correlation from day 1 to the day of discharge in both resolving and un-resolving pneumonias, and also at the time of admission as compared to CURB-65 score. Conclusion: In our study patients with severe hyponatremia had high in – hospital morbidity and mortality, whereas those with rising sodium levels showed signs of improvement. This proves that serum sodium levels can be used as a prognostic biomarker in community acquired pneumonia which is cost effective and easily available.

  51. Katarina Oliveira Freitas, Alexandre de Sousa Guterres and Fernando Dias Gusmao

    Universidade da Paz (UNPAZ) is an academic institution and established since year 2003. In fact, happening, innovation and flexibility which is owned by the direction of every unit are rigid and at the time of decision-making related to the crucial actions that still have not been fullest due to fear of sections moved. Verbal abilities already possessed by every leader in every work unit, but due to cultural factors which all crucial decisions should be moved into a section so that it is centered on impact the quality loss that is owned by any leadership especially in the actions of decision-making, and it almost happened on all institutions of higher education. The research aimed to know the influence of employee motivation and leadership partially against the effectiveness of administrative service at the UNPAZ, Dili, Timor-Leste. This research uses the quantitative method with multiple regression analysis techniques that are supported with some research instrument test. As variable in this research is the ability of human resources (X1) and performance (X2) as the variable exogen (X), and service quality (Y) as an endogenous variable.

  52. Shamsuzzaman, M., Rahman, M. S., Siddiqua, T., Bhuiyan, M. M. H., Paul, D., Ferdous, J., Chakraborty, S. R. and Deb, A. K.

    Neutron field of 241Am-Be calibrator was standardized in terms of corrected free field dose equivalent (FFDE) by applying several correction factors. Subsequently, characterization of nine inch moderated neutron remmeters (BF3 counter) were performed in terms of the standardized neutron field. Several correction factors were determined to standardize the neutron field. The geometrical correction factor, air scattering factor and room scatter factors lie in between 1.004 to 1.018, and 1.004 to 1.044 and 1.0004 to 1.005, respectively at the distances from 0.595 m to 2.0 m. The responses of the neutron remmeters were verified in terms of the corrected FFDE The average response of the neutron remmeters ASP2e/NRD and E600/NRD was found to be 1.0010.162 and 1.0130.164 which meets the ICRP recommendation for area monitoring detectors. The minimum and maximum estimated combined uncertainty for neutron dose measurement was 0.755% (k=1) and 2.495% (k=1).

  53. Rukiya Aliyi and Chaubey, A. K.

    The activity concentration of Naturally Occurring Radio-nuclides such as 238U, 232Th and 40K in the collected soil sample from the selected area were measured by using Gamma ray spectroscopy employed by HPGe detector to perform the measurements. The average activity concentration values was found to be 46.93, 110.6, 847.65 and 2.43Bq/Kg for 238U, 232Th,40K and 137Cs respectively. These values were higher than the world average values given by UNSCEAR (2000). The average associated radiological hazard parameters indices Raeq, Hex, Hin, Dout, Din, AEDE and I of natural radio-nuclides were determined to be as follow 248.27, 0.728, 0.86,0.185, 1.035, 1.22 and 1.98 Bq/Kg respectively. Some results such as Dout, Din, AEDE and I were found to be higher than the recommended world average values UNSCEAR (2000) and others were Raeq, Hex and Hin below the standard. Accordingly, the investigated soil sites were not radiation hazard free.

  54. Nwafor Johnbosco Ifunanya, Ibo Chukwunenye Chukwu, Obi Chuka Nobert, Ugoji Darlington-Peter Chibuzor, Onwe Blessing and Onuchukwu Victor Uchenna

    Aim: To compare the efficacy of carbetocin with oxytocin for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted at the Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Southeast, Nigeria between 3rd January 2018 to 31st December 2018. One hundred parturients at high risk of postpartum haemorrhage following vaginal delivery were randomly assigned to receive either intramuscular carbetocin 100µg or oxytocin 10IU within one minute after delivery of the baby. The data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22. Results: The need for additional uterotonics was significantly lower in carbetocin group when compared with oxytocin group (18% versus 44%, RR = 0.4, 95%CI = 0.21-0.79, P-value = 0.008). The estimated blood loss > 500 ml was significantly higher among study participants that received oxytocin (18% versus 40%, RR = 0.4, 95%CI = 0.20-0.80, P-value = 0.009). Even though that the blood loss > 1000 ml was lower in the carbetocin arm of the study, this difference did not reach statistical significance (8% versus 18%, RR = 0.4, 95%CI = 0.15-1.35, P-value = 0.15). Conclusion: Carbetocin reduces the use of additional uterotonics following vaginal delivery in women at high risk of PPH when compared to standard dose of oxytocin. It also reduced the incidence of PPH in these women.

  55. Yared Mesfin and Sisay Taddese

    Soil erosion is a natural phenomenon, where environmental determinants, such as climate, soil, topography, and vegetation affect the extent and magnitude of soil loss. Human impact on the natural system through deforestation, intensive land cultivation, uncontrolled grazing, and construction activities are often accelerating the rate of soil erosion. Spatial and temporal change of land use/land cover (LULC) is increasingly recognized as an important driver of environmental change such as soil degradation. Soil erosion models, for instance, RUSLE integrated into GIS has used to assess the spatial distribution of soil loss and identify areas of concern. This study was aimed at assessing the LULC change and soil erosion trends in the Wombeya watershed between 1986 and 2017. This study applies the RUSLE model to explore soil erosion in the watershed. In the last four decades, soil erosion has been increased from 146 t ha-1yr-1to 214 t ha-1yr-1. Crop field and homestead show an increase in the expenses of forest and grassland. However, for the complete understanding of soil erosion causes exploring other impacts such as climate change is essential.

  56. Getachew Bereta and Peng Hui

    In recent years, recurrent floods have been observed in many countries around the world that may have led to overtopping dams, resulting in dam breaches and catastrophic floods on the downstream of these structures. This leads to various damages such as loss of social wealth, large-scaled economical expenses, and the loss of lives. Therefore, reviewing and understanding the cause of embankment dams overtopping, behaviors of dams while overtopped and suggestion of possible solution is of tremendous significance for dam failure damage assessment, disaster control, risk analysis and mitigation, etc. In this review paper, a number of factors that influence embankment dam overtopping were identified and discussed, and the areas that require further studies were also recognized. Meanwhile, by considering types of construction materials, the characteristics and the appearances of embankment dam breaching during overtopping and mitigation measure discussed, the importance of breach models were described and summarized. Finally, recommendations and proposed future studies were made on traditional design approaches, breach characteristics for composite dams, breach modeling, the position for breach initiation and statistical analysis for dams at the end of service life.

  57. Venkateswaran Kuttuva Jeyaram, *Prof. Lakshmi Narasimhan Ranganathan, Prof. Chandramouleeswaran V., Prof. Balasubramanian S.

    Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an important cause of stroke in young. The Exact etiology and prevalence of the disease are yet to be fully understood. However various risk factors that predispose to the development of CVT have been identified. Cerebral venous thrombosis is most commonly seen in females, now there is no gender disparity. Objective: To study the clinical profile in male CVT patients admitted to the Institute of Neurology, Madras Medical College, India Materials and method: Clinical characteristics of 203 consecutive male patients diagnosed to have CVT and proven by MRI were analyzed who were admitted in the Institute of Neurology, Madras medical college, India. Data obtained a s an Asian CVT registry questionnaire. Clinical profile and risk factors are studied. Results: The mean age of male patients with CVT was (38 + 6.9 years). Out of 203 patients, 147 patients (72.4%) were aged less than 40 years. The most common clinical feature encountered is Headache (93.5%). Papilledema was observed in 101 patients (50.2%). Trans-Venous Aphasia was observed in 21 patients (10.3%). Cranial nerve abnormality was observed in 70 patients (34.7%). Seizures developed in 101 patients (49. 7%) and the majority of them had 2 or fewer episodes (59%). The generalized tonic-clonic seizure was the most common semiology observed (82 patients). Focal seizures were observed in 17 patients and 2 had status epilepticus .61 patients (30%) had motor weakness on examination. Ataxia and vertigo noted in 8 patients (3.9%). All patients had evidence of venous sinus thrombosis in MR venography. The most common venous system is the superficial venous system (98.7%). The most common vein affected is superior sagittal sinus (68.3%) followed by Transverse sagittal sinus (53.6%). Iatrogenic antithrombotic therapy-related hemorrhage was seen in 6 patients (4 GI bleed and 2 Hematuria) and was not severe warranting transfusion. The nosocomial infection developed in 4 patients (2 UTI and 2 Aspiration Pneumonia).Malignancy is noted in one patient.4 patient expired in spite of therapy (2 due to aspiration pneumonia, 1 due to a rapid worsening of neurological status and 1 due to the development of pulmonary embolism). Conclusion: Compare to previous International study, Incidence of CVT in Male's are higher. Alcoholism is a major risk factor. Compared with previous Indian studies there is no significant difference in gender disparity, clinical profile and risk factors.

  58. Eko Hendarto, Nur Laila Rahayu and Nurtjahjo D. Sasongko

    Fertilization becomes an important factor in plant production management. The availability of pastures in cattle’s industry, therefore, becomes a prerequisite step. Current research was then aimed to know the effect of combined-fertilizers between cattle’s manure and urea to the growth of three species of grasses which commonly cultivated for grassing, including their best combination as part of a good management practices on crop production. In order to answer the question, a split plot design was applied to observe the effect of combined-fertilizers between cattle’s manure and urea toward plant’s height and mass production along the three grassing periods. The main plot was three species of grasses as follows: Setaria anceps, Nevalensis, and Brachiaria Hybrid cv “Mulato”, while the sub-plot is combined-fertilizers of cattles’ manure at concentrations of 10 and 20 tons per hectare per grassing period and urea at concentrations of 100, 150 and 200kg per hectare per grassing period. Each treatment was performed in triplicates, to end up a total of 54 treatment plots. The observed variables were plant’s height, fresh and dry masses, these data were obtained from three grassing periods and analysed statistically. The currfent study indicated the genetic factors of the grasses were taking more significant role than treated-combined fertilizers. Here, different types of grasses showed significant different among them, in all observed parameters, while the combined-fertilizers showed a linear graph in all variables. The best dosage of combined-fertilizers, however, was reached by combination of 20 tons cattles’ manure and 200 kgs urea per hectare per grassing period.

  59. Imirsinova Azizakhon Ashurovna

    The article will address deals with some indexes of the flower dynamics and seed efficiency of Aegilops L. in conditions of Uzbekistan. Another aspect which will be covered is morphobiology features of some species of genus Hordeum L. are given in this article and Triticumaestivum L.

  60. Ogbeifun Isaac, E., Ajetunmobi Tokunbo, P. , Moronkeji Timothy, A. and Adindu Gladys, C.

    The essence of revenue generation is to advance the welfare of citizens of a country with focus on promoting economic growth and development through the provision of development activities. Despite remarkable growth recorded in revenue generation the physical state of the nation in terms of social amenities and infrastructure remain backward. The aim of this study is to examine the contribution of revenue generated by the federal government on economic growth of Nigeria, while looking at the specific objectives: examine the influence of oil revenue on economic growth of Nigeria; examine the influence of non-oil revenue on economic growth of Nigeria. The study is backed up with theory of economic growth. Ex-post facto research designs was adopted in the work to examine the contribution of revenue generated on economic growth in Nigeria for the period of 30 years. Secondary data were sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin (2017) for the purpose of this study. Econometric tools of co-integration and error correction model was employed to estimate the individual effect of aggregate revenue generated from Oil and Non-oil on Real Gross Domestic Products. Findings revealed that Oil revenue exerts a negative effect but significant on Real Gross Domestic Products and also non-oil revenue has a negative signed and statistically significant on Real Gross Domestic Products. The study concluded that revenue generated during the period of study have a negative but significant on economic growth of Nigeria this was due to neglect of developmental projects that will generate employment opportunities, abandonment of non-oil sector, profligate spending of the government, amongst others. Hence, government needs to invest massively in agriculture, repositions the tourism sector to attract foreign investors and develop the solid mineral sub-sector, among measures aimed at economic diversification.

  61. Candice Rocha Seixas, Jefferson Petto, Marvyn de Santana do Sacramento, Alan Carlos Nery dos Santos, Djeyne Silveira Wagmacker and Ana Marice Teixeira Ladeia

    Introduction: Women using low-dose of combined oral contraceptive (COC) present fasting triglycerides, postprandial lipemia, and higher C-reactive protein. This condition seems to be related to the decrease in the action of the lipoprotein lipase enzyme due to decreased insulin sensitivity. Objective: To test whether there is a difference between the function of beta-pancreatic cells of women using or not COC and to verify the association between these indexes and the fasting lipid profile in this population. Methods: The sample was divided into two groups: COC group (COCG) composed of 22 women using low dose COC and without COC group (WCOCG). The correlation between the values of Homa-IR (HIR) and Homa-Beta (Hβ), which respectively evaluated insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell function- were verified with all variables of the lipid profile - triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). For the intergroup comparison of the parametric variables, we used the unpaired bidirectional Student t test and non-parametric variables the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Highest HIR (0.03%) and Hβ (˂ 0.01 #) were observed for COCG. There was a moderate and positive linear correlation between HIR and total cholesterol (r=0.34 and p=0.02) and Hβ with triglycerides (r=0.41 and p<0.01), TC (r=0.40 and p˂0.01) and LDL (r=0.30 and p=0.04).

