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October 2020

  1. Anju G Nagannawar and M. Jayaraj

    Mollugo pentaphylla L. is an nutraceutical herb, and is used by traditional practitioners for curing whooping cough, treatment of eye diseases, to treat sprue, mouth infections. The leaves are used to make a soup that is said to promote the appetite, used to treat stomache, earache, skin disorders and abdominal pains. This plant in nature propagated itself through seeds only during the rainy season and not available in other seasons. To overcome these constraints in vitro propagation protocol for Mollugo pentaphylla L. has been developed using nodal explants. Induction of nodal callus observed with Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) media containing 0.5 mg/L of BAP and NAA with mass 2829.11±1.82 (mg). MS media containing 0.5 mg/L of BAP and 0.5 mg/L of Kn was found to be suitable for multiple shoot induction 26 ±1.95 with length 15.82 ±0.97 and MS media with 0.5 mg/L of BAP and 0.5 mg/L of NAA induced multiple shoots 20.03 ±2.17 with length 14.08 ±1.97 from the nodal callus. Roots were induced on half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L of NAA and 0.5 mg/L of IBA subsequently, in vitro flowering observed after 3 weeks on the same culture.

  2. Farhana Sethi

    Row-level security (RLS) with data and analytics application, when provide as a turnkey service, can be used to restrict data access for specified users using Filters restriction on the data access using Attribute-based access control. Row level security is the feature accessible to filter content based on a user's precise requirement, thus decreasing the database exposure to unapproved disclosure of individual or business confidential data. Row-Level security defines the security rule to limit access to objects based on specific rights.RLS or Row-Level Security as the name advocates is a security mechanism that restricts the records from data based on the authorization framework of the current user that is logged in. In other words, the records from the database tables are displayed based on who the user is and to which records do the user has access to. The paper examines the use of Row-level security (RLS) and customization of the solution for large organizations. The paper focused on Attribute-based access control (ABAC), design and implement a standard method that can be used on large scale at the organization level.

  3. Dr. Caren R. Bansolay

    Teacher discourses in handling science and mathematics lessons prompts code switching, specifically alterational pattern due to the influence of bilingualism or even multilingualism. The functions of code switching are into varied categories such as communication, authority, emphasis, conceptual, interlocution, ethnicity, psychological, trigger, and lexicon. The reasons of such speech act can be seen in consonance with the observed and expected consequences. It is considered linguistic incompetence with the inability of teachers and students to use the target language in theirs discourses, while linguistic resourcefulness is coined to mean the strategy employed by teachers and students. This study is limited to patterns, reasons, functions and implications of code switching heeding the recommendation of further research on the functionality of code switching as an instructional strategy to validate the notion that code switching is either linguistic incompetence or linguistic resourcefulness, considering the millennial trends and approaches of teaching and learning, setting of absolute limitations in distinguishing code switching from code mixing as not all studies support the idea that code switching is an umbrella of code mixing, and further researches on the impact of switching can be correlated with results of studies on switching only two languages.

  4. Azera Tsegay (PI), Getasile Assefa and Tesfaye H/Mariam

    Ensete ventricosum (Welw Chessman), is a perennial, herbaceous, monocarpic and monocotyledonous crop in the family Musaceae (Westphal 1975). The experiment was carried out using different fermentation time (0, 30, 60 and 90 days) and two Enset varieties to check out the effects of fermentation time and enset variety on the nutritional composition of kocho. In this study, kocho samples had been prepared from yedbereye and Lemat enset variety, which are processed by using indigenous Gurage kocho processing methods. The outcomes revealed that, mineral composition of kocho were affected by fermentation time and Enset ventricosum variety. The outcomes of this study showed that the content of Ca, Mg, K, and Zn content was found higher in the unfermented kocho prepared from yedebreye (190.11 mg/100 g, 117.47 mg/100 g, 860.99 mg/100 g, and 3.87 mg/100 g respectively) than the content in unfermented prepared from Lemat (183.89 mg/100g, 112.68 mg/100g, 857.06 mg/100g and 2.17 mg/100g respectively). On the other hand, the content of Na, Fe, Cu and Mn was found higher in the unfermented kocho prepared from Lemat (27.94 mg/100 g, 3.58 mg/100 g, 3.30 mg/100 g and 2.95 mg/100 g respectively) than the content in unfermented kocho prepared from yedebreye (22.54 mg/100g, 2.66 mg/100g, 2.41 mg/100g and 1.56 mg/100g respectively). The Ca, Mg, Na and Fe content differ significantly (P <0.05), whereas, the K, Cu, Zn and Mn content does not differ significantly (P >0.05) among the two verities. As fermentation time increased, Ca, Mg, K, Na and Cu contents increased however Na, Fe and Zn contents decreased. The Fermentation time significantly (p<0.05) affects the calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc content in Kocho prepared from Lemat and Yedebreye enset variety while the potassium and sodium content was significantly (p<0.05) affected in kocho sample prepared from Yedebreye variety.

  5. Nehaya Alhamed, EdD

    This paper is an analysis of a case study of the use of technology in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The education sector in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia has undergone a tremendous change in the adoption of modern technology. Private and public schools have embraced digital processing systems that encourage knowledge construction, active learning, enquiry, and exploration for learners. The digital systems allow for communication and data sharing among teachers and students irrespective of locations. The change is mainly characterized by the use of different kinds of information delivery systems in various learning activities. Technology has been adopted as an important resources, equal to other education resources such labor, in development of positive learning environments from elementary schools to institutions of higher learning.

  6. Kaur, M., Gupta, NL., Kaur, S. and Thakur, S.

    A cross sectional study was carried out to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices regarding breast cancer among 491teachers of Government Schools using self-administered method with pre- tested questionnaire. The objectives were to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices and to study their relationship with socio- demographic variables. Data collected from government schools were entered and analysed using SPSS version 23. The study revealed, majority of teachers,23% were within 41-45 years and 21.2% within 26-50 years of age group. The mean age was 44.79±7.69. Most, 54.2% were aware of the term breast self-examination (BSE) and 55.6% subjects had the knowledge that the breast cancer was indicated by breast lump. Regarding risk factors of breast cancer, 44.6% knew little or no breastfeeding, 44.0% tobacco/smoking, 43.4%family history of breast cancer, 42.2% radiation exposure and 41.5% role of inherited gene as a risk factors for breast cancer. Most 48.5% respondents were aware that pain in the breast is a symptom for breast cancer. Most, 57.6% had average and 41.5% had poor knowledge regarding breast cancer with mean score 12.99. 88% had positive and 12% had negative attitude. 85.1% opined to do BSE if they knew how to do it. About 42% of the respondents performed breast self-examination. The only significant association was found between type of family and attitude level (p<0.006). In sum, the teachers lack knowledge regarding breast cancer which needs to be viewed as serious, considering this problem in the larger context in the society.

  7. Dr. Karan R Gregg Aggarwala and Mark Forman

    Physicians of the years prior to 1952 had significant insight into an ailing client’s ocular and bodily pathology by way of personal examination at the other end of an ophthalmoscope and a stethoscope. In the domain of glaucoma diagnostics, optic nerve evaluation came first, and later came the testing of eye pressure at the cornea. The older tests for visual field perimetry, although simple, were reasonably effective, many years prior to computers. The standard of care for Board Certified Ophthalmologists since 1981, has been LASER treatment of the posterior corneal periphery, enlarging “holes” of the trabecular meshwork. Optometrists, however, limit their practice to pharmaceutical agents, applied to the ocular surface. Not to deny the datasets obtained from multi-center, multi-million dollar investigations, much toleration and waiting is required of the client suffering from chronic glaucoma. Ambitions set forth as goals sponsored by the World Health Organization under the leadership of the International Association for the Prevention of Blindness and the World Council of Optometry [collectively termed as the VISION 2020 Initiative] have achieved modestly. Technology as a modality for empowering doctors has great value. The astute consumer of medical consultations, however, must exercise their doubting Thomas. In simplified, but not simplistic terms, the present synthesis is an attempt to bring forth some of the salient features of diagnosing and treating glaucoma that are cause for concern. It is intended by the authors, that any critical remarks presented here, be construed as making good the promise of the Hippocratic Oath, and the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.

  8. Dr. Sreelatha, M., Miss. Reshma. B, and Dr. Sudha Rani. P,

    Introduction: Rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutrition security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall well-being. Mosquito-Borne Diseases or mosquito-borne illness is disease caused by bacterial, viruses, parasites transmitted by mosquitoes. This can transmit disease without being affected themselves. Mosquitoes play essential role in the transmission of animal diseases. Mosquitoes borne diseases involve the transmission of viruses and parasites from animal to animal, animal to person or person to person without affecting the insect vectors with symptoms of disease. It is a main leading problem to human kind. Some mosquitoes are vectors for some of the diseases. Typically, the diseases are caused by viruses or tiny parasites mosquitoes are now called ‘public enemy no.1’ by the world health organization. There are more than 4500 species of mosquitoes distributed throughout the world under 34 genera, but mostly belongs to aedes, anopheles and culex. They are visitors of several public and life-threatening disease including protozoan’s (malaria), viral (yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya, west Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis) or pelmentic (filariasis) infections. These diseases not only cause mortality or morbidity among the humans and cause social, cultural environmental and economic loss of the society. Methodology: Pre-experimental research approach was adopted to achieve the objectives of the study, which was felt to be most appropriate in the field of education for its practicability in real life situation. Research design was one group pre-test, post-test research design. The study was conducted in selected area of Vizianagaram. Population includes women residing in the savaravilli village of Vizianagaram. Sample size consists of 60 women under inclusion criteria. Non probability convenient sampling technique was adopted for the present study based on inclusion criteria. Results: The study findings reveal that, knowledge scores on mosquito borne diseases among women in pre-test. Out of 60 women majority i.e., 45(75%) were having inadequate knowledge followed by 13(21.70%) were had moderate knowledge and few of them i.e., 2(3.30%) had adequate knowledge. Mean value was (15.83) & Standard Deviation was (6.26). Whereas in post-test i.e., 41(68.30%) were having moderate knowledge followed by 10(16.70%) were having adequate knowledge and few of them having 9(15%) inadequate knowledge. Mean value was (25.32) & S.D was (5.07) and t value was (18.903), p value was significant at 0.000 level. In pretest, knowledge scores on prevention of mosquito borne diseases among women. Majority i.e., 50(83.30%) were having inadequate knowledge followed by 10(16.70%) were had moderate knowledge and none of them had adequate knowledge. Mean value was (5.28) & Standard Deviation was (1.21). Whereas in post-test i.e., 18(30%) were having moderate knowledge followed by 33(55%) were having adequate knowledge and few of them having 9(15%) inadequate knowledge. Mean value was (9.25) & Standard Deviation was (1.89) and t value was (13.073), p value was significant at 0.000 level. • Related to total knowledge scores on prevention of mosquito borne diseases among women in pretest, majority i.e., 47(78.30%) were having inadequate knowledge followed by 13(21.70%) were had moderate knowledge and none of them had adequate knowledge. Mean value was (21.12) & Standard Deviation was (6.24). Whereas in post-test i.e., 36(60%) were having moderate knowledge followed by 21(35%) were having adequate knowledge and few of them having 3(5%) inadequate knowledge. Mean value was (34.57) & Standard Deviation was (5.99) and t value was (26.752). p value was significant at 0.000 level. Hence HO1 was rejected. • It evidences that the planned teaching programme was significantly effective on improving knowledge on prevention of mosquito borne diseases among women. • In pre-test there was significant association found between level of knowledge on prevention of mosquito borne diseases among women and some of socio – demographic variables like age, education of women and education of husband, occupation of the women, occupation of the husband, family income, and source of information was significant at 0.01 level and other source of water supply significant at 0.05 level. There was no significant association found between knowledge on prevention of mosquito borne diseases such as religion, type of house, method of waste disposal. • In post-test there was significant association found between knowledge on prevention of mosquito borne diseases and some of socio – demographic variables are age of the women, educational status of the women, occupational status of the women, occupational status of the husband, source of information on prevention of mosquito borne diseases was significant at 0.01 level. and only educational status of the husband, family income per month was significant at 0.05 level. Remaining other variables like religion, type of family, type of house, source of water supply, method of waste disposal was not significant. Hence HO2 was rejected. Conclusion: The present study revealed that women have inadequate knowledge on prevention of mosquito borne diseases in pre-test and after planned teaching programme knowledge had improved among women.

  9. Anupam Deka and Swarga Jyoti Das

    Gingival pigmentation may be physiologic or pathologic. It may occur alone or may be associated with skin lesions. Gingival pigmentation can be seen in isolated patches or may have a generalised distribution on the attached gingiva. Though pigmentation does not cause any medical issues, it’s presence on the labial aspect of anterior teeth has become a great concern to an individual in terms of aesthetics. Various methods are available for Depigmentation of pigmented gingiva. Here, a case of pigmented gingiva with gummy smile is reported which is managed by depigmentation using the scalpel technique.

  10. Mauris C. Makeche, Walter Muleya and Tamuka Nhiwatiwa

    Oreochromis niloticus fish was collected from Fwanyanga Fishery in April, 2020. A Dendrogram was used to delineate the sampled specimens using PC-ORDTM Software and the differences among strains were tested using One-way ANOVA in Statistix 9 Software (P = 0.05). Morphometric analysis showed that the sampled fish could be characterized into three different strains. These results showed that the tested fish samples could be grouped into 3 types based on morphometric characters. The morphometric differences among the sampled O. niloticus strains may have appeared due to genetic differences among the collected specimens. The studied fish were all in good condition (K = 1.66 to 1.86).

