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August 2017

  1. Amala, Smart Enoch and Onwuli, Dodatus Onukwufor

    Samples of ready to eat suya and suya spice ingredients obtained from suya sellers in five zones of Port Harcourt were examined to assess their bacterial burden. The mean colonial counts from the suya samples were: Diobu; 4.71 cfu/g, Rumuokuta; 4.53 cfu/g, Rumueme; 4.33 cfu/g, Rumuokoro; 4.87 cfu/g and Rumuola; 4.85 cfu/g; while the mean colonial counts from suya spiced ingredients were: Diobu 5.81 cfu/g, Rumokuta 5.29 cfu/g, Rumueme 5.32 cfu/g, Rumuokoro 5.78 cfu/g and Rumuola 5.81cfu/g. From the r+esults, four genera of bacteria were isolated from roasted suya meats and five genera of bacteria from suya spice ingredients. Statistical analysis did not show significant difference at P>0.05 in mean counts of bacteria from suya and suya spice ingredients sold at different locations. Suya and suya spice ingredients sold in the above parts of Port Harcourt are bacteriologically unsafe; the isolation of possible potential pathogens are of public health concern.

  2. Dr. K.N. Rattan, Dr. Aastha, Dr. Shruti Bansal, Dr. Manpreet Tanwar and Dr. Swati Vashishth

    Background: Thyroglossal ductal anomalies classically manifest as painless midline anterior neck swelling. Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation. Objective: The aim of present study is to review cases diagnosed with thyroglossal ductal anomalies and the subsequent approach to management. Methods: The medical records of patients diagnosed with thyroglossal duct cysts and fistula from January 2001 till June 2016 were retrospectively analysed. Results: A total of 43 patients were included of which 28 were males and 15 were females accounting for male to female ratio of 1.9:1. The age ranged from 4 days to 15 years. Twenty three cases (53.48%) presented with discharging thyroglossal fistula while twenty cases(46.51%) as a painless cystic neck swelling. The most common site of the cyst was infrahyoid in 25 cases (58.14%). Conclusion: Thyroglossal ductal anomalies should be diagnosed and managed surgicall yearly to prevent fistula formationand recurrence. Sistrunk operation is the surgery of choice at our centre.

  3. Justin Agorye Ingwu, R.N., Augustine kingsley Nnanyere, R.N., Chidinma Ogbonnaya and Wasini Kenneth Belibodei, R.N.

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common type of cancer in men and constitutes a major public health issue. This study examined the effect of a church-based intervention to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening among men attending Saint Mary’s Catholic Church, Enugu, Nigeria. A quasi-experimental one group pretest-posttest design was adopted for the study. The participants comprised of 50 men 40-70 years attending Saint Mary’s Catholic Church, Enugu. A researcher developed questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection pre and post intervention. Statistical analysis for association was performed using ANOVA. Result revealed that mean age of the participants was 54+12.9 years. Majority 36(72%) had not heard of prostate cancer at pre-intervention versus 50(100%) at post-intervention (p < 0.05) Few 15(30%) of the participants were aware of screening tests for prostate cancer at pre intervention versus 50 (100%) at post intervention. It was recommended that initiation of cancer teachings in churches and public places should be intensified. There should be free screening for prostate cancer for all men.

  4. Dr. Manjisha M. Litake and Dr. Kaushal Kumar Rai

    The Meigs' syndrome is defined as the presence of ascites & hydrothorax associated with a benign ovarian tumor mostly fibroma that disappears after the removal of the tumor. Joe Vincent Meigs (1892-1963), a professor of the Harvard Medical School of Gynecology drew attention to the syndrome (Lurie, 2000; Griffin, 1996). Meigs' syndrome is a strange clinical entity that is also considered to be an uncommon complication of fibroma of the female genital tract. The more frequently observed type of ovarian tumor is the fibroma. Ovarian fibroma represents 2 to 5% of ovarian tumor and out of this only 1 to 2% of cases present as Meigs syndrome. Ascites in ovarian fibroma present in 10 to 15% of cases while hydrothorax in only 1% of cases. It is accepted that the uterine tumors such as the fibromas, although common, can be associated to ascites and hydrothorax, as well as leiomyoma of the broad ligament. The presumptive diagnosis of this pathology is basically clinical in spite of the priceless value that imaging techniques like ultrasonography, contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) have in confirming the presence of ascites, pleural effusion and the characteristics of the ovarian tumor. Cytomorphology of the pleural and ascitic liquid is also used as well as the serum levels of carcinogenic antigen-125 (CA-125) to discard the malignancy of the ovarian tumor that is associated with the syndrome. The definitive diagnosis is usually postoperative. All the signs and symptoms of Meigs' syndrome disappear with the surgical excision of the ovarian tumor by means of the abdominal surgery.

  5. Shashikala Prabhu, Krishnamoorthy, S.H. and Savitha Sathyaprasad

    A wide variety of functional/orthopaedic appliances are available for the correction of Class II skeletal and occlusal disharmonies. Twin block is a functional appliance described by Clark (1982) in United Kingdom. It is effective in correcting Class II malocclusion with a combination of skeletal (mainly restriction of maxillary growth) and dento-alveolar modifications which effectively modify occlusal inclined plane and induce favourably directed occlusal force by causing a mandibular displacement. The main objective of therapy with functional appliances such as Twin Block is to induce supplementary lengthening of the mandible by stimulating increased growth at the condylar cartilage. The use of functional appliances mainly depends on their cooperation. Once in a while cases with multiple problems do come which calls for change in the conventional design. Here is a case of a 14 year old girl with class 2 division 1 malocclusion with congenitally missing lower central incisor treated with modification of twin block appliance.

  6. Dr. Sonal Jain, Dr. Kirit Jadav and Dr. Pragati Rastogi

    Primary pancreatic hydatid disease is rare. The diagnosis may be difficult when the presentation is that of an unexplained epigastric mass, despite suggestive of radiological and ultrasonic features. We describe a 32-year-old female in whom the definitive diagnosis was only made on histopathology.

  7. Dr. Mitra, J.K. and Dr. Ganesh Chandra Subudhi

    Aims and Objective: The world today is witnessing epidemic of Diabetes Mellitus. It is a chronic disorder with multiorgan involvement. The aim of the present study 25(OH) Vitamin D3 as a causative factor in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes Mellitus. Material and Methods: The present study was undertaken in the Department of General Medicine, RIMS, Ranchi. A total of 100 patients with Type 2 DM were included in the study and 40 controls were included. The quantitative determination of Vitamin D in human serum and plama was done using Chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) with a flexible assay protocols, reffered as Chemiflex. Results: Of the total 100 cases 62(62%) were males and 38(38%) cases were female .Out of the total 100 cases 98(98%) were Vitamin D deficient and among controls out 0f 40 , 36(90%) were Vitamin D deficient. There was a negative correlation of serum Vitamin D level with FBS (r= -0.339). Conclusion: The general population is deficient in serum Vitamin D level and in diabetes mellitus patients it is still lower than the non diabetic control group. In view of the high incidence of Vitamin D deficiency across general population a long term follow up involving large number of patients is necessary to substantiate the relationship between Vitamin D deficiency in diabetes mellitus

  8. Dr. Amit Mani, Dr. Shubhangi Mani, Dr. Raju Anarthe, Dr. Shivani Sachdeva, Dr. Sekharamantri Anuraga and Dr. Prachi Shukla

    Regenerative periodontal surgeries are performed to stimulate lost periodontal tissues that were affected by periodontal disease. Surgical procedures involving root conditioning, autografts, allografts, xenografts, non-bone graft materials and even barrier membranes for guided tissue regeneration (GTR) have been used successfully in regenerative procedures. Enamel matrix derivative (EMD, Emdogain®) is one such modality, which has been designated as Osteopromotive, is used to promote periodontal regeneration, consisting of a formulation of amelogenin proteins derived from six month- old piglets. Being a xenograft and its tendency for stimulating immune reaction has led to numerous studies in-vitro and in- vivo both in animals and humans. Studies have been conducted not only focusing on the safety and effectiveness but also in terms of wound healing and in combination with other regenerative materials available. Through this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the derivative of enamel matrix, Emdogain

  9. Jagjit Singh, Rina Singh, Ramandeep Singh Gambhir, Rupali Mahajan and Akhilesh Shewale

    Aggressive periodontitis renders a great challenge to the conventional implant due to the risks of infection and ongoing marginal bone loss (MBL).The “All-on-Four” concept is based on the placement off our implants (two axial and two tilted implants) in the anterior part of fully edentulous jaws to support a provisional, fixed, and immediately loaded full-arch prosthesis. Little is available about this treatment modality in patient with aggressive periodontitis. The following case report describes a case of Full Mouth Rehabilitation using All on 4 Implant concept in a female patient with Generalised Aggressive Periodontitis followed up for 4 years.

  10. Jilu Ji Merin, Athira PC, Althaf Majeed and Sujith Varma

    The COPD condition experience co-morbid symptoms of cardiovascular disease, diabetes meleitus, anemia, depression, anxiety, GERD, obstructive sleep apnoea, cachexia, muscle wasting and osteoporosis. Depression is the major co-morbidity in COPD and are associated with poor prognosis. The occurance of depression in a community have a strong relationship with low level of education, poor socio-economic condition and advance in age. COPD exacerbations have a negative impact on pulmonary functions, health related quality of life and patient survival. Frequent exacerbations are more seen in depressive patients than in normal patients. Severe dyspnoea, progressive irreversible condition and associated hypoxia may be responsibe for the organic causes of depression in severe COPD patients. Simple questionnaires are used to diagnose depression in COPD patient. Antidepressant drug therapy are effective in the treatment of moderative severe depression in patients with COPD.

  11. Ayat Abou El Nasr Awaad El shafei and Mohamed Abouelnaga Mohamed Belih

    Back ground: Nasal obstruction is one of the commonest annoying symptoms of Sepal deviation, this deviation is usually accompanied by compensatory hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate on the concave side which increase nasal obstruction. Objectives: To evaluate nasal obstruction after septoplasty by measure size of the inferior turbinate and Nasal Surgical Questionnaire (NSQ) score in patients with nasal septum deviation with compensatory turbinate hypertrophy. Patients & Methods: This is study of 50 patients, complaining mainly of nasal obstruction. Otolaryngological examination had shown nasal septum deviation with compensatory hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate. The cross sectional areas of inferior turbinates were measured with computed tomography preoperatively & 6 months postoperatively. All patient answerd NSQ preoperatively & 6 months postoperatively. All the patients underwent only septoplasty without inferior turbinate surgery. Results: The thickness of inferior turbinates on the concave side were significantly decreased after 6 months of septoplasty, while that of convex sides significantly increased. NSQ score show significant post operative improvement. Conclusion: only without turbinate surgery is effective in improving the nasal obstruction in patients with nasal septum deviation & compensatory inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Septoplasty alone can reverse the size of inferior turbinate. Pre and postoperative NSQ score after Septoplasty resulted in a statistically significant improvement in nasal obstruction

  12. Dr. Karthick Sekar, Dr. Radhika Rawal, Dr. Arva Kapasi and Dr. Prabhu Manickam Natarajan

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of buccal fat pad as interpositioning material in surgical management of oral submucous fibrosis. Search strategy: Used Medline, Pubmed, Mesh. English literature articles and human trials were searched for. Selection criterias: Articles were selected which used Buccal Pad Fat after fibrotomy for management of oral submucous fibrosis. Non randomised single interventions and retrospective trials were selected. Data collection and analysis: The primary outcome was assessment of postoperative mouth opening as compared to preoperative mouth opening using buccal pad of fat as interpositional material after fibrotomy in oral submucous fibrosis management in the experimental group in parallel design studies. Analyses were undertaken for the items assessed for quality and publication bias. Results: The primary outcome of the review to assess the postoperative mouth opening compared to preoperative mouth opening using buccal pad of fat as interpositional material after fibrotomy in oral submucous fibrosis. Secondary outcomes included assessment of recurrence, time taken for epithelisation, donor site morbidity. Four trials provided data for this review. No studies fulfil all the methodological quality assessment criteria. Conclusion: The data shows significant increase in mouth opening postoperatively with use of buccal pad of fat as interpositional material after fibrotomy in oral submucous fibrosis. No sufficient evidence of studies to prove that buccal pad is most reliable interpositional material for buccal mucosa reconstruction in oral submucous fibrosis due to heterogeneity in studies and lack of randomised controlled trials to reach to a concrete conclusion.

  13. Dr. Nishi Gupta, Dr. Aditi Sehgal and Dr. Seema Kumari

    Teratomas are germ cell- derived tumours occurring most commonly in the gonads. Mature cystic teratomas are also known as dermoid cysts, occur most commonly in the ovaries. A 36 year old para 2 live 2 female presented in SDMH OPD with lower abdominal pain. USG showed inhomogenous, almost solid mass in left adnexal region, with faint posterior shadowing of size about 7.7 x 3.2 x 4.2 cms. Laparascopic removal of the mass done along with left salpingtectomy. Histopathological examination revealed mature cystic teratoma of left fallopian tube.

  14. Dr. Nagaraj G. Mulimani and Dr. Panchal Vinayak

    Pumsavana Krama is one of important concept mentioned in ancient Ayurveda. It is preferably used to achieve the desirable child. Some of the theories postulated to determined the sex of embryo by our Ayurvedic Acharyas under the heading of Pumsavana Karma and general public is curious to know mystery of this concept. To determine sex of future offspring is an offence now a days because of many factors. The scientific review of this concept with modern embryology is felt. Study of modern embryological development process of urogenital system regarding the determination of sex is considerable to prove the efficacy and mode of action of Pumsavana Karma and the Drugs related. Drugs used for Pumsavana Karma are directly or indirectly acts on the pituitary gland and stimulates the secretion of hormones are responsible for the particular gonadal and sex organs development in male or female baby. For desirable results one should follow the methodology of Pumsavana karma as explained by Acharyas to see its mystery. How the drugs used during the procedure helps in the development of internal & external male and female urogenital system is discussed and conclusion is required further study.

  15. Dr. Suresh Kumar Meena, Rupesh Kumar and Sairoz

    Cancer results from deregulation of cellular pathways, leading to rapid multiplication of cells that trigger formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis), which are required for tumour growth. A marker of angiogenesis thus can help in management of tumour. In this regard, serum nitric oxide was measured in breast cancer patients. Several tumour cell lines found to express enzyme NO synthase. In tissues with increased production of NO, reaction of nitrogen and oxygen (O2) leads to reactive nitrogen species like dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) and peroxynitrite (ONOO). These reactive nitrogen species will inhibit DNA repair system and also cause oxidative and nitosative stress Objective/Aim: Aim of this study was to measure and compare serum nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in biopsy proven breast cancer patients and healthy controls Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included 46 newly diagnosed (preoperative) breast cancer female patients (Mean Age =56±12 years). Controls consisted of 46 healthy females were included in the study with no previous disease, alcohol or any drug consumption. Blood samples were collected from all the subjects into empty red capped vacutainer and were analyzed for serum Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite. Results: Nitric oxide (NO) and Peroxynitrite were significantly increased in breast cancer patients compared with controls. Conclusions: Stimulation of host defence system against tumor growth results in elevated NO levels in cancer patients. Over expression of Nitric oxide may lead to DNA damage by synthesis of carcinogenic nitrosamines, production of RNS and inhibition of DNA damage repair enzyme mechanism.

  16. Arka Swarnakar, Samarth Kumar Agarwal, Romil Singhal and Swatantra Agarwal

    Aim: To evaluate the amount of adherence Streptococcus mutans on polished denture surface after being polished by three different polishing agents. Materials and Methods: After polymerization and finishing the samples of heat activated polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin were mechanically polished with pumice, tripoli and aluminum oxide paste. The surface topography was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Streptococcus mutans was cultured on them and after 24 hours number of adhered colonies were calculated by counting the number of colonies using florescent microscopy. Results: Roughness average (Ra)values obtained from SEM images of PMMA samples polished with tripoli, resilit, pumice and unpolished control were 0.52 µm, 0.68µm, 3.07µm and 3.45µm, respectively. Number of Streptococcus mutans colonies on samples polished with tripoli, resilit, pumice and unpolished control were 8.10 CFU/µm2, 13.20CFU/µm2, 19.90CFU/µm2 and 33.20 CFU/µm2, respectively. An increase in surface smoothness resulted in a significant decrease of adherence. (p=0.02) Conclusion: Tripoli resulted in producing the smoothest surface among all other groups while pumice gave the most rough surface. Adherence of Streptococcus mutans was least for tripoli polished samples and highest in case of those polished using pumice. As a result it was concluded that microbial adherence decreased with the increase in surface smoothness.

  17. Dr. Yogesh Kalyanpad and Vidya Kharkar

    Background: Neonates show presence of number of lesions which may be physiological or pathological. It is important to know the different lesions and their characteristics and their incidence Aim: Aim of the study was to identify the skin findings in neonatal life and epidemiological prevalence of various neonatal skin findings in tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, Method: A total of 300 neonates from post natal ward, PICU, NICU were included in the study over a period of 6 months after taking proper consent from parents. Results: Out of 300 neonates, the commonest skin condition were being transient neonatal dermatoses 255 cases (85%), physiological changes were seen in 226 newborns (75.3%), nevi were seen in 69 cases (23%), genodermatoses were seen in 10 cases (3.33), infections were seen in 33 cases (11%), dermatitis were seen in 46 cases (15.33%), and 11 (3.67%) cases of various mixed conditions were studied. Limitations - Limitations of our studies were involvement of single tertiary centre however further studies are required with adequate sample size for further correlation. Conclusions: Our study represents a better prevalence of neonatal skin findings with significant association and adequate representation according to gestational age i.e. preterm, term and post term

  18. Ms. Divya R Nair and Dr. Vetriselvi, P

    Background and Objective: Hyperbilirubinemia is a disorder, which is manifested by yellow discoloration of tissue and skin of a neonate. Phototherapy is considered as the prime treatment for neonatal jaundice. Phototherapy is used as a treatment modality of neonatal jaundice for more than a century, and it is considered to be easily accessible and causes no harm. Even though conventional phototherapy is used as the method of treatment of hyperbilirubinemia, little is known about the ways to enhance its effect further. If the duration of phototherapy can be reduced by any means this would be very effective not only for the well being of the neonates but also it can reduce the duration of hospital stay, the aim of the study was to assess the effect of white curtain around the phototherapy unit on hyperbilirubinemia in term neonates and to compare with conventional phototherapy units. Methodology: A randomized controlled trial was used. The neonates included were term neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. Conventional phototherapy with curtains (n=47) were compared with those without curtains (n=47). The main outcomes measured were the duration of phototherapy and the rate of decline of serum bilirubin level. The control group was treated by standard phototherapy without cover around the unit and the experimental group received standard phototherapy with white curtain around the phototherapy unit. After enrollment, the total serum bilirubin was measured every 24 hours for 4 days. The cover was made of white cotton cloth which covered three sides of the phototherapy unit and one side was left uncovered for observing the newborn or for performing procedures. The distance between the infant and the phototherapy lamps was approximately 40cm. For all the infants under study, before starting phototherapy serum bilirubin was measured. While under phototherapy, neonates were left uncovered except for eye pads and diapers. Duration of phototherapy was recorded in hours. Results: There was no significant difference in the gestational age, birth weight, postnatal age at time of admission, birth weight and blood group of the mother between the two groups. Total serum bilirubin level in the curtained group declined significantly in 24 hours (p=0.00) and 48 hours (p=0.004). However no reduction in serum bilirubin level was noted after 72 hours (p=0.7) and 96 hours (p=0.8) of phototherapy. The duration of phototherapy was reduced in the experimental group (49.5±18.9) when compared to control group (62.8±17.7) (p=0.0007). Conclusion: White curtain around the phototherapy unit is an effective method in reducing the serum bilirubin level and at the same time it also reduces the duration of phototherapy. This can be used as a cost effect and non invasive method for the treatment of neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. The white curtain when made into practice can serve as a method that will reduce the hospital stay of the neonates thereby reducing the cost of treatment.

  19. Dr. Sujatha, S. Dr. Asha Iyengar, Dr. Pruthvish, Dr. Rizwana Azmi and Dr. Priyadharshini

    The purpose of the paper was to review the ever growing threat of tobacco and its ill effects and the role of DHPs (Dental Health Professionals) in curbing this menace. Materials and Methods: Several publications and books were electronically searched in google using the keywords “Role of DHPs in tobacco cessation”, “Strategies to reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality”, and “Dental office an ideal setting for tobacco cessation services”. The search was limited to articles and books in the English literature. To prepare a thorough review the contents were screened between the year 1992 to 2015 by going through the title and abstracts, and further short listing articles for full text reading. Conclusion: The present review revealed that DHPs are largely the untapped resource for providing effective tobacco intervention services. DHPs can play a vital role in helping patients quit using tobacco which can be very beneficial and cost effective as well.

  20. Ekka Anju, K., Aparna, R., Krishnamurthy, Bage Uday, S. and Gomathi

    Introduction: Overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk of deaths, resulting in around 2.8 million deaths of adults globally every year. Studies show also in India obesity and overweight are more common especially among women. Most of the women not aware about the co-morbid effects of these. Among various co-morbid condition hypertension also one of the condition developed due to obesity and overweight. Methods: Cross sectional survey design was used for this study. By using convenience sampling method 300 females were selected for the study. The data was collected using semi structured questionnaires. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results: The result shows that 36% of women were having obesity their BMI value is more than 25, and 11% of women under weight, only 23 % of samples were having normal BMI value. Based on waist circumference 43.7% of women were comes under obesity and 33% of them were having overweight. And 69 women were having hypertension. There is a significant association with the vigorous physical activity with BMI and WC and moderate physical activity outside home with BMI value but there is no any association with WC.There is a significant association between BMI and WC with hypertension. Conclusions: More than half of the women having abnormal body mass index(BMI) and abnormal deviation from normal blood pressure. The study concluded that rural women also under high risk for getting obesity related physical problems.

  21. Viswam Athira, Kaviyabala, D., Sayujya, C.P., Thakur Varsh and Buvaneswari

    Background: Perceived self-efficacy is defined as people's beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives. Self-efficacy beliefs determine how people feel, think, motivate themselves and behave. If students believe in their capabilities, they would use their maximal efforts in different situations. Self-efficacy is vital for nursing students and clinical nurses. Methodology: Cross sectional descriptive survey design was used. All nursing students of College of Nursing, JIPMER were considered as the population of the study. Convenience sampling was used and 341 participants participated. General Self-Efficacy Scale was used to collect the data Results: The study results suggested that the General Self-Efficacy was high among 53.07% of nursing students; remaining 46.92% were having low self-efficacy. An association was found for general self efficacy with socio-demographic variables viz., gender, and year of study. Conclusion: The study concluded that 53.7% of nursing students were having high self and 49.92% of students were having low self efficacy.

  22. Faisal Hayat, Allah Bux Kachiwal, Ahmed Nawaz Tunio, Muhammad Ghiasuddin Shah and Abdullah Sether

    This study was conducted on dogs to determine the best suturing technique from single layer inverting and double layer inverting suture techniques for cystotomy. Total 12 dogs were used and were divided in two Groups (A and B) placing six animals in each at random. In group-A the cystotomy incision was closed with single layer inverting suturing technique, while in group-B the bladder wound was closed with double layer inverting suturing technique in which a simple continuous pattern was followed by cushing suturing pattern. Both techniques were evaluated by physical examination, ultrasonography, post-operative complications, leakage, and post-mortem examination. Results showed that more number of stitches and more time taken for the closure of cystotomy wound in double layer inverting suturing technique. No any leakage from operated urinary bladder in both groups. Adhesion were seen more in group A as compared to group B, while bursting pressure was greater in group-B as compared to group-A. It was concluded that double layer inverting suture technique was the better suturing technique as compared to single layer inverting suturing technique for cystotomy in dogs

  23. Dr. Shikha Rastogi, Dr. Roopa Jatti and Dr. Santosh D. Patil

    Background and Objectives: There should a balance between the forces of the tongue from within the dental arches and compensating action of the lips and cheek musculature. Alterations in function of the facial muscle can establish changes in facial skeleton and in the development of malocclusion. The role of lips in determining the facial morphology and the tooth position has intrigued dental researchers for decades. Thus this prospective study was carried out to ultrasonographically measure the lip thickness in class II division 1 malocclusion cases and compare with class I subjects. Methodology: Patients reporting to the Department of Orthodontics, for fixed orthodontic treatment between 18-25 years were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria and 30 subjects (15 class 1 occlusion and 15 class 2 div I malocclusion) were included in the study. Ultrasonographic measurements were made for upper and lower lip in relaxed and contracted states; which were divided into three regions i.e. right, middle and left in both the groups and the resultant data was subjected to analysis. Results: Thickness of oral musculature of different sites of the lower lip were increased in skeletal class II division 1group as compared to skeletal class I group in the contracted state and in relaxed state. A more predisposition towards females was observed in skeletal class II division 1group.

  24. Dr. Manasa, S. and Dr. Asima Banu

    Background: Infection of the skin graft is the common complication leading to failure of the graft. Successful skin graft “TAKE” is less likely to occur on experimental or clinical wounds that contain more than 105 viable bacteria per gram of tissue. Skin graft infection with organisms forming biofilm puts a great financial burden on patients and could lead to morbidity and mortality. Appropriate pre and post operative wound care, adequate antibiotic therapy and surgical strategies must be described to eradicate infection. For the above reason this study was done. Methods: It is a prospective cross sectional study where 100 patients having skin graft infection were included in the study from Feb 2014 – July 2015; The study was conducted in the department of Microbiology B&LCH, samples were taken from patients attending plastic surgery department. Results: Skin grafting done for burn wounds was the one most commonly affected both in males and females .Pseudomonas aueriginosa was the organism most commonly isolated and also the organism causing biofilm followed by Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella spp. No anaerobes and fungal species were isolated. Unhygienic practices and Diabetes Mellitus were found to be important risk factors. Biofilm forming organisms were commonly associated with antibiotic resistance, so even aggressive antibiotic therapy was also inadequate to eliminate infection. Conservative surgical treatment (debridement) was necessary. Conclusion: The gram negative bacteria are more predominant as causative agents of skin graft infections than the gram positive bacteria. The commonest organism causing skin graft infection and forming biofilm is pseudomonas species. Appropriate pre and post operative wound care ,adequate antibiotic therapy, and surgical strategies must be described to eradicate infection.

  25. Ruchira wadhwa, Purvi Patel, Hansa Goswami and Shveta

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB), which is one of the oldest diseases known to affect humans and is a major cause of death worldwide. Primarily considered to be a pulmonary disease, TB can affect almost any organ. The term “extrapulmonary TB” has been used to describe the isolated occurrence of TB at body sites other than the lung. Lymphadenitis is the most common extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis. . Over the last two to three decades, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has emerged as a simple out-patient diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Aims and objectives: To study cytomorphologic appearances of tuberculosis in FNAC in suspected Tuberculous lymphadenitis, to detect the presence of acid fast organism on these aspirates using Ziehl-Neelsen stain as well as correlate the cytomorphological findings with Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Material and Method: A retrospective study was done on 650 patients which presented with lymphadenopathy to Civil hospital, Ahmedabad between January 2016 to September 2016. Fine needle aspiration and routine staining with H&E, PAP and MGG was one. Also special staining with Ziehl Nelson staining was done. The slides were examined microscopically and categorised into various light microscopic patterns. The results of confirmed as well as suspicious tuberculous cases on FNAC were compared with those of AFB staining . Results: In the present study, 650 cases of lymphadenopathy were studied out which 277 cases were of tuberculosis (42.7%). 21-40 years was the most common age group involved with tuberculous lymphadenitis and females were more commonly afflicted than men (Female: Male ratio – 1.3:1). Out of all the cytomorphological patterns, Caseating Koch’s lymphadenitis is the most common. Of all the positive cases on FNAC, 71.4 % cases showed AFB positivity. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration cytology is a safe, cheap procedure requiring minimal instrumentation and is highly sensitive to diagnose tuberculous lymphadenitis. The sensitivity can be further increased by complementing cytomorphology with acid fast staining. In acid fast staining negative cases, yield of acid fast bacilli positivity can be increased by doing Ziehl-Neelsen staining on second smear or decolourized smear revealing necrosis or by repeat

  26. Dr. Fasalulla, O., Dr. Akhilesh, A. V., Dr. C. R. Sobhana, Dr. Sandhya, K., Dr. Ravindran, V. and Dr. Sandeep Rajan

    Background: Odontogenic infections are commonly encountered in the dental hospital. One of the oldest controversies in the field of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is whether or not to extract teeth immediately in the presence of acute infection. Many dentists and physicians still believe that extraction of teeth in the presence of an acute infection may cause the organism to seed into the fascial spaces and cause spread of infection in the host. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to compare immediate and delayed extraction in the presence of acute infection and to provide the clinician evidence based recommendations on the extraction of teeth in the presence of acute infection. Patients & Methods: Fifty patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected. Extraction was performed in Group 1 at the first visit itself and postoperative antimicrobial coverage was given. Extraction was performed in Group 2 after antimicrobial coverage and continued the postoperative medication. All patients in both the groups were given same type of antibiotic and analgesic. Two groups were evaluated for pain, mouth opening, duration of treatment and medication, cost of the treatment and no. of visits. Results: Significant differences were not observed for pre and postoperative pain and mouth opening between the groups. Early extraction of teeth reduced the duration of treatment, duration of antibiotic and analgesic therapy, cost of the treatment and number of hospital visits and hence increased overall patient comfort. Conclusion: Extraction of acutely infected or abscessed teeth as early as possible prevents the spread of infection in to the fascial spaces and thus reduces the patient discomfort. The belief that the extraction of an infected tooth might spread the infection is unsubstantiated.

  27. Dr. Krishna Arpita Sahoo, Dr. Subrat Kumar Behera, Dr. Prasenjit baliarsingh and Dr. Rajat Dash

    Hydatid cyst is a parasitic infection of the human caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus. Hydatid cyst of the head and neck region is uncommon and the involvement of salivary glands, especially the submandibular gland is very rare. We report a case of isolated hydatid cyst of left submandibular gland. An 11-year-old female presented with a slowly growing painless swelling of left submandibular region since 4 months. Fine needle aspiration cytology yielded fluid aspirate and smear showed fragment of laminated membrane, suggestive of HC. FNAC was suggestive of lymphatic cyst of left submandibular region .Ultrasonography of neck was suggestive of a cystic mass with internal debris. The cyst was excised as a whole along with submandibular gland and it was sent for histopathological examination. Pathological examination confirmed the swelling to be a hydatid cyst of the left submandibular gland.

  28. Asiegbu, U. V., Asiegbu, O. G., Ezeanosike, O. B., Ikefuna, A. N. and Onyire

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold thickness thickness (SFT) are assessment tools for underweight, a major health problem in developing countries as well as emerging obesity and overweight. Objectives: To compare the use of BMI and SFT in determining the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among primary school pupils in Abakaliki metropolis of Ebonyi State, South East Nigeria. Method: Eight hundred and four pupils (415 males, 389 females), aged 6-12 years, in four public and four private primary schools were selected by a multi stage random sampling. Four hundred and twenty-six (53.0%) subjects were in public schools while 378 (47%) were in private schools. Standard methods were used to determine the weight, height and triceps SFT of the participants. BMI values were calculated for each participant and compared with BMI for age and sex from World Health Organisation (WHO 2007) reference standard and SFT values compared with reference curves for triceps SFT in US children and adolescents for age and sex. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among our cohorts using BMI were 5.6% and 6.2%, 3% while using SFT, it was 29.2%, 1.6% and 0.9% respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity using BMI and SFT were not directly related. When subjected to Kappa analysis, it showed only fair agreement (K= 0.23) as values obtained using BMI were not similar to that obtained using SFT. BMI is more sensitive and specific, with minimal inter- and intra- observer errors. It is internationally more accepted standard, therefore preferred to SFT.

  29. Flora Zárate-Mondragón, José Luis Arredondo-García, Silvestre García de la Puente, Silvestre Frenk-Freund, Francisco Espinosa-Rosales, Sara Espinosa-Padilla and Paola Sánchez-Soto

    Objective. To determine the frequency of cellular and humoral immune alterations and micronutrient deficiencies in severely malnourished patients and the relationship between these conditions. Methods. Prospective, cross-sectional, analytical study of 30 severely malnourished 3-month-old to 5-year-old patients with measurements of vitamins B12, A, and E; folate; Zn, Cu, Se, and Fe; lymphocyte subpopulations; immunoglobulins; complement, lymphoproliferation; and 13 pneumococcal anti-polysaccharide antibodies. Results. The study was conducted on 30 patients (15 female, 15 male): 28 had marasmus, and 2 had kwashiorkor. The mean age was 24.11 months; a small thymus was found in 15/30; and 3 patients had lymphopenia. A low number of CD19 lymphocytes were found in 27% of the patients; 24% did not produce antibodies against pneumococcal polysaccharides. The CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD16+56 lymphocytes were decreased in 11, 15, 8, and 6 patients, respectively; an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio was found in 40% of the patients. Abnormal lymphoproliferation was found in 7%; 30% had decreased C3; and 23% had decreased C4. Micronutrients were decreased in the follow percentages of patients: Fe 53%, Zn 17%, Cu 7%, and Se 13%. A statistically significant Pearson correlation was found between B12 and C4; between vitamin E and CD3, CD4, and CD19; between iron and CD3, CD8, and NK; and between Cu and C3 and IgG. Conclusions: Previously unpublished data are presented in this study: decreased CD19 levels in 27% of the patients, abnormal response to polysaccharides in 24%, and abnormal lymphoproliferation in 7%.

  30. Dr. Nowsheen Zaffer, Dr. Farooq A. Jan, Dr. Haroon Rashid et al

    Background: Nosocomial infections (NIs) constitute an important worldwide health problem with high morbidity and mortality rate as well as economic consequences. We aimed to determine incidence of nosocomial infection in surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Aims & Objectives: To find out incidence of nosocomial infection in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) at a large teaching hospital in North India. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted during a period of one year from 1st Oct 2013 to 30th Sep 2014 in SICU of SKIMS. The researcher visited the SICU on daily basis at 10 am in the morning to note down presence or absence of signs and symptoms of nosocomial infection as per the laid down criteria. The researcher used inpatient records, interacted with clinical staff to establish absence or presence of nosocomial infection. Criteria for establishment of nosocomial infections were adopted in accordance with the simplified definition derived from the Centre for disease control, USA. Results: During this period a total of 600 patients were admitted in SICU of SKIMS for more than 48 hours and were included in the study. Of 600 patients, 190 (31.7%) were confirmed and documented with nosocomial infection. Respiratory tract infection was the most common nosocomial infection present in 74.7 % patients (n=142) among the total 190 documented cases of nosocomial infection, followed by septicemia in 26.8%, (n=51) and then surgical site infection in 11.05%, (n=21). Vascular catheter associated infection was found in 5.8% (n=11) while urinary tract infection was found only in 2.6% (n=5). It is pertinent to mention that some cases were infected with more than one type of nosocomial infection such that 190 patients developed a total of 230 infections. Conclusion: Nosocomial infections are an important healthcare adverse events and need to be reduced.

  31. Kirti Solanke, Rajan Bhatnagar, Boruah Dibyajyoti, Tandon Aseem and Pokhrel Rishi

    Study the sequence of microscopic changes taking place during development of kidney in human foetuses. Aborted fetuses were studied after measuring external parameter such as CRL. After undergoing tissue processing, microscopic structure of each kidney was observed after H&E staining. For analyzing various stages of development of glomeruli different groups were made and changes observed. During 12 to 14 weeks undifferentiated mesenchyme was seen increasing in amount from outer to inner hilar aspect. Transition zone appeared between cortex and medulla at 16-18 weeks. At 22 wk tubules differentiated as proximal & distal convoluted tubules. Longitudinally running collecting ducts can be appreciated at 22-27 wk, medullary rays are seen at 29 wk. Undifferentiated mesenchyme continue to appear till 35 wk.We found that nephrogenic zone was present immediately beneath the capsule; glomeruli were seen at different stages of development. S shaped tubules were observed at 20 – 24 weeks and C shaped and crescent shaped in later weeks of development.