  62. Ambala Vennela, Ajmera Rama Rao and Ciddi Veeresham

    The study was aimed at studying the comparisonbetween Doppler guided haemorrhoidal artery ligation with mucopexy vs open haemorrhoidectomy in the management of grade ii and grade iii haemorrhoids. This study was conducted in the Department of General surgery, ESI-PGIMSR, over a period of 17months. One hundred patients diagnosed with grade II and III haemorrhoids were enrolled in the study. They were randomized in to two groups A and B. Group A undergone Doppler Guided Haemorrhoidal Artery Ligation and Group B Open haemorrhoidectomy. The mean age in group A was 38.82±9.08 and in group B was 38.80±8.89 (P=0.28). In group A, there were 17 males and 33 females and in group B, 18 males and 32 females (P = 0.83). The most common symptom in both groups was per-rectal bleeding with prolapsed haemorrhoids, followed by bleeding alone. In group A, 26 patients had grade II (52%) and 24 patients had grade III (48%) haemorrhoids and in group B, 32 patients had grade II (64%) and 18 patients had grade III (36%) haemorrhoids, so there was no statistical significance between the two groups (P=0.22). During the surgery and the early postoperative period complications were monitored in both the groups with regard to intra operative bleeding, postoperative pain, and urine retention, day of discharge and work resume time. The per-operative bleeding was monitored for both groups. In group A, 10 patients had intraoperative bleeding and ceased conservatively and in group B, 30 patients had bleeding that was controlled with simple ligature or cautery (P<0.001). The present study concludes that: The Doppler Guided Haemorrhoidal Artery Ligation and Mucopexy in comparison with Open Haemorrhoidectomy in the management of Grade II and III haemorrhoids has Low rate of immediate post-operative complications and Faster recovery with early return to work.

  63. Maria Gorete Nicolette Pereira and Eleine Aparecida Penha Martins

    Objective: To evaluate the intra-hospital care to the victims of external causes and their outcomes in service of Medium Complexity. Method: Longitudinal, prospective study of quantitative approach. Data were collected by instrument, manual search in the medical record and direct interview with the victims. Results: Of these victims, 72.5% were young men, mean age 40.6 years, 67.0% of occurrences occurred during the day. The Charlson Comorbidity Index scored zero at 66.7%. The Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) demonstrated that 43.7% presented no risk of death, Injury Severity Scores (ISS) and Revised Trauma Score (RTS) evidenced mild trauma. The severity scales TRISS, ISS, RTS, Glasgow Coma Scale were not associated with the high discharge or transfer. The time of hospitalization and surgery was equal to or less than seven days for 60.6% and 55.1%, respectively. The surgery was statistically significant for the outcome of the patient. Conclusion: The victims of this study had characteristics of low health complexity, confirmed by the scales of lesions applied and low prediction of death. It is considered highly relevant and essential the service of care in the medium complexity, and the correct referral to an institution that behaves and resolves cases.

  64. Balbine AMOUSSOU FAGLA, Victor Saturnin Bidossessi, HOUNDJI, Kosi Mawuéna NOVIDZRO, Zérach Jésugnon NOUKPOZOUNKOU, Tètouwalla AWILI and Joseph DOSSOU

    This work had been made to determine the physicochemical, nutritional and functional properties of Annona muricata fruit puree and juice. Nine lots of juice were produced. The batches differ from each other by the pH or the dilution rate of the puree. The pH values of the types of juice produced were 3; 3.5 and 4.5; the dilution rate (water/mash) are 50/50, 60/40 and 33.33/66.66. Only the puree went under the physicochemical, nutritional and functional analyzes and as for the juice, the pH, titratable acidity, soluble sugar content and dry matter were the parameters evaluated. The characterization of the puree showed that it was pasty, sweet and acidic with a pH of 4.45 ± 0.1, a consistency of 18 ± 0.0 cm / 30s and a Brix degree of 10.5 ± 0.2. As for the physicochemical composition, the results showed that this puree contains 80% water and the composition per 100 g of mash gives glucose contents of 17.95 ± 0.05 g, proteins of 1.1 ± 0.01 g and lipids of 0.00 g. The functional properties revealed that this mash has an antioxidant capacity (IC50 = 18.97 ± 0.46 ppm), with a total polyphenol content of 141.24 ± 0.14 mg-eq/100 g, a tannin content of 0.22 ± 0.03 g-eq/100 g, and a vitamin C rate of 1.66 ± 0.02%. However, the mash is devoid of anthocyanins. The analysis of the juicerevealed that the soluble sugar content varied from 3 to 5ºBx, the titratable acidity from 0.486% to 0.729% and the dry matter from 1.942% to 5.360%. The juice and particularly the puree studied are therefore rich in nutrients with interesting functional properties. Puree, acidic, pasty and consistent, with its antioxidant activity could then be an interesting food.

  65. Divya Jakhar, Sadhvi Gupta, Gursimran Singh Pabla, Fatinderjeet Singh, Shivangi Duggal and Pratibha Marya

    Ayurvedic Medicine is a system of traditional medicine native to India and a form of alternative medicine. In Sanskrit, word Ayus, means "longevity", and Veda, means "related to knowledge or science". It is an ancient Indian science that mainly involves the use of naturally occurring herbs and shrubs to provide a cure for medical ailments without causing any undue side effects. With the recent boom in holistic and herbal medicine and an ever-growing trend among the general population towards herbal remedies as an alternative to traditional pharmaceutical therapies. These alternative products include some standard dental products made with natural ingredients, herbal products and homeopathic products. The use of herbal products should be based upon sound basic science and sufficient evidence of safety and efficacy. So this review article includes various Herbal Extracts and their effects and clinical implications in Endodontics.

  66. Assoti, E., Agbodan, K.A., Dotse, K. and Koumaglo, K.H.

    The present work aim is to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the essential oils extracted from Thymus vulgaris and Ocimum gratissimum in order to promote their use in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. It is about to establish a link between the chemical composition of these oils and their antioxidant properties. The composition of the essential oils was determined by gas chromatography. The antioxidant powers are evaluated using the reducing power of the ferrous ion and the trapping power of the radical DPPH°. The results show that both essential oils have similar chemical profiles. In fact, apart from -pinene (8.80%) and -selinene (5.50%) which are absent in the major compounds of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, and carvacrol (2.79%) absent in those of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum, all the other major constituents are present in the two essential oils with relatively variable contents. The IC50 values, obtained using the DPPH method, prove that the oil of Thymus vulgaris is more antioxidant with 481.70 ppm than that of Ocimum gratissimum with 822.37 ppm. In addition, the results of the FRAP test show that the free radical activity (in Eq of Fe2+) of the oil of Thymus vulgaris, ie 603.50 ppm, is greater than that of the oil of Ocimum gratissimum, ie 513.50 ppm. The antioxidant activities presented by these oils could be attributed to the presence of their phenolic compounds. Used as food additives, these essential oils can thus contribute to reduce the risk of occurrence of certain diseases related to oxidative stress.

  67. Dr. Shinu A., Dr. Anil Saxena, Dr. Babulal Bansiwal and Dr. Abdul Qayyoom Ansari

    Background: Phantom tumour or Vanishing tumour stands for a localized transudative interlobar collection of pleural fluid in congestive heart failure. It is named so because of the resemblance to a tumour on the CXR and its tendancy to disappear following therapy for cardiac failure. It was first reported by Stewart in 1928 as ‘’interlobar hydrothorax ‘’. Case report: A 80 year old man presented Shortness of breath and swelling over legs generalized tiredness and dry cough since five days. He had no history of Tuberculosis nor any other co-morbidities On Examination he had clubbing of fingers, B/l Pitting Pedal Edema along with raised JVP. Chest was barrel in shape. Bilateral fine inspiratory crepitations were present in Lower Lung Fields. No Cardiac Murmurs were audible. Chest x ray PA View showed sharply demarcated oval homogenous dense shadow about 3x4 cm size in the Right Middle Lobe. USG Thorax was done and showed fluid in the interlobar fissure. Echocardiography was done and showed Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, Global Hypokinsia of Left Ventricle with LVEF of 45%, Mild Tricuspid Regurgitation, jerky septum in motion. Parenteral diuretic therapy was started along with fluid restriction. After five days of therapy repeat chest X rays revealed significant resolution of homogenous opacity with only thin strip of opacity of 0.5cm was remaining. Conclusion: This case confirms efficacy of the conservative medical treatment (loop diuretics and fluid restriction) for the localized interlobar effusion in congestive heart failure. Phantom lung tumor should be considered and excluded in any patient presenting with clinical features of congestive heart failure with an apparent lung mass on a CXR. Finally, it is necessary to highlight the importance of recognizing this condition in order to avoid unnecessary, expensive, and possibly harmful diagnostic and treatment errors.

  68. Antonio PUCCINI

    As it is known, the “neutronization” is the process in which protons (Ps) and electrons fuse to form neutrons (Ns) and release electronic neutrinos(e): e + P N + e (1) This is possible because the electron in the neutronization equation is equipped with a very high energy (200MeV) so as to fill the conspicuous energy gap between N and P. However, equation (1) appears incomplete because it does not explain the appearance of the e. In our opinion, equation (1) implies some intermediate steps not represented. A phenomenon associated with neutronization is photo annihilation, characterized by the materialization of the electromagnetic radiation (γ), with consequent production of pairs: γ ῡe+e (2) If we enter equation(2) in equation(1), we have: e+ P  e + P + γ e + P + ῡe + eN + e (3) that is: e + P + ῡe + e↔N + e (4) e + P + ῡe ↔N (5) It emerges that to N corresponds a compound of 3 particles, i.e. a multiplet: [e, P, ῡe], in agreement with nuclear Spin Statistics, as well as with Quantum Mechanics. It is surprising: this multiplet shows

  69. Pritha, B.K. and Dr. Hiriyappa, B.

    Rural women's economic and social development is necessary for overall economic development of society and nation. Rural women are now increasingly run their own business yet their entrepreneurial potential, managerial skill and socio-economic contribution remain largely neglected. Women entrepreneurship development is the instrument of women empowerment. Empowerment through entrepreneurship leads to self-fulfillment and makes women aware about their status, existence, right and their position is in the society. In modern era, women are becoming socially empowered, and economically empowered through business ownership. Women entrepreneurship is gaining importance in India in the wake of globalization and economic liberalization. Women entrepreneurs tend to be highly motivated, self disciplined & self directed. On the other hand, empowerment of rural women is also very significant. Economic empowerment of rural women will lead to the development of our country and it is very necessary to give keen attention over the empowerment of women in the rural areas for the real development of our country in all spheres. Women's entrepreneurship is important for women's position in society, and economic development of women will lead to development of family, community and country. It opens up new avenues for creating employment opportunities for women and men. The present paper focuses on parameters to be focused to enhance the entrepreneurial skill of rural women and in turn their empowerment.

  70. Dr. Annu Yadav and Dr. Dolly C. Yadav

    A 45 year old male presented to emergency department with history of sudden onset difficulty in breathing and swallowing over the past hour. On oral examination, he was noted to have uvula edematous. This finding was concerning for Quincke’s disease. In this case study, we will further discuss presentation, examination findings and treatment plan.

  71. Kavyashree, R.

    Microrhizomes were successfully induced in Zingiber officinale and their in vitro and ex vitro conversion potential was investigated. The six weeks old axenic plants derived from vegetative bud culture induced microrhizomes with 78% response when transferred to LS liquid medium supplemented BAP (8.88μM) and Sucrose (7%). The average number, yield and average weight of microrhizome was found to be 5.4g, 2.65g and 0.49g respectively. The microrhizomes stored at 4°C for 12 months resulted in fairly good conversion response both in vitro and ex vitro conditions followed by development into complete plantlets without any significant loss of conversion potential. The protocol described in this paper is reproducible and shall definitely facilitate the utilization of this technique in propagation and conservation of Zingiber officinale Rosc.

  72. Dr. Shastry, V.G.R., Dr. Rakesh Patro and Dr. Indranil Das

    We present a case of a middle aged lady who presented to Emergency with acute onset severe 9/10 scale pain and numbness in right upper limb with no history of any previous morbidities. Myocardial infarction/acute cervical radiculopathy/CVA were being considered as working diagnosis after primary and secondary survey. An ECG done as P.O.C test showed AF with FVR. A detailed history at this stage revealed patient having received Injection Benzathine Penicillin for 5 years during her childhood but no other complaints suggesting rheumatic heart disease. Possibility of acute limb ischemia was suspected and an urgent color Doppler was ordered. This revealed total occlusion of proximal brachial artery. N.C.C.T brain was normal Consultation of CTVS surgeon taken who performed an emergency brachial artery embolectomy. Patient recovered well post operatively. But next morning patient showed signs of hemiparesis left side. MRI brain revealed MCA infarct right side.