  11. Sridhar Lakshmanasastry, Satvic C. Manjunath, Jayashree Kharge, Rahul Shankar Patil, Chetan Kumar Halgapla Basavarajappa and Cholenahally Nanjappa Manjunath

    Background: In the treatment of Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy, surgical myectomy is considered as standard procedural extension to drug therapy with negatively inotropic agents. Percutaneous Transluminal Septal Myocardial Ablation has been introduced as an alternative to the surgical myectomy for reducing left ventricular outflow tract gradient. We report the acute and intermediate results after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation in symptomatic patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Methods and Results: Ten patients with a mean age of 46.5 ± 6, in NYHA class 2.9 ± 0.31symptoms, resistant to maximal medical management and a coronary artery anatomy suitable for intervention were selected. Percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation was performed by injection of 1± 0.5 mlof 96% alcohol into 1.2 ± 0.42 septal arteries. Mean post-interventional creatine kinase rise was 867.8 ± 301. During the procedure 3 patients developed transient complete heart block, which was present for a mean duration of 11.8 ± 9.7 hours. No patient required permanent pace maker implantation. The left ventricular outflow tract gradient decreased from 98.4 ± 26.8 (64 -160) to 7.6 ±3.5 (0-12) mm of Hg.at rest and after an ectopic from 128 ± 24.7 (98-190) to 17.5 ±5.5 (11-30) mm of Hg. They were discharged at 5± 0.81 days after an uncomplicated hospital course. Clinical and echocardiographic follow up was achieved at the end of 6 months, which showed a further reduction in the gradient from 87.3 ± 11 to 13.4 ± 5.37mm of Hg with NYHA class reduction from 2.9±0.31 to 1. 1±0.31. Conclusion: Percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation is an effective non-surgical technique for reduction of symptoms and left ventricular outflowtract gradient in HOCM.

  12. Mukti Sahu

    This current paper is an attempt to explore & makes an assessment of the new dimensions of Indo-US foreign policy and to advocate India’s influential role in international politics under the Prime Ministership of Narendra Modi. However, since 2014, after perceiving official designation, Modi vehemently has sought to transform India’s queries to be an outstanding global leader in terms of versatility and by profound active initiatives. As yet, the reform of Indian foreign policy ground-work after Nehru is extensively based on Modified doctrine to project and make India’s foreign policy as a superlative. The orientation of ‘political capital’ is as much as a new paradigm to bridge with other foreign countries under the Narendra Modi. Similarly, the Indo-US proximity is much finest to address and underling the various understanding in between their foreign relations. From day one of Modi’s administration, continual reflection during the Indo-US connectivity has deeply relied on Modi’s diplomatic strategy to adhere to Obama and Trump administration. In the march of new foreign policy engineering with superpower USA, India could turn to be more effective after taking some emerging trends which is more effective in bolstering Indo-US strategic partnership. It can be acknowledged that the new multi-dimensional order and institutional reaching in between Indo-US joint-ship outline some recent developmental foreshadow that make congruence strategic partnership unilaterally. In the sphere of the political handshake between USA and India, Forward together we go, strategic improvement of the knot, tour for digital transformation, declaration of major defence partnership, 2+2 dialogue initiatives, prosperity through partnership, Mega event of Howdy Modi and Namaste Trump are some of the space for opportunity to visualize a new strategic road in between the world largest and oldest democracy. Nevertheless, the past decade of India’s civil nuclear deal with US made much premium the widespread possibilities for consolidation and guaranteed ties between Indo-US partnerships in the long race. However, Modi's understands of power and interests on account of bilateral and multilateral agreements with US counterparts underscore the changing outlook of Indian foreign policy. In this paper, the author tries to examine the trajectory of Indo-US relations and its connotations to the international environment.

  13. Dereje Haile Mamo

    The objective of this study is to examine and analyze the representations of women in Wolaita and Arsi Oromoproverbs. The study analyzed Wolaita and Arsi Oromo proverbs by using theories from feminism and hermeneutic interpretations. Qualitative research design was used for the study. This is because it was believed to be suitable to interpret and thematically explicate the existing gender related issues in the proverbs of the two societies in Ethiopia. Textual analyses were chosen as a method of analyzing the proverbs. The result shows that in the selected proverbs mothers were represented positively. The result revealed that it is at odds with most of the representations of women in Ethiopian folklore that usually represented women negatively. Based on this result, the study recommends a balanced representation of women to be incorporated in the study of women in gender related issues.

  14. Dr. Shakuntala Goswami, Dr. Kanupriya Goel and Dr. Tomsy Alukkal

    This study was designed to compare the hemodynamic effects of etomidate and thiopentone during induction in laparoscopic surgeries. Stimulation of laryngeal and tracheal tissues during intubation causes catecholamine discharge with an increase in sympathetico-adrenergic activity and also an increase in systemic blood pressure and heart rate. These increases begin with laryngoscopy. Various induction agents are used for laparoscopy. Etomidate is characterized by hemodynamic stability , minimum respiratory depression and cerebral protective effects. Its lack of effect on sympathetic nervous system and its effect on increased coronary perfusion makes it an induction agent of choice. Thiopentone is a barbiturate derivative having rapid onset of action and rapid awakening with single induction dose due to rapid uptake.

  15. Tiguryera Scholastica, Nabukeera Madinah (PhD), Lunyolo Mary Wepukhulu and Ejuu Godfrey (PhD)

    Background: Nations have engaged in reforms of their education systems to keep abreast of the current trends, responding to the demands of the 21st century characterized by rapid changes resulting from innovations, technology and massive information through advanced media. The classroom instruction of Tutors should reflect pertinent21stcentury skills to keep pace with the current trends. It is widely believed that instructional quality can be improved through continuous professional development (CPD) activities, among other things. This review aimed to document the effect of (CPD) programs and activities on tutors’ instructional quality. Methods: A meta-integration review approach was used to condense studies and synthesize them. The review encompasses nineteen articles published between 2015 and 2020. A search of databases including ERIC, SAGE Google Scholar, SAGE via Hinari, Wiley and reference tracking yielded several articles which were screened; and 19 met the eligibility criteria. Results: Results from the review indicate a variety of (CPD) activities that enhance practitioners’ knowledge and improve the quality of instruction, especially in subjects of specialization. The review revealed some CPD activities that Uganda tutors do not commonly engage in such as quality teaching rounds (Gore et al, 2017) and collaborative reflections through online journals (Elhussain & Arabia 2020). Conclusion: The findings are significant for developing appropriate (CPD) programs for Ugandan Tutors. The authors recommend institutionalization of CPD programs and activities that incorporate some of the novel activities, to improve Ugandan Tutors’ instructional quality.

  16. Mary Gay L. Labrado, Ike Paul Q. Labrado, Emily C. Rosal, Analiza B. Layasan and Esmeralda S. Salazar

    The global educational system has affected the largest population of learners in the history of education system due to COVID-19 pandemic. Closures of schools happened in some learning spaces of countries. This crisis has brought fears among the learners considering that they are exposed with people if face- to- face teaching-learning modality is applied in the opening of classes. This life-threatening phenomena has reduced also the opportunities for many vulnerable students, youth, and adults - who are in a disadvantaged situation - to continue their learning. On the other hand, this worldwide crisis has stimulated the education experts to come with innovations in order to address this problem in the Philippines Education System. The Department of Education has implemented the Distance learning Modalities (DLDM) for this school year 2020-2021 as an innovative approach to ensure the learning continuity while vaccine is not yet available. In Cebu, Philippines, specifically the City of Naga Division, we have adopted Printed Modular Distance Learning in which the learner is given printed modules as one of the Department of Education Learning Resources Standards. This paper described the process of the Modular Teaching-learning Modality implemented in our division. The actual observations, reliable data collection, valid concerns and issues were discussed for future studies and references.

  17. Clarissa Kharsati, Aayushi Dhariwal, Toshi Pandey, Shri. P.K. Mishra and Shri. Suresh Babu

    Blood or blood stain is the evidentiary exhibit which is abundantly encountered in the scene of evidence. Contamination of blood is often seen with substances that are used in day to day life, like person killed in hit and run over by train bares stains both of blood and engine lubricating oils or grease. Or other stains like ketchup stain, stain of tea, juice or cooking oil could be found associated with blood in stains. In this present study five different such materials were considered as materials which were mixed with blood of known blood groups. The grouping examination of such mixed stains were carried out to find out if the above mentioned stains have got any capacity to interfere with absorption elution blood grouping method. After examining four hundred samples comprising of such mixed stains along with blank and control sample, it was concluded that the above mentioned materials cannot interfere the absorption elution blood grouping process

  18. Dr. Sandhya Jain MDS and Dr. Merin Kuriakose

    Forensic odontology is a branch of Forensic medicine which helps in identifying the victims or criminals in cases of disasters or crimes. Identification of gender of an individual is usually one of the first and foremost part of forensic investigation. In cases of mass disasters, accidents and chemical mishaps, the identification of race of the individual is also important for proper records. The various unique features of the craniofacial skeleton and dentition helps in this identification. The purpose of this review article is to discuss about the various methods for the identification of gender and race of an individual in forensic odontology.

  19. Ms. Manjari Chandra

    The issue of violence against women in India was publicly highlighted and discussed for the first time in the mid–1970s through the campaign against dowry and related violence. The campaign led to the passing of the Criminal Law (Second Amendment) Act in 1983, which introduced Section 498-A in the Indian Penal Code, 1860, as amended (hereinafter, the “IPC”). Under this provision, ‘cruelty’ to a wife by her husband or his relatives was made a cognizable, non-bailable offence, punishable with imprisonment up to three years and fine. ‘Cruelty’ was defined to include both physical and mental cruelty, and any harassment associated with the demand for dowry i.e., an inclusive definition was accorded to the term so as to keep its ambit broad; keeping in terms with the mischief the provision intended to cure. However, criminal law, by its very nature, requires the State and its agencies to trigger it, which means it necessitates the police to act, to make an arrest, to investigate and to prosecute. Hence, more often than not, the law was defeated by sheer inaction which soon came to be institutionalised all over the country along with the policy of ‘counselling, conciliation and mediation’. Similarly, Section 304-B was introduced in the IPC in 1986, creating a new offence of ‘dowry death’, making it possible to prosecute the husband and in-laws of a woman, in the event such woman died as a result of burns or other injury within seven years of marriage under suspicious circumstances, and if it could be established that she was subjected to cruelty or harassment by the husband/in-laws in relation to the demand for dowry. The offence of ‘cruelty’ also posed difficulties when one tried to include within its purview, issues of sexual violence, economic violence or even threats of violence. Additionally, when the issue of support systems for affected women came into play, the criminal law itself had little to offer with respect to taking care of the woman’s immediate needs of protection, shelter and monetary relief. Looking at the domestic front, starting from Vedic age to twenty first century, women in India perhaps have never experienced equal rights and freedom compared to their male counterparts. The concept of ‘Ardhangini’ [half of the body] seems to be restricted only in literatures and has never been implemented in practical life. In addition to this, extracts from Ramcharitamanas such as “Dhol, Gawaar, Shudra, Pashu aur Nari; Sakal Tadan ke Adhikari” [drums, uncivilized illiterates, lower castes, animals and women are all fit to be beaten]; the Pardah system [veiling], and Sati system [self-immolation of a lady with her husband’s pyre] that only women are subjected to, is a reflection of the history of women’s subordinate status. In short, it is always women who have to be in the tight rope, subject to inequality and looked down upon as the inferior sex. Since the age of Manu, women were denied rights and Manu Smriti states that “Pita rakshite komary, pati rakshite tarunya, putro rakshite vurdotav, na stri swatantra maharti” [during childhood, a female must remain subjected to her father, in youth to her husband, then to her sons; a woman must never be independent]. Indian scriptures also emphasize the concept that there is no God on earth for a woman than her husband, and she must on the death of her husband allow herself to be burnt alive on the same funeral pyre. The subordinate status of women combined with socio-cultural norms that are inclined towards patriarchy and chauvinism can be considered as an important factor determining the existence, prevalence and acceptability of domestic violence in Indian society. Domestic violence, as any act of physical, sexual, or psychological abuse, or the threat of such abuse, inflicted against a woman by a person intimately connected to her through marriage, family relation, or acquaintanceship is universal and has its root in the socio-cultural setup of the society. The perpetrators of domestic violence have often been found to be the males. According to a recent study, one in three women (around the world) have been beaten, coerced into sex or abused in their lifetime by a member of her own family. In view of the prevalence as well as the pervasiveness of domestic violence, many researchers in the past have attempted to assess the situation besides exploring its possible cause and subsequent consequences for society in general, and women in particular. Domestic violence cuts across age, education, social class and religion in India. While many researchers came out with findings that lifestyle of men such as smoking, alcoholism and drugs promoted domestic violence, some were of the view that masculinity and domestic violence are closely interlinked. Studies have also revealed that sons of violent parents, men raised in patriarchal family structure that encourages traditional gender roles are more likely to abuse their partners. However, it is universally considered that gendered socialization process is mainly responsible for the occurrence, existence and continuation of domestic violence in the Indian setup. As Freedman points out, violence by husbands against wife should not be seen as a break down in the social order, rather it should be seen as an affirmation to the patriarchal social order. Similarly, Jejeebhoy (1998) is of the view that not only wife beating is deeply entrenched, but also people justify it. Thus, domestic violence is simply not a personal abnormality but rather it has its roots in the cultural norms of the Indian society. Again, looking from another angle, it is found that many of the victims of domestic violence have either refused to name the perpetrator of the assault or attributed the injuries to other reasons. In order to develop effective intervention programme and policy, it is vital to know the attitude and perception of women towards the issue.

  20. Gaurdas Sarkar

    COVID-19 is a popular term to the present day world. It has got attention of the entire world due to its deadly character. Our day to day life has been totally disrupted due to the outbreak of COVID-19. We have become bound to stay at home. Industries, transportation, hotel, restaurant, offices, schools, colleges, universities, domestic house- keeping, shops –all are closed due to the announcement of lockdown. Even at the phase of unlock many of them could not be in their pre-COVID position due to extreme fare of being infected. Rural economy of India has been suffering a lot. Livelihood of a considerable proportion of rural people of India has been experiencing a miserable condition during this crisis period. Since the recent past many vocational courses have been advocated for the benefit of growing educated unemployed people. Here also we find the training of sharing the available opportunities. There does not exist any attempt to create further employment opportunities. Rather an effort is being made to hide the failure of creating employment opportunities. It is hard to believe that the proponents of vocational courses are unable to foresee the possibility that these institutes providing education of vocational courses would suffer from dearth of students in near future. Why do they deceive then? In the era of Globalization the only idea that has occupied our mind is that we should go for producing those commodities, which are enjoying competitive advantage in the global market. It is never taken into consideration that Regional Economic Development may act as engine of acquiring comparative advantage over the others. Nowhere it is recognized that either an existing activity or to be explored activities based on available resources even in remote rural areas may acquire competitive advantage in the world market if they are taken care of. Now time has come to consider this possibility to make India self-reliant through the implementation of decentralized planning. Section-I of this present paper seeks to analyze the state of rural sector of the economy before the outbreak of Covid-19. Section-II deals with the effects of COVID-19 on various spheres of rural economy of India. Section-III incorporates measures or steps that can mitigate the problems during this pandemic period as well as in post-COVID era and finally Section-IV includes conclusion.

  21. Aman Choudhary and Priyanka Samuel

    Basic learning for children comes from both, experience and social learning or role modelling. Therefore, when children, especially young children, see violence on television, they have a difficult time differentiating between what is real and what is make-believe, and tend to emulate or copy what they are seeing. Children seeing excessive violence on TV are more likely to be argumentative, as they have dispensed with the slow caution of inhibitors. These children who watch media violence in abundance have different approach to solve their issues, rather than using more peaceful methods of conflict resolution are more likely to use aggressive strategies. They tend to be more reactive rather than proactive, relying on more knee jerk reaction to solve frustration and finally they appear to be more fearful of social relationship, which make them bite before they can be bitten. The present study is an attempt to investigate the relation between watching violence on TV and the behavioural problems of the primary schools going children as rated by their mothers. The sample consists total 120 children of Delhi NCR and Himachal Pradesh. Along with the personal data sheet, the behavioural check list prepared by K.Aradhana and V.V. Bharathi, (2000) were used. The result showed that viewing violence on TV caused many problems related to emotions, health, fear, aggressiveness, restlessness and even decline in their academic performance. It also showed that greater the time children watched violence on TV, greater was the intensity of their problem.

  22. Hellen Ahawo Adhiambo and Maurice Aoko Ndolo

    It has been realized that investment in the education of the youth at secondary level improving the quality of life for developing nations. Many secondary schools and universities have been built and free primary and secondary education introduced to enhance academic achievement. Despite the Governments’ commitments to provision of education policies to improve students’ performance, in 2007, Kenya Certificate of secondary Examination only 42 students out of 1045 students got B+ and above to join public universities through Joint Admission Board. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of school policies on academic performance in mixed day secondary schools in Kisumu East District. The objective of the study was to find out the influence of school policies on academic performance in mixed day secondary schools in Kisumu East, District, Kenya. The major findings of the study was that school policies had positive and negative influence on the academic performance of students in mixed day secondary schools in Kisumu East District. Recommendation from the study includes thinned for housing of teachers in the school so that they give students more time for consultation. Further research should be done on the role of parents on the education of their children. Although educational policies play a big role in academic performance, Guidance and Counseling, parental support helped to improve student’s performance. The findings of this study will be useful to the administrators, parents, teachers and students in improving academic performance in mixed day secondary schools.

  23. Zhiming Zhang, Xiaozhen Liu and Hanyao Zhang,

    Background Strains of yeast have been analyzed from vineyards, wineries and forest in Europe, North America, South America, South Africa, Asia and Australia. However, the genetical diversity of natural population of Saccharomyces bayanus in Southwest of China has not been studied yet. [Methods] The sequences of ITS, HIS3, SSU1 and MET2 genes, microsatellites analysis and AFLP analysis were used to access the genetic diversity of the S. Bayanus isolated from vineyards in Shangri-la, Yunnan, China. [Results] Our sequences of ITS, HIS3, SSU1 and MET2 genes come from vineyard S. bayanus in Shangri-la, Yunnan, China, which are quite similar to a Europe strain CBS7001, and they look to be derived from Europe. There were only 3 SNPs among the isolates. Microsatellites analysis results illustrated that all isolates appeared to belong to families of closely related genotypes. Seven colonies obtained from two different vineyards from Deqin County (three from Chizhong, and four more from Liutongjiang) all had genotypes that are very similar to a winery-derived strain 7A6 from New Zealand. The polymorphism level of AFLP analysis is much more than of the microsatellite. The results of AFLP analysis indicated that 63.72% of the variation was found among the different geographic origin isolates, while 36.28% was found among the same geographic origin ones. [Conclusion] Both microsatellites and AFLP analysis results showed that genetic diversity among these isolates was quite low, and S. bayanus populations were geographically partitioned generally.

  24. Dr. Noor Firdoos Jahan and Mr. Moufaq Yousef Dhifallah Allaymoun

    An internal marketing is one of the new topics in the field of management, as it represents the relationship between employees and the organization in the triangle of marketing relations and the field of human resources management, as it requires attention, development, and strengthening the relationship with employees, just as the philosophy of internal marketing goes further from that, it tries to link the HR department to the marketing department by describing employees as internal customers. The study also found, through the theoretical framework, that the application of internal marketing practices in organizations contributes to increasing employee satisfaction and also helps in improving their performance and developing their capabilities and skills to provide services of a distinct level of quality to the customer. The marketing role has become not just the task of providing goods for sale, but also the task that concerns working people and prepares them as internal customers in the organization, providing them with benefits and services and working to increase their capabilities and skills and then increase their satisfaction and improve the level of their performance. Several organizations, in particular services organizations, have realized the benefits that can be derived from the adoption of the strategy of internal marketing, where through this strategy, the organization gets working employees with good expertise and skills that prepare them to take responsibility, and provide customers with high-quality services. This paper contributes to a better understanding of Internal Marketing by adopting a bird’s eye perspective of the available scholarly literature ranging from 2000 to 2018 to explore the conceptual boundaries of internal marketing. Findings reveal that the term internal marketing has become the most debated topics of 21st century among Marketing team, HR professionals and academicians which leads toward high performance with successful achievement of personal and organizational ambitions.

  25. Pabitra Paul, Sudipta Dey, Subir Biswas and Ashish Mukhopadhyay

    Background: United Nation stated on 7th May, 2020 that world is going to have a population surge in terms of sudden increase in birth rate due to lockdown enacted throughout almost all over the world to prevent the Corona virus from spreading rapidly; and it will also affect many developed as well as underdeveloped countries markedly including India. Even it has also been stated by the United Nation that India could lead among all the stated countries of the world in terms of baby boom in near future with around 20.1 millions of new births. Likewise, UNICEF has also reported that around 116 newborns could arrive globally under the shadow of COVID-19 with around 7 millions of unwanted births. Both the organizations are worried about the upcoming situation regarding required health care facilities for the increased number of newborns and their mothers. Objectives: the main objective of this study is to examine whether this statement given by the United Nation is going to be fact in case of India by analyze the desire of parenthood of individuals of India before and within a long term complete lockdown conducted to prevent COVID-19. Methods: This study has been carried out during the months of July and August of 2020 on married individuals of India with a cross-sectional study design through a web based survey using some social-networking platforms. A link of a Google-form containing a well structured dichotomous questionnaire attached with the researcher’s E-mail has been posted in several social media with a well defined description. All the responds from 159 willing participants have accumulated there. All the collected qualitative data have been converted into quantitative values for required statistical analysis. Only descriptive statistics in terms of frequency and percentage has been used here to meet the objective of the study. Results: to meet the objective, individuals’ desire of parenthood before and within lockdown has analyzed statistically and found that among 159 participants 34.6% wished for parenthood before lockdown whereas during lockdown it has increased to 44% of them. It is worth mentioning that during this course of lockdown many individuals (45.9%) among all the participants have changed their previous decision regarding having a baby to either positive (27.7%) or negative one (18.2%). Conclusion: this study concluded that the lockdown seemed to come into the individuals’ married life as an advantage that could increase the chance of baby boom in India.

  26. Rajeswari, T. and Dr. Padmaja, A.

    The study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching programme on management of sibling rivalry among mothers of under five children and also to improve the knowledge of mothers regarding management of sibling rivalry. Objectives: 1) To assess the existing level of knowledge regarding sibling rivalry and its management among mothers of under-five children. 2) To evaluate the effectiveness of planned teaching programme on knowledge regarding sibling rivalry and its management among mothers of under-five children. 3) To find the association between post – test knowledge score with their selected demographic variables. Methodology: Pre- Experimental One Group Pre- test, Post- test only design was adopted in this study. 60 mothers of under five children were selected by using Non- Probability Convenient sampling technique, data was collected by using self- structured questionnaire on socio- demographic variables, knowledge on sibling rivalry and it’s management. Results: The study showed that 63% mothers have inadequate knowledge regarding management of sibling rivalry, 20% have moderately adequate knowledge, only 2% mothers have adequate knowledge in the pre- test. But in post- test 78% mothers have adequate knowledge, 20% have moderately adequate knowledge, only 2% mothers have inadequate knowledge, which was statistically significant at p- value is < 0.001. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that the planned teaching programme was effective, to bring out change in the knowledge regarding handling sibling rivalry.

  27. Dr. Athul Antony Simon, Dr. M. Shashirekha, Dr. Varsha Mokhasi and Dr. Aga Ammar Murthuza

    Background: Mandibular fractures include a significant bulk of cases encountered in craniofacial trauma. When the fracture occurs, it affects the patient's occlusion significantly, causing infection and leads to considerable amount of pain. Interventions to prevent these sequelae require either closed or open forms of reduction and fixation. The proper alignment of the fractured fragment is essential to maintain the normal anatomy, function and aesthetics.(1) Through this study I wish to shed light on a long-forgotten theory that could simplify the reconstruction of mandibular defects. Dr. William Gibson Arlington Bonwill believed that there was a geometrical basis for occlusion and a 4-inch equilateral triangle exists between the two condyles and anterior teeth of the mandible.(2) He played a pivotal role in developing the first anatomical articulator utilized in construction of complete dentures in dentistry.(3) Objective: • To determine the existence of the equilateral triangle subtended between the mandibular condyles and the incisal point. • To reappraise the Bonwill’s triangle that has been ignored from Medical Anatomy literature. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Department of Anatomy, Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Whitefield, Bangalore, utilizing 100 adult human mandibles irrespective of age and gender. Digital Vernier Caliper with a resolute accuracy of 0.01mm +/- 0.02mm (<100mm), was utilized to measure the parameters. Three parameters measured were - Right Condyle center to the point between medial mandibular Incisors (X), Left Condyle center to the point between medial mandibular Incisors (Y), and between the centers of both Condyles (Z). A paired student t test was employed to determine whether any significant relation existed between the variables X, Y and Z. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS Version 16 and validation of Bonwill’s historical geometric theory was deemed possible only if p value exceeded 0.05. Result: All mandibles studied fulfill Bonwill's geometric theory, thereby establishing the existence of the equilateral triangle between the bony landmarks. Conclusion: Patients who succumb to mandibular injuries can be benefited through modest surgical interventions, utilizing the geometric theory of Dr Bonwill, with the aid of head and neck radiology.(4) Apart from its clinical relevance, shedding light on its existence will add value to the current literature pertaining to mandibular anatomy.

  28. Efstathios K. Metaxas, Konstantinos Tzelepis, Ioannis Stamatatos, Konstantina Giannakopoulou, Maria Gkioka, Ioannis Demiris, Anna Maria Mitropoulou, Eleni Alexandra Maniotis, Dimitris Broutas, Stella Assoti, Elias Perros, Georgia Simou,4Evridiki Kiritsi,

    Background: Aim of the study to determine if the size of the chest drain matters on thoracic empyema therapy. Also to analyze the aetiologic factors, management and strategy for surgery, morbidity and mortality. Material and Methods: In a 21year period a retrospective study took place. One hundred seventy four (174) patients treated for thoracic empyema, at Thoracic Surgery Department at General Hospital of Nicaea-Piraeus Agios Panteleimon –Greece. Results: During a 21year period (from 1998 to 2019) one hundred seventy four (174) patients diagnosed with thoracic empyema, 119 male (68,713%) and 55 female (31,609 %), aged 19-91 years mean age 47 years.Most of the developed empyemas were post pneumonia. The two most common were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Almost all patients had developed already purulent effusion (not early empyema) due to late referral to our department. All patients underwent chest drain insertion. One hundred sixteen patients (116) received chest drain (tube or pleural cath) insertion and medication (antibiotics /antibiogram, antipyretics, nebulizers) and physiotherapy, had uneventful recovery.The rest of the population group 58 (33,333%) underwent surgery. All 174 patients received initially chest drains.The majority 135 underwent chest drain 28F most of them and a few 32F. One third of them 46(34,074%) underwent thoracotomy and decortication.Thirtyeight(38) patients underwent tiny drain insertion 14F pleural cath. One third almost 12 (31,578%) underwent surgery too.Elderly patients had longer stay in the hospital comparative to younger group of population. Conclusion: The right drainage of the purulent pleural cavity is crucial. The size of the drain does not matter. Only one third underwent surgery. Most of the developed empyemas were post pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were the most common bacteria.Elderly patients had longer stay in the hospital comparative to younger group of population.

  29. Varnika Yadav, Praveen Singh Samant and Vipul Srivastava

    Mandibular second molars are known to have high root canal complexity. Diagnosis and successful endodontic treatment is a challenge for multi-rooted teeth with complex root morphology. This case report represents a rare of mandibular second molar having variation in anatomy, having single root with single root canal. Proper radiographic and clinical interpretation is essential. Clinicians should be aware of disparity in root canal anatomy other than normal root canal morphology. Thus, the aim of this case report is to present an endodontic management of mandibular second molar having single root and single root canal.

  30. Fahad Albahri and Dr. Omar Zayyan Omar Alsharqi

    The current study aims to identify the factors affecting the waiting period in government dental clinics in Najran, Saudi Arabia. The study followed the quantitative research methodology descriptive and analytical approach method that depends on the questionnaire applied to a sample of 148 medical, nursing and administrative staff in government dental clinics in Najran Region (Najran Specialist Dental Center, Sharurah Dental Center, Habuna Dental Center, Primary Dental Clinics) The research community consists of (210) employees. The study reached results showing that the delay in the maintenance of medical devices was the most influencing factor in the length of waiting periods. Followed by the shortage, poor distribution, and high turnover of the medical staff. Then the weak coordination process between the medical staff and the entry office. The last arrangement was a shortage of some medical supplies and equipment. According to the results, the study recommended a government dental clinic in the Najran region in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to work to reduce waiting times through several points, the most important of which are: activating periodic maintenance and maintenance work at the required time without delay, employing a sufficient number of medical workers: reducing the turnover of medical staff by increasing motivation and high rewards, Providing high-quality medical supplies, improving coordination in government dental centers.

  31. Mitrajit Saha

    Sports have been one of the greatest forms of profession and income throughout the years. Sportspersons are regarded as one of the most loved and respected members of society around the world. In India and in West Bengal, many children tend to participate in sports and take it up as a career. Great achievement on the field of sports can help them become youth icons for the nation and achieve popularity and for some may transpire into lucrative jobs, especially in government posts, for these young people. The research proposal is intended to get an understanding about how young boys and girls of slum area get interested in sports, what they do to achieving their dreams of becoming sportspersons. The study further tries to define the versions and voices of the parents as the supportive one in reference to their children. The project proposal needs almost six months ethnographic research to unfold the reasons and importance of choosing sport as profession and any crisis during taking up sports as profession. The methodology shall involve ethnography with detailed interviews and interaction with these young minds, in a semi-structured pattern, and an in-depth analysis of the data collected for understand the present scenario of the slum area by means of sport.

  32. Aaquib Hussain, Gazalla Altaf, Mehraj ud din, Sakshi Panghal and Deepali Bisht

    Twenty-eight lacto vegetarians also age- and sex-matched controls were questioned about their dietary habits, especially the frequency of consumption of acid fruits, drinks and foods, as well as their dental health habits. Samples of stimulated saliva were collected in connection with the clinical and radiologic study. Plaque, Gingival and Calculus Indices weren’t significantly different in lacto vegetarians and controls. Of the lacto vegetarians 76.9% and of the controls none had dental erosions on some tooth surfaces. In lacto vegetarians the rate of flow of stimulated saliva was lower than in controls but did not decrease with advancing age as it did in controls. Salivary pH was lower in lacto vegetarians than in controls.

  33. David Alberto Anguizola Tamayo, M.D., Juan Carlos García Moncó, M.D., María Ángeles Gómez Beldarraín, M.D., Lucía Vidorreta Ballesteros, M.D., Javier Jose Arranz Martínez, M.D. Irene Sustatxa Zarraga, M.D. and Adriana Barquin Toca, M.D

    The COVID-19 pandemic is a challenge to both public health and the clinicians who confront it. At the same time, other respiratory viruses remain on the clinical stage. It is a reality that COVID-19 affects various organs, including the nervous system, like other respiratory viruses. We have designed this review as a tool for the clinician to deal with the diagnosis and treatment of neurological manifestations in adults caused by COVID-19 and respiratory viruses.

  34. Arun Kumar, *Prerana Nesargi, Nuthan Kumar, Appaji, L. Aruna Kumari B.S. and Aarthi, N.

    Background: Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) of childhood accounts approximately 60% of lymphomas and malignant lymphomas are the third most commonest group after leukaemia, brain tumors. Need for the study: There exists paucity of data on paediatric Non Lymphoblastic Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma from developing countries, we conducted this study to know the clinic-pathological profile, treatment and survival outcome of these children. Design/Methods: This study is a retrospective descriptive analytical study of all the Non Lymphoblastic Non Hodgkins Lymphoma patients diagnosed and treated at department of paediatric oncology, Kidwai cancer institute from January 2009 to December 2014. Results: Seventy one patients aged less than 15 years were included in this study, there were males (n=53) and females (n=18) with male: female ration being 3:1. The most common site involved at the time of presentation was intrabdominal (n=32,45%) The most common pathological subtype was Burkitt lymphoma(37,52%) followed by ALCL(20,28%),DLBCL(14,20%),majority of children were stage lll (n=54,76%) as per St Judes staging for Non Hodgkins Lymphoma. 42 (71.2%) patients were treated with MCP 842 and 17(28.8%) were treated COMP protocols. The 3 year DFS was for Burkitt, ALCL, DLBCL were 90%, 66.7%,90% respectively. Conclusion: The outcomes in non lymphoblastic NHL from our centre were almost equivalent to western data, short intensive chemotherapy and good supportive care has pivotal role in the management of these tumours even in advanced stages of the tumours.

  35. Neeta Austin Singha

    Global health deals with public health issues worldwide through an interdisciplinary approach. Global health uses nominal, feasible and ingenuous measures to address complex issues and complex system.Social antecedent play a measure in distribution of health and diseases in different nations and for addressing global health challenges, it is essential to understand human ecology and social determinants of health. There is a need to have multi-sectoral and interdisciplinary approach to address global health challenges imperatively and successfully.

  36. Rehana Rashid, Ufaque Muzaffar, Javid Ahmad Sofi and Ambreen Qureshi

    Introduction: Induction of labour can be defined as the artificial initiation of labour, before its spontaneous onset, for the purpose of delivery of the fetoplacental unit2,3. Induction is indicated when the risk of continuing the pregnancy, for the mother or the fetus, exceeds the risk associated with induced labour and delivery. In developed countries, induction of labour accounts for about 25% of all deliveries. In developing countries, the rates vary; lower in some regions and high in some regions4. Materials and methods: This prospective observational study was performed over a period of 1.5 years in 140 pregnant women with gestational age of 37-42 weeks with singleton pregnancy . This Study Was performed in the Postgraduate department of obstetrics and gynaecology at Lalla Ded hospital Srinagar after obtaining approval from institutional ethical clearance committee. Conclusion: Our data supported the fact that addition of Extra amniotic saline in catheter induction can be considered as one of the first line methods in labour induction. Catheter induction with extra amniotic saline infusion leads to shorter induction to delivery intervals compared to plain catheter induction. Our study also highlighted that the rate of cesarean delivery in catheter induction with extra amniotic saline is comparatively less. There are no differences in the neonatal APGAR scores and NICU admissions in induction with the extra amniotic saline infusion or plain catheter induction. The potential risk of chorioamnionitis or endometritis in the catheter induction with EASI infusion is same as that of foleys induction alone

  37. Arundhati Baruah, Indrani P. Bora and Kuntala N. Barua

    Bamboo plays an important role in global carbon cycle. It is a long lived woody giant evergreen grass belonging to Poaceae family. Bamboo is extensively distributed in tropics, sub tropics and temperate region of the world. India is the second largest bamboo producing country in the world and two third of growing stock is available in North East India. Bamboo plant can able to clean environment by carbon sequestration, lower light intensity and protect earth from UV rays. Due to fast growing canopy cover, it releases more oxygen as compare to similar stands of tree. The study assessed the growth performance, biomass production and quantifies carbon stock of three economically important bamboo species such as, Bambusa balcooa, Bambusa nutans and Bambusa tulda cultivated through macroproliferated seedling in jhum affected area of Karbi Anglong district Assam. Each bamboo seedling was planted at 6.6 x 6.6 m spacing. Number of newly emerged culm, growth performance, above ground biomass (AGB) and carbon stock from one year interval up to four year of growth was recorded. Maximum height and DBH was recorded in B. balcooa (5.85m & 4.80 cm), B. tulda (5.67m. & 3.59 cm.) followed by B. nutans (4.39 m & 3.38 cm.). B. tulda has higher biomass accumulation potential than B. balcooa and B. nutans. Study revealed that stem, twigs and leaves of B. tulda accumulate 43.34%, 34.42% and 22.26% carbon content respectively in 4th year old seedling. Amount of above ground biomass carbon stock evaluated from stem (382.60 t C ha-1) twigs (21.47 t C ha-1) and leaves (10.02 t C ha-1) of B. tulda plantation indicate as potential species for protect environment. Study concluded that bamboo seedlings established through macro proliferation technique will help to mitigate climate change.

  38. Duong Van Huy

    Mekong Subregion (consists of five countries: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam) is geo-strategically important as China’s southern “backyard” and a linchpin between South Asia and Northeast Asia, and this region may become a new “hot spot” for US-China competition after the South China Sea issues. Furthermore, this region as a “buffer zone” for China to develop its influence over the wider regions of Asia-Pacific and the Indian Ocean. China approached the Mekong Subregion countries with a proposal for an equivalent Beijing-led institution, binding these and China closer economically and politically. China has formed closer economic linkages with countries in the region through expanded trade and investment linkages. Given this situation, the paper elucidates China’s objectives to the Mekong Subregion, and current situation of Bejing’s rising influence on this region. Meanwhile, the paper assesses the response of the Mekong Subregion countries to China’s influence.

  39. Omer M. Abdalla, M. M. Khalid, A. Hassan, N. I. Ali, , A. SH. Khalid, H. A. Abdelhadi, L. A. M. Khair, W. A. Almahi, A. Gaafar, H. Basheer, H. Abdalla

    In this study 672 pregnant Sudanese women were involved in order to determine the reference values of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alpha feto protein (AFP). Blood samples were collected from different maternity centers in Khartoum and Omdurman maternity. Sensitive immunoradiomeric assay (IRMA), method was used for measuring HCG and AFP in maternal serum. The data collected reveals that, the behavior of both AFP and hCG resemble that of the international one, where the peak concentrations of hCG are reached at 7-9 weeks of pregnancy then decrease, then staying relatively constant during the second trimester and increasing slightly towards term. The maternal serum concentration of AFP increases during pregnancy, reaching its peak during the last trimester. The concentration of AFP and hCG in maternal serum with relative couples was also compared to that of irrelative couples. Relative couples showed significant increase in maternal AFP level in the 1 st and 3rd trimesters (p= 0.001& 0.000) respectively. The hCG concentration in both groups was not significantly different throughout the pregnancy (p >0.15). It is recommended that each laboratory establishes its own normal values. Since Sudanese obstetrician depends previously on values from abroad, this study may help them to handle their patients depending on our own reference values.

  40. O. M. Abdalla, A. M. Hassan, N. M. Shabbo, M. M. Khalid, A. M. El-amin, N. I. Ali

    Approximately 42% of the Sudanese population use toombak as smokeless tobacco. Tobacco specific N-nitroso compounds have been detected at high concentration in toombak. This study focused on the possible carcinogenicity of those compounds through the measurement of serum CEA and serum AFP in both toombak users and smokers. 160 subjects were involved with the average age of 32 years ranging from 20 to 60 years. These 160 subjects were categorized into 3 groups (control, smokers, and toombak users). Serum CEA and AFP were measured using an IRMA technique. The mean AFP level in the control, toombak users and smokers groups were 0.94, 1.98 and 2.34 Ku/l respectively. There is a significant difference between the means of serum AFP level in both smokers and toombak users and control group, p = 0.0045 and p = 0.0049 respectively. 13.2 % of the toombak users and 23.5 % of smokers have had serum AFP levels more than the upper limit of the normal range (0-3.28 Ku/l). Serum CEA level in control group ranged from 0 to 5.28 µg/l. The mean serum CEA levels of the toombak users and smokers was not differ significantly from that of the control group (p > 0.05). But 12.7% of the Toombak users and 14.7 of the smokers have had CEA level more than the upper limit of that of control. The relation between the duration of smoking and the level of CEA and AFP as well as the effect of age of subjects on the level of these analyte were studied. The results show no significant correlations where p > 0.05.

  41. Dr. Dharmendra Bhadouria, Dr. Himanshu Singh and Dr. Sanjeev Narang

    Background: Novel coronavirus, which is the main etiological agent of Covid-19 (corona virus diseases 2019), appeared in Wuhan, China. Novel coronavirus is officially recognized as SARS CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2).The motive of the present study is to check whether there is any link exist between blood group and Covid-19. Material and Method: A total of 537 patients participated in the present study. Out of these, males were 318 in number and females were 219.Intravenous blood is taken for blood group examination. Result: The most common blood group affected by COVID 19 in both male and female was blood group B Conclusion: Persons having blood group B has more chances of occurring of Covid-19.

  42. Meera, M.V. and Dr. AnithaChandran, C.

    The study was carried out the objective to study the shelf stability of Sweet Avocado Fruit Spread stored at different packaging materials at ambient and refrigerated temperature for a period of 4 weeks. Changes in Acidity, Moisture, Peroxide Value, Microbial Count were investigated. The acidity, moisture, peroxide value and microbial count observed higher in Sweet Avocado Fruit Spread stored in polyethylene bags at ambient temperature. The lowest content was observed in sweet avocado fruit spread stored in glass bottle at refrigerated temperature. Yeast and fungal colonies was found higher in fruit spread kept in polyethylene bags compared to glass and plastic bottle.

  43. Víctor Rodriguez-Lizano

    The exit of younger generations from rural areas has serious negative implications both to farms and to the territory, however, the generalized aging of farmers is occurring worldwide. The main objective of this research is to analyze the drivers that determine the permanence of young farmers in the family farm. The traditional approach focuses on analyzing the socioeconomic conditions and how they influence the probability of a farm being successfully passed to the next generation. Another strand of research states that the most influential factors are those actions the principal farmer conducts with him/her heirs. These actions are collectively called the Generational Integration Process (GIP). We carried out the field work in a horticulture area of Zarcero, Costa Rica where 126 interviews were conducted to old farmers (above 35 years old). Results indicate that indifferent to the socioeconomic level (SI) of the principal famer, the resulting GIP for the heirs considered potential ‘Successors’ is significantly great than that for ‘Not successors’. The successors, however, show significant GIP differences between ‘Low SI’ and ‘High SI’

  44. Rana Ibrahim Farran, Nour Abdullah Alaiderous and Raneem Ibrahim Farran

    Background: Hepatitis C represents a major health problem worldwide as it is the leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Additionally, it is mostly asymptomatic, leads to its diagnosis in late stages. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of Hepatitis C infection among high-risk patients referred from Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) to specialized Primary Health Care Centers of Hepatitis C. Design: Analytical cross-sectional study. Setting: Specialized primary health care centers of Hepatitis C in Makkah Al-Mokarramah. Patients and Methods: most of the high-risk patients who visited Hepatitis C screening clinics were involved, A self-administered questionnaire was validated and used for data collection. Main outcome measures: sociodemographic data, comorbidities, and risk factors of Hepatitis C infection via questionnaire. Sample Size: 83 Participants. Results: The participants' age ranged between 20 and 75 years with a mean standard deviation (SD) of 50.8±13.7 years. More than half of them (52.4%) were males. The prevalence of Hepatitis C infection among the participants was 4.8%. Older (p=0.048), divorced/widowed participants (p=0.018), diabetic patients (p=0.043), participants who had other chronic diseases (p=0.036), participants with a history of hospital admission (p=0.050), history of blood transfusion (p<0.001) being a prisoner (p=0.010) and those with history of liver diseases (p<0.001) were at higher risk for hepatitis c viral infection. Conclusion: Hepatitis C viral infection is relatively more prevalent among high-risk patients, referred from primary health care centers to specialized primary health care centers of Hepatitis C in Makkah Al-Mokarramah, than the general population with some identified risk factors. Limitation: short duration of data collection and limited Hepatitis C screening clinics in Makkah Al-Mokarramah as there were 4 clinics, each working one day per week. Conflict of interest: None

  45. Thiyagarajan, G., Rajasekaran, S. Balamurugan, S., and Karthikeyan, S.

    Carissa carandas is a traditional and effective medicinal plant in India. It is used as various ailments to use in local peoples. The present research was finding to carry out the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidant potentials, macro and micronutrient contents of Carissa carandas. The qualitative phytochemical namely alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, carbohydrates, protein and aminoacids were identified. The quantitative phytochemicals namely alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, glycosides, and carbohydrates were identified and observed the macro and micro elements such as nitrogen, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chromium, cupper, ferrous, manganese, nickel, sodium, and zinc were identified and more high in this parameters. The maximum phytochemicals and minerals were observed in Carissa carandas.

  46. Rajasekaran, S., Thiyagarajan, G., Balamurugan, S., and Karthikeyan, S.

    Biofertilizers are the substance that contains microorganism's living or latent cells. bio fertilizers increases the nutrients of host plants when applied to their seeds, plant surface or soil by colonizing the rhizosphere of the plant. The present research work was comprises to valuable medicinal plant of Andrographispaniculata for morphological, biochemical, and enzyme contents of various stages of its growth. The inoculants such as Azotobacterchroococcum, Ppseudomonasfluorescens, and vermicompost are singly and in combinations are allowed to grow in similar environmental conditions. the morphological parameters such as shoot length, root length, leaf length, leaf width, total leaf area, shoot girth, number of branches per plant, plant height were observed. The biochemical namely chlorophyll, “a” chlorophyll “b” and total chlorophyll, and carotewnoids were measured. The enzymes such as catalase, and paroxidase were observed in 30, 60, and 90 days after sowing in Andrographispaniculata plants. The maximum growth was measured in combined application of Azotobacterchroococcum, Ppseudomonasfluorescens, and Vermicompost alone. The minimum growth was measured in control.

  47. Fahad Albahri

    Andrographis paniculata mostly the leaves and roots were used for medicinal purposes. The whole plant is also used in holistic health and longevity, a philosophy and system of healing the whole body, mind and individual. The present investigation was find to carry out the qualitative phytochemicals such as alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, steroids, terpenoids, glycosides, and lipids, quantitative phytochemicals such as alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, steroids, terpenoids, and glycosides, and antimicrobes such as Aspergillusfumigatus, A.flavous, A.hemicola, A.hemicola, A. terreus, A.niger, Penniciliumcitrinum, Candida albicans, Microsporumepidermophyton were identified in Andrographispaniculata were analyzed. The above all parameters are positively favour for medicinally valuable substances for human and animal environmental activities and behaviours for the natural ecosystem.

  48. Mohammed Moulay, Saïd Nemmiche, Ghadeer Alrefaï and Saleh Alkareem

    The microenvironment of prostate cancer (PC) is considered to be the headquarters for all PC progression. The presence of the followed characteristics metastasis, drug resistance, and further functions to empower PC to adapt easily and conquer the remote organs. It is known that PCutilize their surrounding conditions to progress, but the path taken through those microenvironments to harness the surrounded cells is still unclear. Therefore, the main goal of this review is to outline three crucial tasks. Firstly, to speculate the important points that directly or indirectly influence the understanding of the PC metastasis mechanisms. Secondly, to demonstrate how animal models could influence the profiling of PC. And, thirdly, to display the limited effects of the current treatments. Furthermore, to design a personnel drugs against PC, it is important to involve animal models that could spontaneously develop PC, and share similar implications in terms of the development of this disease as it presents in men. We concluded that PC can efficiently use all molecular pathways of the body for his avail. The emotional and psychological effects could even be a crucial factor that helps PC to progress or to be treated. Besides, it is necessary to take into consideration all emotional and genetic factors of each patient to design an adaptive and adjustable treatment that fits with the profile of the individual patient.

  49. Rakesh Kumar Medhi and Swarga Jyoti Das

    The relationship between periodontology and orthodontics consists of a highly complex, bidirectional and close interaction that is now a days characterized by controversial scientific opinions and clinical approaches. Biologic basis of the orthodontic tooth movement is the selective resorption and formation of alveolar bone around the tooth in response to application of pressure to the tooth for a prolonged period. These tooth movements are specifically related to interactions of the teeth with their supportive periodontal tissues; therefore, orthodontic tooth movement is basically periodontal ligament phenomenon. It appears that every orthodontic intervention has some kind of periodontal dimension. Therefore, to enable coordinated perio-ortho therapy, both the specialists should be involved in establishment of an appropriate diagnosis and treatment planning as well as for evaluation of the progress of treatment undertaken. In this review article, a harmonious and mutually beneficial relationship shared between these two specialities will be highlighted.

  50. Dr. Sanjay Rajput, Dr. Mohammedebrahim Malek, Dr. Vedang N. Desai and Dr. Jayesh J. Dutt

    Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), an important form of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), specifically refers to pneumonia developing in a patient on mechanical ventilator for more than 48 h after intubation or tracheostomy. Despite the advancements in antimicrobial regimes, VAP continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality. VAP requires a rapid diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antibiotic treatment, as there is adverse effect of inadequate antibiotic treatment on patient’s prognosis and the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Objective: 1) To study microorganism pattern of VAP. 2) To identify associated factor for VAP. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in tertiary care hospital, Ahmedabad, over a period of 1 year. Total 40 patients selected by convenient sampling who were admitted in medical ICU during study period. Analysis was done by using statistical methods to identify the risk factors for morbidity and mortality associated with VAP. Results: Incidence was found to be higher amongst male patients (65%).Present study showed that out of 40 patients 21 (52.5%) patients died. Average duration of stay in ICU was 9 days. The most common organism found was Acinetobacter in 11 (27.5%) of patients. The major risk factor for VAP was Diabetes mellitus (15, 37.5%) followed by tracheostomy (12, 30.0%), re-intubation (9, 22.5%), elder patients (6, 15.0%), and shock in first two days (4, 10.0%). Conclusion: The incidence of VAP remains high and varies depending on the cause and period of intubation and underlying morbidity. Greater efforts should be made to prevent, diagnose and manage infection early and appropriately to reduce patient suffering and reduce the burden on hospitals providing services. Proper knowledge of risk factors can help identify high-risk groups.

  51. Sarkar, P. K., Singh P., Singh, A., Dhillon, M .S. and Suri, V.

    Pregnancy brings along with lots of changes in mother’s body like increase body weight, increase abdominal pressure, increase lumber lordosis, balance problems ultimately which leads to heaviness in the lower limb, leg cramp, urinary incontinence, coccyx pain, low and upper back pain. Objective: To ascertain the prevalence and pattern of fitness related problems in pregnant and postnatal women reporting at a tertiary care hospital of north India. Methods: Total 174 subjects were included in the study. The target population consisted of women in ante and post-natal stage, randomly selected from Obstetrics and Gynecology OPD. The data were collected using an interview schedule which included the demographic profile, fitness problems, obstetric history, and self-coping mechanism to reduce fitness related health issues suffered by the subjects. Results & Conclusion: Low back pain, neck pain, leg cramp, heaviness in the lower limb, postural deviation, coccyx pain etc. are common complaints during pregnancy and puerperium.

  52. Miss. Rukmini, S., Kokilamma, B., Dr. Sudha Rani P. and Dr. M. Sreelatha

    Introduction: Majority of non communicable disease related deaths are attributed to four groups of diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases. Main risk factors for non communicable diseases include dietary habits, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol use. Other risk factors include high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, high glucose levels and genetic susceptibility (history of premature death or disability due to coronary heart disease or stroke, diabetes and hypertension). Two thirds of premature deaths in adults are associated with childhood conditions and behaviours, and behaviour associated with NCD risk factors is common in young people. Over 150 million young people smoke; 81 percent adolescents don’t get enough physical activity; 11.7 percent of adolescents take heavy episodic drinking and 41 million children under 5 years old are overweight or obese. Hypertension is one of the most common public health problems globally among adults, and recent data suggests that there is an increase in the incidence of childhood hypertension as well. Methodology: Non experimental approach was adopted to achieve the objectives of the study, which is felt to be most appropriate in the field of education for its practicability in real life situation. It was advantages of practicability, feasibility and to a certain extent for generalization. In this study descriptive research design was used. The study was conducted at Annur panchat, Karveti nagaram mandal, Chittoor (DT). The population includes adolescent age group 14-15 years of both male and female students. Sample size consists of 100 adolescents under inclusion criteria. Non probability convenient sampling technique was adopted based on inclusion criteria. Results: Regarding the assessment of Blood Pressure out of 100 adolescents, majority of 78 per cent were normal Blood Pressure, 22 per cent were pre hypertension. The mean and standard deviation scores were 1.22 ± 0.416. Regarding the BMI, Out of 100 adolescents, 82 per cent were normal weight, 10 per cent were under weight, and 8 percent shows over weight. The mean and standard deviation scores of BMI 1.98±0.426Where as W/H ratio 59 per cent have low risk, 16 per cent have moderate risk, and 25 per cent have high risk. The mean and standard deviation scores 1.66 ± 0.855. Statistically significant association of Blood Pressure with anthropometric measurements like height was significant at 0.05 level and other anthropometric measurements like weight, waist circumference, Hip circumference were significant at 0.01 level. BMI and W/H ratio were not showing any significant association. There was association between Blood Pressure with age, gender, education, mother education, mother occupation, income at 0.05 levels. Hence H01was rejected. And some of the variables such as religion, father occupation, and family type are not showing any significant association. Association between BMI related to gender, education, mother education, father occupation, income at 0.05 levels. Hence H02 was rejected. Where as remaining demographic variables (religion) is not showing any significant association Conclusion: The present study revealed that adolescents having pre hypertensive and overweight. There is a significant association between Blood Pressure with anthropometric measurements. Information booklet was given for further reference to enhance their knowledge levels and it may help to prevent the non communicable diseases.

  53. Subuhi Yasmeen

    The American Academy of Orofacial Pain defined Temporomandibular Disorders as-“a collective term that embraces a number of clinical problems that involve the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint and the associated structures.” The morbidity due to the temporomandibular disorders is 27% to 76% among patients who go for dental care. About 75% of the population has one sign and approximately 33% has at least one symptom of temporomandibular disorder. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorder is the first comprehensive assessment of reliability and validity of original Axis Ⅰ and Ⅱ. Low Level Laser Therapy is a conservative, non-invasive, quick and safe method that has been introduced for treatment from past few years. The purpose of this review article is for meta-analysis of the related investigations and application of Low Level Laser Therapy in patients of temporomandibular disorders of different ages and sexes and their positive results over a given period of time. It aimed at compiling literature searches for different articles that was performed using NCBI, Pubmed and Google Scholar by combining the terms: temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, temporomandibular joint disc, TMD, TMJ, craniomandibular disorders, myofascial pain, myofascial pain syndrome, laser, low level laser therapy soft laser, LLLT. Conclusion: All the patients have shown positive results to this treatment with different degrees.

  54. Argion D. Capadngan, MATVE

    In today’s keen competitive global environment, schools in basic education are entrusted to produce quality human capital that can participate in and cope with the ever-changing market demands. If quality teachers are to beget quality students, then it is perhaps pertinent to define the critical work of the school head as an instructional supervisor of the teaching and learning process. Thus, this study was initiated to investigate the correlation of instructional supervision competence of public school heads and teachers' proficiency in the division of Ozamiz City, the school year 2019-2020. The study used quantitative conceptualization and utilizing specifically the descriptive-correlation withadopted and modified questionnaire checklist to gather the necessary data. There were 18 school head respondents of the study and all of them were selected to participate in. To represent the teacher's population, 185 teachers were selected randomly rendering three (3) years and above in the service. The study revealed that there was a significant and moderate positive relationship between the level of instructional supervision competence of school heads and the teachers’ proficiency. Thus, public school heads and teachers were all highly competent in all the competencies stipulated in the Results-Based Performance Management System (RPMS). It is recommended that there should be continuous peer mentoring and coaching to young teachers; developing teachers to grow professionally; school heads and teachers should go into research and training the teachers to become training facilitators.

  55. Dr. P. Sujatha, Dr. P. Yasodha and Dr. S. Anandhi

    Food is the basic human need and producing enough to feed the growing population of developing nations is one of the biggest challenges faced by modern world. Next to wheat rice is one of the top most food grain consumed worldwide. Rice production plays a major role of the national agricultural economy of India. India holds the second position in rice production of all over the world. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) finds that on average, farmers lose 37 percent of their rice yield to pest and diseases. In India the annual crop losses due to insect pests and diseases are about 38 percent. Worldwide more than 100 species of insects are recorded in rice production, out of which about 20 species cause significant economic damage amongst various pests affecting the paddy crop. The yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga Incertulas) contributes 90 percent of damage in the paddy field, especially during the rainy season. The four different methods are generally practiced to control yellow stem borer are cultural control, varietal resistance, chemical control and biological control. The chemical control method may contribute to decline in wildlife and create harmful impact on human health; through the biological control method the pest can be controlled by stirring up other living organisms. The biological control method helps to destroy only the harmful pests and it does not affect any beneficial insects like a human being. Hence this study was taken up and its result will be useful for scientist’s to work out for a biological control to support the ultimate beneficiary of the farming community.

  56. Gitarani Hazarika Bora, Meghali Langthasa and Swarga Jyoti Das

    The deciduous dentition plays a crucial role in the development and growth of a child. Premature loss of deciduous teeth can result in the discrepancies in the arch length which in turn leads to malocclusion. Early intervention in deciduous and mixed dentition can prevent the development of anomalies in the late mixed and permanent dentition. Thus, Preventive Orthodontics plays an important role in the management of the spaces, occupied previously by deciduous teeth, using the ‘space maintainer’ appliance. In this review article, various types of space maintainers used in our day to day clinical practices will be highlighted.

  57. Divyangana Thakur

    To discuss about success of PRF pulpotomy in young permananet tooth with mature apex. This case report tries to throw some light on PRF pulpotomy.

  58. Caroline N. Kavuma and Godfrey Ejuu

    Contemporary education practice is widely seen as practices that blend conventional approaches with either new innovations or culturally tested practices. In a situation where being cultural or modern has its own drawback, towing the middle position becomes an inevitable choice. The current trend of reflexive response to Africa’s teacher-pedagogical-skill gap puzzle may erroneously reduce it to use of modern methods and Hi-tech to match the global teaching fraternity. Nonetheless, to redeem Africanness, pedagogy should be situated in the realm of Africa’s knowledge ecology. The paper presents findings from an exploratory study which examined the influence of Baganda indigenous nurturing practices (BICNPs) on developing children’s life skills in Masaka district Uganda. It targeted 44 participants, 20 key informants were interviewed, including parents, elders, cultural, religious and local-council leaders and educationists. 24 other people from the same categories participated in Focus Group Discussion (FDGs). Snow bowling, purposive and stratified random sampling were used in to select participants. The findings portray replicable practices of nurturing based on deep rooted beliefs set on standards that are supported by aspirations in harmony with nature. It was found that methods used by Baganda parents combine theory and practice on daily basis in lessons that happen where knowledge is situated, mainly through apprenticeship, attachment, heart-to-heart and one-to-one encounters. They also embrace global citizenry based on firm principles of what Africans value. The study concludes that indigenous methods still count in branding children with life skills, right characters, attitudes, mental acuity and social orientation. It recommends that teacher training institutions of the 21st century develop programmes blending contemporary with indigenous methods anchored on core African values to prepare relevant teachers.

  59. Dr. Payal H. Parmar

    Introduction: Doppler velocimetry is a rapid non invasive test that provides valuable information about the hemodynamic situation of the fetus. It is an efficient diagnostic test of fetal jeopardy and helps in the management of high risk pregnancy to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality. The objective of study is to evaluate the utility of Doppler as a diagnostic tool in fetal surveillance and improved fetal outcome in high risk pregnancy. Material and Methods: 100 Antenatal women with high risk factors were selected on basis of History, clinical examination and investigations who came in OPD or referred from peripheral hospitals to Obstetrics and gynecology department, B J Medical College, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, between june 2017 to october 2019 and follow up taken upto Delivery. Results: there is positive correlation of umbilical artery doppler result with outcome of pregnancy. Increase chance of caesarean section and perinatal mortality, NICU admission and low birth weight baby is seen with abnormal umbilical artery doppler study population. Conclusion: our present study have clearly demonstrated the positive efficacy of Antenatal Doppler study in predicting the fetal outcome and antenatal surveillance.

  60. Dr. Ashish Gupta

    This paper delves into Jhumpa Lahiri’s 2013 novel, The Lowland, to analyze the diasporic experience of the Indian born characters. Lahiri demonstrates the characters’ hopes and fears, certainties and dilemmas, along with their joys and grief. The Lowland reveals how the diasporic characters struggle with their new condition in the host country, and how they pass through the liminal stage to negotiate hybrid identities. This research concludes that in spite of the disturbing aspects of diasporic life including uncertainty, marginality, and unbelonging over which the characters possess no control, they are capable of surviving and even flourishing in the foreign social milieu. The novel presents the predicament of ruined hopes of parents left behind in India, problematic family ties in America and above all, contrast between an idealist frame of mind and a practical one.

  61. Rifwanul Basir Nasution, Utama Abdi Tarigan and Frank Bietra Buchari

    Introduction: Burns are one of the most common types of wounds. Severe burns can cause morbidity and a relatively high degree of disability. The impact of obesity on the burn population has produced mixed results in several studies. Obese patients also have an increased risk of increasing the length of hospital stay. Aim: This study was to determine the comparison of scald burn patient outcomes based on body mass index. Method: This research is a comparative-analytic study with a retrospective cohort study design, using secondary data from the medical records of burn patients at RSUP H. Adam Malik from 2016 to 2018. The total sample obtained was 81 people. Then the mean comparison test was carried out for more than two groups and the data distribution was normal so that the One Way Anova test was carried out. Result: Patients with normal BMI the results were 12.7 + 2.0, while the results in patients with overweight categories were 19.0 + 1.9, in the obese 1 category group the results were 22.5 + 1.8, in the obese 2 group the results were 27.6 + 1.8, and in the category group Obese 3 results obtained 34.3 + 1.6, the significance of the One Way Anova test is p-value <0.001. While the BMI analysis of mortality rates was carried out by using the chi-square test, with 0% results in the normal BMI category, 0% in the overweight category group, while in the obese 1 category group 13.3%, 23.0% results in the patient group. obese category 2, and 66.7% of patients in the obese category 3 group with a significant p-value of <0.001 in the chi-square test of this study. Conclusion: The higher the body mass index group level, the higher the length of hospital stay and the mortality rate for patients.

  62. Dr. Jerry Jacob, Dr. Shakuntala Murty and Dr. Harshit Mundada

    Spontaneous tracheal rupture is one of the rare life threatening conditions. Tracheal lacerations are generally secondary to cervical or chest trauma or occurring as a complication of endotracheal intubation. Spontaneous trachea-bronchial tree injury (TBI) are potential killers if not diagnosed early and treated adequately. We hereby report 2 case reports of spontaneous TBI, one secondary to a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and the other secondary to COPD with long term steroid use. There are only less than 5 case reports till date, published on spontaneous TBI.

  63. Palanikumar, M., Prem joshua, Swarnapriya, R. and Kannan, R.

    An experiment was conducted at Horticultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Pechiparai, Tamil Nadu from 2010 to 2018. The aim of this study is to evaluate the growth performance of clove under different spacings. The experiment was laid out with five different spacings (2x2 m, 3x2 m, 4x2 m, 5x2 m and 6x2 m) along with control (6x6 m) in line planting. It was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with four replications and the results were statically analyzed. Only the vegetative characters could be recorded. Among the different treatments, T1 (2x2m) recorded maximum plant height (5.12m) during 2014-18 whereas, T4 (5x2 m) recorded the maximum number of branches (32.70) and plant spread (215.66 cm for NS &204.49 cm for EW) during 2014-2018.

  64. Dr. Varsha Agarwal, Nikhil Pirgil and Vichoor Kiran

    The cataclysmic corona virus has changed how a layman looks at the future, permanently. The ripples of this disruptive pandemic will be felt emotionally, economically and politically for several generations. This uncontrollable situation threatens the economic growth severely while changing the outlook of well capitalised and profitable community banks and credit unions.The BFSI(Banking, financial service Insurance) sector has experienced a surge in its nett NPA, causing an economic turmoil. With continuous evaluations in the lending practices, several institutions have also improved their credit management system. Through this research paper, we learn how governments, banks and other financial institutions have adopted to such hard times.

  65. Dr. Sanjay Shrivastava and Prof. Abhijeet Dawle

    Marketing communications strategy is used by companies or individuals to effectively reach to their targeted market through various types of methods of communication. It certainly includes multi dimensions to transmit information. It affirms what, where, how and who is to be communicated a purposeful message. How you take an initiative and particularly on what strategy largely depends on your experience, information and exposure. Again, what strategy you adopt to, fairly depends on the type of industry and budget. The present paper is an attempt to provide a descriptive overview of marketing communication strategy.

  66. Rinadi Andara

    Background: Management of clavicle fractures has changed in the last decade. Primary fixation as the initial treatment is the main choice in the current literature, with the aim of reducing the incidence of complications and better functional outcome. Methods and Materials: This research is a descriptive analytic study with a cross-sectional approach. Samples were taken from January 2019 to December 2019 with a diagnosis of clavicle fracture at the H. Adam Malik General Hospital Medan, which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, namely 34 samples. The data analysis used was using independent T test. Result: The median age of patients who underwent ORIF action was 34.50 with 28 people (82.4%) being male, compared to 6 (17.6%) female. ASES results were higher in patients who received ORIF management compared to non-ORIF with a mean value of 98.52 ± 3.02 (p <0.001). Conclusion: There are differences in short-term clinical outcomes between patients with clavicle fractures who were treated with ORIF compared to non-operatives at RSUP HAM.

  67. Sukachai Penpokai and Naris Penpokai

    This research aimed to study 1) To study the influence of organizational competency, business strategy, leadership, and knowledge management on business growth of the automotive parts industry. 2) To study the influence of business growth on organizational survival of the automotive parts industry and 3) To study the influence of organizational competency, business strategy, leadership, and knowledge management on organizational survival through business growth mediates of the automotive parts industry. The researchers utilized a quantitative analysis, and the data set was analyzed by descriptive statistics and path analysis model. The research instrument was a questionnaire and conducted through randomly selected 198 executives at 618 companies of Thailand Auto Parts Manufacturers Association. The research results found that all hypothesis was significant. Whereas business growth mediates, has been related to the other variables. The path analysis model was completed with empirical data at the acceptable level consists of: 2/df = 0.106, p-value = 0.956, GFI = 0.999, AGFI = 0.996 and RMSEA = 0.000.

  68. Bhaskar Musande, Neemesha Mhatre, Soorya sekar and Dr. Palak Bohra

    Difficult airway is an unfortunate and a possibly fatal condition that could be encountered in an emergency situation. Basic airway knowledge and timely action need to be taken to secure an airway in such patients. Patients with difficult airway may present with a myriad of signs and symptoms including respiratory distress and stridor. Multiple methods of securing an airway are available such as endotracheal intubation (both oropharyngeal and naso-pharyngeal), supraglottic airway devices, fibre-optic intubation, cricothyrotomy and tracheostomy. The clinical dilemma surrounds the time and kind of method to me used in such a situation. We share our experience from a covid intensive care unit wherein a patient diagnosed with locally advanced carcinoma of palate of right side extending upto the midline leading to restricted mouth opening. Patient was symptomatic with breathlessness requiring non invasive ventilation. Our approach to this situation and the decision making has been explained in this article.

  69. Md Rustum Ali

    The present study tries to assess the importance of vegetable farming in improving the economic and nutritional status of the farmers’ family. For this, a primary survey has been conducted in Malda district of West Bengal in 2018. A total of 360 farmers (180 vegetable growers and 180 non-vegetable growers) were randomly selected from three different regions of the district and interviewed. Simple statistical techniques were used to analyze the data. Independent sample T-test has revealed the fact that the farmers who engaged in vegetable farming have a relatively higher daily intake of vegetables and better health status compared to that non-vegetable farmers group. The benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of selected vegetables and cereals crops proved the fact that vegetable farming gives higher economic return and employment opportunities. However, the post-harvest loss due to the poor storage facility and market infrastructure and price instability due to unregulated market policy at the ground level often ruins vegetable farmer. Hence, the study concludes that vegetable farming should be promoted as it has the potential to give both economic as well as nutritional security to the farmers but prior to that special attention should be paid to minimise the post-harvest losses.

  70. Dr. Shivani Verma, Dr. Nensi Gandhi and Dr. Navjyot Trivedi

    Background: There is a huge shift in education from traditional classroom learning to online teaching, due the pandemic. Physiotherapy is a practical, hands-on field which makes online teaching a challenge. Objective: The study investigated the attitude and perception of physiotherapy academicians about online teaching during COVID-19 lock-down. Descriptive research design of the survey type was adopted for the study. Method: A validated self - administered questionnaire was used to conduct this cross-sectional study. Hundred and one people participated in this study. Results: From the entire sample analyzed 48.5% were females and 50.5% were males the remaining 1% choose to not reveal the gender.79.2% of the participants had agreed that online teaching was essential during this phase of pandemic. From the total population surveyed 23.8% of the participants perceived online teaching as a stressor. In the population screened it was found that 66.3% faced some or the other barriers during online teaching. Conclusion: The study concludes that online teaching is a positive stroke to the success of the teaching profession in such a critical situation and majority of physiotherapy academicians have accepted this method of teaching with ease.

  71. Astha verm and Shailesh dhenge

    In Ayurveda, all the skin diseases are explained under Kushtha roga and are classified as Maha kushtha (major skin disorders) and Kshudra Kushtha (minor skin disorders). Ekakushta is one among the eleven Kshudra Kushta; it is predominance of Kapha & Vata Dosha. It is one of the most common disorders of the dermatologic diseases which is non-infectious chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease having unknown etiology characterized by well-defined dry scaly erythematous patches and covered with adherent silvery white scales. Clinically Ekakushta can be correlated with psoriasis. 2 to 3% of the total world population has psoriasis, and prevalence in India ranges from 0.44 to 2.8%. Ekakushta (Psoriasis) can be better managed by the Ayurvedic principles of management namely Nidana Parivarjana (avoiding etiological factor), Shodhana chikitsa (Panchakarma therapy), Shamana chikitsa (palliative treatment). A 66 year old male patient having severe itchy, scaly lesions all over the body including scalp associated with burning sensation approached OPD. The patient was treated with Matra basti 80 ml with Sahacharadi oil, external application of Sidhharthaka Snana, Sarwang Abhyang, Vashpa Sweda along with Shamana Yoga Chikitsa Kankbindwarishta, Gandhak rasayana, Talkeshwar ras, Manjishthadi churna, Ttriphla guggul. Patient got 70% results in chief and associated complaints within 15 days. This case study revealed the efficacy of Ayurvedic therapy, including both external and internal medications, for one month in the management of Kushtha. Subject Area: EKAKUSTHA (PSORIASIS)

  72. Wael Khalid Hafiz and Bandr Khalid Jarwan

    Background: Depressive symptoms are common among older people and are associated with disability, morbidity, and mortality. Its prevalence in primary care varies between 15.3-22%, with global prevalence up to 13% and between 17-46% in Saudi Arabia. Elderly persons are more vulnerable to depression. By the year 2020 depression would be the second major cause of disability adjusted life years lost, as reported by the World Health Organization. Depressive symptoms depressive disorders in elderly patients are associated with significantly higher health care costs, even after adjustment for chronic medical illness. Elderly persons sometimes dismiss less severe depression as an acceptable response to life stress or a normal part of aging. The elderly population with depression is on the rise in all communities. Aim: To estimate the prevalence and determinant of depression among elderly attendants in Al-Adl PHC center in Makkah Al-Mukarramah. Method: A cross sectional study conducted at outpatient clinics in Al-Adl primary health care center in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, 2018. Results: There were 345 participants, and the majority age were 60-70years. The majority were male65.2%. Most of the participants were widow58.8% while married were 41.2%. Illiterate were43.2%, primary education were30.1%. All the relations between depression and socio-demographic data were statistically significant except educated elderly patients not statistically significant. Conclusion: Depression is common among elderly persons and the point prevalence of depression is high in primary care visitors in Saudi Arabia. Gender and higher level of education were found to be significantly associated with screened depression. The majority of cases were mild to moderate, in utility and that screening for depression in a primary care setting is cost saving. Individuals providing healthcare to elderly persons must be to identify depression and take appropriate action; elderly persons with chronic diseases impairment deserve special attention.

  73. Dr. Sarang R. Barbind and Dr. Santosh R. Jadhav

    Introduction: Dengue is the most extensively spread mosquito-borne disease, transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes of Aedes species. It is caused by the dengue virus (DENV, 1–4 serotypes). This viral infection has a wide clinical spectrum ranging from asymptomatic disease to undifferentiated fever (or viral syndromes).High dengue disease burden and frequent outbreaks result in a serious drain on country’s economy and stress on the health systems. The present study was conducted at secondary health care hospital in Nanded, highlighting the various clinical, epidemiological and laboratory presentations of dengue fever patients. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study conducted on the patients admitted at Secondary health care hospital, Nanded, Maharashtra, India.120 patients suffering from dengue fever during an outbreak of the disease were enrolled. Data related to their clinical presentation and important laboratory parameters were collected and studied analytically. Results: 120 subjects confirmed dengue fever with either NS1 Antigen or IgM antibody positive with age more than 18 years were included in the study. In present study we found that 80% of patients had headache , 75% had body ache and 40% had typical retro-orbital pain. 60 patients (50%) had abdominal pain. 24 patients (20%) had associated hepatosplenomegaly and six patients (5%) had ascites associated with hepatosplenomegaly.. 18 patients (15%) had breathlessness, out of which 12 patients (10%) had pleural effusion. Twenty seven patients were diagnosed with DHF and three with DSS. . Six patients (5%) had expanded dengue syndrome (EDS). Conclusion: Therefore detailed analytical study of clinical presentations and laboratory parameters of this disease for early recognition, correct diagnosis, prompt intervention, and appropriate treatment is best method to solve this complex health issue.

  74. Osama Khalid, Seham Habeeb, Abdularahman Makrami, Salim Alsahhari, Sabah Harby, Abduallah Alsbei and Yahia Hejri

    Background: As of May 15, 2020, the global reported number of COVID-19 cases has crossed over 4.5 million with more than 303,000 deaths. The possibility of presymptomatic and asymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is increasing the challenges of COVID-19 control measures. Methods: Based on a comprehensive contact-tracing dataset documented through the Quarantine Department in Jazan Region during the period from March 16 up to May 15, 2020, secondary data was reviewed to determine the secondary attack rate of SARS-CoV-2 among close contacts of index cases. The respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms effects on transmissibility and the infectivity of COVID-19 cases were assessed. Results: A total of 400 primary cases and 1167 close contacts were quarantined and traced as well. The overall secondary attack rate among close contacts of index cases with COVID-19 was 35.6% (416), while the secondary attack rate among close contacts of asymptomatic primary cases was 10%(44), which are relatively low when compared to the 51.2% (372) figure that represents the secondary attack rate among close contacts of symptomatic index cases. The study also revealed that primary cases with respiratory symptoms transmitted the infection to 67.8% of their close contacts while index cases with non-respiratory symptoms infected only 47%. The age bracket mostly affected was 25 to 49 years of age. The secondary attack rate was 82% among males compared to only 18% of females who tested positive, reflecting significant association between transmission of infection and gender (p-value0.000). This may be attributed to the fact that Saudi females always wear veils outdoors and these religious face covers might play a role against COVID-19, a perspective for which further study is highly recommended. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 was found to be less transmissible from asymptomatic patients (10. %) as compared to high rates of secondary attack among close contacts of symptomatic index cases (51.2%), with the age group (25 up to 49 years) being the most vulnerable to COVID-19 transmission. Although early detection and isolation of index cases and their close contacts, in addition to the movement restrictions play a major role to control the pandemic, the challenge for pandemic containment remains in identifying cases during the presymptomatic phase.

  75. Aparna, K., Hemanth, M., Karthik, J. Kabbur, Fatima Khalidi, Darsan, J.P. and Sharmada,B.K.

    Aims and Objectives: To find out any association between Lactate dehydrogenase and Myeloperoxidase enzyme levels in the gingival crevicular fluid at various time interval during alignment of teeth in patients with different levels of crowding. Materials and Method: A total of 20 orthodontic patients were divided into 2 groups (10 patients in each groups) Group A (1-3 mm crowding) Group B (6-9 mm) based on the amount of crowding according to Little’s irregularity index. The GCF sample is collected from the most affected tooth before activation of the appliance (T0), 2 hrs. After activation (T1), 7 days after activation (T2), 14 days after activation (T3) and at the end of alignment phase (T4) using micro capillary pipette. Enzyme quantification was done by ELISA method. Results: Independent sample t- test with unequal variance was done to compare the mean of MPO in minimal and maximum crowding. It was observed that, Maximum crowding displaying statistically significant higher Myeloperoxidase level at 2 hours of time interval compared to minimum crowding. (P =0.028). Similarly the mean of LDH in minimum and maximum crowding was compared. It was observed that, maximum crowding displaying statistically significant higher Myeloperoxidase level at 7th day (P=0.002), at 14th day (P=0.001) and after de-crowding (P=0.002) compared to minimum crowding. Maximum crowding displaying statistically significant higher Lactate dehydrogenase level at 2 hours of time interval compared to minimum crowding. (P =0.001). Contrarily, it was observed that, minimum crowding displaying statistically significant higher Lactate dehydrogenase level at 14 days of time interval compared to maximum crowding. (P =0.002).There is no statistically significant correlation found between Lactate dehydrogenase and Myeloperoxidase in minimum and maximum crowding cases at different time intervals. Conclusion: LDH and MPO activity can be measured with a quick method that is inexpensive and accessible to most laboratories and can be done on chairside with refinement.LDH and MPO activity can rapidly monitor possible deleterious effect of an excessive orthodontic force have been applied, and adjustments can be made according to individual response to orthodontic forces.

  76. Palanikumar, M., Prem Joshua, J. Swarnapriya, R. and Kannan, R.

    The experiment was conducted at Horticultural Research Station, Pechiparai, Kanniyakumari District, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tamil Nadu from 2007 to 2017. The aim of the study is to evaluate the performance of cassia accessions for maximum dry leaf and bark yield. The experiment was laid out with four genotypes (C1, D1, D3 and D5) along with a local check in line planting. It was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with four replications and the results were statically analyzed. Among the different genotypes, the accession D3 recorded maximum plant height (5.50 m), stem girth (32.88 cm), dry leaf yield (469.57 kg/ ha) and dry bark yield (259.42 kg/ha) compared to local check recorded the plant height (2.75 m), stem girth (17.51 cm), dry leaf yield (300.72 kg/ ha) and dry bark yield (182.43 kg/ha) .

  77. Reji, R.K., Neha, Apoorva, Sarita Verma, Deep Shikha and Rachna Chaurasia

    Background: India is home to the highest number of child population in the world- around 440 million, out of which 243 million are adolescents constituting over 20% of the population of India. Of total adolescent population, 54% belong to 10-14 year age group and nearly 46% are in the most vulnerable age group in which the child acquires academic, cognitive, social and life skills. Recent times have witnessed a gradual increase in substance use amongst the younger population, with more people initiating substance use from an early age. WHO estimates that globally 25 to 90% Adolescents have used at least one substance of abuse. Method: A descriptive cross sectional study was undertaken by using purposive sampling technique to assess the knowledge, pattern and contributing factors regarding substance abuse among adolescents. Total 50 samples of aged between 13-19 years were selected through purposive sampling from Alambagh, Urban Community under Rural Health Training Centre of KGMU, Lucknow. Non experimental quantitative survey approach in which structured questionnaire was used for assessing the socio demographic data, existing level of knowledge, pattern of substance abuse and contributory factors leading to substance abuse among the respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used for the analysis of the tabulated data. Results: Out of 50 respondents maximum respondents 23(46%) were from age group of 16-17 years, Further on the basis of educational qualification ,maximum respondents 46(96%) were from graduation, 3(6%) from class 12th, 1(2%) was from class 8th . 37 (74%) had poor knowledge regarding substance abuse and 13 (26%) had average knowledge about substance abuse. There were no respondents in the category of good knowledge level. It was also found that alcohol i.e. 38(76%) is the most frequently abused substance. The preferred occasions for substance abuse were found to be mostly with friends 14(33%). The availability of getting the beverages was found to be very easy as Beer in 25(50%) respondents and wine in 22(44%), foreign liquor 20(40%), country liquor 22(44%). Most of the respondents 36 (60%) use their pocket money for substance abuse and 4(6%) use getting money by stealing or received by relatives for substance abuse. 22 (44.9%) use substance due to emotional disturbances. However there was no significant association observed between the knowledge level and selected socio demographic variables. Conclusion: The first step is to acknowledge this emerging problem that needs to be proactively addressed. It is important to bring stakeholders together to address the issue through a multisectorial approach with an equal focus on prevention as well as treatment efforts at individual, family and community level of the concerned ones.

  78. Dr. Alok Kumar and Prof. Hemantha Kumar, P.

    Fistula in ano resemblance to Bhagandar described in Ayurvedic classics. This is one of the common disorders in anorectal surgery. Fistula in ano usually develops from the abscess in anorectal area, which burst in anus or rectum inside and outside over skin near anus in perianal region. In spite of development of medical science in to the sky Fistual in ano is still a difficult disease to treat without recurrence. In Ayurveda ksharasutra therapy is a gold standard technique to treat this condition with minimal recurrence rate. In ksharasutra therapy a medicated thread is inserted into the fistulous track which act upon and dissolve the infection and heal the track. The most common kshara used for this therapy is Apamarga Kshara. Apamarga kshara is an excellent drug in this disease but in the due course of treatment some patient felt some kind of discomfort as excessive pain, discomfort, itching and some patients even withdraw the therapy. These discomforts may be due to involvement of different doshas in disease, so they get aggravated. So keeping in mind the Dosh predominant theory Kadali, Aragvadha and Palash are taken to use in Ksharasutra therapy of the Vataj, Pittaj and Kaphaj Bhagandar. This study was conducted in two group and every group divided in three subgroups. Trail group patients are treated with Kadali, Aragvadha and Palash ksharasutra and control group patients were treated with Apamarga ksharasutra. Data were analysed statically and encouraging results have been found.

  79. Nagaraj, A., Neelofer, R., Raghuveer, S. and Ramesh Naik, P.

    A series of new [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-c]quinazoline linked with piperazine scaffolds 8(a-j) were synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (B. subtilis, S. aureus, M. luteus), Gram-negative bacteria (P. vulgaris, S. typhimurium, E. coli). Antibacterial evaluation indicates, the compounds containing 2-chlorophenyl (8d) showed better activity against S. aureus and M. Luteus, 4-chlorophenyl (8e) showed better activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (except E. coli). Similarly, compounds containing 4-nitrophenyl (8h) was active against all the tested strains except S. Aureus. The other compounds also exhibited considerable antibacterial activities.

  80. Farhana Sethi

    Replenishment for Demand & Inventory Planning is a way to efficiently manage flow of the goods as they move throughout the entire supply chain from the manufacturer to the supplier to warehouse and shipment location. It constantly check stock vs. demand. A good replenishment system help to avoid human errors, for instance missing to place an order in the system, or enter wrong information. An intelligent replenishment system can be configured to automate triggers to order/re-ordering the goods, suggest alternative approaches to get the goods (e.g. Transfer of goods from Distribution center or location instead of purchasing from the supplier), it also factors in forecast changes in demand and adjusts the replenishment orders. The tool can overall improve service levels, gain efficiency, leads to reduce cost and improves customer satisfaction.The perseverance of this study is to recognize the elements of Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) and implement to our selected problem. Main objective of MRP is to manage dependent demand items, high inventory turnover and low payable cost. A common and effective problem which rise in Manufacturing and small, medium-Sized Firms and industries was taken for understand and all possible factors are taken and discussed after that the solution procedure is applied and result is presented. This paper describes the importance and features of goods replenishment tool for Demand & Inventory Planning categorized as Material requirements planning MRP using Data and Analytic. We are going to introduce entire list of the key features that are designed specific as per the requirement of the Supply chain in the Oil and gas industry.

  81. Aaquib Hussain, Gazalla Altaf, Prashant Pareek, Deepali Bisht and Sakshi Panghal

    Background: Many studies have shown the correlation between bruxism and stress that affects the quality of life of university students. The present study highlights this correlation in a group of university students in pulwamakashmir. Methods: We have investigated the prevalence of awake and asleep bruxism and its correlation with perceived stress in a group of 278 undergraduate students in IUST (Islamic university of science and technology). A self report questionnaire was constructed using a socio-demographic test, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the item n. 8 of the Fonseca Questionnaire for presence of bruxism. Results: The perceived stress score using PSS-10 scale was 32.2 (SD 4.6, 95% CL 31.6–32.7) for all the subjects, with significant gender difference: M = 31.2 and F = 32.9 (P = 0.0019). The prevalence for awake bruxism was 37.9% (F = 40.8%; M = 34.2%,), while for sleep bruxism was 31.8% (F = 33.3%; M = 29.1%), both without significant gender difference. A positive correlation, with significant concordance and dependence, between stress score and awake bruxism was present for male students only. Conclusions: University students showed higher bruxism and stress levels compared to the general population, with higher stress for females, but, even if female students show higher stress, a correlation between stress and bruxism exists only for male gender. Further studies should be performed.

  82. Dr. Rajesh Jain, Dr. Ruchika Gupta Dewan and Dr. Unnavi Chauhan

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of Endosequence Root Repair Material (ERRM), Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Ketac Molar easy mix GIC when used as furcal perforation repair materials. Methodology: A total of 105 human mandibular molars were used. Root canal treatment was carried out following which standardized furcal perforations were made. The specimen were randomly divided into three groups of 25 teeth each. In groups A, B, and C furcation perforations were filled with ERRM, MTA and GIC respectively. Fifteen teeth were used as the positive controlwith no filling materialin the perforationand fifteen teeth were used as negative control with complete closure of the perforation with two layers of nail varnish. A protein leakage model utilizing 22% bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used for evaluation. Leakage was noted when color conversion of the protein reagent was observed. Leakage was found in all the samples from Group A (ERRM), Group B (MTA), and Group C (GIC). Result: There was no statistically significant difference between ERRM and MTA, however, there was a statistically significant difference in GIC as compared to ERRM and MTA. Conclusion: Microleakage with ERRM is equivalent to MTA therefore ERRM is a good alternative to MTA for furcal perforation repair.

  83. Sanath Divakara

    COVID 19 was a cyclone passed over the world impertinently exploring a new arena to think everyone in the world. This pandemic outbreak proved how powerful nature and no one can challenge to the nature. Thus the pandemic retards all the process and made all to relook how to prepare their countries and plan for a major strategic renewal with the drastic downfall in the economic activities. The study conceptualized the concept of strategic renewal as a strategy to energize in the process of resumption of all the activities in terms of economical and financial within a short period of time from the prevailing situation of the manufacturing industries in Sri Lanka. The industries serve a significant portion to the economic development; thus, it is essential to discuss the strategies that can be applied to restore without sacrificing stakeholders requirement. The case study analyzed the factors based on two research questions what and how the industry faced the challenges to revitalizing the situation in the short and long term. The study focused on financial status as against the unprecedented situation and how the organization executes business rejuvenation through strategies conceptualized in the concept of strategic renewal.

  84. Afsar Sadiq Shinwari and Jin Qiang

    Nowadays WeChat app has quickly become an important social media among the people. It is a trustable source of social connectivity and exchange of ideas in the society. The main purpose of this article is to explore different outcomes of using WeChat among foreign students. It would cover both positive and negative impacts of WeChat usage among students. It is a quantitative study of the topic therefore we need to launch a survey for data collection. Total 45 international students were selected from Hebei University, Baoding, China. 42.2% male and 57.8% of the female students participated in the survey. The main finding of our survey is that most of these students had no clear idea about what exactly the positive and negative impacts of WeChat are on their life. Also there was no attempt to notify those effects too. Although most of the students were using WeChat for communication and messaging purposes, some of them use WeChat for exchanging information and sharing their knowledge with friends so it is possible for students to actively use WeChat for sharing their knowledge, experiences and information with classmates and profession related individuals by creating class groups and online discussion along with using WeChat for being in contact with close friends and family.

  85. Dr. Radhika, K. and Balaram Naik, M.

    The Scheduled Tribe inhabitants represents one of the mainly economically poor and marginalized groups in Andhra Pradesh. With residents of more than 28 lakhs, Andhra Pradesh is one of the major tribal population States in India. This constitutes 5.53 % per cent of the total population of the State Census of India, 2011. The STs reside in the lowest rung in the educational ranking. Census report (2011) reveals that the literacy rate of STs has been 48.80% which is less in comparison to general population literacy rate (67.40%). The Andhra Pradesh State achieved a significant objective with performance of “Andhra Pradesh Tribal Sub-Plan Act.No1 of 2013 Tribal sub plan TSP has allotted an amount of Rs. 3495.05 (2.17%) crores the govt. Fixed allotment as 5.33% (8581.3 crores) of total out lay, but the government expended an amount of Rs. 2215.40 crores i.e.; 25.81% and the remaining amount 6365.9 crores (74.18%) of tribal sub plan fund was diverted to another departments in 2013 – 2014. The government expended an amount of Rs. 1452.45 crores i.e.; 24.36% and the remaining amount 4507.8 crores (75.63%) of tribal sub plan fund was diverted to another departments in 2014 – 2015. Government expended an amount of Rs. 1928.97 crores i.e.; 32.01% and the remaining amount 4096.6 crores (67.99%) of tribal sub plan fund was diverted to another departments in 2015 – 2016. Tribal sub plan TSP has allotted an amount of Rs. 4176.61 (2.18%) crores the government Fixed allotment as 5.33% (10183.7 crores) of total out lay, but the government expended an amount of Rs. 3537.94 crores i.e.; 34.74% and the remaining amount 6675.8 crores (65.26%) of tribal sub plan fund was diverted to another departments in 2018 – 2019. TSP has allotted an amount of Rs. 4988.51 (2.18%) crores, but the government expended an amount of Rs. 4988.51 crores i.e.; 41.05% and the remaining amount 7163.4 crores (58.95%) of tribal sub plan fund was diverted to another departments in 2019 – 2020. The total allocations for the year 2020-21 are Rs.5177.54. the year 2020-21. Anyhow some benefits and developments are progressed in education, health, infrastructure, etc. in tribal areas in the Tribal sub plan Era.

  86. Manik Silvia Dewi, I G.A., I Wayan Parsa, and Desak Putu Dewi Kasih

    The purpose of this study is to examine this paper regarding the transfer of functions of rules regarding building use rights contained in the main agrarian law and Government Regulation No. 40 of 1996, in line with the principles of sustainable tourism development. The research method used is a type of normative legal research, which departs from an empty norm, with a statutory approach, a comparative approach and a conceptual approach. The legal materials for this research are sourced from primary legal materials, secondary legal materials and tertiary legal materials. The result of this research is that there is a legal vacuum in regulating ownership of rights to build, in the future there will be restrictions on ownership of rights to build by legal entities, because to ensure the principle of justice and equal opportunities for other legal entities.

  87. Dr. Athanasia Gaitanidou and Kokkoni Drampala, MEd.

    The paper studies teachers’ digital communication channels, records the problems they encountered with parents and students, and evaluates the problems students faced. The results of the study showed that teachers found both formal and informal communication channels to cope with distance learning processes. One of the main problems teachers pointed out is the lack of digital infrastructure and digital literacy of parents and students. Finally, most students experienced negative feelings during their lessons. The study concludes to the need of addressing students’ mental health issues during a pandemic and the digital support of schools to address emergencies in the future.

  88. Cristóbal González Ballesteros, PHD Student

    Historical centers (HC) are confronted with a diverse functional reality where different environmental factors or variables could break precarious equilibriums becoming complex spaces of indefinite limits which result from urbanizing processes imposed city model by official planning. Through a research documentary, it´s been tried to synthesize art´s state in the subject of resilience of HC in coastal cities with functional problems, to establish a whole designed model of resilience, which regards as a system, the various subsystems in balance with all environmental factors, which guarantees urban sustainability. To have a whole plan for it´s resilience will allow institutions involved in urban development to create effective programs, contributing to sustainable development of the city.

  89. Govind S Magar and Prof. Hemant Salunkhe

    The supplier performance has a significant effect on the competitiveness in implementation Just-In-Time and entire supply chain. In this paper, the supplier performance effected in Just-In-Time implementation was described, the supplier must be introduced and developed before being an approved Just-In-Time supplier. Considering, the importance of supplier performance as a part of Just-In-Time implementation, the Just-In-Time will not be successful if no good cooperation from supplier in term of quality and business point of view. This paper proposed the strategies in managing vendor called Vendor Management System (VMS), which shown in the management flow model for development the supplier performance to reach ready state before entering the Just-In-Time. The Vendor Management System (VMS) identifies five phases starting from qualification, measuring, analyzing, implementing and maintaining the supplier performance. The Vendor Management Team (VMT) will implement each VMS phase as proposed steps at a periodic timeframe. The suppliers who reach the ready state level as company goal and expectation will be selected to enter the Just-in-time program. An example of vendor management model in an electronics manufacturer in Thailand showed the effectiveness of the system through the yearly performance and incoming quality lot acceptance rate.

  90. Esraa Elazab, Sherief Sheta, Khaled Tarabieh and Ahmed Eltawil

    Background: Water issues related to scarcity, drought and quality are serious problems in many countries worldwide. In the building sector; water efficiency has a vital rule in achieving sustainability. Buildings rating systems are a way to measure the water efficiency in buildings but most of the rating systems consider only the direct water use and neglect the embodied water. Objectives: The research aims at evaluating the total water footprint of buildings; in order to analyze the aspects affecting the sustainability of the project and to configure the best strategies which could be used to improve water efficiency. Methods: The research adopts the water footprint assessment; which takes into account direct and indirect water use and the blue and grey WFPs; to assess the water footprint of a social housing project in Egypt. To account for the indirect water footprint Athena IE and BEES softwares are used and for direct water LEED V4 water use reduction calculator is used. Results: The results showed that the direct WFP/ year for one building was found to be 17 times greater than its embodied WFP and there were disparity between the results of the blue, grey, direct and embodied WFPs. Conclusion: The research showed the importance of considering embodied water footprint in addition to direct water footprint. The research concluded the opportunities available for improving the water efficiency in the project.

  91. Ahmed Eltawil, Alaa Eleishy, AsmaaElbadrawy, Marcelo Nolasco and Esraa Elazab

    Background: Climatic changes are affecting many coastal areas in the world, which are exposed to the risk of flooding due to sea level rise and changing patterns of rainfall. Strategies regarding dealing with climatic changes impacts in coastal areas are different from one country to another; while some cities are conducting plans for protection like Santos in Brazil; there are new cities that are under construction, in flood risk coastal areas like New-Mansoura in Egypt. Objectives: The research aims at providing criteria for the urban planning in New-Mansoura, in order to improve its adaptation. Methods: The research depends on, studying the adaptation strategies, which could mitigate the effects of climatic changes and make cities more resilient and analyzing the situation in Santos as an existing coastal city which adopted some strategies for adaptation. Analyze the situation of New-Mansoura as a new coastal city with no adaptation strategies in order to conFigure the opportunities and challenges for each city and develop criteria for improving the urban planning for facing sea level rise. Results: The research results showed that Santos city need to adopt more connection between green and grey infrastructure; and regarding New-Mansoura adopting green infrastructure and raising the level of the city in addition to sea walls and barriers. Conclusion: Building new coastal cities in the circumstances of climate change is challenging, and having no adaptation plans may lead to serious problems, so precautions must be considered through the design phase and before the end of construction.

  92. Dr. Sheetal Jankare, Dr. Prafull Parchake and Dr. Sachin Katole

    Myofunctional therapy has been widely used for correction of developing Class II malocclusion. Since its inception various concepts about its mechanism of action has been proposed and investigated. However, not a single theory has been widely recognized. This review is an attempt to evaluate and compare all the theories described in orthodontic literature regarding working mechanism of myofunctional therapy in general and twin block appliance in particular. Subject Area: orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics Keywords: myofunctional appliance, twin block, mechanism of action.

  93. Dr. Priya Saxena

    The gender inequality is not just a conventional thought but a scientific reality, hence males dominate. Patriarchy is the outcome of male dominance in the long run. The rule of male gender snuffs away the possibility of unbiased equality for the rest, and Indian society has been quite inflexible towards doling out equal rights to female and neuter gender, transgenders, and those defying gender roles as laid down by convention. Dattani’s plays spotlight the reality of modern Indian society where social bias and gender roles assigned to individuals subscribing to socially accepted norms regarding gender, and those deviated from these narrow parameters are shunned by the patriarchal order of the society. Such a social system looks at a male as having higher potential, thus bestowing them with greater privileges, while female is usually underestimated, and even their actual potential is ignored. In this research paper, I aim to discuss the issue of patriarchy undertaken by Dattani in his plays.

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