  32. Dr. Adarsh Kumar, Dr. Meenakshi Boken, Dr. Ankita Piplani and Dr. Radheyshyam Sharma

    Continuing dental education (CDE) programmes aim to improve knowledge, skills and ability of an individual to deliver the highest quality of service to the public and profession. The objective of this study was to assess self perceived importance of Indian dentists towards CDE programmes. An online (email based) cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 954 questionnaires were sent to dentists of 5 states out of which 487 (50%) responded. 65% attended CDE Programmes on regular basis. 86% believed that CDE points shall improve the quality of care. Participants believed CDE programmes increase knowledge but preferred these programmes to be conducted on holidays and scheduled long before hand. Significantly higher number of dentists aged 30 years or less wanted that CDE programmes should focus on recent advances and live demonstrations. 86% believed that CDE points will improve the quality of treatment and better development of evidence based dentistry.

  33. Dr. Rishu Y. Mishra, Dr. Rajesh K. Jha, Dr. Priyanka B. Aglawe, Dr. Ankur A. Bhute, Kamini M. Sakore Dr. Deepti S. Shrivastava and Dr. Vedprakash Mishra,

    Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that incidence of trichomoniasis is more than 170 million cases annually at global level. In India, it has increased from 2 to 7 % of all sexually transmitted infections. Cases of trichomoniasis is increasing with time due to development of industries, lifestyle modulation, inadvertent encroachment of mass media and advances in various types of marketing strategies. Hence, the present study was aimed to determine the incidence of vaginal trichomoniasis in reproductive age group belonging to rural teaching hospital with tertiary healthcare facilities in vidarbha region and also to critically appraise the therapeutic modules. This hospital based analytical study was carried out between 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2016 in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of A.V.B. Rural Hospital on 304 women of reproductive age group belonging to rural vidarbha region. The data were collected from in-depth interview of unit heads,professors, associate professors, assistant professors, Junior residents as well as patients. In A.V.B. Rural Hospital, Wardha, the incidence of Vaginal Trichomoniasis was 21.95% in 2014, 34.15% in 2015 and 37.80% in 2016.Drugs prescribed to patients were Doxycycline (63.41%), Metronidazole (81.09%), Ofloxacin+Ornidazole (18.90%), Ranitidine (100%) and Clid-V Pessary (80.18%). Statistical significance was calculated by using z-test for single proportion.Software used in analysis was SPSS 22.0 version and GraphPad Prism 6.0 version and the findings were found out to be statistically significant. Male partners of the drug recipients were also examined and treated simultaneously and advised for follow up investigations and treatment for outcome appraisal. Incidence of vaginal trichomoniasis is increasing at an alarming rate in rural vidarbha region and there is no significant change in final outcome of recently prescribed treatment modules. Intervention strategies like public awareness campaign highlighting consequences of vaginal trichomoniasis in males and females and counselling of both partners are recommended at this juncture for better and bright future.

  34. Dr. Cheena Singh, 2Dr. Esha Singh, 3Dr. Kamal Sagar and 4Dr. Aman Chowdhry

    Background: Integrated Rugoscopy Chart (IRC) proposed in 2017 is a simple and concise resource to classify rugae pattern on the basis of position, shape and length. Aim: To check the inter-observer reliability of IRC using sample of 50 maxillary casts. Methodology: IRC was filled by expert panel of 3 postgraduate faculties for all 50 casts separately and sent for checking reliability. Result: A total of 450 rugae were analyzed based on their side, shape by all 3 experts. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the three faculties was 0.919, suggesting that experts have an excellent internal consistency and hence a reliable resource for recording rugae pattern. Conclusion: IRC was found to be a reliable resource for rugoscopy.

  35. Subhashan Bhale, Dr. Shitalkumar Sagari, Faizan Ansari, Chaitrali Barve, Chaitanya Sontakke and Rohit Gupta

    Background: Palatal rugae are irregular and non-identical mucosal elevations seen onthe anterior third of palate. They are arranged in transverse direction on either side of the median palatine raphe and are protected from high temperature and traumabecause of their rational position in the oral cavity. Their number and patterns are not uniform in all the individuals, and they appear to vary in different population subsets.


    Key words:


    Forensic odontology,

    Palatal rugae,

    Maxillary cast,


    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate thequantitative and qualitative parameters of palatal rugae using studymodels of Konkan samples.


    Objectives: To analyze andcorrelate the qualitative characters such as Number, size and shape inmale and female study samples.

    Materials and Methods: One hundred dental stone casts of patients with an age range of 17–25 years were selected.The outlines of the rugae were traced using microtip graphite pencil and examined usingmagnifying glass for different patterns. The quantity and quality of rugae patterns wererecorded according to Thomas et al. classification and the data were statistically analyzedby the statistician using SPSS program.

    Results: The mean rugae count was higher in males (9.90) than in females (9.86).The number of primary rugae count was more in both the sexes.Primary and secondary Rugae was higher among females than males while mean fragmented Rugae was higher among males (0.66) than females (0.58). Curvy, Straightand circular Rugae were higher among females than males while mean Wavy Rugae was higher among males (4.08) than females (3.36).

    Conclusion: There is no gender discrimination in relation to palatal rugae in the present study samples. No two study casts showed similarity in the distribution of palatal rugae patterns. The curvy and wavy rugae distributions were predominant in Konkan population.

  36. Nobuhiro Handa, Mami Ho, Takeyuki Sato and Tatsuya Kondo et al

    In medical device development, a lifecycle approach is indispensable because devices are modified frequently. In clinical trials, double-blind sham-controlled procedures are difficult because they may cause adverse events. The verification of superiority in medical treatment is essential because of the invasive nature of medical devices, which may raise ethical issues with regard to control groups. Accordingly, typical prospective randomized double-blind studies are less common; the majority of studies are single-arm trials. To assess the clinical trial design of medical devices, 53 items approved in 2016 by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency of Japan (PMDA) were reviewed. The results indicate that more than half involved single-arm trials, whereas only 23% were prospective randomized trials. There was only one sham-controlled prospective randomized trial. With respect to single-arm trials, performance goals were established from raw data on a previous generation of the device in 33% of studies and from multiple publications in 33%. These results suggest that continuous data accumulation, such as a registry, could provide a control group based on patient-level data. The PMDA recognizes that the appropriate method to collect reliable and robust data based on a registry has the potential to facilitate a pre-market and post-market balance because medical device development is a lifecycle. The PMDA intends to move toward a fast-track approval scheme and controlled release of certain new medical devices to the market after conditional approval if benefits and risks can be reasonably proven from the available clinical data and an appropriate risk management plan is prepared.

  37. Hassan A.Abdallah

    Introduction: The optimal management of symptomatic or suspected common bile duct (CBD) stone continues to be controversial. Preoperative ERCP followed by LC is currently the most widely used procedure. The optimal interval between ERCP and LC is disputed. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare 2 groups of patients managed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy post ERCP after 72 hours and after 4 weeks ) in terms of outcome of LC, the rate of conversion to an open procedure, operative time and hospital stay. Patients and methods: A total of 60 patients divided into two groups of 30 each were included in the study; group one underwent early laparoscopic cholecystectomy whereas group two had delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The length of hospital stay, overall operative time, complications and the rate of conversion to an open procedure in both groups were calculated and statistically analyzed. Results: There were significant differences between both groups as regards morbidity rates, operative time and the mean hospital stay. Conversion to open cholecystectomy occurred in two case due to severe adhesions at the Calot’s triangle in Group II patients. Conclusion: In our study ERCP followed by early laparoscopic cholecystectomy was safe with significant reduction in the average length of stay , operative time , complications and rate of conversion to an open procedure as compared to ERCP followed by delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with choledocholithiasis.

  38. Shveta, Kiran Agarwal, Ram Chander and Shilpi Agarwal

    Background: Psoriasis is a T-cell mediated immunological disorder with numerous cytokines and adhesion molecules at play in its pathogenesis. Role of TNF-α, IL-1β and E-selectin has been studied by a few authors. But the studies are very limited in number. We plan to study these markers before and after topical therapy in patients of Psoriasis. Aims and Objectives: To study the serum levels of sE-selectin, TNF-α and IL-1β in patients of psoriasis and compare them with controls, Psoriasis Severity index and with each other. Material and Method: A prospective study of patients presenting with newly diagnosed Psoriasis at Dermatology OPD of Smt. Sucheta Kriplani Hospital, New Delhi. Follow-up was done after topical therapy with Coal tar, Salicylic acid and Dithranol. A total of 6 patients could be followed up. Serum samples were taken for ELISA determinations of TNF-α, IL-1β and sE-selectin at diagnosis and at 6 months follow-up visit. Results: In the present study the cases ranged from 8 to 50 years. Four patients had psoriasis vulgaris, 1 had Palmoplantar psoriasis and one had Pustular psoriasis. PASI Score ranged from 1.6 to 8.8. sE-selectin level in cases was 177.4±81.21ng/ml and reduced after therapy to 101.17±34.64ng/ml (p=.092). TNF-α level in cases was 32.05±42.27 pg/ml and reduced after therapy to 14.31±15.25pg/ml (p=.201). IL-1β levels in cases was 20.78 ±18.80 pg/ml and after therapy the levels reduced to 9.13±5.74 (p=.210). Conclusion: sE-selectin, TNF-α and IL-1β levels are increased in patients with psoriasis vulgaris as compared to controls. After therapy the levels reduce from the initial value but not enough to reach a statistical significance and remain higher than controls. This shows that these markers play an integral role in the pathogenesis and can be essential targets in formulation of newer therapies. Further studies as required to advance our knowledge in possible newer treatments for Psoriasis.

  39. Dr. Manjunath P Puranik, Dr. Hiremath, S.S

    Introduction: Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a significant public health problem with consequences for the growth and development of affected children. Objective: To determine the association of feeding practices and Early Childhood Caries among Anganwadi children in Bangalore District. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted among 200 mother-child pairs in Anganwadis in Bangalore District. Socio-demographic information, feeding practices were collected from the mothers through interview. The children underwent dental examination and the dmft index was recorded at the age of three years. Results: Majority of the participants reported Breast Feeding [144(72%)]. Overall most of the participants reported duration of breast feeding from 13-14 months [94(47%)] followed by 7-12 months [90(45%)]. In this study, 30(15%) children had caries experience( dmft≥1). Mean caries experience of the children was 0.64±1.64 [dt=0.64±1.64;mt=0;ft=0]. There was no statistically significant association between dental caries and type of feeding practices [0.6477 (95% CI 0.2809-1.4937)] and duration of breast feeding [1.2687 (95% CI 0.5708-2.8198)]. Conclusions: There was no association of feeding practices and Early Childhood Caries among Anganwadi children in Bangalore District. There is need to increase awareness among the public about ECC and institute preventive strategies

  40. Rani, S

    Background: Menopause is the most striking event during the middle age in women and represents the end of reproductive life. Although menopause is a universal phenomenon, there is a considerable variation among women regarding the age of attaining menopause and the manifestations of the menopausal signs and symptoms. This study aimed to assess the perceived health problems of menopause among the post-menopausal women. Methodology: Cross sectional descriptive survey design was used. All post- menopausal women accompanying patients at WCH OPD, JIPMER were considered as the population of the study. Convenience sampling was used and 250 participants participated. Menopause rating scale (MRS) was used for data collection through interview. Results: The findings of the study revealed that the 98.4%of women had perceived health problems of menopause among which 48% had moderate health problems, 19% had severe health problems and 31% had mild health problems and the severity of perceived symptoms had shown significant association with family income, parity and age at menopause at p<0.05 level. Conclusion: The above findings reveal the importance of the need for implementation of health promotion measures for women during the period of peri-menopause.

  41. Dr. L. S. Patil, Dr. Timmanna Giraddi, Dr. Deepak Chinagi, Dr. Prasad Ugaragol and Dr. Banashankari Kolluru

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. DM is associated with several complications. Ferritin is the major iron storage protein and plays a key role in iron metabolism. Ferritin in the circulation is a secretory form of the protein which is glycosylated and has been hypothesized for its role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Increased accumulation of iron affects insulin synthesis and secretion from the pancreas, and interferes with the insulin extracting capacity of the liver. Iron deposition in muscle decreases glucose uptake because of muscle damage. Iron deposition in the liver may also cause insulin resistance by interfering with the ability of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose production. Aim: This cross-sectional study was performed to find a link between serum ferritin and type 2 diabetes mellitus and also glycated hemoglobin as a blood glucose control marker in diabetic patients. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, BLDE University’s Shri B M Patil Medical College and Research Centre, Vijayapura from January 2014 to June 2015 on newly detected and known patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus who attended outpatient and inpatient department. A total of 131 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in the study. The mean age of study population was 53.46 ± 10.74 years. Out of 131 patients 70 patients (53.43%) were males and 61 patients (46.56%) were females, accounting for a ratio of male to female as 1.15:1. The mean duration of diabetes was 7.04 ± 3.25 years. 105 patients (80.16% of the cases) were on Oral Hypoglycemic Agents for the treatment of diabetes. The mean BMI was 23.95 ± 3.15. 42 patients (32.08% of the cases) had BMI ranging from 25 to 29.99. We observed 90 patients (69%) had fasting blood glucose above 126mg/dl and 72 patients (55%) had post prandial blood glucose above 200mg/dl, showing the existence of poor glycemic control. The mean HbAlc level was 8.34± 0.84. Total cholesterol more than 200 mg/dl in 52 patients (40%) and 67 patients (51%) had LDL Cholesterol more than 100 mg/dl. 62 patients (47%) HDL Cholesterol was less than 40 mg/dl. Triglyceride levels were more than 150 mg/dL in 39 patients (29.77%). 74.7% of cases had serum ferritin ranging from 101 – 200 ng/ml. We found that in 90 patients whose FBS was more than 126mg/dl, the mean serum ferritin was 164.56ng/ml. We found 72 patients whose PPBS was more than 200mg/dl, the mean serum ferritin was 173.49ng/ml. We found 76 patients whose HbAlc was more than 8%, the mean serum ferritin was 176.06ng/ml. The p-value of ≤ 0.001 when we correlated serum ferritin levels with FBS and PPBS and HbA1C. This p value was statistically significant. Conclusion: There was positive association between serum ferritin and body mass index measurements, fasting blood glucose levels, postprandial blood glucose levels, glycosylated hemoglobin as a measure of glycemic control. We also observed there was direct association between serum ferritin levels and triglyceride and LDL Cholesterol, but inverse association with HDL Cholesterol. When correlated with other variables like age, gender, duration of diabetes, total cholesterol, we found no significant correlation (p-value being statistically insignificant).

  42. Dr. Sandeep Kumar and Dr. Manju Kumari

    Introduction: Use of factor VIII and factor IX concentrates has decreased the morbidity and mortality in patients with hemophilia. But with increasing use of factor concentrates, one major complication occurring is formation of inhibitors to Factor VIII and Factor IX which results in poor response to factor administration making control of hemorrhages more difficult. Different studies show enormous difference in inhibitor occurrence. The prevalence of inhibitors is estimated to be between 5 and 10% of all hemophilia A with 20% of severe hemophilia A patients and 3–5% of all hemophilia B patients Aim of study: To study the occurrence of inhibitors in hemophilia A and hemophilia B affected children receiving factor replacement therapy. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in department of pediatrics, S.M.S. medical College, jaipur, India from april 2011 to March 2013 and a total of 100 children with hemophilia were screened for inhibitors to factor VIII and IX with quantification done by Bethesda assay. Results: Out of 100 hemophilia children screened 81(81.00%) had hemophilia A and 19 (19.00%) had hemophilia B. Among 81 Hemophilia A patients, 56 (69.14%) had severe, 13 (16.05%) had moderate and 12 (14.81) had mild hemophilia A disease. Among 19 hemophilia B patients, 15 (78.95%) and 4 (21.05%) had severe and moderate hemophilia B respectively. 4 patients, all belonging to severe hemophilia A, were found to be inhibitor positive. Thus 4.94% (4 out of 81) of total hemophilia A and 7.14% (4 out of 58) of severe hemophilia A patients were found inhibitor positive. None of the 19 hemophilia B patients showed inhibitors. Inhibitor titers ranged from 3.1 BU/mL to 128 BU/mL. Conclusions: Percentage of patients showing inhibitor positivity is slightly lesser than previous studies. Inhibitor occerrance in still low in Indian patients than their western counterparts. However,with increasing use of factor concentrates in hemophiliac children in developing setups, inhibitor occurrence is expected to increase and screening at regular intervals advised , to detect inhibitors early.

  43. Ali Cem Yekdeş

    Objective: High MPV values are seemed to be associated with thromboembolic events. Our aim is to determine a possible relationship between MPV values and myocardial infarction. Design, Setting, Subjects: Retrospectively, diagnosed myocardial infarction patients were found in data files in Uzunköprü State Hospital in 2015-2016. An age-sex matched control group was picked out. MPV, troponine, CK-MB, platelet, blood glucose levels were noted. Results: For totally 136 myocardial infarction diagnosed patients, 93(%68,4) were male, 43(%31,6) were female. Mean MPV of patients were 9,19(±0,94) fl. A possible correlation was found between blood glucose and MPV levels (p<0,01). For control group 37(%67,2) of 55 subjects were male and 18(%32,7) were female. Mean MPV were 8,29(±0,62). We found statistically important difference in MPV means between this groups(p<0,01). Conclusion: MPV values are associated with myocardial infarction and blood glucose levels. MPV values can be used for severity and prognosis of myocardial infarction but it needs more studies to describe this relevance.

  44. Naveenraj, N. S., Brindalakshmi, R., Prabu, D., Rajmohan, M. and Swetha, R.

    Context: The important element for effective patient management is doctor-patient relationship. The key factor contributing in strengthening such relationship is doctor’s or health professional’s empathy. The term empathy in medicine means ability to recognize and understand the feelings of the patients thereby facilitating social relationship. Aim: The present study aims to detect the empathy levels among practicing dental students at SRM dental college & hospital, Chennai. Methods: The English version of Toronto Composite Empathy Scale (TCES) comprising of 52 questions was translated to Tamil language and distributed to interns and postgraduate students of SRM dental college & Hospital, Chennai. Results: The results showed that there is significant difference in empathy levels among interns and postgraduate students (p<0.001). The internal consistencies of each of the four subscales in the TCES were acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.515-0.792).Test-retest reliabilities ranged from 0.421 to 0.634. Conclusion: The Tamil version of the TCES is a reliable and valid tool for the measurement of empathy in both professional and personal life, in dental students.

  45. Oluboyo A.O., Njoku J.G. and Oluboyo, B.O.,

    Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder and may result into hormonal imbalance which may lead to infertility. In the recent time, female infertility has become one of the chronic effects of Diabetes Mellitus. The study aimed at evaluating the fertility hormones and glycated haemoglobin in type 2 diabetic females. A total of one hundred and eighty subjects (90 Type 2 diabetic females and 90 apparently healthy females) within age 20 -50 years were investigated. Blood specimen was collected from the subjects for the determination of fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c) and fertility hormones on the 3rd day of the menstrual cycle. Fasting plasma glucose was determined spectrophotometrically using glucose oxidase method; HBA1c was determined using automated boronate affinity assay method while the fertility hormones were determined using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The results showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in the levels of FSH, LH, prolactin in the type 2 DM subjects compared with the control subjects while HBA1c and Estradiol showed significant increase (p<0.05). There were significant negative relationships between HBA1c and fertility hormones in type 2 DM. The findings suggest that uncontrolled and persistent hyperglycaemia can predispose Type 2 diabetic females to fertility hormone imbalance.

  46. Dr. Minal Desai, Dr Jyoti Mandlik and Dr Nitin Shah. 2017

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the root canal preparation in flat-oval root canals of distal roots of mandibular molars treated with either Rotary or Self-Adjusting File (SAF) by using CBCT analysis. Method: Forty human mandibular molars extracted due to non-restorability and periodontal reasons were selected. Teeth were accessed by using high-speed diamond burs. Mesial roots of all teeth were separated at furcation by using a diamond disc.Apical patency of single distal canal was determined. Forty Specimens were randomly divided to two experimental groups (n = 20) according to the instrumentation technique. Group A: Rotary ProTaper, Group B: SAF. Specimens from both groups were scanned using Cone Beam Computed Tomography before and after instrumentation with Rotary ProTaper and SAF. Three levels were chosen for measurements: apex (level 1), middle (level 2) and coronal (level 3). For evaluation of root canal preparation, the differences in pre- and post- instrumentation measurements were obtained for the samples in each group. The values of differences thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using independent t-test and the mean values of differences at four coordinates (buccal, lingual, mesial and distal) were obtained at three levels of the canals (apex, middle and coronal). Results: From the statistical analysis, it was observed that both the groups prepared canals satisfactorily. The mean values of differences in pre and post instrumentation measurements were not statistically significant at all three levels. However, at each level the performance of both the instrument systems was different in all four directions. Although the statistical analysis of the coronal, middle and apical third showed no difference between both the groups, the results clearly showed that both the instrument groups differed from each other in preparing flat-oval shaped canals. Conclusion: SAF prepares flat-oval shaped canals homogenously at coronal and middle third, resulting in uniform, and circumferential removal of dentin. However at the apical third, Rotary ProTaper is more effective in canal preparation.


  47. Walaa M. ElBasuone, 2017

    Background: Routine prenatal care focuses on the detection of women at increased risk, aiming for appropriate intervention. appropriate combinations of some markers can serve as an indicator for early prediction of any adverse pregnancy outcome. Patients and methods: This is a prospective cohort study that was conducted at Obstetrics and Gynecology department, Al-Azhar University Hospital (New-Damietta). About 200 singletons, low risk pregnant women were included in the study. Both ultrasound examinations and bio-chemical analysis of serum homocysteine were performed at 11-14 weeks of gestation. Results: Total homocysteine ranged from 2.5 to 11 µmol/l and there was statistically significant decrease of total homocysteine levels in non-complicated group when compared to complicated group. There was statistically significant difference between different scores as regard to total homocysteine (the lowest level was observed in zero score (5.20±0.80) and the highest in score three (7.62±2.21). There was significant moderate proportional correlation between ultrasound score and total homocysteine. Combining both ultrasound score (any of scores 1, 2, 3 or 4) with hyper-homocysteinemia revealed that, 165 cases were negative for this combination and 35 cases were positive. Predictive power of hyper-homocysteinemia alone was 75.0%; while abnormal ultrasound alone had predictive power of 0.67 and finally both abnormal ultrasound with hyper-homocysteinemia had a predictive power of 100.0% Conclusion: The combination of homocysteine levelwith uterine artery doppler in the first trimester can be used as an early indicator in predicting adverse perinatal outcome.

  48. Ziaul Hoda Shaan, Mohd. Faizan, Latif Z. Jilani, Naiyer Asif, Sohail Ahmad and Mazhar Abbas

    We hereby report a case of type 3 Monteggia equivalent injury in a 12 year old male child which consisted of an oblique proximal third ulna fracture with Salter-Harris type 1 epiphysial separation proximal radius with maintained radial head and capitellar relationship with proximal radius being displaced antero laterally through and through the physis. A unique and rare variant of Monteggia fracture dislocation and to our full knowledge till date no similar case has yet been reported in the literature

  49. Dr. Pratul Kumar Agrawal, Dr. Anupama, Dr. Shilpa Shetty and Dr. Nalinakshamma Muniswamy Reddy

    Purpose: To assess the anatomic variation with the frequency, location, and morphology of mandibular lingual foramina using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Methods: A retrospective study from CBCT examination of 200 subjects was conducted. The canal frequency (number), location, and travel direction were assessed by selecting images of the mandible. Also, linear dimensions such as the diameter of lingual foramina (D), the distance between the alveolar crest and the lingual foramina (L1), the distance between the tooth apex and the lingual foramina (L2) and the distance between the mandibular inferior border to the lingual foramina (L3) were examined. The differences in gender and age with respect to lingual foramina were also evaluated. Results: High frequency of lingual foramina (99.5%) in 200 subjects have been noted. Most subjects had two canals (44%) with mostly Medial Lingual Canal (97.14%). 2.57% canals were vertical in direction. 6.29% foramina were >1mm in diameter. In 14.85% subjects, the distance from apical crest to the lingual canal (L1) was found to be <12mm. No significant difference was found between various age groups in values of L1 and L2 and in the diameter of lingual foramina in male and female subjects (p>0.05). Conclusion: As the variations were shown in lingual foramina characteristics, it is mandatory to be aware of the structures present in anterior mandible to prevent the surgical complications. CBCT plays a pivotal role during the surgical phase of implant placement.

  50. Ruma Roy, Dr. Diptendra Kumar Sarkar, Dr. Debarshi Jana

    Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers of women in India. This study aimed to identify the risks such as age, menopausal status, age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, lactation, age at first pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives, domicile status, literacy, occupation, duration of symptoms and BMI of breast cancer in comparison with benign breast diseases in females. Methods: In this study 522 BC patients and 522 women with benign breast diseases, who attended at Out Patient Door (OPD) of IPGME&R and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, India during the period from January, 2005 to December, 2010 were included. Results: Significant risk of BC was found 4.80 times more for higher age (≥ 35years), 1.34times more for postmenopausal status, 3.57 times more for late menopause women, 2.47 times more for early menarche women, 1.59 times more with nulliparous patients, 1.66 times more for non-breastfeeding women, 5.73 times more for late age of first pregnancy, 3.58 times more for urban women, 8.34 times more for the illiterate women and 4.49 times for the women having breast lump for more than 06 months Discussion: Several risk factors which had already been established by researchers. But the studies were based on different populations of different geographical areas. This study is based on the females of eastern India. Thus the risk factors established through this study may help for early detection and prevention of BC in this region.

  51. Jayalakshmi Ramasamy and Gunasekeran Abirami

    Organophosphorus compound poisoning is one of the most common poisoning in rural areas. The main symptoms of Organophosphorus compound poisoning is due to stimulation of nicotinic and muscuranic receptors. The cholinergic symptoms and prognosis is assesed by acetylcholinesterase levels which is not readily available in all clinical laboraties. So a cheaper and easily quantifiable serum markers like creatine kinase and liver enzymes can be used in predicting as well as assesing the prognosis with organophosphorus compound poisoning. A prospective study was done in about 110 patients with consumption of organophosphorus compound poisoning admitted in the department of medicine, Chengalpattu medical college and hospital. Patients with history of chronic liver disease and myopathy were excluded. Patients were classified according to peradeniya organophosphorus poisoning scale. The present study found that the initial serum CPK level is comparable for BChE level and can be used as an alternative biomarker in diagnosis of acute Organophosphorus compound poisoning, provided that exclusion of any other diseases or conditions that may cause rise in CPK levels, these results were statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  52. Alshareef, Hatim Mohammed, A. and Al Hasan, Ahmed Hassan, A.

    Background: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a Gram negative rod named after Bruce in 1887. It is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. In Saudi Arabia, the prevalence is high and is attributed to widespread animal husbandry and to the traditional drinking of raw milk. Shoulder brucellosis commonly seen in old population. We have recently treated an old patient diagnosed with brucellosis, who was seen with clinical, radioisotopic, microbiologic, and surgical evidence of shoulder septic arthritis, a rare site of Brucella involvement. Case presentation: A 75 year old male presented with history of fever for the past 10 days with associated right shoulder pain. He was admitted under internal medicine for further investigations for fever of unknown origin. Right shoulder pain was described as generalized dull ache of with gradual onset .Patient Denied any contact with any sheep, animal urine or dairy products, there was no obvious source of ongoing infection and no history of recent trauma. Patient was admitted, orthopedic department was consulted to assess the right shoulder after 24 hour from admission. MRI done which showed joint effusion suggestive of intraarticular collection in support of infective process. Patient was scheduled for Incision and drainage on the same day. Culture was taken intra operative and was sent for microbiology assessment. Wash out was done and a drain was placed and antibiotic started. Infectious disease was then consulted as the patient didn’t improve and they advised to do a full septic screen. Brucella titre was positive for Brucella Melitensis1:80 and Brucella Abortus Agglutinins 1:160. Patient started on doxycycline 100mg PO BID for 12 weeks and streptomycin 1g IM OD for 3 weeks. Two weeks later patient was seen on a follow up appointment at OPD, had no complaints, wound was clean and range of motion of the left shoulder had improved Serial follow up in clinic also showed no recurrent episodes of shoulder pain and there was no active issues and the patient was discharged from the orthopedic service. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal brucellosis is endemic in areas such as Saudi Arabia. Shoulder considered to be a rare site of involvement. Brucellosis should be considered in the line of differential diagnosis, especially in older patients with shoulder arthritis. Early recognition and adequate treatment reduce the suffering of the patients as well as the frequency of relapses.

  53. Ambaga, M. and Tumen-Ulzii, A.

    By us revealed that after shortage of donators and acceptors have been formed the acute necrosis zone owing to disturbance of reaction mediums of “Donators + membrane - redox potentials three - state line system + O2 + АDP + Pi + H+ + nH + membrane space = (ATP + heat energy) + H2O + nH + matrix + CO2” depending on the time of shortage of donators and acceptors in following forms: 1. During 0 - 20 minutes after shortage of donators and acceptors, all cells have not been subjected to damage where the clockwise normal flow of electrons and protons with duration of 4-5 second of every cycle are remained normaly, forming so named normal zone. 2. During 20-30 minutes after shortage of donators and acceptors, some part of cells have been subjected to damage resulting to form of border zone where happened the temporarily stop of clockwise normal flow of electrons and protons with anti – clockwise, antispiral-like evolutionary back steps from second evolution late time equation of flow of electrons and protons to early evolution first time equation with provocation of release of proton, electron from glucose by glycolysis, which followed by transfer of proton, electron to NAD, formation of NADH and substrate phosphorylation accompanied by biosynthesis of ATP without participation of membrane redoxy potential 3 state system, oxygens, ATP synthase with formation of end product as pyruvate . 3. During 30 minutes after shortage of donators and acceptors formed the full necrosis zone where have been observed the complete stop of clockwise normal flow of electrons and protons.

  54. Dr. Mandeep Kaur, Dr. Vidya Date and Dr, S. J. Lakhani,

    This prospective study was carried out on 150 cases having indwelling urinary catheterization for more than 48 hours, to study the microbiological profile of catheter associated urinary tract infections and to find out Antibiotic susceptibility and resistance pattern of various bacterial isolates and ESBL detection from catheter associated urinary tract infection from Dhiraj General Hospital. METHOD: Patients were admitted in Dhiraj General Hospital in various wards and ICU. The study was conducted in 100 patients, whom an indwelling Foley’s catheter was inserted in patients during Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CA-UTI) and Catheter Associated asymptomatic bacteriuria (CA-ASB) were studied along with microbiological profile and Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of isolated bacteria and ESBL detection during August 2011 to August 2012, in different medical wards, surgery wards and ICU. The catheterized urine sample was collected after catheterization on 5th day onwards on indwelling catheterization. RESULT: Seventy nine per cent of symptomatic catheterized patients showed significant bacteriuria (CA-UTI). Most common pathogen was E.coli (29.4%) followed by Klebsiella spp. (23.16%). Duration of catheterization, Age > 50 and < 12 years, diabetes were associated risk factors. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Reducing the use of indwelling catheters, using alternative methods and reducing the duration of catheterization are some of the measures recommended to significantly reduce the consequences thereof CA-UTI in hospitalized patients.

  55. Ajaz Ahmad Telwani, Younis Ashraf Telewani, Ajaz Ahmad Bhat and Khalid Rasheed,

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting the women of reproductive age. Vitamin D deficiency may have a role in etiopathogenesis of PCOS and its metabolic and endocrine dysregulations. Various studies have shown conflicting results regarding role of vitamin D in PCOS. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out vitamin D status in PCOS and its association with various metabolic dysregulations. Methods: This single center prospective case control study included 100 females with PCOS and 100 controls. Participates were evaluated for vitamin D status. Correlation of vitamin D with metabolic dysregulations in PCOS was then done. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 102 (51%) participants. Vitamin D levels were lower in PCOS group compared to control group (20.9 ± 10.2 vs 27.0 ± 15.6, P value 0.001). Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency was also more in PCOS group compared to control group (59% vs 43 %, P value 0.024).Vitamin D levels were negatively correlated with BMI of PCOS subjects. However, there was no other significant association between Vitamin D and other metabolic parameters in PCOS subjects. Conclusion: This study highlights that there is high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among women with PCOS and suggests the inverse association between vitamin D and BMI. The findings of our study have potentially important public health implications as the vitamin D supplementation can ameliorate insulin resistance which is the main cause for PCOS.

  56. Shehla Khan

    There are many strategies used by nurse educators to ensure that students of the health professions develop professional competence. Experiential approaches used in nursing education include role playing, gaming, simulation, practical exercises. Among these activities, Role play has a competitive element that does not exist in didactic lecturing, simulations or practical exercises. This paper will focus on the use of a role play as a teaching strategy to support classroom learning in the health sciences nursing education .The nursing literature highlights many reasons for using role play as a teaching Strategy, including the promotion of active learning, encouragement for critical thinking, the value of fun and excitement in learning, and replication of real-life situations. The use of Role Play can promote the development of user’s creativity, autonomy, responsibility and other decision related skills.

  57. Smruti Lulla, Amita Mali, Vishakha Patil, Amit Chaudhari and Shraddha Gokhale

    Thyroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of physiologic processes. Thyroid dysfunction is the second most common glandular disorder of the endocrine system and is increasing predominantly among women. Thyroid disease can lead to imbalance in the homeostasis of the body and affect the healing capacity of tissues. The oral cavity is adversely affected by either an excess or deficiency of these hormones. This case report presents the influence of thyroid hormone dysfunction and its impact on periodontal disease progression, systemic health of the patient, and the management of periodontal disease. The report emphasizes the need for frequent professional evaluations, patient education, and consistent educational reinforcement by health care providers in patients with hypothyroidism. Thus, this case report determines the relationship between thyroid hormone imbalance and periodontal health.

  58. Manuel Chira, Simona Oprița, Simona Manole, Cătălin Trifan, Adrian Ștef, Diana Săcui and Adrian Molnar

    Objectives: Rhythm and conduction disturbances are common findings after surgical correction of Tetralogy of Fallot. Methods:71 Tetralogy of Fallot patients underwent surgical correction in Heart Institute, Cluj Napoca, Romania, between September 2001 and July 2006, without prior palliations. Employed surgical techniques were: transannular patch (n=46), infundibular patch (n=12), infundibular patch + pulmonary patch (n=5), transatrial + transpulmonary repair (n=8). The patients were divided into 2 groups, correction under 1 year of age and correction above 1 year of age, for comparative study of results. Among the 71 patients group, 58 were followed up at 43 months meaninterval in group 1, and 48 months mean interval in group 2, by standard electrocardiography, 24 hours Holter monitoring and echocardiography. Results: Major differences between the two groups were recorded: the QRS complex and Q-T corrected interval (QTc) duration were significantly different between the 2 groups, right bundle branch block with left anterior hemiblock was noticed especially in patients operated over 1 year of age, ventricular arrhythmias were present especially in the same group of patients operated over 1 year and did not appear in patients with combined (transatrial and transpulmonary) repair; furthermore, ventricular arrhythmias were especially present in patients with postoperative severe pulmonary regurgitation; the mean QRS duration was intensely significant correlated with the type of arrhythmia. Conclusions: Rhythm and conduction disturbances are statistically significant correlated with the age at correction (the grater the age at operation, the bigger the risk for this type of complications), moreover being correlated with the surgical technique as well, and the postoperative pulmonary regurgitation is a key factor for rhythm disorders.

  59. Oscar Salvioni, Nilsa González Brítez, Andrea Giménez-Ayala, et al.

    Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the diseases with the greatest impact on public health. In Paraguay, it is transmitted mainly by Lutzomyia longipalpis, which is considered the main vector of Leishmania infantum. In this paper, we report for the first time the detection of Leishmania spp. DNA by real-time PCR in a specimen of Evandromyia (complex) cortelezzii in Alto Paraná-Paraguay. The PCR product was sequenced and showed 100% similarity with Leishmania infantum. Lutzomyialongipalpis is reported for the first time in the Alto Paraná department and 11 out 47 (23,4%) were positive for Leishmania spp. DNA. Besides it was identified for the first time Mycropygomyia quinquefer and Brumptomyia cunhai in this region and without natural infection. In areas where Lutzomyia longipalpis has not been reported or its abundance is very low, other alternative vectors may be involved in parasite transmission. Therefore, although the detection of Leishmania DNA does not incriminate these species as vectors, these results suggest a potential role of these and other phlebotominein the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in the study area.