  73. Jalajakshi, S., Bhargavi, K.M., Meghana, T.P., Shubha, N. and Sudhruti, L.

    The current study aims at analysing the basic learning methods of Montessori kids and comparing the methods of learning between boys and girls. The Montessori education is concentrated on the self-directed activity, hands on learning and scientific observation of children. The two Montessori’s of south Bangalore Leo kids and Samskruti were selected as the study area. The age group considered was from 3-5 years and were grouped as PKG (Pre Kinder Garden), LKG (Lower Kinder Garden), and UKG (Upper Kinder Garden). Out of 115 children, 67 were boys and 48 were girls. The performance level of boys and girls were analysed under four different tasks and activities classified under identification criteria, memory skills, physical ability and mathematical ability. The total percentage of performance level of boys was 82.09% and girls was 83.66%. The ANOVA - one way classification was used between groups and within groups. The f value was calculated and was compared with F critical value. In the conclusion drawn, there is no significant difference between the performance level between boys and girls at early age of Montessori education.

  74. Kapukiran, I., Ozel, HB., Varol, T., Emir, T. and Duymus, A.

    The current study aims at analysing the basic learning methods of Montessori kids and comparing the methods of learning between boys and girls. The Montessori education is concentrated on the self-directed activity, hands on learning and scientific observation of children. The two Montessori’s of south Bangalore Leo kids and Samskruti were selected as the study area. The age group considered was from 3-5 years and were grouped as PKG (Pre Kinder Garden), LKG (Lower Kinder Garden), and UKG (Upper Kinder Garden). Out of 115 children, 67 were boys and 48 were girls. The performance level of boys and girls were analysed under four different tasks and activities classified under identification criteria, memory skills, physical ability and mathematical ability. The total percentage of performance level of boys was 82.09% and girls was 83.66%. The ANOVA - one way classification was used between groups and within groups. The f value was calculated and was compared with F critical value. In the conclusion drawn, there is no significant difference between the performance level between boys and girls at early age of Montessori education.

  75. Madhu Laxmi Sharma

    The garbage dumps near human settlements of hunting and food gathering, emerged out as the nucleus of agriculture. Nearly ten Thousand years ago man learnt to grow the plants of his own choice from seeds & propagules as he saw them growing on garbage dumps. For present investigation Phaseolus mungo crop was taken. From stand point of determination of yield, sink parameters i.e. average number of pods per plant, average pod yield per plant, average length of pods, average number of seeds per pod, average weight of seeds per pod and grain yield gram / plot were calculated under different treatments. These experiments were laid in RBD with three replicates. From stand point of achieving maximum yield it is quite clear that weed free condition obtained through constant weeding is the best method.

  76. Abdelghaffar S. Dhmees, Raed M. Hegazey, Ragaa E. El-Azabawy and Omnia A. A. El-Shamy

    The disposal of industrial waste in a secure manner is the concern of many countries in the world. Herein, zinc oxide obtained from dangerous waste "Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD)" that produced from steel manufacture. In addition, raw Egyptian kaolinite (white kaolinite and rich iron kaolinite) are used to enhance the photocatalytic activity of the separated ZnO by the formation of W-K@ZnO and Fe-K@ZnO, respectively. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, BET surface area, and photoluminescence measurements are utilized to estimate the chemical structure of the prepared materials. The results show that the combination of riches iron kaolinite with ZnO enhance the photodegradation up to 98.2%. The presence of Fe2O3 promotes the absorption of ZnO into the visible region and delay the electron-hole recombination.

  77. GUIDI Tognon Clotilde, ALIHONOU Agnimoan Constant, CHEGNIMONHAN K. Victorin, SEMASSOU Guy Clarence, SANYA A. Emile, DEGAN Gérard and AGASSOUNON DJIKPO TCHIBOZO Micheline

    The cooling for air conditioning or foodstuff refrigeration is ensured in most cases with compression refrigeration machines which are high electrical energy consumers. They are responsible of much greenhouse effects, especially when chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), or certain hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) are involved as refrigerants due to their high global warming capacities. A promising alternative to these systems is the use of absorption type refrigeration machines. Indeed, these equipments provide a very low power consumption and allow the use of refrigerants with quite low global warming potential as water, or ammonia which are natural refrigerants. In tropical countries, solar energy can be associated for heat supply making the technology more competitive and eco-friendly. In this paper a focus was made in the modelling of an absorption machine using the water-lithium bromide (LiBr-H2O) binary mixture withinsouthern Beninese climatic conditions. The effect of the operating temperatures of the main elements of the device on the coefficient of performance (COP) were analysed. The parameters that ensure optimum performance have also been determined. The results showed that the efficiency of the internal heat recovery heat exchanger and the temperatures (at the heater and the evaporator) have a significant impact on the COP. The numerical study also made it possible to determine the temperature ranges for which the absorption machine may provide good performances in tropical environments.

  78. Dr. Ahmad EL Zein, Manal Ahmad and Adham Areji

    Delegation is the transmission of authority partially or fully to another person, usually from the manager to employees. If delegation is applied fittingly, then it will lead to prosperity of the organization and will with no doubt be a significant factor for increasing productivity. Despite the importance of delegation, but still it is an attribute that is missing among a large segment of leaders since it requires total trust of leaders in their followers. In this study a quantitative approach was adopted to 80 respondents where 69 were verified as acceptable for our study. The results aligned with the original assumption that leaders need to enhance their delegation which will lead to motivating supporters.

  79. Prasanta Kumar Das, Somtirtha B. Ganguly and Bodhisatya Mandal

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) still remains the major public health threat in India. Early diagnosis, so as to initiate early treatment is a priority as any delay, may complicate the prognosis further leading to the failure of an effective control. India accounts for 6% incidence of pediatric TB cases in a population that has 40% as estimated latent TB cases. Pediatric samples as the key population. Tuberculosis remains the commonest cause of childhood meningitis in high burden countries (Raj et al., 2014). India accounted for highest number of TB deaths among children in the year 2015 followed by Nigeria and China. Out of which TBM stands to be the most common cause of morbidity. Extra pulmonary TB accounts for 25% out of the total TB cases reported among which the most severe form being the TBM. Though severe and difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests to get confirmed, CBNAAT is the only solution for microbiological confirmation of the disease for early treatment initiation and reduction of morbidity and mortality. Previously, due to lower case detection rates owing to inadequate diagnostic facilities of higher analytical sensitivity the mortality and morbidity continued to be in the higher range and empirical treatment modality was the main stay till the Cartridge based Nucleic acid amplification tests came into existence. The increase in the case detection for Tubercular meningitis at a manageable stage of the disease would help in decreasing the mortality rates. The study explores the increased case detection rates among pediatric population suffering from tubercular meningitis from referral units to Intermediate Reference Lab Kolkata. CSF from the pediatric patients has not been very difficult procedure though invasive specially in the pediatric age group and can be practiced at peripheral unit having CBNAAT facility. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid from pediatric patients showing obvious clinical signs of meningitis were collected from tertiary unit linked to Intermediate Reference Laboratory Kolkata and tested on CBNAAT by Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rifampicin (MTB/RIF) (Cepheid) along with all the pulmonary and extra pulmonary samples based on the manufacturer’s instruction. The data were captured in the Xpert software automatically during the tests and exported to the Microsoft Excel sheets for further analysis. A defined study design against each and every objective was set up to analyze the effective detection of tubercular meningitis case and their resistance to Rifampicin along with the other pulmonary and extra pulmonary samples. Result and Conclusions: The study concluded that confirmation of tubercular meningitis cases by the help of CBNAAT. The detection of microbiologically confirmed tuberculosis by these specimen sent from the referral unit linked with IRL Kolkata for pulmonary and extra pulmonary cases along with tubercular meningitis cases is significant and facilitate the early initiation of treatment for tuberculosis and more so to those who are newly detected as MDR TB especially below the 6 months of age. About 5% prevalence and around 4.9% incidence is an alarming situation in the TB control scenario of West Bengal. The positive case detection among the CSF samples was found to be more in the 0.6 to one year group followed by the age group of one to five years. The percentage positivity of CSF is recorded as 2.38% and the percentage of Rifampicin resistance among positive cases from CSF was found to be 13.79% (n=28).

  80. Forka Leypey Mathew Fomine

    As Essentially, this article examines the contribution of Catholic Missionaries in the social development of Nkongho-Mbo from1936 to 2001. What used to constitute Mbo as an ethnic entity was divided in 1916 following the defeat and ouster of the Germans from Kamerun and the partition of the territory by the British and the French. The line of partition divided the Mbo group, giving birth to French-speaking and English-speaking Mbo. This study is focused primarily on the NkonghoMbo people who belong to the, English-speaking sector of the large Mbo ethnic group. The paper argues convincingly thatin the absence of Catholic missionaries who arrived Nkongho-Mbo indifferent bands, there should have been very little or no social developments in the area during the period under study (1936-2001). The Catholic missionaries did quite much in the domain of education, health and electricity provision. For example, the health centre that they established in Mbetta in 1964 significantly reduced mortality rate in the area. More so, the education offered by the same missionaries, both at primary and post primary levels aided in reducing the rate of illiteracy in the entire Nkongho-Mbo area. The provision of hydro-electricity by the missionaries was also very striking. Nkongho-Mbo area where the hydroelectricity was provided became an area of interest to the neighbouring ethnic groups. The electricity did not only chase away darkness in Mbetta in the night but it also served as an important source of power. The use of electricity-powered mills to grind food items like corn, ground nuts, pepper and other items became widespread in the area. This article concludes that the Nkongho-Mbo people benefited remarkably from the presence of the Catholic missionaries in their area from 1936 to 2001.

  81. Dr. Nisha, Dr. Bhavna Gupta Saraf, Dr. Neha Sheoran, Dr. Aumir and Dr. Yashi Andley

    This review focus on several emergency drugs which should be always present in the pediatric dental office for the treatment of medical emergencies or to prevent their occurrence in dental clinic. Drugs used for adults can be inadequate for treatment of medical emergencies in a pediatric dental patient. So emergency drugs should be individually prepared for use or they can be commercially available as emergency drug kit. This drug kit should contain all emergency drugs with recommended dose for use by the pedodontist according to the needs of emergency and training of the dental practitioner.

  82. Dr. Balaraju, K.

    This paper intends to measures the impact of Socio-economic status on quality of life of primary stakeholders of NGOs working in rural areas of Telangana state. The objectives are to know the socio economic status of primary stakeholders of NGOs and to assess impact of socio economic status on quality of life of the primary stakeholders adopted by the sample NGOs. The descriptive and analytical research design is adopted to measure the quality of life of the primary stakeholders of NGOs. Using stratified disproportionate random sampling method NGOs were selected for the present study. The results of this study revealed that those who are having 4 to 9 acres of land have perceived more on QOL dimensions namely “Psychological Being”, “Spiritual Being”, “Physical Belonging”, “Social Belonging”, “Practical Becoming”, “Leisure Becoming”, “Growth Becoming”. The stakeholders’ monthly income range of Rs. 4,001/- to 12,000/- of are enjoying more quality of life of dimensions of namely “Physical Being”, “Social Belonging”, “Community Belonging”, “Practical Becoming” and “Growth Becoming” than other monthly income range group. Study also revealed that stakeholders’ caste has an effect on their quality of life. The upper caste stakeholders are enjoying more quality of life than BC, SC and ST’s.

  83. Majrul, S.K.,

    The study area, Nirmal Chor is encumbered with both physical and socio-economic compels. It is the piece that such areas are too poor to be developed but actually, it has different. None but the thing is that these areas needed some inputs and ventures. The objectives of this paper are only to highlight some details and areas in which it can venture some possibilities and the methodology is wholly descriptive statistical method and also used simple random sampling and stratified random sampling have been taken as the research area holds a large number of people belonging with the homogeneous economic class.

  84. Wesly Zarzolawmi and Dr. Pallavi Hazarika

    The present study was undertaken to find out the attitude of secondary school teachers of Aizawl district towards teaching profession with a sample of 100 teachers which was selected randomly. The attitude scale developed by H. Malsawmi and Mary L. Renthlei was used for data collection.

  85. Dr. Ashish Sharma, Dr. Nishant Nadda, Dr. Rajesh Kashyap, Dr. Anupam Parashar, Dr. Rajesh Sharma and 4Dr. Rajeev Merwaha

    Background: Patients presenting with chest pain are a common daily occurrence in emergency medicine. Chest pain is quite common and up to 25% of the general population experience it in some form during their lifetime. The causes for cardiac-mimicking chest pain are numerous, but the most common causes can be narrowed down by system: musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, psychological, and pulmonary. Proper management of non-cardiac chest pain will lead to better utilization of resources, reduced health care costs, and an increased quality of life for patients. Objectives: To study the clinical profile and outcome of patients presenting with non-traumatic chest pain to emergency in the Department of Internal Medicine of tertiary care centre of Northern India. Methods: The Observational Cross-Sectional study was conducted in the emergency department of Medicine, of tertiary care center of Northern India, from 1st July 2016 to 30th June 2017, among the patients presenting with non- traumatic chest pain and who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Results: Out of 271 patients who reported to emergency with complaints of chest pain, 98 (36.2%) patients had CVS cause of chest pain, 65 (24%) had GIT cause, 63 (23.2%) had MSK cause, 25 (9.2%) had respiratory cause, 14 (5.2%) had psychiatric cause and 4 (2.2%) patients had other causes of chest pain. Conclusion: As the chest pain is the most common symptom in general practice and the present study also suggests that cardiac causes should be considered as prime cause until they are ruled out. Therefore, thorough history and physical examination should be part of initial evaluation of all patients with chest pain. However further large clinical as well as epidemiological studies with robust study design need to be conducted to confirm and further elaborate on our observations.

  86. Dr. Kathleen Okafor

    The concept of credit for business was alien to Nigeria until the establishment of banking institutions at the tail end of the 19th Century. Prior to the growth in trading activities from about 1861 in Lagos, the entire country was agrarian with bouts of illegal trafficking in persons and minor trading in basic consumer goods. The stoppage of slave trade made British merchants to shift to trading in raw materials like rubber, bauxite, iron for their nascent factories. Borrowing for agrarian products or subsistence was nealyr non-existent except for seedlings for land which was super abundant. Borrowing therefore was considered anathema or fraudulent and failure to repay loans usually resulted in slavery, ostracism, confiscation of wife and children of the defaulter. With the oil boom, businesses imbibed corrupt and extravagant practices, coupled with general illiteracy, tribalism, nepotism which affected business performance and loan repayment. It is not unusual for investors/shareholders to use corporate loans or other funds for unproductive activities like politics and for acquisition of more wives and ostentations living. This paper seeks therefore to trace the history of corporate borrowing in Nigeria within the local cultural milieu. Attempt has also been made to differentiate between the various types of receiverships, and the continued influence of equity rules. Also, the nature and basic powers of a receiver are analysed as there is still great confusion between a receiver and a liquidator. Also, the legal status of a receiver is examined to ascertain the reality and pragmatism of their neutrality in the discharge of their functions. In addition, the courts inherent powers to appoint receivers are re-examined.

  87. Dr. José Arturo Vázquez Vázquez

    The Flexner Report "Medical Education in the United States and Canada" is the publication on medical education among the proponents and detractors of this pedagogical proposal. This model has disadvantages within which the scientific approach is noted away from the integral vision of the human being. Clinical reasoning is the centerpiece of medical practice and is an undefined construct and that formal programs of medical schools do not include. It is extremely difficult to teach students to replicate the expert's reasoning, if they do not yet have their own experience, or with structured knowledge. This experience is only acquired by comparatively relating a clinical problem, with similar situations seen above. In medical education, the simulation focuses on placing the student in a context that mimics clinical reality and is defined as a technique that replaces or expands a real experience through a guided experience, replicating real-world aspects in a way interactive- At the undergraduate boarding school, a trained physician is expected to develop and competencies related to health problem care. The objective of this work is to evaluate the development of Clinical Reasoning in Undergraduate Internal Physicians, taking into account the use of clinical simulation within the different curricula. Material and Methods: A prospective multicenter experimental study was conducted, with under graduate in-house physicians, (MIP) students from four medical schools. Curriculums were analyzed, taking into account whether or not they included clinical simulation scenarios as a teaching tool. Sand formed two groups, MIP that were taught with simulation scenarios and had no teaching with simulation scenarios. They were evaluated in a real clinical scenario during the preparation of the medical history of a randomly selected patient in the General Surgery service. Results: 24 (100%) MIPgroup I evaluated with clinical simulation in their curriculum we obtained the following results: Regarding the Interrogation aimed at obtaining important data for the current condition 20 (83.3%), they obtained excellent score, 3 (12.5%) they scored well, 1 (4.2%), scored regularly, and 0 scored poorly. As for obtaining data for the integration of diagnosis, 21(87.5%) they scored excellent 1 (4.2%) got well score 0 got regular score and 2 (8.3) got poor score. Speaking of physical data collection, the result was: 20 (83%) with a score of excellent, 3 (12.5%) with a good score, 1 (4.2%) with a regular score and 0 with poor score. For diagnostic supplementation studies it refers to 21 (87.5%) scored excellent 1 (4.2%) scored well 1 (4.2%) scored regular and 1 (4.2%) got poor score. In treatment evaluation 23 (95.8%) got an excellent score of 0 had good score, 1 (4.2%) had a regular score, 0 got poor score. The 27 (100%) MIP group II without clinical simulation in its curriculum, the results were as follows: Regarding the Interrogation aimed at obtaining important data for the suffering actat, 3 (11.2%) got an excellent score, 5 (18.5%) scored well, 19 (70.3%) they got a regular rating, 0 got poor grade. As for obtaining data for the integration of diagnosis, 7 (26%) got an excellent score, 5 (18.5%) scored well, 9 (33.3%) scored regular, 6 (22.2%), scored poorly. Speaking of physical data collection, the result was: 4 (14.8%) with a score of excellent, 4 (14.8%) with a good score, 7 (26%), with a regular score and 12 (44.4%), with a poor score. As for diagnostic supplementation studies refersto ,4 (14.8%) scored 6 (22.2%) got a goodscore, 9 (33.3%) obtained a regulatory scoreof8 (29.7%) got poor score. In treatment evaluation 3 (11.1%) scored at 3 (11.1%) had a good score, 11 (40.7%), had a regular score, 10 (37%) got poor score. Conclusions: The fundamental axis of medical training is clinical reasoning; in the student and in the doctor his learning represents a challenge, since traditionally education medicine has been based on the memorization of contents. The antecedent of a curriculum that includes clinical simulation scenarios favors the development of non-technical skills within which clinical reasoning stands out. Internal physicians who were trained under an academic program with clinical simulation not only develop specific clinical medical skills and abilities, but also the application and development of clinical reasoning, during the stage of building the medical history.

  88. Helen Odunola Adekoya, Charles Maduabuchi Ekeh, Sandra Rimazu Omilo

    This study was carried out to examine youths’ interest in traditional political activities and online political activities before and after exposure toPolitics Today program intervention on YouTube. The quasi-experimental pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design using questionnaires was utilized in studying sixty (60) participants who were chosen through the purposive sampling technique from the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The study showed that Politics Today program on Channels’ Television’s YouTube page had no effect on youths’ interest to participate in active politics. The study recommends that there should be proper orientation in educational institutions and to the youths in the country generally in order to stimulate their interest in political activities as their contribution is also needed to accelerate development.

  89. Dr Mohammad Farooq Butt, Dr. Mohammad Azhar Ud Din Darokhan, Dr. Omeshwar Singh and Dr. Sakib Arfee

    Introduction: Pain from the lateral aspect of the elbow was first described in 1873, and has since then been given different names such as tennis elbow, lateral epicondylitis, epicondylitis, epicondylalgia and lateral elbow pain. The etiology and pathogenesis of tennis elbow is not known, but the condition is considered to be an overuse injury of degenerative nature (Jozsa and Kannus, 1997 et al.). The pathology found in tennis elbow is addressed to the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscle origin (Nirschl and Pettrone, 1979). Materials and Methods: 25 patients in the age group of 20 to 70 years of either sex presenting pain on the lateral epicondyle of either elbow after being clinically diagnosed as suffering from Lateral Epicondylitis / Tennis Elbow after having ruled out other possible causes of pain in this region presenting after 7 days of onset of pain with failed conservative management for 2 weeks attending OPD/ emergency of the Post Graduate department of Orthopaedics, GMC Jammu were included in this study from July 2017 to June 2108. The response to treatment was graded using Oxford elbow score. Observations: In the present study of 25 patients there were 13 males and 12 females with a mean age of 43.98 years ( Range between 22 to 74 years). It was observed that the pretreatment mean oxford elbow score was 38.32 (20.83-56.24) which improved to 46.73 (20.83-66.65) at 1 month, 58.60 (33.32-81.23) at 3 months and 70.15 (35.41-87.48) at 6 months. Discussion: Nonoperative treatment is successful in 95% of patients with tennis elbow. There have been several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have compared autologous whole blood with PRP injection, autologous whole blood with steroid injection and PRP with steroid injection. However, results as to whether PRP, autologous whole blood or corticosteroids is more beneficial are still unclear. Conclusion PRP: improves pain and function in patients suffering from LE where conservative management has failed.

  90. Guruprasad, M., Govind Mallan, Raghav Gattani, Ejaz Ahmed Sheikh, Pankaj Sardarsingh Sarwaye, Priya Singh and Mehul Johari

    Inclusive growth is a concept that advances equitable opportunities for economic participants during economic growth with benefits incurred by every section of society. Despite India boasting economic growth rates higher than most developed countries in recent years, a majority of the country’s population still remains unbanked. Government launching the various programs for cashless society and transparency in transaction of money but without the financial inclusion these programs cannot be succeeding in India. However for attaining the objectives of inclusive growth there is a need for resources, and for resource generation and mobilization financial inclusion is required. It plays a very crucial role in the process of economic growth. The present paper focuses on role of financial inclusion for inclusive growth. It attempts to study the concept and initiatives towards financial inclusion in India by looking at the various initiatives of financial inclusion example from some of the key government policy initiatives. The data was based on secondary data. Also, the study looked into specific government programs. The study finds that there has been considerable progress in the financial inclusiveness in terms of penetration of banking services among the bottom of the pyramid segment of population due to various initiatives.

  91. C. Rambabu and Prof Dr. A. Padmaja

    Introduction: Shaken baby syndrome is a serious brain injury caused by forcefully and violently shaking a baby. The National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome reported that > 500 shaken baby syndrome cases, either fatal or nonfatal, occurred in the U.S., the District of Columbia, 2013-2014.Objective: To assess the level of knowledge on shaken baby syndrome and its prevention among care givers of young child. Design: Descriptive research design was used. Participants: 100 care givers of young child were selected using Convenient sampling technique in Para area of MCH centre Tirupathi. Tool: Structured Questionnaire with 10 questions was used to assess the level of Knowledge of care givers of young child regarding shaken baby syndrome. 10 dichotomous questions used to assess the level of Knowledge on prevention of Shaken baby syndrome among care givers of young child. Results: The findings of the study revealed that 45%(45) had inadequate knowledge, 26%(26) had moderate knowledge and 29% (29) had adequate knowledge on shaken baby syndrome, 14%(14) care givers of young child had inadequate knowledge , 36%(36) had moderate knowledge and 50% (50) care givers adequate knowledge on prevention of shaken baby syndrome. Conclusion: The care givers of young child having moderate knowledge on shaken baby syndrome and its prevention. The nurses in the hospital should work out a plan for educational programmes based on their level of knowledge. A wide spread network should be provided, which should focus on the improving the knowledge of shaken baby syndrome. The study will help the health care personnel to conduct health education session for care givers of a child on shaken baby syndrome and its prevention.

  92. Dr. Mohammad Farooq Butt, Dr. Akib Arfee, Dr. Mohammad Azhar ud din Darokhan and Dr. Sakib Arfee

    Back ground: Hip fractures are breaks in the neck and Perirtrochanteric region. These are serious injuries that most often occur in elderly persons and create a major social, psychological, economical and public health problem in this old age. Most hip fractures require surgery, hospitalization, and extended rehabilitation. This puts lot of economical and social burden on the public and government sectors. Objectives: To assess the risk factors of hip fractures among the patients of all age groups presenting for cognitive assistance. Methods: This study was conducted among the patients admitted in Orthopaedic Department Government Medical College Jammu. All the patients regardless of age, sex and educational level admitted with hip fractures during the period of June 2016 to May 2018 were included in the study. Results: There were 522 patients admitted with hip injuries. Among these 522 patients that were admitted with hip fractures, there were 293(56.86%) female and 229(43.14%) male; the mean age of the patients was 50.64 years. The lower limit of age was 3 years and upper limit was 100 years. The majority of the patients 41.37% were in between the age group of 60 to 79 years. Conclusion: The hip fractures increases as the age advances. This temporal rise can be reduced with nutritional supplements for the prevention of osteoporosis. The prevention of osteoporosis will reduce the hip fractures that will ultimately alleviate the disability and burden of the disease.

  93. Debela Tezara

    The title of the article was stressed on “Rethinking Curriculum Implementation, Paradigm, Models and Teachers’ Works.” by Cho, Jeasik (1998). The Paper was has been Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Diego, CA, April13-17, 1998). The paper was start with introduction and over view in line with the current conceptual map regarding the curriculum implementation scene in terms of the twofold fidelity and adaptive position of view. On another hand it was also address the outlook curriculum enactment. The paper also stressed on the issues of understanding the implementation of paradigm, conventional implementation of models revisited, a new constellation of teachers’ work, conclusion and references were provided in the paper in details by the author.

  94. Ms. Monalisa Patel, Mr. Naineesh Patel, Ms. Neha Patel, Ms. Nehal Patel, Ms. Palak Patel and Mr. Rajesh Joseph

    Background: Sexuality is an integral part of human life. It carries the awesome potential to create new life. It can foster intimacy and bonding as well as shared pleasure in our relationships. It fulfils a number of personal and social needs, and we value the sexual part of our being for the pleasures and benefits it affords us. Yet when exercised irresponsibly it can also have negative aspects such as sexually transmitted diseases--including HIV/AIDS--unintended pregnancy, and coercive or violent behavior. Methods and Materials: Comparative descriptive research design including 200 adolescent higher secondary students of rural and urban schools in Vadodara were selected as samples using purposive sampling technique and data was collected by self-structured knowledge questionnaire to assess the knowledge and likert scale to assess attitude was administered. Results: The collected data were tabulated and analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Among socio demographic variables, gender and religion found non-significant and type of family, sources of health information and family composition were found significant. Hence there is no-significant association between knowledge and selected socio-demographic variables H1 is rejected. Conclusion: According to the study 95% had average knowledge & 5% had inadequate knowledge and no one had adequate knowledge regarding sexual health and 48.33% had positive attitude and 51.67% have negative attitude regarding sexual health. There was significant difference in knowledge and attitude score regarding sexual health among urban and rural adolescents.

  95. Karunakaran, R.

    The study was undertaken with the prime objective of evaluating the role of World Vision in improving the livelihood of the rural community in Soddo Area District, Wolayta Zone. Descriptive survey design was used. Household survey was conducted among 175 households who were randomly selected from five kebeles (villages) on proportionate to their population size. Structured questionnaire was prepared, pretested and distributed among the sample respondents for collection of primary data. Furthermore, face to face interview was also conducted among 15 members who were purposively selected from local government officials and World Vision staff. Focus group discussion and critical observations of various variables were also conducted. The collected data have been analyzed by using the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods. Descriptive statistics were widely used to analyze quantitative data. Sustainable Livelihood Model has been used as a conceptual framework whereby the major livelihood components such as food security and agriculture, health, education, potable water supply and credit and saving schemes are discussed. The findings of the study revealed that the role of World Vision in the major livelihood components was found to be highly significant in the study area. Its attempt to provide potable water, however, has been hampered by the quality of the constructed water points. Community participation and government cooperation were found to be the best opportunities whereas, recurrent draught, low level of the community’s education and land size have been found to be the major challenges of livelihood improvement of the community. The communities in the study area believed that the World Vision contribute a lot for their livelihood improvement. It was recommended that the World Vision need to take appropriate actions to improve the quality of their water points through constructing deeper wells and raising awareness of the community. Introducing an integrated irrigation program has been advised as the major cause for this is related to rain fall irregularity. It is recommended that the World Vision work in collaboration with the community itself and with government on the possibilities of introducing adolescent education to the community. Alternative agricultural technologies relevant to small land size have been recommended.

  96. Kariyawasan, C.C., Jeewani, T. L., Balasuriya, B.L.T. and Ranatunga, S.A.C.D.

    Hairy-cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare slow-growing mature B cell neoplasm of the blood (2% of lymphoid leukaemias) (1). The median average age lies between 50 to 55 years. Can occur at any age from 20-80 years (1). Children are very rarely affected (1). Male to female ratio is 5:1(2). Diagnosis of HCL is based on clinical symptoms, morphologic findings in peripheral blood and bone marrow, flowcytometric immunophenotyping of blood cells and cytogenetics studies.

  97. Ezdinisihem, Jawahar Ateeq Abdullah Al-Otaibi and Asrar Khalaf Mnawer Almutairi

    Tourism is one of the most important sectors of investment which contribute to raising the gross national product, so developed countries seek to develop this sector. The study aims clarifying the vision of 2030 and highlighting the tourism investment of the Kingdom because of its geographic position and cultural, natural and Islamic resources. It also highlights the most important aspects of tourism investment in the Kingdom, including the services facilities offered to encourage investors as well as employment opportunities, and other activities with an integrated plan to maintain safety, and other aspects that enable tourism investment. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that seek developing tourism because of its components. As a result of this endeavor, 2030 was reached to develop and improve the current tourism in the Kingdom and also investment tourism projects linking the two countries of Egypt and Jordan which will contribute creating development and a positive result for three countries. The study confirms the positive effects of tourism investment on national income on the three countries (Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan) between the period (2007-2018). The study also confirmed the positive impact of tourism investments development as a result of the increase in the number of tourists. The study emphasizes the importance of activating tourism projects, including the Neom project, which links together the three countries studied. The study recommended the importance of spreading tourism awareness about the advantages of tourism in the Kingdom, the importance of knowledge to feasibility study to avoid risks in projects, and providing qualified staff related to tourism guidance to guide tourists and expatriates. The study recommends also the management and improvement of services to facilitate services to investors encouraging them to the investment.

  98. Kiran Panthri

    Stress is a feeling that's created when we react to particular events. The way our body and mind react to life changes. It's the way of rising to a challenge and preparing to meet a tough situation with focus, strength, stamina, and heightened alertness. These events are called stressors. Among various life stages Teenage stress is of great concern. It can cause more harm than just a few pimples. Teenage stress has been proven as an indirect cause of eating disorders, depression, physical ,social emotional changes, and even sometimes as serious as suicide.

  99. Dissabandara, D. R. and Dissanayake, D.M.R.

    Sensory marketing creates an impact on the sense of the consumer, where it also affects perception, judgment and behavior. The main objective of the Sensory marketing is to send a direct message to the consumer’s brain creating an interest, tempting the client to purchase that particular product creating a bond between the client and product. Since the five senses play an important role in the human life, establishing brands with great importance is a key factor in the ever increasing brands in the market. At the same time, Sensory brands help to create a powerful sensory relationship with the client. The literature on Sensory marketing suggests 5 different elements where sensory stimuli are created and consumers can be influenced. They are identified as Visual (Sight), Atmospheric (Smell), Auditory (Hearing), Tactile (Touch) and Gustative (Taste). The sensory elements create sensory expressions and influences grounded cognition and finally it impacts consumer behavior.

  100. Jawale Bhushan, Rodrigues Lishoy, Vora Ketan and Umalkar Devika

    There are a variety of different kinds of braces that offer excellent teeth straightening solutions for the variety of unique smiles we see every day in Orthodontics. From clear braces to the traditional metal kind, there are so many benefits that come with achieving straight, perfect teeth. One of the biggest, most noticeable advantages beyond a transformed smile is overall self-confidence. It’s one of the most anticipated rewards. At Smile and Shine Orthodontic care, Pune, the team looks forward to bringing beautiful smiles to patients, when a patient seeks orthodontic care, no matter what age and completes their orthodontic treatment with the patient being more than satisfied. The results are always life-changing! To verify and gauge the level of patient satisfaction, a study was conducted at smile and Shine orthodontic care, Pune, in which a questionnaire was distributed to patients with 5 questions each. A score of 1 to 5 was assigned to each question and the results were analyzed based on the questionnaire which enabled us to analyze the degree of patient satisfaction with the orthodontic treatment. Results were- • 87% of the patients gave a score of 5, suggestive of extreme satisfaction with the treatment • 9% of the patients gave a score of 4, suggestive of good satisfaction with the treatment but were a little reluctant about the time and duration of the prolonged orthodontic treatment • 4% of the patients gave a score of 3, which suggested that they were neutral about the treatment, i.e. they were neither happy with the treatment nor were they apprehensive or unhappy about it. • However, there were no patients amongst the 200, who were dissatisfied with the treatment in any aspect throughout the entire phase of orthodontic treatment.

  101. Dr. Sangeetha, P.

    Human Resource Development (HRD) is a continuous process of enabling and ensuring the development of employees in a systematic and planned way. No organization can grow and survive in the present day environment without growth and development of its people. Developing the human resource by upgrading their skills, extending their knowledge and competencies would lead to organizational development. Human Resource is the most important and valuable resource of every organization. Dynamic people can build dynamic organizations. Efficient employees can contribute to the effectiveness of an organization. Competent and motivated employees can make things happen and enable an organization to achieve its goal. Therefore, organizations should continuously ensure that the dynamism, competence, motivation and effectiveness of the employee always remain high. The present study is an attempt to contribute to a better understanding of the HRD climate prevailing in submersible manufacturing organizations. The general climate, HRD Mechanisms and OCTAPAC culture are better in submersible pump organizations.

  102. Aminah Alatas, Achmad Ridwan and Yetty Supriyati

    This aimof this study was to evaluate STIKes KESOSI (Sekolah Tinggi Kesehatan Kesetiakawanan Sosial Indonesia) as a nursing college in Jakarta that trains students to graduate asprofessional nurses. The study used a CIPPO (Context, Input, Process, Product) approach that added outcomes (o) component at the end of the evaluation model. The study used a qualitative methodology with data collected through documentation analysis, interviews, questionnaires, field notes, and observations. The study found that the health institution under study has relevanc to society and to health industry needs. The findings showed that the institution’s context is relevant to government regulations, especially in the context of the input of students, lecturers and staff, management and curriculum. It is also relevant to the regulations in order to improve students’‘soft skills’ and ‘hard skills’.The process component of the study showed that students’became more empathetic and and showed greater concern for other people. The out come component showedthat the graduates fulfill the required competences of patient and health clinic, or industry through the feedback from private and government hospitals. The study concluded that STIKes KESOSI engaged with patient and hospital needs by successfully developing professional nurses.

  103. Dr. Ankwasiize Evarist, Dr. Kiyingi Frank Pio, Nalwanga Angella and Nakaliti Annet

    The rising number of incidences of psychological and nervous breakdowns and open psychiatric illnesses among children and adolescents are resulting into society’s, (parents and teachers in particular) inability to offer appropriate nurturance to them (children and adolescents). Parents and or caretakers with society at large are faced with difficulty to understand the childhood and adolescence stages. Effort has been put in place to try to maintain the known or familiar systems of parenting, nurturance and moral training, however, some seem to be a failure due to a number of factors such as modernity which allows exposure and modeling age-inappropriate behaviour. This article has assessed the principles of the rights of children with specific reference to Africa and Ugandan context. Children and adolescents in the contemporary society in Africa and in Uganda in particular are faced with many critical issues like inappropriate parenting/nurturance styles; unhealthy attachments and detachments; unresolved grief; traumatic events; addictions to drugs and substances; stress and conflicts; and peer pressure, child labor, child torture, child neglect. They therefore exhibit their vulnerability in behaviour. It concludes that raising the child requires an integrated and holistic approach supportive families, communities and government agencies by providing the basic needs of the children.

  104. Anush Mandya Nagesh, Prajwala Naidu Babu, Sagar T., Sanjana Vidhuran and Dr. Nalini, N.

    Face recognition is a task of identifying an individual in an image using a set of images stored in a database. The applications of this activity are vast, few of them include automatic attendance marking system, security issues concerning smartphones and other smart devices, law enforcement and so on. Most of the existing systems focus on image to image face recognition, whereas our system can perform sketch to image recognition. The system can either implement Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) or Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG). Apart from recognizing a face in a sketch, this paper will also concentrate on testing the speed of execution of both algorithms. A graph will be determined to show the comparison between the two algorithms.

  105. Gomathi Munusamy, Teklay Beyene Gebremichael and Dr. Ramesh Shanmugam

    Background: Appropriate utilization and compliance of Surgical Safety Checklist reduces occurrence of perioperative surgical complications and improve patient outcomes. However, data on compliance of surgical checklists are scarce in the study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate compliance of checklist completionat ayder comprehensive specialized hospital, mekelle, Ethiopia. Methods: Institutional based cross sectionalstudy was conducted among 132 patients undergoing elective and emergency surgery from April to June 2017. Compliance and completeness rate with implementation of Sign-in, Time-out, and Sign-out domains was computed with SPSS 20 package. Results: A total of 132 operations were performed and checklists were utilized in 69.7 % (92/132) of cases. Among these, most checklists were employed during emergency procedures (72 %) and in plastic and neurology surgical specialty were (100) completed. The overall compliance and completeness rate were 69.7% and 2.2 % respectively. The sign-in, time-out and sign-out completeness rate were in 60.9% (56/92), 8.9% (8/92) and 7.6 % (7/92) respectively. Conclusions and recommendations: The compliance rate was satisfactory but the overall completeness rate was low. Moreover, frequent use of the checklist during emergency cases has been deemed to be of value by clinicians. Supplementary training and attention to actual checklist use would be indicated to ensure that this valuable tool could be used more routinely and improve communication. Conducting regular audit of checklist utilization is also recommended.

  106. Dr. Maja Roje Novak

    The existence and mechanism of synchronicities, or “meaningful coincidences”, is hotly debated. The effect of prayer on synchronicity occurrence has yet to be quantified, even though prayer may predispose to synchronicities by suppressing conscious awareness. Here we describe the case of a 60-year-old woman who experienced an increased number of synchronicities after three months of undertaking a focused and intensive prayer programme. This report sets the scene for future studies aiming to quantify the effect of different types of prayer on synchronicity occurrence and its impact on human health.

  107. Dr. Sushma, R., Miss. Samruddhi Sawant, Mr. Shardul Taware and Mrs. Trupthi Saket Bhosle

    Background and Aim: Life expectancy of people is increasing hence the edentulous population as well. It is of utmost importance that the post insertion instructions to be given by the dentists and followed by the patients earnestly for the success of the prosthetic rehabilitation. In view of this the aim of the present study was conducted. Materials and methods: A self administered questionnaire was administered to the patients to assess their attitude and knowledge about denture care. Results: Out of the 260 patients assessed 76 were males and 184 were females. 114 (43.8%) patients were between the age of 51-60 years.112 (43.1%) of them used the dentures for 1-2 years.56 (21.6%) of them had quid habit and 7 (2.7%) smoked with their dentures.207 (29.6%) of them got the denture hygiene and maintenance instructions from their treating dentists.243 (93.5%) said they clean their dentures after every meal.114 ( 43.8%) used brush and water to clean their dentures.239(91.9%) stored their dentures in water at night.245 (94.2%) do not use any denture cleansing tabs.249(95.8%) do not use any oral rinse.245(94.2%) do not sleep with dentures on.100(38.5%) of the study participants visited their dentists for follow up yearly once visit.198(76.2%) said that the most important quality of denture is that is mastication. Conclusion: The denture care instructions and maintenance protocol in this study were found to be satisfactory. However, emphasis should be given on education and motivation of patients regarding the recall visits of the patients.

  108. Dr. Hemant Thacker, Dr. Jothydev Kesavadev, Dr. Shahu Ingole, Dr. Ruchi Shah, and Dr. Rishi Jain

    Background: Glycemic variability takes into account the intraday glycemic excursions including episodes of hyper and hypoglycaemia. This study was planned to compare effects of teneligliptin and glimepiride as add-on to metformin on glycemic variability in Indian patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, open-label, multi-centre study in 52 T2DM patients uncontrolled on optimal metformin dose (HbA1c 7.0%-9.5%). They were randomised in 1:1 ratio to teneligliptin 20 mg once daily (T/M group) or glimepiride(G/M group) as an add-on to metformin and were deployed with a professional continuous glucose monitoring (iCGM) device for 14 consecutive days. The endpoints measured were 24 hours mean glucose level, proportion of time in euglycemia (>70 - <180 mg/dL), hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dL), and hypoglycaemia (< 70 mg/dL). Results: Significantly higher proportion of time was spent in hypoglycemia in G/M group compared to T/M group (10.04% vs 03.4%; p = 0.04). Proportion of time spent in euglycemia and hyperglycemia was comparable between the groups. There was greater reduction in PPG from baseline at Day 14 in T/M group (-27.16  64.30 mg/dL) compared to G/M group (-7.19 78.45mg/dL, p = 0.53). Conclusion: Teneligliptin as add-on to metformin offers low intraday glycemic variability, allowing more predictable glycemic control as compared to glimepiride and emerges as a safe, tolerable and effective treatment in patients with T2DM on more stringent criteria of glycemic variability.

  109. Satheesh, D.J., Vinila, V. S., Sam Rajan, Reenu Jacob and Jayakumari Isac

    In this work the authors synthesized a new crystalline ceramic Titanium Substituted Manganese -Zinc Ferrite System Mn0.8+xZn0.2TixFe2-2xO4 with x=0.10 by conventional solid state reaction route involving mechanical mixing, ball milling, calcination and sintering. Most important dielectric properties of the material such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and impedance of the material are evaluated as a function of temperature and frequency. Variation of electrical conductivity with frequency is found out and it is verified to be in accordance with Jonscher’s power law.

  110. Hizrah Hanim Lubis, Nunung Febriany Sitepu and Nurmaini

    Background: Terminal conditions become a various physical problems. Physical symptoms that are indicated include changes in vision, hearing, nutrition, fluid, elimination, skin, vital signs, mobilization, and pain. Nurses must be responsive to physical changes that occur at the terminal client because it causes discomfort and decreases the client's ability to self-care. Objective: To describe the experience of nurses proving terminal care. Methods: this study was a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach with interview techniques. The data collection used in-depth interview method conducted by the researchers themselves with a duration of 60 minutes and a method of observation with the number of participants of 12 nurses working in the palliative room using purposive sampling technique. Results: The results of the study show two themes, namely giving total care and providing nurse intervention in terminal care. Conclusion: This research is expected to motivate nurses in serving dying patients who have diverse needs in their care, not only physical problems but psychological, spiritual, and social support problems.

  111. Rakhi Chandak, Rucha Pandharipande, Ramhari Sathawane, Ashish Lanjekar, Romita Gaikwad and Runal Bansod

    Introduction: Dental anomalies in tooth number, shape, size and position usually result in problems in maxillary and mandibular arch length and occlusion, which may greatly influence orthodontic treatment planning. Digital radiography (Panoramic radiography) is most accurate for diagnostic purposes as it allows complete visualization of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies, that could bethe cause of malocclusion in the Vidarbhian population. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out indepartment of Oral Medicine and Radiology of Swargiya Dadasaheb Kalmegh Smruti Dental college and Hospital Nagpur, Maharashtra and approval was obtained from the institutional ethics committee. A total of 1000 panoramic radiographs were scanned for evaluation of dental anomalies. Dental records and orthopantomograms (OPGs) were reviewed for the following dental anomalies: congenitally missing teeth (agenesis), supernumerary teeth, impaction, ectopic eruption, transposition, germination, fusion, dilacerations, taurodontism, dens in dente (Dens Evaginatus) and any other unusual condition. Results: Out of 1000 patients examined between the age group of 12 to 36 years of age 313patients had dental anomaly. The most common dental anomaly found was impacted teeth (23.1%) followed by Dilaceration(3.6%),Congenitally missing(1.7%), Odontome (1%), Distomolar (0.2%), Talons cusp (0.2%), Partial anadontia (0.2%), Amelogenesis imperfecta (0.2%) Supernumerary teeth (0.2%), Mesiodens (0.2%), Taurodontism (0.4%), Dens invaginatus (0.1%), Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.1%), Dilated odontoma (0.1%). In the present study 687 patients among 1000 patients did not show any dental anomaly. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental anomalies in Vidharbian population was found to be 31.1%.

  112. Dr. Abeer M. Alharbi

    The aim of this study was to describe parental awareness towards the safe use of medications to their children with autism. Method: Cross-sectional study was conducted on April 2016, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia one hundred parents out of two hundred (Response rate of 50%) were answered validated survey questionnaire assessing their awareness about the safe use of medication to their children with autism. Results: this study indicate that around 49% knew that the medication dose can change by using different dosing devices, around 64% believed that self-dose increment above the recommended dose will not give better results, and 54% agreed that same medicine could be available in different forms. Conclusion: The hard mission to raise a child with autism become harder if the child on medication. Child condition can improve if the medication used appropriately and safety measures were considered as a priority, on the other hand, the wrong administration of medicine can lead to harmful consequences, this study showed that parents has fair knowledge about safety measures in using medication for children with autism.

  113. Sustainability of small and micro enterprises

    This paper presents a survey conducted on Sustainability of Small and Micro Enterprises. Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs) has a vital place in the economic development of any nation. In the State of Oromia, for example Small and Micro Enterprise (SMEs) sector contributed over 50 percent in the economic development and created significant number of new jobs despite number of difficulties that the SMEs are facing. Past statistics indicated that two out of five unable to survive during the first six months. This study investigates the way SMEs handle the challenges and sustain to exist in the computing business. This study employed simple random sampling to collect data from 57 registered and licensed small and micro enterprises. Data collected using Questionnaire and interviews was analyzed and presented. Access to finance, land, Electricity, trained workforce, transportation, political instability, licenses & permits and tax rates are major challenges of small and micro enterprise (SMEs). Before and on job training for members of small and micro enterprise (SMEs) is found so essential to capacitate the members for strengthening and identifying business areas where SMEs can further play a part in promoting research projects that can help them to copy or adopt technologies already exists in order to enhance their production and become competitive in the labor market as well as mange to the enterprises sustain. In spite of challenges and different measures taken since its inceptions, SMEs are increased in number and sizes; however they are still facing hard conditions. Disparities among the SMEs are significantly escalating by creating excessive pressure on enhancing the productivity of the SMEs and hamper the important role it can play in the economic sector. As similar studies indicate, such challenges can be addressed if the government is to providing various support services such as setting strategies to overcome the challenges; fair price to their products, better-quality customer service and continuously on job training can enhance the sustainability of small and micro enterprises.

  114. Edmond DOUA

    The study fits more broadly in the perspective of the communication of the organizations. The author brings together, in the same context, other paradigms in information and communication sciences, which help to better understand the problematic of event communication in general. The fields of institutional communication, social, political and marketing, are exploited in a general way, but with a particular interest for Ivory Coast. The main reason is that in this country, for ten years, communication based on the creation and staging of events, is in the process of acquiring its acclaim. This communication strategy tends, in fact, to supplant traditional forms of communication and dissemination of information, to constitute the cornerstone of all communication and marketing plans. On the scientific level, the author relies on an eclectic bibliography, in relation to the field of communication sciences (conceptual and theoretical approach). On the other hand, he relies on his own experience and his long practice on the ground, since the 1990s, in the field of event communication, in order to build his argument. Finally, empirically, the work takes into account the data collected from some Ivorian mobile phone companies. This, in light of their sponsorship, patronage or sponsorship activities in the field. The goal is to better expose the dynamic in which the design and implementation of a marketing communication, based on the event creation in the country. The assumption in this reflection is that event communication contributes, more and more, to the success of a marketing campaign aimed at an organization's brand, product or service.

  115. Senthil Kumar, V. and Rex, L.K.

    The public assembly buildings like outdoor and indoor stadiums are prone to acoustical defects arising out of multifold reasons observed during many stage events. This investigation was carried out with an aim to do away with the obstructions intervening during the gala events. The factors identified to influence the acoustics of buildings are geometrical properties of the building, materials used for construction and interiors, openings in buildings, orientation and positioning of sound systems, number and capacity of sound systems and so on. Considering all these parameters into account, an investigation was made with a scientific approach of setting up of sound systems that suits well for any building geometry built with the conventional construction materials. The results of the study proposed non-linear polynomial equations for orientation and positioning of surround sound systems to generate a highly audible and ambient atmosphere.

  116. Shikha Patel

    The urban experience of Indian cities is mixture of formal and informal spaces, both in context of spatial arrangement and material experience. The new paradigm of globalized smart cities fails to plan/ consider the presence of such street/ block activities in the planning process.Considering street vending playing a major role in contributing to India’s informal economy, this paper critiques the various policies in place at international, national and at Karnataka state level. Taking the example of Gujarat state in India where street vending is included in the town planning act, the paper analyses the possibilities of failure and success of these policies. Ever increasing demand of urban informal economies is not only caused by regulatory inadequacies but rather by the failure of economic system to create enough productive employment. So the argument over here is, if these policies help to meet the larger issues? Further, the paper aims to investigate the spatial impact of street vending in high density Indian market, taking the area of scope as Krishna Rajendra Market of Bangalore city, Karnataka, India.

  117. Md. Farhad Ali, Adiba Farah, Umme Habiba Bodrun Naher and Kawsar Akhtar

    This paper aims to study the viability of converting a putrescible goat stomach into novelty leather in order to produce small leather goods adding value to the waste of goat. In this study, eight pieces of goat stomach were taken which were turned into leather through the stages done in general leather processing such as soaking, liming, de-liming, bating, pickling, tanning, dyeing, finishing etc. After that some physical (tensile strength, stitch tear strength, tearing strength and colour rub fastness) and chemical tests (chromic oxide content, fat content and pH) were performed. Comparing the results of physical tests with the grain leather of goat it has been found that the goat stomach leather has poorer strength due to the different composition of raw hides or skin and the stomach of animals. The results of different chemical tests revealed that pH and fat content (%) were good enough compared to standard value but chromic oxide content (%) was lower than the standard value. However, the goat stomach leather can be used as novelty leather to manufacture fancy leather products, key ring, hair clip, bracelet, watch belt, purse etc.

  118. Rukiya Aliyi

    Measurement radiation level at Atati, Butajera, Mercy and Woliso hospital was carried out using THERMO/RadEye PRD (personal radiation detector). The radiation level results obtained range from 3.074±0.144623mSv/y to 4.179±0.141461mSv/y with an average of 3.6205±0.13417mSv/y respectively. These results showed that the radiation levels in all of the internal (inside) radiation room were higher than the recommended values for patient that 1 mSv/y maximum permissible limit for the public set by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP).

  119. Shinde Madhumati Y., Khade S K., Patil V.A.

    An attempt has been made of study the effect of different biofertilizers such as Azotobacter and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) on yield and yield components of Maize (Zea mays L.) varieties viz.Eco-92 and African tall. The experiments were carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The yield parameters like weight of cob, diameter of cob, length of cob, number of rows per cob, weight of grains, number of grains per cob, weight of 100 grains, grain yield Kg/ha . Result showed that, maize yield and yield components were significantly different at (p≤0.05) higher in application of biofertilizers treatments. However, treatment with combined application of Azotobacter+PSB biofertilizer (A+P) biofertilizers had the highest weight of cob and grain yield Kg/ha as compaired to control. Overall, Azotobacter and PSB biofertilizers improved the quality and quantity of yield.

  120. Dr. Shannon Fernandes, Dr. Brijesh Shetty, Dr. Pranav V. Mody and Dr. Manoj Kumar A.D.

    Resorption of mandibular ridge poses a challenge towards fabrication of a successful stable mandibular denture. Neutral zone concept plays a significant role in overcoming these challenges. Neutral zone is the area where the forces between the tongue on one side and cheeks and lips on other side are neutralized. This technique is most effective in cases where there is highly resorbed ridge along with history of denture instability. This case report also describes a way to record flabby tissue over the ridge using Hobkirk technique.

  121. Rajesh G. and Vardhini, B.V.

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) can be lucidly considered as the 6th group of plant growth regulators (PGRs) capable of plant growth and development as well as potential alleviators of abiotic stresses in plants. Curcuma longa L. commonly known as turmeric is a medicinally important ingredient in the Indian Cuisine. It is cultivated in Nizamabad district which comprises of semi-arid tropical soil on a large scale. The present study is depicting on the role of homobrassinolide, a potential brassinosteroid in alleviating the stress caused by semi-arid tropical soil of Nizamabad and increasing the growth of Curcuma longa L. plants.

  122. Dr. Anuja Ganesh Pawar, Dr. Lata Kale, Dr. Amruta Bansode and Dr. Rashmi Phadnis

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Although a lot of refinement of the older techniques and advancement in terms of newer techniques have happened in this field of imaging studies, but it is always better to learn and understand each and every technique available for this special group of disorders. This article provides an overview of various diagnostic techniques available.

  123. Balusamy, G., Rajasekar, A. and Shanthi, K.

    This experimentation was carried out the effect of tannery effluent on seed germination of Abelmoschus esculentus .L (Ladies finger) seeds under the tannery spiked soil condition. The treatments were made by mixing measured amount of tannery effluents in ground water i.e.5%,10%,15%,20%,25%,and 100% concentrations on seed germination of Abelmoschus esculentus .L (Ladies finger). The seed germination experiments were carried out in completely randomized design (CRD) with six effluent concentrations (treatments), each experiment carried out in triplicates. The seeds were grown in different effluent concentrations and the effects of different concentrations of effluents were compared to that of ground water (control). After the experiments, 80th day, the seedlings were collected and growth parameters like germination percentage, shoot length, number of leaves and auxillary buds were observed as decreased with higher amount of 25%(v/v) up to 100% (v/v) concentrations. The same trend also observed in biochemical parameters like protein, carbohydrate and chlorophyll content respectively. In conclusion, the Abelmoschus esculentus .L growth and biochemical parameters were minimum effect with 20%(v/v) concentration comparing to control. As a result the optimum concentration of tannery effluent contaminated soil was found to be 20%(v/v). The toxic chromium Cr(III) was transferred to different parts of the plant as non-toxic Cr(III). Finally it was observed that the effluent can be used for irrigation purpose after appropriate dilution with ground water.

  124. Dr. Ravindra H.N., Ms. Hemangi Patel, Ms. Himali Patel, Ms. Hiral Patel, Ms. Jinal Patel and Ms. Kajal Patel

    Background: People living with HIV (PLHIV) in resource limited settings should have access to essential interventions to prevent illness and HIV transmission. Under Universal access, agreed to by the G8, efforts to scale up all prevention interventions, to promote provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling services and to integrate these into the care and treatment of PLHIV are underway. Aims & Objectives :The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness computer assisted focused learning regarding knowledge on integrated approaches in management of PLHIV among UG students of Sumandeep Nursing College, Vadodara. Materials & Methods: The research approach was the evaluative approach. The study was conducted using pre-experimental design with one group pre-test post-test design. The study was conducted on 90 B.Sc. nursing students of Sumandeep Nursing college. The purposive sampling technique was used. Results: The investigator found that in the pre-test knowledge score overall mean score is 6.60 and standard deviation 1.71 in the different aspect of knowledge on integrated approaches in management of PLHIV, In the post-test, the overall mean score 12.57 and standard deviation 1.76 in the different aspect of on integrated approaches in management of PLHIV. The association between the post-test level of knowledge and demographical variable. The chi-square value shows that there is a significance association between year of study and post test knowledge score, there is no significant association between knowledge of UG students with selected demographic variables such as age, gender, family monthly income, and types of family.

  125. Dipali B. Tribhuvan and Aparna S. Tawre

    Endophytes are known for their antifungal activity. Aspergillusflavus is a dominant endophyte isolated from stem and leaves of Acacia nilotica. .Aspergillusflavus screened for their antifungal activity against some plant pathogenic fungi. Antifungal activity was checked by using Dual culture method on PDA medium. The zone of inhibition was calculate. The maximum inhibition was recorded against Rhizoctoniasolani followed by Fusariumsolani, Aspergillusniger and minimum inhibition was recorded against and Pythiummyriotylum.

  126. Dr. Romita D Gaikwad, Dr. Gunjan V Moon, Dr Ramhari S Sathawane, Dr. Rakhi M Chandak and Dr. Ashish B Lanjekar

    Ameloblastoma is most common tumor of odontogenic origin. Ameloblastoma has high rate of recurrence and are abominable for their fast growth. Unicystic ameloblastoma has several clinic-radiographic, histological types. Here we are presenting a case report of a 19 years old male patient.

  127. Pratiwi Hermiyanti, Fitri Rokhmalia and Darjati

    Tripikon is a pipe usage model as a means of modified infiltration ditch as an effort of water pollution minimization. The purpose of this research was to analyze the decrease of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Most Probable Number (MPN) Coliform level of domestic waste in tripikon infiltration ditch at narrow field. This research was an experimental research with a group of pre and posttest design. The result of this research was it indicated a decrease of BOD level in tripikon, thus, it was in accordance with Minister of Environment and Forestry Regulation Number 68 in 2016 concerning with domestic waste quality standards, which the maximum was 30 mg/ L. Likewise MPN Coliform level in infiltration ditch was still below the maximum level of waste water (3000 per 100 ml). The decrease of BOD level was 36.8%.

  128. Kaur Jasvinder and Singh Om Prakash

    The period of adolescence (10-19, with “youth” defined as up to 24)i represents a critical window of opportunity when young people are learning to make independent decisions and forming their own attitudes and beliefs. However, the period of adolescence is also a time of vulnerability and many adolescents experience threats to their sexual reproductive health rights (SRHR).Poor SRHR in adolescence – across both humanitarian and development settings – has both immediate and long-term consequences on health, education, and livelihood outcomes. Globally, the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) and other international and regional agreements uphold the rights of adolescents, but at national and sub-national levels, laws, policies, and practices often create barriers for adolescents to seek services and information, and supportive policies are rarely implemented in full. The core strategy of adolescent score card tool is to facilitate dialogue between adolescents and service providers in a participatory forum and to strengthen adolescents’ voices to exercise their SRH rights. The adolescent score card tool aims to capture three levels of information from adolescents: the availability of SRHR services for adolescents, adolescents’ satisfaction levels regarding the quality of service delivery (among those who have used the services), and suggestions for improvement of the quality of services. The adolescent score card intervention resulted in improved supply of the SRHR commodities like IFA supplies improved to 96%, sanitary pads to 82%, contraceptive supplies to 39%. In our study area, majority of the adolescents were not aware of the RTIs/STIs. Post intervention the status of RTI/STI services graded as good improved to 29% from 11% and RTI/STI service status of poor grade decreased to 57% from 79%. Counseling on use of IFA increased by 36%, counselling on use of sanitary napkins increased by 35% and counselling on use of contraceptives was increased by 32%. Enabling adolescents to access sexual and reproductive health services enables them to prevent pregnancy, protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections, and make informed decisions about their sexual and reproductive health. States must guarantee adolescents meaningful participationin the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health programs. This will ensure that the youth perspective is incorporated into such programs and enhance transparency and accountability.

  129. Tanveen Kaur Chhabra, Mrs. Mandeep Kaur and Dr. Hardeep Kaur Mal

    Introduction:-According to WHO, Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally, with more than 1 billion adults overweight- at least 300 million of them clinically obese and a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability. Obesity is an increase in body weight as the result of excessive accumulation of body fat and obesity results when the caloric value of food intake exceeds energy output. Overweight and obesity are considered the core of many diseases. Although numerous techniques are available for evaluating body fat, the variables for BMI are easy to measure. Along with the pharmacological therapy, many complementary therapies are also available for treating overweight. So, honey mixture was given to overweight young adults. Aim: - Aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of honey mixture on overweight young adults at University College of Nursing, Faridkot, Punjab. Methods: - A quantitative approach with one group pretest-posttest research design was selected for the present study. With simple of 37 overweight young adults 1were selected with BMI 25-29.99 Kg/m2 and Socio demographic data sheet and tool were selected to assess the effectiveness of honey mixture on overweight young adults. Results:-The present study revealed that interventions honey mixture was helpful in reducing BMI among overweight young adults. Comparison of interventions was done ,which showed Pre intervention mean score was 26.25 and post intervention mean score was 25.46 respectively which was significant at p value <0.05.

  130. Rongsenkumzuk, Deep Sankar Chini, Manojit Bhattacharya, Avijit Kar, Niladri Mondal, B. C. Jha, Bidhan Chandra Patra

    The scientific assessment is included with freshwater ichthyofaunal diversity, distribution and evaluation of diversity indices analysis which are found in Doyang reservoir’s different distinct stretches, Nagaland in between the year 2015 to 2018. Total 64 numbers of freshwater fishes in which 6 order and 16 families were found where most dominated order is Cypriniformes and family is Cyprinidae. Depending on fish distribution in distinct three stretches of the reservoir diversity indices like Shannon diversity index (H), Margalef’s richness index, Simpson’s Diversity Index (1-D), Chao-1, Dominance Indices, Species evenness has been analyzed which shows a significant result regarding that facts. These works also found out that due to the introduction and culture practices of IMC and other introduced carp species, the main reservoir fish diversity has been reduced. Introduced fish species are destroying endemic fish species habitat. Due to the less stress towards the upper stretch of reservoir (towards the Doyang River) endemic species are much more available rather than other stretches of the reservoir. The specified fishes need immediate proper scientific management and conservation strategies for future availability of these freshwater fish species.

  131. Dr. Saisharan Dwarka and Dr. Neerja Kushwaha

    Background: Anemia is a commonly encountered health problem in India. Beta thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are one of the important causes of microcytic hypochromic anaemia. Their differentiation is important because they not only require different management but also have different implications to the community. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is currently the gold standard in diagnosing haemoglobinopathies. However, in a resource poor country like India HPLC may not be widely available, especially in rural areas. Mentzer’s index is commonly used to differentiate IDA and thalassemia. The objective of this study is to correlate the HPLC findings withthe red cell indices andMentzer’s index and study its sensitivity and specificity in differentiating IDA from thalassemia trait. Methods: A cross sectional study was done on 500 anemic patients in a tertiary care centre in Western Maharashtra. Complete blood counts, HPLC was done on patients’ blood samples and Mentzer’s index was calculated. Statistical analysis of data was done by SPSS 16 software. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of Mentzer’s index in differentiating thalassemia from IDA is 39.06% and 79.86% respectively. Conclusion: Mentzer index is a not a reliable marker in diagnosis of thalassemia as it has low sensitivity and specificity. RBC indices have a better correlation and may be used as surrogate markers for the diagnosis of IDA along with serum iron studies in cases where HPLC is not available.

  132. Prabaharan Umachandran, Lakshmi Narasimhan Ranganathan, Manikavasagam, J. and Tamilpavai Arulnambi

    Background: Freezing of gait is a disabling core feature of Parkinson’s disease. Several studies have proven that implementation of visual, auditory cues have improved freezing of gait, which requires conspicuous horizontal lines, audio instrument such as metronome. Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the effect of imaginary cues in freezing of gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Methodology: 22 patients who presented with freezing of gait and diagnosis consistent with Parkinson’s disease were included in the study. Patients were asked to perform the 50 feet walk test. They have to walk 25 feet, turn around, and walk back 25 feet. Subjects were allowed to perform all tasks at their own speed. The parameters measured were the number of freezing episodes and the time taken to walk 50 feet. In the second part, subjects were asked to imagine themselves that they are riding a bicycle and asked to lift their legs and walk as if riding a bicycle (pedaling a bicycle) for 25 feet, turn around, and walk back 25 feet. The above mentioned parameters were measured again. The effect of test-retest variability was assessed. Results: The mean time taken to walk without cues was 51.45 ± 7.84 seconds and with cues was 45.59 ± 8.51 seconds. The mean value of the number of freezing episodes while walking without cues was 2.32 ± 0.48 and with imaginary cues was 1.5 ± 0.51. There is statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in time taken to walk 50 feet and number of freezing episodes between before and after imaginary cues. 10 out of 22 patients showed immediate improvement in freezing of gait. Whereas six patients showed improvement on the repeated attempts. Six patients did not show any improvement. Conclusion: This study reiterates the fact that such a simple measure that requires no special instruments, can improve the mobility and the quality of life in Parkinson’s patients. Further studies are required to assess sensitivity/specificity.

  133. Jorge A. Cabezas and María Laura Arias

    The synthesis of N-[3-(prop-1-yn-1-yl)phenyl] benzenesulfonamide was performed and its antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was determined. Minimalinhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 12.5 µg/mL and 25.0 µg/mL were obtained respectively.

  134. Seraphin Capo ATIDEGLA

    Many challenges determine the strategies agricultural mechanization/motorization promotion in Benin: to enter in the world tendency through development projects; to integrate the financing or/and the promotion of agricultural mechanization/motorization in the crop production activities; to be concentrated in the reduction of work hardness and the increasing of cotton cultivated lands; increase farmers’ incomes and that of the State, to be equipped with consequent strategy. Thus, from 1930 to 2016, various initiatives of agricultural mechanization/motorization have been succeeded in Benin with as corollaries many challenges and perspectives. The study was to highlight those initiatives and to analyze their contributions to agricultural mechanization sector in Benin. Data collected in 2018 come from documentary review and some empirical knowledge of the item. It emerges from the study that many factors had negatively affected the adoption of agricultural mechanization/motorization as for consequence, a recurrent calling into question of each strategy. With regard to this situation, it is urging to reorganize the sector and reduce the effects of different constraints occurring from institutional reforms by prioritizing the financing of agricultural mechanization/motorization.

  135. Dr. Anil K. Tomer, Dr. Afnan A. Jaz Raina and Dr. Faizan Bin Ayub

    This is a clinical case of a maxillary right first molar with four root canals using a hyflex edm rotary file system. A successful endodontic treatment of a tooth depends on shaping, cleaning and filling of the canal system.With the innovative mechanism of HyFlex EDM files which are produced using process called Electrical Discharge Machining. The EDM process results in a file that is extremely flexible and fracture resistant. In fact, HyFlex EDM files are up to 700% more resistant to cyclic fatigue compared to traditional NiTi files

  136. Nurtjahjo D. Sasongko, Siti Samiyarsih and Juwarno

    Sweet potato tuber posses various nutritious content makes them fit for food source, whether consumed as the whole, or their derivatives. These plants are susceptible to diseases including scabies. Current study was aimed to show polimorphism patterns of 10 different scabies-infested sweet potatto cultivars using 10 RAPD-PCR primers. For this purpose, 10healthy individual sweet potato plants were initiallyinfested with the Sphaceloma batatas spores then isolated for their DNAs using a modified CTAB.Current data showed the DNAs ranged from 61.5-1011 ng/ml, but contaminated witheither protein or polyphenol. Six primersresulted 100% polymorphism on the 10 cultivars with different total numbers of loci. The highest polymorphismsappeared on OPA-11 which showed 12 loci with 35 bands, while the highest number of bands were 48 bands was produced by OPA-3 with 8 loci. Other primers, however, showed 1-3 loci monomorphic. The cultivars might be grouped into four major groups and two sub groups within group I and III. The Borobudur and Sari cultivars were closely related with genetic distanceof 0.181.

  137. Rubini, V., Udyama Juttada and Dr. Vijay Viswanathan

    Objective: Cardiovascular risk prediction models are very effective way to assess the 10 years cardiovascular disease risk prediction among the populations. The present study determined the validity and utility of two important risk prediction models Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and Globorisk among Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) subjects with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and without CVD. Methods: Consecutively 208 subjects with T2DM were recruited and they were categorized into 2 groups: Group 1 consisted of 103 patients with CVD and Group 2 consisted of 105 patients without CVD. 10-years CVD risk estimations for both groups were assessed using two risk calculators. FRS and Globorisk. Risk equation, Sensitivity and Specificity were examined by comparing areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to evaluate the discriminative ability of competing risk model. Results: Out of 208 study subjects analyzed for CVD risk by 2 models. FRS CVD risk assessment was better compared with globorisk, where FRS showed nearly 56.3% of high risk individuals with a statistically significance (p=<0.0001) when compared between CVD and Non-CVD subjects. Conclusion: Framingham risk score showed better performance than globorisk score. FRS model can be better tool than globorisk in predicting the high cardiovascular risk subjects with T2DM.

  138. Avinash Alashetty, Jawahar, M., Lakshminarasimhan, R.

    Objective: To study the cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with migraine. Background: Migraine is an episodic disorder commonly encountered in daily practice. Multiple hypothesis have been proposed for the pathophysiology of migraine. It is a state of altered excitability capable of activating trigeminovascular system. It is a neurovascular coupling disorder where the cerebrovascular reactivity is malfunctioning. The neuronal hypersensitivity to different external and internal stimuli is the primary pathophysiological changes in these patients. The migraineurs show maladaptation to environmental stimuli owing to loss of adaptability compared to normal people. Several transcranial doppler studies have reflected the altered reactivity with varying outcomes in migraineurs. Study design: This study was conducted over a period of six months at tertiary hospital, RGGGH, chennai. We included 30 patients who satisfied criteria for migraine (with and without aura) as per IHS criteria and 30 age and sex matched controls. Transcranial doppler was performed on all patients. Cerebrovascular reactivity was assessed by repetitive photic stimulation. Average peak systolic velocity in middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery was measured before and after photic stimulation. Results: The mean PSV in MCA in controls was 75.48±9.183 before and77.55±9.180 after stimulation PSV in patients before photic stimulation was 78.80±13.745 and 80.40±12.719 after stimulation. The change in PSV MCA was not significant(p<0.006).The PSV PCA in patients before photic stimulation was 59.47±10.345 and 63.13±11.013 after photic stimulation the increase in PSV was statistically significant(p<.001).The increase in PSV PCA in patients with aura was significant compared to those without aura(p<.002). Discussion: The study demonstrated an increased PSV levels of PCA after photic stimulation and significantly higher in migraine with aura. We found an altered cerebrovascular reactivity in interictal phase of migraineurs, being more pronounced in migraine with aura. Conclusion: There was maladaptation of cerebrovascular reactivity in migrainuers, more so in patients with aura causing a disturbance in neurovascular homeostasis possibly inducing migraine attacks.

  139. Pushpa, K., Venkatesh Bhat, B. and Balakrishna, D.

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is popular worldwide as a source of food, fiber, fuel and fodder. Sorghum is a grass plant related to Maize and Sugar cane (Paterson et al., 2009), also having great importance as fodder for cattle. Sorghum is a nutritionally rich fodder crop. For livestock production sorghum fodder usage is increasing extensively as it is a drought tolerant and water use efficient crop. Present study was aimed at studying the variation in traits related to stove yield and quality in sorghum. The recombinant inbred lines (RIL) of biparental cross CSV 20 X Pant Chari 5 were characterized for 16 traits in two seasons. All collected data pooled and statistically analysed for assessing the variation and association among traits. Plant height, seed yield, leaf length, leaf width, lignin content, fiber content, ash, digestibility and stoveryield showed increased variation. Significant association of fodder yield with days to flowering and plant height were noted. Fiber content were associated with stem girth. Lignin content was negatively correlation with digestibility. Digestibility and protein content were positively correlated. The parental lines were diverse for stover yield, lignin content and digestibility.

  140. Dr. Chandulal D. Dhalkari, Dr. Maya S. Indurkar, Dr. Onkar A. Bagade and Dr. Jaishri S. Pagare

    Background: The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between dental findings and mucosal abnormalities of the maxillary sinus among dental patients, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: Two hundred forty-nine CBCT scans of dental patients were studied. The correlation between changes in the maxillary sinus including the change in the thickness of maxillary sinus membrane (Schneiderian membrane), presence of underwood’s septa, presence of mucosal cyst, presence of air or fluid in sinus indicating sinusitis and dental findings including periodontal bone loss, periapical lesion, root canal treated teeth was assessed. Comparison of mean of outcome variables between the groups was done using t- test (for 2 groups) & one-way ANOVA for > 2 groups. Comparison of frequencies between various categories of each variable was done using chi square test. Results: Mucosal thickening was present in 37.3% of patients and in 74.3% of sinuses studied. Mucosal cysts were present in 7.2% of patients and in 7.2% of sinuses studied. Males presented both abnormalities more frequently than females. Severe periodontal bone loss was non-significantly associated with mucosal thickening (P>0.05). The periapical lesions and root canal fillings were not associated with mucosal thickening. There was a slight positive correlation observed between number of Underwood’s septae with mucosal thickness (but statistically non-significant, p>0.05). There was no association between dental findings and mucosal cysts. Conclusion: This study showed that mucosal cysts and mucosal thickening was common among general population. There was no statistically significant correlation between presence of periodontitis and increase in mucosal thickness.

  141. Gitanjali Devi

    The rhabditid genera, Heterorhabditidis, Steinernema and Oscheius are used for insect control due to their high and rapid infectivity and easy manipulation. They are safe for non-target vertebrates as well as environment. They are easily applied using standard equipment. All these advantageous characteristics as a bio control agent have triggered the rapid development and commercialization of entomopathogenic nematodes.

  142. Sidqui, M., Elaouame, Bentahar, Z. and Zerouali, K.

    Adhesion is a phenomenon of general significance that governs the evolution of microorganisms and their interaction in all the environments in which they occur, that is to say in the whole of the biosphere. The elucidation of the mechanisms at the molecular level of bacterial adhesion to solid surfaces has not been fully accomplished. The oral cavity is part of these environments, the bacterial adhesion is interested in different structures in the mouth: dental structures, mucosal structures and structures of therapeutic interest (composite, brackets, orthodontic wire, ceramic, titanium…). The adhesion phenomenon involves nonspecific factors of different types (ionic, dipolar, hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding) between the macromolecules on the surface of the microorganisms and those of the support and other specific factors. Stereochemical order involves interactive complementary chemical groups. Our study is used to observe the behavior of bacteria in contact with tooth surfaces and titanium, in order to understand the adhesion mechanism. The aim of this work is to study in vitro the behavior of certain bacteria of the oral flora in contact with a dental surface and titanium to: • Observe the ability of these germs to adhere to tooth surfaces and titanium. • Evaluate quantitatively the adhesion and proliferation potential of these germs in contact with tooth surfaces and titanium. • Compare their behavior in contact with these 2 surfaces. The results of our work have shown that the three germs used have different behaviors and even adhesion capacity on the two surfaces. In contact with the tooth surfaces the three seeds were able to adhere and proliferate, in contrast in contact with the titanium surfaces, an inhibition of this adhesion was observed. Germs need more time in contact with surfaces to adhere and proliferate. The results showed the importance of surface characteristics and more precisely the influence of surface roughness on the adhesion of bacteria.

  143. Jyoti Sharma, Prahlad Dube and Karra, V.D.

    Fishes constitute an economically significant group of aquatic animals due to their importance in providing food to riverine communities and urban centers. As a food, fishes provide a wide range of nutritional gains, including fish meat, fish protein, manure, shagreen, isinglass, glue and other products. The term “fish” is usually a convenient description for a group of poikilothermic (cold blooded) aqutic vertibrates under the chordate phylum that breathe with gills (Nelson, 2006). Actinopterygians, the bony or ray finned fishes, are without a doubt the majority of fishes found in freshwaters. Fishes devided into 3 classes- • Agnatha-Jawless fish such as hagfish and lampreys. • Chrondrichthyes-Fish whose skeleton is made of cartilage such as sharks, rays and skates. • Osteichthyes-Fish whose skeleton is composed mostly of bone such as bass, perch, catfish. Fish biodiversity can be defined as variety of fish species. Fish biodiversity encompasses freshwater ecosystems, including lakes, ponds, reservoirs, rivers, streams, groundwater and wet lands as well as marine ecosystems including oceans and estuaries. Fish biodiversity includes all unique species, their habitats and interaction between them. Due to the life history traits fishes are suitable as early warning signals of anthropogenic stress on natural ecosystem dynamics, or conversely, as indicators of ecosystem recovery and of resilience. Their presence in large number and variety in lentic bodies is a good indication that water is virgin and suitable for human consumption and utility.

  144. Dr. Rinkoo Gupta, Dr. Amit Chaudhary, Dr. Amita Mali and Dr. Yogesh Khadtare

    Ankyloglossia is a congenital anomaly that restricts the tongue’s range of motion. Lingual frenulum connects the bottom of the tongue’s tip to the floor of the mouth with a band of tissue which is tight, thick and short. This results in difficulty in speech and tongue movements. Lingual frenulum is a small fold of tissue. Lingual frenectomy which is also known as a frenulectomy, frenulotomy or frenotomy is the removal of a frenulum. A novel surgical technique known as presuturing technique in the management of ankyloglossiahas been used in this case report. In this case different sets of sutures are used on lingual frenum before giving the insicion. It resultedin reduced opening of the wound, minimal pain, bleeding and discomfort. A23 yr old male patient with tongue tie had been managed with this technique. 1 year of follow-up had been recorded which showed satisfactory protrusive and lateral movement of the tongue without any complications.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
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Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
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Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari