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November 2018

  1. Jared Menecha, Dr. Alice Munene and Dr. Kennedy Ongaro

    Anger is a disruptive emotion that manifests in an individual and aggravates symptoms of other psychiatric conditions. Previous studies have shown that anger deepens symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, a condition that impacts negatively on millions of people in the world. These studies had pointed out that there seems to be a link between anger and anxiety. This study sought to investigate the correlation between anger and anxiety among students in public secondary schools in Nakuru sub County, Kenya. A group 100 students (50 boys and 50 girls) challenged with extreme anger were assigned either to an experimental group which received a Mindfulness Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MBCBT) treatment or to a control group which continued with Therapy as Usual. Data was collected at three levels: pretest, posttest and follow-up. Findings of this study revealed that at pretest, participants in experimental group scored high in state anger (33.74 ±7.842SD), trait anger (24.90 ± 4.537SD), and anxiety (26.60 ± 7.100SD). A Spearman’s Rank Correlation run revealed a positive correlation, though low, between anxiety and state anger (r=0.116, p=0.423) and (r=0.137, p=0.343) for experimental and control groups respectively. Similarly, statistically significant correlation between trait anger and anxiety (r=0.337, p=0.017) and (r=0.254, p=0.035) for experimental and control group respectively were obtained.

  2. Obid Eshmakhmatovich Tangirov

    The paper disclose the activity of mosques in Tashkent city in the second half of the XIX century. The author studies the role of mosques in social life of the city, the influences of Russian colonial policy on religious institutions and economy of mosques. Besides, there has been illustrated the staff of mosques and their incomes in the article. The functions of mosques apart from being praying houses has also been researched in the article. Archival documents, the works of scholars of studied period have been foundation to prepare the article.

  3. Samuel Maireg Biresaw

    A civil code is a systematic collection of laws designed to deal with the core areas of private law such as property, family, contracts, torts, unlawful enrichment and business related lawsuits and practices. A jurisdiction that has a civil code generally also has a code of civil procedure. In some jurisdictions with a civil code, a number of the core areas of private law that would otherwise typically be codified in a civil code may instead be codified in a commercial code. A typical civil code deals with the fields of law known to the common lawyer as law of contracts, torts, property law, family law and the law of inheritance. Commercial law, corporate law and civil procedure are usually codified separately. The writer is fully convinced that the comparative study of the law, as among the legal systems, is an effective means of learning about other legal cultures and, in due course, improving one’s own legal system. This is the case however without concealing the fact that such studies require juristic caliber and attentive care in order not to run in to hasty generalizations in the world of legal pluralism. It is in this context that the writer has decide to the comparatively analyze the various attributes of the Ethiopian civil code vis-à-vis the two major European codes- the French civil code (also called code Napoleon) and German civil code of 1907.

  4. Otieno Evans Ochieng, Maria Adhiambo Onyango and Zachary Kinaro

    Socioeconomic factors which are inclusive of formal education, natural resources and how they are governed by culture and central government define the level of development in any community. The levels to which local cultures interact with global cultures enhance the degree to which people adapt to external influences which would support their positive development in global lenses. While young people seek more economic opportunities and claim further property rights, their participation in community development projects remains low in comparison to adult participation. Government has been implementing various projects and programmes all geared towards poverty reduction and boosting food security in Turkana County, however the number of youth taking up responsibility in community development projects is low. The study sought to establish influence of formal education level on youth participation in community development projects in Turkana County. The researcher used Krejecie and Morgan table to sample 360 drawn from a population of 13848 youth. Stratified sampling was adopted in selecting 45 participants from the eight locations in the study area. Purposive sampling was used to include key informants for interview and FGD resulting to a total of 375 respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data and qualitative analysis on non-numeric data. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to establish the associations of the study variables. Results revealed that rural youth lacked practical skills, values and attitudes to engage in community projects. The researcher recommends that education system should foster a positive attitude towards youth participation in development projects through revision of education and training curricula to enable training that meet demands of labour market. The study concludes that success of community development projects in Kenya depend on youth participation in decision-making, development planning, good leadership and the will of institutions at the grassroots to pursue sustainable participatory development endeavors.

  5. Don J. Colegrove

    Construction labor has changed in the United States. The ability for members of the construction industry to find qualified labor has gotten harder over the decades. This study will look at what changes have occurred in the population of the United States since the 1950’s. Specifically how these changes in population and the increasing development of construction projects effects the ability to find construction labor. The study will compare population data with the amount of construction work being done. We are looking at the changes in our population that have affected the industry in terms of labor that is available. It does not answer the question completely about how to fix the issue of labor, but it begins the conversation in regards to what has happened to labor over the decades and what is likely to happen moving forward.

  6. Dr Sankar Rajeev

    Logical exploitation of technology and innovation management graduates a start-up venture to scale-up. This is through a process of stabilisation, permeating the trend obstacles and achieving their objectives. Environment has been shifting at a rapid pace ever since we have started involving with it, but due to the speedy nature caused by technology, it has become increasingly volatile. Changing business environment is a boon and volatility offers tremendous opportunity to innovate and hence emerges room for manoeuvre to entrepreneurs. At present the external environment is rapidly changing and becoming increasingly volatile. In fact, it creates uncertainties to probe the minds. Some view that changing environment represents significant threats for the SMEs. Organizations need to get human resources and adequate technology for survival and to flourish.

  7. Khalifa, H. A. and Al- Shabi, M.

    In this paper, a fully fuzzymulti - objective linear fractional programming is applied for multi- item solid transportation (FFMOMISTP) problem. To minimize the problem, the order relations which represent the decision maker's performance between fuzzy costs, supply, demand and conveyances are defined by flat fuzzy numbers. Using the fuzzy number comparison introduced by Rouben's method, 1996,the problem is converted into the corresponding crisp FMOMISTP problem. Then the MOMISTP is transformed into the single objective linear programming using the proposed method of Guzel, 2013, and hence software programming is applied for solving the problem. Finally, a numerical example is given to the utility of our proposed method.

  8. Retchiel O. Zabala

    This study ascertained the usage of cooperative learning in teaching Science. Students were randomly selected and equated wherein each group has equal number of subject-respondents. Data needed for this quasi-experimental research were obtained through a fifty-item teacher-made test then scores in the pre-test and post-test were used to determine the significant relationship and difference between the groups. As to comparing the groups, paired t-test and independent sample t-test was used in determining the significant difference of the two test mean scores between groups. After data were tabulated and analyzed, found were: the performance level of the control and experimental group during the post-test were average and very high, respectively as indicated by their means; there is a high significant difference in the pre-test and post-test of the experimental group; a high significant difference in the pre-test and post-test of the control group; a significant difference in the pre-test between the control and experimental group; lastly, there is a significant difference in their pre-test and post-test mean gains. The patterns and strength of the findings suggest that Cooperative Learning is more effective in attaining optimum learning compared to the lecture–discussion method.

  9. Erick Radaí Rojas Maldonado

    The present, makes an analysis of the process of the assessment of mathematics within the context where it is tried to apply neoliberal didactic strategies that have been supported by international organisms. In this work, problem solving is analyzed from the teaching point of view and given their experience; if it provides adequate information to ensure that the student has developed the mathematical skills that are sought, and if these, can allow the construction of knowledge. Many countries adapt themselves under this teaching perspective to pass the PISA exam. It is concluded that learning by solving problems is not a guarantee of meaningful learning and does not transparently reflect the acquisition of knowledge and mathematical skills that are supported in an assessment.

  10. Dr. Anjum Bano Kazimi, Abdul Karim Suhag, Syed Tanweer Ahmed, Maryam Hussain and Raja Sohail Ahmed Larik

    Development of soft skills is the most demanding area of education worldwide. Millennium development goals also emphasized on developing both hard as well as soft skills in order to increase human potentials. Teacher Education training programs curriculum, teaching practices and teachers standards all indicate the importance of hard skills for a professional teacher, but soft skills which gives essence to professionalism and which is the essential part of good teaching as indicated by Shaheen, Zhang, (2012) is not getting its due importance, although soft skills are directly linked with teachers and teaching success- Jessy John (2009). These skills cannot be read out from a book, these skills are embedded in a teacher’s behavior and his/her practice will reflect them in students behavior. Soft Skills like Personal habits, questioning skill, good communication skills, problem solving skills, critical thinking, team building, networking, emotional and cultural sensitivity, strong work ethic, positive attitude, time management or teacher’s movement; are those skills that are needed in today’s educational environment. Today’s teacher’s curriculum is focusing more on people than on processes. Soft skills play a very important role in educational as well as in professional successful careers. Global and national demands of professional abilities are changing very fast. As Sarah Andreas (2018) says, scenario is totally changed. A decade ago high academic records with work experience were in demand, while now only hard skills are not sufficient for enhancement of career, persons with soft skills, resources, self-directed, having good communication skills are in demand. This study aims to identify perception of educational experts related to existing place, importance and process of enhancing soft skills and positivity in teacher educators through professional teacher’s training program. Qualitative Data was collected through in-depth interviews from eight educationists on criteria of more than twelve years working experience in the related field. Thedata derived from interviews was then analyzed to deduct themes. Results of the study revealed that all experts are strongly in favor of including soft skills as essential components of teachers training programs, and it should not be taken as hidden curriculum. They identified critical thinking, communication skills, team building, time management, positive attitude and body movement as essential components of teacher’s training which should be taught through micro teaching. Positivity toward work is linked with success, nonprofessional attitude of teacher’s trainers and absence of microteaching from teaching practices, lack of supervision and insufficient period of training are the affecting factors. Rethinking of teaching process and teaching subjects can minimize the problems and improve the quality of teachers training programs.

  11. Ha Hong Nguyen

    The study on the satisfaction of customers when using cards at commercial banks in TraVinh province was conducted by surveying 350 customers using ATM cards at 12 commercial banks in TraVinh province, Viet nam by the use of the multivariate regression method, the research has found that there are a number of factors affecting the satisfaction of customers using ATM cards: Tangible means, sympathy, ATM network, service efficiency and reliability. Of which, tangible means, sympathy, ATM network and card service fees have the strongest impact on customer satisfaction.

  12. Halil Barış ÖZEL, Tuğrul VAROL and Mertol ERTUĞRUL

    Natural resources have been constantly destroyed from the time of mankind until the present day. This has led to gradual deterioration of the ecological balance. Particularly the benefits realized in order to meet the needs of energy, housing and nutrition have led to irreparable impairments in all natural resources and the structure of natural populations and gene frequency have changed in the negative direction. These negativities have also reduced the biological diversity of all living things. Today, the widespread industry and the environmental problems that arise in the face of the growing population have led to the end of the natural resources. In particular, with the emergence of climate change problems, it has become very difficult to ensure the sustainability of natural resources. Forests, one of the most important sources of nature from these negativities, have also been damaged. Ensuring the sustainability of forests is very important in terms of global warming and carbon emissions. For this reason, successful natural and artificial rejuvenation work is necessary in the forests. For this purpose, the natural structure of the forests, the developmental dynamics of the forests and especially the influence of the climate factors on young individuals need to be analyzed and evaluated very well. It is essential that any technical interventions to be carried out in the forests are dealt with in detail in terms of microecological conditions. For this purpose, changes in number of natural fox youth and their growth status were investigated in the fixed test sites of 10x25x40 m size between 2004 and 2017 on the stems of Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmülleriana Mattf., Which is naturally found in the Bartın-Ardıç region. As a result of these examinations, it was determined that the average number of youth per square meter between 2004 and 2017 showed a significant decreasing trend, ranging from 286.7 to 36.4. On the other hand, between the same years, it has been determined that the mean height growth of the fir juvenilities changes between 1.2-83.6 cm in normal closure conditions and shows trend. In addition, it has been determined that the root collar diameter measurements made on natural juvenilities in the sample plots showntrend between 1.3-18.7 mm. The standardized rainfall-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was used to determine how the juvenilities affected the climate conditions in the study. As a result of the climate analysis, it has been found that the number of natural fir juvenilities and their growth performance are significantly affected negatively from the drought periods in the region and they are far below the normal performance level when growing in these periods. However, the drought periods between 2004 and 2017 have also significantly delayed the maturation of the stand.

  13. Afid Hossain, M., Sania Binte Mahtab and Abrar Morshed

    The Pagla Sewage Treatment Plant (PSTP) was first started in 1968 with 4 facultative lagoons which were further renovated in 1977 to serve about 500,000 citizens in Dhaka city. The present PSTP had been rehabilitated in 1992 by JICA to treat a capacity of 120,000 m3/day. The plant is located 8 km away at the south-east portion of Dhaka city and about 1 km north of the Buriganga. The plant has been designed considering influent BOD5 of 200 mg/l and effluent BOD5 of 50 mg/l which indicates that PSTP is designed to treat domestic wastewater. The laboratory test results of Pagla Sewage Treatment Plant were collected from the office situated within the premise of the plant. The PSTP is a multi stage treatment plant in which BOD5 and SS is measured at inlet, outlet at primary sedimentation tank and outlet of lagoons. Generally, in PSTP SS data is recorded in every alternate day while BOD5 is generally recorded twice a week. From all the available data it is obtained that average influent BOD5 is 398 mg/l and effluent BOD5 is 79.31 mg/l which is greater than design value(influent 200 mg/l and effluent 50 mg/l). Also SS has the same efficiency as that of BOD5. Also yearly variations for BOD5 have been obtained. From 1999 and onwards high concentration of BOD5 and SS indicates strong evidence of industrial wastes entering PSTP. Seasonal variation in concentration of BOD5 and SS is also pronounced. In dry season high concentration is observed and in wet season relatively low concentration is obtained. From the obtained data correlation between BOD5 and SS can be obtained well at inlet. But correlation between BOD5 and SS is rather poor at outlet. Also correlation between different months shows good relationship both for BOD5 and SS. For the improvement of the performance of Pagla Sewage Treatment Plant immediate cleaning of the lagoon is recommended. It is also necessary to record the data in user friendly interface in computer format and also improvement of laboratory facilities for constant effective supervision. Moreover, the reasons for high BOD5 concentration should be identified by closely monitoring the influent characteristics. In case of industrial discharge mixing into city sewerage network it must comply with Environment Quality Standards. Finally, considering the performance of PSTP the option for constructing more sewage treatment plant should be seriously in contention.

  14. Sukhneet Kaur and Dr. Sukhdev Singh

    The Government of India implemented a drastic change in the economic environment on 8th November,2016, by demonetizing the high currency notes of Rs 500 and Rs 1000. Demonetization was a step taken by the honourable Prime Minister to eradicate black money and to flush out the fake currency being in circulation from the economy. The objective of this paper is to deeply go through the issue of demonetization and to study the hardships being faced by the rural people due to demonetization. Various websites, journals, articles, write ups of famous personalities, news in newspapers have been consulted to write this paper. This paper concludes that respondents suffered very bitter experience of demonetization. According to the respondents demonetization was not a good step as they had problem in operating digital economy.

  15. Eder Cruz Siguenza, Nelson ChuquínVasco, Juan Chuquín Vasco, Carlos Cepeda Godoy and Julio Oleas López

    The discovery of thermoelectric phenomena two centuries ago, and the search for new alternatives for generating energy, has allowed a continuous advance in thermoelectric technology in recent years. The Seebeck effect consists of generating electrical current by subjecting the union of 2 different metals to a temperature difference; On the contrary, the Peltier effect tells us that, if an electric current is applied to the union of 2 different metals, a difference of temperatures in the joints will be appreciated. A simple principle, that the field of engineering could take advantage of to generate renewable energy, a subject of relative importance at present. With the aim of producing electricity through the aforementioned phenomena, a thermoelectric generator based on peltier cells was built, capable of providing 5 volts; enough to charge a cell phone. The generator consisted of two Peltier cells, each capable of generating 3 volts with a temperature differential of 70 º C between their faces; However, during the experiment, only 2.7 volts of energy were recorded, demonstrating that only 90% of the thermal energy provided is transformed into electricity. It was also determined that the voltage decreased by 10% every 3 minutes, so the temperature differential had to be kept increasing and thus breaking the "seebeck constant". The methodology that informed the development of the project was the analysis and synthesis of primary sources such as books and reports, and secondary sources such as documents or web pages. At the end of the investigation and construction of the model, it was concluded that Peltier cells work based on the temperature differential, which could be exploited with innovative methods of renewable energy production such as the water-steam cycle or the combustion of biomass.

  16. BAZONGO.Pascal, TRAORE.Karim, TRAORE Adama, KABORE Salifou and TRAORE Ouola

    In the context of agricultural land degradation in Burkina Faso, there is an increasing interest in Jatrophacurcas L. as potential source for crop production sustainability. In order to evaluate the chemical properties of Jatropha biomass and compost, trials were carried out in 2017 (May 2016-June 2017) in Torokoro and Tin locations with jatropha growing farmers in the south Sudanian zone of Burkina with annual average rainfall of 1200 mm. At each location, two (02) farmers were selected to conduct the trials (biomass collection and compost production). The trials were done in field with 2 and 6 years old Jatropha threes. The experimental design consisted of plots of 400 m2 each containing 20 m of Jatropha threes. The results indicate very high level of C, P and K in both Jatropha Biomass and compost. Jatropha biomass and compost are high potential sources of organic matter and nutrients which can improve crop productivity in the Burkina Faso.

  17. Ranjith Khumar Shanmugasundaram

    Erosion is one of the major problems in oil and gas industries. For example, on transporting oil, gas or water in the presence of sand particles through a long pipeline at different fluid properties may lead to material loss and decrease in the flowrate. Erosion occurs in different types on basis of the concentration and size of the particle and flow parameters. So it is very essential to predict the erosion rate in pipelines in order to have the better flow rate at different operating conditions. Computational Fluid Dynamics is one of the most commonly used tool for predicting the erosion rate. The aim of the project work is to study the erosion rate at varying conditions. First, the model of the cone flowmeter was designed using PTC Creo 3.0. And then the surface mesh of the cone flowmeter was generated using ANSA 15.1.1 and the volume mesh was generated in Turbo Grid. And using Dense Discrete Phase Model (DDPM) the results were generated in ANSYS FLUENT 16.0

  18. Sirorei James K. and Elisha Opiyo Omulo

    Procurement fraud remains endemic in most modern economies. E-Procurement fraud may manifest in various ways, including collusion by parties involved in procurement as well as falsification of documents. A procurement officer may be induced, through bribe, to favor a particular supplier. For protection against procurement fraud, organizations have tried to implement some control measures, hoping to discourage fraud that is directed on institutions. Complex fraud does not revolve around the breaching of controls, but bypassing them. We set out to design and implement an e-procurement fraud detection tool for public entities using multi-agent technologies. This is informed by contributions from various government employees who were interviewed, literature reviewed and publications that indicate the presence of fraud in public offices attributable to procurement processes. A prototype of an e-procurement system is developed with the complete procure-to-pay functionality. This provides the implementation environment for the agent-based fraud detection tool. Fraud detection is then simulated using rule set to determine suspicious activities and transactions in the e-procurement system. The agent-based e-procurement fraud detection tool is able to detect and report fraud in situations where inflation of unit cost of items at requisition level and further upward adjustments are done while raising purchase orders. Upward adjustment of quantities on purchase orders after requisition approval is also picked as fraud by the agent detection tool. This is a scenario that requires approvals from approvers who may be compromised or fail to take note of the discrepancies. The proceeds from such fraud may be paid to the participants in the procurement chain as kickbacks (bribes).

  19. Vijaya Lakshmi Devi, G.

    Health policy is an essential pillar of human welfare. Given the high degree of externality, the State has to play a significant role in health and healthcare provision. Unfortunately, evidence shows that public spending on healthcare in India is low and out of pocket spending by people is more than four times the government spending. While the low level of public spending on health is a known fact, reliable data on the actual public expenditure on health and its trend over time is not easily accessible. The National Health Accounts, the most authoritative and comprehensive source of health expenditure information in India, is highly infrequent. The subsequent use of partial data sets available on public health expenditures leads to flawed policymaking and less than desirable public health outcomes. In India, the Constitution assigns a predominant role in providing social infrastructure to the States. More specifically, Entry 6 of the State List in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution assigns legislative responsibility to the States on matters related to “Public health and sanitation; hospitals and dispensaries”. Similarly, Entry 17 assigns the responsibility for water supplies to the States. Other interrelated matters such as medical education and medical professions are placed in Entries 25 and 26 of the Concurrent List. The health expenditure estimates have been prepared by the World Health Organization under the framework of the System of Health Accounts 2011 (SHA 2011). The Health SHA 2011 tracks all health spending in a given country over a defined period of time regardless of the entity or institution that financed and managed that spending. It generates consistent and comprehensive data on health spending in a country, which in turn can contribute to evidence-based policy-making.

  20. Pedro Ramos Brandão

    Portuguese State relations with the Vatican during the colonial period under the presidency of Oliveira Salazar. How was it possible to preserve a multi-continental imperial space, which evolved into the conception of a "one and indivisible Portugal" as the design of one's own national identity and the preservation of Salazar in power. The difficult relationship with the Holy See even though it was a government that supported Catholic electorates in Portugal and was supported by these same elites. The difficult period of the Second Vatican Council. The period in which the Church was represented in the legislative councils of the Colonies, based on the Organic Law of the Portuguese Overseas Territory of 1953. It included, along with vowels elected by the contributors, others appointed by corporate bodies and economic, cultural and spiritual and moral interest, in which the Church chose the latter category. The revision of the Organic Law of 1963 maintained this representation of the Church in the provinces of general government and created an Economic and Social Council comparable to the Portuguese Corporate Chamber in which the Church was also represented.

  21. Mr. Chavan Ganesh Sakharam

    This paper discusses certain ethical concerns in project management, contract and procurement management. The purpose is to advance awareness within the project management community about principles in project management, contract and procurement management to increase the level of ethical exercise in project management administrations. The paper centers on understanding the specialized and ethical responsibilities. Furthermore, the paper argues some of the approaches on how to report ethical concerns. It is expected that great ethical values at individual along with the business level deal a lot of incorporeal other than tangible profits. The paper also focuses on various benefits of ethical conduct to individuals as well to administrations. It is crucial for business executives to be capable to be sure of the act of promises made in officially obligatory contracts. This paper studies the role of business ethics in contract enactment. It demonstrates that the law only is not sufficient to certify performance because the law is a tighter ground than business ethics. Law has strained upon the wider discipline, ethics, to practice the foundation of the regulation. Ethics is almost moral values, and ethical ideas clarify moral principles. Business moral code has applied these ideas to business. The law and business ethics are two different disciplines although they are at some points integrated and at others complementary. An appreciation of the relationship between applied ethics and the law is necessary to assist managers to appreciate that business ethics is as much part of business as is commercial law. This is particularly the case in the law of contract.

  22. Siti Radhiah Omar and Siti Nazirah Omar

    Synbiotic ice creams formulated with three probiotic variations (free L. plantarum, encapsulated L. plantarum, and a mixture of commercial Bifido. Sp and L. plantarum) were observed for their rheology and sensory properties. Microencapsulation of L. plantarum isolated from fermented cacao beans via freeze drying with 6% (w/v) lactose, 6% (w/v) skim milk and 3% solution of k-carrageenan coatings has shown the highest viscoelastic properties based on high fat content due to the addition of vegetable oil during the encapsulation process. Although there was no significant differences (p<0.05) in the overall acceptance attributes, the degree of sweetness for encapsulated L. plantarum ice cream was significantly higher (p<0.05) when compared to other samples. Henceforth, the encapsulation materials and freeze drying technique did improve the viscoelastic properties and overcome the sour taste of probiotics in ice cream formulation.

  23. Damianus Abun, Theogenia Magallanes, Sylvia Lalaine Grace Foronda, Emma P. Paynaen, Frederick Agoot and Merilyn Pre

    The study was conducted to determine workplace relationship between employer and employees and among employees of Divine Word Colleges inIlocosRegion, Philippines and its effect on the job satisfaction. Literatures and studies were reviewed, and questionnaires were used to gather the data related to workplace relationship and job satisfaction. The respondents of the study are employees of the Divine Word Colleges of Ilocos region which include Ilocos Sur and Ilocos Norte. The study is a descriptive study involving survey and fact-finding inquiry. Weighted mean and Pearson r were used to determine the workplace relationship and its correlation with job satisfaction. The study found that there is a significant correlation between workplace relationship and job satisfaction. Therefore, the study recommends that management need to monitor and improve workplace relationship between employer and employees and among employees and improve and monitor factors that affect job satisfaction.

  24. Dr. Alidou Razakou Ibourahima Boro

    In his book entitled Towards a global civilization of Love and Tolerance M. Fethullah Gülen defines love as the strongest relationship among individuals that forms family, society and nation. I would personally say talking about love between two people, that love is the fact of being present for your partner, being ready to defend the interest of the later wherever and whenever need may be. Unfortunately it happens that one of the partners ignores this principle of love. Sometimes people prefer their own interest than the interest of the group. Death on the Nile, one of Agatha Mary Christie’s detective fictions is a good illustration of the topic of my paper. Themes such as murder, love, materialistic love, marriage, investigation, jealousy, etc. have been developed in the novel. The main purpose of this article is to highlight the dangerousness and consequences of materialistic love in love affairs.

  25. Mr. Mohammad Sadiq Mir and Dr. Mateen Tahir

    Egypt and China faced the same kinds of international crises, but their respective responses and the subsequent results were different. China successfully managed the crisis, while Egypt failed to do so and paid a heavy price as a result. Hong Kong, an island off the coast of China, was leased to Britain for 99 years according to the terms of a treaty drawn up in 1898. China wanted to regain the island, but it never took any steps towards achieving this goal on a unilateral level. It engaged rather in peaceful negotiations with Britain. After the completion of the 99-year lease, the United Kingdom, according to the agreement, restored all of Hong Kong to China on July 1, 1997. In this way the problem was settled peacefully.

  26. Kimbouala Nkaya, Allembe Rodrigue Lézin and Moutakala Gilbert Salomon

    This article investigates, in the motivational perspective, factors preventing students to develop effective communicative performances and their influence on students’ motivation. The participants were 58 sophomore EFL students from Marien Ngouabi University and 11 lecturers. Qualitative and interpretative research techniques involving classroom observation, semi-structured interviews, and questionnaires were employed to collect relative data. The findings of the study indicate that teaching strategies used by teachers and the social context in which the target language is taught are not conducive to an effective EFL language learning process and do not sustain students’ motivation. To reverse the situation, the present paper suggests a series of language teaching strategies and principles adaptable to the teaching of foreign languages.

  27. Samuel Maireg Biresaw

    It has been almost two decades since Ethiopia commenced the cumbersome procedure of accession to the WTO in 2003. However, the procedure being rigorous by its very nature and as revealed from the accession experience of other acceding countries it may not yet be considered as an exemplarily late accession procedure after all. On the other hand, when we consider the GDP of the country and the multitude of its various interests in negotiations and even its power of economic bargaining, it becomes difficult to justify why the process of Ethiopia’s accession to the WTO is stretched out this far. Although there were various remarkable years in which a progress was made on the course of the accession process since 2003, It is only in the coming few years that the country is expected to conclude the process of accession and finally join the global trade club. The focal point of Ethiopia’s accession to the WTO is the liberalization of its economy and its eventual opening up to foreign investment. It is a known fact that there were various explicit and implicit prohibitions and forfeitures imposed by the Ethiopian government in order to sustainably pursue its closed door economic policy. In this regard, the prohibition of the private sector to engage in important segments of the economy such as telecom, power and high level transportation, the dominant presence and role of state enterprises (even as a notable market actor) in the economy of the country, and the total closure of the financial sector (banking and insurance) to foreign investors, are typical. In 2018, however, the Ethiopian government is showing signs which incriminate that it is finally on the verge of acceding to the WTO in that it has begun taking practical measures that would, in effect, result in the ultimate opening up of the country’s economy to the wider world. The recently adopted, eventual, step by step measures seem to achieve two basic economic objectives there by catching up with the requirements of WTO accession. The first is, increasing the participation of the private sector in to the previously prohibited segments of the economy such as telecom and power via the scheme of privatization and the second being, the opening up of the previously entirely prohibited segments of the economy to foreign investors. At the present time, the government is opening up and announcing various national and international bids in order to smoothly transfer crucial sectors of the Ethiopian economy to the private sector of both national and international origin. In addition to these practical measures, the Ethiopian government, under the newly appointed Prime Minister of the country, is pursuing (forging) a tangible economic Policy of Regional Economic Integration, with the wider countries of East Africa. The government has reached on mutual understanding and signed extensive economic, bilateral agreements with Kenya, Rwanda, Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and even Eritrea, the former foe. These agreements are very crucial to Ethiopia in creating a port to capital city infrastructure which made the country build coast to coast railway transportation. For example, Ethiopia has forged an understanding with almost all of the East African countries on the shore of the Indian Ocean to use their ports for the meaningful underway of its foreign trade such as Djibouti, Kenya, Greater Somalia, and recently the Assab Port of Eritrea is included to the list. This has already created a substantial economic integration amongst the East African Neighbors. It would not be an exaggeration if one concludes that the new government of Ethiopia has the vision to make the country the economic hub and hegemony of the region in the very near future. Unprecedented in its history, the country is witnessing sustainable influx of foreign interest in the form of bilateral investment agreements with both nation states and multinational corporations. Moreover, the long awaited, extraction and production of the countries untouched Petroleum and Natural Gas reserves is underway and the government has already run an extraction test in 2018. When one seriously considers all the mentioned, recent activities of the Ethiopian government s/he would easily understand that the government is creating the final level economic playing field to safely harbor the consequences of the countries inevitable accession to the WTO. However, one thing should also be understood that even under the WTO negotiation the country would only be required to liberalize its economy in rounds of phases and according to the WTO agreements. This directly refers to the opening up of the financial sector, banking and insurance, to foreign investors, which is expected to be the fianl phase of the process of accession.

  28. I Gusti Agung Ayu Gita Pritayanti Dinar, I Ketut Westra and I Ketut Tjukup

    Nowadays, non-performing loan (“NPL”) and the settlement of such NPL in banking sector in Indonesia still constitute as crucial issues. This article aims to: (1) find out provisions on Good Governance in relation to auction process over guaranty with security right attached to it in relation to NPL settlement in banking sector in Indonesia; as well as (2) to dig deeper the obstacles in settling NPL through auction institution. This is a normative legal research that uses primary and secondary legal sources through literature study as well as supporting data from various articles and cases. The large number of NPLs in the banking sector is followed by the increment of NPL settlement that uses auction institution in executing credit guaranty, one of them with security right, to pay off debtor debts to the bank. Auction institution is chosen by bank as it is faster and easier than using writ of execution available in the District Court. The existing provisions on Good Governance in auction already adequate; however, there are still obstacles to implement auction over guaranty with security right attached to it in banking sector in relation to NPL problem, ranging from the period before the auction, at Court, at auction, and in executing the guaranty with security right.

  29. Gulcin Taskiran

    In the historical process, the fact that rebending the rights, which were acquired during the processes of organization, for capitalism to overcome the crisis, recreated precarious work. Thus the term “precarization” became a current issue and it started to be discussed. At this process, the form of labor employment, production area, working hours were bent; their legal and union rights were decreasingly exposed to change and unions gradually fell into a decline. Then, those who wouldn’t/couldn’t be organized by unions were in quest of alternatives and coming together, they started to get organized under the roof of labor organizations such as associations, forums, collectives and initiatives. Especially, their intend to execute a pro-union and denominational union is one of the main problematiques of this study. For the field search, owing to the fact that the labor organisations that have class consciousness with no anti-union characteristics are taken into consideration, alternative labor organizations are evaluated in the context of class consciousness and via in-depth interviews that are conducted with organized workers and the authorities of those organizations; the reasons that turn worker’s steps to alternative organisations, the class status of alternative organisations, and its effect on intraclass solidarity practises are examined. As a result it is identified that those organisations that once could be accepted as under union are now independent of the unions, have their distinctive organising manners and grow into such structures that can be evaluated as important tools for working class organisations.

  30. Shiekh Viqar Manzoor, Irfan Nazir Mir, Asma Khanday, Suhail Nazir, Tajamul Rashid and Mir. Mujtaba Ahmad

    Introduction: A lump in the breast is of great concern to the patients and is also a challenge to the diagnostic judgement of the surgeon. Early diagnosis of breast cancer has increasingly resulted in a more conservative surgical approach to the disease. Methods: The present, comparative study was conducted in the Postgraduate Departement of General Surgery and Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Government Medical College Srinagar,for a period of obout two and a half years. A total of 60 patients underwent clinical examination by surgeon, FNAC by pathologist. Mammography/ultrasonography was done and evaluated by radiologist blinded to FNAC/Clinical examination reports, MRI breast was arranged and evaluated by radiologist blinded to result of triple test. Results: Most common age group affected was 50 to 70 years with a mean + SD of 50.9±14.47. Most common location of breast lesions in patients was upper outer quadrant 31 (51.7%) and least common location was lower inner quadrant 4 (6.6%). Left sided lesions 31(51.67%) were more than right sided lesions 28 (46.67%) with only 1 (1.66%) bilateral lesion. Benign lesions were present in 28 (46.33%) patients and malignant lesions were present in 32 (53.33%) patients. Pain was the most common symptom present in the patients 25 (41.7%) followed by nipple discharge 7 (11.7%) and then weight loss, 6(10%) patients. Skin changes were present in 20% patients,4 (6.67%) had nipple retraction, enlarged axillary lymph nodes were seen in 21 (35%) patients. the accuracy of triple test in the evaluation of breast lesions with 96.9% sensitivity and 67.9% specificity and positive and negative predictive value of 77.5% and 95.0% respectively. the accuracy of MRI in the evaluation of breast lesions with 96.9% sensitivity and 89.3% specificity and positive and negative predictive value of 91.2% and 96.2% respectively. Conclusion: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) breast is equally sensitive to triple assessment in the evaluation of breast masses. It is more specific than triple test in the evaluation of palpable breast masses. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MRI is more than triple assessment. MRI is able to detect occult lesions of opposite breast.

  31. Sabo Haoua Seini, Aminou Illia Mama Nafiou, Bako Aminatou Maazou, Hassimi Sadou, Amoukou Ibrahim, Mousbahou Malam Alma, Ramatou Seini Sidikou, Mahamane Saadou And Maman Moussa Ramatou

    In Niger, the valorization of agri - silvo -pastoral products is an urgent necessity, especially in a country where livestock is the second of the economy. The aim of this study is to contribuer to the improvement of manufacturing processes kilichi for a better regulation of the sector. To this end, a modern kilichi transformation process is compared with traditional ones. The kilichi is a product made from thin strips of sun-dried beef, coated with a spicy paste and grilled. As such, thirty Kilichi manufacturers chosen for convenience are surveyed. An individual interview guide and an observation grid are used on the different methods and stages of kilichi processing, sources of contamination and remediations and the critical points in the transformation process for their control. In total, six steps are identified in the Kilichi transformation process. We count, an initial state, trimming and cutting, drying, seasoning, second drying, and finally roasting. Several observations are made in comparison with the modern method: the wholesomeness of Kilichi, the gestures of the producers, the cleaning and disinfection of materials, the wearing of adequate clothes, and so on. With the modern method the kilichis are dried on the solar dryer and the traditional ones use the sun's rays. During each step, the modern method has been corrected by the use of good hygiene. Kilichi dried in the sun are consistent, dry, but not friable. The kiln-kilns are also thick, dry, friable, which represents an added value per kilichi. The results of this study can be used to complete the drafting of specifications for Kilichi in Niger, to strengthen the capacity of Kilichi transformers and sellers. The same laws and regulations as other food handlers.

  32. Pranav Kulkarni, Abhijit Nale, Omkar Kharat, Rahul Sonwane, Dhanshri Lawand and Pooja Khindkar

    Tinospora cordifolia is one of the most important medicinal plants and used in formation of important drug in ayurvedic system of medicine. It is prescribed for many diseases such as fever, general debility, diabetes, urinary infections, jaundice and skin diseases. Aqueous and Methanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia was evaluated for their phytochemical analysis. FTIR of methanolic stem, leaf and aqueous stem, leaf is analyzed. Phytochemical screening of Tinospora cordifolia extract revealed the presence of various bioactive components such as Resins, Diterpenes, Flavenoids, Phenols, Carbohydrate, Alkaloids and Amino acids. Further, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) has strengthened the Phytochemical clarification. In present study phytochemical investigation of Tinospora cordifolia was performed. It showed the presence of Resins, Diterpenes, Flavenoids, Phenols, Carbohydrate, Alkaloids and Amino acids. The presence of bioactive compounds shows the importance of medicinal plants as an efficient of therapeutic agents.

  33. Md. Abdul Mannan, Yudai Hirano, Armando Quitain, Koinuma, M. and Tetsuya Kida

    In this present research, we have synthesized graphene oxide (GO) by modified Hummer’s method using graphite flake as starting material. Boron atoms were successfully doped into the GO framework with an atomic percentage of 1.641.89 at. % by hydrothermal reduction using boric acid as a precursor. The presence of B–O, B–C and C–O bonds was predicted from the FT-IR spectral analyses. Shifting of XRD peak from 10 to 26 presumably indicated the reduction of GO by the incorporation of boron atoms. The crystalline defect was further confirmed by the Raman spectroscopy. Finally, the C=C, C–O, -BC3, -BC2O, -BCO2, -COO-, B2O3, and C–OH chemical environments were precisely predicted by the XPS peak fitting analyses. The boron functionalized reduced graphene oxide (B-rGO) was subjected to the glucose adsorption reaction that showed significant glucose adsorption reactivity of 6570% due to the high adsorption affinity of boron towards oxygen atoms of the glucose molecules.

  34. Athraa Saad Mtasher, Ali Jabbar Abdulhussein and Shihab Hattab Mutlag

    The human GIT has normal flora of bacteria which play important role in homeostasis of human gut. The imbalance of gut flora is induced by traditional treatment such as antibiotics which causes increased prevalence of disorders and diseases. This disruption of host microbial can be manipulated by using probiotics and prebiotics. Probiotic is microorganisms that produce metabolic by-product which exerts beneficial effects on biological functions and modulate the immunity of the host. While, prebiotic is a fermented component or non-digested food which though to stimulate or activate the microorganisms in the human gut. In conclusion, probiotics and prebiotics can be used to treat gut disorders due to imbalance of normal flora which is reported to cause many gastric diseases.

  35. Sana Javaid Awan, Faheem Hadi, Madiha Fayyaz, Sabeen Malik, Tahir Maqbool, Somia Shahzadi and Anam Farzand

    Some azoles have proliferative effect on liver cells that showed it can cause angiogenesis as we observed in this study. In this study, HepG2 cells are used as liver cell line. As angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels, this drug can initiate the proliferation of more and more cells in liver which can lead to the regeneration of liver cells. This in-vitro study was based on one group of cells treated with our drugs of interest and other was untreated group. The study has shown increased proliferation of treated cells as compared to untreated group in MTT and antioxidant assays in dose dependant manner. As these drugs have proliferative effect, they also showed the increased angiogenesis than the normal cells. On the other hand they can act as antiapoptotic agent to reduce the apoptosis in some diseases like liver fibrosis. Antioxidant assays showed that these drugs played great role in reducing the oxidative stress that a cell can face during injury. SOD and GSH were the antioxidant enzymes which initially play their part in the reduction of superoxide ions. Superoxide ions are free radicals that cause damage to body cells, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GSH) catalyze superoxide ions and convert them into molecular hydrogen and oxygen peroxide and show antioxidant defense response towards damaging free radicals. Thus end results showed that these azoles can have proliferative and regenerative effects on liver cells.

  36. Idahosa, I. B., Obueh, H. O., Odesiri – Eruteyan, E. A. and Osarobomwen, F. O.

    Bacteriological characterization of waste dump sites, soil and air environment of an urban and a rural market during wet and dry days was conducted to determine the bacterial population and distribution in order to ascertain the market hygiene and environmental safety. A total of 64 soil samples were collected within three months and examined for heterotrophic bacterial counts. The mean bacterial counts ranged from 13.08 ± 2.29 х 104 cfu/g to 22.39 ± 5.38 х 104 cfu/g and 10.85 ± 0.66 х 104 cfu/g to 21.50 ± 1.67 х 104 cfu/g in the urban and rural markets respectively during the dry days. The mean bacterial counts ranged from 30.05 ± 5.49 х 104 cfu/g to 38.05 ± 5.27 х 104 cfu/g and 18.73 ± 5.45 х 104 cfu/g to 24.33 ± 4.14 х 104 cfu/g in the urban and rural markets respectively during the wet days. The bacteria isolated included Escherichia coli, Shigella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp, Bacillus aureus, Enteroccoccus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. E. coli was the most prevalent bacterium in the urban market with percentage prevalence of 93.76% while Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent bacterium in the rural market with percentage prevalence of 37.51%. There was significant difference (p< 0.05) between the bacterial population in the rural and urban markets during the wet and dry days. An effective waste management and disposal method in markets is therefore necessary to prevent potential disease outbreak.

  37. Sara S. Fouad and Omneya Messallam

    Egypt has countless prestigious buildings and diversity of cultural heritage which are located in many cities. Most of the researchers, archaeologists, stakeholders and governmental bodies are paying more attention to the big cities such as Cairo and Alexandria, due to the country’s centralization nature. However, there are other historic cities that are grossly neglected and in need of emergency conservation. For instance, Port Said which is a former colonial city that was established in nineteenth century located at the edge of the northeast Egyptian coast between the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal. This city is chosen because it presents one of the important Egyptian archaeological sites that archive Egyptian architecture of the 19th and 20th centuries. The historic urban fabric is divided into three main districts; the Arab, the European (Al-Afrang), and Port Fouad. The European district is selected to be the research case study as it has culture diversity, significant buildings, and includes the largest number of the listed heritage buildings in Port Said. Based on questionnaires and interviews, Since 2003 several initiative trials have been taken by Alliance Francaise, the National Organization for Urban Harmony (NOUH), some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and few number of community residents to highlight the important city legacy and protect it from being demolished. Unfortunately, the limitation of their participation in decision-making policies is considered a crucial threat facing sustainable heritage conservation. Therefore, encouraging the local community to participate in their architecture heritage conservation would create a self-confident one, capable of making decisions for the city’s future development. This paper aims to investigate the role of the local inhabitants in protecting their buildings heritage through listing the community level of participations twice (2012 and 2018) in preserving their heritage based on the ladder citizen participation approach. Also, it is to encourage community participation in order to promote city architecture conservation, heritage management, and sustainable development. The methodology followed in this empirical research involves using several data assembly methods such as structural observations, questionnaires, interviews, and mental mapping. The questionnaire was distributed among 92 local inhabitants aged 18-60 years. However, the outset of this research at the beginning demonstrated the majority negative attitude, motivation, and confidence of the local inhabitants’ role to safeguard their architectural heritage. Over time, there was a change in the negative attitudes. Therefore, raising public awareness and encouraging community participation by providing them with a real opportunity to take part in the decision-making. This may lead to a positive relationship between the community residents and the built heritage, which is essential for promoting its preservation and sustainable development.

  38. Rita Leite Queiroz, Arlete Silva Dorado Sinara Leite Queiroz, Bruna Carol Oliveira da Silva, Jaqueline Soares, Santos, Leilane Brito Costa, Danielle Soares Silva, Michele Mara Caires Gonçalves, Luciana Evangelista de Brito, Fernanda Portela Sampaio and N

    Intestinal diseases are caused by parasites, due to the great increase of predominance and different forms of clinical manifestations, characterize a disorder of great relevance to public health. In the contagion of intestinal parasites, soil, air, water, flies, hands and food stand out as the main means of propagation of protozoa and helminths. This research had as objective the parasitological analysis of lettuces marketed in a free market. 60 fresh samples of lettuce specimens [Lactuca sativa] of curly variety were used for analysis purposes, using the spontaneous sedimentation technique. The most common enteroparasites found in lettuce samples were Ascarislumbricoides and Entamoeba coli. The effective action of the washing methods was then analyzed, meaning that the resting and washing with sodium hypochlorite obtained a better result in the removal of the parasites in relation to the other sanitizers. It is recommended the practice of educational actions aimed at the marketers and consumers, as well as uplifting through advertising media. It is necessary to offer better support of structure, in the points where the free fairs are held, above all in the sanitary situations and in the water supply.

  39. Mehmet Ufuk KASIM , Rezzan KASIM and Kübra YAŞAR

    During the postharvest period, chilling injury cause important produce losses in peppers. The chilling injury of pepper is revealed especially low temperature during storage. So, this study is contucted to determine the effect of ultrasound (52 dB) and oxalic acid treatments on chilling injury (CI) and color maintain of Capia peppers at 4°C temperature. The peppers harvested at the mature-green stage divided into four group and the following treatments were done; 1. Control (C, dip to water at 25°C for 15 min), 2. Oxalic acid (OA, dip to the3 Mol oxalic acid solution at 25°C for 15 min), 3. Ultrasound (US, dip to water bath in a 52 dB and at 25°C for 15 min), 4. US+OA (dip to the3 Mol oxalic acid solution in a 52 dB water bath for 15 min). After treatments, the peppers were dried, placed in polystyrene foam dishes as three pepper per dish, and wrapped polyethylene stretch film. Then, the packaged peppers were stored in a cold room at 4±1°C temperature and 85-90% RH. The study was carried out in three replicates, and total soluble solids (TSS), color (L*, a*, b*), weight loss, electrolyte leakage, visual quality scores and CI scores were determined during storage (at the beginning, 14th days, 14th+72h, 28th days, 28th+72h). According to the results, CI scores of samples in three treatments (OA, US, US+OA) were lower compared to control group. But, OA treatment was supressed CI symptoms than the other treatments during all storage period. The color preservation of samples in OA, US, US+OA treatments were lower than control. In conclusion, it was concluded that,

  40. Abarchi Idrissa, Ado Salifou Hadiza, Olalekan Wasiu Olaniyi , Gaston Sangaré, Zhang Zhanyu, Guo Xiangping, and Wang Weimu

    A decrease of water resources around the globe in irrigated agriculture has resulted in a steep decline in irrigation water availability. Therefore, management options for efficient use of available irrigation water are inevitable. In addition to that, the judicious use of combinations of organic and inorganic resources is a feasible approach to overcome soil fertility constraints. Hence, effects of drought, fertilizer and mulch on maize biomass and some soil properties were examined in a green house. The objective was to determine measures which will enhance resistance to drought and increase maize biomass with improved soil conservation. Twelve treatments were considered by varying irrigation, mulch, and fertilizer. Experimental results revealed that: (i) Mulch application increased Water Used Efficiency (WUE) by 30.18% and 34.80% under full irrigation in 2005 and 2006. (ii) Mulch decreased under ground biomass by 21, 30.20 and 2.4% under full irrigation, mild, and serious stress. (iii) The use of fertilizer alone increases underground biomass by 16.98 and 32.19% in 2005 and 2006. (iv) Mulch application reduced soil bulk density by 1.53% under mild stress treatment.

  41. Balamurugan, K. Senthil Kumar, G. and Muthalagi, S.

    The present study was carried out Seasonal variation of physico chemical parameters from Willington Lake (Latitude: 11° 20' 10" N; Longitude: 79° 32’ 40" E), Tittagudi taluk, Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, India. The sampling was carried out for a period of one year from January 2016 to December 2016. The Mean (± SD) value of the Physico chemical parameters viz. Atmospheric Temperature, Water Temperature, Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solid, Electrical Conductivity, pH and Salinity was observed. The maximum value was observed during summer season and the minimum was observed in Monsoon season. The Dissolved Oxygen, Total Alkalinity, Calcium, Nitrate, Nitrite, Phosphate and Silicate were also observed. The maximum value was recorded during Monsoon season and the minimum was investigated in summer season. It was concluded that the seasonal variation of physico chemical parameters to be governed by rainfall and the quality of water generally refers to the component of water present at the optimum level of for suitable growth of plants and animals.

  42. Tilly F.D. Lumy, Meiske L. Rundengan, Anneke K. Rintjap and Richard E.M.F. Osak

    The use of feed technology greatly influences the decision of households in carrying out production activities, allocation of labor and consumption, so it is necessary to conduct research on the relationship between the use of technology and household decisions in carrying out their activities. By studying the impact of technology on household decisions, it can be calculated how much household income is due to the use of technology in the study area. This study aimed to analyze the role of technology utilization in increasing the income of traditional cattle farmers in South Sulawesi Regency. The study was conducted by survey research that illustrate the systematic and factual about the actual phenomenon. The results showed that: (1) The use of food technology led to an increase in production costs, but also leads to increased acceptance, resulting in an increase in household income of traditional cattle farm; and (2) Some policies can improve the production yield and can reduce the cost factor that can improve the economic of the traditional cattle farmer households. Some suggestions for policy makers based on the results of this study, which is expected to implement policies: (i) support the use of feed technology application on cattle farming; and (ii) the subsidy increase in the number of cattle ownership.

  43. Dr. Vidya, V.

    A sense of identity starts with the concept of birthplace, and from there starts the question of rootedness, rootlessness, belongingness, unbelongingness, homeliness, unhomeliness, ‘de-territorialisation’ of the psyche and ‘re-territorialisation’ of the mind. In “The Courter” of the collection of short stories, East, West, Salman Rushdie depicts the psychological ‘de-territorialisation of the Indianness in the main characters as they settle down in England. This process of ‘de-territorialisation’ is accompanied by their attempts to ‘re-territorialise’ their mind-sets and establish cross cultural communication, exemplifying Rushdie’s statement: “To forget that there is a world beyond the community to which we belong, to confine ourselves within narrowly defined cultural frontiers, would be, I believe, to go voluntarily into that form of internal exile which in South Africa is called the ‘homeland’.” (IH 19) Mary’s Indian roots prevent her from connecting with the surrounding structures that exist outside the invisible domain of the India of her mind. The Courter aids Mary in ‘de-territorialising’ her limited territories of her mind and connects her to the Western ones. Through the jealous eyes of Mary’s grandson, the narrator, Rushdie metaphorically depicts both the allure, and alienation present within a state, or relationship of cross-cultural integration. This is an echo of Rushdie’s statement: “What does it mean to be ‘Indian’ outside India? How can culture be preserved without becoming ossified?” (IH 17) Rushdie uses the chess game within “The Courter” as a metaphor to depict the constant battle of balance that one must maintain to exist outside one’s native land. This paper analyses how Mary, the Courter and the narrator (Mary’s grandson) ‘de-territorialise’ and ‘re-territorialise’ their psyches in their encounters with the West and provide answers to the existential question raised by Rushdie: “How are we to live in the world?” (IH 18).

  44. Aniket Kumar Gupta

    At present, emerging information technologies or computer technologies are all pervasive and have tremendous benefits but also raise some ethical and social concerns. Let us have an understanding of such issues before we may think of addressing the possible social and moral fallouts arising out of it. In this paper, it has been tried to highlight the importance of ethics among information technology professionals to ensure that computer technology is not used in the wrong way which can harm people, our environment and the society. IT professionals need to be fair, loyal, honest and have ethical practices while working for an organization to make it a success. IT professionals have to abide by codes of conduct like at Harvard University which has a well-drafted ‘IT Professionals Code of Conduct to protect Electronic Information and a sort of self-policing.’ A grading methodology can measure the ethical environment of an organization for creating benchmarks in an entity.

  45. Asima Tayyeb, Uzma Qaisar, Muhammad Shahjahan, Hanfa Ashfaq and Zafar Abbas Shah

    The FASN is essential enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis that converted into phospholipids which provides resistance to drug uptake in malignancies. The FASN over expression and intrinsic/acquired both types of drug resistance reported in carcinomas. To assess the FASN up-regulation overall therapeutic response in drug screened cancer cell line data from Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) by a rational CCLE GDSC gene expression - drug sensitivity correlations tool. We identify differential response of FASN in different drug treated tissue in which few cancer studies the drug performance increases in presence of FASN over expression but several cancer studies showed drug resistance by FASN over expression. The FASN increased expression drug resistance mainly linked with MAPK, EGFR, AKT, BCR/ABL, MDM2, HDAC and IGFR pathways that are responsible for angiogenesis, growth, survival, migration, differentiation and proliferation. Our study signifies the FASN elevated expression resistance to anti-proliferatory drugs for multiple oncogenes which indicate the FASN inter/intra-pathway interactions with oncogenes for their effective survival. We diagnose the FASN over expression as predictive marker in drug resistance genomes to design molecular medicines that consider it secondary target in generally accepted therapy.

  46. Larry O. Awo, Philip C. Mefoh and Val C. Eze

    In an effort to psychologically oriented solution to the menace of terrorism in the Nigerian state, we employed a 2x2 factorial design to examine risky framing and certainty effects on counterterrorism tactics adoption. Eighty students of psychology, (mean age = 24.35 years, SD =2.85 years) were involved in the study. Framing was varied into positive and negative framing levels, while certainty was varied into certainty and uncertainty levels. A 2-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) result revealed significant main effects of framing and certainty on counterterrorism decision. The results were discussed in consideration of the prevailing security challenges in Nigeria.

  47. Hermann Josef Scheuber

    In 1960 Gell-Mann completed the «

  48. Wollela Behja

    The plant world is a Pandora of active chemical compounds. Nearly half the medicines that we use today are of herbal origin, and a quarter contains plant extracts or active chemicals taken directly from plants. Aloe genus, which belongs to the family Xanthorrhoeaceae, produces a number of metabolites in good yields and some have been shown to possess useful biological activities. Many compounds belonging to different classes, including anthrones, chromones, pyrones, naphthalenes and flavonoids have so far been reported from the endemic aloe of Ethiopia. This review focuses on phytochemistry and medicinal use of endemic Aloe of Ethiopia to allow an evaluation of the potential for utilization of the largest biomass of endemic Aloe available.

  49. Roberto Campos Leoni, Nilo Antonio de Souza Sampaio, Bianca Aparecida Reis Rios and José Wilson de Jesus Silva

    The purpose of this paper is to present parameters of Shewhart control charts to monitor the mean and variability of an automotive industry process. The process consists of preparing and applying polyurethane glue for attaching glass of a panoramic roof to a vehicle. The amount of glue applied must follow the height and length standard specified by Engineering. These are the two quality characteristics considered critical regarding quality and safety for customer. Limits of control plot to monitor the mean and sample amplitude are estimated with 50 size 6 samples, following the principle of rational subgroups. Graphs constructed serve to monitor the quality characteristics of process, and it is possible to evaluate wheather there are special causes that alter the average and/or the variability of process.

  50. Manjunath, N.K., Ethiraj, J. and Karthikeyan M Ramasamy

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that directly convert chemical energy to electrical energy. Among fuel cells PEMFC is unique and only kind of low temperature fuel cell that uses solid polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM - Nafion®) which operates at relatively low temperature (60-120°C). In PEMFC stack the gas diffusion media is sandwiched between the bipolar plate and the catalyst layer to form the gas diffusion layer (GDL). In the present study GDL macroporous layer were prepared using coir pith carbon fibers along with PVA as binder and Pani as co-binder. A comparative analysis of electrical resistivity and porosity of coir pith carbon fibers based GDL macroporous layer with commercially available(SIGRACET 10, 24/25,34/35& TORAY GDL) GDL, the effect of binder, co-binder and thickness of GDL were studied.

  51. Karthikeyan M. Ramasamy and Abiyu Kerebo Berekute

    Malaria is a destructive disease distressing human being caused mostly by mosquitoes. In general this disease can be avoided by preventing mosquito bites by mosquito net and chemical repellents. Chemical repellents which are applied in cloth are allergic to human and create irritations on skin and breathing troubles. In order to avoid problems of chemical repellents a research attempt has been made to treat cotton bed spreads with the extract of naturally available Senna Auriculata flowers which has mosquito repellency which helps in protecting human from mosquito bites and it is environmental friendly too. The effects of the extract of naturally available Senna Auriculata flowers on Cotton/Polyester blended bedspread for the repellency towards the mosquitoes were evaluated by Cage Test. The result show that the natural extract from Senna Auriculata flowers gives excellent mosquito repellency on cotton/polyester blended bedspreads.

  52. Ngla Ebrahim Alshak Almosbah, Mariam Abbas Ibrahim and Nuha Eljailli Abubaker

    Background: pregnancy is associated with maternal physiological, biochemical and hormonal changes. The aim of this study was to assess the serum lipid profile and thyroid hormones among Sudanese pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional case control study conducted at Hafiz Almisbah private medical center, Khartoum Sudan in the period from April to September 2018. Sixty pregnant women; as cases; (20 from each trimester) and sixty non-pregnant women; as controls; were included in the study. A fasting venous blood was collected from each participant, obtaining the serum; thyroid hormones were measured by ELISA (Stat fax - 2100) , and total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDLc and HDLc were measured by CHEM-7, Erba Mannheim. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 20, t-test was used for comparison of means between two groups and Pearson’s correlation test was used to test the association between study parameters and variables, P-value < 0.05 is considered significant. Results: There was a significant increase in total cholesterol (mean ± SD: case; 197.03 ± 40.39 versus control; 171.05 ± 40.23 mg/dl, p-value: 0.001), triglyceride (mean ± SD: case; 172.45 ± 42.15 versus control; 149.05 ± 42.06 mg/dl, p-value: 0.044), HDLc (mean ± SD: case; 46.58 ± 10.32 versus control; 41.80 ± 7.82 mg/dl, p-value 0.005) and LDLc (mean ± SD: case; 116.50 ± 38.94 versus control; 99.02 ± 36.25 mg/dl, p-value: 0.012), T3 (mean ± SD: case; 1.54 ± 0.39 versus controls; 1.29 ± 0.37 Iu/l, p- value: 0.001) and T4 (mean ± SD: case; 8.92 ± 1.81 versus controls; 8.25 ± 1.10 Iu/l , p-value: 0.016), while there was a significant decrease in TSH (mean ± SD: case; 0.47 ± 0.42 and control; 2.35 ± 1.23 Iu/l, p-value: 0.000), The result also showed a significant positive correlation between total cholesterol and T3(r: 0.437, p-value: 0.000), cholesterol and T4 (r: 0.539, p-value: 0.000), cholesterol and TSH (r: 0.313, p- value: 0.015), triglycerides and T3 (r: 0.513, p- value: 0.000), triglycerides and T4 (r: 0.560, p- value: 0.000), triglycerides and TSH (r: 0.270, p-value: 0.037), HDLc and T3 (r: 0.408 p-value: 0.000), HDLc and T4 (r: 0.541, p-value: 0.000), HDLc and TSH (r: 0.279, p-value:0.031), LDLc and T3 (r: 0.328, p-value: 0.011) and LDLc and T4 (r: 0.392, p-value: 0.002); but there was no correlation between LDLc and TSH (r: 0.242, p-value: 0.062. Conclusion: pregnant women had increased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDLc and LDLc, T3 and T4, and they had decreased levels of TSH.

  53. Kush Kumar Dey, Dr. Vijay Kumar Dwivedi and Dr. Satanand Mishra

    The present study is carried out to find out the long-period variation of seasonal temperature of the districts Bankura and Purulia of West Bengal located on Lower Gangetic Basin. Temperature is a prime element which determines the Climate of the districts Bankura and Purulia. In this study, temperature has been analyzed statistically to determine the variability in magnitude over the period 1901-2000. The temperature data of the districts Bankura and Purulia have been collected from the India Meteorological Department (IMD), Pune. Trends are analyzed using Mann-Kendall test for the data period 1901-2000. From the trend analysis we observed that seasonal temperature variation of summer of the district Bankura is decreasing trend and the district Purulia is increasing trend. The fluctuation of Monsoonal and post Monsoonal temperature of both districts are decreasing trend but variation of winter temperature of both districts are increasing trend. For all cases the value of Mann-Kendall Z are greater than 1.64 at 0.05level. So, all results are statistically significant.

  54. Rajendra Kunwar

    This article is concerned with the achievement test on mathematics for grade X students. The test consists of the 50 multiple choice items extracted from the grade X mathematics course. Moreover, the purpose of this study is to develop and standardize the achievement test to measure the students' cognitive level of grade X mathematics. The preliminary instrument consisted of 60 multiple-choice items and first it was tested on a sample size of 50 students of grade X. After the refinement of the test items using different procedures, 50final achievement test items were designed. The second test administration was organized after 40 days in the same group of students. This test construction and development consists of the steps as preparation of test blueprint, preliminary draft and answer key, pilot testing, item analysis, preparation of final test, reliability and validity of the test and norms. Discriminative Index and power of difficulty level was calculated. Test reliability coefficient was calculated and found to be 0.86 and also the internal consistency Cronbach’s α was found to be 0.85.Likewise, validity was also established through the expert judgment and establishing reliability coefficient. The age norm was also established.

  55. Meng Fanzhi and Zhang Jian

    Focusing on the cosmological and non-cosmological redshifts existing in the quasars, in this work, we proposed that the different gravitational fields will lead to the changes of the electronic structure of matter. Therefore, the large spectra redshifts in the quasars are well explained based on the changes of the electronic structure of the matter. In the external strong gravitational field, the stable states of atoms (ions or molecules) are different from that of the earth region. The electron "orbital" energy of atoms is decreased in the strong gravitational field, leading to decrease the energy level difference between orbits, and the spectrum shows red shift. Because the orbital energies are proportionally decreased, the atomic spectrum in the strong gravitational field is still to exhibit the characteristic spectrum of the same atom in the earth region, that is, only the whole red shift occurs. We proposed that the different atomic stable states exist due to the different gravitational field intensities, which are discontinuous and gradient. It usually presents as the different quantum states. The quantum states in the earth region are only one of the several quantum states in the universe. Our proposed theory can not only perfectly explain the spectral redshift characteristics and nature of quasars, but also draw the conclusion that the gravitational field changes the matter structure.

  56. Nazar Salih and Nebras Hussein

    Precise diagnosis for a wide range of diseases infecting the human eye is a commitment. Therefore, developing new, smart algorithms is necessary to enhance doctors’ diagnostic decisions. The recently invented Pentacam® is a measurement system that introduces topographic maps for the cornea, measures changes upon it, and helps doctors to make a precise diagnosis. This study extracts features from corneal topographic maps to improve the Pentacam® readings and further support precise diagnosing by using deep learning techniques, with an analytical view of the extracted features. A 16-layer convolutional neural network (CNN) was trained using the VGG-16 network to extract powerful features from corneal topographic maps. A sample of 732 human eyes were selected from enlarged topographic images from both genders (414 females and 318 males), divided into two groups: normal and abnormal. The patients’ ages ranged from 12 to 76 years. The procedure of the study consisted of three major steps: (1) classification of the extracted features according to the refractive map type (where the estimated accuracy was 96.6%); (2) prediction of the clinical state (normal or abnormal) per individual map (where the estimated accuracy was 88.8%, 98.9%, 94.8%, and 94.5% for the sagittal map, the elevation front map, the elevation back map, and the corneal thickness map, respectively); and (3) comparison of the predicted results and clinical decision-making. The agreement between them reaches about 94.72%, which indicated the power and usefulness of the proposed algorithm.

  57. Dr. Sathya Priya, G.B.

    Compulsive buying is usually considered as an abnormal consumer behavior on buying things or an irresistible urge to buy beyond someone’s need. In the high tech environment compulsive buying turned into online compulsive buying due to more advanced aspects. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of online compulsive buying behavior on positive and negative emotions. A survey was conducted among 388 post graduation students by using convenient sampling technique. The result shows that there is a moderate positive relationship for both positive and negative emotions on online compulsive buying. Further research and suggestions will be discussed.

  58. Shikha Singh, Adya Jain, Kautily Rao Tiwari, Neeraj Kumar and Radha Tomar

    Hydrothermal synthesis was carried out for synthesis of Zeolite W under the static conditions. The synthesize sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDAX) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectrocopy. Zeolite W was used as an adsorbent for the adsorption of malathion from aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were performed in a batch system. The effects of various experimental parameters (contact time, solution pH, effect of temperature and adsorbent doses) on the adsorption efficiency of zeolite W against were investigated for malathion. Zeolite W also performed against malathion in acidic and basic condition but highest adsorption capacity observed at pH 7 (aqueous solution).

  59. Atalor, N.D., Achebo, J.I. and Osarenmwinda J.O.

    Excessive weld penetration is a weld defect that affects weld quality and the service life of Engineering Structures, such defects can be eliminated by the optimum selection of welding process parameters. This study is carried out to optimize the heat input, An experimental matrix was developed with the design expert software, which resulted in a composite design. Mild steel plate of 10mm thickness was cut to size measuring 80mm in length and 40mm in width, the samples were grinded, polished and welded with the Tungsten Inert Gas. Thereafter the heat input was determined for the weld samples, the experimental results was used as the data. The Response Surface Methodology, was employed to optimize the responses from input parameters which includes current, voltage and gas flow rate. The experimental results shows that the minimum value for current is 120, voltage 20, gas flow rate 12 and the maximum value are 170 Amp, 25 volt, 14Lit/mm. The RSM model selected the quadratic model as the suitable model for the heat input, deposition rate, weld penetration size because it has a p – value < 0.05. The models developed possessed good noise to signal ratio of 9.47 for heat input. The optimal numerical solution was obtained and the result shows that a current of 157.67 will combine with 24.44 volt and 12.34 Lit/min to produce a weld having 0.603 heat input.

  60. Rodrigo Alves Costa

    Software development agile approaches are mainly characterized for prioritizing the development of functionalities through executable code rather than the production of extensive written documentation and also for presenting quick responses to changes. In this context, this work aims to report the application of Scrum in an undergraduate classroom environment in the Computer Science course of the State University of Paraiba, during the development of a project for the Project Management subject, by presenting the entire project execution process. In the end, we achieved an experience that simulated a real world industry-like situation, common to that of software development companies, which facilitated the learning of the content of the subject.

  61. Dr. Tariq Abdullah, Dr. Shamim Iqbal, Dr. Khurshid Iqbal and Dr. Shamim Iqbal

    Background: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is under diagnosed, undertreated, poorly understood, and much more common than previously thought. In primary care practices across the United States, 29% of patients who are older than 70 years or who are older than 50 years with a history of smoking or diabetes have been reported to have PAD. Objectives: (i)To assess prevalence of lower limb peripheral arterial disease in patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease, (ii) to see the relation between severity of coronary artery disease and peripheral arterial disease, and (iii) to study risk factor profile of peripheral arterial vis-à-vis coronary artery disease. Methodology: This was a prospective hospital based study conducted in the Department of Cardioogy at SKIMS, Soura, Srinagar, Kashmir. All the patients who were taken for coronary angiography in the Department of Cardiology, SKIMS, Srinagar were evaluated in terms of complete relevant history, clinical examination and laboratory investigation. The clinical symptoms like intermittent claudication, resting, pain, feeling of cold or numbness in toes were enquired. To ascertain the presence of intermittent claudication Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire (ECQ) was administered. Results: There were 69 males and 33 females with male female ratio of 2.1:1. Mean age of population was 59.5+ 9.1years. Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease was 13.7% as documented by peripheral angiography. Claudication was the only relevant symptom present in two patients (14.3%) with peripheral arterial disease as compared to none without peripheral arterial disease. Hypertensive patients were more likely to have peripheral arterial disease as it6 was present in 71.4% among patients with peripheral arterial disease. Diabetics were more likely to have peripheral arterial disease as it was present in 42.9% among patients with peripheral arterial disease. Family history of coronary artery disease was equally distributed in both groups. Conclusion: Coronary artery disease evaluation should be considered in patients with lower extremity PAD having diabetes, multi-cardiovascular risk factors, or multi-level disease.

  62. Wisam Al-Hathlol, Haiam Al-Jelaaly, Sarah Abomelha, Mahaa Al-Ageel, Walaa Al-Kheshail, Abdullah Abomelha, Mohammed Al-Ojan and Roula Al Bounni

    Esthetics is commonly thought as one of the fundamentals of oral rehabilitation. Thus, the selection of artificial teeth is one of the vital steps during prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulous patients particularly those with no available pre-extraction records (1,2). The proper choice of the maxillary incisor in terms of the size and form of the upper anterior teeth considering the patient’s gender and age can contribute significantly to attaining greater facial harmony (3-5). Several methods have been used as guides for the replacement of incisors teeth including photographs, plaster cast and radiographs. However, there is no consensus in the literature regarding the best technique to be used for this purpose (3). Worldwide, a variety of population-based measures for replacement of upper incisors teeth for cosmetic appearance have been reported, however such data in Saudi population is lacking. Therefore, Aim: to identify one of the proper features for esthetic appearance of upper incisors through studying the relationship between length of the face and length of maxillary central incisors in Saudi population. Material & methodology: The data concerning facial length and upper central incisors were collected from 300 patients. Inclusion criteria: Saudi patient of age group between 20–35 years, healthy without systemic diseases. Exclusion criteria: patients with bad habits (Teeth grinding, or bruxism, chewing on pencils and nails), previous esthetic treatment (orthodontic, surgical, periodontal treatment). Facial length was the total length that was measured from the hair line to the tip of the nose, and from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin.Central incisors were measured from zenith point to the incisal line. Digital caliper (IOS) was used for all candidates’ measurements in a well-designed data sheet.The data were analyzed with SPSS software (version 21.0; SPSS, Chicago, IL). Results: 300 candidates were included in our study. 101 Male 198 Female. The facial length was (7.41 .62, meanSD), the length of both central incisors #11 and #21 was (.40 .12, meanSD). There was significant correlation between the facial length and central incisor #21 with Correlation Coefficient of 0.156 (P= 0.007). while there was borderline significant correlation between the facial length and central incisor #11 with Correlation Coefficient of 0.113 (P= 0.05). Conclusion: Our results revealed that there was positive correlation between the length of the central incisor and the Hight of the face in Saudi population that might indicate suitable esthetic appearance.

  63. Dr. Vidya Kharkar and Dr. Parmeshwar B. Kanade

    Background: Polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is an acquired disease . PMLE is characterized by recurrent, abnormal, reactions to sunlight. The prevalence of PMLE in India varies from 0.56% to 1.34 %. Present study was done to study the clinical pattern and its epidemiological features Methods: This study was done over the period of two years. All patients with history of photosensitivity and clinical manifestations were included. A total of 120 cases of PMLE were registered. Detailed history, clinical examination and relevant investigations . The collected data were tabulated and analyzed. Results: The age group of the patients ranged from 9 to 65 years. Maximum number of patients were seen in of 2nd decade. Onset of lesions was maximum in the March. Itching was common symptom and micropapules common morphology. Conclusion: PMLE was more common in females, and in 2nd to 3rd decade. ANA titres did not correlate with the severity of PMLE.

  64. Godwin Aondohemba Timiun and Timothy J. Scrase

    Background: Despite the efforts to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS through programme interventions targeting individuals, the persistent high rates of HIV/AIDS through heterosexual relationships in Nigeria further underscores the need to examine the effects of relational variables such as sexual intimacy on sexual behaviours, multiple partners and HIV/AIDS risk. It has been acknowledged that sexual networking could influence the spread of HIV, however, the role of relational variables in the spread of HIV amongst stable relationships, and sexual networks remains unclear. Hence the focus of this study is on sexual intimacy and HIV risk amongst sexual groups such as dyad, triad, or more partners in Nigeria, where high numbers of new HIV/AIDS infection are within marital or cohabitation relationships. Methods: A sample of 1,621 (864 women; 757 men; 815 HIV seropositive; 806 HIV seronegative) respondents, who participated in survey and in-depth interviews, were selected from two clinics and two other locations using multi-stage and purposive sampling methods. SPSS (version 21) software was used for quantitative data analysis while the qualitative data was analysed quantitatively. Results: Age (P = 0.05), sex (P = 0.001), education (P = 0.017), relationship status (P = 0.000), number of sexual partners (P = 0.000), had sex while drunk (P = 0.000) and HIV status (P = 0.000) significantly correlate with levels of sexual intimacy. Relational variables provide a better understanding of complex sexual behaviours in sexual groups and HIV/AIDS risk. Conclusion: The levels of sexual intimacy are the relationship pathways through which factors such as age, sex, relationship status, number of sexual partners, education, had sex while drunk and HIV status influence sexual behaviours and HIV risk amongst groups. Targeting sexual groups instead of the individual to curb the spread of HIV in high incidence areas would be more rewarding. Hence there would be improvement in the sexual wellbeing of the individuals and the public.

  65. Nataliya Ivanovna NENKO, Irina Anatolievna ILYINA, Galina Konstantinovna KISELEVA and Elena Karlenovna YABLONSKAУ

    The cold-tolerance of ‘Kristal’ (Euro-Amur-American origin), ‘Dostoyniy’ and ‘Krasnostop AZOS’ (interspecific hybrids of Euro-American origin) grapevine varieties in the conditions of the Russian South winter is characterized by the second (true dormancy) and third (induced dormancy) winter-resistance components. Here we used complex approach to estimate the plants adaptability to abiotic stress factors. We used gravimetric method for humidity assessment and water content; spectral analysis for detection of the protein level and pigments; capillary electrophoresis method to analyze the level of carbohydrates, Krebs cycle organic acids, phenolcarbonic, ascorbic acids, and amino acids. The obtained results allow to suppose the various mechanisms of adaptation of the studied varieties to the winter period stressors. The water content of the shoots, the level of protein, aminoacids, proline, sugars and the sum of phenolcarbonic and ascorbic acids are the most informative indicators of grape plants frost-resistance in the climate conditions of Anapa - Taman region.

  66. Kun Hee Lee

    This research paper goes over the definition of AI, and its macroeconomic and microeconomic impacts in terms of economic and productivity growth, and labor demand. AI (Artificial Intelligence) technology is widely being developed and expected to be used more broadly. Thus, many experts and papers are estimating its economic value and possible impact. Many reports state that AI technology will bring in considerable revenue. The revenue will increase due to improved productivity which will reduce costs, and advance the quality of products. First, the installment of AI technology will greatly increase both labor and firm productivity. According to a report, innovation induced by this technology is classified as a skill-biased technical change. When labor productivity increases, those who are high-skilled and highly educated can improve their jobs, but those who are not educated will be displaced. Also, AI technology can improve the productivity of firms by assisting various functions. Second, product personalization, quality of products, and utility of consumers will be improved and consumption will be facilitated. This research paper will go over both theory and empirical research to figure out if AI technology will influence economic growth. Economic growth is measured by estimating real GDP globally and comparing data from prior years. Many people worry that AI technology will replace their jobs. In this report, the possibility of AI replacing jobs done by humans and generating new occupations with a new paradigm will be discussed.

  67. Rakhmatov Murod Gaybullayevich

    Activity of the Central commission on fight against hunger in Turkestan ASSR, created under the leadership of Turar Riskulov, is covered in this article, and also the activity of national communists. In it are considered hunger scale in Turkestan and fight against it on the basis of archival documents and other materials.

  68. Temesgen Daniel Bushiso

    The objective of this study was to investigate the use of literacy input to improve language literacy skills of primary school students in Ethiopia. It envisaged the effort of primary school English language teachers to improve the learners’ English language literacy, and to introduce the strategies of improving literacy skills that promote achievement of the country's development goals. The study was conducted in two primary schools in the South Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' region of Ethiopia. The subjects of this study were 40 grade five learners and 6 English language teachers in two primary schools. Both Quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the study. Questionnaire and interview were used for data collection. The findings of this study show that the primary school teachers in the study did not practice literacy instruction effectively and students spent little time both at school and at their homes on literacy learning activities. The major contributing factors for this were lack of appropriate textbook companions and other instructional materials. In addition, monitoring students' literacy progress was limited to poorly designed tests and the teachers do not use the assessment information to remedy student errors or to construct learning opportunities for students who learn at a different pace. There are English language literacy barriers in the school and at home environment and these seem to be major problems in reading development of many learners. Finally, some recommendations were given to different stakeholders on how to act on the identified obstacles of the students’ English language literacy improvement.

  69. Putu Sunarcaya

    The crime of corruption today is not only done by officials or citizens of a country but also done by foreign nationals who are present in a country to run its business activities that can harm the local country, it is time for Indonesia to anticipate the occurrence of criminal acts that are cross-state by engaging in bilateral agreements be it extradition treaties or mutual legal assistance agreements in the criminal matter with other countries. In addition, in the wider International level, Indonesia is supposed to immediately ratify international treaties that can bring Indonesia to combat corruption crimes.The type of research used for analysis of this journal is using normative legal research. The problem this article is what are the forms of extradition agreements in international cooperation in resolving transnational corruption cases. Transnational crime is difficult to catch but police and other agencies must work together to capture the corruption.

  70. Dr. Mayyada Baqer Hasanan Dr. Sundus Muneer Hassan

    The objective of this study was to prove the beneficial effect of using the diode laser vaporization in treating selected cases of CIN II. Fifteen women with CIN II were analyzed; two of them have been undergone total abdominal hysterectomy without salpingo oopherectomy, eight of them have been treated with electrocautery diathermy and five with diode laser vaporization and then to be followed up after six weeks and then every five months. Among the women treated with diode laser; four women had negative results after six weeks follow up with Pap smear and one showed recurrence. The data demonstrates the beneficial effect of diode laser vaporization in treating CIN II with minimal complications.

  71. Adden Ayi Koffi, Fontodji Kokou Jérémie, Fare Yohann, Batocfetou Madjoulba, Koudoyor Botsoé, Metro Nicolas, Ayita Dovlo Kodjo and Kokou Kouami

    A survey conducted in the forest zone of Togo with 317 coffee and cocoa farmers, made it possible to identify the species appreciated or detested by the farmers in the coffee and cacao orchards. It also helped to know the reasons why these species are preserved or not. In the coffee plantations, the first most appreciated and suitable species to be preserved were Erythrophleum suaveolens (76.2%), Khaya grandifoliola (76.1%), Albizia adianthifolia (72.3%), Milicia excelsa (68.4%), Albizia zygia (56.1%), Terminalia ivoiriensis (40.1%) and Terminalia superba (40.1%). In the cocoa plantations, the farmers preferred Milicia excelsa (65.2%), Albizia adianthifolia (56.5%), Terminalia ivoiriensis (52.2%), Terminalia superba (52.2%) and Khaya grandifoliola (39.1%).The mains reasons why these farmers prefer these species were related to the quality of the shading they provided (95%), the improvement of the soil fertility and preservation under their feet (93%) and the supply of quality timber (92%).The most detested forest tree species in coffee agroforests were Cola chlamydantha (89%), Cola nitida (89%), Ceiba pentadra (88%), Milicia excelsa (86%), Bombax costatum (79%) and Mangifera indica (77%), while in cocoa plantations, Bombax costatum (93%), Cola nitida (91%), Anogeisus leicarpus (88%), Cola chlamydantha (87%) and Glyricidia sepium (80%) were preferred, because they were impoverishing and hardening the soil (89%), providing a bad shading (78%) and invading the orchards (75%). Lots of information was collected for a better orientation of the preservation and dissemination strategies of the plant genetic resources in the production area for enhancing sustainable coffee and cocoa cropping in Togo.

  72. Prosenjit Kayal and Laboni Roy

    The development process often produces spatial inequality among different regions. As a result of this some regions may appear to have more than their average share of some facility and this evident in developing countries where the urban centres usually have concentration of essential goods and services compare to the rural counterparts. This research paper is an attempt to examine the spatial disparities in infrastructural facilities in different Districts of Indian state of West Bengal and intern analysis its impact on regional development. A simple multivariate method has been followed to compute a composite Infrastructure Development Index (IDI) by combined various Infrastructural Services available at the District level. Empirical evidence suggests that there is a positive relationship between Infrastructural Development Index and Per Capita Income and negative relationship between Infrastructural Development Index and Poverty. However, an effort should be made to create more infrastructural facilities at the district level to raise the state domestic product and reduce the level of poverty of the people concern.

  73. Urazbaev Nemat K.

    A this article emphasizes that the Russian colonists have made great contribution to the expansion of our country’s homeland base, expanding the fields of cotton processing, paying attention to oil and soap-making, working against for fire and its prevention, preventing mistakes and defects.

  74. Gavisiddappa Anandhalli and Latha Achha

    The present study explores the research trend and productivity in the field of Mechatronics and the data was downloaded from the Web of Science Database for the period of 2000 – 2017. The study is aims to analysis the data in terms of year wise growth, Most Productivity Authors, Most Productivity Journals, Relative Growth Rate and Doubling time. Further study is also aims to find Form Wise, Language wise and Country wise Distribution of research data. It is evident from the table that highest number of records is published in the year 2015. The growth rate is 0.274753 in the year 2000 and it is decreased up to 0.070893 in the year 2017. The mean relative growth rate of articles for the period of 2000 to 2009 is .1705 and while, 2010 to 2017 it is found to be .1016 correspondingly, on the other hand, doubling time of the articles is 2.5222 in the year 2000 it raises to 9.7753 in the year 2017. It shows an increasing trend. On an average 6.54 citation per articles were observed during the study period and the highest number of citations were cited in the year 2005. Further, it is observed that the polynomial model or linear growth model almost fit in the field of Mechatronics. Katsura S has contributed the highest number of articles (72) during the study period. The Journal of Mechatronics has published the highest number of articles (140) and received the highest number of citations, which is emerged as most productivity journal. The large majority of the publications are published in the form of Proceedings Papers (2374) and the greater majority of the publications published in the English language (3735-97.72). USA (473) and Germany (444) were contributed highest number of publications of the among 3822 publications. Keio University and Tokyo Denki University are the most productivity institution in the field of Mechatronics. It can be concluded that Mechatronics is one of the most emerging fields in Engineering.

  75. Hanan Salem Alghamdi

    Over the past two decades, there has been a plethora of literature centered on low reading comprehension skills among students. As such, it is essential to identify the possible reasons behind this predicament, consequently assess, and determine the most effective and efficient reading methods and strategies to improve reading and comprehension skills for students. Typically, reading is one of the most fundamental process students learn. Traditionally, in primary grades, most students are not exposed to varied genres of texts and textbooks, educational expectations shift in higher education where they are exposed to extensive reading materials that require independent reading. This research highlights the reasons behind low reading and comprehension skills with a focus on second-grade students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s public schools. Also, this research highlights reading materials, methods, and strategies essential for improving students’ reading comprehension skills, thereby enhancing their chances of academic success.

  76. Swati Jha and Dr. Manju Nair

    The IT industry has not only catapulted India's representation on the global platform, but has also fuelled economic growth by revitalizing the higher education sector especially in engineering and computer science. The IT sector provides employment to a major chunk of working force of every economy. But in the modern times, Long and stressful working hours, cut throat competition, increasing automation ,heavy workload and monotonous nature of work has made employee engagement a big Issue in IT sector. This study deals with the two very important challenges of IT sector .i.e. Employee Engagement and Employee welfare Programs and their cause effect analysis over each other. The research study is an endeavour to identify the impact of various employee welfare programs on employee engagement level. There are 7 types of employee welfare programs considered. Whereas employee engagement has been measured on Utrecht work engagement scale (UWES).According to the scale the variables identified to measure employee engagement are –Vigor, dedication and absorption (Schaufeli, Salanova et al., 2002) .The study explains the impact of various employee welfare programs on individual component of overall employee engagement. As an outcome of the study the researcher was able to suggest which type of employee welfare program specifically impacts which component of engagement. The outcome of the study can be used to by IT companies to target certain type of welfare practices in order to regulate particular component of engagement from Vigor, Dedication and Absorption. The research tool adopted for the collection of primary data is a structured questionnaire and few personal interviews with respondents. Secondary data was extracted through various research journals, business magazines and company web portals. Out of 416 questionnaires distributed 404 were received with legit and completely filled responses, which were analysed to derive logical conclusions. The data was collected through employees of various IT and ITeS companies from the state of Rajasthan.

  77. Dr. Sushma N Jogan

    “It’s the teacher that makes the difference, not the classroom” - Michael Morpurgo The main purpose of this paper is to bring out an overview or feedback of initial trainee teachers on regular classroom teaching observation. The researcher acted as a mentor, observed the trainees, their behaviour and found their difficulties to face real classroom teaching through observation. Classroom observation is a formal and informal observation of teaching. A classroom observation is the purposeful examination of teaching and/or learning events through the systematic processes of data collection and analysis (Bailey, 2001). The present study has done in three phases- pre observation phase, observation phase and post observation phase. It is aimed to develop the confidence of trainees during classroom observation; to identify the difficulties during classroom observation. These objectives were followed by research questions. The researcher has followed observation method and collected data. The data were analysed through pie chart and graphs. The result of the study shows that initial trainee teachers gained experience through observation, since it is a critical process for teachers. Thus, this is an attempt for improving credibility of the classroom observation.

  78. Mohamed Eltayeb Mohamed Ahmed Kasir and Quan Liang

    Gum Arabic used to be the top cash crop before losing its grounds to A survey of mobile cloud computing: architecture, applications, and approaches of crop quality, were due to drought of mid 1970s and 1980s, plus political instability and the weakness of marketing structure. Those factors resulted in new gum Arabic producing countries such as Chad and Nigeria. The main objective of this study was to investigate, and evaluate constraints concerning gum Arabic production, processing and marketing in Sudan.

  79. Yuldasheva Dilnoza Ulug’bekovna

    The article studies the attitude of the Soviet government towards material culture memorials in Uzbekistan through scientific literature and primary resources.

  80. Yogesh Vishwanath Chavan

    “Absolute Unconditional Zero” is explained which was the condition before the creation of the Universe (Before the Big Bang) equal to non-existence of Space, Time and Mass-Energy. Because of non existence of Relative Conditions (like Space-Time and Energy), Absolute Unconditional Zero projected itself as “One Dimensional Unidirectional Upward Positive Imaginary Straight Unconditional Absolute Infinite Line {i; i=Sqrt (-1)}” which was equivalent to “Infinite Imaginary Mass” with no existence of Space-Time. Its point like Dark Shadow i.e. “Absolute Infinitesimal Point {-i}” sucked Segment of Infinite Positive Line in downward direction for distance of iQ (Q=Value of Charge) and for Quanta of Time iTQ (TQ = Q/c = ON/OFF Action) with the help of Vacuum (Differential Pressure = Infinite Pressure – Zero Vacuum Pressure) which was present everywhere. The moment when ON/OFF action was finished (Equivalent to cyclic rotation; either clockwise or anti-clockwise i.e. Rotational Asymmetry), this action oriented segment called as Energy along with equal amount of Absolute Positive Massive segment (HQ2 = G0* Mc; HQ = 1/{2**TQ}) was Collapsed instantaneously (Time=0) in terms of Quanta particles. Each quanta one dimensional Massive (k) Boson particle (h=Q*c*k; k ≈TeV; Spin=0) was enveloped by equal amount of Massless Boson particle (Spin=0). Asymmetry in rotation of this Massless Boson particle shifted Massive Boson Particle diagonally to 4th Dimension such that each Massive particle was converted into Quadra particle with 2 Pairs of Fermion particles- 1) Pair of Top Neutrino and Bottom Anti-Neutrino, and 2) Pair of Quark and Anti Quarks. Further process of creation from this Quadra particle into Internal 3 Dimensional Space is already explained by Author in his previous paper “Theory of 3 Folds and 5 Dimensional Universe”. For this, The Standard Model of Particle Physics is used to arrange all known Fundamental particles (Fermions and Bosons) in 3 Folds way in 4th Imaginary Space. Some of the views of above paper are replaced with simplified concepts in order to better understand creation of our Universe (For e.g., Matter - Antimatter Asymmetry is explained through 4th Dimensional Rotation by Vertical Massless Boson Energy Particles instead of 5th Dimensional Rotation). While overall concept of evolution of the Universe in terms of 3 Folds in 4th Imaginary Dimension remains same.

  81. Enjang Pera Irawan

    In the present article the clinical the presence of the company should contribute to the public, so that the business activities of the company get support from the public. A form of corporate commitment and contribution to the public can be realized through various programs that benefit the public. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a means for companies to realize their commitments. Although CSR is a voluntary effort from the company to the public, practically many CSR providers consider the program to be limited to efforts building the company’s reputation. Of course this view will make CSR programs not substantial. Referring to this view, the study aimed see the motive of implementing CSR programs carried out by State-Owned Enterprises (BUMN), namely PT Telkom Indonesia through the Socio Digi Leaders program. The method used in this study is a qualitative approach with a single case study design. In this context, study is only conducted in one company, PT Telkom Indonesia. The results show that PT Telkom Indonesia implements CSR in the form of the Socio Digi Leaders program initially because of moral obligation motives, motives for operating permits, reputation motives, and business continuity motives. Referring to the results of the study, it is suggested that PT Telkom Indonesia in carrying out its CSR program should maintain its purity of intention from pragmatic interests such as optics. Thus, optics is not the main goal, but it is a feedback from the success of the CSR program. In addition, if the motives and objectives of CSR programs are always framed by moral values and commitment to stakeholders, then the realization will be good, because the program is truly directed to the public interest aimed at long-term development.

  82. Tejal Rajandekar and Hetal Mistry

    Background: Muscle energy techniques are usually indicated to relieve pain and improve range of motion, however there are studies indicating their usefulness in COAD patients in improving chest expansiondyspnoea, chest mobility, exercise tolerance, autonomic dysfunction in a way improving vital capacity and consequently, quality of life. Both PIR and RI techniques of MET have opposite mechanisms of working, and have proved to be effective in treatment of COAD patients. However, there is no documented evidence to find out which technique is the best MET technique on respiratory function. Objectives: • To find out the effects of Post Isometric Relaxation with Chest Physiotherapy on respiratory function. • To find out the effects of Reciprocal Inhibition with Chest Physiotherapy on respiratory function. • To compare both of the effects (the effects on dyspnoea, respiratory rate, chest expansion and maximum breathing capacity.),in the two groups. Methodology: Ethical clearance and participant consent was taken. Study design was Experimental Prospective study. The 86 subjects were divided into groups of 43 each by computer generated randomized table method, one receiving PIR and the other, RI techniques and chest physiotherapy was given to both groups. Inclusion criteria included COAD patients and exclusion included restrictive lung diseases and other systemic diseases. The pre and post intervention outcome measures were calculated for both the groups .Then the groups were compared to see if there was any significant difference in the outcome measures. Study duration was 18 months.(May 2016- October 2017) 1. SPSS 16.0 software was used to analyse the data. . Data was tested for normality using the Shapiro Wilk test. Parametric test like paired t test and unpaired t test were used for the data passing the normality test whereas nonparametric test like Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and Mann Whitney U test were used for the data not passing the normality test. Level of significance was set at 5%. Results • In PIR group; Maximum Breathing Capacity had significantly increased(p=0.11) at post test whereas Respiratory Rate(p=0.009) had significantly gone down at post test. Other parameters had not significantly changed. • Within RI group; Chest expansion had significantly increased(p=0.38) at post test whereas other parameters had not significantly changed. • 3.The amount of change was not significantly different between groups.(dyspnoea p=0.906 ) • (Chest expansion axilla, p=0.879),(chest expansion xiphesternum, p=0.601),(maximum breathing capacity, p=0.193), (respiratory rate, p=0.745) Conclusion: On comparing the differences between both groups there was no statistically significant difference in in both groups in chest expansion (axilla and xiphesternum), dyspnoea, respiratory rate, maximum breathing capacity.

  83. Nanthini, D.

    True experimental research design was adopted. Sixty samples (30 in each group) including mothers with flat and inverted nipple were selected by using simple random sampling technique (lottery method).The pre-test data collection was done by Bristol breast feeding assessment tool. Group I includes Double syringe method, it was used for 2 minutes about 4 times a day for a period of 3 days to promote breast feeding. Group II includes rubber band method, it was applied towards the nipple about 3 times a day for 3 minutes before breast feeding for a period of 3 days. The main aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of double syringe and rubber band method on primipara mothers with flat and inverted nipple at MGMCRI Puducherry. The samples were divided into two groups, group I received double syringe method and group II received rubber band method. The pre-test standard deviation level of successful breast feeding of group I was 0.99 and post test was 0. 55. The pre-test standard deviation level of successful breast feeding of group II was 0.94 and post-test was 1.19. The Wilcoxon value of group I is 3.985 and for group II is 3.947 that there was successful breast feeding with double syringe method than rubber band method. The study concludes that double syringe method is very effective on level of successful breast feeding among mothers with flat and inverted nipple.

  84. Dr. Trupti M. Dahane, Rasika S. Jibhakate, Dr. Godbole, S.R., Sonia Aswale, Deepika Rathi and Priyanka Khungar

    This study aims to study the prevalence of pattern of partial edentulism and its associated factors such as age, gender, socioeconomic status and systemic diseases among rural population. The data were collected from 100 patients aged 22 - 60 years of both genders. The survey was based for determining the incidence of Kennedy’s classification with respect to age, gender, occupation and systemic diseases. Kennedy’s class III in both dental arches was the most dominant pattern, with class IV being the least in number. With an increase in age, there was an increase in the Class I and Class II dental arch and a decrease in Class III and class IV in both arches. Gender had no significant relationship with distributions of RPD classification. Edentulism is observed more in workers, farmers and labors especially in kennedy’s class I and II patient’s. Systemic diseases found to be prevalent in class I patients and increasing age. Kennedy’s class III is the most common in both dental arches. Gender had no effect on the prevalence of various Kennedy classes, while age, socioeconomic status and systemic diseases have a significant effect.

  85. Sánchez-Adame Oscar, Bedolla-Solano Ramón, Miranda- Esteban Adriana, Beltrán-Tapia Yareli, Mejía- Sánchez Mejía José Alberto and Pérez Elizalde Bulfrano

    Background: In different studies it has been pointed out that the school may be the best opportunity to get information to the students about the care of the environment, as indicated (SOSA, 2010, p.44). "The school represents the main source of environmental information for students, unlike the general population of Mexico, who have their main means of scientific information on television, radio and newspapers (DE LA PEÑA, 2005). Material and methods: A transversal and descriptive observational study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating knowledge, attitudes and environmental education practices in students of the Faculty of Medicine. In 105 students chosen at random from first to eighth semester of a total enrollment of 1300 students during September to November 2016. Information on knowledge was obtained by applying a questionnaire for which they were randomly selected in each school group to 5 students (15 students per semester). The questionnaire was structured in three blocks, a section to assess attitudes, another for knowledge and the last environmental practices, using the scale of likert with a score of 1 to 5 considering the five as a rating of much and 1 as nothing. To observe and record environmental attitudes and practices, checklists and diary books were used. The Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Guerrero is located in the city and port of Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico. The information collected was organized in an Excel database and then the analysis of the data was carried out using simple statistics by means of percentages. Results: It was found that 78% of the students mentioned having had in the course of the career some matter related to the environment ambient. This is contrastant because when analyzing the importance of the integration of subjects to the educational program with the environmental component, this is almost null, 47% nothing and 24% regular this could be without a doubt one of the explanations for the lack of environmental culture, in addition half of the students consider having nothing and regular knowledge about the current crisis of the environment (Table No. 1. 13% had knowledge about environmental education acceptable.) However during the observation tours through the school buildings it was found that there is neglect and failures in the saving of electrical energy since after school work, some classrooms had working air conditioners and lamps lit. Conclusions: The students obtained a relatively high qualification in knowledge and environmental attitudes despite this perspective towards the integration of environmental education in the subjects of the academic program is deficient. The students are willing to carry out environmental actions with a low degree of complexity and with minimum involvement. This means that the school needs an environmental education program and therefore the training of teachers to integrate the environment axis into the Learning Units could contribute to a better management of solid waste, energy saving and conservation of natural resources.

  86. Nipin Kalal

    The word euthanasia triggers a spate of controversy worldwide as there are different forms of practicing euthanasia. At the extreme ends of disagreement, few country have different opinion on euthanasia who support it and saying that patients has right to die. At the other end, there are opponents of euthanasia who believe that this method is a form of murder. In the present article, the authors give a brief description about the subject, different types of euthanasia and act of euthanasia in different country.

  87. Dr. Eenal Bhambri, Dr.Sachin Ahuja, Dr.Seema Gupta, Dr.Varun Ahuja and Dr.Gautam Bhambri

    Aim and objective: The study was aimed to evaluate the soft palate morphology and need’s ratio in skeletal class I and class II subjects with various growth patterns. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 240 subjects (aged 15-25 years) who presented to the department of orthodontics for orthodontic treatment. The subjects were divided into skeletal class I and class II which were further subdivided into hypodivergent, norm divergent and hyperdivergent growers. The soft palate morphology was examined and subjects were divided into 6 types. Need’s ratio was calculated by division of pharyngeal depth by soft palate length. The results were then subjected to statistical analysis to evaluate the variation in need’s ratio in patients with skeletal class I and class II with various growth patterns. Results: The most common type of soft palate was leaf shaped. Patients with skeletal class I were most frequently found to have leaf shaped and skeletal class II subjects had rat tail shape soft palate as the most common, irrespective of growth pattern. Need’s ratios were the lowest in hyperdivergent growth pattern in both skeletal class I and class II subjects. There were significant differences in need’s ratio of hypodivergent and hyperdivergent growers of both sagittal malocclusions. Conclusion: The need’s ratio showed a statistically significant difference among hyperdivergent and hypodivergent growth patterns of class I and class II subjects. The knowledge of morphological variants of soft palate help the clinician in etiological study of OSAS, snoring and other conditions.

  88. Dr. Aakrati Raina, Dr. Saurav Paul, Dr. Asheesh Sawhny and Dr. Sridevi Nandamuri

    Introduction: The ultimate aim while placing class II restorations is obtaining precise proximal contacts and creating exact proximal contours. Proximal contact tightness is important to protect the periodontium from damage due to food impaction. Stronger proximal contacts are obtained when Class II restorations are placed using sectional matrices and high viscosity or ‘packable’ restorative materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate proximal contact tightness between Cention N and Zirconomer Improved. Method: Eighty Nissin typodont posterior teeth with mesio-occlusal cavity preparation were used in this study. They were divided into two groups (n=40), where group 1 were restored using Cention N (ivoclarvivadent) and group 2 using Zirconomer Improved (Shofu). Proximal contact tightness was evaluated using dental floss, under the FDI criteria. Result: Chi square test was used to test the significance of difference between the two restorative material groups. The difference was statistically significant (p= 0.015) between the two groups. Conclusion: Cention N showed better proximal contact tightness than Zirconomer Improved. However, both Cention N and Zirconomer Improved were mostly within the clinically acceptable score categories.

  89. Dr. Pranu Chakravarthy and Dr. Shifan Khanday

    Innominate bone or the hip bone is a large and irregular bone. Determination of gender and outcome of normal delivery are main study area that the bone helps in, attributing to its irregularity and variables it serves as an interesting and yielding by many variables. It is a bone of interest from anatomical, anthropological and forensic fields. This study is aimed to find out the sex from an intact full adult ossified hip bone in South Indian population.

  90. Marco Tulio Canizales Caicedo and Ana María Soto González

    This reflection article is derived from the coincidences of research work on the nursing students’s conceptions of humanization of the health of two faculties in the cities of Manizales and Tuluá. The experiences observed in the heart of the Corazones Risotones research group and the theoretical dialogues that the authors of this document have had in this regard, are intended to explore the possible relationships between the categories of citizenship training, citizenship and humanization of health. In this work, the university institution and its influence on the generation of health professionals are taken as a field of interest and reference. In the first instance, a review of the concept of citizenship training and a historical tracing of it is linked to the idea of citizenship and the category of democracy, later the implications and obligations of being a citizen are reviewed, discovering the rights and the recognition of the other as the basis of civic coexistence and ethics, everything opposite to the above is a failure of the categorical imperative, it is a dehumanized act and ends by relating and concluding that every citizen exercise implies an ethical relationship with the other that includes care as a manifestation of this relationship, it also highlights the thought that being citizens is learned from different social institutions and highlights the importance of the work of the university to train humanized citizens and professionals. Objective: To make a reflection and relation of the published literature on the subject of citizenship training as a necessary element for the humanization of health. Method: Different databases were reviewed and numerous published works on the subject were analyzed and a reflexive synthesis was made on the relevant aspects to identify coincidences and discrepancies. Results: It is important to mention that few studies target the relationship of the categories treated in this work. The different studies and authors coincide in pointing out that citizenship training is a complex, multidimensional and polysemantic concept, which has evolved with human history, according to the geographic and sociocultural context of society, having as its foundations, democracy, ethics and human rights, that is, the recognition and respect for the other as a citizen, taking into account the above and that such training is one of the missions and functions of the university, this takes special emphasis on careers where health professionals emerge since the citizenship training is intimately linked and it is necessary for the humanization of health, because citizenship is a human condition. Conclusions: Human training is necessary for the generation of integral health professionals who promote and live the humanization of health services, as part of their being and doing as human citizens.

  91. Abdisa Boka

    Background: Khat (Catha edulis) is a flowering shrub, native to the region extending from Eastern to South Africa, as well the Arabian Peninsula. The plant is seedless and hardy, growing in a variety of climates and soils. The taste is astringent and slightly sweet. khat chewing habit was started in the 15th century, just before the start of use of coffee. The crop now grows well at higher altitudes of Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula where khat chewing has a long history as social custom dating back thousands of year. The harm from Khat has been debated globally. Khat affects both peripheral and central nervous system. The use of Khat results to significant negative psychological, physiological and sociological impact on compulsive users. Objectives: To assess the Prevalence of khat use and its associated factors among Addis Ababa University, Selale campus students in 2016. Methods: School based cross-sectional survey was conducted from November 25 to May19, 2016 on 220 students from selale campus, Ethiopia. Data was collected using pre-tested structured facilitator guided self-administered questionnaire. Stratified random sampling and simple random sampling technique was used to select students for the survey. Results: The study revealed 21.9% of life time prevalence rate of Khat chewing. There were 11.45% female Khat chewers and 30.7% male Khat chewers. A large proportion (39.1%) of chewers was started Khat chewing after joining university. Nearly two third 33(71.7%) of students among khat chewers have a monthly income greater than 500 birr (2.56(1.12, 3.43 at 95%CI) and more than half 24 (52.2 %) were from third year (2.21(1.20, 3.92 at 95%CI). Of the total khat chewer majority of them were located at age interval of 23-26 years (2.34(1.92, 4.53 at 95%CI). Conclusion: In the study area significant numbers of College students were chewing khat. The predominant factors associated with khat chewing were being male; families from urban area, peer pressure, parental and income specially have greater than 500 birr per month. The findings suggest the need to have audience specific behavioral change communication to avert and prevent khat chewing practice. Colleges and health bureau should design education about consequence of khat chewing for students, their parents and the community at large to bring behavioral change.

  92. Sarwal Ankush, Pore Anant and Maru Pulkit

    Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen in emergency department. The etiology of acute appendicitis is still debatable. There have been few advancements in the past few decades. Diagnosis a patient suffering from acute appendicitis with is important for management of patient. Any patient presenting with an acute abdomen differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis is always there. Many methods in abdominal examination and scoring systems have been described in literature for evaluating a case of appendicitis. Even though appendectomy has been the mainstay treatment for appendicitis, antibiotics have also been gaining popularity in the present case scenario. We discuss existing knowledge and evolving strategies in management of patients with acute appendicitis.

  93. Rosmala Nur, Bertin Ayu Wandira, Sarini, Sitti Radiah, Muh. Jusman Rau, Lusia Salmawati, Nurhaya S Patui and Pitriani

    Exclusive breastfeeding in infants in Indonesia is only 40.6%, this is still below the national target of 80%. Inhibiting factors in breast feeding is the breast milk production itself. Less and slowly production of breast milk can causes the mothers not give enough milk to her baby. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship of oxytocin massage and breast care with breast milk production. The research is a quantitative analytic with cross sectional approach. The research sample was 100 breastfeeding mothers in the of Bulili Public Health Center area. Sampling taken by accidental sampling method. Data collection is done by observation and interview using questionnaire and analyzed with Chi Square test. The results showed that there was a relationship between oxytocin massage (p = 0.001) and breast care (p = 0.012) with breast milk production. According this research result can be concluded that oxytocin massage and breast care has a relationship with breast milk production. It is recommended that public health center to provide socialization regarding the importance of oxytocine massage and breast care for mothers to increase breast milk production.

  94. Indah Puspasari Kiay Demak, Diah Mutiarasari, Andi Alfia Muthmainah Tanra and Puspita Sari

    Clinical skills had been taught since the early years. Methods in clinical skills learning need media as mannequin and standardized simulated patient. Clinical performances are skills needed by medical students to become a doctor. Motivation is needed to complete a task. To determine the difference of performance and motivation of students using standardized and low cost male catheterization mannequin. This experimental study included 48 fourth year medical students, whom were divided into each 5 of experimental and control groups. Experimental group used low cost mannequin, while control group used standardized. Skills’ checklist in module and intrinsic motivation inventory were used to assess performance and motivation. P value of Mann Whitney test for differences of catheterization skill performances was 0.091. The average value of catheterization skills in control group was 95.06 (SD 4.856), with a range of 82.35-100. In experimental group, the mean value was 97.32 (SD 3.423) with a range of 88.24-100. All p values for subscales of motivation and total motivation were above 0.005. The subscale of motivational value appears to be higher than other elements, while the element of perceived choice was the lowest for both groups. The average score of total motivation was 85.09 (SD 6.915), with a range of 70.45-93.18, while in experimental group, the mean score for total motivation was 87.01 (SD 5.842) with a range of 76.14-94.32. Performance and motivation values of groups using low cost mannequins were higher than those using standard mannequins, although statistical calculations were not meaningful.

  95. Dr. Sneha S. Puri

    Aim: Therefore the aim of the present study was to compare the pain intensity associated with local anesthetic injection between standard syringe needle prick and super-fine 30 G short needle prick before periodontal surgery. Method: A total of 100 patients with age range of 35-50 years with no previous dental treatment experience requiring need of administration of local anesthesia were randomly selected for examination. The test group (50 patients) received local anesthesia with a standard needle (DispoVan)® (26x1.5/0.45 X 38 mm) whereas the control group (50 patients) received local anesthesia with a super-fine 30G short needle (DispoVan)® (30 G x 5/16 /0.30 X 8 mm). Result: The patients in the test group experienced less pain as compared to the control group. 23 patients in the test group showed a VAS score 1 where as only 2 patients showed a VAS score 1. Conclusion: Pain associated with administration of the nasopalatine blocks and greater palatine block may be significantly decreased by using the Insulin syringe. Pain associated with administration of the nasopalatine blocks and greater palatine block may be significantly mitigated by using the Insulin syringe.

  96. Dr. Neethi, M., Dr. Nandini Manjunath and Dr. Lia Mathew

    Esthetic demands have considerably increased over the years in routine clinical practice. A pleasant smile can give supreme confidence to an individual’s personality. A perfect smile is dictated by a perfect balance of the white (teeth) and pink (gingival) display. Excessive gingival display, usually referred to as ‘gummy smile’ is a major problem in an overall personality of an individual. This case report demonstrates the management of excessive gingival display with lip repositioning procedure along with crown lengthening. Surgical healing was satisfactory with minimal post-operative sequelae and significant reduction in gingival display was observed in 1,2 weeks, 1 month follow-up. This procedure is minimally invasive cost effective technique.

  97. Dr. Reshmi Sen

    Oral Verrucopapillary lesions are a group of growths in the oral mucosa which exhibit verruciform and/or papillary surface projections. These lesions can be caused by several factors like infections, inflammatory reactions, neoplastic growths or idiopathic causes. Clinically these lesions bear close resemblance to each other and are thus often quite confusing. Proper diagnostic approach guided by thorough clinical examination, accurate histopathological evaluation and at times special investigations are necessary to identify the lesion and establish the treatment plan and prognosis. The common Verrucopapillary lesions have been discussed here with a view to explore their clinical and histological features in a concise pattern.

  98. Vandana Kumar Dhingra, Mohit Dhingra, Ashutosh Pandey, Ranjeeta Kumari and Nisha Bhatia

    Context: Patients with multiple bone pains due to metastatic cancer in bones presenting in the clinic are very challenging for all oncologists. Along with conventional medical and interventional techniques, the option of radioisotopes for bone pain palliation especially in the multiple bone pain setting is not very popular. Aims: We describe our initial clinical experience with Sm-153 EDTMP in a tertiary care centre set in a hilly state and briefly review the potential of radioisotope methods for bone pain palliation in such a setting. Settings and Design: Initial patients treated with Sm-153 EDTMP (1mg/kg) over first 6 months of the current year were included in the study. Methods and Material: Clinical assessment, haematological assessment and assessment of quality of life with a mini questionnaire was done at baseline and at 6-12 weeks after Sm-153 EDTMP. Statistical analysis used: Data from questionnaires was entered in excel for import to SPSS. Means were compared using paired t test while proportions were compared using chi square test for proportions. Results: Of the 26 patients included in the study 19(73%) showed subjective improvement in pain. Statistically significant improvement in quality of life was observed within 6-12 weeks. Quality of life improved in all the patients who experienced pain relief. None of the patients developed severe haematological toxicity. Conclusions: In the availability of a Nuclear Medicine department, Sm-153EDTMP can be used in a well selected group of patients for utilization for bone pain relief even in the setting of peripheral, smaller cities located away from metropolitan cities. Advantages include long duration of effect, ease of administration, low toxicity and repeatability of doses. It can have a positive impact in quality of life of patients with advanced cancer.

  99. Ghulam Farooq, Alamzeb Khan, Asad Ullah, Luis Alberto Velasquez Zarate, Tamour Khan Tareen, Rozi Khan and Muhammad Samsoor Zarak

    Introduction: Incidence of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis is increasing exponentially due to changing societal structure. There has been a great advancement in the minimally invasive spinal surgery in the recent years. Minimally decompressive procedures have been proposed for the treatment of spinal stenosis. The objective of the study was to compare the surgical outcome of laminectomy versus Laminotomy for the surgical management of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at the Department of Neurosurgery Bolan Medical Complex Hospital Quetta and Sandeman Provincial Hospital Quetta, Pakistan from February, 2017 to August, 2018. Patients with >40 years of age of either gender presented with Oswestry disability percentage score of more than 40 pre-operatively and diagnosed as lumbar spinal stenosis with duration of symptoms more than 6 weeks were included. Group A (Laminotomy) patients underwent minimally invasive decompressive procedure. In group B patients, traditional laminectomy was performed. Both groups (A and B) were reassessed after treatment at 12 week follow up by Oswestry disability index (ODI). Outcome of surgery was labelled as good, fair and poor. Results: Mean age of the patients was 58.16 ±7.97 years. Mean duration of disease was 7.85 ±0.99 weeks. Male preponderance was found to be higher 117 (68.80%) as compared to females 53 (31.20%). Good outcome was found to be higher 76 (89.4%) in patients with Laminotomy as compared to the patients with laminectomy 53 (62.4%) (p-value 0.001). Conclusion: Surgical outcome of Laminotomy was found to be better than laminectomy in surgical management of lumbar spinal stenosis.

  100. Dr. Palak Patel and Dr. Nitesh Patel

    Background: Thrombocytopenia is not a disease but a symptom. For investigating causes of thrombocytopenia in patients, the aetiology can be achieved by taking a good clinical history, physical examination and basic laboratory tests. Thrombocytopenia has an inverse relation to mortality and morbidity is various febrile illnesses, serial monitoring of platelet counts has prognostic value. This highlights the importance of thrombocytopenia in various febrile disorders. Objective: To assess etiological factors of thrombocytopenia in acute febrile illness in indoor patients in our hospital. To assess the prognosis of acute febrile illness in relation with severity of thrombocytopenia. To correlate platelet count with bleeding and effectiveness of platelet replacement therapy. To assess the complications and mortality in relation to thrombocytopenia. Materials and Methods: The study is a observational randomised case study carried out from January 2016 to September 2017 at C.U. Shah Medical College and Hospital, Surendranagar (Gujarat). Hundred patients of acute febrile illness admitted to the medicine Department with platelet count less than 1,50,000 per microliter of blood with evidence of infection. The study protocol was approved by the institutional research review board and ethical committee. Result: Maximum number of patients were in age group 31 to 40 years (27%) and Male predominance was observed in all the age groups. Out of 100 patients, Maximum number of 81 (81%) patients presented within 7 days with complain of fever.21 patients had some kind of bleeding manifestation. Hematuria was the most common bleeding manifestation. 14 (14%) number of patients had very severe thrombocytopenia, 55 (55%) number of patients had severe thrombocytopenia, 29(29%) number of patients had moderate thrombocytopenia and 2(2%) patients had platelet count between 1,00,000-1,50,000/ml on presentation. Out of 100 patients 2 were expired and 98 patients were discharged. Anemia was the most common complication other than bleeding. Conclusion: Febrile illness accounts for large number of cases with thrombocytopenia. Most common cause of thrombocytopenia in patients presented with acute febrile illness was Malaria in 55 patiens, among them 40 patients had P. vivax and 15 patients had P. falciparum followed by dengue fever (22%). Anemia (36%) was the most common sequelae other than bleeding manifestation and Hematuria (9%) was the most common bleeding manifestation. Thrombocytopenia has an inverse relation to mortality and morbidity is various febrile illnesses, serial monitoring of platelet counts has prognostic value. This highlights the importance of thrombocytopenia in various febrile disorders.

  101. Dr. Amit Saragade, Dr. Ashwini Kelode, Dr. Siddharth Narote, Dr. Avadhesh Tiwari, Dr. Monica Mahajani, Dr. Kuldeep Patil and Dr. Devendra Warghane

    Regulation of inflammation and increasing healing are the great challenges faced in clinical research and surgical denstistry. The use of platelet‑rich fibrin (PRF) is one of the promising innovations in the field of surgical dentistry. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) belongs to a new generation of platelet concentrates having simple process of preparation without biochemical blood handling. It accelerates the healing mechanism of the tissue and reduces the inflammation. Platelet-rich-fibrin (PRF) is one such material that holds on to these growth factors enmeshed in the fibrin network which results in their sustained release over a period of time. This slowly releasing property of platelet can accelerate the wound healing process. It can be used alone or as an additive with other biomaterials. Thus PRF has emerged as one of the promising regenerative biomaterials in the field of dentistry. This article serves as an introduction to the PRF, its preparation and its potential clinical applications with emphasis on regeneration and wound healing.

  102. Hamza Alsharief, Adel Alharbi, Feras Aalam and Ali Alsharif

    In this clinical case report we present case of swallowing of an endodontic hand file in 13 years old child. And discuss the validity of dentist action following the accident.

  103. Simo Louokdom Josué, Fotsing Kwetché Pierre René, Lettie Akum Mbaku, Yawat Djogang Anselme Michel, Gamwo Dongmo Sandrine, Serge Honoré Tchoukoua, Kouamouo Jonas, Omer Njajou, Kourouma Kaba, Kuiaté Jules Roger and Jean Michel Tekam

    The main objective of the present study was to address phenotypic characterization of resistance mechanisms in bacteria with their trends in poultry and pig farms. More specifically, a few resistance mechanisms were investigated in bacteria isolated from farms in the Western Region of Cameroon. The target traits included extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), inducible cephalosporinase (IC), high- and low-level penicillinases (HLP and LLP, respectively), high- and low-level cephalosporinases (HLC and LLC, respectively) and inhibitor-resistant penicillinase (IRP) in Gram-negative bacteria. In Gram-positive, they were limited to IC and ESBL. All detections were conducted according to the disk diffusion principles (Kirby-Bauer) with antibiotics that are commonly used for phenotypic detection of resistant traits. A total of 624 isolates from farms in Bafoussam, Bafang, Bandjoun and Kweko (Western Region of Cameroon) underwent the tests. The most common bacteria isolates belonged to Gram-negative bacilli members of the Enterobacteriaceae family (70%). Resistance rates recorded were highest with Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin/Clavulanic-acid. In further details, seven resistance mechanisms were detected; with more than one in the same isolates in some cases. More subtle details highlighted that, their rates broadly varied from 3% with HLC through 67% with LLC, with higher diversity in pig farms. All Serratia spp. expressed LLP while the highest ESBL rate was observed in Salmonella (84.6%). Staphylococci were also found to express ESBL (44%). Overall, HLP, IRP and ESBL-expression appeared first, second and third most frequently detected (67%, 56%, and 50%, respectively). All Staphylococci expressed resistance to Oxacillin (100%) that otherwise reflects resistance to methicillin, while 26.2% of isolates showed resistance to Erythromycin and Clindamycin (indicating constitutive MLSB phenotypes). Altogether, these findings indicated that antibiotic therapy is seriously threatened in the settings; reiterating the need for routine phenotypic tests and to enforce an antibiotic resistance stewardship program in Cameroon.

  104. Yawat Djogang Anselme Michel, Fotsing Kwetché Pierre René, Simo Louokdom Josué, Gamwo Dongmo Sandrine, Nankam Nguekap William lelorel, Serge Honoré Tchoukoua, Kouamouo Jonas, Omer Njajou, Kuiaté Jules Roger, Jean Michel Tekam

    The present survey addressed the trend of bacterial resistance to antibacterial agents in poultry and community connects. It was initiated to gather necessary information on bacterial communities in farm waste, animal food and water; as well as the types of antimicrobial agents used with susceptibility/resistance profile to common antibiotics. Chicken excreta, food and water collected from four farms in Bafoussam and Bandjoun (neighbourhoods in the Western Region of Cameroon) underwent microbiological analyses according to standard protocols. The overall picture indicated that all items submitted to laboratory screening were contaminated. Most common bacteria isolates belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae family, genera Bacillus and Staphylococcus. Members of these groups are known to be engines for resistance traits selection and dissemination and might become dreadful aetiologies of zoonotic infections. A closer look revealed that in 72% of cases, a variety of fluoroquinolones were used in the farms, contrasting with Tetracycline and Nitrofurans that were less common (14%, each). Tolerance was common with some antibacterial agents that belonged to the large groups of quinolones (Nalidixic acid), beta-lactams (Aztreonam, Amoxicillin, Oxacillin), Erythromycin and Co-trimoxazole. Further insight through data from farms and the community highlighted subtle difference amongst bacterial populations and resistance rates to fluoroquinolones (P <0.001), just as site-specific tendency (P <0.05). Interestingly, the farmers acknowledged the threat that resistance might pose to their activity. Both the isolation and resistance rates could help anticipate the heavy economic burden that farm-related infections might generate. Biological alternatives to antimicrobials in farms were therefore thought to be primordial and feasible with the farmers as the primary human resources for the task.

  105. Alper Bitkin, Mustafa Aydın, Lokman Irkilata, Ebubekir Akgüneş and Mustafa Kemal Atilla

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of several hematological parameters in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis and cystitis, as well as in differentiating between these two diseases. Materials and Methods: The patients were divided into two groups: those treated for acute pyelonephritis (APN) and those treated for cystitis. Complete blood counts were obtained from all the patients, including the mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet count. These parameters were recorded and compared between the 2 groups. Results: The mean MPV and platelet count values were not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.473 and p=0.977, respectively). However, the median NLR and PLR values were significantly higher in the pyelonephritis group than in the cystitis group (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). Conclusions: The NLR and PLR appear to be useful in differentiating between acute pyelonephritis and cystitis. However, there is a need for additional prospective studies with larger patient numbers.

  106. Pawan Tiwari, Balvinder Singh, Ray, M.S., Akhil Kumar Kainth, Tushar Nagyan, Pratul Arora, Dev Yadav and Aditya

    Although the acute appendicitis is usually a clinical diagnosis, atypical clinical presentations and radiological investigations can cause diagnostic confusion. Presence of appendicolith on imaging in presence of abdominal pain without urological pathology warrants diagnostic intervention to rule out associated appendicitis as appendicoliths are associated with complicated appendicitis

  107. Dr. Priyanka Madale, Dr. Ashwini Kelode, Dr. Amit Saragade and Dr. Priyanka Shep

    Successful endodontic treatment depends on accurate diagnosis and a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the tooth and morphology of the root canal. Clinicians should be aware of anatomical variations in maxillary premolars and be able to apply the knowledge in radiographic and clinical interpretation. The maxillary second premolars are among the most difficult teeth to be treated endodontically. This could be due to many factors namely the number of roots, the number of canals, the direction and longitudinal depressions of the roots, the various pulp cavity configurations, and the difficulties in visualizing the apical limit by radiographs. This case series describes a case of maxillary second premolar with Vertucci’s class II, Class II, Class IV and Class VI canal configuration respectively as the incidence of two canals (with either shared or separate apical foramina) is very high in the maxillary second premolars.

  108. Zahir Hanane, Mouhib Hanane, Ait Ameur Mustapha and Chakour Mohammed

    Background: The study of medullary cytology is essential for the diagnosis, management and follow-up of many haematological disorders. The myelogram allows a cytological analysis of the bone marrow after aspiration of the medullary sap. Objective: This work aims to determine the indications of the myelogram in our context and to review the contribution of this examination to the diagnosis process. Results: We present the results of a retrospective study, covering all myelograms performed in the hematology laboratory of Avicenna Hospital in Marrakech between May 2016 and June 2018. The prevalence of hematological diseases was 36% of all myelograms studied. The indications were dominated by disturbances of the hemogram (66%). Out of 350 cases reported, medullary plasmocytosis accounted for 15% of pathologies diagnosed against 9.5% of leukemias, 6% of megaloblastosis and 5% of myelodysplastic syndromes. Twenty-two percent of the marrow was reactive, while 31% of the samples were diluted and uninterpretable. Conclusion: The contribution of the myelogram to the diagnosis depends on a good interpretation, therefore the quality of realization. Its indication must be rational and its interpretation requires a good knowledge of the clinical and biological context.

  109. Oluboyo, A.O., Oluboyo, B.O., Onyeaghala, A.A. and Odewusi O.O.

    Nuts consumption has been attributed to and recognized as a source of high energy food and good nutrition. The research assessed the effect of cashew and groundnuts consumption on the levels of some minerals (sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, iron and total iron binding capacity). The nuts were administered to male subjects and the effects on electrolyte levels were assessed by comparing the results obtained before and after consumption of the nuts. The levels of sodium and potassium were determined using flame photometry while the bicarbonate and chloride were determined by titration. The results showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in the level of potassium after the consumption of cashew nuts. No significant changes were observed in the levels of sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, iron and total iron binding capacity after the consumption of cashew and groundnut. This may be due to the presence of high content of dietary fiber which readily accumulates in seeds.

  110. Dr. Brijesh S. Bavaria, Dr. Shyam N. Shah, Dr. Nihar U. Gediya and Dr. U. S. Gediya

    ADEM is theorized to be an immunologically mediated demyelinating disease triggered by a febrile illness or recent vaccination, eliciting an inflammatory response affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Here is a case of a young female presented as mumps which triggered ADEM diagnosed by T2/FLAIR MRI scanning and was treated accordingly.

  111. Dr. Mahmoud Abdel Hameed A. Shahin, Bakr Khalaf Al Waqfi and Hanadi Husni Mohammad Alabed

    Background: Nurses in the critical care setting know that the causes of medication errors are both varied and complex. Medication errors have serious direct and indirect results and consequences on patient outcomes and the healthcare system overall. Nurses are considered key players in the medication administration process and may cause or report different forms of medication errors. The perception of nurses about medication errors has not been well-investigated to date in Jordan. Objectives: This study sought to describe nurses’ perceptions about medication errors in Jordanian hospitals, including what constitutes a medication error, causes of medication errors, what is reportable, the percentage of reporting, and what barriers to reporting exist. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study employed a self-report survey method to assess the perception of 300 critical care registered nurses from three governmental hospitals in Jordan who were selected using a cluster random sampling method. Results: Study findings revealed that the nurses surveyed had different perceptions about the causes and reporting of medication errors. Most of the nurses reported incidence of medication errors during their clinical practice. The estimated average of medication errors reported to the nurse manager using incident reports was about 61%. Using six clinical scenarios reflecting medication errors to assess the perception, 77% of nurses perceived the clinical scenarios to be medication errors, 68% of nurses believed that the events should be shared with the physician, and 57% believed that formal incident reports should be written for those events. The most prevalently perceived cause of medication errors was a failure of the nurse to check the patient's identification band when administering medications. The majority of participants suggested that nurses are usually sure when medication errors should be reported; however, the failure of them to report a medication error was largely because they did not think the error was serious enough to warrant reporting. Conclusions: Reporting medication errors should be recognized as opportunities for improvement rather than means for penalty. Medication errors indicate a defect in the healthcare system of the hospital, not individuals. Open channels of communication should be established between nurses and their managers in order to enhance medication error reporting. Moreover, special educational courses in medication handling should be included in the nursing undergraduate education and hospital orientation programs.

  112. Dr. Nashat Al-Khayat, Dr. Mohammed Saeed Al-Mula Hamo and Dr. Haitham Alnori

    The aim of this study's to determine the role and effect of digital hearing aid with tinnitus masker in management of tinnitus patient in Iraq. It’s a Prospective clinical case series study in Department of Surgery and Audiology, Al-Jamhori Teaching Hospital. From the period2013 January to April 2018 of 100 patients. Inclusion Criteria: Tinnitus associated with sensorineural hearing loss, mixed hearing loss, conductive type hearing loss(e.g. Otosclerosis), retro cochlear type hearing loss. Exclusion Criteria: pediatric tinnitus, those patients suffering from psychological upset (phantom tinnitus), tinnitus due to other causes which may needs surgical interventions likes chronic secretary otitis media, adhesive type otitis media, perforated ear drum, tumors. Intervention: History, E.N.T. examination (Otoscopy examination), Diagnostic pure tone Audiometry device (the important device used in our study), Diagnostic OAEs device, tympanomtry and reflexes device. Outcome Measures: The outcome measurements we depends on subjective feeling of improvement in Tinnitus. Statistical Analysis: done using Graphic Pad Chi-Sequer and P value calculated. Results: Significant decreases in the severity of tinnitus, Mini-Tinnitus is obtained by using digital hearing aid with tinnitus masker in group 1 gives better results than group 2. Conclusion: The findings obtained using either the combined devices Digital Hearing Aid with Tinnitus Masker or the medical treatments like betaserc tab. 16mg demonstrate that these devices are better in tinnitus treatment alternative.

  113. Dipak Manohar Shinde, Surekha Godbole, Anjali Bhoyar Borle, Seema Sathe, Mithilesh Dhamande and Anagha Rajnikant Dafade

    Introduction: Objective of this study was To determine the role of facial midline as a guide for positioning maxillary dental midline for patients during fabrication of prosthesis. Furthermore the study will help in indicating character as well as perception of discrepancies between dental and facial midline. Materials and methods: A total of 40 dentate patients with the age range 18 to 28 years were selected randomly. No fixed proportion was proposed. The patients having permanent dentition from 2nd molar to 2nd molar in maxillary arch were included. However patients having midline diastema, orthodontic treatment, or any cranio-facial anomaly were excluded. The patients were observed to check if the maxillary dental midline coincides with the facial midline. The facial midline was examined by marking points between nasion till pognion including centre of philtrum. Result: The results of the present study showed that 65% patients had their maxillary dental midline coinciding with facial midline. Conclusions: From the results of the present study it was con¬cluded that the facial midline was in coincidence with the maxillary dental midline. This result can act as a reliable tool for establishing maxillary dental midline while fabricating fixed prosthesis or during oral rehabilitation in edentulous patients.

  114. Rajesh Kiran, K. V., Tirthankar Mukherjee, R., Dr Ramachandra Prabhu, Vinay Babu and Varun Manjunath

    We herein report a case of Pancreaticopleural fistula, which is a rare clinical problem. It is seen rarely in acute and chronic pancreatitis or after pancreatic duct trauma. It poses a diagnostic challenge. It may be silent or can present with predominant chest or abdominal symptoms. The diagnosis should be suspected if a patient presents with pleural effusion in a setting of pancreatitis or alcohol intake. The significantly raised amylase in the pleural fluid offers an important clue to the diagnosis. Computed tomography is the initial imaging of choice, which defines the pancreatic as well as chest abnormalities. The therapeutic options include medical, endoscopic, as well as surgical interventions. Although, there is no data comparing the endoscopic and surgical interventions, patients are generally treated with medical and endoscopic therapies. Surgery is reserved for those who fail medical and endoscopic therapies.

  115. Dr. Firdous Jahan, Dana Al Baali, Dr. Muhammad A Siddiqui, Dr. Shaikh Muhammad Naeem, Aya Al Rashdi, Tamadhir Al Mahrouqi and Dina Al Hinai

    Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of genetic diseases which is especially prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. Pre-marital carrier screening is imperative to control this huge burden of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is therefore to assess the level of awareness, knowledge and attitude about Sickle Cell Disease and pre-marital carrier screening among undergraduate students. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with undergraduate medical and pharmacy students studying in the National University Science and Technology. Ethical approvals were obtained from institutional review committees. Using non-probability sampling technique, study participants were recruited from National University Science and Technology. Data collection was carried out using a structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0). Results: Two hundred and seventy nine (n=279) participants who met the study’s inclusion criteria were participated, of which 27 (9.7%) were males and 252 (90.3%) were females. Majority of study participants (81.4%) were aged between 20-25 years old and single (92.1%). Fifteen percent of the participants were undergraduate pharmacy student and about 85% were medical students. Less than one third (29.1%) of students were tested for SCD earlier, of which 3.8% had SCD and 22.8 had sickle cell trait. Majority were aware of benefits knowing the SCD status in both partners. One third thinks it is hard to convince the partner for screening and 40.5% do not support consanguineous marriage. Conclusion: Medical and pharmacy students have adequate knowledge regarding SCD, however the practices and attitude is not appropriate. The development of multifaceted patient and public health education and screening for the control of SCD by heterozygote detection, particularly during routine premarital medical examinations is needed.

  116. Sanika Kulkarni, Parkar, M.I., Kumar Nilesh and Ashish Mahamuni

    Objective: To evaluate the incidence of neurosensory changes in infraorbital nerve follwoing zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures post-trauma and to evaluate the recovery of neurosensory function subsequent to treatment of ZMC fractures over period of six months. Materials and Method: Twenty five patients with unilateral ZMC fracture were included in the study. Neurosensory function was assessed on affected side in the area of distribution of infraorbital nerve post trauma (pre-operatively) and at 1 week,1 month, 3 months and 6 months post-operatively with Pin Prick Test, Two Point Discrimination Test, Brush Stroke Directional Test, Warm and Cold Test and compared with that on the unaffected side, serving as the control. Results: It was found that neurosensory changes were seen in all the patients with ZMC fractures. The neurosensory recovery occurred within 3 to 6 months in almost all cases. Open reduction and internal skeletal fixation of ZMC fractures accelerated the neurosensory recovery. Conclusion: The present study showed that the neurosensory deficit was present in all cases of ZMC fractures. The study also revealed that Two Point Discrimination Test and Brush Stroke Direction Test were more reliable in terms of assessment of neurosensory deficits compared to other tests. The lateral side of nose showed late recovery among all other anatomical sites.

  117. Swatantra Shrivastava, Sourabh Sahu, Pavan Kumar Singh, Rajeev Kumar Shrivastava, Soumendu Bikash Maiti and Stuti Shukla

    Primary objective of the literature is recognize and evaluate the wide array of oral manifestations associated with red blood cell disorders which would eventually aid in diagnosis of the lesions associated with the disorders for the practitioners. It starts with petechiae, spontaneous gingival bleeding, herpetic infection in aplastic anaemia to hunter’s glossitis in pernicious anaemia. Literature also includes enamel hypoplasia associated with erythroblastis fetalis, atrophic glossitis in iron deficiency anemia with symptom of glossodynia in megaloblastic anemia. Marked manifestations of pharyngo-esophageal ulcerations and esophageal webs seen in plummer Vinson syndrome and periodontitis, taurodontism, agenesia, supernumerary teeth to be seen in fanconi’s anemia. Literature ends with midfacial overgrowth, radiographic dentofacial abnormalities in sickle cell anemia and brodie syndrome, chip munk facies to be seen in thalassemia patients.

  118. Kaur Navjot and Maheshwari Preksha Sharma

    Introduction: Fatigue and poor sleep is highly prevalent in cancer patients receiving chemo-radiation and it has a significant impact on patient’s quality of life. In literature, exercise has been recognized as one of the most effective intervention to combat against these commonest symptoms either related to cancer or its therapy. Aim: Keeping the importance of exercise during cancer therapy in mind, study is aimed to assess the effectiveness of ‘moderate walking exercise program (MWEP)’ on fatigue and quality of sleep among cancer patients receiving chemo-radiation in a tertiary care hospital of Punjab, India. Material and Method: A quasi-experimental, two group pre-test post-test control group design was adopted to collect the data from 60 conveniently selected eligible adult cancer patients who were receiving chemo-radiation in selected study setting. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy General System Model (1968) was adopted to guide the study. Data were collected using socio-demographic profile sheet, BFI (Brief Fatigue Inventory) and VSH (VerranSynydern and Halpern) Sleep Scale. Result: Study revealed that the fatigue scores of cancer patients significantly lowered (p≤0.05) following the intervention of MWEP on 15th day of the chemo-radiation. MWEP also found to improve sleep quality on 15th day during chemo-radiation (p≤0.05). Conclusion: Study concludes that the moderate walking exercise program is very effective as an intervention to reduce fatigue and improve quality of sleep and should be followed by cancer patients receiving combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy treatment. Recommendations: MWEP should be followed by cancer patients to manage fatigue and decreased quality of sleep. Nurses should be highly involved in oncology wards for encouraging the patients to sustain MWEP in order to improve quality of life.

  119. C.D. Cecilia López Ferrer and CD Rehab. Buc. Paola Rosalinda Alvarez Guerrero

    In the present article the clinical and laboratory procedures that were carried out for the elaboration of an immediate prosthesis are described. The importance of preserving the vertical dimension of occlusion and in this way leading a transition from a partial dentate to an edentulous state with a bilateral balanced occlusion scheme is emphasized. In this way, the patient adapts to the use of dental prostheses, decreasing the impact of psychosocial deterioration when completely edentulous with the advantages of preserving the shape and height of the alveolar processes, avoiding their collapse.

  120. Dr. Abhishek Mandal, Dr. Trisha Das Sarma, Dr. Sudipta Kar and Dr. Gautam Kumar Kundu

    Background: Satisfaction is the health care recipients’ reaction to their service experiences. According to pediatric treatment triangle given by Wright, treating a child patient involves a 1:2 transaction. But unfortunately, most studies concerning dental patients’ satisfaction in pediatric dentistry have focused on the parent or care giver’s satisfaction & not on the child’s satisfaction. Objectives: To evaluate the level of parents’ and the child’s satisfaction with pediatric dental care provided at PG clinic of Pedodontics department & correlate both of them. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among parents (n = 61) whose children received pulpectomy and also among the treated children for 2 months. They were asked to fill a self-administered dental satisfaction questionnaire. Data were recorded and analyzed statistically. Results: Overall average percent mean score of satisfied parents-76.26 ±5.91 &Overall average percent mean score of satisfied patient (5 ITEMS) - 73.14 % ± 10.07 . 16.4% children have given VAS SCORE - 5 Conclusion: Result of our study will help us to satisfy parents’& patients’ expectations & to catch better standards in health care.

  121. Hoon Hur

    A congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) is a type of melanocytic nevus found in approximately 1% of newborn infants at birth. To remove CMN with a traditional laser without complications is very difficult because of the extension of nevus cells into the deep dermis in this lesion. Unfortunately, there is no standard laser therapy for CMN yet. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Dr. Hoon Hur’s Optimal Melanocytic Suicide-4(OMS-4) Parameter Therapy using a 308nm eximer laser for treating CMN. Fifteen Korean patients with CMN were treated with a 308nm eximer laser at a 2-week interval for 30 treatment sessions. The parameters were a spot size of 20mm x 20mm, a fluence of3000mJ/cm2and a pulse rate of 400Hz with 3passes of pulse stacking by 20% overlapping technique over the CMN. At the week of the final treatment, all of the 15 patient with CMN were achieved the complete clearance of dark brown to black pigmented lesions without scarring. There were no recurrences after a follow- up of 12-30 months. We suggest that Dr. Hoon Hur’s OMS-4 Parameter Therapy using a 308nm eximer laseris a safe and effective method without scarring and recurrence in treatment of CMN.

  122. Rashmi Verma and Deepshikha

    Background: In India, CKD one of the major public health problems with many complications. Its progression, can lead to haematological abnormalities including low hemoglobin levels .Increasing renal anemia can further lead to morbidity and mortality in the patients. Aims and objectives: To study serum iron profile and hemoglobin level in patients with CKD. Materials and Methods: 70 patients out of total 96 patients with CKD were studied in the Department of Medicine, BRD Medical College from September 2015 to August 2016. Hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin levels, transferrin saturation, total iron binding capacity and creatinine level were assessed for all patients. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS software. Results: Maximum cases were between 25-50 years (n=32, 45.7%) with male preponderance (n=22, 65.71%). Anemia was more common in male population (58.92). Out of 70 patients, 80%, 65.7%, 40%, 34.3% and 37.14% had low haemoglobin level, decreased MCV, decreased ferritin level, decreased iron level and increased TIBC respectively. Haemoglobin level was decreased in 56 patients, of that 35.71% and 5.35% had decreased and increased serum iron level. Out of 26 patients with decreased TIBC, 69.23% had decreased hemoglobin level. Of the 58 (82.85%) patients who were on iron supplementations, 41.37% had decreased ferritin levels. Out of 55 patients who had creatinine level between 5-15 mg/dl, 42 (76.36%) had anemia. Conclusion: Decreased hemoglobin level is one of the commonest manifestations in CKD patients with male preponderance.

  123. Nurulhuda, M.H., Norwati, D., Aniza, A.A. and Husbani, M.A.R.

    Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of relapse in those receiving MMT and study the harmful practices done during the relapses with their perceived causes. Background: Opioid dependence carries a high cost to society by resulting in unemployment, crimes and family disruption; not to mention transmission of diseases such as HIV and Hepatitis C. Harm reduction practices, namely Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) and needle exchange programme has been in Malaysia since 2005. For MMT, relapse during treatment remains an issue that hinders successful outcome of reducing transmission of blood-borne infections. Methods: This is a mixed-method cross-sectional study done from June-July 2016. All MMT clients in primary care therapy centres in Kuala Nerus district, Terengganu, Malaysia who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria and consented were included. A semi-structured questionnaire was filled via face-to-face interview and reference to the case records was done. 122 questionnaires were assessed. Results: Response rate was 90.2%. Current relapse, defined as any episode of intake of heroine for the past one month after a period of abstinence was 34.4%. Of those relapsed, majority (78.6%) had Hepatitis C, 19.0% had HIV. Majority (97.6%) deny sharing needles during relapse, whom all attributed this due to ease of accessibility of needle exchange programme, and ability to withstand the urge for injection until getting a clean needle due to taking methadone. Conclusion: Relapse in opioid addiction remains high in those receiving MMT. Education to avoid harmful injecting practices is important even in this group. To achieve aim of harm reduction, MMT and needle exchange programme need to go hand.

  124. Dr. Gangadhara Swamy, Dr. Suresh R Rao and Dr. Rajendra Holla

    Background: Convolvulus pluricalis an herbal drug is known medicinal plant used extensively in the Indian system of medicine. In this regard to this several experiments has been conducted to know the LD50 and the actual effective (therapeutic) dose, but the results are inconsistent. Thus the acute oral toxicity study was carried out to find out the median lethal dose of the Hydro-Alcoholic extract whole plant extract of Convolvulus pluricalis, which will be used for further experiment to know its effective dose and the clinical trials. Objectives: The present study is carried out to evaluate the Hydro-alcoholic whole plant extract of Convolvulus pluricalis (HACP) for its acute oral toxicity in Albino rats. Methods: Acute oral toxicity of Hydro-Alcoholic whole plant extract of Convolvulus pluricalis was assessed in Albino rats with three doses of the extract at 175, 550 and 2000mg/kg bwt. The mortality, clinical signs & the body weight of the rats were recorded in 0 (prior to administration), 7th& 14th days. At the end of the observation period rats were sacrificed and studied for any histological changes in brain, heart, liver and kidney tissues. The results: Administration of HACP to the rats for 175, 550 &2000mg/kg bwt, were normal up to 1 hour and later on showed a sedative effect for the following 4 hours. Decreased motor activity was observed only in 550 &2000mg/kg bwt of HACP administered rats. All the animals appeared normal from day one to throughout the experimental procedure. No significant changes were seen in the histological structure of the brain, liver, kidney & heart. Conclusion: HACP signified as Nero- suppressant, the drug can be used in the treatment of neurological disorders characterized by hyperactivity of the neurons. The present data could provide adequate confirmation of the safety of CP for further experimental studies on a standardized formulation of the whole plant extract.

  125. Dr. Karthika Krishna Kumar, Dr. Yashwanth Gowda, Dr. Veena S Pai, Dr. Ashwath H. and Dr. Roopa R Nadig

    Background and Objectives: Removal of plaque, stains and preservation of periodontal health as well as dental caries are some of the benefits of tooth brushing with cleansing action depends on the abrasive agent which might cause abrasion and sensitivity. Herbal products have been in market as they are easily available and biocompatible. They are used for regular maintenances as well as desensitizing agent. This study was done to evaluate and compare the abrasiveness of herbal abrasive based and herbal enzyme based and non herbal regular tooth paste. Methods: Enamel samples were prepared and embedded in acrylic blocks. Initial surface profile of samples was measured by a optical profilometer. Samples were then subjected to a brushing twice daily till 28 days using powered toothbrush with toothpaste. Their secondary surface profile was measured by a profilometer at the end of 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th day. The difference between the obtained values before and after the abrasion was indicative of the abrasiveness of toothpastes in micron. Obtained data were entered SPSS software and analysed using one-way ANOVA and Repeated Measures ANOVA. Results: The present study evaluated the mean surface roughness of the tooth enamel when two herbal paste and one non herbal regular tooth paste are used for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. At the end of seventh day, there was an increase in surface roughness in samples in group A and group C but inter group comparison no significant difference among group A and group C. At the end of 14th day, there is a sudden increase in the surface roughness in all the three groups group B being the least. Statistically significant difference between group A and group B and group B and group C but no significant difference among group A and group C. At the end of 21th and 28th day, according to Bonferroni’s post hoc test there is no significant increase in the surface roughness within all the groups. In all the groups, there was a significant increase in surface roughness from day 7 to day 28. Maximum surface roughness was seen with herbal regular toothpaste followed by non herbal regular tooth paste and then herbal enzymes based tooth paste, the least. Conclusion: Based on the present study findings, statistically significant difference exists between the abrasiveness of herbal regular and herbal enzyme based tooth paste and non herbal regular paste.

  126. Pujiono, Sri Slamet Mulyati, Teguh Budi Prijanto, Elanda Fikri

    The household-scale composting process can use the basket or Takakura method. Another concept, Hot composting, is a method that prioritizes the comparison of the balance between wet waste and dry waste in composting. This study uses both methods. The source of wet waste or green biomass comes from kitchen waste while the source of dry or brown waste comes from fine sawdust. The composting process is carried out in a basket with a household scale with an aerobic process and the addition of bio activators of stale rice moles. There are several important parameters related to the quality of compost including organic matter and pH. Organic material is related to its role in improving soil structure physically, chemically, and biologically. Whereas pH is related to the availability of nutrients in the soil and the dissolution of these nutrients to be absorbed by plants. Methods: This research is a quasi-experimental. There are 3 variations in the ratio of green biomass and sawdust in this study, namely 3: 3, 3: 4, and 3: 2. The variable observed in this study is the quality of compost produced. Organic material and compost pH are compared with Compost Quality Standards (SNI 19-7030-2004). The other studies are physical characteristics such as texture, composting time, and shrinkage. Results: There is a significant difference in compost organic matter content among the three variations of sawdust and green biomass (p value = 0,000). There is a significant difference in compost pH between the three variations of sawdust and green biomass (p value = 0,000). Conclusion: Compost with sawdust and green biomass ratios (3: 3) has the lowest organic material content of 29.12%, and the highest is 30.75%, fulfilling the requirements based on SNI 19-7030-2004. Compost with sawdust and green biomass ratios (3: 2) shows a range of pH from 7.32 to 7.72, meeting the requirements based on SNI 19-7030-2004. Depreciation of waste into compost is in the range of 42.86 to 53.33%.

  127. Yashraj Dewangan and Himanshu Agarwal

    The aim of the study is to design and optimization of crankshaft for a single cylinder four stroke over head valve (OHV) spark ignition engine. This paper used reverse engineering techniques, in order to obtain of an existing physical model. A three-dimensional crankshaft has been created with the help of SOLIDWORKS and, it is imported to ANSYS environment for the coupled steady-state thermal structural analysis. The material used for crankshaft is AISI 1040, AISI 1045, AISI 4140 and AISI 4615. The objective of this paper focuses the light weight crankshaft design through coupled steady-state thermal structural analysis, and to optimize the crankshaft design within the design domain using parametric optimization. The results obtained from finite element analysis and parametric optimization concluded, the modified design is safe along the selected materials for AISI 1045 and shows the maximum von-mises stresses 184.21 MPa, factor of safety (n) is 2.4428 and it is reduced weight of the crankshaft was 63 grams which is 4.04 % less as compared to existing crankshaft model without compromising the strength to weight ratio.

  128. Bhagyashri Bugade

    Introduction: Resting tooth-lip relationship virtually leads the clinician to analyse photographs of the smiles and test the reproducibility and reliability of posed smile. Aim of the study is to assess smile aesthetics using ‘variables of smile’ among pre and post orthodontic subjects and implicating it to the orthodontic treatment planning. Methodology: Pre and post-treatment smile photographs (50 subjects) were taken with DSLR Camera (Canon 700D) in NHP and assessed using AutoCAD version 2007. The variables considered in study are Buccal Corridor Space, Smile Arc, Occlusal Cant, Smile Symmetry, Maxillary Midline to Mandibular Midline. Results: Paired t-test was performed showing highly significant differences in buccal corridor space which is 0.000 with p < 0.05 and rest of the smile variables showing 100% positive changes after the treatment in all the compared groups. Conclusion: a) buccal corridor space, b) smile arc and have a distinct characteristic change which made a maximum impact on aesthetic visualization between all the groups. Maxillary and mandibular midlines, occlusal cant are the parameters which show significant changes hence compulsorily should be used in pre-orthodontic evaluation. Parameters like, smile symmetry is subject to ethnic and social variations hence objective assessment has limitations.

  129. Nasira Noor, Syeda Sidra Tasneem Kausar and Rubina Jabeen

    Background: Heart failure is a dominant cause of deaths now a day as there are tremendous contributing factors that cause it so that it is a component of concern in these days as it cost health, life as well as expense too. Different remedies either they are pharmacological or non-pharmacological use to prevent. Factors that are in hand of patient that we called patient related factors are very important to know in order to prevent heart failure. Aim: The purpose of the study is to discuss the patient knowledge regarding contributing factor of heart failure Design: The study type is descriptive cross sectional. Technique: A self-administered question was used to collect data that was analyzed by special method, sample size was determine by using special formula that is SPSS version 21. Results: Results shows that most of the patient are complained toward heart disease like heart failure but there is a strong variation between different age group, level of education as well as differences in gender .but there is strong need of further assessment as well as education regarding factors that cause heart failure as well as preventive measure that will further enhance compliance.

  130. Ariel U. Cubillas

    The schools today are facing a lot of problems regarding the undesirable effects of disasters. Situated in a low–lying area, Butuan City, Philippines gained nationwide attention regarding vulnerability to frequent disasters that cause loss of lives and damaged properties. The Butuan City public elementary schools are no exemptions to this destruction. The researcher took interest on how the disaster-prone schools of Butuan City dealt with the pressing issue. The study focused on the program initiated by the Department of Education, the School Disaster Risk Reduction Management Program. The researcher used both quantitative and qualitative design in the collection of data with 20 disaster-prone elementary schools as respondents. It was found in the study the respondent-schools encountered several problems in the implementation of the School Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Program (SDRRM). In the SDRRM components, it revealed that there was a poor serving entrance for school children, absence of building emergency evacuation, lack of training of the SDRRG members, dearth of equipment, and a discontinuity of instruction. However, the schools make initiatives to mitigate the problems like they improvised unused materials for them to make disaster equipment. They invited resource persons to conduct seminars and training and others would spend their money on the training and seminars. Most of the stakeholders who lack understanding about DRRM gained knowledge on the DRRM concepts by watching television programs and surfing the internet about disaster preparedness.

  131. Yasar Abu-Awad and Prof. Dr. Jonas Contiero

    Stroke recovery research on living humans has made recent strides toward a consensus in support of new knowledge-to-action interventions. This venue could become fertile ground for future milestones, driven by the conceptualization and dissemination of standards that can aid the aggregation of large datasets for further interpretation in the stroke recovery science. For example, a meta-analysis could identify biomarkers that predict recovery, or outcome measures that detect neurological recovery. Nevertheless, the current breadth of research requires a systematic framework to enable the transfer of this powerful knowledge to the end users (e.g., clinicians and decision-makers). Team Science (TS) and the Science of Team Science (SciTS) are two emerging concepts that could foster an approach of inter professional collaboration on specific research inquiries between scientists in different fields. Presently, however, the stroke recovery literature favours parallel but separate research interventions in the areas of sensor motor, cognitive and speech-language problems. TS and the SciTS together hold the potential to navigate the interference between these three problem categories, avoid unnecessary overlapping efforts and facilitate the broad translation of the findings.

  132. Kalpana, P., Saibaba, J., Akshaya, S., Ramasubramaniyan, M.R. and Usha Antony

    The study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the Food Safety Knowledge, Attitude and Practices followed by the Street Food Vendors in Chennai. A total of 138 street food vendors were surveyed over a period of one month by convenient sampling from southern parts of Chennai. A structured questionnaire consisting of 15 questions was used to record the responses of participants. Quantitative and qualitative methodology was adopted to collect the responses from the vendors. This study revealed that a majority of the vendors, (76%) of them were not registered or licensed as food business operators. In addition to this, 82.6% of the respondents possessed minimum knowledge on food safety and 39.9 % are aware of the laws and regulations that govern their business. The practices followed which were categorized as general hygiene, personal hygiene, food handling, packaging practices and cooking practices varied among the vendors. The vendors showed a positive attitude towards training and 76.1% were willing to attend the training underscoring the need for such training program to enhance compliance to standards.

  133. Darade, M.S.

    The analysis of soil samples from six different localities of the campus of institute were carried out. It was found that the organic nitrogen in soil samples ranged from 140 g / hector to 420 g/hector. The low amount of organic nitrogen was noted in soil samples A,B,C,D while medium amount was found in sample E and F. The percentage of organic carbon content ranged from 0.74 % to 0.78 %. In soil sample B,C,F the organic carbon content found was low whearas it was noted medium in soil sample A, D, and E. The chloride content in the soil ranged from 283.6 mg/ liter to 368.7 mg/liter. The lowest chloride content noted in soil sample B (283.6 mg/liter) and the maximum content found in sample C (368.7mg/liter) which was highest chloride content among all the six soil samples. The variation in all the samples were noted in different localities of the campus of institute.

  134. Varsha Bandil, Pushpendra Kannojia, Priya Mishra and Suraksha Gupta

    Aim: The current study was designed to study the toxicological evaluation of Vrikshamla herbal formulation for weight management. Material and method: The whole study also includes the standardization of selected herbal formulation with various parameters like Ash value, extractive value, moisture content, pH and phytochemical investigation. Herein we assessed the broad spectrum safety of Vrikshamla in a battery of in vitro and animal toxicological studies such as, acute oral toxicity studies (1000mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg orally of test sample) was conducted to determine the safe dose as per OECD-423 guideline. The primary skin and eye irritation tests on rabbits classified Vrikshamla drug according to Draize mathod, acute dermal toxicity study in mice. Result: No sigh of toxicity was observed in all parameters except mildly irritating to the eye of rabbit. Conclusion: These results, combined with the tolerability of Vrikshamla in the human clinical trials, demonstrate the broad spectrum safety of Vrikshamla.

  135. Lohare Sunita Dhundiraj

    Air sampling over vegetable field was carried out by using continuous Tilak air sampler from 1st November 2016 to 30th January 2017 for Rabbi season. The main aim of this experiment is to find out the concentration of air borne Curvularia spores and their relation with the disease incidence. In the investigation Curvularia spore concentration was16578 spores/m3 of air recorded during the season from Aerobiological sampling the fluctuation in the concentration of Curvularia spores wear observed in different growth stages of the crop. Maximum concentration of Curvularia spores wear recorded 8242 spores/m3 of air in the month of December 2016.

  136. Flávia Dayrell França, Cleiber Lucan Alves Araújo, Sandra de Sousa Araújo and Míriam Martins Chaves

    Amphotericin A and cyclosporine are an important antibiotic and immunosuppressive agents, respectively; however, nephrotoxicity is one the main adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of inhibiting the p38 MAPK (p38) signaling pathway in nephrotoxicity caused by amphotericin A and cyclosporine from the assessment of stress oxidative, nitric oxide production and cell death in LLC-PK1 and MDCK cell lines. Amphotericin and cyclosporine proved to be oxidative stress (pro-oxidant status), reduction of NO production and DNA fragmentation, determined by flow cytometry using the Propidium iodide dye. In LLC-PK1 cells, the inhibition of the p38 signaling pathway (PD169316 inhibitor) caused a significant reversion status (pro-oxidant to antioxidant), increase of nitric oxide production and reduction in DNA fragmentation when these cells were stimulated with cyclosporine. In contrast, in MDCK cells the same profile was found when these cells were incubated with amphotericin B. Thus, a significant finding of our study is that pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK resulted in a substantial reduction in amphotericin B and cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in vitro evaluated by oxidative stress, NO production and cell death parameters. These results suggest that p38 MAPK signaling can contributes to amphotericin B and cyclosporine-induced renal injury in vivo. We also demonstrate that cells from different regions of the nephron (proximal or distal tubules) present varying sensitivities to the toxic effects of amphotericin B and cyclosporine and showed a differentiated participation of p38 MAPK pathway signaling in this process.

  137. Prerna Karki, Karma Doma Bhutia, Balika Ghataney, Chung Chung Tamang, Hema Chettri, Hemanta Sharma, Phupsang Tamang, Pratiksha Acharya, Prativa Tamang, Sadiccha Sedai, Santoshi Sharma, Sashi Ghimirey, Shova Chettri, Shradhanjali Rai, Smita Limbu

    Background: Romantic relationship is one of the development markers in adolescent’s life which involves the social, physical and emotional aspects. Being in a romantic relationship helps in determining the self-esteem, personality and functioning of an individual. Romantic relationship can exert both positive and negative affect on the outcomes of academic performance of an adolescent student. Having a romantic relationship may motivate and inspire most of the people on their endeavours. Objectives: The study aimed at assessing the influence of relationship status on academic performance of the college students. It would raise the awareness among the college students on the influence of relationship status on their academic performance. Methods: Research design adopted was non-experimental descriptive comparative survey and the tools used were demographic profile, structured likert scale for assessment of time management and level of motivation and standardized likert scale for assessing the level of anxiety. The study comprised of 300 samples which was selected using non-probability purposive sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to interpret the data. Results: The findings of the study revealed that majority 232(77.34%) of the students were in the age group of 20-22 years and almost 192(64%) of the students were males. Mostly, 166(55.33%) were Hindu by religion and 150(50%) of the students belonged to a joint family. Most of the students 59(39.3%) had academic weight age of 50-60%, majority 117(78%) had adequate time management, which depicted that being in a romantic relationship had no effect in their time management. However, the effect of romantic relationship of the students with regard to motivation and anxiety level as revealed from the study findings shows that 82(54.6%) of the students were motivated and 139(92.6%) had moderate anxiety level. There was a statistical significant difference between academic performance of the student with respect to relationship status with t-value (8.35), mean 60.67,59 and standard deviation of 1.82 and 1.83. It was found that there was a significant association between academic weight age and the selected demographic variables such as religion (12.5, p=≤0.05) df=4 and family income (25.52,p=≤0.05) df=8. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that being in a romantic relationship hada positive impact on the level of motivation of students and moderate effect on the level of anxiety whereas, there was no effect on time management.

  138. Singh, R.A., Subhash Chandra, Ram Prakash, Pal, S.B. and Jitendra Singh

    The field study was under taken during autumn season at Regional Research Station, Mainpuri, C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (U.P.) with the objective to findout suitable combination of nutrients and variety of vegetable pea for degraded edaphic condition. Sowing of cultivar Azad P-1 gave significantly higher dry kernel yield by 12.15 q/ha over Arkel (8.94 q/ha) and Azad P-3 (8.82 q/ha). Application of N40 + P60 + K40 + S20 + Ca40 kg/ha significantly increased the dry kernel yield of vegetable pea (13.10 q/ha), thereafter, significant reduction was computed at further installment of nutrients. Application of highest dose of N80 + P80 + K60 + S30 + Ca60 kg/ha produce statistically at par seed yield of vegetable pea(8.63 q/ha) to control (7.67 q/ha). Therefore, the installment of nutrients combination beyond N40 + P60 + K40 + S20 + Ca40 kg/ha confined to the further progress in dry kernel production. The growth and yield contributing parameters were concordance to the dry kernel yield.

  139. Maneesha, C.R.,Jyothilekshmi, S., and Shereesy, B.

    India is a rich source of medicinal plants due to the diversity in soil, their altitudes and other eco-geographical conditions. Economic plants play a vital role in providing nutritional and economical security to the poormass in rural areas. Overexploitation and destructive harvesting have made many medicinal plants scarce in their natural habits and costly in the market. East Indian arrowroot (Curcuma angustifolia) is a nutritionally and medicinally important crop belongs to family Zingiberaceae. It is an important medicinal plant of tropical and subtropical India. Its medicinal usage has been reported in the Indian and British Pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. As the multiple uses of this species have increased its commercial demand, resulting in over-exploitation. Hence the natural population of these plants is rapidly disappearing especially in Kerala, India. The micropropogation of the plant was achieved using MS medium supplemented with Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) and Kinetin, under the controlled room temperature and photoperiod. 0.2mg/L of IAA and 1.0mg/L Kinetin gave the highest rate of shoot and root generation and average length of the shoot The paper also explores the traditional knowledge of rural women in middle Kerala on processing of Koovapodi a rhizome based ethnic weaning food from Curcuma aungustifolia. The information on preparation is based on the preliminary discussions with medical practioners of traditional medicine and elderly rural women of middle Kerala.

  140. F. I. Omizegba (Ph.D.), K. A. Bello (Ph.D.), H. M. Adamu (Ph.D.), D. E. A. Boryo (Ph.D.), J. O. Abayeh (Ph.D.), R. S. Oguike (MSc.).

    For many decades cellulose fabrics has been subjected to different chemical treatments in order to improve resistance against shrinkage, creasing, flexibility, tensile strength and absorbency. Such chemicals include urea and melamine formaldehyde resins. These chemicals are expensive and pose danger to the environment. Polycarboxylic and nitric acids have also been used on cellulose base fabrics for easy care finish. Recently ionic cross linking, polyurethane with nanomaterials as catalyst or co-catalysts has been considered. In order to go more environmentally green and less expensive, this paper presents the results of the physical and mechanical properties of cellulosic fabric esterified with 50cm3 of oils extracted from the seed of Jatropha curcas. The oil was extracted with hexane under reflux with yields of 47.25% and moisture of 0.56%. The fabric was subjected to pretreatments of scouring, bleaching and mercerization to remove impurities and to enhance fibre consolidation before esterification. The results showed that yarn crimp was 31% warp direction while the grey fabric (control) gave the lowest crimp value (5%) along the same direction. The linear density (46 Tex) along warp direction was recorded for Jatropha esterified fabrics compared to 37 Tex for the grey fabric. The fabric sett increased from 24th/cm for grey fabric to 34th/cm for Jatropha fabric along warp direction. The reduction in shrinkage was obvious after esterification using the oil. The tensile parameters were remarkable after esterification 280.78N and 170.40N with extension of 18.07mm and 15.88mm along warp and weft directions respectively for the esterified fabric. That of the grey fabric was 223.87N and 109.39N with extensions of 3.64mm and 3.56mm in warp and weft directions respectively. There was a remarkable improvement in the dry and wet crease recovery angles after esterification (128o dry and 86o wet) along warp direction. The grey fabric gave the lowest crease recovery (50o dry and 37o wet) in the same direction. The observed short fall in strength of the cellulose ester may be attributed to the formation of ester bond. However the general improvement in the investigated properties due to dimensional stability, flexibility and fineness is commendable. This research has contributed immensely to knowledge because this is the first time that biodegradable organic seed oil like Jatropha curcas is used to modify the physical and mechanical properties of cellulosic fabric through esterification. Therefore, the oil is recommended for replacement of the present day toxic chemicals used in textile finishing of cellulosic fabrics.

  141. Kyoko Kajihara

    Background: Since the release of the study that the periodontal disease is one of the abortive risk factors in 1996. It becomes spread throughout the world that the importance of prevention activity from an earlier stage to the health care including the oral cavity of pregnant women. However, it is not enough the consciousness of the necessity of oral care in pregnancy period in the maternal ward staff and oral hygiene management currently positively. Objectives: I clarified the consciousness for the oral hygiene of the nursing staff and pregnant women. Methods: This is the literature examination. I searched an original article without proceeding and documents. Furthermore, I searched it in a similar keyword in overseas document retrieval site PubMed. I arranged contents of the literature every item of the "importance of the oral hygiene in the gestation period" "consciousness for the oral hygiene in the gestation period of the nursing profession person" "consciousness for the oral hygiene of the pregnant woman". Results: When I crossed "pregnant woman" "dentistry" "oral care" as a keyword in Japan Medical Abstracts Society web site, Medical online and Pub Med.I analyzed 12 cases in total. Conclusion: It is obvious that periodontal disease is related premature birth and low birth weight infant delivery deeply, but recognition of the nursing staff and the pregnant women in not enough. It is important to cooperate with nursing and dental staff.

  142. Singh, R.A., Rathi, P.K., Dharmendra Yadav, V.B. Jaiswal, and Kaushal Kumar

    An experiment was conducted during winter season of two years to study the efficacy of three varieties HFP-4, KPMR-157 and KFPD-24 of dwarf field pea (Pisum sativa L.), three spacing (20, 25 and 30 cm) and two seed rate (100 & 125 kg/ha). Cultivar KPMR-157 proved better than other genotypes and gave highest seed yield of 34.63 q/ha. However, it was almost on a par with yield levels of KFPD-24 (31.43 q/ha) and HFP-4 (30.05 q/ha). The crop responded upto 30 cm spacing (32.78 q/ha) and at this spacing the grain yield was higher in comparison to 20 cm spacing (30.97 q/ha) and 25 cm (32.32 q/ha). The 100 kg seed/ha (32.10 q/ha) gave higher seed yield than 125 kg seed/ha (31.95 q/ha). The growth and yield contributing characters were concordance to the grain yield of dwarf field pea.

  143. Jean Bassil and Georges Abi Rizk

    Trace elements are essential elements despite their name and quantity that is required by the animal organism, as they have many important effects on well-being and performance of cows. These elements, naturally present in cattle feed ration in an inorganic form, are not well assimilated by the animal and therefore the majority of them will be present in the feces; leading to a toxicity to the environment and human. Knowing that the organic form of trace elements is more absorbed than the inorganic one; for this reason, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of organic trace elements supplementation on their absorption, milk yield and composition, by adding Zinc (0.026%), Manganese (0.016%) and Iron (0.04%) to the basic feed ration.16 dairy cows were divided randomly into 4 groups: control, zinc, manganese and iron. Milk yield data was collected weekly for a period of 3 months. Milk composition (fat, protein, Solid-Non-Fat percentages and density) were measured monthly using Milkana. In order to assess the quantities of the studied trace elements in cattles diet and feces, Atomic Absorption Spectrometer was used. The obtained results showed that milk yield data in the second month of the study has decreased, while a significant (P<0.05) decrease was seen for iron and manganese treatment; meanwhile for the third month, it increased in all groups except the control. Zinc treatment had the best effect on milk yield. Concerning milk fat, the treated groups showed a higher fat yield than control with iron treated group have a significantly (P<0.05) higher fat yield. For milk protein, treatment has no significant (P>0.05) effect on this factor. For milk density, for the first two months of the study, no significant difference (P>0.05) was seen among groups; meanwhile for the last month, milk density was significantly lower for manganese and iron groups when compared to control group; we concluded that zinc group has the best effect on milk density between treatments. For milk Solid Non Fat, for the first two months there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among all groups but for the last month, manganese group has a significantly (P<0.05) lower Solid Non Fat. The amount of trace elements absorbed by the cows was significantly (P<0.05) higher in treatment group when compared to each corresponding element in control one, while zinc was the best assimilated element. We can conclude that zinc has the best effect and absorption on dairy cows.

  144. Dr. Dyana Selin, C., Dr. Thilsath Fatima Quraiza, M. and Dr. Venkadesh, B.

    The purpose of this study investigates the impact of spirulina and ashwagandha on the biochemical and economic characteristic of B.mori. Nutrition of silkworm is sole factor which almost augment quantity and quality of slide fortification of mulberry leaves by nutrient supplementation can be increased the quality and productivity of silk. Spirulina is blue green algae. It contains 18 amino acids and vitamins. The nutrients are very easy to digests protein and carbohydrates. W.somnifera commonly known as ashwagandha, are used in traditional medicine. The main chemical constituents are alkaloids and steroidal lactones. These include trophine and cuscohygrine. In this experiment consists of 2 treatment (spirulina and ashwagandha) with 5 concentrations (1,2,3,4 and 5 per cent). Hence in this investigation an attempt is made to study the impact of fortification of treated leaves on biochemical content (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) of silk gland, haemolymph, muscle and fat body of B.mori larvae.During insect metamorphosis, profound biochemical changes occur in the haemolymph, in particular, the concentration of proteins. The silkworm produces massive amount of silk protein during final stage of larval development. Further, same study was conducted to find out the economic traits of B.mori. The major real silk fibre is fibroin and the adhesive substance is sericin. The result indicates there is a better silk production.

  145. Md Farooq Ahmed, Mohammad Ziauddin, Md Ateequr Rahman, Md Majid Iqbal and Dr. Anil Kumar Middha

    Merremia emarginata whole plant was subjected to preliminary phytochemical investigation and was found that it possess alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates and proteins. The extracts prepared by using polar solvents have demonstrated the dose dependent Antioxidant activity. The Methanolic extract of Merremia emarginata whole plant has shown Antioxidant activity in various screening models .Our study has justified the claim of native herbal practitioners that the plant extract has antioxidant activity and Superoxide anion scavenging activity useful in treating gastric disorders.

  146. Peña B.S.D., Barranco J. E. and Luz Tovar-Castro

    This article reviews the use of detergents and fertilizers in agricultural activities that lead to water pollution, the consequences for the environment and public health. Currently, sustainable food production demands the use of clean technologies that avoid the excessive use of non-degradable detergents with poly-phosphates and sulphate as agents tense-active in livestock holdings and fertilizers, with high nitrogen and phosphorus contents in field crops, briefly discusses the regulation of phosphate and total phosphorus in wastewater and advocates the use of biotechnology as a decontaminant measure of chemical substances and the use of biodegradable detergents in order to avoid water pollution and environmental deterioration.

  147. Chavan, U. D., Lande, S. B., Kotecha, P. M. and Gaikwad, R. S.

    In India sorghum is traditionally consumed in the form of unleavened pan cake/Roti/Bhakari. Because of sorghum is a staple food in many parts of the country. Though sorghum grains are nutritious, the consumption of this cereal is decreasing due to non-availability of easy cooking raw materials from the sorghum. The other major reasons are; dying traditional food habits, requirement of special skill for preparing sorghum rotis. For many years sorghum eating population particularly in rabi growing areas, the roti made from Maldandi (M 35-1) is preferred for taste and softness, over other genotypes. But now days some new genotypes of rabi sorghum are developed which gives better nutritional as well as organoleptic quality of the roti than the M 35-1. A study was done on the flour, dough, roti and nutritional quality of initial advance varietal trials during Rabi-2017-18 at Rahuri and Dharwad research centers to identify superior genotypes. Considering the flour, dough, roti and nutritional quality parameters among the new sorghum genotypes from initial advance varietal trials from Rahuri center SPV 2539, CSH 15R, SPV 2544 and CSH 13 and from Dharwad center CSH 13, M 35-1, SPV 2551 and SPV 2541 were found promising for flour, dough, roti as well as nutritional quality. Therefore, these genotypes should be considered for further research programme and development of new sorghum genotypes.

  148. Lahari P. S. and Hanumantha Rao, B.

    The family Scrophulariaceae includes several ornamentals and plants with medicinal importance. In the present investigation foliar epidermal characteristics of three plants useful in ethnic/folk medicine - Cymbalaria muralis, Kickxia ramosissima (both used in diabetes treatment) and Linaria dalmatica (used to stimulate liver function) are studied and their salient epidermal features of leaf are presented in detail here. Sinuous epidermal anticlinal walls, anomocytic and anisocytic stomata, cuticular ledges, peristomatal rims, polar nodules are the characters commonly shared by all the three members. Leaves are hypoamphistomatic with heteromorphic stomata (in shape) in C. muralis, K. ramosissima; amphistomatic in L. dalmatica and atrichous in C. muralis and L. dalmatica. Stomatal groups, stomatal chains, contiguous stomata and long stalked (3 - celled) glandular trichomes with 4 - celled globose head are the exclusive features found in K. ramosissima.

  149. Dr. Samiya Mufti, Dr. Shylla Mir, Dr. Saima Salam and Dr. Asma Mufti

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most common clinical problems the gynecologists come across in their clinical practice. It affects a woman’s physical and mental health and has a huge impact on clinical workload. The present study was aimed to study the accuracy of hysteroscopy in evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding and to correlate hysteroscopic findings with histopathological findings. Among the women reporting to the OPD of Lal Ded Hospital an associated hospital of Government Medical college, Srinagar majority of women belonged to the perimenopausal age group of 40 to 49 years. Menorrhagia was found to be the most common complaint. Hysteroscopy revealed normal endometrium in most of the cases, endometrial hyperplasia in 15% of cases followed by endometrial polyps, cervical polyps and myomas. HPE showed proliferative type of endometrium present in majority of patients i.e., around 410 (82%). About 80 patients presented with simple hyperplasia without atypia (16%). And simple hyperplasia with atypia in 9 i.e., 1.8% of patients. 1 patient revealed endometrial adenocarcinoma on histopathology. This study proved Hysteroscopy to be the gold standard for evaluation of AUB. Endometrial biopsy with hysteroscopy helps in supplementing the diagnostic accuracy of hysteroscopy.

  150. Ashok Kumar Shah, Arpita Suri, Birendra Kumar Yadav, Nisha Chauhan, Sanjiv Kumar Bansal, Busi Karunanand

    Background & Objectives: Dengue fever is associated with significant morbidity and mortality there by initiation of timely management of the patient to prevent complications is the need of the time. Our study focuses on biochemical alterations associated with dengue fever which would help in early identification and management of patients. Materials & Methods: In this case-control study, clinically diagnosed patients of dengue (n=50) and age-matched healthy controls (n=50) were enrolled. Serum bilirubin, transaminases and calcium levels were estimated in both the groups and further compared using Independent student’s t-test. Results: The mean level of serum bilirubin in patients with dengue fever were significantly higher (p<0.01) than controls. The mean serum levels of both the liver enzymes, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly increased (p<0.000) whereas the mean serum calcium level of dengue patients was significantly decreased (p<0.000) than the healthy controls. Interpretation & Conclusion: Dengue fever is characterized by various biochemical attentions such as increased transaminases, raised bilirubin and low calcium. These investigations will help in early identification, diagnosis and management of dengue patients.

  151. Dr. Aditya Shinde, Dr. Trupti Naykodi, Dr. Lalita Gauri Mandke and Dr. Dhanashree Ingle

    MTA appears to be a valid option for apexification with its main advantage being, the speed at which the treatment can be completed. A major problem in performing endodontics in immature teeth with necrotic pulp and wide open apices is obtaining an optimal seal of the root-canal system. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), has been proposed as a potential material to create an apical plug at the end of the root-canal system, thus preventing the extrusion of filling materials.

  152. Sunday Oteikwu Ochigbo, Chimaeze Torty and Maxwell Anah

    Background: Paediatric ART coverage is only 20%, leaving a gap of 80%. The household members of HIV-positive persons often are also infected, but unfortunately, are frequently unaware of their HIV status. Early diagnosis and treatment of paediatric HIV is key as mortality of untreated patients is very high in the first two years of life and reaches 80% by four years. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in two principal health facilities offering PMTCT/Paediatric HIV services in Calabar, Cross- River state, Nigeria. A “sibling” here is defined as a child from the same biological parents as the index patient. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the baseline data, which included socio-demography, relationship to the child, and reasons for non-screening for HIV test were obtained. Results: Of the 401 children studied, 367(91.5%) had been previously tested for HIV while 34(8.5%) never had HIV test. The reasons observed for not testing and receiving care were low perception of risk for HIV (36.0%), fear of disclosure (29.2%), fear of stigmatization (22.4%), ignorance (7.9%) and distance from health facility (4.5%). Recommendations: Focused awareness campaigns and advocacy, evidence-based approaches should be sustained; laws that aim to reduce stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV should be enforced.

  153. Shiekh Viqar Manzoor, Irfan Nazir Mir, Asma Khanday, Suhail Nazir, Tajamul Rashid and Mir. Mujtaba Ahmad

    Introduction: A lump in the breast is of great concern to the patients and is also a challenge to the diagnostic judgement of the surgeon. Early diagnosis of breast cancer has increasingly resulted in a more conservative surgical approach to the disease. Methods: The present, comparative study was conducted in the Postgraduate Departement of General Surgery and Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Government Medical College Srinagar,for a period of obout two and a half years. A total of 60 patients underwent clinical examination by surgeon, FNAC by pathologist. Mammography/ultrasonography was done and evaluated by radiologist blinded to FNAC/Clinical examination reports, MRI breast was arranged and evaluated by radiologist blinded to result of triple test. Results: Most common age group affected was 50 to 70 years with a mean + SD of 50.9±14.47. Most common location of breast lesions in patients was upper outer quadrant 31 (51.7%) and least common location was lower inner quadrant 4 (6.6%). Left sided lesions 31(51.67%) were more than right sided lesions 28 (46.67%) with only 1 (1.66%) bilateral lesion. Benign lesions were present in 28 (46.33%) patients and malignant lesions were present in 32 (53.33%) patients. Pain was the most common symptom present in the patients 25 (41.7%) followed by nipple discharge 7 (11.7%) and then weight loss, 6(10%) patients. Skin changes were present in 20% patients,4 (6.67%) had nipple retraction, enlarged axillary lymph nodes were seen in 21 (35%) patients. the accuracy of triple test in the evaluation of breast lesions with 96.9% sensitivity and 67.9% specificity and positive and negative predictive value of 77.5% and 95.0% respectively. the accuracy of MRI in the evaluation of breast lesions with 96.9% sensitivity and 89.3% specificity and positive and negative predictive value of 91.2% and 96.2% respectively. Conclusion: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) breast is equally sensitive to triple assessment in the evaluation of breast masses. It is more specific than triple test in the evaluation of palpable breast masses. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MRI is more than triple assessment. MRI is able to detect occult lesions of opposite breast.

  154. Mukhtar Hussain, Rubina Mukhtar, Saqib Khan, M. and Zeeshan Siddiqi

    We present a case of unusual finding on nuclear renal scan in a child of 9 years. Latter on that was diagnosed as a case of renal vein thrombosis. The child presented in pediatric outpatient department (OPD) with complaint of intermittent abdominal pain. On abdominal ultrasound there were asymmetrical kidneys in size. On nuclear scan there was peripheral rim sign/doughnut sign not mentioned or explained in literature previously that was reported as suspicious for renal vascular insult. Renal vein thrombosis was confirmed on renal Doppler ultrasound. Patient recovered completely with medical treatment in pediatric nephrology department without surgical intervention.

  155. Anuradha Pai and Hemcle Shalma Ganesan

    Background: Lichen Planus is an inflammatory, immune mediated, mucocutaneous disease of unknown aetiology, characterized by alternating periods of symptomatic remission and exacerbation. Different treatment modalities have been tried, but with limited success. Due to the lack of a definitive treatment and the side effects of current treatments, efforts are still being made to find new treatment modalities. Steroids have been found to be the first line of drugs in treating symptomatic Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) by reducing pain and inflammation however with potential side effects. Application of topical Curcumin can be suggested for treatment of OLP because of its desirable anti- inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti – tumour properties and insignificant side effects. Aim: To compare the efficacy of topical Curcumin with 0.1% Triamcinolone Acetonide in the treatment of OLP. Materials and Methods: The research group consisted of 20 adult OLP patients, who were randomly divided into two groups. The control group (n = 10) was treated with Triamcinolone Acetonide 0.1% and the study group (n = 10) with commercially available topical Curcumin ointment each to be applied thrice daily for 2 weeks. The patients were reviewed every week for two weeks. Results: Data was analyzed using SPSS v.22 software IBM., Corp. The intergroup comparison using independent student t test showed significant improvement in the pain (P = 0.001) and erythema (P =0.02), but non-significant reduction in ulceration (P = 0.05) in the study group as compared to the control group. Intragroup comparison using repeated measures of ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s Post hoc analysis showed statistically significant reduction in the pain(P=0.001) and erythema(P=0.001) in both the groups. Conclusion: Topical application of Curcumin can bring about clinical improvements in OLP patients. It could be considered as an alternative treatment of OLP with fewer side effects compared to steroids. However further studies with larger sample size and follow up periods may be required.

  156. Maimuna Buba

    Background: Global warming is one of the major problem that could negatively affect the ecosystem and the health of humans. Global warming occurs when greenhouse gases(carbon dioxide (CO2) and chlorofluorocarbons) and other air pollutant which include particulate matter, benzene, toxic metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and ozone(O3) accumulate in the atmosphere and absorb solar radiation and sunlight and eventually bound off the earth’s surface. Global warming may cause unalterable damage if no effort is made to avert it. Consequently determining the public knowledge and awareness on the topic would be one of the solutions of the problem. Objective: The goal of this research is to identify the level of knowledge and awareness about global warming that will make people more conscious about the effect of global warming. Method: In this study, survey research was used as the methodology. The sample of the study consisted of 1000 people randomly chosen from the center of capital territory Abuja, when determining the sample, age, gender, qualification and occupation variables were taken into considerations and it has created an impartial distributions. A questionnaire consisting of 14 questions was set as data collection tool. The data obtained from the survey were analyzed by chi-square. Results: This research has reached the results of how individuals perceive global warming as a big problem. This perception is informed out of the devastating effect of global warming which is heightened due to information available on media platforms. But one striking observation glaring in the result is that respondents do not have enough consciousness about what causes global warming and how it affects their livelihood. Conclusion: The data indicates that the participants of the study are aware of global warming but they are not at sufficient level of knowledge for the possible effects and the prevention of global warming. Moreover, the information on individual’s level of awareness about global warming shows statistically momentous differences in terms of gender, age, qualification and occupation.

  157. Sumit Aggarwal, Shalu Jain, Stuti Mohan and Neelu Garg

    Congenitally missing teeth, particularly the maxillary lateral incisor present dental clinicians with numerous challenges. These involve treatment planning and smile design; preparation; patient perceptions and expectations relative to aesthetics; interdisciplinary collaboration that meets the functional, health and aesthetic needs and, a critical factor for the overall success, that of choosing a suitable restorative material. This manuscript reports a case describing esthetic anterior dental rehabilitation for congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors with diastemas using Lithium disilicate – reinforced ceramic veneers.

  158. Dr. Meera Uday Kulkarni, Dr. Srushti Divekar, Dr. Dipali Shah and Dr. Niranjan Desai

    Aim: To compare the shear bond strength of sixth generation and eighth generation bonding agents to dentin. Materials and methods: Flat surface of dentin were exposed after reducing the enamel surfaces of forty human molar teeth and were divided into two groups(n=20), which were then bonded using Sixth-generation bonding agent, Prelude Dental Adhesive (Danville) and Seventh-generation bonding agent, Prelude One (Danville) which is a one bottle adhesive. Group I- Prelude Dental Adhesive system which is two bottle system (n=20) was applied as per manufacturer’s instructions. Group II - Prelude One which is a one bottle adhesive system (n=20) was also applied as per manufacturer’s instructions. Following this, composite cylinders were built up using a Teflon mould (3x2mm) on these prepared dentinal surfaces. Samples were stored in distilled water for 24 hours and tested for shear bond strength with universal testing machine. Shear force was applied perpendicular to the long axis of composite cylinder at adhesive-tooth interface until debonding occurred. The data obtained was tabulated and analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results: There was a significant difference in the shear bond strength of both the adhesives tested (P < 0.05). The seventh-generation adhesives showed significantly higher shear bond strength to dentin compared to sixth-generation adhesives. Conclusion: Among self-etch systems, single-step bonding agents are superior to two-step systems.

  159. Mohammed M. Gad, Ahmad M. Al-Thobity and Fahad A. Al-Harbi

    Over extension of denture border is the main cause of denture-induced fibrous hyperplasia (DIH) especially with immediate denture. We report a 53-year-male with the chief complaint of a loose immediate maxillary denture as well as pain and discomfort during mastication and asking for new denture. Patient was examined and medical history was taken. Intraoral examinations revealed that folding with deep fissure covered by white granulation tissue in the maxillary right labial sulcus and left buccal sulcus related to the overextended thin denture borders and diagnosed as DIH. Treatment started with border adjustment and finally new denture fabrications. Exact Denture border extension verifications and adjustments during insertion is the most important step as well as patient education and periodic follow up after denture insertion for prevention of DIH occurrence.

  160. Dr. Ahmed Abdul Munum Hameed, Dr. Hadeel Iress Abdulraoof and Dr. Jasim Mohammed Hashim Almosawy

    Background: Zinc as a second trace element of human body plays an important role in numerous function. Abnormality in the metabolism of zinc in renal problem specially nephrotic syndrome is well documented. The Aim of Study: To study change in serum zinc concentration in children with relapsing nephrotic syndrome. Patients and method: A hospital based case control study that conducted at nephrology clinic at Al-Sadder and AL-Zahra teaching Hospitals in Al Najaf Al Ashraf included patients with nephrotic syndrom for period between 1st January 2013 to end of October 2013. A total of 60 pediatric patients with relapsing nephrotic syndrome were included in this study. They were divided in two groups, (30) patients group A (patients with infrequent relapsing) and (30) patients group B (patients with frequent relapsing). Control group consist of 32 healthy children. Serum zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectr.ophotometery. Results: Patients aged 2-14 years, boys were 40 and girls were 20. The mean age of patients was 7.5 years. The Mean serum zinc level in group B (frequent relapse) (58.45 µg/dl) that was significantly lower than that of group A (infrequent relapse) (61.58/dl )and control group( 89.64 µg/dl ) respectively. There was no significant difference between patients of both groups and control in the mean of serum zinc level and sex of patients. Conclusion: Hypozincemia can occur in chronic renal problem like nephrotic syndrome. The low level of serum zinc was mainly found in those with frequent relapses.

  161. Dr. Alhanoof Alotaibi and Dr. Muneera Baraja

    Background: physical activity improves quality of life, helps to improve daily activities and have a good impact on health. Physician’s health matter and studies showed that doctors' own physical activity practices may influence their clinical attitudes towards physical activity. Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted among resident physicians in Saudi Arabia from October 2015 to January 2016. We used an online survey, which INCLUDES demographic data, residency program and counseling their patients, and the short form of international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). Results:296 responses were received. Most of the residents (65.5%) have sedentary life and only 14.9 % have high physical activity. The most active were ER residents followed by internal medicine residents (28.6%, 24.4%) respectively ,while pediatric residents and family medicine residents were the most sedentary groups (73.7%, 70%) respectively. Residents who perceived their residency program as being stressful were found to be the least active. The opposite was true for residents with low levels of perceived stress. Majority of residents (43%), frequently give advice of physical activity to their patients. At the same time, (52%) think that their physical activity level is affecting their counseling of physical activity to patients. Conclusion: most of residents are not physically active. They are also suffering from overweight and obesity. There should be more attention from health institutions and government to provide supportive exercise environment for the population including residents.

  162. Dr. Kulandaivel Lakshmi and Dr. Bharani Palanisamy

    A study on establishing the role of RDW and NLCR as biomarkers for the early detection of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock and in prediction of outcome was conducted. A total of 85 subjects meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria and diagnosed with mild sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock were selected. After a thorough clinical examination, blood sampling was done for all the subjects, within 3 hours of presenting the illness. The values of RDW and NLCR were studied on the day of admission, after 72 hours and after 7 days. Statistical studies were done by SPSS software and analyzed by unpaired t test, chi-square test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. After analysis, we found that in patients of severe sepsis and septic shock class, in survivor and non-survivor group, significant elevation of RDW and NLCR was found. The cut off values of RDW and NLCR in predicting the mortality in 95% confidential interval were calculated. There was a good correlation of SOFA score with NLCR and RDW in predicting the 28 days outcome. The study revealed that RDW and NLR can be used as potential markers for early detection of severe sepsis and septic shock and in predicting the outcome

  163. Sabo Haoua Seini, Aminou Illia Mama Nafiou, Bako Aminatou Maazou, Hassimi Sadou, Amoukou Ibrahim, Mousbahou Malam Alma, Ramatou Seini Sidikou, Mahamane Saadou and Maman Moussa Ramatou

    Locally in the context of care and prevention of malnutrition, in Niger, communities use plants. The general objective aimed at through this study is to inventory and ofto map the plants used in children under 5 in the Mayahi department of Niger. To do this, an ethnobotanical survey was carried out on 100 women, mothers / grandmothers aged 35 or older and 23 traditional / retailers, all over 50 years of age. This study shows that 15 families of plants used left century in 23 genera and 24 species have been recorded. These plants are used either to treat children with diarrhea or to stimulate children 's appetite for better growth. The most commonly used is the family of Euphorbiaceae (4 species) with a proportion of 15 4%, followed by the family of Mimosaceae (3 species) and Caesalpiniaceae (3species) with a proportion of 11.5% each. The bark is the most used part (46.4%).The most used form is the plant powder (70.9%).Note that the use of these geographical map your differs from one municipality to another. The diversity of properties and indications, the various organs used as well as the methods of preparation and administration, testify to a good knowledge of the plant diversity of Tradipraticiens and mothers of children. However, biological and chemical tests will verify the veracity of the therapeutic indications received for an extension as an alternative for the prevention of moderate acute malnutrition in children under 5 years of age .

  164. Dr. Kahtan Adnan and Dr. Ragheb H.Sultan

    Neonatal sepsis categorized as early and late onset. Early onset sepsis (EOS) occurs in the first 7 days of life with 85% occurs in the first 24 hours of life. Late onset sepsis (LOS) occurs after the first week of life and is mostly acquired from care giving environment. The study was performed to determine the incidence of pathogenic agents, risk factors and outcome of septicemia in neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in central teaching hospital for children in Baghdad governorate. A prospective study was done among 200 neonates with clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis who were admitted in neonatal intensive care unit of central teaching hospital for children in Baghdad governorate during 4 months from 20th of August 2011 to 20th of December 2011. The causative agents have been isolated by blood culture in 15% of the neonates, late onset sepsis is more common (71%) than early onset sepsis (29%) and the predominant isolates in both early and late onset diseases were Gram negative bacteria (76.6%). E. coli was the commonest organism in early and late onset sepsis (23.3%), Klebsiella was the 2nd commonest organism specially in the late onset sepsis (20%). Overall death rate was (28%), in the early onset was (42.55%) and (25.17%) was in the late onset disease. Pseudomonas aeroginosa and proteus have the highest fatality (100%), while no death was recorded among pneumococcal sepsis, E. aerogenes and Listeria.

  165. Ahlam A. Baker, Riyadh H. Alzakar and Zena J. Abdulraheem

    Vernal keratoconjuctivitis (VKC) is a common clinical entity which causes considerable ocular morbidity. It is an external eye disease with recurrent attacks of exacerbation and remission caused by several external (and sometimes internal) allergens charecterized by pink or red coloration of the eyes associated with itching, discomfort, burning sensation, swollen eyes and blurring of vision. It affects mainly children and early adulthood. Because of its chronicity, VKC needs continuous treatment with antiinflammatory drugs especially corticosteroids and because of their bad side effects, they are rendered an unpopular selection for longterm management. Immunotherapy by inoculation hyposensitization can be used as an effective alternative therapy in the management of VKC owing to its longlasting effect. Objective: To identify the commonest allergen(allergens) which cause eye sensitization in patients with VKC and manage them with inoculation hyposensitization in order to minimize the depending on steroid therapy and to getrid of their unwanted side effects.

  166. Jian Gao

    This paper discusses a theoretical perspective about Medical learners’ life-long learning. This is the extensional studies for the first-year undergraduate whose compulsory course in “Introduction to Clinical Medicine”. A theoretical model has been created for conceptual framework. Trajectory, occupation and self-beliefs as three core directions, effectiveness and periodic segmentations impact also has been considered. Additional hypotheses were developed about medical learners’ competence, professionalism, life-long learning self-beliefs. This paper concludes key considerations on implications for future scaling and piloting survey studies. Especially, the initial items pool constructions, literature review purpose activities. It gives a number of options for medical learners in high education system, not only in learning medical modules, but also in general life-long learning.

  167. Mrs. Maya Vadgaonkar, Dr. Prabha Dasila and Dr. Gajanan Velhal

    Transformation leadership is on rise in western countries as well as also in India. There are number of transformational leaders in various fields. The researcher wants to see the impact of transformational leadership educational programme of head nurses on performance and job satisfaction of staff nurses working in public hospitals of Mumbai. Methodology and Material: The research has used quantitative , quasi- experimental pre-test, post-test, study, & control group design, non-probability purposive sampling technique and size was calculated by power analysis. Each group comprised of 30 head nurses and 200 staff nurses from selected public hospitals, fitting into the inclusion criteria of sample selection. The tools consisted of structured and semi structured questionnaire for demographic data and for other observations , and standardized tool like Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire for job satisfaction . The pilot study was conducted in one of the public Hospitals of Mumbai. The detail main study (study group) conducted .in King Edward Memorial Hospital Parel, Mumbai (K.E.M.) and ( control group ) Bai Yamunabai Laxman Nair Charitable Hospital Mumbai (B.Y.L.Nair) Hospitals of Mumbai city.. After following all the protocols of ethical permission from the institutions and permission from the respective hospitals,. The pre-test was taken in both the hospitals. The transformational leadership educational interventional programme conducted with theory on all the four variables work-place management, communication , team building and conflict management. The “5 S” activities for effective and efficient patient care management explained with audio visual aids, role plays, video clippings . Such interactive sessions taken for total 21 sessions,3hours per day. During one-month interaction between the head nurses and staff nurses was observed , and after three months the performance and job satisfaction post-test taken. Results: Wilcoxon Signed Rank test of study group z stat values of job satisfaction the significant difference -11.6 < p value 0.00 at 0.05 level in study group whereas in control group was showing the insignificant difference -1.04 >p value 0.297 at 0.05 level. While comparing the two groups the p value 0.000 that has high significance p< 0.001 at 0.05 level of significance level. indicating improved job satisfaction of staff nurses among study group

  168. Dr. Ranjini Ashwath, Dr. Rashmi, K., Dr. Vedavathi, B., Dr. Sruthi Somasundaran, Dr. Neeharika G., Dr. Aswath and Dr. Roopa R Nadig

    Background: Dentinal hypersensitivity is a leading problem and herbal based formulations have been in use recently for the same. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of novel herbal toothpaste-mouthwash (HioraK) combination with a Complete Care toothpaste-mouthwash (Hiora K) combination in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity in vivo. Methods: A total of 80 subjects (24 males and 56 females; aged 25–60 years) were randomly divided into two groups: Group A- Hiora K tooth paste and mouth wash (The Himalaya Drug Company Research and Development, Makali, Bangalore) and Group B – Complete Care tooth paste and mouthwash combination(Hi Ora K, The Himalaya Drug Company Research and Development, Makali, Bangalore). Sensitivity scores for tactile, air stimulus and cold water were recorded at baseline, 7, 14 and 28 days. Results: Group A was significantly better compared to the Group B at the end of 7days in reduction of dentinal hypersensitivity but statistically similar by the end of 28 days. Conclusions: The novel herbal dentifriceand mouthwash combination can be recommended for treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity.

  169. Dr. Abdul Ghani, Dr. Irfan ul Ashraf, Dr. Aamir Hakak, Dr. Omeshwar Singh and Dr. Malik Naseer Ahmad

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to study the epidemiology of hip fractures in a tertiary care hospital in north India. Method : This is a retrospective study conducted among admitted patients with fractures around hip in Government Medical College Jammu. Relevant clinical information like type of fracture, gender, age , mechanism of injury and associated injuries were recorded. The data recorded were analyzed in frequencies. Results : A total of 522 patients were admitted with hip fractures from June 2016- May 2018.Hip fractures were seen more among females than males. Around 50% fractures were seen in elderly patients with age above 60 years. Intertrochanteric fractures were most common fractures around hip followed by neck of femur fractures. Conclusion: Hip fractures in elderly are a source of morbidity and mortality. Most of these fractures result due to trivial trauma to already weakened bone. .Multiple safety measures to prevent injurious falls and preventing osteoporosis and patient education regarding bone health are needed.

  170. Coulibaly-Koné S.A., Kourouma K.R., 1Doukouré D., 3Soya J. and 1Kouassi D.

    Objective: the hypothesis tested in the study was that strengthening health system, especially leadership and management skills of health teams, will result in an improvement of maternal and child health outcomes from 2015 to 2017. Methods: this is a before and after design study without control group in the health region of Agnéby-Tiassa-Mé. The evolution of the following indicators was assessed to evaluate the impact of the LDP program: the four and more antenatal care visit, the maternal mortality rate, the percentage of births attended by skilled health staff, sulfadoxine pyrimethamine two doses coverage, sulfadoxine pyrimethamine three doses coverage, Penta 3 coverage. Data were collected from district monthly reports, birth registers, and quarterly reports from the health region; then analyzed using Excel. Results: in general all the indicators have improved in 2017 except for the four and more antenatal care visit and Penta 3 coverage which knew a slight decrease in 2017 but still higher than 2015. Conclusion: leadership and management training is a key element of ingredient for in health system strengthening and outcomes improving in limited resources countries.

  171. Dr. Veer Karuna, Dr. Kriti Grover, Dr. Nidhi Verma and Dr. Priya Gupta

    The aim of this paper is to report a case of myoepithelioma in the neck which is a rare neoplasm with uncommon presentation of site. Usually it is the tumor of salivary gland and more common in parotid and less common in the minor salivary gland of the oral cavity predominantly in palate. Here we are discussing a case of 10 years old female child who presented in our institute with complain of swelling over right mid cervical region of neck which was clinically suspected as reactive cervical lymph node. Patient was evaluated further and cytologically diagnosed as plasmacytoid myoepithelioma. It was also proved as a case of benign myoepithelioma after histopathology and immunohistochemical studies. Myoepithelioma in the neck is the uncommon presentation and only a limited number of cases have been reported in the literature.

  172. Dr. Varun, M., Dr. Prabhusankar, K., Dr. Usha, V. and Dr. Ani John Peter

    Cemento-ossifying fibromas are rare fibro-osseous benign neoplasms that are seen in the jaws. They are included in the group of mesodermal odontogenic tumors and commonly present as a progressively growing lesion that might attain great size with resultant deformity, if not treated. Cemento-OF (COF) is a benign neoplasm that arises from the periodontal membrane which contains multipotential cells that are capable of forming cementum, lamellar bone and fibrous tissue. These tumors occur in the third and fourth decades of life, with predilection for women, predominantly occurring in the premolar/molar region of the mandible. A case of cemento-ossifying fibroma involving the right side of mandible is described in a 38 year-old male patient, with description of clinical, radiographic, and histologic features.

  173. Dr. Panna Mangat, Dr. Anil K Tomer, Dr. Afnan Ajaz Raina, Dr. Faizan Bin Ayub, Dr. Megna Bhatt and Dr. Hysum Mushtaq

    Resorption is a pathologic process that often eludes the clinician with its varied etiologic factors and diverse clinical presentations.Internal resorption may progress slowly or rapidly. If progression is rapid, it may result in a perforation of the crown or root within a few weeks. This is a case report of a 32 year female patient presenting with internal resorption due to trauma. The case was treated by complete deridement of the canal and then triple antibiotic paste was used as an intracanal medicament.MTA angelus was used as obturating material and 6th month follow up revealed apexification with and progressive healing.

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