  60. Severino Alexandre Barbosa da Silva, Jaqueline Alves do Nascimento, Jefferson David Melo de Matos et al.

    Aim: To presume how Alzheimer's and Parkinson's neuropathies may compromise chewing and swallowing mechanisms in individuals with these diseases. Methodology: Used the following main health databases: PUBMED, ScIELO, Google Scholar; There is period from 1959 to 2017. Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Mastication, Swallowing (Swallowing). We selected 27 articles that fit the following inclusion criteria: Systematic reviews, literature review, clinical case, articles available as variables under study. Results: It has been observed that both Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has increased considerably in the community due to elevated life expectancy, since it affects the masticatory and swallowing muscles making them as well as compromised, and there is a dysfunction of the system Of cholinergic receptors present in the central nervous system, accumulating proteins and leading to neuronal death. Conclusion: Neurodegenerative diseases are both aggressive and progressive, thus attacking the muscles and causing weakness, as well as impairment of masticatory, motor, behavioral, learning, and other functions.

  61. Sweta Pisulkar, Vikram Belkhode, Shreyas Gootorkar, Surekha Godbole, Seema Sathe and Pakhan, A.J

    The plane of occlusion in both natural and artificial dentition plays an important role in fulfilling the criteria of function and aesthetics. As the concepts of prosthetic occlusion developed and were refined, it was natural to extend this to the natural dentition. With the establishment of concept of normal occlusion that incorporated the line of occlusion, by the early 1900s prosthodontics was no longer just replacement of missing teeth. One fundamental requirements in fabrication of successful dental prosthesis is the reestablishment of plane of occlusion. An accurate orientation of occlusal plane in its natural position is important for proper aesthetics, mastication, phonation and stability of denture. An accurate orientation of occlusal plane in its natural position is important for esthetics, mastication, phonation and stability of denture. It has been emphasized that occlusal plane of artificial denture should be positioned at the same level as that of natural dentition. Carefully conducted research has shown that occlusal plane tends more often to be parallel the naso mental line in early life than in adulthood. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of progression of age on plane of occlusion.

  62. Oloo Micky Olutende, Issah W. Kweyu and Victor Ashiali Indakwa

    Health care providers (HCPs) are an important source of physical activity (PA) information. Previous primary care PA interventions have had mixed results; however, successful interventions that increase PA in even a small percentage of sedentary patients may produce a large number of individuals that experience health benefits associated with beginning and maintaining regular PA. In addition to the several quasi-experimental trials, quantitative and qualitative research regarding PA counseling that have been performed in primary care, there have been numerous randomized trials of varying success. The results show that most interventions took place in primary care, included health professionals in delivery, and involved advice or counselling given face to face or by phone (or both) on multiple occasions. From the review, promotion of physical activity and exercise to sedentary adults recruited in primary care significantly increases physical activity levels, as measured by self-report. There was insufficient evidence to recommend exercise referral schemes over advice or counselling interventions. The two objectives were to determine whether such trials showed sustained effects on physical activity or fitness in sedentary adults, and whether exercise referral interventions were more effective than other interventions

  63. Dr. Pooja Patel, Dr. Hans Raj Saini, Dr. Parveen Ranga, Dr. Cheena Singh and Dr. Renu Devi

    Immediate dental implant placement has been an acceptable procedure for at least the past two decades. Commonly, immediate implants have been reserved for the single rooted anterior tooth and single or bi-rooted premolar tooth. Perhaps the most important aspect of any implant surgery in accordance with the successful procedure is implant stability and bone to implant contact (BIC).In the case of extraction and immediate placement of dental implants preserving alveolar bone proper, particularly that of the labial and lingual plates of bone is essential in providing the optimal environment for maximizing BIC and implant stability. Also, the position of the final restoration must be considered, in relation to intra and inter arch position, occlusion, function and esthetics.

  64. Pramila Singh, R. M. Mishra and Riya Shrivastava

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of cement dust pollution on foliar epidermal structure of two evergreen plant species viz. Polyalthia longifolia and Eucalyptus globulus growing in the campus of Jaypee cement plant, Rewa (M.P.). Increase in number of epidermal cells and stomata per unit area was observed in leaf samples collected from polluted sites than those from control site by light microscopic method. Results revealed that, as compared to the leaves from control, the length and width of epidermal cells and guard cells reduced considerably in leaves of polluted sites. The observed changes in the epidermal structure of leaves of both species are regarded as adoptive responses, aimed at combating the adverse effects of pollution.

  65. Varunkumar, Anshu Rani, Priyanka and Sandeep Kumar.

    Prosopis cineraria L. is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, Fabaceae. It is the state tree of Rajasthan (India). Due to its economic importance in state Rajasthan has drawn attention towards it. In the present study, the propagation of a multipurpose tree species Prosopis cineraria under in vitro condition. Binodal explant from the mature plant of Prosopis cineraria was taken and cultured after surface sterilization. The explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentration of cytokinins and auxins individually and in various combination (1.0–3.0 mg/l) BAP, Kn, 2,4-D. Maximum percentage of callus induction were recorded at 2.5mg/l 2,4-D with 0.5mg/l Kn. Callus is directly sub cultured on MS medium having different concentration of auxins and cytokinin:(0.5 – 5.0 mg/l) BAP, Kn, α-NAA and 2,4-D. Maximum shoot induction was observed on 2.0mg/l BAP with 1.0mg/l α-NAA.

  66. Islam, M. M., Mamun, A. A., Dash, P. K., Kundu, R. R. and Akter, J.

    The Gerbera production continues to experience propagation problem from division of clumps. Traditional approaches of propagation through clumps have wide range of limitation. In order to address the problem of propagation technique in a system designed to develop a sustainable protocol using in vitro seed culture was assessed. The goal of the present research is to develop a viable protocol for rapid propagation of Gerbera. The specific objective was to select a superior genotype responding to mass in vitro propagation by using seed explant. Sterilized seeds of nine gerbera genotypes were germinated on MS medium supplemented with BAP 3.0 mgL-1. In vitro grown seedlings after 30 days of seed culture were transferred onto MS medium containing BAP 2.0 mgL-1 + NAA 1.0 mgL-1 to allow multiple shoot formation. Elongated shoots were rooted on MS medium supplemented with IBA 1.0 mgL-1 for rooting. The regenerated plantlets were transferred to field after hardening under controlled environment. All the steps of this propagation system i.e. seed germination, multiple shoot differentiation, rooting and hardening was highly genotype dependent. Results indicate that genotype ‘Kristen’ showed highest germination frequency and number of leaves plant-1, Aladin exhibited the higher shoot regeneration, Silvester as well as Wink genotype showed greater response in in vitro shoot elongation. Pepe genotype showed maximum root formation and root elongation. Maximum survivability rate was found with the genotype Kristen while lowest was recorded in Sonata. Kristen, Aladin and Alabanda may be the suitable gerbera plant types for in vitro propagation through seed explant.

  67. Md. Abdul Halim, Debashis Kumar Mondal, Abu Rayhan, Sharmin, S. and Sonia Sku

    The present study was conducted to observe the fish biodiversityin Sherudangabeel under Mithapukur Upazilla, Rangpur, Bangladesh during the period fromJanuaryto March 2017. A definite structured questionnaire had used to collect the important data from 50randomly selectedboth temporaryand permanent fishermen from the study areas. The present study had found46 species of fish from the Sherudangabeel. Among the recorded 46 species; four species were highly endangered (8.70%), twenty eightspecies common (60.87%), sevenspecies locally extinct (15.22%) and sevenspecies were rare (15.22%) respectively. Miscellaneous (23.91%) were the most dominant group followed by Catfishes (15.22%), Carps (15.22%), Barbs and Minnows (17.39%), Perches (8.70%), Snakeheads (8.70%), Eels (6.52%) and Clupeids (4.34%) respectively. In the study area species are classified into four types such as endanger (12.77%), vulnerable (6.38%), near threat (6.38%) and least concern (74.47%).This study will be very helpful to indicate areas of high fish biodiversity and make fish sanctuary to reduce the loss of fish biodiversity in the Sherudangabeel.

  68. Kumar Pankaj, Vinitha, V., Nagar Mayur and Lohith, B.A.

    Uttara basti is well known panchakarma procedure used to treat various disorders related to the mutrashaya, garbhashaya, yoni vikaras especially in management of male and female infertility. As it gives very significant and effective results in infertility cases, so it is mandatory to know the practical utility to administer the Uttara basti in both males and females. As per Ayurvedic classics procedure of Uttara basti is not clearly mentioned and somehow not feasible in day today practice. So it is needed to understand about the procedure, medicaments and dosage etc.

  69. Prabhat Kumar Mishra and Vijay Thawani

    Antibiotics susceptibility E.coli Bacteria was a non pathogenic bacteria, it was created cystitis which was occur in urethra and bladder. In this procedure normal growing bacteria were deposited in urethra and bladder, Catheter main cause of cystitis. It was caused by E.coli. E.coli was deposited in urethra. In hygienic condition it was infected by E.coli. Antibiotics susceptibility were check in E.coli these antibiotics has been susceptible in gram negative bacteria.

  70. Dr. Rituraj Sarma and Dr. Sheetal Meena

    Ayurveda, the science of mind, body and soul has succeed to bring wellness to millions of people since ages. Ayurveda mainly stresses on preventive and curative aspects of health, moreover it is science of life, and life starts from birth i.e. embryonic stage to fully mature or up to natural death and even few chapters after death too. Though Ayurveda is considered as eternal science, still it needs certain care and protection so that it remains flourishing always all over the world without any questioning or misunderstanding. For which we, the Ayurveda fraternity specially related to teaching are responsible to great extent, as stated earlier Ayurveda, science of life from birth, it too needs care right from birth, i.e. birth of an Ayurveda graduate starting from selection of candidate till the attainment of the degree. The lacunae arise from the birth of BAMS graduates, their confidence, interest and belief in Ayurveda, which totally depend on 5 years of duration spent in the institute. There are lots of problems for the students in the starting year which could only be solved by the faculties like, understanding the mood meter of the students, Swasangya and its understanding, concept of Ayurveda and its correlation with modern science, concept of Ayurveda and its explanation to the extent of belief and even more problem which can only be cleared during these 5.5 years and product that come out after this fruitful discussion will definitely love Ayurveda and will be interested in, and will do something for it. It is the duty of the faculty, to nourish the students by using certain strategies, techniques and newer innovations in academic procedure, to encourage the students towards Ayurveda because BAMS is a professional course, and one must give fruitful commitment to the system, which pave the way to earn their identity and fame as well. Ayurveda is not only the tree house of herbal drugs which are safe and effective rather it is also the rich source of many unique ideas, concepts and theories and approaches of ideal livings which are to be explored yet properly to incorporate in main stream of health care system or achieving a real positive heath of society. Lastly every Ayurveda person should contribute for the welfare of the system to uplift the science in future.

  71. Prathiksha and Ramachandra Naik, K.

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is considered as staple food in many developing countries. The major nutritional value in sweet potato tubers lies in its carbohydrates (starches and simple sugars), protein and fat. Sweet potato is a cheap calorie producer and is rich in vitamin A and C, and tubers have anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties due to the presence of valuable nutritional and mineral components viz., phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sodium with low glycemic index. As sweet potatoes face the problem due to weevils, shrinkage and loss of nutrients in storage, the present investigation on shelf-life and nutritional profiling in twelve different sweet potato genotypes were studied in order to determine the varieties for better storage. Among the sweet potato genotypes tried, the BSP1 exhibited superior qualities like higher calcium and phosphorus content (50.47 and 153.20 mg/100g), dry matter (61.7%), high scores for skin and flesh color (4.93 and 5.00), low values for TSS (4.4 °Brix), reducing and non reducing sugars (0.67 and 0.21%), starch (0.60%), physiological loss in weight (13.5%) and weevil incidence (10%). The genotype also maintained all these characters throughout the storage period. The genotypes Sree Bhadra and BSP23 were the next best genotypes to maintain all the above mentioned characters.

  72. Prathiksha and Ramachandra Naik, K.

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the sixth most important crop grown worldwide after wheat, rice, maize, potato and cassava and is considered as staple food in many developing countries. The largest quantity of sweet potato production is noticed in Asia and the Pacific Islands (93% of global production). However, sweet potatoes face the problem of weevils, shrinkage and loss of nutrients in storage. Therefore, present research on shelf-life and physicochemical parameters of 12 different sweet potato genotypes were studied in order to determine the varieties for better storage. Among those, the genotype BSP1 was found to be good and exhibited superior qualities like high dry matter (61.7%), low values for TSS (4.4 °Brix), reducing and non reducing sugars (0.67 and 0.21%), starch (0.60%) and physiological loss in weight (13.5%) throughout the storage period. The genotypes Sree Bhadra and BSP23 were the next best genotypes to maintain all the above mentioned characters.

  73. Pallavi, M., Gowda.Shankar and Doddamani, M.

    Background: In ayurvedic classics Sneha kalpana is given its own importance. Sneha kalpana was introduced as a Pharmaceutical preparation only in the Samhita period. Samskara anuvarthitwa guna makes the Ghrita kalpana somewhat superior in Sneha Kalpana.TG is such a Sneha kalpana which is formulated with a shilajatu, kastaushadhis, moorchita ghrita and dugdha as main ingredients and prepared by general method of Sneha Kalpana. Aim: To prepare and do the physcico-chemical evaluation of Traikantaka Ghrita (TG) Materials and Methods: TG is a unique formulation which comes under sneha kalpana prepared by the general method of sneha preparation. It is indicated in Mutrakrichra, Mutrasharkara, Ashmari and Mutradosha. Results: Standardization of TG remarkable results regarding refractive index, saponification value, iodine value, peroxide value, etc were observed. Conclusion: The prepared TG matches the physicochemical parameters and can impart good therapeutic property.

  74. Banchongsak Faksomboon and Nipon Thangtham

    The objective of this study was tomathematicalmodeling development for generating the water storage capacity necessary to dilute waste water from land utilization in the Upper Tha Chin Watershed (UTCW) within three scenarios: existing land use condition, expected land use change in the year 2020, and regulating water storage to dilute Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied in order to estimate the amount of the streamflowand BOD based on the observed land use and water release data from the reservoir, from January, 2013 to December, 2014 as presented in Scenario 1. The reliability of the model was calibrated with the observed data by adjusting the coefficient of the key parameters through SWAT calibration uncertainty procedures (SWAT-CUP) and validating the observed data from seven hydrologic stations. The simulating the impact of land utilization in the year 2020 in Scenario 2, and the drainage simulation of the Krasiao reservoir on BOD in Scenario 3. The results obtained from the SWAT model found that in Scenario 1 indicated that the streamflow was 374.74 million cubic meter (MCM) and BOD was 2.70 mg/L. The simulation of Scenario 2, forecasting the expected land use change in year 2020, showed that the amount of the streamflow decreased to 65.09 MCMand BOD was 2.70 mg/L; when compared with Scenario 1. The simulation of Scenario 3, regulating water storage for diluting waste water, found that BOD during the dry season of December, January, February, and March was 3.08, 3.24, 1.52, and 2.70 mg/L, respectively; and a decrease to 1.50 mg/L with an increased drainage of the Krasiao reservoir. This study shows that the SWAT model successfully stimulated and assessed the effects of land use activities on streamflow, sediment, and BOD; including the successful drainage of the Krasiao reservoir in both watershed and sub-watershed areas.

  75. La Janu

    This study tried to comprehend indigenous knowledge of engaging in farming in stony land at Burangasi ethnics in Buton hinterland. Engaging in farming in stony land has been done from time to time and from generation to generation. Engaging in farming in multi minus lands did not make farmers cease and submit to their fate but strove to relate between the hard nature and human beings through culture. The culture that was obtained through knowledge and experience made them develop the indigenous knowledge in engaging in farming. Ethnographical method was a method used in this research by employing the technique of participant observation and indepth interview. Furthermore, data were analyzed to be described as the report of research. This study was expected to be capable of finding blue print and prototype of traditional farmer in Burangasi about indigenous knowledge and wisdom in the management of the stony land. Besides, it was expected that through the track record of the indigenous knowledge of Burangasi people, it could evoke another side to participate in informing, supporting, conserving, and developing the indigenous knowledge that could give better direction in the strengthening of peasants and local food.

  76. Poonam Rani and Anita Singh

    The investigation on different kind of abnormalities in wheat produced in South Western Punjab were done during 2016-2017. To know the status of wheat seed, 500 wheat samples were collected from 47 different grain markets belonging to 10 districts of Punjab. The abnormalities of seeds were categorized into wrinkled seeds, discoloured seeds, and two fungal diseases i.e. Black Point and Karnal Bunt disease. It was found that Karnal Bunt (KB) was least (20%) in Faridkot and Sangrur district whereas Abohar district was totally disease – free. Black Point (BP) was most susceptible inBarnala, Fazilka, Moga, Muktsar and Sangrur. Most susceptible varieties were HD3086, HD2733, HD2967, HD2329 and WH1105 for KB and BP.

  77. Nischita, P., Dinesh, M.R., Ravishankar, K.V., Sandya, B. S. and Manoj Kumar, H.V.

    In India besides Indo-Burma (NE) region, the Western Ghats (WG) also happens to be one of the richest biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, in recent times this biodiversity is under threat due to degradation and fragmentation of prominently diverse tropical rainforest. This biodiversity of Western Ghats includes varieties of mango (Mangifera indica), which are mainly used for whole fruited immature fruits popularly known as ‘Appemidi’ in Karnataka. An exploratory study was carried out to review the morphological traits (fruit and leaf) and biochemical traits (total phenols and total flavonoids) in fifty Appemidi genotypes. The sap (latex) of the fruit is also a rich source of organic compounds (total volatiles) mainly, suggesting its potential to be used essentially in the food industry (pickling). Divergence observed in these traits, gives intimating advantage for multi-type cultivar advancement focusing on food and pharmacy. With several of the genotypes becoming extinct due to negligence and exploitation there is an urgent need to conserve in situ as well as ex situ. Not only some of them can be promoted for cultivation but also these could be used further in the breeding programs as a source for desirable traits for pickling. The outcome achieved in the study can be utilized as input for domestication and promote extensive use of the species, eventually helping to conserve wild fruit species.

  78. Bharathi, D.

    The India Tourism Development Corporation Limited (ITDC) is an Hospitality, retail and Education company owned by Government of India, under Ministry of Tourism. Established in 1966, it owns over 17 properties under the Ashok Group of Hotels brand, across India (Ministry of tourism, 2009). Tourism has the potential to stimulate other economic sectors through its backward and forward linkages and cross-sectoral synergies with sectors like agriculture, horticulture, poultry, handicrafts, transport, construction, etc. Tourism has also become an instrument for sustainable human development including: • Poverty elimination. • Environmental regeneration. • Job creation. • Advancement of women and other disadvantaged groups Management in tourism is aware that a good ecological image provides competitive advan¬tage. The development of tourism and hotel business depends to a great extent on the environment, more than any other trade. Only tourism can signify climate, flora, fauna, caves, coasts, and other natural objects. Protected natural and cultural values, like National parks, Nature parks, and archeologi¬cal locations represent attractive motives for tourists. Along with their promotion, awareness is raised about the necessity to protect them and to preserve the value of a tourist destination. Tourism has emerged as an instrument of employment generation, poverty alleviation and sustainable human development. Tourism has thus become the second largest net foreign exchange earner for the country. Tourism in India has grown substantially over the last three decades. India is well known for its overpopulated, littered streets; however, there is a pristine aspect of India that many tourists overlook. With 89 national parks and over 400 wildlife sanctuaries, there are many untouched areas to explore. Eco-tourism educates travelers on sustainable living and how to enjoy the natural beauty of the environment through recreational activities. Tourism can and does bring about socio-economic changes and is usually deliberately developed to generate economic benefits and through them social betterment.

  79. Monalisha Sahu and Dr. Goel, A. K.

    Now a days Govt. is giving more emphasize on line sowing. Govt. of Odisha provide 75% subsidy on seed drills and rice transplanters to increase production and productivity. But weeding is a major problem in line sown paddy crop. There are many types of mechanical weeders available for vegetable crops with wide working width. These are not suitable for line sown paddy field. Hence it is highly essential to develop a suitable power weeder for DSR condition. Though SRI power weeders are available for line transplanted paddy, these are not suitable for upland line sown crop. There is no such power weeder available which can work in both wet land and dry land condition. To eradicate these problems one power weeder was developed. The petrol engine of 1.33 kW with speed reduction of 34:1 was taken for fabrication of the weeder. Hatched type of blade was developed to see the performance. These set of blade was fitted with the weeder and evaluated in line sown paddy in dry land as well as in transplanted paddy in wet land by attaching a suitable float and compared with the conventional weeding method. The highest weeding efficiency of hatched type blade was found to be 84.30% in wet land and 82.280 % in dry land respectively. The performance index of hatched shape blade was observed to be 186.49 wet land and 190.81 in dry land at 14.5% moisture content. At the same moisture content i.e.14.5%, plant damage of 4.0% was observed with hatchet type blade. The increase in heart rate (∆HR) of 18.667 bpm was achieved in hatchet type blade at the same speed. It is concluded that the developed weeder with hatched type blade is suitable for weeding in both wetland as well as dry land line sown paddy field. The cost of operation of the developed weeder was found to be Rs 177.10/h and Rs 4997/ha.

  80. Аnna Simeonova, Nikolay Nikov, Tatyana Zhekova, Daniela Petrova and Dimitar Gerdzhikov

    In the present study the effect of an artificial habitat construction on the biodiversity of the coastal waters of the “Vromos” Bay, Bulgarian Black Sea was investigated for the period 2011- 2012. Several environmental factors such as water temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, nutritional conditions, phytoplankton taxa were observed. The fouling of the habitat by macrozoobenthos, esspecially mussels was reported. Individual counts and dimensions (mm) of mussels, shell length and asymmetry, intermediate size of the shell (mm), etc. were presented. Dominants of Dinophyceae - 36.96 % and Bacillariophyceae - 23.91% with total of 60.87% of the phytoplankton taxonomic composition were recorded as well as blooms of small flagellates from class Cryptophyceae with higher levels at the bottom horizon -1881.89 x106 cells/m3; 212.84 mg/m3; 83,85 % (numbers) and 58.28 % (biomass). Prevailing species of Mytilus galloprovincialis with 64 mm maximum shell size and considerable number of 20-30- 40 mm sized mussels were registered on the surface of the artificial habitat.

  81. Soma Saha

    Food fortification is considered highly effective and flexible method, is socially acceptable and furthermore, it does not interfere with the population’s dietary habits. In addition, the risk of side effects and toxicity are minimal due to reduced doses of micronutrients added to foods. Iron fortification is the most cost effective method of preventing iron deficiency anaemia. The food vehicle of choice must be consumed regularly and in large scale by the targeted population. The selected iron compound does not cause unacceptable changes in color and flavor when added to foods. Additionally, the food vehicle should be sufficiently stable during long periods of storage.

  82. Tamene Yohannes, and Tesfaye Weldesemayat

    Biodiversity conservation is the protection, restoration and sustainable management of wildlife and natural resources such as forests, water and the biological diversity within it. Biotechnology is a set of techniques by which human beings modify living things or use them as tools. In its modern form, biotechnology uses molecular biology techniques to understand and manipulate the basic building blocks of living things. Biotechnology is the art of utilizing living organisms and their products for the production of food, drink, medicine or for other benefits to the human being, or other animal species. Biotechnology plays an immense role in biodiversity conservation such as vegetative multiplication of many species, allows the production of large numbers of plants from small pieces of the stock plant in relatively short period of time and in some cases for recovery of virus-free plants. Biotechnology also has potential application in production of somatic hybrids, organelle and cytoplasm transfer, genetic transformation and germplasm storage through freeze-preservation (Cryopreservation). Apart from its uses there are also some concerns or worries with modern biotechnologies such as the Terminator technology and Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) which are developed through genetic engineering, which may cause "Genetic pollution" and "Genetic contamination" and they may have social consequences which needs economic, ethical and environmental considerations. Even though, biotechnology has so many advantages and different technologies which can complement conservation of biodiversity; as that of other new technologies the introduction and spread of new biotechnologies generally have social consequences with winners and losers. For biotechnology, this has led to intense public debate across many different aspects such as ethical, economic, legal and environmental issues. Modern biotechnologies such as terminator technology and GMO can have a negative effect on biodiversity. Genetic pollution" and "genetic contamination" are among the environmental concerns which need to be cleared or ascertained before releasing new technologies which can pollute the biodiversity and the natural/ wild genetic pool and may cause irreversible damage. Since many countries have banned the use of technologies such as GMO and terminator technology; for the country like Ethiopia, it is important to learn from others, rather than endangering or risking the genetic resources from genetic pollution and genetic contamination which may occur. On the other hand, the use of safe and known technologies should be encouraged and used to augment the biodiversity conservation efforts and other development efforts of the country.

  83. Bibhuti Naik, Papu Kumar Naik and Sanjaya Kumar Pattanayak

    The present research was aimed at assessing the ground water quality of the iron ore region around Jurudi, Keonjhar district of Odisha, India. In this study, five locations were fixed in and around the human habitation and sampling were done in three different seasons of a year to compare the seasonal variation. The samples were analyzed for the ground water quality parameters such as pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, total dissolved solid, sodium, potassium, copper, iron, manganese, aluminum, zinc, lead, cadmium, and chromium. The study revealed that for parameters like iron, manganese, lead, cadmium, chromium (mainly heavy metals) the concentration levels are above the Bureau of Indian standard. Bulk of the groundwater samples are characterized as magnesium bicarbonate type hydro-geochemical facies with a few mixed type facies. The concentration level of some parameters in the groundwater is variable with the change in the seasons. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) values for irrigation and aquatic life are 90 and 91 respectively suggesting that the water is good for these purposes. The drinking water used by the people residing in the area around Jurudi is portable as indicated by the CCME WQI value of 79 suggesting that the water is fair for this purpose. The results of the case study indicated that this water quality index is very simple and could be used as an effective tool to characterize the drinking source water quality.

  84. Dr. Nkechi C. Njoku and Patrick E. Eluu

    Nigerian society exhibits symptoms of serious moral decay. There is consequently widespread concern about the moral predicament in the nation. This paper is an attempt to investigate how commitment in teachers’ behaviour could improve the teaching of Christian moral education in secondary schools in the southeast geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Two research questions guided the study. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. South-east geopolitical zone is the area of study and the population comprised of all the Christian Moral Education teachers in the states that make up the zone. 300 teachers were selected out of 967 Christian Moral Education teachers in the area using purposive sampling technique. Fixed response questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. Mean was used to analyze data. Result show-cased that the teaching of Christian Moral Education could be improved through commitment in teachers’ behaviour. Based on the findings, the study stresses that a greater percentage of the work of improving the teaching of Christian moral education lies in the hands of the teachers as commitments in teachers’ behaviour becomes a necessity of immediacy and paramount. This however forms the contribution of the study.

  85. Richa Jhuria

    Green leafy vegetables are rich in micronutrients but are not consumed often by human beings. One such green leafy vegetable is Moringa leaves which is rich in nutrients. The scientific name of Moringa is Moringa olifera. It is commonly known as Drumstick, Murungai, Horse radish etc. Our study is based on the drying characteristics of Moringa leaves which is dried in Hot air oven and fluidized bed drier at 60⁰celsius and the efficiency of both the driers has been determined.

  86. Hasan Mohsen Neamah

    This research was carried out at the Technical Institute of Wasit governorate in Iraq in the agricultural area of the Hay district for evaluate the effect of the zero tillage farming system and compare it with traditional Tillage farming with applied four rates of urea 46% fertilizer (zero, 30, 40, 50 kg / d and three rates of superphosphate 20% fertilizer (zero, 30, 40 kg / d.) on some vegetative growth and yield traits for wheat Iba-99 variety in agricultural season 2016- 2017. Where planted seeds at rate 40 kg / donum equal 240 g /plot, by using RCBD design with three replicates. The results showed an increase in the zero tillage culture than traditional culture in the level 0.05,but did not differ significantly from the traditional culture at 0.01probability in all vegetative and yield traits. The values were superior in the zero tillage culture as follows: Plant length 81.3cm, Number of tillers 7 /plant, Spike length 11.5 cm, Number of spikes302/m2, Number of grains 51/spike ,Weight of a thousand grains 43, 2 g and total grains yield 3,680 tons / hectare while values of traditional agriculture were ; Plant length 81.2cm, Number of tillers 6/ plant, spike length 11.4 cm, Number of spikes 301/m2 , Number of grains 50/spike, Weight of 1000 grain 42.1 g and total grains yield 3,520 t / h. showed the urea fertilizer superior at a rate of 50 kg / d in all of traits; Plant length 92.3cm, Number of tillers 9 /plant, Spike length 11.9 cm, Number of spikes 307/m2, Number of grains 57/spike, Weight of 1000 grain 46,4 g and total grains yield 4,160 tons / h, showed the superphosphate fertilizer superior at a rate 40 kg/h in all traits ; Plant length 88.6cm, Number of tillers 8 /plant, length of spike 11.6 cm Number of spikes 304 / m2, Number of grains 55/ spike, Weight of 1000 grain 45.2 gm and total grains yield 4,060 t / h. The interaction between the zero tillage culture system and both levels of fertilizer (Nitrogen 50, Phosphate 40 kg / d) showed significant superiority in probability level 0,05 and not differs in probability level 0,01 in all traits, where total grain yield reached 4,269 and 4,165 ton/ h respectively. Conclusion that both N,P fertilizers kinds were better than the interaction between traditional farming and both 2 kinds of fertilizer in all traits of plant. Evaluates the zero tillage system farming better than traditional farming due to improving of all traits of plant in addition of its ecological, economical importance in achievement of sustainable agricultural development.

  87. Bikash Thakuria, Walichenla Walling, NiengjollyGangte and Samrat Adhikari

    Cyanobacterial species are ubiquitous in nature and the pigments present are capable of trapping the energy from the sunlight for the process of photosynthesis. All cyanobacteria which photosynthesize contain a core green pigment chlorophyll a which are supported by the other ancillary pigments like the Phycobilisome/phycobilins. The combination of phycobilins and chlorophyll produces the characteristic blue green colour from which these organisms derive their name. Chlorophyll which portrays a vital function of absorbing light energy for photosynthesis. It is a porphyrin containing magnesium and exists in several forms which have different side chains. Phycocyanin and allophycocyanin are light harvesting accessory pigments to chlorophyll. To understand the role of these pigments homology modelling of phycocyanin and allophycocyanin with chlorophyll in Anabaena cylindrica PCC7122 was investigated in the present study. To study the interaction of chlorophyll in phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, docking analysis was performed. Two docking models each corresponding to phycocyanin and allophycocyanin with their energy minimization scores were obtained.Their interaction establishes the relationship between chlorophyll and the light harvesting components.

  88. Jayasree Joshi, T. and 2Manonmani, T

    Grain storage is a major factor in ensuring food security in the country. It enables the markets to allow uninterrupted supply of grains even during off seasons. In a grain storage ecosystem, the interactions of different biotic and abiotic factors cause damage to the grain. Controlling these interactions by monitoring the heat and mass transfer in grain bulk during storage period is of great importance. Predicting the heat and mass transfer in storage structures is also necessary to make proper management protocols and guidelines to built safe bulk storage systems. This paper discusses various approaches to understand the heat and mass transfer phenomenon in food grain storage system.

  89. Conte, M. J. and 2,Roşca, I. C.

    This paper follows the recent publication (Conte and Roșca, 2017) relative to the correlations between Newton’s law and the consequences of surfaces black bodies’ emittances and, also it follows (Conte and Rosca, 2017) that already had highlighted the correlation between the masses and their surfaces equivalent black body temperatures to the fourth power (Te4). Here, taking into account the black body emittances products and those of considered charges, it was possible, to show that this electrostatic force can be defined only by the product of corresponding charged bodies’ temperatures (Te4) to the fourth power on their distance square and, multiplied by a conform constant. Validation calculi, using simple data, show the accuracy of the new approach of the Coulomb force where the charges are no longer directly used. This shows, for the second time, the importance of black bodies Te and electrical charges distribution on a conductor.

  90. ZakirHussainKhanday and Dr. Sumer Singh

    Kashmir Himalaya harbors a unique proportion of endemic as well as non endemic flora based on its endemicity and unique geography. It has attracted the attention of explorers and botanists from the time when journey was most tedious and unsafe. The people of the Kashmir valley have been endowed with many natural blessings in terms of health climate herbal medicines wild vegetables fruits and food plants. The aim of present piece of research is to investigate the plants which are being traditionally used by the tribal and rural people of the Kashmir Himalayas for the alleviation of various ailments. Results show the important role of medicinal plants in treating several diseases.

  91. Muzamil Ahmad Sheikh, Avinash Tiwari and Sangeeta Sharma

    The soil moisture is regarded as indicator of climate change. The temperate forest has great relation with moisture content which showed variation with altitude, seasons and depths. The seasonal variation of moisture depends upon the precipitation comes from. Kashmir Himalaya has snow the main source of precipitation which adds moisture to the forest ecosystem by melting it with increase in the temperature of the area. The seasonal variation of moisture content and its annual variation were studied and the results revealed that Daksum has highest moisture content than corresponding ranges both among range wise and depth wise and dominated among all the three seasons of the year. Surface layer of forest has maximum moisture than subsurface layers during all the seasons. Daksum showed positive increment during autumn and summer season while negative during spring. The results conclude that spring season showed highest moisture content than summer and winter. All the results were subjected to ANOVA and the results were found significant at p<0.05 level of significance.

  92. Jeni R. Patel and Dr. Gohil, T. G

    The antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Chrozophora rottleri, Oxalis corniculata, Parthenium hysterophorus and Solanium xanthocarpum were evaluated in-vitro against some clinical isolates by agar-well diffusion method. Two solvents chloroform and methanol were used for extraction of bioactive compound from fresh leaves. Antimicrobial potential of leaf extract was determined by measuring the zone of inhibition. It was concluded from the results that both chloroform as well as methanol extracts of leaf of tested herbs were quite effective in inhibiting the growth of clinical isolates. Result also revealed that methanol extract has more antibacterial potential than chloroform extract. Methanol extract of Chrozophora rottleri and Oxalis corniculata has very good antibacterial potential against all the clinical isolate. Therefore, the leaf extracts of this plant can be selected for further investigation to determine their therapeutic potential.

  93. Dr. Harit Kumari and Dr. P. Hemantha Kumar

    Plantar fasciitis represents the fourth most common orthopaedic complain which requires professional care. The typical presentation of Plantar Fasciitis is sharp pain localized at the heel and plantar surface of the foot. As per the textual references the features of Pada-kantak can be accurately correlated with Plantar Fasciitis. Acharyas has mentioned Agnikarmaas a treatment modality for Pada-kantak. Iontophoresis is also considered as one of the treatment modalities for Plantar Fasciitis now a days. Although these two techniques are vastly different, there is a lack of evidence to determine which one is better. Two cases of Plantar Fasciitis are presented here to illustrate the contrasting techniques and their results. Both the cases were treated with different modalities, one with Iontophoresis with 0.4% Dexamethas one and other by Agnikarma with Panchdhatu Lauha Shalaka. They were followed up for 2 months to assess their outcomes. The case studies revealed that Agnikarma produces a better outcome than Iontophoresis as reoccurrence was noticed in the later method.

  94. Swapna Gurrapu and Estari Mamidala

    Background: The extracts or infusion of Physalis angulata plant fruits were used in the treatment of a wide range of diseases such as asthma, hepatitis, malaria, dermatitis and rheumatism. Aim: The aim of this study was to test the susceptibility of five human pathogenic bacteria species to Physagulin isolated from the fruits of Physalis angulata plant. Methods: The crude extracts were prepared using different solvents by maceration method and isolation, purification were done by TLC and column chromatography. The isolated Physagulin was screened for antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion and broth micro-dilution assay. Results: In the present study, the inhibitory action of the Physagulin was found to increase with an increase in concentration against all bacterial strains. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed at the concentration of 500 µg/ml against all the bacteria. In this study, the S. aureus and E. coli are the more susceptible than the other selected human pathogenic bacteria. Conclusion: Based on the observations, Physalis angulata appears to be a valuable source for antimicrobial properties and helps to produce antimicrobial agents to treat human pathogenic infections.

  95. Rudra Prasad Nath and Jayanta Kumar Kundu

    The present study describes the distribution of puffer fishes from the coastal belt of Digha (between 21°32´N to 21°45´N latitude and 87°32´E to 87°50´E longitude) in West Bengal along the east coast of India. The puffer fishes were collected by trawling from three different stations (Digha mohona, Sankarpur, Soula). During this survey, 7 different species from 5 genera under the order Tetraodontiformes belonging to the family Tetraodontidae was identified viz, Arothron stellatus, Arothron immaculatus, Chelonodon patoca, Lagocephalus inermis, Lagocephalus lunaris, Takifugu oblongus, Tetraodon fluviatilis. The present study revealed that three puffer fishes were distributed mostly viz, Lagocephalus lunaris (51.49%), Takifugu oblongus (27.02%), Tetraodon fluviatilis (13.55%) and rest of the puffers are very few viz, Arothron stellatus (2.09%), Arothron immaculatus (0.28%), Chelonodon patoca (1.50%), Lagocephalus inermis (4.07%). Lagocephalus lunaris was recorded maximum from this coastal region. This study also summarized the distribution as well as seasonal abundance and diversity indices of the available puffer fish species.

  96. Tshibingu MUKENDI, Valence NDAYINSENGA, Benjamin Ntatagolo MUTAMBA, Dominique Musenge KABONGO, Judith Kazadi NGOIE, Louis Longanza BABOY and Theodore Mushambanyi MUNYULI

    In the present investigtion, twelve cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) germoplasms were evaluate in Kabinda zone during the first growing season A 2015-2016. The main purpose of the investigation was to estimate the growth and yield performance of twelve cowpea germoplasms for improving selection in cowpea. The study was conducted using a randomized block design with for replications. The results showed that varieties CNGKASC2-1, CNGKASC5-2-0-T and CNGKASB6-1A gave higher seeds yields, whereas CNGKASB7B-1, CNGKAS C6-1-1, CNGKAS A7-0-L and CNGKAS C5-1-1-R had lower seed yields. They observed high positive significant correlations for vegetative and reproductive traits. Therefore, in the present study with cowpea, a high impact of direct effects of correlation suggested that going for plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of branches, number pod per peduncle, number of pod per plant; pod long and seed weight would be effective for improving seed yield in cowpea.

  97. Çağrı Deliceirmak and Wayne J. Fuller

    Bursatella leachii de Blainville, 1817 is a lessepsian invasive species included in Black List of Marine Invasive Species and CIESM Atlas of Molluscs in Mediterranean Sea. Twenty-two individuals were discovered in a sheltered bay on the north coast of Cyprus. This is the first published record of B. leachii from Cyprus

  98. Afolayan, J. O., Ejeh, S. P, Amartey, Y. D. and Idris, A.

    Wastes generated as a result of agricultural and industrial activities has become an environmental concern. In recent time global attention has been focused on environmental preservation, in an attempt to reduce environmental degradation, the use of agricultural and industrial wastes in concrete production has gained steady increase. Concrete being one of the major building materials that is used virtually in all aspects of construction, because it could be delivered to the job site, and be molded in situ or pre-cast to any form or shape. This makes it a material of choice in construction. This research work reports the investigation carried out to determine the use of coconut shell as an aggregate in light weight concrete. Concrete samples were produced with different mix ratios, to determine the best and economic proportions that will give acceptable compressive strengths. Concrete specimen were produced with coconut shell as coarse aggregate, ordinary river sand as fine aggregate and ordinary Portland cement as binders. Trial mixes which include (1:1:1, 1:1½:2, 1:2:2, 1:2½:3, 1:1½:3, 1:2:4, 1:2:3, 1:3:3, 1:3:4, 1:4:4) were done and it was observed that mix ratio 1:1:1 and 1:2:2 gave good consistency and workability with water cement ratio 0.5. The mix ratio 1:1:1; 1:2:2 gave compressive strength of 16N/mm2 and 7.71N/mm2 at 28day strength test respectively.

  99. Ferenc J. Szabó

    Sigmoid functions are used in many fields of scientific life for the description of several phenomena. Comparing several sigmoid type curves, in this paper useful functions are selected which can be used during the evaluation and qualification process of teams and their results. On the basis of the analysis of the characteristics of these curves and their derivatives and integral curves, a system of 38 points of view is proposed as a possible new comparison system (EBSYQ) for ranking, comparing or evaluating the results of groups. Using this system it will be easier to decide the winning team or the best achivement among several groups, even in case of difficult or complicated decision- making situations. The working and efficiency of the proposed system is shown by the example of the comparison process of two groups of students studying the same course. The proposed evolutionary based system of evaluation could be used not only for student groups, but also for sport results or for the comparison and analysis of evolutionary type optimisation algorithms.

  100. Dr. Vikas Jayasree

    The implementation of data mining techniques for money laundering fraud detection follow traditional information flow of data mining, which starts with feature selection followed by representation, data collection, management, and performance evaluation. Data mining methods have the potentiality for detecting money laundering fraud in banking as they use past cases of fraud to build models, which identify and detect the risk of fraud.With the increased volume of crime datasets and complexity of relationships between these kinds of data, several data mining approaches were presented that involved anomaly detection using principal component analysis and self organizing map. But nevertheless, with high dimension data, they pose serious issues. In this work, to handle high dimensional data with multi-clustering structure, an Efficient Association Rule Pattern based Money Laundering Detection (EARM-MLD) framework is developed. The association rule pattern mining in EARM-MLD framework consists of three major parts. The first part finds frequent large itemsets from banking rules which have support and confidence values more than a threshold number of times. This in turn reduces the time taken for detecting money laundering. The second part is to construct association rules based on spatio temporal model from those large itemsets to easily perform the detection operation and to integrate it with multi clustering algorithm with the objective of reducing the false positive rate. Finally, the multiclustering algorithm involves the set of money transfer group which fulfills the criteria such as row condition, gathering amounts of money to a single account with minimum set size. The multi cluster elements integrated with EARM-MLD framework are treated as suspected operations which operate in money laundering detection work.The money laundering detection in banking system using EARM is experimented on factors such as time for detecting money laundering,false positive rate, scalability, system efficiency ratio, fraud identification accuracy, number of transaction , number of money transfers. Experimental analysis shows that EARM-MLD framework is able to reduce the time for detecting money laundering by 40.14% and reduce the false positive rate by 18.55% compared to the state-of-the-art works.

  101. Abiyot Kelecha Geletu

    Many DLLME methods have been developed in recent years. DLLME is a novel microextraction technique with great potential in sample pretreatment. In most works, the intensive research on DLLME is concerned with the broadening of the range of used extraction solvents to increase the extraction capability of the method. In response, some interesting solutions based on viable substitutes have been published; these solutions involve the adoption of ionic liquids, methods based on the solidification of a floating organic drop, procedures utilizing special devices, the adjustment of the mixture density of the solvents with the use of an auxiliary solvent, and methods based on supramolecules, all of which are widely applicable to analytes and demonstrate economical or environmental benefits. In this review paper, DLLME with lower and higher density extraction solvents and its combination with other extraction techniques with exemplified applications is discussed.

  102. Radha, K. and Rosemine, A

    In this paper edge degree set of a fuzzy graph is introduced and some of its properties are studied. It is proved that any set of real numbers can be a degree set of some fuzzy graph.

  103. Enrique Posada, Mateo Jaramillo, Ricardo Posada and Melisa Arango

    Waste to Energy equipment design and operation is highly depending on the physical and thermal properties of the waste to be used. While this seems obvious, there are practical complications when a study is undertaken, because of lack of proper determination of the waste characteristics. This paper proposes the use of a set of physical and thermal properties as the basis for the design and the study and analysis of the actual functioning of WTE equipment, characterizing them by using simple determination techniques. A rational method is proposed for the use of these in the design and analysis, illustrated with practical examples derived from the experience of the authors with these systems. It is proposed that, by using this approach, it will be easier to determine important aspects of the feasibility of a new project and derive appropriate conclusions when auditing working WTE equipment.

  104. Usha Devi, S., Jayalakshmi, S. and Tamizh Chelvam, T

    In this paper we introduce the notation of Q-fuzzy bi-ideal and Q-fuzzy strong bi-ideal of a near-ring. We have discussed some of their theoretical properties in detail and obtain some characterization.

  105. Sahil Koul, Rohit Wanchoo and Aakriti Sharma

    Maintaining efficient work force to run an organization has always been a difficult task for all the leading organizations. Every organization tries all its ends up to gather the best talent possible in order to efficiently run and grow its business. However it has been seen from the last one or two decades that with the advancement of technology the process of hiring efficient candidates have been a difficult task. The reason for this is not the lack of talent but inefficient ways of recruitment and improper allocation of slots to right candidates on the basis of performance. On the other hand the concept of Data Mining has got a great boost from the last decade resulting in growth and Success of Business. This paper thus presents a view of collaborating the Concepts of Data Mining and the Performance of an employee in an organization to create an Effective workforce based on the performance strengths of the Employee. Hence the term “Performance Mining” is coined to link both the concepts of Data Ming and Employee performance data to build an organization with the best possible Workforce to maximize the productivity of the Business and thereby supporting the Global Economy.

  106. Parimala, Y. G., Dr. Munibhadrayya, B. and Dr. Suma Sudhindra

    Tones have a fixed frequency while notes in music are a combination of tones or frequencies which are observable in the power spectra. The frequencies present in the spectra are characteristic of the pitch, timbre, amplitude of the input audio signal. These features are illustrated in a case study on Carnatic music system by studying the frequency spectra of input signals from veena and vocal. It is found that the spectra contain other harmonics and overtones along with input signal frequency due to resonance effects and the characteristic overtones can be analyzed to get useful information about the timbre of the source. In particular spectra of notes S, R1, R2, M1, P, D2 from vocal at G# and Veena at E are analysed.

  107. Depinder Singh and Kanwal Jeet Singh, D

    The main objective of this paper is focused, to study the previous investigations of various researchers. Some recently invented advance materials like, Titanium, Titanium carbide etc. are not easily machined by conventional machining processes. So that, powder mixed electric discharge machining will be preferred for these materials. Because it gives better output responses like better material removal rate, lower tool wear rate and extensively smooth machined surface. These output responses are highly used in industrial applications. This review paper will be helpful for the young researches to understand the mechanism of powder mixed electric discharge machining and brief the previous research investigation in this field.

  108. Dharamjeet Singh and Kanwal Jeet Singh

    Electric Discharge Machining is mainly used for very hard materials or some recently invented advance materials like; Titanium, Tungsten carbide etc. are difficult to machine with conventional machining processes. So that electric discharge machining will be preferred for these materials and composite materials are easily machined by electric discharge machine. Because it gives better output responses like better material removal rate, lower tool wear rate and extensively smooth machined surface. These output responses are highly used in industrial application. This review paper will be helpful for the young researches to understand the mechanism of electric discharge machining and brief the previous research investigation in this field.

  109. Radhakrishna, A. R., Ravikumar and Sharad Dugad

    The design of pipe system for water supply through buried pipes and for efficient irrigation, it is necessary to know the hydraulics of the pipe systems. The hydraulics of the buried pipe distribution system consists of flow of water in the pipe, frictional head loss, other fitting losses, velocity, etc. The material selected for water distribution system is made of PVC pipes confirming to the Bureau of Indian Standard Specifications IS:4985, 1981 (as amended from time to time) or the standard prescribed by other national standard organization. The procedure, in the design consists of deciding the pipe diameter for different discharges and for different area of the plot. The design also consists of pressure tolerance of the pipe system. The long history of hydraulics of the pipe system is referred. The extension of reviewed paper is presented. In designing the pipe system, the hydraulics of pipes plays the major role in the contest of hydraulics.

  110. Suresh Babu, K. S., Bylappa, B. K., Dr. Shivanand, H. K., Rakshit Divakar Naik and Sunil Kumar, K. V.

    A sandwich-structured composite is a special class of composite materials that is fabricated by attaching two thin but stiff skins to a lightweight but thick core. The core material is normally low strength material, but its higher thickness provides the sandwich composite with high bending stiffness with overall low density. Nowadays, sandwich structures with different face sheet and core materials are increasingly used in various applications. Sandwich structures have many advantages, including high stiffness-to-weight and strength-to weight ratios, high damping capacities, good thermal insulation properties, excellent water and vapor barrier performance, good corrosion resistance, and low cost. To characterize the flexural properties of the sandwich composites, a series of 3-point bending tests were conducted, in accordance with the ASTM D7264 standard on the sandwich panel with different percentage of CNT. The variation of CNT percentage will affects the bending properties of the sandwich beam in the three point bending tests. A holistic approach will be conceived to identify the applicability of sandwich construction, allowable core bending strength. Increasing the percentage of CNT in FRP honeycomb sandwich composites increases the strength of the structure to certain extant. However addition of CNT behind 2% decreases the strength.

  111. Vihang G. Pathare and Dr. Seema A. Jagtap

    This paper is a thorough literature review of processes related to surface water and groundwater interactions and the available tools to model them at various spatial and temporal scales with different levels of complexity. This paper aim to put light on exchange fluxes between surface water-groundwater for rivers in India and predict how these may change with existing or different surface water and groundwater management. As such, this address a major recognised deficiency in the management of troubled or vulnerable Indian catchments in accounting for stream- groundwater interaction in the water budget. It is aimed at determining the deficiencies of the present modelling approaches for Indian conditions and highlighting scope for future model development. It is intended to enhance awareness of the different modelling approaches published in the peer-reviewed literature, prevent duplication, and underpin adaptation and initiate informed debate.

  112. Havva Ceylan

    In this study, soil temperature variation around horizontal soil heat exchangers (HGHEs), which are widely used for ground-based heat pump (GSHP) systems, was experimentally determined. To determine temperatures and analyse the ground massif temperature changes in the HGHE area, an experimental set-up has been constructed for climatic condition of Çorlu Town located in the Marmara region of Turkey. The experimental results were obtained from 4 August to 14 October in cooling and transition season of 2015. In the experimental study, the soil temperatures at six points at different depths and intervals, and the HGHE inlet and outlet temperatures were measured. The energetic potential of the ground massif was evaluated for operation period and stop periods (night period and transition season). It has been observed that the amount of heat rejected to the soil decreased over time in the working period. The energy accumulated during the working period was not completely destroyed during the night period. But the soil has renewed itself in great measure during the transition season. It has been found that the potential of self-renewal of the soil around the middle pipes of the GHE is less when compared with the soil around the edge pipe due to thermal interaction.

  113. Kartel, M., Karpenko, O., Lobanov, V. and Wang Bo

    By density functional theory method (B3LYP, basis 6-31G**) the equilibrium spatial structure and the electronic structure have been calculated of carbon nanoclusters (CNC) derived from the nanocluster C96 of hexagonal shape due to removing one or two atoms. For comparison, the calculations have been carried out of similar structures formed from polycyclic aromatic molecules (PAM) C96H24 due to removal on one or two carbon atoms also. It has been show that: the ground electronic states of CNC C96-1(1), C96-2(1), and C96-1(1)H24 systems are triplet, while that of the system C96-2(1)Н24 - quintet; the creation of a monovacancy in the central hexagon of CNC C96 does not violate the isolation of the conjugated system of the peripheral chain of carbon atoms, as in the case of defect-free CNC C96 hexagonal structure; spectrum of single-electron energy levels of the clusters containing vacancies includes the energies of several frontier vacant MOs localized at the cyclic peripheral chain belonging into the range of energies of the highest occupied MO; the removal of one atom from the central hexagon CNC C96 results in a "friable" structure of the formed cluster C96-1(1), what is reflected in the reduction of the removal energy for the second carbon atom from the C96-1(1); removing carbon atom of PAM C96H24 stabilizes the resulting system what is evidenced by the growth of the formation energy of the second monovacancy compared to that of the first one; the properties of CNC containing vacancies differ from those of the systems obtained from PAM due to removal of carbon atoms.

  114. Eliud Nyakundi, Prof. Enose M.W Simatwa and Prof Theodore. M. Ayodo

    The self-employment sector provides an avenue for workers to earn a living.. There exists earning differentials among workers with various levels of education worldwide In Kisii county there are worker entering into employment with various levels of education. The return to the self-employed varies. The returns to the self-employed are important in determing individual and government investment in education. The purpose of the study was to establish education returns spare parts self-employment activities in urban Kisii County. The study objectives were to; determine the returns to education of various levels of education of the self-employed in motor spare parts industry, determine the challenges facing the self-employed, determine effectiveness of intervention measures by Kenya government to assist the self-employed in their work. The study used descriptive and correlation design. Human capital theory was used. The population of the study was 11240.That is in computer service industry 6400 and spare parts 4840 workers. The study used Fisher’s model to derive a sample of 166 spare parts self-employed workers. Questionnaire and interview schedules were used to collect data for the study. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Qualitative data was transcribed and analyzed in emergent themes and sub-themes. Government intervention was not effective in the provision of: market stalls, loans and market for finished products, but effective in provision of: security, electricity and infrastructure. In spare parts the results showed that on average; respondents with KC.P.E earned Ksh 16, 786.3636, K.C.SE earned 16855.8140; certificate earned 16825.9259 qualifications earned nearly similar amount of money. Diploma graduates earnings were 22584.2105 and bachelors earned 29,150.000. Analysis of pearson’s r indicate; For k.cpe was 0.617, 0.009, certificate 0.130, diploma 0.129 and bachelors 0.297. The Pearson’s r2 results were: kcpe was 0.413, kcse 0.011, certificate 0.016, diploma 0.038 and degree 0.002. The adjusted R results were: kcpe 0.373. kcse 0.002, certificate 0.002, diploma 0.001 and degree 0.075. The ANOVA results were: Forkcpe(F(1,20)12.282, P=0.002), kcse (F(1,84)0,007, P=0.935), certificate was (F(1,25,) 0.428,P=0.519), diploma was (F(1,17)1.290, P=0.597) and bachelors degree was(F(1,10)0.0.964,P=0.349).The Pearson’s r results were’ kcpe 0.643, kcse 0.104, certificate 0.128, diploma 0.195 and bachelors degree 0.045. The Pearson’s r2results were: kcpe was 0.413, kcse 0.011, certificate 0.016, diploma 0.038 and degree 0.002.The r adjusted results were :kcpe 0.373. kcse 0.002, certificate 0.002, diploma 0.001 and degree 0.075. The ANOVA results were computed as: For kcpe (F(1,15)10.572,P=0.005), kcse was (F(1,70)0,761, P=0.386), certificate was (F(1,52,)0.868, P=0.356), diploma was (F(1,28)1.031, P=0.319 and bachelor results were (F(1,13)0.006,P=0.874). The model summary indicated that the independent variables (K.C.P.E, K.C.S.E, Certificate, Diploma and Undergraduate levels of education) explained up to 22.6% of the variation of average earnings 77.4% remained unexplained. The study concluded that; there was a significant and positive association between returns to education and increasing level of education, and lack of capital was a challenge to the self-employed. The study recommended government intervention in funding the self-employed in their activities, reduced electricity charges and blackouts. The study is important in formulation of education programmes relevant to the self-employed and government intervention in support of the self-employed.

  115. Manush Nandan, M. and Narendiran

    Hemangiomas can occur anywhere in body tissue which having vascular component including skin, mucosa, muscles, glands, viscera and bones. Intramuscular hemangiomas (IMH) of the head and neck are uncommon benign vascular tumors as compare to cutaneous hemangioma, for which head and neck region is the most common location (60%). Head and neck IMH arises frequently in the masseter and trapezius muscle. However, hemangiomas of the retropharyngeal space are extremely rare in literature, with only few cases reported till date and for such cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is found significant diagnostic tool over other imaging studies.

  116. Sami Al-Heeh

    This paper investigates non-complementary antonyms in Standard Arabic in concord with recent denotational theories. Therefore, it builds on first order logic to check how these antonyms are contextualized in Arabic discourse. Accordingly, it has been assumed that the lexical meaning manipulated by these antonyms must express some true and untrue values at the logical level when they are used for debates or arguments. To draw these values, the antonym meaning relations and linguistic properties of the predicate and its arguments are all calculated. It has been found that Standard Arabic tends to use three types of non-complementary opposites: Polar, overlapping and equipollent. Arguments are often carried out by the positive as well as the negative pair parts of the polar antonyms to convey more realistic meaning relations. Debates are also manipulated by the negative pair part of the overlapping antonym, as this pair part helps draw a real meaning value. Exceptionally, Arabic also tends to use certain terms, such as good and not good to evaluate the argument done on the negative overlapping pair part. Arguments are inclusively carried out on the positive pair part of the equipollent antonym, though the negative part also helps draw a true meaning value. In some debates, the positive pair part of the equipollent antonym switches to the negative part which is tagged with another synonym functioning as an evaluative element.

  117. Thamizh Selvi, S. and Rajarajacholan, G

    Cognitive radio networks allow unlicensed users to access licensed spectrum opportunistically without disrupting primary user (PU) communication. Developing a distributed implementation that can fully utilize the spectrum opportunities for secondary users (SUs) has so far remained elusive. Although throughput optimal algorithms based on the well-known maximal weight scheduling (MWS) algorithm exist for cognitive radio networks, they require central processing of network-wide SU information. In this paper, a new distributed algorithm is introduced that asymptotically achieves the capacity region of the cognitive radio systems. Extensive simulation results are provided to illustrate the efficacy of the algorithm. Recently, it has been shown that carrier-sense multiple access (CSMA)-type random access algorithms can achieve the maximum possible throughput in ad hoc wireless networks. However, these algorithms assume an idealized continuous-time CSMA protocol where collisions can never occur. In addition, simulation results indicate that the delay performance of these algorithms can be quite bad. On the other hand, although some simple heuristics can yield much better delay performance for a large set of arrival rates, in general they may only achieve a fraction of the capacity region. In this paper, We have used Sensing and Sharing Algorithm to achieve the maximum throughput.

  118. Uma, P. and Indumathi, P

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) originates from Diabetes and it is the major cause of blindness in all over the world. Earlier signs of this disease are the presence of small circular red spots called microaneurysm (MA). Detection of the MA in the earlier stage can control the progression of the disease. We presented an automated method for microaneurysm detection in this paper. The proposed algorithm is tested with DIARETDB1 database and compared with existing methods. The sensitivity, specificity of our algorithm is 91.5% and 92.1% respectively. The successful results show that our method can be used to detect the presence of diabetic retinopathy.

  119. Comparison of insulin resistance, prolactin and HbA1c with relation to obesity in men and women of healthy control and diabetic patients / Meisan-Iraq

    Even though the scientific community has started unraveling the mysteries of the close linkage between obesity, insulin resistance, hormones and their physiological effects in diabetic patients, a lot still remains to be discovered. In province of Meisan (southern of Iraq), to date, no study has investigated on obesity, insulin resistance and its effects on type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore, this study embarked on to explore the comparison of insulin resistance, prolactin and HbA1c with relation to obesity in men and women of healthy control and diabetic patients in Meisan province (southern of Iraq). A total of 50 consenting normal individuals (25 men, and 25 women) and 50 adult type 2 diabetic patients (26 men, and 24 women) seen in the central laboratory of Al- Sadder General Hospital and Diabetes and Endocrine Center at the province of Meisan, were evaluated in this cross sectional study. Their fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c, weight, height, BMI and prolactin were evaluated. Also, insulin resistance parameters (HOMA2-IR, HOMA%B and HOMA%S) were calculated using HOMA2 calculator software. We used student t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient to find the statistical significance. On comparison, levels of serum glucose, insulin, HOMA2-IR, BMI, prolactin were significantly (p<0.05) higher as well as level of blood HbA1c (p<0.01) in both men and women type 2 diabetes mellitus cases as compared with those of the controls. On the other hand, there was a positive statistically significant correlation was observed between IR and each of BMI, HbA1c and prolactin, respectively in diabetic patients. The results obtained indicated that increased obesity leads to increased insulin resistance which affected on levels of HbA1c and prolactin in men and women type 2 diabetic patients. Our data indicate that these strong associated between insulin resistance and levels of HbA1c and prolactin could be considered as good biomarkers of the risk of T2D and obesity in men and women type 2 diabetic patients.

  120. Ahmed W. Radh

    In this study, Sulfadiazine reacted with (NaNO2)and (HCl) to form diazonum salt was converted to 4-azido-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl)phenylsulfonamid (An) by reaction with sodium azide. 1,2,3-triazoline derivatives (B1-B10) were synthesized viaclick reaction, Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloadditionbetween compound (An) with chalcones and unsaturated compound like maleicanhydride, acrylamide, p-benzoquinone and cinnamylalcohol in presence cuprous chloride and sodium ascorbate.Identification of products by elemental analysis C.H.N.S., FT-IR spectra and 1H-NMR spectrum. 1,2,3-triazoline derivatives compounds were screened for antibacterial activity.

  121. Navdeep Banga

    In this paper, my main emphasis on Stealth aircrafts that use stealth technology to avoid detection by employing a combination of features to interfere with radar as well as reduce visibility in the infrared visual, audio, and radio frequency (RF) spectrum. It involves technological methods of enabling military aircraft to evade radar and other sensors in the Electromagnetic (EM) spectrum deployed to detect and engage aircraft. Stealth technology is actually a mix of several different technologies, this technology is able to make a revolutionary change in the field of modern warfare.

  122. Byeong Jun Kim, Suk Chil Kim, Bo Hyun Cho and Kyoo Jae Shin

    North-East asian countries, laver cultivation has been an important marine industry in coastal areas as well as fishery because laver (Porphyra) is nutrient-rich food and has been used in many Asian cuisines. However, laver cultivation is vulnerable to natural disasters such as typhoons and tsunamis. If those disasters hit laver cultivation area, laver cultivation structures would be devastated and scattered around the coast. Laver is characterized by high concentrations of fiber and minerals, a low fat content, and, in some cases, relatively high protein levels. Consumption of seaweeds, including laver, increases the intake of dietary fiber and lowers the occurrence of some chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, heart disease, and cancer. In this paper, the automatic harvesting and acidic processing system for underwater laver cultivation has proposed. This automatic system consists of design of the boat with hydraulic, cylindrical, and linear actuators, and also acidic processing system consists of sensors which are used to maintain the certain level of the acidic nature of the water. The system prototype has implemented and satisfied by the performance to realize the further level.

  123. Bindu, K. B., Neeraj Biju and Rishikesh Raveendhren

    The Thurakkal Bapooty bypass road is a link road connecting the Malappuram Manjeri road in south at Kacheripadi junction with Calicut Manjeri road in the western part of Manjeri town in Malappuram district in Kerala. It starts at Kacheripadi junction at latitude 11°6´37.728´´ N and longitude 76°7´14.454´´ E and ends near Thurakkal at latitude 11°7´16.008´´ N and longitude 76°6´36.564´´ E. The construction work of Thurakkal Bapooty road was started in the year 1996 and was open to the public in the year 2005. This road was constructed to divert the flow of vehicle traffic from the Manjeri town, in order to avoid traffic problem. Tremendous development is noted along this road within span of 10 years. The present study is focused on studying the trend of development in the study area along Thurakkal Bapooty bypass road using geospatial technology. This study is based on borh primary and secondary data. The primary data in the form of questionaire and direct interview was collected analyzed and maped, similarly the survey map of wards was used to dematcate the outline boundary of study area. The Google Earth imageries of 2006 and 2016 were used to derived the land use pattern in the study area. The ArcGIS 10.1 software, Google Earth and Microsoft Excel was used for the collection, manipulation, analysis and representation of maps, tables and charts in this study. The study not only highlights the significance of Thurakkal Bapooty bypass road, but also reveals the trend of development and related major issues and problems in study area along Thurakkal Bapooty bypass road.

  124. María E. Alvarez and Fernando J. Henao

    This article is derived from the research project entitled , the objective was to analyze the processes curricular and pedagogical practices contextualized in two educational institutions of the rural sector of the Valle del Cauca - Colombia, it conducted a background check that explain the changes in the educational system that they have influenced the setting of rural education. It is a descriptive qualitative case study, used the interview, observation log and the documentary analysis, from the story of teachers. Interpret and understand processes curricular and pedagogical practices in context, since the traces that remain in the memory of players and the teaching strategies used in the daily routine of the classroom, without losing the sense of cultural identities, which make possible a relevant education with the Colombian rural development was achieved.

  125. Dr. Suresh Sharma and Manisha Bothra

    Government has an essential role in making the health of its population and this role has risen substantially in today’s scenario. This scenario is unlike that of private sector where the prices are high and question of affordability is the biggest challenge thus it becomes prior to study the causality between public health expenditure and health status. The prime objective of this study is to figure out the impact of per capita public health expenditure on health status of the population across countries using infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, and under-5 mortality rate as proxies using cross-sectional data of South-Asian countries. Dataset has been prepared by taking annual data for the years 1994 onwards till 2014 from World Bank and World Development Indicators. We adopt a robust Fixed Effects (FE) model as the baseline specification and compare the results with robust OLS and robust OLS with lagged explanatory variables. This study unveils that public health expenditure although is an important factor affecting health outcomes but other social factors such as education, poverty, strong governance, community involvement at all the levels etc. does have a strong impact on health status of a country.

  126. Monalisa Paul, Sanjay Keshari Das, Rita Singh and Prakash Chand Pathania

    The present study deals with the inventory of moths in selected areas of Delhi carried out from 2014 to 2015. During the study 11 species are new reports to the moth fauna of Delhi. After the present study, the moth fauna of Delhi comprises a total of 73species belonging to 67 genera and 9families.Of these, species richness of family Noctuidae was found to be the highest followed by Erebidae, Geometridae, Crambidae, Sphingidae.

  127. Harold Edmundo Mora Campo, Flor Elbeda Agudelo Correa and John Romario Arce Aranguren

    This article presents a bibliographical approach that aims to review the concept of conciliation in Colombia (within the framework of the research project entitled “Efficacy of prejudicial conciliation in alimony obligations – years 2014 and 2015 in the Reconciliation Center of the UCEVA”), Particularly in the area of preliminary conciliation in family law; in an attempt to study the conceptions that currently exist in Colombia as well as in Latin America, highlighting their importance as a mechanism to relieve the ordinary justice. Such exercise is further developed, taking as a reference for contrast some jurisprudential definitions and some outlined by contemporary foreign procedural dogmatic.

  128. Pepukai Perpetua Maruve and Leonard Chitongo

    The continuous food insecurity in rural areas despite efforts by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the government to reduce it through food distribution schemes and many development projects has become a threat to rural development. The research sought to assess the contribution of the fast track land reform programme (FTLRP) to food security at Datmoor farm in Seke District. A mixed method approach was adopted were both qualitative and quantitative for data analysis. Stratified random sampling was used to come up with a sample of 50 households from a population of 525. Data were collected using questionnaires, focus group discussions (FGDs), key informant interviews, observations and documentary research. The quantitative data were analysed in SPSS V 16 and MS Excel environments to produce tables and graphs. The researcher concluded that 72% of farmers at Datmoor farm are food insecure. Whilst the greatest challenge to enhance production is finance. The paper recommends an increase in provision of government funded extension services, capitalisation as well as infrastructural development in order to achieve sustainability and food security.

  129. Assessment strategy by competences to develop critical reading in fifth grade students

    The current project presents as a research problem the low results of Pruebas Saber 5°, among the years 2012 and 2015 of the institute, specifically, in the language field, therefore, this one consists of the incidence of a competence assessment strategy type Prueba Saber 5° in the critical reading competence on the part of fifth grade students, carried out at Institución Educativa Corazón del Valle, sede San Judas Tadeo located in Tuluá city. On the other hand, the current research had a quantitative-explicative approach, seeing that, the outcomes were shown in graphics and statistics, at the same time they were explained during the process. Finally, the research project presents results and conclusions which prove the hypothesis related to the fact that a competence assessment strategy has a positive influence in the critical reading competence on the part of the research subjects.

  130. Dr. Benjamin Owuor Ombok, Judith Auma Omanga and Grace Ivy A. Odongo

    Working capital as a financial metric representing operating liquidity of entity, whose management involves the administration of accounts receivables, accounts payables, inventory and cash, enables continued operation and provision of sufficient cash flow to satisfy both maturing short term debt and recurrent operational cost. This enhances business’ capital security, investment and performance. Sugar factories absorbs up to 60% workforce of western region and accounts for about 15% of agricultural GDP contribution. It is therefore a dominant employer and source of livelihoods for most households in the Western Kenya. Despite working capital management practices being part of these firms’ financial management, the sugar firms have continued to register less than optimum performance level as evidenced by frequent call for financial intervention by the government. Limited empirical information on this situation set the basis for this paper; through establishing effect of accounts receivable (ARP), determining effect of accounts payables period (APP), analying effect of Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC) and examining effect inventory turnover period (ITO) on financial performance (ROA) of the four (4) public owned sugar firms. Using Cronbach Alpha test for internal consistency of the variables with a coefficient of 0.725 validity was established. Analysing working capital elements extracted from audited financial reports for a period 2005 to 2014, using correlation and regression (OLS) analysis method the output established a negative and significant effect of APP (= -0.129, P=0.000); CCC (=-0.041, p=0.037) while ITO was negative and insignificant (=0.131, P=0.062). ARP had positive and insignificant effect (=0.030,P=0.293) on Return on Assets (ROA) as a measure of financial performance; implying that a unit change in APP, CCC and ITO results into a negative effect on ROA while a unit change in ARP has a positive effect on ROA. R square value was established at 0.724, showing that independent variables had a higher effect on financial performance (ROA) thereby confirming model suitability. Whereas the result largely support most of the findings on this subject matter, there is need for a comparative study on both private and state owned sugar firms.

  131. Kulakov, A.V

    The article discusses the operating principle and design of the environmentally safe reactor of the heat source - K&RK generator invented by the authors based on a new initiation method for cold fusion reaction in ordinary water. The paper demonstrates the result of the action of the K&RK generator as a new type of heat source whose yield turns out to be positive for the first time in world history without any additional energy sources connected to the device. It contains a short overview of the physical nature of the initiation method of cold fusion reactions in ordinary water making a revolutionary change in the power industry.

  132. Mary Mogute

    This study investigated factors determining women’s property ownership and inheritance practices among the Kisii community in Kenya. The Kisii community, just like many other traditional patriarchal societies in the world, gives men priority over women in property ownership and inheritance. Though discriminative, this practice is normative and culturally sanctioned by both men and women. Though, human rights and constitutional provisions endevours to treat men and women as equals before the law, in patriarchal societies, men still have an upper hand over their female counterparts with regards to property ownership and inheritance rights. This amounts to gender discrimination which is contrary to human and women’s rights. The objectives of this study were to; investigate the determinants of women’s property ownership and inheritance practices, and proffer strategies that could be used to promote women’s property ownership and inheritance rights of key resources in the community such as land, houses and livestock. The study was informed by the conflict and social role theories. It adopted mixed method design. The findings revealed that cultural beliefs and practices, socio-economic factors, patriarchy, lack of legal awareness on women’s rights to property and land scarcity were critical factors that influenced women’s property ownership and inheritance practices among the Kisii people.

  133. Wawan Wahyuddin

    This study aims to know and analyze the knowledge of adolescents to marriage along with rules in marriage based on Islam, research conducted to get a clear picture on the knowledge that adolescents have on marriage. This study uses quantitative research methods through descriptive analysis, and inferential analysis, the population in this study were students in State Senior High School at Serang Banten. From the research results can be seen that overall there are differences in adolescents knowledge between men and women, in addition to the overall adolescents knowledge has a high correlation value (very strong) to marriage this is not much different when viewed from the dimensions of adolescents knowledge that has value High correlation to marriage, the dominant factor affecting marriage based on adolescent knowledge is the dimension of experience, information, neighborhood culture, and dimension age which shows high correlation value. Thus it can be seen that the existence of knowledge in adolescents can affect adolescent attitudes toward marriage, from the results of this study can be known that the determinants of knowledge of adolescents in marriage is influenced by the factor experience, information, neighborhood culture and age.

  134. Hannah Lunyolo Gidudu, Betty Tikoko and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Women’s perceptions on minimal occupation of management positions in Government Aided secondary schools in Eastern Uganda were explored. The Uganda National Gender Policy was formulated in 1997 and revised in 2007 to address the gender imbalance in the management of educational institutions and other public institutions for the purpose of enabling women to access justice in workplaces so as to enable them to be part of the mainstream in Uganda’s socio-economic development in the women’s empowerment initiative. The objective of this study was therefore to examine women participation in management positions in government aided secondary schools in Uganda. The study revealed that the commitment of women serving in management positions is sometimes betrayed by various factors ranging from internal to external. A spirit of family responsibilities and challenges, corruption by some male appointing officials, limited qualifications and exposure, limited support coupled with political, religious, cultural, and societal norms and African beliefs is a hindrance to women’s access. In addition, this type of commitment has been abused in various forms. The female teachers’ overall perception on occupation of management positions in government Aided secondary schools is that male head teachers are more preferred to female ones. Therefore, the overall conclusion on perception on women’s minimal occupation of management positions in Government Aided secondary schools in Eastern Uganda shows a pattern that women do not have equal access to management positions in the specified study area. The researcher recommends that: the Government should increase the number of female head teachers, balance interviewing panels, discipline culprits, streamline roles of politicians in schools, sensitize stake holders, and implement gender equality policies.

  135. Enose M.W. Simatwa and Hellen Adhiambo Ahawo

    The government of Kenya in partnership with religious sponsors and parents provide financial, human and physical resources to enhance education of girls and boys in schools. However with all these measures in place, girls’ performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education examinations was just average and below that of boys in Siaya County for the years 2011 to 2013. The mean scores were 6.21, 6.90 and 6.05 compared to those of boys which were 7.73, 7.73 and 7.56. The girls’ performance in Siaya County was also below that of neighbouring Kisumu County whose mean scores were 7.46, 7.02, and 6.98. Objective of the study was to determine the government’s and parents’ contribution to co-curricular resources in enhancement of girls’ academic performance. The study established that the government and parents contributed 53.3% and 78.6% respectively of the variation in co-curricular resources in enhancement of girls’ academic performance as signified by coefficient .533 and .786 respectively. Regression analysis revealed that government and parents contributions were significant predictors of girls’ academic performance. The study concluded that parents’ contribution was moderate and had the highest influence on girls’ academic performance. The government’s contribution were moderate and the influence on girls’ performance was high. The study recommended that the government’s and parents’ should improve on their contributions to enhance the girls’ academic performance. The findings of this study are significant to government’s and parents’ in education by informing them in areas that require review of their efforts and strategies for enhancement of girls’ academic performance.

  136. Lalmawipuii Chawngthu and Lalhmasai Chuaungo

    It is observed in Mizoram that most of the students are facing the problem in expressing themselves in English through speaking as well as writing. What are responsible for this? Are textbooks not good enough to promote language skills in students? - are questions that very often come to the minds of the investigators. The present study was undertaken to address such type of issues and to evaluate English Literature Reader for class X in Mizoram. The book was evaluated in terms of its content, different literary genres, grammar, activities and exercises and its appropriateness for developing language skills. Contents of the book were found to be quite appropriate. However, there was lack of Mizo stories as well as Mizo Authors with which the students could have identified themselves and felt more at home with the topics. The Literature Reader acted mainly as a material to help students appreciate literature and to assists them in the development of listening and reading skills than the grammatical knowledge and speaking and writing skills.

  137. Maurice Aoko Ndolo and Prof. Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Immediate Free Secondary Education policy was introduced in Kenya in 2008 with an aim of making secondary education affordable to enhance student academic performance. The influence seem to have been low in Mbita and Suba Sub- Counties where the academic performance mean scores in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education for the period 2011 to 2014 were low at 5.0 and 5.1 for Mbita and Suba Sub counties respectively. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of Free Secondary Education policy on student academic performance in Mbita and Suba Sub- Counties. A conceptual framework based on the Psacharopoulous and Woodhall (1985) concept of investment choices was adopted to determine the influence of Free Secondary Education policy on student academic performance. The study adopted ex-post facto and correlational research designs. The study population consisted of 37 principals, 2775 form four students of 2014, 1 Sub-County Schools Auditor and 2 Sub –County Quality Assurance and Standards Officers. The study sample consisted of 34 principals, 1 SCSAs, 2 Sub –County Quality Assurance and Standards Officers. Questionnaire, Interview Schedule and Focused Group Discussion were used to collect data. Face and content validity were established by supervisors whose input was included. Reliability coefficient of principal’s questionnaire was established using test re-test method and correlated using Pearson’s r. The outcome was that the reliability coefficient was 0.8 at the set p-value of .05 meaning that it was reliable. The study findings revealed that Free Secondary Education policy accounted for 31.2% of variation in student academic performance as signified adjusted R square by coefficient of 0.312. This means that increase in Free Secondary Education funding of Kshs. 10,265 resulted in increase in academic performance as indicated by the coefficients. The study concluded that Free Secondary Education policy influenced student academic performance. The study recommended that, the government should therefore increase capitation fees for each student to increase student academic performance. The findings of the study are significant to the Ministry of Education, planners, educators, parents and policy makers by informing them on the need to develop strategies to improve or redesign Free Secondary Education policy so as enhance further access, transition and student academic performance.

  138. Jatisankar Bandyopadhyay, *Ismail Mondal, Kunal Kanti Maiti, Antara Biswas, Nirupam Acharyya, Subrata Sarkar, Anurupa Paul and Panchanan Das

    Forest cover is an important crucial role to a variety of scientific and land resource management applications. Many of these applications not only need information on forest categories, but also the information on tree canopy density should be considered. Due to the advancement in Remote sensing technology and availability of many sources of imagery and various digital classification techniques, forest canopy cover assessment has been readily accessible. The need of understanding the capability and limitations of various types of imagery and classification methods is essential. The management, development, and conservation of an area require vast knowledge of forest resources, its distribution and utilization pattern by its flora and fauna. But because of various reasons such as the development of population, increasingly changing forest to the other unsuitable applications such as agriculture, providing energy and fuel, millions of hectares from this natural resource are destroyed every year and the remaining surface change quantitatively and qualitatively. The rate of forest density should be investigated for the better management of forests. An overview of several remote sensing techniques has been used to assess the forest canopy cover. We have generated the FCD model by using Landsat 8 OLI image in an old growth forest of Paschim Medinipur sub- division of India.

  139. Geetha, C., Dr. Jeyalakshmi, S. and Dr. Kamalam, S

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally, with at least 2.8 million people dying each year as a result of being overweight or obese. Once associated with high income countries, obesity is now also prevalent in low and middle income countries. Governments, internationals partners, civil society, nongovernmental organizations and the private sector all have vital roles to play in contributing to obesity prevention.

  140. Masara Al-Abdul-Aziz and Zainab TY Al-Abdullah

    The Green synthesis method of silver nanoparticles by Typha domingensis was investigated. The aqueous extract prepared from Typha domingensis was evaluated as reducing agent for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles was visually monitored with change in colour from yellow to brown and later monitored with UV-Vis spectroscopy. Energy dispersive x-ray spectra (EDS) analysis method shows the qualitative and quantitative analysis of synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were further characterized by SEM, and were employed in biological study. The results reveal that typha, is capable of synthesizing spherical shaped silver nanoparticles with biological activity.

  141. Dr. Burhan BAŞOĞLU

    The aim of this study is to review the organizational commitment levels of the trainers, employees of the Ministry of Youth and Sports, Sports General Directorate, regarding some demographical variables. 330 trainers have participated in the study. Organizational commitment defines the strength of the connection the employee feels towards the organization he/she works for. For the process of personnel strengthening, defined as the process of increasing the decision making authorities of and improving the workforce in an organization via cooperation, sharing, training, education and team work, to function effectively the organizational commitment of the workforce should be provided. As the result of this study, it can be said that the trainers working in the provincial organization of the Sports General Directorate show the behaviors indicating their organizational commitment at high levels, meaning that they adopted the aims and values of the organization and are willing to stay within the organization and to spend effort in their duties.

  142. Dr. Bang Nguyen Viet, Dr. Vu Nguyen Thanh and MBA.NhanVo Kim, 2017

    The paper aims at defining and measuring the impacts of brand equity Vietnamese fresh fruits on the overall brand equity and interactions between them. This paper used qualitative and quantitative research methods: (i) qualitative research conducted through direct interviews with 10 experts and focus group discussions with 10 consumers, and (ii) quantitative research conducted through direct interviews with 520 consumers. The results show that (i) brand equity of Vietnamese fresh fruit is influenced directly by five factors, including brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, brand loyalty, and perceived safety; of which, perceived quality and perceived safety have more significant effects on the overall brand equity; and (ii) there are interactions among the factors.

  143. : Mishal, H. B. and Saudagar, R. B.

    Crude methanolic extract of the bark of Mimosa prainiana Gamble (Mimosaceae) was subjected to the preliminary phyto chemical screening and evaluation of its anti inflammatory activity. Preliminary phyto chemical screening of the methanolic extract of the bark of Mimosa prainiana Gamble was followed by HR-LCMS analysis to develop a finger print chromatogram. The studies on the phytochemical screening of the bark extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phytosterols, carbohydrates and glycosides. Different doses of crude methanolic extract of bark of Mimosa prainiana Gamble was tested for its anti inflammatory activity and found to provide the marked anti inflammatory effect induced by Naja naja venom.

  144. Anat Raviv and Yael Silver

    This paper examines whether there is grounds to a new learning model– a community-based shared model designed to create and spread knowledge on ADD and learning disorders in the educational system. Our proposed learning model "The adult community that is meaningful to the child" involves the school community (administration, councilors and teachers), parents to children with ADD and learning disabilities (instead of the parents' council) and lecturers and students from the academia who specialize in this field. All participants volunteer to attend school once a week for a free academic course that provides access to general theoretical knowledge and generates new local hands-on and theoretical knowledge on ADD and learning disabilities. The project developed at the Galilee panhandle under a one-of-a-kind and innovative social project entitled "Town Square Academia." To enable us to reply to the introductory question, we will review a number of acceptable models in the literature of a learning community, make a distinction between these models and the "adult community that is meaningful to the child", and see whether the model should be applied based on two years of implementation under the "Town Square Academia" program. The authors conclude that there is theoretical and practical basis for the model's proposal, which should therefore introduce a recommendation to broaden the examination, in terms of time and space. The conclusions that was reached for the learning process is that one should not only rely on the conventional model, which we recognize as members of a learning community that is mainly inclined to receive information from a lecturer or share information with our peers (mainly comprised of a homogenous group), but rather also base the shared community-based learning activities on knowledge generation, its distribution and retention by means of various tools. Put differently, actions taken by teachers, administrative staff, parents from the entire region, lecturers and students in learning communities, should establish and be founded on the knowledge of all those engaged in an initiated and proactive manner, by researching authentic cases by way of an educated analysis of individual events, and achieve all that through a dialogue between colleagues at the community in a diversified learning community. Attaining and embedding information in such an active manner is one of the objectives of the "Town Square Academia" project, aimed at benefiting the academia and its environment as a whole.

  145. Hasipha C. Tarpeh

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is endemic to West Africa, Liberia is no exception. The EVD was first discovered in the Congo basin in 1976. The first outbreak of Ebola (Ebola-Sudan) infected over 284 people, with a mortality rate of 53%. A second attack occurred later the same year when 318 people were affected in Zaire (EBOZ), with the highest mortality rate of the Ebola virus disease at 88% of the infected population. Efforts were made, but the Ebola’s natural reservoir was never identified. Subsequently, the third strain of Ebola, called Ebola Reston (EBOR), was first identified in 1989 when infected monkeys were imported into Reston, Virginia, from Mindanao in the Philippines. Since then, the Ebola virus disease (EVD) has been endemic in those regions it was first discovered. The overall objective of this research work is to determine the socio-economic status of the many survivors who finds themselves in hard to bear situations and to identify the health challenges they face as a result of their exposure to the Ebola virus disease. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are deployed in this research to establish the socioeconomic status as well their health challenges as a result of their exposure to the EVD. Research results show that Ebola survivors are faced with numerous socio-economic problems ranging from stigmatization to denial of basic social services. As a result of the many recurrent health challenges they face originating from their exposure to the disease, many survivors are physically challenged. It is therefore concluded that the Ebola survivors are continuously stigmatized, thus resulting into untold sufferings couple with persistent health problems among which eye condition is prominent. This is all due to their exposure to the EVD.

  146. Rejane Remussi

    The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of the users of the Bus Station of Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil, regarding the quality of services provided. To do so, a quantitative and descriptive research was carried out using a cross-sectional survey using the SERVQUAL Scale as a data collection instrument. Through univariate and multivariate statistical analysis, it was verified that the dimensions proposed by the scale were not maintained, being grouped in four other factors, and not in the five defined in the literature. Thus, it is inferred that although the statistical distribution was different in the set of data obtained, they are still relevant for the explanation and identification of quality in services, since they cover all the necessary analytical aspects. As suggestions for future studies, it is recommended to replicate this research in other Road Stations, as well as considering other means of public transportation, such as airplanes and subways, for example.

  147. Mina Ganji Morad, Sahar Khodabakhshi and Sina Ganji Morad

    A healthy lifestyle requires having an adequate amount of allocated time and space for recreational activities. In today’s complex and modern urban lifestyle, children must balance completing many different tasks at home or school into their day. In order to successfully achieve these goals while maintaining emotional and physical health, children require dedicated time and space free from chores and other responsibilities. It is crucial for children to channel excess energy into cultural and socially-acceptable activities providing them with pleasure and fulfillment. Therefore, spaces with elements of recreational activities are essential for the growth and livelihood of children in metropolitan areas, encouraging vitality as seen in child-friendly cities. Many urban living spaces in Kermanshah, Iran are smaller and more compact than those of other cities. This is due to many different factors, including geographical altitude, cultural preferences, recent population growths, clashes between new construction and old town layouts, and the high cost of living spaces in the city. Although Kermanshah possesses an old charm and many unique features, it seems to lack space for child-friendly leisure activities. The focus of this study is to assess the basic elements that could aid in the transformation of Kermanshah into a child-friendly city. The subjects of this study are children, aged 9 to 12 years old, who reside in the 22 Bahman district of Kermanshah. There were a total of 50 subjects; each was given a Yes/No questionnaire of statements regarding factors we believe will improve Kermanshah for its youth. These essential factors were determined based on various criteria that promote the creation of child-friendly cities. These include 1. Comfort and security, 2. Connection with nature, 3. Enjoyment of local history/culture/collective identity, 4. Attractiveness and originality, 5. Readability; 6. Accessibility, 7. Presence of intellectual and recreational activities for youth, and 8. Availability of outdoor programs for youth with disabilities were discussed. Subjects were asked to propose new ideal elements, such as buildings and open spaces for their city, to promote further physical and mental development of youths. It is believed that the ideal environment should include natural elements, complex spaces, safety, and tranquility. The design principles of the study are as follows: urban open spaces with stimulating surfaces, game makers through the use of natural elements such as plants, light, and shadows; a relaxing atmosphere of safe and secure urban spaces; complex and challenging spaces including flexible buildings and educational objects; areas for sports activities; and entertainment for children and their adult family members.

  148. SEKA Yapi Arsène Th

    L’étude s’intéresse aux conditions d’acquisition du langage chez la fille. L’acquisition du langage et son développement qui se font plus tôt chez la fille que chez le garçon concentre les recherches sur l’étude du cerveau et de ses spécificités chez les deux sexes. L’objectif de cetteétude vise à faire une analyse aussi bien sur le cerveau féminin, siège du langage, que sur les instruments du milieu qui favorisent la précocité du langage chez la fille. L’hypothèse des causes psychologiques et environnementales est formulée à partir d’observations et de recherches documentaires. La fréquence du langage chez les filles et leur inclination à le développer à travers leur profil universitaire, s’expliquent par la spécificité du cerveau féminin caractérisé par une symétrie facilitant ainsi, une plus grande communication entre les deux hémisphères. Le milieu a un effet sur la précocité du langage à travers la qualité des éléments qui le constituent.

  149. Saurabh and Dr. Kusum Lata

    Now a day social media has emerged as fastest and best mode way for communication. From the small enterprises to big establishments, all of them use social media for the advertisement of their brands. With the development of social networking in the last decade, organizations use social groups inform the buyers about their products. The social networking platform enables the companies to predict the exact requirements of the customer and thus, device their marketing strategy. This study focuses on the retailers’ improvement by utilization of online networking.

  150. Faizal Amir and Mithen Lullulangi

    The objective of the research is to find a research training model (R & D) for farmers to improve the environment quality in technical irrigation. The sample respondents were chosen by thepurposive sampling method. Data collection was done by giving a questionaire to the respondents. The analysis used was descriptive analysis. The results of the research are as follows: the training model consists of seven steps, namely: (a) perform aneeds analysis, (b) formulate thetraining objectives, (c) develop thetraining materials, (d) determine the tests and training methods, (e) conduct apreliminary assessment, (f) conduct training,and (g) make a final assessment. Thedescription of thetraining materials required by thefarmers, consisted of: (a) knowledge of wetland agricultural ecosystem, (b) environmental knowledge, (c) knowledge of irrigation area maintenance, (d) knowledge of environmental pollutionand (e) conservation knowledge of irrigation areas.Thedevelopment of training materials shall be carried out in the following steps: (a) analyzing the objective-based materials, (b) designing training materials based on theobjectives, (c) develop the material by referring to the relevant literature, (d) validate, (e) implement materialsand (f) conduct an evaluation.

  151. Mohammed Abubakar Husain, Raji Muktar Modibbo and Fabian Mazawaje Dama

    This paper aimed at investigating factors determining disparities in sustainable water supply in the greater Yola region of Adamawa State Nigeria with the view to suggesting physical planning recommendations that will enhance sustainable water supply. The study employed a two staged sampling procedure for the investigation. First, the study area was divided into three clusters based on physical planning characteristics with three residential areas selected randomly from each of the three clusters. Secondly, a systematic random sampling procedure was employed to administer 312 questionnaires, amounting to 7 percent, to the households in the selected residential districts. Chi square analysis revealed significant variations in terms of the sources of water supply (x2- 189.6188, P- 0.000).Only those residing in the formal private residential areas are able to consume the recommended WHO standard which is 70 liters per capita per day. The government owner occupier (53.6l/c/d) and the peri-urban areas (38.7 l /c /d) fall short of recommended standards. Analysis of variance also shows differences in quantity of water consumed (F=3.658, P=0.41). However, 85% percent of the population lives within the prescribed limits of proximity to water supply sources. The study recommended that physical planning authorities work in conjunction with the water board corporations in adopting physical planning standards to ensure communities are supplied with potable water, within accessible distances, to promote public health, and designing of masterplans that will incorporate, within the limits of physical planning, the water supply needs of urban dwellers to sustainable public water supply.

  152. Seyyed Ali Nouri, Sahar Khodabakhshi and Mina Ganji Morad

    Today more than ever the need to provide reproductive potential growth and architects seem necessary. The main feature of this process is creativity as one of the factors that increase these features, the physical environment. This study aims to enhance creativity and architectural innovation, taking into account the psychology of the environment and the virtues and characteristics of the physical environment, to create stimulating environment for creative architects are free of thought and expression. The choice of case study research strategy using a combination of strategies and techniques to study, which is required after the secondary literature review for research was obtained through semi-structured interviews and results, through the narrative analysis the concepts were evaluated and stimulating natural elements, diversity and flexibility, aesthetic characteristics and personal and group conflicts with the space (collective creative environment) as drivers of creativity, mining and theoretical principles derived from scientific studies the information gathered is qualitative, effective design offered in order to solve the problem.

  153. Seyyed Ali Nouri, Mina Ganji Morad and Sahar Khodabakhshi

    Iranian traditional houses is designed such that it provides all welfare facilities and comfort for members of family. With the advent of modernism in Iran, principles that are used to make building are set aside. Then western principles and standards determine the policy of Iranian architect. But in country like Japan whose architecture is close to Iranian architecture in terms of principles observance, it is observed that with arrival of modernism, they try to preserve the spirit and tradition of Japanese life in modern designs. This paper aims to study advent of modernism in Japan and Iran and how both countries face with this modern architecture, and why a country like Iran that has stronger principles and values and richer architecture more than Japan has lost its identity upon arrival of modernism and just has copied the modernism and cubism designs. It is important to see whether we can revive traditional spirit and values of the past in the modern design through recognizing Iranian traditional architecture. The method of study is analytical- descriptive one. The method to collect information and data is library method. Consequently, when we assess built modern houses in Japan, we observe that Japanese architecture absorb the modern architecture in its architecture and even when we look at the Japanese modern building we can call them Japanese building. But in Iranian architecture, we face a condition changing from introversion to extroversion and no trace of Iranian architecture’s attractive quality is observed.

  154. Mevlüt GÜNDÜZ

    The purpose of the present research is defining which values pre-service teachers, who have an important responsibility in values education, want their students to have most, and which values they will try to teach to their students. The research adopted case study, which enables the studying and analysis of one or some special cases in detail. Within the scope of the present research, semi-structures interviews were conducted with the participants, which include 34 pre-service teachers, who got formation education at Bartın University, Faculty of Education. Data were written on the computer by the researcher first, then were analysed using descriptive analysis, which is a qualitative research method. Three experts were asked for opinions to provide the reliability of the research. The numbers agreementsand disagreements were detected, and the reliability was calculated as 92%. According to obtained findings, the values pre-service teachers want to teach their students are; love and respect. The most important reason for this finding is that, these values form the basis for other values, and these values are more difficult to teach than others. Consequently, it can be claimed that, the values that pre-service teachers want to teach their students are actually the values that they themselves should have.

  155. Hellen Adhiambo Ahawo, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Hannah Lunyolo Gidudu

    The government of Kenya in partnership with religious sponsors, parents, politicians, Board of Management and principals provide financial, human and physical resources to enhance education of girls and boys in schools. However with all these measures in place, girls in Siaya County schools performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Examinations was generally low compared to national where few girls have featured in 100 best students. For the last four years in Siaya County the performance has been average with mean scores of 6.21, 6.90, 6.05 and 6.80 for the years 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 compared to the boys schools mean scores of 7.73, 7.73, 7.56 and 8.27 for the same period. Objective of the study was to determine education stakeholders contribution to management of girl student discipline in enhancement of Quality education for girls in Siaya County. A conceptual framework showing the relationship between independent variables (contribution of stakeholders) and dependent variables (students discipline was used to guide the study). The study used descriptive survey design. The study population was 155 consisting of principals, Deputy Principals, Directors of Studies, Board of management chairpersons, Parents Teachers Association chairpersons, Sub County Quality Assurance and Standards Officers and Church Education Secretaries. The study established that Principals, parents and board of managements contributed highly to student discipline as signified by the means of 4.17, 3.36 and 3.16. The areas of contribution mainly included, guidance and counseling, building student character, time management, providing basic needs and drug abuse. The study concluded that all the stakeholders contributed moderately to provision of quality education for girls. The study recommended that all stakeholders should improve on their contributions to enhance the girls’ academic achievement.

  156. Eliud Nyakundi, Dr. Enose M.W. Simatwa and Prof Theodore M. O. Ayodo

    The self-employment sector provides an avenue for workers to earn a living. There exists earning differentials among workers with various levels of education worldwide. In Kisii County there are worker entering into employment with various levels of education. The return to the self-employed varies. The return to the self-employed is important in determining individual and government investment in education. The purpose of the study was to establish education returns to computer self-employment activities in urban Kisii County. The study objectives were to; determine the returns to education of various levels of education of the self-employed in computer industry, determine the challenges facing the self-employed, determine effectiveness of intervention measures by Kenya government to assist the self-employed in their work. The study used descriptive and correlation design. Human capital theory was used. The population of the study was 11240.That is in computer service industry 6400. The study used Fisher’s model to derive a sample of 384 respondents with 218 computer services Questionnaire and interview schedules were used to collect data for the study. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Qualitative data was transcribed and analyzed in emergent themes and sub-themes: The study found out that; in computer service industry self-employed respondents with K.C.P.E earned an average Ksh 15,571.17, K.C.S.E earned an average 14,857.08, certificate earned 9364.81 and diploma earned an average of 9364.81 amount of money and bachelor earned 30,293.33. The Pearson’s r results were’ 0.643, k.c.s.e 0.104, certificate 0.128, diploma 0.195 and bachelors degree 0.045. The r2 analysis was: k.c.p.e category the r2 was 0.0413, k.c.s.e was 0.011, certificate 0.016, and diploma was 0.038 for bachelors. The adjusted R results were:kcpe 0.373, kcse 0.02, certificate 0.002, diploma0.001 and bachelors 0.075 The ANOVA indicated k.c.p.e (F(1,15)10.572,P=0.005), k.c.s.e was (F(1,70)0,761, P=0.386), certificate was (F(1,52,)0.868,P=0.356), diploma was (F(1,28)1.031, P=0.319 and bachelor results were (F(1,13)0.006,P=0.874). Government intervention was not effective in the provision of: market stalls, loans and market for finished products, but effective in provision of: security, electricity and infrastructure. The study concluded that; there was a significant and positive association between returns to education and increasing level of education, and lack of capital was a challenge to the self-employed. The study recommended government intervention in funding the self-employed in their activities, reduced electricity charges and blackouts. The study is important in formulation of education programmes relevant to the self-employed and government intervention in support of the self-employed.

  157. Roghith Kannan and Thenmozhi, M. S

    Background: The Metopic or Frontal Suture is formed at the meeting of the two halves of Frontal bone, in the midline. At birth the bone consists of two halves, the median surface usually disappears at about 8 years of age. Metopism is totally or partially persisting suture extending from anterior angle of the bregma of frontal bone to the nasion. Materials and Method: An observational study was carried out on 50 dry adult human skulls which were used from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India, to study the incidence of metopic suture. Result: The incidence of metopic suture was none in complete metopic suture, incomplete metopic suture was 20%. Among the incomplete ones, linear was found in 6 skulls (10%). ‘V’ shaped in 1 skull (1.6%) and ‘U’ shaped type in 5 skull (8%). Conclusion: The knowledge of metopic suture is very important in radiological and orthopaedic surgeons during their practice in head injuries and it also important in practice of anthropologists and neurosurgeons.

  158. Roghith Kannan and Thenmozhi, M. S.

    Background: Palmaris longus is a small vestigial forearm muscle that is phylogenetically degenerating and is variable in nature. It is used by surgeons as a source of tendon graft. Ethnic variations in the prevalence of the absence of the palmaris longus are well known. Materials and Method: The presence of palmaris longus was clinically determined in 100 subjects using the standard technique (Schaeffer’s test) and the absence of the palmaris longus was confirmed using three other tests (Thompson, Pushpakumar’s “two-finger sign” and Mishra II tests) to determine its absence. Result: Out of the 100 subjects examined the overall agenesis of palmaris longus was 15%. Unilateral (left) agenesis was seen in 4 subjects, unilateral (right) agenesis was seen in 2 subjects and bilateral in 9 subjects. The overall presence of palmaris longus was seen in 85 subjects. Conclusion: Palmaris longus has received a growing interest for its role in constructive surgery as it serves as a source of tendon graft and is a key interest for maxillofacial surgeons and ENT surgeons.

  159. Dr. K. Saraswathi Gopal, Dr. Nandhini Ganesan and Dr. B. G. Harsha Vardhan

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the salivary glands. It is the most common malignant tumor of the parotid gland and the second most common malignant tumor of the submandibular gland, after adenoid cystic carcinoma. (Brad W. Neville, 2002) Mucoepidermoid carcinoma appears as asymptomatic swellings in minor salivary glands, being the second most common site of occurrence after the parotid gland, most commonly located on palate, followed by retromolar area, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, lips, and tongue. (Fatih Sengul et al., 2013) Only few cases have been reported in literature regarding the MEC’s of minor salivary gland tumors in buccal mucosa. (Deepak et al., 2014) We report a case of Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of minor salivary gland in a 26yr old female patient. She presented with swelling in the left buccal mucosa, which was noticed 6 months back and had gradually increased to its present size. In children and adolescents, MECs have a female predilection and occur most commonly on the hard and soft palate or both and rare in buccal mucosa. The surgical excision of the swelling was successful with no recurrence reported. The evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of a mass occupying this territory of minor salivary glands represent intellectually stimulating diciplines because of the relative paucity of theses lesions in these anatomic sites.

  160. Ertuğrul Allahverdi

    Aim: Comparison of the short- and medium-term results of the epicondylitis band and corticosteroid and local anesthetic injections for lateral epicondylitis. Study Plan: This was a retrospective and comparative study related to acute lateral epicondylitis treatment. The patient groups named A and B received two different treatments. There were 151 patients in Group A and 205 patients in Group B. Group A received the epicondylitis band and Group B corticosteroid and local anesthetic injections. Both groups were also given stretch exercises and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients were checked at week 1, 4, 12, and 24 and the Quick DASH scoring was used on week 12 and 24. Results: On the 3rd month of treatment, Group A showed recovery rates of moderate, good and full in 18.5%, 32.5% and 30.5% respectively while these rates were 33.2%, 13.7% and 25.4% in Group B. The same rates at the end of month 6 were 17.2%, 41.1% and 17.2% in Group A and 28.3%, 1% and 17.2% in Group B. Conclusions: Combined treatment (physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) with an epicondylitis band was more effective than combined treatment with steroid and local anesthetic injections in acute lateral epicondylitis.

  161. Dr. Gattu Anusha, Dr. Veena S Prakash and Dr. N. Chandana

    This clinical report described the oral rehabilitation of a cleft palate patient with removable partial denture. Although implant¬supported fixed treatment was presented as part of the optimum treatment plan to achieve the best result, the patient declined this option due to the significant financial burden. Persons with a congenital or craniofacial defect are unique, and oral problems must be evaluated individually to the most ideal treatment. The changes in appearance, function, and psychological wellbeing have an enormous impact on patients' personal lives and are rewarding for the maxillofacial prosthodontist providing this care.

  162. Anabtawi, R., Al-Amoudi, M., Hammad, B. E. and Amro

    Background: Lower back pain is a common health problem among nurses, however no previous studies have investigated the prevalence of it and the factors that contribute to lower back pain among nurses who are working in the operation rooms in Palestinian hospitals. Fortunately, measures can be taken to prevent or relieve lower back pain episodes. If prevention fails, simple home treatment and proper body mechanics can be used to relieve the lower back. Aim: The current study was conducted in order to investigate the factors that contribute to lower back pain among nurses who are working in operation rooms in north Palestine. Method: The current study utilized a descriptive design, and data was collected using self-report questionnaires from all nurses who are working in operation rooms. Result: 32 nurses were surveyed in the current study, 75% (n=24) of operative nurses complain of lower back pain: 34% (n=11) had sharp lower back pain, and 59.4% (n=19) intermittent back pain. The result shows a statistically significant (X2: 6.45, df: 2, P: 0.03) effect of standing for hours in relation to experiencing lower back pain amongst nurses who are working in operation rooms. Conclusion: the study concluded that there is a significant effect of standing for long hours on developing low back pain among nurses who are working in the operation room.

  163. Dr. Naman Shah, Dr. Roopa Babannavar, Dr. Ankit Sharma and Dr. Nikhil Sathawane

    Unusual anatomical configurations must be considered in the radiographic and clinical evaluation during the endodontic treatment. The canal anatomy maxillary first premolar has been studied extensively and the presence of three canals is relatively rare. This article describes a case of a maxillary first premolar with three canals each.

  164. Vivek Taduri

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the differences of the Micro hardness of two Bulk-fill Composites (Tetric N-ceram Bulkfill and Filtek Bulkfill) and a Conventional composite (Filtek Z350XT) at varying depths (0mm, 2mm, 4mm) and to evaluate the effect of two different light curing systems (LED and QTH) on the micro hardness of bulk-fill and conventional composite. Methods and Materials: 60 specimens of composite resin disks (8x4mm) will be prepared. The Teflon mould will be placed on a glass slab with an intervening mylar strip and the composite resin will be placed at once as a bulk, slightly over packed into the mould space. A second mylar strip and glass slab will be placed on top of the Teflon mould and a uniform weight of 500gms will be placed above the glass slab for 30 seconds in order to compactly pack the resin thus preventing the formation of any voids. Then, the weight along with the glass slab above the composite will be removed and the composite will be cured as per the manufacturer’s instructions. All the specimens will stored for 24 hours in distilled water at for completion of the polymerization process. Statistical Analysis used: Mean and Standard Deviation will be used for Descriptive statistics, t test - Independent samples., ANOVA – One way (Analysis of Variance), Scheffe’s Post hoc test. Results: Highest micro hardness values regardless of light sources were observed in Tetric N- Ceram bulk fill composite and Light emitting diode showed better hardness values compared to Quartz tungsten halogen unit. Conclusion: Highest micro hardness values regardless of light sources were observed in Tetric N- Ceram bulk fill composite. Filtek Z350XT Conventional composite Showed the least Hardness when placed in Bulk fill technique. Light Emitting diode (LED) showed better results when compared to Quartz tungsten Halogen (QTH) unit.

  165. Jincy Raju, Vimal Mathew, Arathi Joseph, Emy Jose, Silpa Chandran and Dr. Rosh, P.

    Hypertension is a chronic medical condition characterized by a systolic BP reading greater than or equal to 140 mmHg and a diastolic reading greater than or equal to 90 mmHg(≥140/90 mm Hg).The aim of this project was to assess prevalence and risk factosr of hypertension along with BP control and treatment based on JNC8 guideline. 200 patients in the age group of 18-75 years who were on antihypertensives for at least 6 months were enrolled in the study. Patient demographics, social habits, risk factors and comorbidities were documented andthe overall prevalence rate of hypertensive patients were generated. The assessement of treatment and control of hypertension based on JNC 8 guidelines was also carried out. The results indicated that prevalence of hypertension was 33.3%. Increasing age, diabetes, family history, overweight and smoking were found to be the important predictors of hypertension in this study . Blood pressure control rates in the study was found to be good and the most favoured type of therapy was monotherapy and CCBs were the commonly prescribed class of drugs. The prescription pattern was in accordance with the standard JNC 8 guidelines.

  166. Tayseer Awad Elkareem Basbeer and Alia Taha Ali Taha

    Biomedical waste is a serious problem face Sudanese in hospitals, because of its hazardous effects in the environment and human health (over view of town. Researchers must find technical solution to dispose. The objectives of this study. First to give the definition, categories of bio-medical wastes, Second the status of biomedical waste in hospitals and how hospital disposal the biomedical waste by each category, third this mainly to highlight the effects of biomedical waste in the urban scale. Last regulations and recommendations.

  167. Sebine Elizade

    Teacher’s administrative roleis based onhis individual style. One’s attitude towards his own activity and its outcomes are among the factors impacting the formation of anindividual method. This attitude includes intellectual, emotional, and volitional characteristics of a person. The development of creative activity, professionalism, teaching skills, and individual and pe¬da¬gogical style are firstly connected with the requirements of personality in modern education. For this reason, the solution to the issues related to administrative style is currently considered as a mutual interaction with a teacher’s personal life problems. Another reason behind the need to focus on this is that neither teachers’ personal problems nor the relation between an individual and pedagogical style of the activity for different cultures in the education system were taken into account in traditional approaches in the preparation of scientific-theoretical basics of a teacher’s individual style. Character indications that express the attitude towards the objects of the surroundings are also among the factors affecting the formation of an individual style. Special features such as one’s honor, dignity and self-assessment are the key factors in the dynamism, stableness, and flexibility of an individual style. In order to improve the style, it is necessary to boost character indications that reflects one’s attitude towards himself such as individual dignity, discipline, responsibility, and independence. Character indications that reflects one’s attitude towards the various kinds of activity: games, labour, training such as rapidity, flexibility, tideness, attentiveness, and purposefulness are of great importance for the development of the style as well.

  168. Dr. Shashi Gupta, Dr. Tarini Singh and Dr. Robina Mirza

    Background: Ovarian cancer is responsible for the most deaths in the gynaecological sphere. It is the second most common gynaecological malignancy in developed countries, and is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. It causes more mortality than all other gynaecological malignancies together. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the risk of malignancy index (RMI) which combines serum CA125 levels, ultrasound score, and menopausal state in discriminating between benign and malignant adnexal masses in a selected population of apparently early lesions. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted for a period of one year of 120 women with an adnexal mass. The serum CA125 level, the ultrasound findings and menopausal status were noted. Risk of malignancy score based on product of ultrasound findings, menopausal status and CA-125 level was calculated. Results: Risk of malignancy index (RMI) proved to be the most sensitive index in depicting malignancy. The mean levels of RMI were much higher among the malignant group. RMI scores were divided in to various groups and sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each group was tested. RMI score >200 showed the best sensitivity (91.89%) with specificity, PPV and NPV of 83.33%, 97% 62.50% respectively. RMI>200 was 90.69% accurate in differentiating benign and malignant adnexal masses preoperatively. This was much higher than any of the other parameters used alone. However, RMI was not able to diagnose Mucinous carcinomas because of the lower levels of CA 125 found this type of malignancy. Conclusion: RMI is a reliable tool in differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses. It is simple, easy to use and cost effective. However it’s predictive accuracy was less for mucinous as compared to other ovarian cancers.

  169. Dr. Mahesh, K. P

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is cancer that begins in cells of the immune system. The immune system fights infections and other diseases. Non -Hodgkin lymphoma begins when a lymphocyte (usually a B cell) becomes abnormal. Hodgkin's disease is much less common than non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and accounts for only about 1%. A non hodgkins lymphoma occurring as a primary bone lesion is a rare entity in mandible. A case report of one such case with differential diagnosis and management in 65 year old male patient is reported.

  170. Dr. Pradeep Yadav, Dr. Hemant Batra, Dr. Sunil kumar Beniwal, Dr. Ankit Agarwal Dr. Virendra Singh and ,Dr. Ramniwas Kumawat

    Approximately one million people develop invasive cancer each year. Of these, 40% will receive curative benefit from surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination modality. In dealing with patients with cancer of the head and neck a team approach is required for effective management. When radiation therapy is indicated, it is imperative that health of the oral cavity be assessed initially as well as throughout therapy and post therapy. All members of the cancer treatment team should be informed of the oncologic treatment plan. Oral care should be initiated at the onset of treatment, with the goal of reducing morbidity and improving compliance. Total body irradiation and irradiation to the head and neck cause both direct and indirect effects on oral and related structures, and may be acute or chronic in nature. These complications may include mucositis, xerostomia, dental caries, loss of taste, trismus, infection, osteoradionecrosis, and abnormalities of growth and development. The objective of this literature review is to summarize information about the radiation effects, diagnosis and administer treatment to protect a patient's oropharyngeal health and quality of life.

  171. Dr. Mutahir Bahar Wani, Dr. Naveed Anjum Qureshi, Dr. Kehkashan Chowhan and Dr. Bikramjit Singh Sodhi

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common cause of abdominal pain and one of the most common cause of surgical emergencies. Western literature reports that 6% of population had risk of suffering from appendicitis during their lifetime. Failure to make an early diagnosis converts acute appendicitis to perforated appendicitis, a disease with potential complications including intra-abdominal abscesses, wound infection, septicemia and death. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the accuracy of the combined use of modified Alvarado scoring system and ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. • To assess the association between clinical, radiological, operative and histopathological findings and evaluation of their accuracy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study was undertaken in the Department of General Surgery at Government Medical College, Jammu. All the patients who presented with right lower quadrant pain were assigned a score using the Modified Alvarado Score. . INCLUSION CRITERIA • Those admitted in G.M.C Jammu having acute lower right sided abdominal pain with a clinical and /or ultrasonographic diagnosis of acute appendicitis and who were operated for the same. • All patients who were willing to participate in the study. EXCLUSION CRITERIA • Patients who were diagnosed to have other causes of right lower quadrant pain. • Age less than 10 years. • Pregnant females. • Patients with appendicular lump. CONCLUSION: Acute Appendicitis is a common surgical emergency, mostly affecting young adults. Early diagnosis and operative intervention is necessary to prevent complications of acute appendicitis. The overall negative appendectomy rate is low but it is high in females of reproductive age group.

  172. Ayun Cassell III, Jerry Brown, Atem Geu, Lawuobah Gbozee, Ansumana Camara and Samuel Freeman

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease that may consist of hyperthyroidism, goiter, eye disease (orbitopathy), and pretibial or localized myxedema. The presence of thyrotropin-receptor antibodies (TRAb) in serum and orbitopathy on clinical examination distinguishes the disorder from other causes of hyperthyroidism. However, the diagnosis may be obvious on presentation; a patient with new-onset ophthalmopathy, a large non-nodular thyroid, and moderate to severe hyperthyroidism has Graves' disease. Because there is no consensus as to the "best" treatment, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines emphasize the importance of fully discussing the options with patients and considering their values and preferences before deciding on a treatment plan. Patients who are intolerant of antithyroid drug therapy and radioiodine ablation or who have active Graves orbitopathy are surgical candidates. Most experts now agree that total or near-total thyroidectomy is considered the optimal procedure. To date, there is no published data available on Graves’ disease in Liberia and the management options remain limited. Thereof, we present a 34-year-old Liberian female who underwent a near total thyroidectomy for Graves’ disease at the Eternal Love Winning Africa (ELWA) Hospital Monrovia, Liberia.

  173. Rakshith, V., Harendra Kumar, H.L., Bhaskaran, A. and Suresh

    Background: Despite various treatment and diagnostic options, breast cancer remains one of the most prevalent forms of cancer, globally. Such scenario is due to studies, which are still lagging behind in preventing the recurrence of breast cancer and its progression. The present study focuses on evaluating the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin in breast cancer cases. Methods: The study comprised of 58 breast cancer patients admitted at the Department of Surgery between January 2014 and July 2015. Representative sections from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of the cancer patients were stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining to evaluate tumor grade, size, and type by tumor, lymph node, and metastasis classification of malignant tumor staging system and Nottingham Prognostic Index along with skin involvement and vascular invasion analysis. Expression of proteins—vimentin and E-cadherin—was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square and Pearson’s correlation test; p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority of the patients were in the age-group of 41–50 years (31.03%). Vimentin and E-cadherin expressions were found to be significantly associated with tumor grade and stages (p<0.05), indicating epithelial to mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. Majority of the tumors were of grade I (37.93%) and II (41.37%) and diagnosed histopathologically as in filterating ductal carcinoma type (79.31%). Association of protein expression with other prognostic parameters was non-significant (p>0.05). Inverse correlation was observed between vimentin and E cadherin expression (r = -0.2196; P = 0.09). Conclusion: E-cadherin and vimentin could be used as a prognostic marker in the diagnosis of the cancer stage and grade, which could in turn aid in early treatment and prolonged survival rate among the patients independent of other prognostic parameters.

  174. Dr. Krishnamma, B.S., Dr.Suryaprabha, V. and Mrs. Surya Deepti

    In (11-bold) Taboos and misconceptions during pregnancy have been part of Indian cultures since centuries. Superstition is a belief or practice generally regarded as irrational and as resulting from ignorance or from fear of the unknown. It implies a belief in unseen and unknown forces that can be influenced by objects and rituals. Magic or sorcery, witchcraft, and the occult in general are often referred to as superstitions. Food Taboos and Misconceptions among Pregnant Women are most common in many women of any part of the country (Ref 1). A food taboo is a prohibition against consuming certain foods. The word "taboo" (also spelled "tabu") is Polynesian and means 'sacred' or 'forbidden'; it has a quasi-magical or religious overtone. The term was introduced in the anthropological literature in the second half of the nineteenth century. Taboo food and drink are which people abstain from consuming for religious, cultural or hygienic reasons. Many food taboos forbid the meat of a particular animal, including mammals, rodents, reptiles, amphibians, bony fish, and crustaceans. All communities have their own cultural (traditional) pattern. The cultural pattern of a group is based on learned behavior, acquired partly by deliberate instruction on the part of parents, but mostly subconsciously by incidental observation of the behavior of relatives and other close members of the community.

  175. Dr. Kailash. R. Gindodia, Dr. Sameer Mahakalkar, Dr. Aditya A. Manekar and Dr. Sudarshan B. Thakare

    Since, its introduction in 1990s, vacuum assisted closure (V.A.C.) has been known to reduce the wound healing time along with promotion of granulation tissue as compared to conventional dressing techniques. The therapy involves controlled application of negative pressure to the local wound environment using a sealed wound dressing connected to a vacuum pump. Recent introduction of the commercial products for vacuum dressings have added to enormous costs of these dressings. We at our limited resource setup, provided our patients with a very cheap alternative for the vacuum assisted dressings with the help of locally available materials. We hereby present few of the challenges that our patients posed to us in the course of vacuum assisted closure therapy and how they were handled in our setup with limited available resources.

  176. Roghith Kannan, Dr. Dhanraj and Dr. V. Rakshagan

    Aim:The aimof this study was to asses the knowledge and awareness amongst the dental students on the use of transitional implants. Material and Methods:This study was a well-structured online questionnaire based awareness study. This study was conducted among the students of Saveetha dental college. 213 participants took up the survey. The questionnaire consisted of 10 multiple choice questions. The questions were based on knowledge of transitional implants including the various advantages and uses of transitional implants. Once the students answered the questionnaire, the response was gathered and the results were tabulated. Results: From this study, it was found that 166 participants have heard about transitional implants, 118 participants have seen patients with transitional implants. 124 participants have opted transitional implant is economical. 42.8% have chosen, it can be used as a provisional treatment in both completely edentulous and partially edentulous patients and 54.2% have said that transitional implants cannot be used as a surgical guide. Conclusion: Although the awareness among the dental practitioners is satisfactory, the application of transitional implants should be reinforced and followed on a regular basis in the curriculum.

  177. Chinomnso C Nnebue, Adaeze O Okonkwo and Benjamin SC Uzochukwu

    Background: HIVAIDS clients now have prolonged survival due to advances in antiretroviral management. Traditional health indicators like mortality and morbidity, used in measuring impact of disease burden and outcome of intervention are quantitative in approach. This study compared HIV positive support and non-support group memberships for predictors of quality of life (QoL) in a tertiary hospital in a South-eastern State in Nigeria. Methods: This was an institution based comparative study of 482 HIV positive clients selected using a two -stage sampling. Data collection was by interview using WHOQOLHIV-Bref and semi-structured questionnaire, while analysis was with statistical package for social sciences version 22.0 and considered p values < 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Predictors of QoL varied with domain thus: age 30 -39 years (OR=2.678), males (OR= 2.175); the employed (OR=1.864) family support (OR=1.671), the asymptomatic (OR=3.986), good adherence (OR=3.114).in physical domain; Support group membership (OR=1.851), age 30 =39 years (OR=2.445), males (OR=3.639), family support (OR=2.555), tested positive >14 years (OR=4.945), asymptomatic (OR=1.938), good adherence (OR=2.884), in psychological domain. Support group membership (OR=3.303) the asymptomatic (OR=2.907), at most primary education (OR=0.454) in level of independence domain; the married (OR=1.833), family support (OR=2.202) in social relationships domain; the employed (OR=2.332), family support (OR =1.727), the asymptomatic (OR=3.065), good adherence (OR=1.926) in environment domain; age 30-49 years, married (OR=1.605), family support (OR=2.331), the asymptomatic (OR=2.012), good adherence (OR=2.335) in spirituality domain. Conclusions: Some sociodemographic, individual and clinical factors are predictors of QoL, depending on domain assessed. These findings should be put in perspective in designing interventions tailored to the unique needs of these clients.

  178. Heena Adhate, Amita Aditya, Daisy Happy and Vineet Vinay

    Background and objectives: World today is moving towards “Evidence based Medicine” and to promote this, provision of only academic training is not sufficient. In countries like India, Undergraduate dental students have very less exposure to fundamentals of research which may lead to a compromised scientific acumen. This prevents them from conducting and appreciating scientific research during their advanced professional careers and ultimately impacts the quality of research in the specialty. Hence this multi-centric study was conducted to assess the current status, knowledge and attitude of interns of dental institutes of Pune, Maharashtra towards research during Under graduate dental course. Methodology: After obtaining due permissions, data was collected from 268 students doing internship in three different dental institutions in the city of Pune, Maharashtra. A structured questionnaire was first validated and then used for the same. The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis. Results: Results indicated low awareness and knowledge regarding research basics amongst the interns. Perceived importance of research was also moderate to low amongst the interns. However, more than three-fourth of the participants opined that there should be basic research training during their internship program to facilitate research activities.

  179. Dr. Akshay Minhas and Dr. Seema Sharma

    Background: The silent emergency of child under-nutrition is an internationally recognized public health problem. The vicious cycle of social deprivation leading to nutritional deprivation further leading to economic and social deprivation continues in our country. Objective: To assess the predictors of nutritional status of children less than five year of age of district Kangra situated in sub-himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Methodology: A 30 cluster sampling technique was used to study the 2400 children of age 0-59 months distributed across rural, urban and slums of District Kangra, Himachal Pradesh. Waterlow’s classification was used to categorize the nutrition status. The study was carried from 2014 through 2015 using semi structured tool. Results: We observed under nutrition among 37% rural population, 34.4% among urban population, among rural and urban slums it was 29.3% and 47.4% respectively. Under nutrition was higher among females, low socioeconomic status families, low birth weight children, mothers with low education and not exclusively breast fed infants. Conclusion: Though lower than the national averages the prevalence of under nutrition especially stunting is still high and alarms us for interventions at the antenatal and postnatal period to combat this iceberg phenomenon.

  180. Dr. Sandeep Kumar, Dr. Sangam Garg, Dr. Prabhnoor Singh Hayer and Dr. Shreyash Yadav

    Background Context: Restoration of spinal cord function after injury remains a major challenge to those treating paralyzed victims. While prevention and treatment of secondary cord damage continues to be a primary objective, the ability to reverse established cord dysfunction is a major goal. Purpose: Clinical and radiological evaluation of results of Cervical Spine Locking Plate in prospective and retrospective cases of lower cervical spine injuries. Study Design/Setting: It is a prospective as well as retrospective study. Patient Sample: Study was conducted prospectively on 28 patients and retrospectively on 20 patients making total of 48 patients. Methods: After meeting all the criteria’s patients were enrolled into the study and assessed clinically and radiologically and were taken up for surgery. Postoperatively patients were clinico-radiologically evaluated and followed and outcome was analyzed statistically. Results: There was statistically significant neurological recovery in most of the patients. Conclusions: Decompression of the spinal cord and stabilization with anterior cervical plates prevents the further damage to spinal cord, allows early mobility in neurological intact patients and rehabilitation becomes easy in patients having neurological deficit.

  181. Dr. Chavi Sethi, Dr. Roopesh Kumar and Dr. Ashok Singh

    Patients undergoing orthopaedics Procedure especially in the era of fast tract anesthesia are major concern for anaesthesiologist. These patients have range of comorbidities with associated injuries that can be a major challenge to anaesthetic. Also the intraoperative issues of cementation syndrome & VTE are of concern. This review article relates to all the major issues related to orthopaedic surgeries especially replacement.

  182. Pavol Svorc, Darina Petrasova and Pavol Svorc, Jr

    This investigation aimed to review the initial state of electrophysiological parameters that may predict the development of heart rhythm disorders in spontaneously-breathing pentobarbital-, ketamine-xylazine- and zoletil-anesthetized rats. These data will contribute to building a wider framework for a chronobiological perspective on the dependence of these parameters on the light-dark (LD) cycle under in vivo conditions. The study was performed using female Wistar rats, which were adapted to a 12 h LD cycle. Parameters evaluated included RR, PQ, QT, QTc intervals, the QRS complex and the amplitudes of P, R and T waves. The longest RR and QT interval duration occurred after the administration of ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in both the light period and the dark period. The longest PQ and QTc interval durations occurred under zoletil anesthesia in the light period. It is concluded that from a chronobiological perspective, the most significant electrophysiological myocardial susceptibility toward the potential risk for developing ventricular arrhythmias occurred under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. The most important predisposition toward the development of ventricular arrhythmias related to disorders of impulse production and conduction was associated with zoletil anesthesia only in the light period. Ventricular arrhythmias resulting from disorders in the dispersion of refractory periods occurred under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in both the lighted periods.

  183. Dr. Gouri V. Anehosur, Dr. Pragnya Medappa, Dr. Salian Bhavya Keshav and Dr. Lekha K

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phase stability and surface characteristics of Yttrium stabilised zirconia ceramics after various low temperature aging using X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy respectively. Materials and Methods: Our study included discs of Yttrium stabilized tetragonal zirconia from two manufacturers (n=15) Sample A AIDITE (Qinhuangdao Technology Co., Ltd, Hebei, China) and Sample B UPCERA (Shenzhen Upcera Dental Technology Co., Ltd, Guangdong, China), for each brand which were machined and sintered and glazed according to manufacturer’s specifications to mimic a final polished crown that is ready for cementation. Specimens were artificially aged in distilled water by heat treatment at temperatures of 100, 150 and 200°C for 10 hours each in order to induce phase transformation. These specimens after aging were individually evaluated for the phase transformation using X- ray diffraction (JDX 8P, JEOL machine)and surface characteristics using scanning electron microscopy (6380 LA, JEOL machine). Results: The results from x-ray diffraction analysis of both the specimens with and without low temperature aging revealed only the tetragonal phase. On scanning electron microscopy, the surface of the specimens in as received condition appeared to be smooth with a few blebs here and there. As aging was carried out, the surface irregularities became more pronounced. Conclusion: The invitro tests conducted reveal that the two materials Aidite and Upcera did not show significant results on x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy.

  184. Dr. Shwetambari Navale, Dr. Daisy Happy, Dr. Diganta Thube, Dr. Pradnya Mali and Dr. Archana Gupta

    Ankyloglossia is a congenital condition characterized by an abnormally short, thickened, or tight lingual frenulum that restricts mobility of the tongue. The prevalence of ankyloglossia reported in the literature varies from 0.1% to 10.7%. Due to restricted tongue movements patients may exhibit difficulty in speech, neonates have difficulty in breastfeeding, malocclusion a gingival recession are also reported. Surgical intervention is choice of treatment. This article presents one such case of ankyloglossia in adult and its management.

  185. Akhter A Raina, Bilal A Mir and Zubair A Lone

    Relapsing polychondritis is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder primarily involving the cartilaginous structures of ears, nose and tracheobronchial tree. The disease can involve the eyes and the muskeloskeltal system with seronegative non erosive arthritis. We described a case of a 25 year female with relapsing polychondritis. This patient presented with history of throat pain, difficulty in breathing, hoarseness of voice from last one week and bilateral hearing impairment. On examination patient had bilateral auricular involvement with sparing of ear lobules, conjunctivitis, nasal chondritis and subglotic edema. Investigations revealed c-ANCA positivity and bilateral sensori-neural hearing loss. Patient was started on steroid therapy immediately and her symptoms improved.

  186. Dr. Trupti rekha Swain and Kali Prasanna Swain

    Atherosclerotic diseases presently showing alarming trend in developing countries and has posed to be of major public health importance. Unhealthy diet practice and life style aggravates the condition. Studies show that Lipid lowering agents at different doses can alter the serum lipid profile favourably and can significantly reduce the complications. Present study aims to evaluate the role of lovastatin, a lipid lowering agent at two different doses on serum lipid profile of rats fed on Atherogenic diet. Materials and Methods: 36 male albino rats were divided in to six groups of six rats each. Group 1,2 and 3 received standard diet and 4,5 and 6 received Atherogenic diet. Group 1 & 3 served as control while other two groups received lovastatin at 2mg and 4 mg per kg respectively on both diet groups. Serum lipd profile was estimated at start of the experiment, end of six and twelve weeks by using kits. Result: Both the doses of lovastatin was capable of reducing serum LDL and Total cholesterol to a significant extent compared to their control. However 4mg dose is more effective than low dose (2mg). The magnitude of this beneficial effect is not translated into serum triglyceride. However Serum HDL cholesterol level showed increasing trend in both diet treatment groups. Conclusion: Both the doses of lovastatin is capable of preventing diet induced dyslipidemia in rats. Thus lower dose can be more preferable for primary and higher dose for secondary prevention of dyslipidemia.

  187. Dr. Pratul Kumar Agrawal, Dr. Surendra Kumar G. P. and Dr. Shilpa Shetty

    Diseases of the joints, particularly osteoarthritis, restrain a geriatric patient from visiting the clinic multiple times for the fabrication of complete denture in a conventional manner. The present case describes a unique but simplified technique to fabricate a new complete denture in three appointments using an existing prosthesis. This results in reduced number of appointments and chair-side time while keeping in mind all the basic steps of denture fabrication.

  188. *Dr. Nitin Singh, Dr. Rahul Dwivedi, Dr. Umesh Chandra Chaudhary, Dr. RichaSingh, Dr. Shah Faisal and Dr. Anchal Singh

    Aim: This study was conducted for the evaluation of the outcome of “Lesion Sterilization and Tissue Repair” in primary teeth using two combinations of antibacterial drugs which comprised of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and minocycline in one group (Group A) and ciprofloxacin, ornidazole, and minocycline in the other group (Group B). Materials and Methods: 38 children ranging between 5 to 10 years of age group having 80 infected carious teeth were selected and randomly divided into two groups, viz. groups A and B with 40 teeth in each group. In Group A, antibacterial paste containing ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline and in Group B, antibacterial paste containing ciprofloxacin, ornidazole, and minocycline mixed with propylene glycol were used. Medication cavities were filled with antibiotic pastes, depending on the groups followed by Glass Ionomer restorations and stainless steel crown placement. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out at 3, 6, and 12 months intervals. Results: Both the groups showed considerable clinical and radiographic success. There was no statistically significant difference between Group A and B. However, group B showed better results clinically and radiographically compared with group A. Conclusions: Both the antibacterial pastes, i.e., combination of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline and ciprofloxacin, ornidazole, and minocycline mixed with propylene glycol have shown good clinical and radiographic success in treating necrotic primary teeth.

  189. Dr. Akshay Minhas, Dr. P Bansal, Dr. Vishav Chander and Dr. Seema Sharma

    Background: Morbidity can be defined as the “disease load”. Low morbidity explains that the health status is better and high morbidity shows poor health status. Although low morbidity may occur due to actual lack of disease consciousness and under reporting. Healthcare-seeking behaviour is also of prime importance and is pivotal in the well-being of the individual as well as the community. The process of responding to perceived ‘illness’ or seeking care involves multiple steps. Mother’s decision to seek healthcare is not an off isolated event, but a composite result of her personal needs, social forces, actions of healthcare providers, and the location of services. Objective: To understand the morbidity profile and health care seeking behavior of parents of children, 0-5 yrs of age in Himachal Pradesh. Methods: A community based cross- sectional study on 2400 children of age less then and equal to 59 months was conducted. Morbidity profile and socio demographic indicators along with other variables were defined as indicators of health and health care seeking behaviour. The study was conducted using 30 cluster techniques with 80 participants from each cluster of district Kangra. Results: Respiratory tract infections were the leading cause of morbidity followed by Diarrhoea and Vomiting among study participants. We also found that out of these 58.05 % of the rural participants were belong to Lower middle class family whereas among urban participants 65.03% belonged to upper middle class. Parents of 47.1 % sick participants took their child to health facility. Conclusion: We came to know that respiratory infections are still the leading cause of morbidity and peripheral health institutions are the most trusted health facilities for seeking health advice. Although private practioner, specially Ayurveda doctors in rural area plays significant role.

  190. Dr. Mitasha Singh, Dr. Akshay Minhas and Dr. A. K. Bhardwaj

    The health care system in India is divided into public sector, private sector, indigenous system of medicine and other agencies. Private practitioners (PPs) constitute nearly 70% of medical profession in India. The need for including the PPs in the National TB Programme had been felt since 1975. With a vision for TB free India we need to approach the missing 3 million cases. One of the key pillars towards achieving universal access is to ‘expand efforts to engage all care providers’. Involvement of private practitioners (PPs) in disease programmes (both communicable and non-communicable), continues to be a major challenge for the concerned health authorities. This paper focuses on the various factors and the challenges in public private mix (PPM) strategies.

  191. Himanshu Juneja, Manoj Yadav and Isha Pahuja

    Hypophosphatemic rickets is a type of hereditary rickets characterized by persistent hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphaturia. The most predominant type is inherited in an x-linked fashion and caused by mutation in the gene encoding the phosphateregulating endopeptidase homolog X-linked (PHEX) which causes deficient mineralization of structures such as bones and teeth. The pathophysiological defect in XLH is speculated to cause an increase in a circulating phosphate regulating hormone termed phosphatonin (fibroblast growth factor 23 is the primary phosphatonin) which leads to parathyroid hormone-independent phosphaturia. We here describe a patient 30 years old male with genu varum, which presented with fragility fracture in lower limb and diagnosed as X-linked dominant hypophosphatemia (XLH) with osteomalacia after thorough history, examination, radiological and various blood tests.

  192. Prajakta R. Zade, Alka H. Hande, Minal S. Chaudhari, Madhuri N. Gawande, Amol R. Gadbail, Swati K. Patil, Dipak D. Ghatage and Satyajit A. Tekade

    Introduction: The biology and regulation of p73, a p53 homologue is complex, since the gene incorporates both tumor-suppressive and protooncogenic functions. However, the p73 gene is rarely mutated in tumors. A better understanding of p73 pathway is mandatory for the improvement of oral cancer diagnosis and treatment. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate p73 expression in oral potentially malignant disorders compared to oral squamous cell carcinoma. Methods & Materials: p73 expression was assessed in 30 oral squamous cell carcinoma, 30 oral potentially malignant disorders & 10 normal oral mucosa. The immunohistochemistry was carried out by using rabbit anti-human antibody against p73. Results: The Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant increase in p73 expression from normal oral mucosa to potentially malignant disorders to oral squamous cell carcinoma (p=0.00). Using Mann-Whitney test, the p73 expression was significantly higher in severe dysplasias than moderate and mild dysplasias (p=0.00). Similarly, the p73 expression was significantly higher in poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas than moderately and well differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (p=0.00). However, p73 expression was statistically insignificant (p=0.853) between severe dysplasia and well differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. Conclusion: The results suggest that p73 acts as a tumor suppressor gene in oral carcinogenesis. From this evidence, it is likely that p73 protein isoforms are instrumental for the maintenance of head & neck squamous epithelial stem cells and progenitors. Conversely, loss of p73 expression is associated with keratinocyte differentiation. Therefore, it is proposed that p73 probably plays a role in the maintenance of stem and progenitor cells, leading to the control of early epithelial differentiation stages.

  193. Dr. Nishant Vardhan, Dr. Tarun Sood, Dr. Mandeep Tomar and Dr. Praveen Panwar

    The eye is one of most vital organ. Eye injury is most frightening and stressful injury amongst all non life threatening injuries. Of all causes of sight loss, eye injury is the most sudden and dramatic because it is instantaneous. Devising a strategy to manage ocular trauma not only helps ease management, but also helps minimize the psychological impact. The high pshycosocial impact of eye injuries can be minimized by the symphthatetic and compassionate attitude of attending eye surgeon.

  194. Dr. Akshay Minhas, Dr. Mitasha Singh and Dr. Vidhu Sharma

    Vitamin D is thought to be important for maintaining normal function of many non skeletal tissues such as muscle (including heart muscle), immune function, and inflammation as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Studies have shown that it may be useful as adjunctive treatment for tuberculosis, psoriasis, and multiple sclerosis or for the prevention of certain cancers. The consumption of fortified or enriched foods as well as suberythemal sun exposure should be encouraged for people at risk for vitamin D deficiency. The current review focuses on the evidence demonstrating vitamin D deficiency in all age groups.

  195. Dr. Tanusree Kundu, Dr. Ajai Aggarwal, Dr. Gunjan Shoor and Dr. Debarshi Jana

    Background: A large volume of hernia repairs are performed worldwide, of which many are affected by chronic groin pain. Since this has direct impact on most of the daily activities, it's an important aspect in the outcome of hernia surgery. We carried out this study to assess the success of delibrate severance of Ilioinguinal nerve & use of light weight mesh to prevent inguinodynia following tension free hernia repair. Methods: 93 male patients who underwent open inguinal hernioplasty were divided into 3 groups. 31 patients in group 1 underwent delebrate severance of ilioinguinal nerve with use of Light weight polypropylene mesh, 31 patients in group 2 underwent delebrate severance of ilioinguinal nerve with use of Heavy weight polypropylene mesh, and 31 patients in group 3 underwent careful preservation of ilioinguinal nerve with random use of heavy or light weight polypropylene mesh. The 3 groups were compared for incidence of chronic groin pain, NRS pain scores, loss of sensation, paraesthesias at 3 months postoperatively. Discussion and Conclusion: Intentional severance of ilioinguinal nerve during repair of inguinal hernia along with the use of lightweight mesh can effectively prevent debilitating inguinal pain at an expense of mild and not so troublesome loss of sensation at upper medial aspect of thigh and paraesthesia. The use of light weight mesh does not have any added advantage of decreased incidence of chronic post-operative pain in the background of severed Ilioinguinal nerve. Although, further well-structured trials with improved standardization of hernias may be required for supporting above.

  196. Dr. Ajay Srinivas, Dr. Sharath Kumar Shetty, Dr. Mahesh Kumar, Y. and Dr. Manjucharan

    The present study was conducted to determine whether buccal corridor width with the total smile width changes along with change in the facial form and also to substantiate the influence of buccal corridors on the smile esthetics when judged by lay persons. The sample comprised of photographs obtained from 60 patients (30 males and 30 females) with age range of 17-30 years. Out of the 60 subjects selected: 20 subjects had leptoposopic facial form, 20 subjects had mesoprosopic facial form and rest 20 subjects had euryprosopic facial form. Measurements of the frontal facial photographs, to determine the facial form accurately, were done following the method of Johnson and Smith using adobe photoshop cs6 version13.0. Standardized frontal facial photographs (to evaluate the facial form) and standardized frontal smile photographs (to determine the smile width and buccal corridor width) of the individuals selected were obtained. An album assembled with the 60 printed smile photographs, were given to 15 lay people for esthetic evaluation, using visual analog scale. All the results were statistically evaluated with the P value set at 0.05. The difference between the means were evaluated by Analysis of Variance (Tukey) Test. From the study it was concluded that in a normal population, the percentage of buccal corridor width with the total smile width does not change considerably with change in facial form and is not a significant factor affecting smile esthetics.

  197. Assessment of the axial inclination of upper incisor in relation to the third order angle

    Background and Aim: The aim of this study were to assess the axial inclination of upper incisor and to evaluate the relationship between the angular measurement data (incisor long axis to maxillary plane and occlusal plane) and the third-order angle according to Andrews’ description by using the device—the tooth inclination protractor (TIP). The sample comprised 60 subjects of south Indian origin between 15- 30 years of age (regardless of skeletal and dental relationships) seeking orthodontic treatment at the department of orthodontics, K.V.G. Dental college Hospital, Sullia and other dental colleges, with lateral cephalometric radiographs and dental casts. The scores were related to traditionally determined inclinations for the upper incisor to occlusal plane obtained from cephalometric radiographic analysis. The following angles were measured on the radiographs: maxillary incisors to maxillary plane and occlusal plane. Measurements were also made with the TIP: maxillary incisor to occlusal plane. There were statistically significant systematic differences between the TIP and the radiographic assessments. The following differences were found. The TIP over scored the lateral cephalometrically determined maxillary incisor inclination by 14.52°. The TIP was shown to be a simple, inexpensive, reliable, and valid method of assessing incisor inclination.

  198. Kalu Ram Meena

    Background: The anatomical position and distribution of nutrient foramina is necessary for the success of orthopedics surgical procedures such as joint replacement therapy, fracture repair and bone grafts. Aims and objectives: The aim of the present study was to study the diaphyseal nutrient foramina in human humeri and its surgical importance’s. for each bone, the number, position, size, and direction of their nutrient foramina were studied. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted on 120 human cleaned and dried humeri and all measurements were done by using standard anthropometric instruments and techniques. All bones were obtained from the Department of anatomy, Nims medical collage Jaipur, Rajasthan and the selected bones were normal with no appearance of pathological changes. The specific age and sex characteristics of the bones studied were unknown. Observation and Results: With few exceptions the majority of nutrient foramina in all bones studied were single in number and were secondary in size. Most of the nutrient foramina were concentrated in the middle third of the bone and located on the anterior surface of the shaft of bones and the direction of nutrient foramina followed the growing end theory. Conclusion: The results of the present study confirmed previous findings regarding the number and position of nutrient foramina and provided clinical information concerning the nutrient foramina which could be useful as reference for surgical procedures.

  199. Dr. Akshay Minhas, Dr. Pardeep Bansal, Dr. Vishav Chander, Dr. Seema Sharma and Dr. Mitasha Singh

    Background: The silent emergency of child under-nutrition is an internationally recognized public health problem. The vicious cycle of social deprivation leading to nutritional deprivation further leading to economic and social deprivation continues in our country. Objective: This present study focuses on water, hygiene, feeding habits and socio cultural factors in relation to morbidity among children less than five years of age of District Kangra in Himachal Pradesh, India. Methodology: A community based cross- sectional study on 2400 children of age less then and equal to 59 months was conducted. Morbidity profile and socio demographic indicators along with other variables were conducted in form of interview. The study was conducted using 30 cluster technique with 80 participants from each cluster of district Kangra. Results: Around 40% of children suffered any type of illness in last two weeks. Females suffered a higher proportion of illness (40.5%). Overall 43.9% using water filter reported illnesses in last two weeks followed by plastic bucket with cover (41.1%). Only 1% of households boiled water for purification. Overall daily bathing emerged as a protective factor from illnesses (OR: 0.79; 95%CI (0.64-0.98)). It was observed that as reported intake of regular fruit, green vegetables, biscuits, cerelac and packaged fruit juices were associated with increased risk of illness in last two weeks. Conclusion: Socio economic status and area of residence are directly or indirectly linked to Safe Water access, sanitation practices, feeding habits and socio cultural practices of a family. All the above in turn affect health of a child. Hence all the interlinked practices need to be emphasized upon.

  200. Akarsha S. Multani, Taranjit Kaur, Taman Preet Kaur, Himani Sharma, Shipra Mahajan and Pallavi Goel

    The present study was conducted to compare and evaluate the push-out bond strength and its time-dependent change, of various materials when used for furcal perforations i.e. change in strength after 24 hours and 7 days to determine which material had the maximum push-out bond strength measurement so as to bear the forces of compaction of the coronal restoration. The study was carried out by preparing standard endodontic access cavities and decoronating 30 molars 5mm above the pulpal floor. After which, perforations were made in the furcal area of the pulpal floor. The size of the perforations was measured with a Stereomicroscope and ImageJ analysis. The remaining dentin thickness was measured with digital calipers. In each sample, a saline-soaked sponge was placed apical to the furcal perforation. For stabilisation, the roots were embedded in Silicon putty impression material to simulate the periodontal ligament, the apical third being embedded in cold-cure acrylic. The perforations were repaired with three different materials, Group I ProRoot White MTA, Group II Glass Ionomer Cement and Group III Theracal LC. Out of 10 samples, 5 samples in each group were subjected to push-out bond strength measurement after 24 hours & the remaining 5 after 7 days. Universal Instron testing machine with 1-mm-thick cylindrical stylus was used for push-out bond strength measurement at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results thus obtained were tabulated and were statistically analysed by using Anova and Tukey’s test. At both 24 hours and 7 days, the push-out bond strength of MTA>Theracal LC>GIC.

  201. Sonu, R. and Prasannan, K

    Back ground: Atherosclerosis also known as arteriosclerotic vascular disease or ASVD is a condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of fattymaterials such as cholesterol. It is a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels (Ruffer, 1619). The basic mechanism is stenosis or occlusion of one or more branches of the coronary arteries by atheromatous lesions or one of the complications of such a lesion. Objective: To study the occurrence of atherosclerosis in coronary arterysegments in the autopsied patients above the age of 40 Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Govt. Medical College, Kozhikode over a period of 01/01/2012 to 12/03/2012. A total number of 100 cases were analysed during the study. The criteria for selection were men and women above the age of 40 during the period of study. Results: Among the 100 subjects studied,simple atheroma was seen in 38%cases, plaque rupture with thrombosis in 5% , coronary artery calcification as well as calcified atheroma in13% and 44% showed fatty streaks. Atheromatous changes were seen more among the males and the association was found to be significant, but there were no association found between age and changes like atheroma and thrombosis secondary to atherosclerosis, but coronary artery calcification and calcified atheroma was more among the age group more than sixty. Conclusion: The main atherosclerotic change seen above the age forty was simple atheroma and it was associated with males.

  202. Khulood Abdulkareem Hussein Al- Tameemi

    Poor nebulizer hygiene can result in microbial contamination and risk of infections by pathogens for respiratory tract patients. Swabs were collected from contamination nebulizer cup (n=25) using sterile cotton swabs, percentage of microbial contamination 84( 67.2%) bacteria n=74(59.2%) (gram positive n=21(16.8%), and negative bacteria n=53(42.4%)). and yeast n=10(8%) (Candida spp.). Frequency of gram negative bacteria higher than the gram positive bacteria and yeast with high significant difference p≤0.05. In this study concluded that the nebulizer devices are contaminated with microbial pathogens and the transmission of these microbes among the respiratory tract patients and this is due to the disinfection of these devices or did not disinfected well to reduce these microbes.

  203. Dr. Ravi Kumar Kamble and Dr. Shashank Tyagi

    Computerised tomographic (CT) scanning remains the commonest modality of investigations for acute head injury (HI) patients worldwide. In many patients, CT scan might look normal, yet the patient may have a poor Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The aim of the study was to analyse epidemiological aspects of acute head trauma and to correlate CT scan findings in head injury cases with post mortem examination findings. This study was conducted on 64cases of traumatic head injuries who underwent a CT scan of the head prior to death and had medico-legal autopsy at Seth G.S. Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India during period from January 2015 to July 2016. Maximum incidence of head injury was found in the age group of 21-30 years comprising 17 (26.57%) cases. Most common cause of head injury was road traffic accident 32 (50%). There was a significant disparity noted between autopsy and CT scan findings regarding bone fracture, intracranial haemorrhage and type of brain injury. Autopsy being a direct visual examination of the lesions can detect more pathological findings compared to CT scan, which is essentially an interpretation of images.

  204. Maicon de Araujo Nogueira, Danielle Oliveira Maciel, Karla Christina Bernardes, Paulo Victor Gomes Peres, Vera Lúcia Gomes de Oliveira and Antonia Margareth Moita Sá

    Objective: To analyze in the literature the available evidence about the teaching of Basic Life Support in undergraduate nursing. Methods: An integrative review of the literature. The search was performed in PUBMED, LILACS and BDENF databases. Nine complete articles were found, they were published between 2010 and 2016. The productions studied were grouped into two thematic pillars. Results: Few publications on the subject were evidenced as well as a multiplicity of methods and strategies in the teaching of Basic Life Support. There were major gaps in the knowledge of health professionals, making it necessary to develop research in this field, especially studies that focus on strategies of theoretical and practical teaching with use of simulation, considering that these are capable of bringing real impacts in the knowledge and skills of the professionals. Conclusion: It can be concluded that teaching focused on the individuality and reality of the target public, taking into account the epidemiological reality and characteristics of the students is fundamental in this process.

  205. Singh Harneet, Gupta Ambika, Singh Aarti and Katyal Samidha

    Till date antibioma formed in the oro-facial region has been treated surgically by excision and drainage. In this report an alternative minimally invasive method for the treatment of antibioma has been elicited. This technique involves Triamcinolone acetonide and Amoxiclav in the form of intralesional injections injected directly into the antibioma.

  206. Dr. Dolly M. Rathod and Dr. Sanjyot A. Mulay

    Large periapical lesions are always a challenge for the clinicians. Treatment planning for extensive lesions is a dilema. Literature has documented successful management of large periapical lesions using non-surgical as well as surgical treatment approach. The pros & cons of non-surgical versus surgical treatment modality should be carefully studied for individual case. This case report presents non-surgical resolution of a large periapical lesion of endodontic origin in maxillary anterior teeth using various formulations of calcium hydroxide as intracanal medicament & Nd: Yag Laser as adjuvant method of root canal disinfection.

  207. Fadous Khalife, M.C., Samarani, M., Abi Fares, G., Makhoul, G., Matta, P., Hadchity, E., Amm, M., Saaybi, J., Fneiche, A., Kerillos, J., Kosseifi, R., Matta, A. and AlOjaimi, M.

    Objective: Breastfeeding is the optimal nutrition of the newborn. Its nutritional, developmental and protective benefits have been widely published. Yet, the effect of immediate breastfeeding at birth on newborn behavior is barely studied. We assessed the effect of skin-to-skin breast-feeding immediately following birth versus early breastfeeding at one hour of birth on the behavior of the newborn at term. Method: Randomized clinical trial of 82 full-term newborns born via normal vaginal delivery and no risk factors. Two groups were allocated to immediate breastfeeding with skin-to-skin contact for 1 hour in the delivery room (n = 44) or early breastfeeding (n = 38) at one hour after birth. The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (Brazelton) was used to assess the interaction of each newborn with his / her environment and cognitive development. Infants were screened around twelve to 24 hours of life. Results: In both groups, the Brazelt on score variables were tested using the Independent T-Test. The newborns with immediate breast feeding and skin-to-skin contact scored higher than the group with early breastfeeding at 1 hour of life on the elements of habituation, motor control, state organization and state regulation of the Brazelt on score (P<0.001 on all items or overall). Conclusion: Our data provides definitive evidence that immediate breastfeeding is beneficial for newborn behavior. Breast-fed infants immediately after birth with skin-to-skin contact were more alert, calm and reactive than in fants breastfed one hour after birth.

  208. Dr. Ananda Rama Rao, B. and Dr. Rama Lakshmi Tayaru, N.

    Background: Amniotic membrane from placenta has unique properties likeenhanced wound healing through neovascularisation, analgesic, antiadhesive effects, bacteriostatic, without inducing immunological reactions. Aim: to quantify the neo vascularisation that occurs by applying amnioticmembrane as dressing in chronic non healing ulcers Material and Method: This is a randomized prospective pilot study done to evaluate effects of healing in chronic ulcers as evidenced by quantum of neo vascularisation by amniotic membrane application for a period of eight weeks in 15 patients. The amniotic membrane harvested from caesareansection is applied over ulcers and the patients are evaluated at first, second, fourth, sixth and eighth week. Results: There is 61% of reduction in ulcer size (p-value 0.000) with twocompletely healed ulcers at the end of study period. In the first two weeks there is faster rate of neovascularisation as seen by counting the numberof capillaries in an average of five high power fields (p-value 0.000), lateron there is congestion of vessels with formation of granulation tissue whichpeaks at fourth week (p-value 0.000), leading to reduction in ulcer size. Significant analgesia is found in all the patients (p-value 0.000). Conclusion: Amniotic membrane application enhanced neo vascularization in eight weeks time there by early healing of wound. The costeffectiveness, readily available, ease of application and better scarformation makes it a better choice for treating chronic ulcers.

  209. Dr. Rao Naman Rajeshkumar, Dr. Abhishek Parikh, Dr. Hidayat Nagori and Dr. Hirenkumar N. Parsana

    Application of digital recording machines/gadgets provides more inventive, high quality dental restorations which in turn lead to utilize different types of dental scanners in contemporary dental practice. This review is aimed to provide the historical backgrounds of dental scanner and their various kinds; the benefits and pitfalls. An intensive search was performed in the available database with relevant keywords. Dental scanner used to measure the entire 3-dimensional (3D) of the external surface of a physical object either intraorally or extra orally from multiple directions. Implementation of the methods of 3D digitization in dental practice is a new methodology for dentistry which may revolutionize the routine techniques used commonly in dental practice. With this opportunity in hand- easier, faster, accurate and more predictable dentistry is anticipated.

  210. Ab Wahid Raina, Devika Rakesh, Gurpreet Singh, Maria Kapoor and Balbir Singh

    Introduction: Preoperative complexity estimation helps deciding whether to proceed with a minimally invasive approach or perform an open procedure. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy outcome is particularly affected by the presence and severity of inflammation, advancing age, male sex and greater BMI. Objective: To study Preoperative prediction of difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients and Methods: A total of 102 patients were enrolled to this study who were symptomatic, positive findings on clinical examination and ultrasound abdomen. The triad of clinical examination, laboratory data and ultrasound study was performed for all patients. The primary end point of the study was operative outcome and the second end point was morbidity related to surgery. Results: The operative outcome was represented as operative bleeding and conversion to open surgery while the postoperative outcome was biliary leakage and port site infection. The total score for each patient with conversion to open surgery or with postoperative biliary leakage was between 6-10 points indicating difficult surgical approach according to the scoring system. Conclusion: Preoperative prediction of risk factors of conversion or difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy is an important point for operative planning and the high risk patients may be informed accordingly.

  211. Dr. Kaarthiga, S., Dr. Ambica, R. and Dr. Nagarathnamma, T.

    Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen causing UTI. Various virulence factors play role in pathogenesis of uropathogenic E. coli. The common virulence factors include surface hydrophobicity, colonization factor, capsule, serum resistance, resistance to phagocytosis, hemolysin, enterotoxin, siderophore production, fimbriae and hemagglutination. Multidrug resistance is increasing in E. coli and production of various beta lactamases pose a major problem for clinical therapeutics and contributes to the virulence. Method: In the present study various virulence factors of UPEC like serum resistance, hemolysin, protease (gelatinse) and hemagglutination was detected. Antibiotic susceptibility profile and detection of ESBL, carbapenemase, Metallo-beta-lactamase, AmpC beta lactamase production by phenotypic methods was done. Result: 75 UPEC isolates with significant colony count were included in the study. Hemolysis was seen in 32% of the isolates; Hemagglutination in 40% of the isolates, 24% of the isolates were MSHA and 16% of the isolates were MRHA; 47% of the isolates were showing serum resistance and 13% of the isolates produced gelatinase. 32(43%) of them had more than one virulence factors. Maximum sensitivity was seen with Imipenem (92%), Nitrofurantoin (85%) Amikacin (80%) and least with Ampicillin (2.6%) and Amoxicillin- Clavulanate (6%). 53% of the isolates were ESBL producers, 8% of the isolates produced AmpC beta lactamase. 65% of the isolates having virulence factors were ESBL and/or AmpC beta lactamase producers. None of the isolates were Carbapenamase or MBL positive by phenotypic methods. Conclusion: Presence of virulence factors help in the pathogenesis of E. coli causing UTI. And along with it production of beta lactamases possess major problem in treatment.

  212. Honoré Kam, Marie-NoëlleNdjiondjop, Mark D. Laing and NourollahAhmadi

    Understanding the genetic diversity of rice and its population structure is a key to the sustainable in situ and ex situ management of genetic resources. In this study, the molecular analysis of 330rice varieties collected in 59 villages across Burkina Faso was undertaken, using 23microsatellite markers. These markers were found to be polymorphic with an average allele number of 9.4and a mean PIC per locus of 0.58, ranging from 0.034 (RM338) to 0.838(RM1). The 23 SSR markers were powerful enough to separate the two species (O. sativa and O. glaberrima), and to identify a group of most probably resulting from natural crosses between the two species. The glaberrima group were divided into two subgroups in relation with their cultivation ecosystem, deep-water and lowland while O. sativa japonica accessions were clustered in G2. Accessions of O. s.indica species were clustered in three groups (G3, G4 and G5).G3 was composed of accessions of late maturing cropped in lowland environment. G5 accessions were tall and late maturing adapted to deep water condition.G4accessions were of short stature and early maturing adapted to lowland conditions. Using the molecular data and the framework it provided, a core collection of 52 accessions was established that represents the diversity of rice in Burkina Faso. This core collection represents 16% of the collection and account for 89% of the alleles of the whole collection. A core collection of this size could be easily manageable by the national agricultural research institute for conservation in situ or ex situ.

  213. Fikru Mosisa, Lema Etefa and Adanech Asfaw

    Indigenous knowledge refers to the accumulation of knowledge, rule, standards, skills, and mental sets, which are possessed by local people in a particular area. Indigenous knowledge develops by indigenous people in the processes of their interaction with their environment and the science ethinomedicine developed gradually having its origin in the indigenous medicinal practices. This research was initiated to document indigenous knowledge associated with traditional medicinal plants; specifically to identify the plant parts used for medicinal purposes and investigate plant species that are used as medicines for the treatment of human livestock health problems. Traditional healers in the study area was interviewed to gather information on the knowledge and use of medicinal plants used as a remedy for human and livestock diseases. Majority of informants’ age ranged between 40 to 75 ages, a total of 87 traditional medicinal plant species distributed in 73 genera and 46 botanical families were collected and documented, 43 (49.4%) were herbs, Lamiaceae was the most dominant medicinal plant family reported (with 11 species), Among the total traditional medicinal plants, 56 species (64.4%) were used against human diseases, The majority of plant species reported in the study area (80.7%) were harvested from the wild, Most of the traditional practitioners of the study area reported that the highest and the most commonly cited source of healing was from family, which accounts (65.79%), leaves were the dominant plant part used to prepare remedies (54.77%), followed by roots (10.64%), The result in the conditions of plant part used indicated that 73.56% were used in fresh form, Traditional healers reported to process remedies mainly through crushing (32.2%), Locally available and widely used medicinal plants would need to be identified and a list compiled as well as propagated to alleviate the risk of extinction due to accelerated urbanization, recurring drought and deforestation.

  214. Dr. Abdullah Sethar, Dr. Benjamin W. Neuman, Dr. Gul Hassan Sethar and Dr. Nargis Khan

    The current research investigates Comparison of inner to outer leaflet and outer leaflet density of arenaviruses. The results indicates that to understand the density of vesicles as compare to the arenaviruses, and the ratio of various vesicles was taken and plotted the transect plots. Here we are trying to make an assay to detect that how much protein is inserted in the membrane so I have looked at the vesicles from lots of different sources and groups. It was concluded that ratio of inner to outer is constant in vesicles.

  215. Pijush Kanti Biswas, Rajib Das and Kerimenla

    The present study was undertaken on 120 farmers during 2015-16 in the hilly terrace of Mokokchung district of Nagaland. The study was undertaken to access the constraints faced by the off season cucumber growers of the said districts. Further, constraints was recorded in five sub categories viz., inadequate climatic conditions, technological constraints, infrastructural constraints, economical constraints and marketing constraints. Results revealed from the study that infrastructural constraints was the most prioritized area to be concern about and under that highest 91.66 per cent faced problems for lack of proper irrigation facilities. However it was recommended that policy makers should give much attention to avail the proper irrigation facilities and that to on time.

  216. Ramesh, V., Sumathi, B. and Kanimozhi, C

    Mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori is the preferred species for the production of silk cocoons. The quality of this species is generally affected by bacterial, viral, fungal and protozoan pathogens. Bacterial pathogens alone are responsible for causing cocoon loss to the extent of almost 70%. Antibiotics are widely and effectively used to control these pathogens affecting particularly Bombyx mori. The present study is aimed to find out the histological changes in the fat body, and silk gland of bacterial infected V instar larvae of silkworm fed with antibiotic drug (Dicloxacillin) treated V1 mulberry leaves. Silkworm fat body consisted of nucleus, cytoplasmic vacuole and granular substances. In bacterial infected silkworm’s silk gland showed necrosed columnor epithelium with disintegrated nucleus, vacuoles and the lumen contained low secretory substances, whereas in antibiotic drug (Dicloxacillin) treated V1 mulberry leaves fed V instar silkworm’s fat body and silk gland showed spectacular changes such as swollen nucleus, with more vacuoles in the fat body, whereas, the silk gland showed shrunken nucleus, vacuole in the epithelium, lumen contained more secretory substances suggested that the mobilization of to secretory substance from posterior silk gland to middle silk gland which enhance and to store more amount of secretory substance for spinning.

  217. Bodhakar Kishor, N.

    A substance which causes sadness to the world is also called as Visha (Poison). Plants are the prime source of medicine in Ayurveda. Several compounds have been isolated from medicinal plants and introduced for the service of mankind; however most of these medicines have been withdrawn due to their toxicity or side-effects. In Ayurveda, the very first stage of purification is called Shodhana. Chemical purification is different from this purification. In chemical purification, there is only elimination of foreign matter, however, Shodhana eliminates harmful matter, modifies or converts undesirable properties to desirable, enhanced therapeutic actions. Current study shows the changes in vishdravya after shodhana. Toxic content of Vatsanabha (Aconite, monks hood) is alkaloids which varies from 0.63 – 4.7%. The total Alkaloid in Ashuddha Vatsanabha was 0.45% w/w and after Shodhana in Gomutra, it was reduced to 0.08% w/w. Mild oil remained in Bhallataka (Semicarpus Anacardium, marking nut) after shodhana and phonolic constituents positive in ashuddha Bhallataka which turns to negative after shodhana done by Ishtikachurna (brick powder), gomutra (cow urine), godugdha (cow milk) and narikeljala (coconut water). So the Shodhanais an important procedure for vishadravya to get desired effects from them.

  218. Rupa, P. and Lakshmi Bhavani, N.

    Pullur banda is a huge, natural, monolithic (Single rock) form and spread over above 100 acres at high altitude of Pullur village, Siddipet district, Telangana, India. It is one of the historical and archeological places of Telangana state. The present study carried out during monsoon season. Pullur Banda is wealthy of diversified plants from lower plants to higher plants and shows true plant diversity. The species of Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Angiosperms and Lichens are lavishly distributed on top of the rock as well as around of it. Cryptogams like Marchantia, Funaria and Selaginella were found abundantly. Very limited distribution of Adiantum and Actinopteris species also found beneath the rocks of this area. Rare species, snake tongue fern Ophioglossum species has been reporting at first in Siddipet district and it is constrained to very limited area within finger count. Angiosperms: Butea, Borasus, Ficus sps, Neem, Andrographis, Tribulus, Pongamia, Cyper and Cleome spp…etc. were found commonly. The field observations have shown evolutionarily important species all at a place. In the present study explored the diversified vegetative forms concern to 54 families with 142 species and has been reporting of true plant diversity of this area in the form of photos and data.

  219. Sabita Dahal and 2Borthakur, S. K.

    Medicinal Plants Genetic Resources of Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary and adjacent areas were studied during the year 2016-17, which records an occurrence of 120 species of medicinal plants, of which herbs represent the highest number of species (103 species) followed by shrubs / shrublets (16 species). Trees were sparse in the area and only two tree species of medicinal value viz., Abies densa and Betula utilis were recorded. Enumeration of species includes scientific names along with common name(s), local name(s), family, part (s) used, uses and system(s) of medicine where they are used. 79 species were found to be used in Tibetan System of Medicine, 48 species in Traditional Nepali Medicine and 13 species in Lepcha Traditional Medicine and 8 species were found to be used by local Folk healers. Some of the globally rare and threatened alpine medicinal plants such as Sassurea gossipiphora, Gentiana elwesii, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Veratrilla bailonii, Nardostachys jatamansii etc. were recorded during the present study. Aconitum, the highly potential and globally threatened taxa of medicinal plant of the Himalayas, of which six species were recorded during the present study. From the conservation point of view Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary has remarkable relevance in preservation of subalpine and alpine gene bank of Sikkim in the form of protected area. For better conservation and management of rare and threatened medicinal plants in their natural habitat, the sanctuary and the surrounding area can be recommended to keep untouched in terms of tourism and any kind of construction works. The better management of the rare and threatened species especially of sub-alpine and alpine areas can be done by ex-situ conservation through tissue culture.

  220. Asif Jamal, G. A. and Mujeera Fathima

    Organic farming is the need of the hour to sustain Agriculture. Organic manure and Organic fertilizer not only improves the quality of the Soil but also control all types of Pollution. There are several organic resources available for growing plants such as Natural Compost (Cow dung), Vermicompost, Panchakavyam, Fish Amino acid etc. The present investigation aimed to study the effect of new compost obtained from decomposing sugarcane leaf waste by using Bacteria obtained from cashew nut shell waste and groundnut shell waste processing sites, on the germination of green gram Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek, which has been compared with Natural compost, Vermicompost and Inorganic Fertilizer and control. The study revealed that the bacterial compost was more effective in bringing about germination and seedling growth compared to vermicompost, Natural compost and Inorganic Fertilizer. Poor results were observed in Inorganic fertiliser treatment

  221. Dandge Pradnya, Bhalmey Bhawana and Daulatkar Kavita

    Introduction: Developing country most probably face the problem of lifestyle disorder disease in this situation India is second rank in diabetes Mellitus. Than review of Diabetes Mellitus to understand this disease in present study. Materials and Methods: References have been collected and relevant matter is compiled from available literature. Available commentaries of present era are also reviewed. All Compiled matter is reorganized and critically analyzed for the discussion and attempt has been made to draw some fruitful conclusion. Result and Discussion: In the present study Diabetes Mellitus is rapidly growing disease and a review on this disease to understand the causes, classification, Management this are understanding than help to prevent the disease.

  222. Abinet Gebremickael

    This study was aimed to assess the possible toxic effects and to identify the rough safety margin of lemongrass essential oil-water emulsion after single oral administration in mice. In this study, Swiss albino mice placed in nine groups each containing six animals were used. The eight treatment groups were administered with increasing doses of 0.5ml/kg to 4.0ml/kg body weight test doses spaced by 0.5ml/kg. The control group animals were received vehicle. In the two weeks period of acute toxicity evaluation, test doses below 2.5ml/kg body weight does not produce obvious toxic effects. However, some toxicity signs and deaths of mice were recorded at doses higher than 2.5ml/kg body weight. Generally, the lemongrass oil emulsion was not toxic at doses below 2.5ml/kg after single oral administration in mice.

  223. O. Premila Chanu

    Nowadays the ecosystem is deteriorating thereby creating a lot of difficulties for the survival of life on earth. The scarcity of food and drinking water are the main problems. The Monsoon rain is wasted in the drains and river thereby reaching vast water bodies like lakes and oceans which are very far for reach by the inhabitants. Moreover our home ecosystem designed by our forefathers is spoilt nowadays by the descendants in dividing the land amongst the descendants. Our forefathers used to conserve the monsoon rain in a pond. In addition the home ecosystem included a garden, a kitchen garden, fruit plants, cowshed and a coop. Like this our forefathers need not worry about the imports from outside the state. And also there were no bandhs, blockades and general strikes in that time and the different tribes in Manipur lived so peacefully and prosperously. But nowadays almost half of the days of a year are suffering from bandhs, blockades and general strikes. And due to overpopulation, we depend everyday on the imported foods and goods from outside the state. The people creating the bandhs, blockades and general strikes are also suffering with the other groups of the society. Above all the most affected group are the labour class families. Here a model for development and conservation of a home ecosystem and a model of law governing the home ecosystem are designed and presented.

  224. KOFFI Kouao Jean, KOUASSI Akossoua Faustine, AKE-ASSI Emma, CHAMPLUVIER Dominique and BOGAERT Jan

    This study was aimed to analyze the cases of vicariance from Acanthaceae family using the phytogeographic systems of Robyns (1948) for Central Africa and White (1979, 1986) for tropical Africa. It covered 9181 samples (48 genus, 310 species) harvested in DR Congo, Rwanda and Burundi. A geographic information system was used to produce the potential distribution maps. The uniformity of sampling density was assessed by the Pielou evenness index. It was observed that some of the phytogeographic territories have been explored more than others. Consequently, maps reflecting the potential distribution, based on harvesting locations and environmental variables, were produced to better determine the ecological niches of the species and the cases of vicariance. Two types of vicariance have been determined at the genus and subspecies level. For the phytogeographic territories of Robyns, 27 ecological vicariance pairs and six pairs of geographic vicariance were identified at the genus level; at the level of the subspecies, six pairs of ecological vicariance and two pairs of geographic vicariance were observed. Concerning the phytogeographic territories of White, 43 pairs of ecological vicariance and seven pairs of geographic vicariance were observed at the genus level; five ecological vicariance pairs and a pair of geographic vicariance were identified at the subspecies level. This study also revealed two zones of speciation that were the refuge zones and, consequently, as areas of high biological diversity (hotspots). The observations mentioned above are not only important from a phytogeographic point of view (speciation zones), but also for conservation policies development.

  225. Prajwal Bogawar, Deepak Koche and Archana Joshi-Saha

    Chickpea is an important grain legume cultivated worldwide. Both desi and kabuli biotypes are widely used as prime source of protein in many countries of the world. A narrow genetic base is one of the major bottlenecks in chickpea improvement programs. Induced mutations can be an effective way to introduce variability in the existing germplasm/cultivars for their effective utilization in the breeding programs. Genetic variability of morphological mutations induced by varying doses of physical (gamma rays) and chemical (EMS) mutagens in M2 population was studied in one desi (Vijay) and one kabuli (PKV-2) varieties of chickpea. In M2 population, 42 different types of morphological mutations in different parts of the plants, such as growth habit, branching pattern, stem structure, foliage type architecture and color, plant height, pod and seed size, flower color, flowering behavior and maturity was observed. Further the mutants were also grouped on the basis of variability observed in single, two or multiple traits. EMS was found to be more effective than gamma rays in induction of chlorophyll variations in both the cultivars. Overall lower doses of both mutagens were found to induce more variation as compare to higher doses. The mutations per 1000 M2 progeny was recorded highest in 300 Gy gamma radiations and 0.2% EMS for variety Vijay and 150 Gy gamma radiations and 0.2% EMS in variety PKV-2. Both gamma rays and EMS were found to have significant mutagenic potential to induce morphological variations in Chickpea.

  226. Chandra Kumari, M. and Jaisankar

    The objective of this investigation is the comparative study of antibacterial and antifungal potentials of citric acid and tartartic acid based nano composites on the growth inhibition of some important pathogenic fungi and bacteria in vitro. The study is to assess the antimicrobial activity and to determine the zone of inhibition of nanocomposites on some bacterial and fungal strains. In the present study, the microbial activity of (Tartartic acid + Glycerol + n-HAp) TAGH and (Citric acid + Glycerol + n-HAp) CAGH nanocomposites was evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against medically important bacterial and fungal strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and fungi namely Candida albicans, Trichoderma viride, Rhizopus microspores. Antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by disc diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar (MHA) medium. Antifungal activity of the extracts was determined by disc diffusion method on Sabouraud Dextrose agar (SDA) medium. The assay was performed by agar disc diffusion method. The results demonstrated that citric acid has more bactericidal and fungicidal activities than those of tartaric acid against all pathogenic bacteria and fungi tested. The small size of the Nanomedicine is very suitable for carrying out antimicrobial biological operations. Further research is needed to assess the efficacy of citric and tartaric acids as inhibitors of bacterial and fungal growth in clinical trials, especially in treatment of patients with microbial infections.

  227. Ch. Helini Devi, Renuka Devi, N. and Premila Chanu, O.

    Vitex negundo Linn. is a large aromatic shrub distributed throughout India. Vitex negundo Linn. has also been extensively used in treatment of ailments as traditional medicine, folk medicine and pharmacological evidence. Traditionally the leaves of Vitex negundo Linn. are documented to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antihistamine properties tonic, vermifuge. It has been reported to posses potent pharmacological properties like mosquito repellent effects as well as antiulcerogenic, antiparasitic, antimicrobial and hepatoprotective potentials, snake venom neutralization and anti-allergic activities. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of Proteins, Carbohydrate, Flavonoids, Phenols, Saponins and Tanins.

  228. Umashri, Swetha V. Lingashetter and Kadadevaru, G.G

    A survey was carried out in four districts of North Karnataka to study the prevalence of Ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals. A total of 621 domestic animals were screened out of which in 360 animals were infested. Out of the five groups of domestic animals the infestation was maximum in Buffalo with 79.04% and minimum in Goats with 44.516%. Amongst the four ticks identified Hyalomma sp. dominated with 45.27% of infestation and Boophilus microplus with least infestation of 2.2%

  229. Rashmi Saini and Neena Kumar

    Global climatic changes have led to alteration in earth’s capacity to sustain life. Melting of ice, rise in sea-level and increased ocean acidity have affected the entire aquatic ecosystem. Changes in water quality, as a consequence of storms, snow-melt, and periods of elevated air temperature exceeds the thresholds of tolerance, leading to altered distribution and phenology of species and productivity of aquatic ecosystems. Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations alter ocean chemistry which affects the ecosystem structure and functioning. This review focuses on the adverse effects of climate changes on species habitat and their extinction, deep sea biodiversity and the potential impacts of oxygen-deficient dead-zone expansion, alterations in river flow regimes and hydrological cycle, thereby acting as the biggest challenge. It further emphasizes the need for ability to moderate, cope up with and take advantage of the consequences of climate change while preventing the degradation of ecosystems and preserving our biodiversity.

  230. Lavanya Lakshmi, K. J. and Prasad, P. V. N. R.

    The human beings have to pass through various changes and stages in their life time. Ageing and its physical and mental changes are so obvious and inevitable. Ayurveda being the science of life has thrown considerable light on the biology of ageing and related aspects. That knowledge is described under the discipline of Rasayana tantra. The medicine which is able to delay the ageing and cures diseases is called Rasayana. It has a comprehensive influence on the body and mind resulting into a physical, physiological and psychological improvement of an individual with prevention of ageing, improvement of mental faculties and development of immunity. Charaka has given top priority to the Rasayana and included it in Chikitsa sthana first four subchapters and in detail. Sushruta mentioned it in middle of Chikitsa sthana i.e. 27th to 30th chapters, whereas Vagbhata emphasized it in the end of the Samhita i.e. 39th chapter in Uttara tantra. Charaka dedicated four elaborated chapters to the Rasayana, while Sushruta described it in four medium sized chapters, but Vagbhata quoted it in a single chapter. Above description suggesting notable fall in the significance of this specialized branch due to the remarkable increase in the disease incidence and there by authors of the books forced to concentrate on the curative aspect of the diseases rather than preventive aspect. Keeping this in view, the study has been taken up to pickup most efficacious Rasayanas which are able to cure the diseases (Naimittika Rasayanas) as well as providing long and healthy life, especially from the medieval works.

  231. S. Kareem Al-Taie and Sahar A.A. Malik Al-Saadi

    Pollen morphology of eight species belongs to Minuartia L. from Iraq were studied by light and scanning microscope, M.aucheriana (Boiss.) Bornm., M.hamata (Hausskn.) Mattf, M.hybrida (Vill.) Schischk., M.intermedia (Boiss.) Hand-Mazz., M.meyeri (Boiss.) Bornm., M.montana L., M.picta (Sibth.&Sm.) Bornmand M.recurva (All.) Schinz & Thell. Pollen typepolyporate were recognized, pollen grains were spheroidal in all species. Exine was more thickness than intine. Pollen grain size varies from small in M.intermedi, small to middle in M.picta, M.hamata, M.hybrida, M.meyeri, M.montana and M.aucheriana and middle in rest species. There are two types of tectum verrucate and microechinate- perforate Palynological data has been useful at genus and species levels.

  232. Louis-Clément Obame-Engonga, Mohamed Abdoul-Latif-Fatouma,Joseph Privat Ondo, Cédric Sima-Obiang, Rick-Léonid Ngoua-Meye-Misso, Alfred Traoré and Jean Koudou

    Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as remedies for human diseases and continue to do important services at human being. These plants have served as a very important replacement for the resistant strains. Aqueous, chloroform and methanol extracts of Guibourtia ehie and Syzygium rowlandii were evaluated for phytochemical analyses, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution assays. Antioxidant Activity Index (AAI) was determined for antioxidant activity evaluation. Phytochemical screening showed also high total phenol, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, triterpenes and proanthocyanidins. The extracts of Guibourtia ehie reduce the concentration of DPPH free radical, IC50 values are 34.0 ± 0.15 μg/mL and 49.0± 0.19 μg/mL for water and methanol extracts. Oxidation of β-carotene is inhibited by methanolic and aqueous extracts (55.64 ± 0.05% and 68.4 ± 0.05%). The IC50 of S. rowlandii is 91.5 ± 0.15 mg/mL. The relative antioxidant activity of methanol extracts was 95.4 %. However, water extract of Guibourtia ehie and methanol extract of Syzygium rowlandii had strong effects, AAI are 2.31 and 8.54, and can be compared to AAI of Vitamin C and BHT (AAI values of 11.32 and 7.85, respectively). The results of susceptibility testing with extracts of Guibourtia ehie and Syzygium rowlandii show that these plants exhibit the growth of nearly all microorganisms used in the essay. The study confirm the multiple uses of Guibourtia ehie and Syzygium rowlandii for the treatment of many infectious diseases and place them as candidate for further investigations for traditional drug utilizable as complementary and alternative medicines development and new active compounds.

  233. Fertikov Valery and Seguru Grirgory

    Based on the density reference data of substances in the condensed state the results of concentration of electrons calculations (C electron, mole/cm3) and the coefficient of consolidation (K consolidation) for initial chemical elements and their binary compounds with nickel have been presented. The purpose of the present work is to reveal the possibility of using the normalized value of the volume change as the characteristics, which allows to estimate the intensity of interaction between dissimilar atoms and the concentration of electrons as the structural characteristics of the materials. A correlation was established between the melting point, the elastic properties and the calculated characteristics for a number of Laves phases. For binary nickel compounds as example shown the possibility of using the calculations based on change the volume of compounds to predict the properties of substances.

  234. Dariusz WIĘCKOWSKI

    So far, the problem of harmful impact of vibrations on children when riding in safety seats in a car has not been sufficiently tackled. In the field of design of child safety seats, most effort was made to ensure safety during a collision because this is the main function of such seats. On the other hand, children significantly differ from adults in respect of their anatomy and physiology. The issue of the influence of vibrations on adult people’s bodies has been relatively well described, which is reflected in numerous normative acts having been adopted. For children, however, the studies on these issues are still at an early stage and there are no normative acts of this kind. The child should be treated in a special way, differently from the adult. The paper covers experimental tests related to the impact of vertical vibrations on the body of a child riding in a car in a safety seat. Results of road tests carried out for various road surface types as well as results of rig tests have been analysed and comparisons have been made in the frequency domain.

  235. Sona Thahseen, C. K.

    The sustainable development of construction sector has become very significant in the last decade. The reason behind this is resource consumption and impacts generated by the buildings. Green buildings have the potential to minimize the negative impacts on the environment and can offer healthy life to both occupants and construction employees. Green rating systems such as United States Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) are leading to changes in the way owners, designers and contractors approach to the design, construction and operation of the building. This paper endeavors the site selection and planning of a green guest house constructed according to LEED rating system.

  236. N. J. R. and Ashok Kumar, A.

    A simple and effective RP-HPLC method had been developed for the estimation of Paracetamol and Etodolac in tablet dosage form, using Inertsil ODS C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5m.), mobile phase Acetonitrile and water (60:40), detection wavelength at 269 nm, at flow rate of 1ml/min at retention time 3.206 min for paracetamol, 4.825 min for etodolac. Linearity was obtained in the range of 18.46 µg/ml to 55.38 µg/ml for paracetamol and etodolac. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.999 for the drugs. The Recovery studies were performed for paracetamol and etodolac in the range of 50% - 150 %. The % Assay for paracetamol is 98.85% and etodolac is 99.81 %. Forced Degradation studies were conducted according to the ICH guidelines and the Drug Product was found to be stable in all conditions. Hence, the method could be successfully applied for routine analysis of Paracetamol and Etodolac in combined dosage form.

  237. Bhavna Joshi

    In present work report our FTIR, XRF and XRD studies of various Traditional Bhasma consisting of Ca, Cu, Sn, As, Ag, Zn, S and Pb. The aim is to characterize these medicines using above techniques. We have also shown that for same element if method of preparation is different, FTIR pattern also show variation. These suggest that property of ‘Bhasma’ is influenced by host matrix in which it is present.

  238. Er. NimayChandra Giri and Dr. Siba Prasad Mishra

    Electrical energy plays pivotal role to human advances in industry, smart city planning, food, agriculture, health and economic growth. The diminishing fossil/ bio fuel, coal, associated environmental issues and squat hydropower generation cannot level the increasing energy demand of modern man. To improve the lag, the renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, micro-hydel and geothermal etc. are to be harnessed. Solar photo voltaicmodules (SPVM) plants are proved popular and abundant source for generating huge electricity. Solar photo voltaic power by modern technology has reduced the cost of purchase and installation of SPVM. India has electricity in 96.7% Villages but in-house supply is only 69% and 4billion people were deprived of electricity by 2014. Houses in Peninsular eastern states have conventional electric power 20hrs/day are Jharkhand (2%), UP (5%), Bihar (8%), Odisha (23%) and MP (26%). The present research compare the history and Solar photovoltaic (SPV) technology development, present status in India with other solar power producing countries generating solar power. For easy access to the technology, for choice of different SPV plants, design of SPV/PSO unit from 1KW, 2KW, 5KW, 10KW (both on grid and off grid) for various population areas has been done. For small townships to cottage industries, the SPV power plants of size 1MW and 5MW are also designed. Attempt has also been made to take suggestive measures for reduction in cost of installation and unit cost of generation to make the SPV industry popular.

  239. Manu, J. E., Likith, G., Dinesh, C., Dr. Vidya, H. A. and Chandralekha, M.

    This paper deals with the technical details involved in the generation of power through wind technology. It discusses the factors responsible for generation of wind power and the limitations of the generator. While the emphasis is given on the ‘Variable speed constant frequency scheme’ used for production of electricity using wind power, the paper also gives insight into ac-dc-ac converters and energy storage methods.

  240. Ren Shangkun, Ren Xianzhi and Zhao Zhenyan

    Metal magnetic memory (MMM) testing technique is a novel testing method which can early test stress concentration status of ferromagnetic components. Adopting the combination method of experimental research and simulation analysis, and the influences of notch characteristics on magnetic memory signals were studied. In the experiment, the Q235 steel specimens with different defects were taken as the object of study, the mechanical characteristics of the static tension curve are studied, and the relationship between the magnetic memory signal with the tensile stress was studied. In the aspect of simulation analysis, under different tensile stresses, the distribution characteristics of stress and magnetic signal were simulation analyzed on different paths of double defect specimens, which is consistent with the test results basically. The results show that semicircular notch is more potential danger than V-shaped notch specimen; The normal component of magnetic flux leakage and gradient value in stress concentration of double associated notch specimen are no longer applicable for evaluating stress concentration degree of double associated notch. The conclusions are of great significance to the quantitative detection and further research of metal magnetic memory testing technology.

  241. Ambiga, N., Kanimozhi, V. and Jayasri, R

    In today’s online society, social media contains information to be connected with other people, to express themselves to a bigger audience or to gain all kind of relevant information from other users. Thereby, all these activities produce data, that is collected by the service providers. It is often not clear and it contain false information, noisy, unwanted information This is a big threat to the people. We don’t know in what extent a service provider makes use of this data. On the one hand, personal data collections can serve a useful and necessary purpose, such as the improvement of the user experience or the facilitation of core functionality of the service. It can give also the opportunity for new businesses and research fields to emerge. On the other hand personal data collections has led to a widely applied practice of data analysis and personal information trading, which can highly compromise the users’ privacy and lead to many further problems. In face of these contradictions, this course deals with the implications for the society from personal data collections. Therefore the main subjects are the discussion of business models based on personal data common practices to analyse personal data collections and alternatives to the current data driven social media landscape.

  242. Bhalchandra P. Alone and Dr. Ganesh Awchat

    This paper addresses the Case study on seismic analysis of high rise building system (Ground+ 3Basements+50) storey RCC by STAAD pro v8i with application of Indian standard provisions. One of the most frightening and destructive phenomena of a nature is a severe earthquake and it terrible after effect. It is highly impossible to prevent an earth quake from occurring, but the damage to the buildings can be controlled through proper design and detailing. Hence it is mandatory to do the seismic analysis and design to structures against collapse. Designing a structure in such a way that reducing damage during an earthquake makes the structure quite uneconomical, as the earth quake might or might not occur in its life time and is a rare phenomenon. This study mainly on to understanding the results from STAAD Pro v8i software under gravity loads provision made in IS 456:2000, Results shall satisfy the general criteria from being a failure after analysis Results to improve The accuracy as per IS code 1893 : 2002.

  243. Usha, R., Hema, N., Revathi Ambika, V., Shalini, D. and Jayalakshmi, D.

    L-Histidinium 5 SulfoSalicylate crystal (LH5SS) was grown by a slow evaporation technique at ambient temperature. Solubility of LH5SS in aqueous solution was determined. Single crystal XRD revealed that compound crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system. Thermal stability of the grown crystal was studied by TGA– DTA analysis. The laser damage threshold value of LH5SS crystal was estimated to be 6.78x109 GW /cm2 using a Nd:YAG laser.

  244. Evangelos Karanikas and Nikolaos Nikolaidis

    Two UV-absorbers, Tinuvin P, 2-(2-hydroxy-.5-methyl-phenyl)-2H-benzotriazole and Tinuvin 320 (benzotriazole of unknown formula) were used as active agents in this work. These were added in several amounts in water-based disperse ink-jet inks. The surface tension, pH, viscosity and conductivity of the prepared formulations were monitored over a period of 90 days in order to estimate the ink stability and the compatibility of the UV-absorbers with the ink constituents. The inks were used for ink-jet printing of polyester polyamide and polyacrylonitrile samples. Fastness and colour properties of the samples were measured. Quantitative determination of the UV-absorbers extracted of the printed sample was also made.

  245. Faustina Yaa Amoako-Kwakye

    Customer service plays a vital role in any business especially the catering industry which is a “people” industry and so the main purpose of the study was to investigate the quality of customer service in catering establishments in and around the University of Cape Coast. Data was collected from 200 purposively selected regular restaurant customers of hotels and restaurants in and around Cape Coast using questionnaires with closed-ended items. Respondents were asked to rate their expectations prior to their visits and their actual experiences using a scale of 5. The data were coded and analysed using SPSS, version 17. Means were computed and the paired ‘sample t-test was used to determine whether significant differences between the means of customers’ prior expectations and actual experiences were significant. The key findings were that, 85.0% of means were above the general mean, signifying that the customers’ satisfaction was met. However, there were highly significant differences between the means of customers’ expectations prior to visit and their actual experiences during and after the visits, indicating that some of their expectations were not fully met, although they were satisfied with the services received. Among the recommendations were that management should constantly train and educate staff to be abreast with modern trends of providing quality service and also meals served should have a good variety and be worth the price at which they are being sold.

  246. Momanyi Marcella

    School leaders occupy a very important position for influencing actions of other people in achieving desirable outcomes. Their leadership provides essential sense of direction in their organizations. Educational institutions in Africa, Kenya inclusive are marred by turbulent situations that disrupt the teaching and learning processes. This article examines the type of emerging turbulent situations existing in school organizations. It examines the different types of leadership styles adopted by school administrators to create order and address issues appropriately. The study was anchored on situational leadership theory. A mixed method particularly convergent parallel Mixed Method Design with both qualitative and quantitative paradigms guided the study. In Quantitative Cross sectional survey was adopted while in qualitative phenomenology. The study targeted primary head teachers, teachers, County Education Officers and the students in primary schools in Kenya. Stratified random sampling technique was utilized to select students and teachers to participate in the study. The Schools that experienced major turbulences were purposively selected and their head teachers automatically included in the study. Data collection instruments were questionnaire, semi structured interview guide and observation checklist which were all subjected to content validity. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages summarized quantitative data. Data from semi structured interviews was organized into themes based on research questions and reported in direct quotations and narratives. The findings showed that head teachers employed diverse leadership styles in calming difficulty turbulent situations. The most disastrous one autocratic leadership style. Here some head teachers minimally involved the students and teachers in making decisions on matters affecting them. Vandalism was observable in such schools. Head teachers who used situational leadership style seemed to have contained the situation effectively. The study recommended that all head teachers should attend refresher courses to be inducted on tenets of situational leadership style. Any teacher aspiring to become a principal must show a certificate on courses done on leadership and management. Similar courses should be included in teacher education curriculum to equip pre-service teachers with leadership skills which when used appropriately harmonizes situations and learning.

  247. Sirima Lornah C. Nakera and Musera Geoffrey Ababu

    The government of Kenya recognizes the importance of special needs education as a crucial subsector for accelerating the attainment of Education for All (EFA) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This study sought to establish the effect of parental socioeconomic status on participation of pupils in special units in public primary schools in Kakamega County, Kenya through a descriptive research survey design. A sample of 226 was selected using multi-stage sampling technique. Data was collected using a questionnaire and document analysis. A pilot study was conducted in three special units and the data was used to assess the reliability of research instruments using split-half technique which was r=0.8. Face and content validity were used to validate the instruments. Data was analysed descriptively and inferentially at 0.05 level of significance on a two-tailed test. The multiple regression results show that pupil’s participation in special units is not affected by student wealth index tertiles. Besides repetition, number of girls with special needs in a household, lower pupils’ participation in special units in public primary schools in Kakamega County. It is therefore recommended that the government policy on integration of special units in public primary schools be enhanced to widen access in special units.

  248. Adedayo, Adesoji Gideon and Oyun, Mathew Banji

    This paper takes a look at the various roles of rural women in the use of medicinal plants in Kogi State, Nigeria. This is with a view to fashioning out strategies that can help to improve the involvement of rural women in the use of medicinal plants in the Study area. Five local government areas (LGAs) out of twenty one LGAs in the study area were randomly selected. Four villages were randomly selected from each of the selected LGAs to make a total of 20 villages. Ten rural women were randomly selected in each village to make a total of 200 respondents. Pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire were used to obtain information from the randomly selected women. The results of the study showed that rural women are involved in the collection, preparation, dispensing and sale of medicinal plants. Chi-square test (p< 0.05) shows that educational qualification of rural women has a significant association with their involvement in the use of medicinal plants. However chi-square test (p>0.05) shows that the income level of rural women has no significant association with their involvement in the use of medicinal plants. In view of this the following strategies were fashioned out to improve the roles of rural women in the use of medicinal plants in the study area. They include enforcement of improved ethical practices, dissemination of information to medicinal plants practitioners, promoting branding and labeling of medicinal plants and organizing workshops for medicinal plants practitioners.

  249. Kaziba Abdul Mpaata, Bumali Lubogoyi and Umar Kakumba

    The study examined the relationship between supervisory leadership provided by Iganga General Hospital in Uganda and healthcare service delivery. The main objective was to examine the relationship between supervisory leadership practiced in the hospital and perceived healthcare service delivery in Iganga General Hospital. The specific objectives were; (1) to determine the relationship between supervisory leadership and child and maternal healthcare services offered to patients; (2) to analyze the relationship between supervisory leadership and STI/HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis services; and (3) to assess the relationship between supervisory leadership and outpatient curative services. Results revealed that; (1) there is a significant relationship between supervisory leadership and; (i) child healthcare services (r = .374**, p < 0.0001); and (ii) maternal healthcare services (r = .460**, p < 0.0001). Similarly, there is a significant relationship between supervisory leadership and; (i) STI/HIV/AIDS services (r = .349**, p < 0.003); and (ii) tuberculosis services (r = .409**, p < 0.0001). As expected, supervisory leadership associated significantly with outpatient curative services (r = .459**, p < 0.0001). Based on the findings, it was recommended that referral hospitals in Uganda and elsewhere should not neglect the supervisory leadership role emphasized in the human resource management literature to ensure significant service delivery in the various departments and units of such hospitals. In addition, government should motivate the hospital staff so that the supervisory leadership function is demonstrated with confidence and character.

  250. Kaziba Abdul Mpaata, Bumali Lubogoyi and John Charles Okiria

    The study investigated the relationship between the quality assurance function played by UNBS and consumer safety in Kampala, Uganda. The population comprised traders and business owners in the capital city and the sample consisted of business people who had licenses issued by the bureau in the Kikuubo area, where most of the trade for imported and manufactured goods in the city takes place. The specific objectives were; (i) to determine the relationship between standardization requirement by UNBS and consumer safety; (ii) to ascertain the relationship between the traders’ compliance requirement by UNBS and consumer safety; and (iii) to establish the relationship between the enforcement function performed by UNBS and consumer safety. Results revealed that there is a significant and positive relationship between consumer safety and; (1) standardization requirement [r =. 569**, p < 0.0001]; (2) traders’ compliance requirement [r =. 340**, p < 0.004]; and (3) enforcement function [r =. 688**, p < 0.0001]. Regression results however indicated that it is only the enforcement function by UNBS that has a significant and positive effect on consumer safety in the city [β = .776, t = 4.438, p < 0.0001]. It is therefore recommended that UNBS strengthens its strategies to ensure that quality products are on market and that it is not only confiscation of products but that manufacturers take full responsibility for offering substandard products to the customers including a total burn and prosecuting them in the courts of law.

  251. Surega, R. and Baskaran, R.

    Geology and geomorphological map is a very effective tool in management of natural resources and helps in various types of planning and developmental activities. In the present study, geomorphological map for the Thanjavur district was prepared using aerial photographs on 1:50,000 scale, satellite imagery of IRS-ID LISS III false colour composites, generated from bands, 2, 3 and 4 an SOl topographic sheets validated ground truth. Since large part of the study area is inaccessible, remotely sensed data have played an important role in detailed mapping. The study area is mainly underlain by, Precambrian rocks. Quarternary and recent formations are confined mainly to the sedimentary area. The criteria adopted for the identification and grouping of landforms of specific genetic type are the overall underlying geology, geomorphology formation processes, and association of forms. The landform units, each having its own features, were identified under the satellite imagery.

  252. Bonsa Shume and Aschalew Terefe

    Guidance and counseling service has essential role in supporting students take on suitable conduct in the school environment. The purpose of this study was to examine the status of guidance and counseling service in governmental public secondary schools in Ilubabor Zone, Mettu town, Mettu comprehensive and preparatory School in focus. The study employed a descriptive survey design. Target population was 1,375 which comprised of 1,327(Male=726, Female=601) grade 9-12 students and 48(Male=36, Female=12) teachers. From Non-probability sampling design, purposive type was used to select 133 students, 5 teachers and 1 school director. A thematic analysis was done after data’s’ are transcribed and organized into their themes. The result of the study shows that, students encounter diverse academic and psychosocial problems that need the assistance of guidance counselor. Furthermore, the study showed that greater part of the school community are not accessing school guidance and counseling services primarily due to lack of Professional guidance and counseling service provider. The study concluded that guidance and counseling service have scantily contributed to students as a result of lack of professional personnel, inadequate facilities, and ineffective strategies of guidance and counseling were being used in the target school. The study recommended that guidance and counseling service established and strengthened by recruiting professional and facilitating suitable facilities.

  253. Dr. Portia

    The present study aims at identifying the level of stress vulnerability prevalent among student teachers in colleges of education. The researcher followed phenomenological approach to generate data for the dependent variable by adopting a semi-structured interview. She also availed the services of the faculty dealing with the students to provide data for their teaching competence and interactive skills. Statistical techniques such as correlation, multiple regression analysis, and percentile analysis were employed to test the stated hypotheses. The major findings revealed that the student teachers are experiencing a moderate level of stress vulnerability and both teaching competence and interactive skills have emerged as the predictors of their stress vulnerability.

  254. Dr. Jeyashree G. Iyer

    Face to face communication is the primary means of communication. It is older than language itself. Verbal and non verbal communication, the two major ingredients of face to face communication. Messages are interpreted through verbal and non verbal cues. Generally, people focus more on verbal expressions than non verbal communication. But non verbal communication plays a major role in sending and receiving messages. Face to face communication is not simple as it appears to be, it evokes cultural and individual consciousness while exchanging messages and views. The paper attempts to evince the role of cultural relativity, linguistic relativity and impact of technology in face to face to communication. The paper further highlights the need and importance of face to face communication today. Suitable references from select authors are illuminated in the paper to project nuances of face to face communication.

  255. Dr. Parameshwara Naik

    Brick Industry is one of the informal/unorganized industries in India. This industry is booming with the expansion of real estate business. It is a labour intensive industry. The industry employs millions of workers. Sizable portions of the workers are women. They live in rural area and in poverty. At work place, they are exploited, deprived and do not get the status which the men workers enjoy. There are varied natures of problems the women workers are facing now. Their socio-economic conditions cause concerns. In this backdrop, an attempt has been made to ascertain and examine the socio-economic conditions of women workers engaged in brick kiln factories. The data collected in this regard have been interpreted through percentage analysis. The entire gamut of discussion reveals that women workers live in poverty and as a consequence they come to work in brick kilns. They and their children are mostly illiterate. Most of them are migrants and their land holdings are minimal. Their annual incomes are very small. They are not given the scope of doing skilled work. Very often they express dissatisfaction on working environments. Working environment needs to be improved so that workingwomen get motivated and enthused that may result in development of the kilns. Statutory benefits need to be given for their welfare.

  256. Carlos Evelio Lopez Ceballos and Marisol Sanchez Valencia

    The following article analyzes the term renewability or Sustainability through a documentary research of its antecedents. Therefore, it exposes the different conceptions of the term, under the viewpoint of several theorists, as well as the developments obtained by the UN (Organization of the United Nations), in its different assemblies and forums; which demonstrated that sustainability presents a framework of antecedents with proper characteristics of the context, in the different elements which make up the concept of sustainable development.

  257. Dr. Abhijit Das

    The relationship between sports and tourism is most definitely grinning momentum in both industry and academic domain of tourism studies. Sports sociology and sports Anthropology, sports tourism refers to travel which involves either observing or participating in sporting events staying a part from their usual environment. It is a first-growing sector of the global tourism industry and equates to billions of money. To begin with, the article deals briefly with the concepts of sports tourism and describes the current discussion concerning this field. Subsequently theoretical concept with regard to the sports tourism issues and possible impacts is developed. To conclude, the policy issues regarding the participation in sports tourism as well as regarding perspectives of this field are briefly presented.

  258. Gaetano Andreozzi

    In this text I will focus on the study of the city of Aversa, a small town of 53080 citizens situated in the province of Caserta, in the region of Campania. It will be the opportunity to give prominence to a place that has a great artistic, cultural and architectural heritage, too often forgotten. The city is placed in the middle of a flat territory known as “Agro Aversano”, a great rural area of the ancient “Land of work”, also known as “Campania Felix”. The city was given by the count of Naples Sergio IV to the Norman Rainulfo Drengot and it was the first norman county in Italy. It had an interesting territory development thanks to different dominations by the Normans, the Aragonese, the Angioini and the Borbonics. The city had an interesting urbanistic implant, with a radiocentric scheme that connected the preesistent and the new villages into four mural circles inserted into a part of the centuriation of the Ager Campanus. Its artistic heritage has a great monumental relevance. It is currently the second most populous city of the province and the 17th of the region.

  259. : Dr. Saro j Kumar Singh

    Excess use of arsenic in drinking water over prolonged period leads to primary, secondary, and tertiary health impacts. Around forty percent of the district of Bihar is having arsenic in its groundwater. The causes of arsenic contamination are mostly through geogenic channel. The agricultural activity is being hampered due to decline in soil fertility, productivity, and, nuisance of food chain problem. Social problems like depression, suicidal tendency, and social ignorance are common, and, therefore, hinder the social and economic activity to the affected person. The majority of the population residing in the arsenic prone belt is from low income and is not aware about the problems of the arsenic menace. The challenges are on the mitigation (at macro) and adaptation (micro and macro) activity. Therefore both short and long-term mitigation strategy is needed.

  260. Dr. D.R. Bajwa

    Though the Internet provides a new means for conducting business but fundamental of doing business remain unchanged. The present study has designed to examine the marketing strategy on internet. For this purpose, it says that by integrating the Internet technology into the marketing strategy, business firms will be able to use the Internet as a tool to gain competitive advantage, this article explains Internet marketing mix, which consists five P’s: product, price, promotion, place and personalization. The concept of marketing has not changed in essential has a result of using the Internet as a new marketing channel but Internet offers an unlimited opportunity for business. Internet marketing goes beyond banner advertising and e-mail marketing. It includes all the activity aimed at creating a distinct niche for the business like segmentation, differentiation etc.

  261. Dr. Saro j Kumar Singh

    Education plays a vital role in the development of any nation. Higher education is a powerful instrument for creating knowledge and information based society. The mission and vision of higher education is to educate, train, and undertake research activities and service to the community. Higher education is nothing but production and dissemination of knowledge. Therefore, the higher education is to be the best on both quantity and quality. Improving the quality and achieving excellence in teaching, examination, research and extension is the greatest challenge faced by all Higher Educational Institutions today. No educational institution can progress without quality. Accreditation is a body established by the University Grants Commission of India to assess and accredit institutions of higher education in the country. It is an outcome of the recommendations of the National Policy in Education that laid special emphasis on upholding the quality of higher education in India. For India today, quality in higher education is a key priority. In addition, this must be achieved keeping in mind the issues of relevance, cost, equity, and international standards. NAAC’s assessment can judge the quality of a college or a university, and it is has led to the academic upliftment and qualitative up gradation in the colleges.

  262. Heidi Salinas-Padilla and Silvia Solis-Falcon

    Dropping out is a phenomenon presented at different educational levels that make up the National Education System in Mexico. The economic factor is one of the main causes contributing dropping outs. As a result, this research’s main goal has to do with analyzing economic aspects as the main factor that contributes to dropping outs at upper levels in the Faculty of Educational Sciences in the Universidad Autónoma del Carmen, in the municipality of Carmen, Campeche, Mexico.

  263. Sevdali Zejnullahu and Andi Duraj

    Albanian customary law includes the entirety of unwritten norms and rules, passed over generations, which have regulated social relations in a range of provinces of Albania. Albanian customary law is one of the oldest laws, which has also influenced the development and formation of later justice in the Albanian state. The Albanian customary law is divided into several codes (kanuns), the most well-known is the Code of Lekë Dugagjini, the Code of Skanderbeg, etc. If these Codes (kanuns) are analyzed, which are a part of the Albanian customary law, it emerges that they have dealt with topics that still represent an area of interest for foreign and local researchers for our society. Termination of pregnancy or abortion, is today one of the worrying phenomena that human society is facing. Therefore, in this paper, will be addressed the issue of abortion within the framework of Albanian customary law, with particular emphasis on the Code of Lekë Dukagjini and the Code of Skanderbeg.

  264. Parth Agrawal

    Water scarcity is an everyday problem in the city of Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India, and it greatly intensifies during the summers. The present survey was performed to understand the level of public awareness and the general perception of the residents of Gwalior with regard to water as a resource today and in future. A questionnaire comprising of 30 questions was given to the respondents to generate qualitative and quantitative data. The questions also asked for demographic background including age, gender, education and monthly income. The survey was conducted from April 2017 to June 2017. Out of 120 respondents, 100 (83.33%) completed the survey. Maximum participants were male (65%), belonging to 31-40 years of age group (60%), 54% were 12th pass and 30% were house wives. Most of them believed that water supply is the government responsibility (82%). Maximum participants consumed 50-100 liters of water daily (56%). A significant fraction was not serious about the scarcity of water (32%), though the majority of them believed that water should be conserved for future generation (54%). Maximum participants perceived water as a human right (43%). To conclude, water needs to be considered as important part of life and methods to conserve water in our area must be adopted that can prevent water shortage mainly in summer.

  265. Gulshan Ara

    Railway as a mean of transport and communication played an important role in the developmental process of the society whether it is social or economic. It alters the travel habit of people, increase connectivity and accessibility; generate employment, tourism development and so on. Railway as an agency of development played an important role in the development of the tourism. Tourism is a largest growing industry in the world and had important connection with transport. As the State of Jammu and Kashmir is famous for touristic destination. Kashmir is known as paradise on earth as there is lot of tourist spot. The coming of railway made the travel easy, comfortable and affordable. Railway not only helps in increasing tourism in Kashmir, it had also leaded to the social, economic and cultural development of the society. It not only provide all weather connectivity to the state but it can help the breakdown of the land locked position, promote integration, and increases interaction among the people of diverse background and location and the Railway dawn has touched the marginalized areas and section of the society in J&K and is set to have long term impact. The present paper study the role of railway in the tourism development in Kashmir valley and how it lead to the social, economic and cultural development of the Kashmiri society. The sources of data collection are both primary and secondary.

  266. Dr. Saro j Kumar Singh

    The predominantly paper based erstwhile environment all these contents were put tosimilar types of use, and copyright restrictions were imposed based on the quantum ofpages copied etc. In the electronic and digital perspective, owners of information areresorting to punitive measures regarding the use and contents in digital form. Some ofthe constraints faced by our libraries to engage in serious digital initiatives are three fold- that of money, manpower and contents. Most of our libraries, particularly in the highereducation and research institutes solely depend on the information providers andpublishers in the developed world to satisfy their urge for vital contents that inspireindigenous research. Since contents are a major ingredient in digital librarydevelopment, the pragmatic and viable way out for libraries is to judiciously judge themas available in electronic forms in optical media or on Web and procure at least some ofthem for hosting locally. This paper presents some of the major issues involved in such acritical activity with some illustrative examples available like IEE/IEEE ElectronicLibrary, Indian Standards on CD-ROM, Science Direct, and Web access of IndianAcademy of Sciences journals. The justification for selecting external contents has alsobeen mentioned. A detailed checklist for evaluating contents is presented from variousangles, like authenticity of content, user interface, search and display capabilities,documentation and technical support, and Media dependent features.

  267. Dr. Saro j Kumar Singh

    Water scarcity is possibly to pose the greatest challenge because of its increased demand coupled with shrinking supplies due to over utilization and pollution. Water is a cyclic resource with abundant supplies on the globe. Approximately, 71 per cent of the earth’s surface is covered with it but fresh water constitutes only about 3 per cent of the total water. In fact, a very small proportion of fresh water is effectively available for human use. The availability of fresh water varies over space and time. The tensions and disputes on sharing and control of this scare resource are becoming contested issues among communities, regions, and states. The assessment, efficient use, and conservation of water, therefore, become necessary to ensure development. In this chapter, we shall discuss water resources in India, its geographical distribution, sectoral utilization, and methods of its conservation and management.

  268. Jayagandhi, T. and Dr. Suganthi, M.

    This study has been conducted to examine the mental maturity and self-actualization on teaching competency of second year D.T.Ed., students. Totally 72 teacher trainees has been taken from District Institute of Education and Training in Madurai district. The random sampling technique was used in this study. Self-actualization inventory was developed by Wilsow and Kneisl, (1983), mental maturity and teaching competency questionnaire prepared by the investigators were used in this study. Survey method was employed in this study. The data was analyzed statistically by using mean, standard deviation,‘t’ test and correlation coefficient. This study revealed that “most of the students in DIET have moderate level of mental maturity, self-actualization and teaching competency. Also this study revealed that there is significant difference between the mean scores of self-actualization of second year D.T.Ed. students with respect to locality, but there is no significant difference in the mean scores of mental maturity and teaching competency with reference to locality. Also, there is no significant difference in the mean scores of self-actualization, mental maturity and teaching competency of second year D.T.Ed., students with respect to gender, age, marital status, staying, parents educational qualification, parents annual income and newspaper reading. Researchers found that “there is a positive correlation among mental maturity, self-actualization and teaching competency of second year D.T.Ed. students but mental maturity and teaching competency have low correlation between them. From the findings of this research, researchers concluded that it is necessary to develop mental maturity, self-actualization and teaching competency among second year D.T.Ed., students. Also, it is the duty of our teacher educators nurtures the teacher trainees to improve their mental maturity and self-actualization which influences teaching competency.

  269. Hellen Adhiambo Ahawo and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    The government of Kenya in partnership with religious sponsors, parents, politicians, Board of management and principals provide financial, human and physical resources to enhance education of girls and boys in schools. However with all these measures in place, girls in Siaya County schools performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education was generally low compared to national where few girls have featured in 100 best students. For the last four years in Siaya County the performance has been average with mean scores of 6.21, 6.90, 6.05 and 6.80 for the years 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 compared to the boys schools mean scores of 7.73, 7.73, 7.56 and 8.27 for the same period. What was unknown was the contribution of stakeholders to the provision of quality education to girls in public secondary schools in Kenya. The purpose of the study was to establish contribution of stakeholders to motivation of teachers and students in enhancement of quality education for girls’ in secondary schools in Siaya County. A conceptual framework showing the relationship between independent variables (contribution of stakeholders) and dependent variables (motivation was used to guide the study). The study used descriptive survey design. The study population was 155 consisting of principals, Deputy Principals, Directors of Studies, Board of management chairpersons, Parents Teachers Association rents Teachers Association chairpersons, Sub County Quality Assurance and Standards Officers and Church Education Secretaries. Data was collected using questionnaires and interview schedules. Validity of the instruments was determined by experts in Educational Administration. Reliability of the instruments was determined by test re-test method and Pearson’s r coefficients were .78 and .81 for principals and form four class teachers at p- value of .05. Data collected by questionnaire was analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, means and t-test. Quantitative data was analyzed using percentages, means and t-test. Qualitative data from interviews and open ended questions was transcribed, analyzed and reported in emergent themes and sub themes. The study established that Principals and Board of Managements contributed highly to motivation of teachers and students as signified by means of 4.02 and 3.70 respectively. The study recommended that all stakeholders should improve on their contributions to enhance the girls’ academic achievement. The findings of this study are significant to stakeholders in education by improving them in areas that require doubling their efforts for meaningful contributions.

  270. Enose M.W. Simatwa and Hellen Adhiambo Ahawo

    The government of Kenya in Parents Teachers Association partnership with religious sponsors, Parents Teachers Association, politicians, Board of Management and principals provide financial, human and physical resources to enhance education of girls and boys in schools. However with all these measures in place, girls in Siaya County schools performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Examinations was generally low compared to national where few girls have featured in 100 best students. For the last four years in Siaya County the performance has been average with mean scores of 6.21, 6.90, 6.05 and 6.80 for the years 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 compared to the boys schools mean scores of 7.73, 7.73, 7.56 and 8.27 for the same period. The objective of this study was to establish contribution of education stakeholders to school quality leadership in the provision of quality education to girls in public secondary schools in Siaya County. A conceptual framework showing the relationship between independent variables (contribution of stakeholders) and dependent variables (quality leadership was used to guide the study). The study used descriptive survey design. The study population was 155 consisting of principals, Deputy Principals, Directors of Studies, Board of Management chairpersons, Parents Teachers Association rents Teachers Association chairpersons, Sub County Quality Assurance and Standards Officers and Church Education Secretaries. Quantitative data was analyzed using percentages, means and t-test. Qualitative data from interviews and open ended questions was transcribed, analyzed and reported in emergent themes and sub themes according to objectives of the study. The study established that the principals and Board of Managements contributed highly to schools’ quality leadership as indicated by means of 4.17 and 3.60 respectively. The areas of contribution included conflict resolution, team teaching and guidance and counseling services. The study recommended that all stakeholders should improve on their contributions to enhance the girls’ academic achievement.

  271. Fadhil F. Al-khudhir, Shouwei Yue, Tareq F. Al-khudhir and Wang Yonghui

    Objective: To assess the effect of rehabilitation treatment on the sports function of patients with the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Method: The author employs a randomized controlled approach with six months follow up Subjects: 30 patients within the age range of 02- to 54 Intervention: The experiment consisted of two groups: One group was involved in post-operative rehabilitation protocol while the other acted as control with traditional protocol. The patients were subjected to the experiment protocol for a maximum of one hour alongside medical treatment. Results: Preliminary results indicate that the use of post-operative rehabilitation protocol was more effective when compared to the use of conventional treatments approaches. Despite the fact that neuromuscular interventions have no likelihood of harming patients, they also have a low like hood of yielding larger improvements in the final outcomes. After the 6 weeks intervention moment, patients who were subjected to rehabilitation exercises exhibited a high level of contraction torques with normalized voluntary maximal (P = .003, Cohn d effect size =1,3).on the other hand, the contraction torques for those who only used their regular regimen were lower (P = .16, d = 0.59) as well as those taking post-operative rehabilitation exercises alone (P = .15, d = 0.31) Conclusion: Generally, patients with knee injuries who were subjected to post-operative exercises experienced greater gains compared with those who only used medication.

  272. Jean Florent Romaric GNAYORO

    En guise d’illustration de jeux d’argent, il en existe une panoplie dont la roulette, notamment mentionnée dans Le Joueurde Fiodor Dostoïevski. Dans cette œuvre, le personnage principal, Alexeï, expose un revers de situation, occasionné par son addiction au jeu. Cela étant, il perdra à bien d’occasions ses gains, n’ayant pas su s’arrêter à temps. Dostoïevski présente ainsi les tensions qui habitent les joueurs de roulette, qui motivés par l’appât du gain, peuvent en de brefs instants gagner ou perdre des sommes colossales. Il dévoile également la sensation du goût du risque, de même que les joueurs invétérés pourqui rien ne démord, au point qu’ils ne peuvent s’arrêter malgré eux, qu’au moment crucial, lorsqu’ils ont tout perdu.

  273. Prof. Niharika Mishra

    Wood biomass is an important item in development strategies of developed and environmentally aware societies as a renewable and environmentally friendly source of energy. However the knowledge and expertise of the essential parameters regarding this source is scarce. In nature, all biomass eventually decomposes to its elementary molecules with the release of heat. Therefore, the release of energy from the conversion of biomass into useful energy imitates natural processes (but at a faster rate), and this energy is a form of renewable energy. Converting biomass to fuel can be as simple as cutting trees into small pieces so they can be burned to produce heat or electricity, or as complicated as converting it into a liquid or gaseous fuel. Firewood is a local and renewable energy source. Its carbon balance is neutral; therefore it does not increase greenhouse effect and its local character adds to the sustainability issue. These facts make it a good option for heating. However, firewood market has not been deeply analyzed in relation to a renewable energy market and energy market in general partly also because of the lack of data. In general, there is not much information about this sector available. Furthermore, the grey market of firewood makes a study on it even more difficult, consumption in rural areas, which is the most important one, is very difficult to assess. This study throws light on the comparative analysis of economic and environmental aspects of biomass briquettes vis-à-vis firewood/root stock as boiler fuels.

  274. Mohammad Nezam Uddin, Sujat Paul, Sattar, M.A., Golam Faruk, Anwarul Kibria, Mohiuddin Mohammad Alamgir, Rajat Sanker Roy Biswas, Mohammed Rezaul Karim, Kamrul Hasan Lohani, Ratan Kumar Nath and Mizanur Rahman

    Rheumatoid Arthritis is a severe, progressive, systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by chronic and erosive polyarthritis by abnormal growth of synovial tissue or pannus and causes irreversible joint disability. The diagnosis of RA, particularly early in the course of disease is empirical and imprecise. A study was carried out on 100 patients who were presented with polyarthritis within one year of presentation. The patients were divided into two groups. 50 patients who fulfilled the ARA criteria for RA were included in Group A. Again 50 patients who had polyarthritis but not fulfilled the ARA criteria were included in Group B. The patients were evaluated clinically and investigated. The anti CCP antibody was analyzed in relation with its sensitivity and specificity and also with different activity markers of RA. It was found that the specificity and sensitivity of Anti CCP was 86% and 64% respectively in early presentation of RA. The activity marker of RA were significantly correlated (DAS 28 score r=0.912; CRP, r=0.323; and VAS, r=0.382) with the increasing titre of Anti CCP (p<0.01). ESR were not correlated with the increasing titre of anti-CCP levels (r=0.016, p>0.05). Anti – CCP has high specificity and moderate sensitivity in the early presentation of RA. So it can be used as a reliable serological marker for early diagnosis of RA. The increasing titre also significantly correlated with increasing disease activity markers. So anti-CCP can be used as a reliable serological marker for early diagnosis and assessment of disease severity.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari