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January 2020

  1. Tadelech Woldekidan and Mesfin Tebeje

    The majority of Ethiopia’s farmers have been using the traditional way of agricultural practices. This has contributed to the low productivity of the agricultural sector both for crops as well as livestock sectors. The Objectives of the study were to identify factors affecting the adoption of improved chicken packages and analyze the existing conditions. A total of 123 respondents were selected by a simple random sampling technique and interviewed using an interview schedule and checklists. Inferential statistics such as chi-square test and t-test, and binary logistic regression were employed to analyze the data. The result of cross-tabulation with chi-square test and mean comparison with t-test show that age, education status, farm size, livestock holding, access to credit and contact of extension agents have significantly associated with the adoption of improved chicken packages. Also, the result of the binary logistic regression analysis revealed that age, education status, farming experience, distance to market and access to credit have a significant relation with the adoption of improved chicken packages which are considered as determinants of adoption of improved chicken packages. It can be concluded that to increase and improve the adoption of improved chicken packages some crucial steps in improving the education status of households and facilitating access to credit from concerned bodies should be taken into consideration.

  2. Hugo Agüero, 2Nancy Cuenca, Eliana Castañeda and Carmen Layme

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of public policies against trafficking in persons in the Madre de Dios district. The current of thought that guided the research was the paradigm is interpretive, with a qualitative approach and design of evaluative cases; Information gathering was done through interviews with social actors that are related to the problem, documentary review and participant observation. From the evidence found, it is determined that public policies and management by national, regional and district government bodies to eradicate trafficking in persons in the form of sexual exploitation have not been efficient in the period 2011 - 2016. The factors that affect policy compliance were determined to be: geographical, political, socioeconomic, communication and human.

  3. Maja Roje Novak, M.D., M.S.

    Introduction: There are currently no approved pharmacological therapies for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), prompting nearly half of patients or their carers to seek complementary and alternative medicine approaches. There is now compelling clinical and basic scientific evidence that megavitamin therapy can help relieve the core symptoms of ASD, perhaps by modulating cellular energy metabolism and oxidative stress. While many patients also use homeopathic preparations, there are very little data on their efficacy. Case presentation: Based on these data and underlying rationale, a new integrative medicine approach was designed for ASD that combined parenteral B and C megavitamin therapy and a complex homeopathic preparation designed to target the core features of ASD pathobiology. The approach was tested in three young children with ASD, all of whom exhibited a significant increase in their spoken vocabulary and a noticeable improvement in interaction skills after three months of therapy. Discussion: This is only the third report of the use of a homeopathic preparation is ASD and the first report of its rational combination with megavitamins. The impressive symptom resolution and absence of side-effects seen here suggest that this integrative medicine approach is a promising intervention for children with ASD and should be further studied in larger clinical cohorts.

  4. Dr. Harshadkumar P. Patel

    Background: To increase The reaction of Ethyl 5-(morpholinomethyl) furan-2-carboxylate with 4-amino salicylic acid afford a of 2-Hydroxy-4-(5-(morpholinomethyl)) furan-2-carboxamido)benzoic acid (MPFSA).. The transition metal complexes of Cu2+,Co2+ ,Ni2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ of MPFSA have been prepared. The objective of the research work is synthesis, characterization and chelating properties of furan ring containing organic ligands to monitor its antimicrobial activity. MPFSA and all the metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, spectral studies, magnetic moment determination, molar conductivity measurement. The free ligand and it’s complexes have been tested for their antibacterial activities against two types of human pathogenic bacteria the first group is gram positive while the second group is gram negative (by using agar well diffusion method). Finally, it was found that compounds show different activity of inhibition on growth of the bacteria. The conclusion is Ni(II) Cu(II) ,Co(II) and Mn(II) complexes possess octahedral geometry around the central metal ion.

  5. Abbati, Mohammed Alhaji, Usman, Umar Faruk and Alkali, Alhassan

    Abundance and distribution of Macroinvertebrate of Lande Stream, Tumu,Gombe State were evaluated. Three sampling sites (A, B, and C) were selected. Macro invertebrates sampled fortnightly for three months (September-November, 2019). The collected Macro invertebrates were identified using taxonomic keys. Simpson’s index was employed to determine the abundance in each sampling station.The results showed a total of 189 individual species of Macroinvertebrate in 7family among the five invertebrates taxa of Plecoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Odonata and Mollusca. The taxa abundance of LandeStream arranged in descending trend as Mollusca> Odonata> Coleoptera> Hemiptera>Plecoptera with respective total invertebrates values of 37.73%, 25.4%, 20.63%, 8.47% and 7.94%. The Simpson’s Species diversity index for the three sampling stations of A, B and C were 0.922, 0.9004 and 0.8613 respectively (Table 2, Figure 5) while the Dominance index of A, B and C were 0.078, 0.0996 and 0.1387 respectively. The Macro invertebrate abundance and distribution observed in this study showed Lande Stream can support the survival, growth and reproduction of organisms and has a potential for broaden ecological studies.

  6. Jyatinkumar. H. Solanki

    A series of 2-azetidinone and 4- thiazolidinone derivatives having piperazine moiety have been prepared to evaluate the anti-tuberculosis activity. Various Schiff bases have been prepared from N-ethylpiperazine on condensation with p-chloroaniline in absolute alcohol in presence of K2CO3 and subsequent reaction with various aldehydes (4a-4j).These Schiff bases on cyclocondensation with thioglycolic acid in 1,4-dioaxne gave 4-thiozolidinones (5a-5j). Similarly, Schiff Bases (4a-4j) on cyclocondensation with chloroacetic acid in presence of triethyl amine gave the 2-azetidinones (6a-6j).

  7. Ms. Jinapriya, S.

    Learning has been a recurrent and inseparable activity of human being since ever. People have been inventing and discovering various methods and techniques to improve its acquisition process and ways. One’s progress and development has always been evolutionary as regards to learning versatility. One has come to know various tactics, techniques and technologies according to the developing circumstances. Science and technology changes the whole internal mindset as well as external perspective. Computer changes the whole scenario. Machine learning is one of the most exciting recent technologies in Artificial Intelligence. Learning algorithms in many applications that’s we make use of daily. Every time a web search engine like Google or Bing is used to search the internet, one of the reasons that works so well is because a learning algorithm, one implemented by Google or Microsoft, has learned how to rank web pages. Every time Facebook is used and it recognizes friends' photos, that's also machine learning. Spam filters in email saves the user from having to wade through tons of spam email, that's also a learning algorithm. In this paper, a brief review and future prospect of the vast applications of machine learning has been made.

  8. Beddou. G, Mouamine. M, Bahri. R, Abassi. S, Chellak. S, Boukhira. A

    Introduction: Bacterial infectious diseases in the elderly range of patients have a diagnostic problem that contribute to inadequate prescription of antibiotics (over-prescription or under-prescription) which can increase the mortality rate in this population. The C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) have been developed to differentiate bacterial infections from other causes of inflammation and remain the most used parameters in this population. The aim of our work is to determine in this age range the added value of PCT and CRP for the diagnosis of infection requiring antibiotic therapy. Patients and methods: All patients admitted consecutively to the emergency department in the Avicenne Military Hospital in Marrakech and aged over 75 years over a period of 6 months were included (patients receiving antibiotics for more than 24 hours were excluded). On admission, demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and general signs (respiratory rate, temperature, pulse rate, confusion, falls, chills) were recorded and a biological assessment was carried out containing (PCT, CRP, leukocytes, albumin, urea and creatinine) and recorded for each patient. The PCT (measured using an immunoluminometric method) and CRP were found to be positive when they were ≥ 0.5 ng / mL and ≥3 mg / L respectively. Patients with SIRS (inflammatory systemic response syndrome) have been reported. Septic status, severe sepsis and septic shock present on admission have also been reported. The patients were classified as infected or not infected. Results: 153 patients were included in the study, of which 98 were women and 55 were men. The average age was 83.1 years (± 4.2). On interrogation 29% had end-stage chronic renal failure, 30% had diabetes, 49% had hypertension 31% had dementia, 20% were followed for tumor pathology, and 10% were followed for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The average of the results of the assessment was as follows: CRP = 32.9 ± 61.1 mg / L, albumin = 30.9 ± 5.2g / L, the calculated creatinine clearance was 41.1 ± 21 , 1 ml / min. PCT was positive in 15% of cases and CRP in 69.0% of patients. SIRS was present in 50 patients (32%), sepsis in 22 cases (14.4%) and severe sepsis in 14 cases (9%); but no septic shock was found on admission. Fifty nine per cent of patients were hospitalized, 61% of whom were in intensive care. The most frequently used diagnoses are: pneumonia (19.3%), heart failure (9.0%), falls with head trauma (5.5%), fractures (16.6%) and infection of the upper urinary tract (5.5%). A total of 53 cases of infections were diagnosed and distributed as follows: 24 pneumonias (45%), 9 cases of upper urinary tract infections (17%), 5 cases of miliary tuberculosis (10%), 7 cases of cellulitis ( 13%), 2 cases of endocarditis (4%) and 6 cases of deep abscess (11%). PCT had good specificity (96%) but low sensitivity (26%), with a negative predictive value and positive non-discriminatory predictive value (83% and 57%, respectively). Univariate use of logistic regression has shown that the presence of sepsis on admission was the best predictor of infection. However, PCT (> 0.5 ng / ml), the presence of SIRS, of temperature above 38 ° C or below 36 ° C and CRP (3 mg / L) have also been associated with the infection, but in the multivariate analysis, only sepsis and CRP positive were always associated with the infection Conclusion: The PCT can be useful for identifying seriously ill elderly patients but not for distinguishing between infected and non-infected patients.

  9. Anu Saini, Dr. Kalyani Nanaji Umate, Gugulothu Ramesh and Jadhav Suchita Tanajirav

    In Ayurveda, Tridosha is a unique concept and has summarized all the bodily functions and phenomenons in three biological entities called Vata, Pitta, Kapha. Doshas are considered as forces or entities which cannot be equated with specific cell type, organ, biological system or signaling pathway. Among Tridosha, Vata is undoubtedly the most fundamental and crucial Dosha for survival. It is derived from the root word ‘Gati’ means movement and ‘Gandhaya’ means senses, knowledge perception. Among five types of Vata, Prana Vata is of utmost importance as it functions for sustainance of life (Prana). The general function of Vata as ‘Tantra Yantra Dhara’ mentioned in Charaka can be attributed to Prana Vata as it is Harshotsaaha Yoni, helps in Sarvendriya Udyoga and is Shareerasya Pravartaka. It is written that the seats of Prana Vayu are Murdha, Urah which moves in Kantha, Jihwa, Asya and Nasika and supports Buddhi (intelligence and judgement), Hridya ( heart) and Chitta (mind). Having seated in above locations they do the functions of Drik, Stheevana, Kshavathu, Udgara, Nishvasa and Annapravesha .If we compare it to modern science, Murdha(head) refers to the brain and brainstem which controls all these functions. Anna Pravesha(Deglutition) as very much needed step in Ahara Pachan is conducted by Prana vayu. Acharya Charaka in Grahnidosha Adhayaya mentioned that PranaVayu takes food from mouth to stomach that is nearer to the Jathragni for digestion. Control center of swallowing of medulla oblongata can be related to Anna Pravesha function of PranaVayu. In this article, an effort has been made to review physiological functions of PranaVayu with special reference to neurophysiology involved in AnnaPravesha (deglutition) for better understanding of Ayurveda with contemporary science which is need of the present era.

  10. Zilpah Andiva Kageha

    The implementation of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001:2008 Quality Management System (QMS) in education is a matter highly debated trend on whether or not the certification is appropriate for the Education sector. Some scholars consider its adoption as a strategic decision by educational institutions to ensure delivery of quality service therein while others do not. Complaints by some academic staff and students in public universities in Kenya on the impact of ISO 9001:2008 QMS casts doubt on their level of satisfaction with it based on non conformities. For instance between 2012 and 2015 one university recorded 5310 non-conformities and another one recorded 5340 non-conformities which were higher than the other 12 Universities that recorded below 3940 non-conformities in provision of quality service delivery in public universities. In terms of the impact of ISO 9001:2008 QMS on academic staff’s service delivery in curriculum review in public universities, the non conformities recorded in one of the universities were 280 and the other 270 being higher than the non conformities recorded in the rest of the other universities for the period 2012 to 2015 in Kenya. The objective of the study was to establish the influence of ISO 9001:2008 QMS on curriculum review in public Universities. The study established that ISO 9001:2008 QMS had significant influence on curriculum review such that for every one unit increase in ISO 9001:2008 QMS conformities in curriculum review, improved academic staff’s service delivery by .479 units. In effect ISO 9001:2008 QMS accounted for 7.6% of the improvement in the curriculum review in public universities as was signified by the Adjusted R square coefficient .076. The other 92.4% was due to other factors that were not subject to this study. This means that when non conformities decline there is improvement in academic staff’s service delivery in curriculum review in public universities. ISO 9001:2008 QMS was a significant predictor of academic staff’s service delivery in curriculum review (F (1,252) = 6.085, P<.05). The study concluded that ISO 9001:2008 QMS improved service delivery in curriculum review in public universities. The study recommended that public universities should strive to minimize non conformities for excellent service delivery. This study provides information to lecturers, Kenya Bureau of Standards and university management on the way forward in improving the curriculum review in public universities.

  11. Raiz Ahmed

    Agriculture is one of the primary sources in Jammu and Kashmir for the development of the economy. Jammu and Kashmir have a sole feature in the agricultural and prevalence of homestead and crop cultivation, etc. Women play a vital role in farm activities in Tehsil Surankote of District Poonch. A study has been conducted in the three villages of Surankote block namely Dandi Dhara, Gunthal and Sangla with an aim to know the woman involvement and participations in the agricultural activity and various problems related to it. Women take part in various activities such as rice cultivation, wheat cultivation, maize cultivation, horticulture, handicraft, sericulture, fisheries, seed cleaning, sowing, harvesting, transporting, watering, fodder cutting, cleaning of animal shed etc. The information is collected from 150 households in three villages with the help of multi-stage sampling. A woman has an equal opportunity, capabilities, and creation of resources in the area. This paper also analyses agricultural effect on the health of the women due to the workload and extreme weather conditions. They suffer from different ailments and diseases such as headache, back pain, body pain and vision problem. A woman performs multiple responsibilities in the society; of social work, of cultural activities, of domestic work and work in the field for agricultural purposes. Most of the women are associated with onion production and milk production and their export in the market because they are very poor and have a low income. A women's participation in villages is compared and equalled to man, and they have a right to the cultivation of different crops. The concentration of women in Poonch is very large. They engage themselves with different agricultural and farm activities.

  12. Bhoje P. M., Bhusnar A. R. and Charaple K. M

    Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious(Peter and Davide 1092) larval parasitoid of a Cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata Fabircius ( Lepidoptera: Cranmbidae),which is serious pest of flower and pods of cowpea Vigna unguiculata Walp( Lieguminosae: Fabaceae). However, some reports about A. taragamae specified that it parasitized five other Pyraloidea species (Peter and Divide 1992; Mohan and Sathiamma 2007) in India. The larvae of most pyraloidea species feed on living plants both internally or externally as leaf rollers, leaf webbers, leaf miners, borers, root feeders, and seed feeders A. taragamae show non distractive host feeding habits, means that host used for feeding by adult A. taragame is different than host used for oviposition. It utilizes two different kind of host for completion of life cycle, Infestation at rate of one M.vitrata larva in cowpea plants can cause 10%yield loss. Leberton, Labarussuas, C. Chevrier and Darrouzet) A. taragame has been identified as promising agent for biological control of M. vitrata. Reproductive potential of A.taragamae was studied with respect to age of it’s host. Age group 3-12 day old were susceptible for progeny production, 8 day old host larvae subjected to victimized at maximum, 70-50% parasitization. While, 1 to 2 day old and 13 to 18 day old hosts remained un-parasitized. The study conducted at laboratory conditions [24 +/-1”C, 55-60% R.H., 12 hr. photoperiod], by above experiment we conclude that A. taragame will be helpful for biological control of M. vitrata

  13. Kotagiri Ravikanth, Anirudh Sharma, Deepak Thakur and Pushap Lata

    The axial aim of this study is to create a valuable Risk Management Approach that enables a Process Validation over products lifecycle. Quality risk management has been described in regulatory guidance for several aspects of process validation, such as product lifecycle, extent of validation, determination of critical quality attributes, critical process parameters, process design space, sampling plans and statistical confidence levels. Verification of the process in every single produced batch over the product life time is now an expectation from regulatory authorities. In accordance to this Ayurvet Limited has compulsory adopted Process Validation as collection and evaluation of data, from the process design phase, commercial production phase, establishing scientific evidence that a process is in state of control and therefore capable of consistently and effectively assure product quality. Since Herbal formulations and processes are complex and multivariate by nature, a scientific understanding of relevant multi-factorial relationships requires risk-based approach. In this context, planned changes to the facilities, equipment, utilities and processes, which may affect the quality of the product, are formally documented and the impact on the validated status or control strategy assessed. Validation study inevitably leads to process optimization, better productivity and lower manufacturing cost. It is implicit that a robust product development process is in place to enable successful process validation. The aim was successfully achieved on Superliv DS Premix formulation, and a systematic approach that enables process validation study for the assessment, control, communication and review of risks, targeting the highest quality of herbal formulations is now available to be applied - Ayurvet Limited Process Validation Program.

  14. Richard Okero John Kipruto and Nicholas langat

    This study investigated influence of behavior modification techniques of shaping as employed by teachers in dealing with students’ bullying, drug abuse and exam cheating in public secondary schools in Kenya. The design of this study was survey. This study employed Skinner’s behavior modification theory which advocates positive reinforcement as form of modifying behaviors. Mixed methods approach was used. The study population comprised 520 teachers from a total number of 52 public secondary schools in Bureti Sub County of Kericho County. Krejcie and Morgan sample size determination table and Simple random sampling were used to select 18 public secondary schools. From each randomly selected school 18 deputy principals and 180 teachers were involved. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study, and questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. Data collected was analyzed using mean, frequencies, standard deviation and ANOVA for the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The output presented on tables, frequencies and percentages. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic framework. The study findings revealed that behavior modification techniques used were shaping, token economy and praise techniques. The null hypotheses were rejected. Further shaping techniques was effective in influencing drug abuse, bullying and exam cheating behaviors among students. The study recommended that the Ministry of Education Science and Technology should organize Workshops and seminars to equip teachers with more knowledge on use of behavior modification techniques especially shaping techniques that use positive reinforcement.

  15. Sidi Bouhamady, Mouhamadou THIAM, Hoavo Hova, Mohamed Lemine Hamza and Ibrahima Ly

    The objective of this article is to make the design and the validation of a solar mill for rural use. Based on the operating principle of the solar hammer mill, a transmission tree was being created, modeled and dimensioned. The tree behavior is obtained by analyzing its operation in all cases of possible load. The design and dimensioning were carried out based on analytical and empirical equations such as the ASME code. Five diameters (8 mm, 15 mm, 25 mm, 35 mm and 50 mm) wereevaluated according to different types of materials. The evaluation of the type of tree materials has optimized its weight from 40% to 70%.CATIA logical via the method by Finite Element Analysis was used to construct the three-dimensional model and realize the dynamic simulation of the mechanism. The optimal choice of diameter 25 mm of material 4 CD 16 was made because of a good compromise of resistance-weight. These results indicate that the maximum equivalent von Mises stress is of the order 39.4 MPa with a maximum value of the static deformation is of the order of 1.25 E-02 mm.

  16. Kilton Renan Alves Pereira, Emerson dos Santos Silva, Larissa Fernandes Queiroz, Marcos Antonio de Melo Duarte, Ivo Reis dos Santos, Frankly Alexandre de Sousa, Fernando Dantas de Santana Junior, Francielle Cristine Pereira Gonçalves, Elano Costa Silva

    Produced Water (PW) and drilling gravel are tailings from the oil industry, and their management and treatment represent a key challenge for the oil industry. The literature reports numerous physicochemical techniques for the treatment of PW, and the adsorption process is the most attractive when removing traces of toxic metals present in this effluent, mainly due to its low cost, high selectivity and fast adsorption kinetics. The objective of this work was to optimize the adsorption process of bivalent copper ions in aqueous medium in the drilling cutting ash (DCA) from the surface response methodology. Adsorption assays were conducted in batch, under parameters (Adsorbent Mass, Initial Adsorbate Concentration) and predetermined operating conditions (stirring speed, temperature, pH, contact time and volume of synthetic solution). Based on the results of removal efficiency (87 to 100%) and adsorption capacity (divalent copper), a factorial design was performed using Statistica 7.0 software, evaluating the interaction of the adsorptive process parameters and their effects on the obtained results. And from the response surfaces for each parameter, it can be observed that for any DCA mass range (g) high levels of removal efficiency of bivalent copper ions were obtained, as well as high adsorption capacity for these metals. The results show that drilling cutting ash becomes a promising material for use in adsorptive processes in the treatment of produced water from oil fields.

  17. Arulmani, J., Akram Javith, A., Navarasan, M., Sherif Afridi, B. and Pirudhiviraj, V.

    Hydrogen have the potential that can replace fossil fuels which is the primary source of environmental pollution. Hydrogen should be stored in high pressure reservoirs for any practical purpose. In this work hydrogen leak from a high pressure vessel by means of a 2mm tube length and 4.8mm diameter of pipe in atmospheric air is simulated using FLUENT 13. A strong shock wave is formed during the flow of high pressure hydrogen in a tube filled with atmospheric air which leads to heating of hydrogen behind the shock wave. This is mainly because of compression effect and which leads to an auto ignition. The simulated results are not in agreement with the results obtained by Yamada Eisuke et al. (2010).

  18. Karthickeyan, N.K., Kishore Karan, P. Rajarajan, S. Sathish Kumar, M. and Yogeshwaran, V.

    Hydrogen have the potential that can replace fossil fuels which is the primary source of environmental pollution. Hydrogen should be stored in high pressure reservoirs for any practical purpose. In this work hydrogen leak from a high pressure vessel by means of a 2mm tube length and 4.8mm diameter of pipe in atmospheric air is simulated using FLUENT 13. A strong shock wave is formed during the flow of high pressure hydrogen in a tube filled with atmospheric air which leads to heating of hydrogen behind the shock wave. This is mainly because of compression effect and which leads to an auto ignition. The simulated results are not in agreement with the results obtained by Yamada Eisuke et al. (2010).

  19. Kannan, S., Vignesh, V., Vignesh, K., Manikandan, M. and Harish, L.K.

    Design of an in-car user interface requires knowledge from the field of Human Factors as well as from usability the-ory. In this project, a user interface for an automatic parallel parking system has been developed. The main research question has been which display modality to choose, as current literature does not give a clear-cut answer to whether to use auditory or visual displays for in-car information systems. We also wanted to investigate how much information is needed in order to complete an automatic parallel parking. Results from three user evaluations with different prototypes indicate that audiovisual presentation is best suited for the task, and that feedback messages could be kept short. However, further research is needed since a real-life traffic situation differs from that in a sealed-off environment as the one used in this project.

  20. Kannan, S., Hema Prasanth, P., Karthik, G., Naveen, E.J. and Sathya Kumar, A.

    Composite are produced when two materials are joined to give a combination of properties that cannot be attained in the original materials. Composite materials are widely used nowadays in various fields due to their unique property in weight. Reduction, High strength and rigidity and low cost. In the present communication it deals with fabrication and investigation by hybrid natural composite made from bamboo and aloe Vera fiber as reinforcement with epoxy resins as matrix. The objective is to evaluate the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural test and impact strength and to utilise this composite in real life application example field of manufacturing mudguard to produce advanced properties. It includes five layers of fiber and matrix, here fibers includes 3 layers of glass fiber to increase strength. The process is done by hand layup method.

  21. Amirthalingam, P., Gopalakrishnan, G., Logesh, C., Nijanthan, P. and Santhoshkumar, G.

    A Magnetic conveyor design enables the efficient removal of ferrous materials. Its unique design features self lubrication synthetic track that greatly increases chain guide life and substantially reduces chain wear and stretch. Ideal for small parts and cast iron applications, the magnetic conveyor is sealed to prevent the abrasive material from contacting any moving parts the stainless steel conveying surface protects magnets from damage.

  22. Karthickeyan, N.K., Kirishnakanth, S.A., Mohan Raj, K. Sreenath, S.S. and Vignesh, R.

    Composite material is a material produced using at least two constituent materials with essentially extraordinary physical or compound properties that, when consolidated, produce a material with qualities not the same as the individual segments. Composite materials are broadly utilized these days in different fields because of their extraordinary property in weight decrease, high quality and unbending nature and minimal effort. In the present correspondence it manages manufacture and examination of half breed normal composite produced using kenaf strands and flax filaments as support with epoxy sap as matrix The singular parts stay discrete and unmistakable inside the completed structure, separating composites from blends and solutions The new material might be favored for some reasons: basic models incorporate materials which are more grounded, lighter, or more affordable when contrasted with conventional materials. Here the composites are utilized in making a bike motor gatekeeper utilizing fix and flax fiber.

  23. Mevlüt Kağan BALGA and Fatih BAŞÇİFTÇİ

    People live in houses with different characteristics due to climate, topography and other factors, or are temporarily accommodated in different types of houses due to holiday. These differences, price, size, hardware, type and so on. many parameters. Nowadays, these houses are temporarily rented because of holiday, they are called holiday homes and can be easily rented through various booking portals. Large booking portals use a variety of artificial intelligence applications to assist customers and landlords. The classification of rooms in holiday homes of different types and configurations can also be considered in these applications. In this study, bathrooms and bedrooms in holiday homes were classified using ResNet deep learning network. In the study, a data set containing a total of 20,000 data unique to a reservation portal operating in Europe was used. For the test and validation, a data set consisting of a total of 10,000 data and totally obtained from Flickr was preferred. As a result of the study, 99.55% accuracy rate was obtained.

  24. Umi Rahayu, SKM. M.Kes, Imam Thohari ST, MMKes, Ngadino, S. Si., M.Psi

    Pesticides as bioactive substances contain poison for killing plant-disturbing organism. Pesticides exposure can cause damage for liver and pulmonary tissue. Each active substance that is contained in pesticides causes different symptoms of poisoning. The symptoms of poisoning (subjective complaints) which are caused as the impact of pesticides will be improved by us through providing ginger extract. Moreover, this research will be applied to mice (Mus musculus). This research aimed at analyzing the influence of providing ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) as antioxidant against the protection of liver and pulmonary damage due to pesticides exposure in mice. Design of this research was Quasi Experimental research by using simple experimental design (Post Test Only Control Group Design). Sample in this research was healthy male Swiss Webster white mice. An examination was conducted in order to investigate tissue damage on experimental animals’ liver and pulmonary. The research result showed that there was liver cell damage in K0 group (without any treatment). Besides, there were normal cell and the lightest damage (less than 25%). In K1 group, it was occurred cell degeneration and hepatotic damage in mild, moderate, and chronic hepatocyte damage. In K3 group, it was occurred cell degeneration and hepatocyte damage in mild, moderate, and chronic level. However, improving liver cells was through providing ginger extract. Through adding ginger extract, improving damage on pulmonary organ cells was also much better. In conclusion, by providing ginger extract in mice which were exposed by pesticides had no role in repairing liver cell damage. In contrary, in pulmonary organ, it was occurred an improvement of mice’s pulmonary organ cell. Nevertheless, for further research, it needs to be conducted a research in smaller dose of ginger extract.

  25. Dr. Munish Kumar, Dr. Sweta Choudhary, Dr. Sunny Kala and Dr. Mamta Sharma

    We are presenting a case report of Keratocytic Odontogenic Tumor in mandible with pre-operative CBCT finding, Histopath and Surgical treatment followed by one year follow up and post-operative CBCT findings. The case was managed by surgical enucleation along with chemical cauterization using carnoy’s solution. Histopath was done and it was found parakeratinized stratified squamous cystic lining. Case was followed up after 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and one year and found uneventful and CBCT was done after one year which shows decreased size and extent of bone defect and signs of good healing with evidence of bone remodeling. Hence we conclude that multidisciplinary approach is required for diagnosis and management of Keratocytic Odontogenic Tumor.

  26. Mrs. Babita Rani and Ms. Jyoti Sharma

    Background: Obesity has been regarded as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease and may be associated with more severe coronary artery disease (CAD). Approximately 10-12 million deaths occur every year due to CAD. The ralationship between anthropometric measurements and CAD severity is uncertain and debatable. Objectives: -The study was carried out to assess and correlate anthropometric measurements with severity of Coronary Artery Disease. • To find out association of severity of Coronary Artery Disease with socio demographic variables. • TO develop and disseminate IEC guidelines among CAD patients. Methodology: This study was conducted to assess the correlation of Anthropometric measurements with severity of Coronary Artery Disease among CAD patients visiting OPDs in tertiary care Hospital Ludhiana, Punjab. Total 100 subjects were selected by convenience sampling technique. Self structured and standardized questionnaire were used to assess the correlation of Anthropometric measurements with severity of Coronary Artery Disease. Data was collected from subjects by self report and Bio-physiological methods. Results: The result of present study showed that most of subjects i.e. 54% were from age group of more than 58 years in which 63% were males and 37% were females. It was found that females had more severity of CAD than males where of the subjects 42% had level II severity of CAD i.e. 24.6-68 according to Gensini score. Conclusion: The study findings showed that there is a statistically non significant weak positive correlation of WC, HC, WHR and WHtR with severity of CAD whereas it showed statistically non significant weak negative correlation of Height, Weight and BMI with severity of CAD.

  27. Maj Summerdeep Kaur, LT COL Dr. Sonali Sharma, Maj Pankaj Awasthi and Dr. Akshita Mahajan

    Introduction: Flare-ups is the phenomenon which may develope during Endodontic Procedures. It commenses within few hours or days during root canal treatment, characterised by pain and swelling, requiring unscheduled emergency visit. Non Insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus predisposes to chronic inflammation due to alteration in immune function. Diabetic patients have higher propensity for severe Endodontic infection and increased incidence of flare-ups. Aim: To compare the incidence of interappointment flare-ups during Endodontic treatment in Diabetic and in Non Diabetic patients. Methodology: The medical history and Endodontic treatment data for non surgical Endodontic patients treated in ADC R&R from June 01 2017 to Dec 31 2017 were recorded. A total of 2164 cases (including 151 Diabetic patients and 650 patients with Hypertension) were treated. After initiation of treatment, cleaning and shaping were completed and intracanal calcium hydroxide dressing was placed. Next sitting was scheduled after 3 days. Results: Patients with Diabetes have higher incidence of flare-ups than with patients without any metabolic disorder. Conclusion: The study revealed that Interappointment Flare-ups in patients with Diabetes is higher than in patients without Diabetes.

  28. Krishanko Das, Prof. Shantasil Pain and Prof. Nandini Chatterjee

    Background: Paraquat is a widely used weedicide in India. It is now being increasingly used as a suicidal poisoning and is almost always fatal as there is no specific antidote for paraquat poison. ARDS, acute kidney injury or multi-organ failure are the frequent causes of mortality. Methods: The study aimed to study the morbidity and mortality rates of Paraquat poisoning in tertiary care hospital. Patients admitted with Paraquat poisoning were included, and the data collected and analysed. Results: The total number of cases admitted with paraquat poisoning in the General Medicine Ward and Intensive Care Unit in nine months duration were 22 out of which 18 were suicidal and 4 were accidental ingestion. 84% of cases died within a week of ingestion. Almost all of them had Acute Kidney Injury and finally succumbed to multi-organ failure. The overall mortality rate was 72% despite best efforts. Higher mortality has been associated with delayed presentation. No correlation was found between higher creatinine values at presentation and outcome. Conclusions: Thus, paraquat poisoning is very serious and life threatening. Inspite of supportive haemodialysis, steroids and cyclophosphamide therapy, antibiotics, it was ineffective in reducing the mortality rates. Hemoperfusion if initiated within 4 hours of ingestion showed a better outcome but none of the patient presented to our side within 4 hour of ingestion. Paraquat is now banned in 32 countries but still poses a major threat as a suicidal agent in India.

  29. Dr. Ravi Tale, Dr. Ramniwas M. Kumawat, and Dr. Pratima khobragade

    Background: Presence of micronuclei in cells is a reflection of structural and chromosomal aberration in cells. Micronuclei frequency has been proved to be a reliable marker of genomic damage and can be applied to buccal cell cytology to determine the susceptibility. This method may help monitor and predict increased risk of cancer in humans. Aim: The present study aims to determine micronuclei frequency in control, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients in oral cytology specimens and compare the efficiency of Papanicolaou (PAP) and May-Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) staining techniques for same. Materials and methods: Study groups consisted of 100 patients each of control, OSMF and OSCC. Two smears were obtained from each patient, each of which was stained with PAP and MGG stain. A total of 100 cells were evaluated for micronuclei in each slide using Tolbert’s criteria and micronuclei frequency was calculated. Results: The mean micronuclei frequency was higher in the PAP stained smears in all the three groups than in the MGG stained smears and is the preferred staining method. Multiple comparisons between the three groups showed that MN frequency increased step-wise from control to OSMF to OSCC group of patients. Conclusion: Oral cytology is the least invasive and inexpensive method for measuring DNA damage and can be used as a field test using PAP stain. It can be used as a marker for epithelial precancer (OSMF) and cancer progression.

  30. Dhika Alloyna, Ridha Darmajaya and Adril Arsyad

    Introduction: Astrocytoma is one of neuroepithelial tumor and these tumors are graded in four scale based on the aggresiveness. Overexpressions of MMP-9 has been correlated to tumor’s progresivity, poor prognostic and predictive marker in cancer, while Ki-67 is strongly associated with cell proliferation. Method: This study is being conducted to analyze the correlations between MMP-9 expressions and KI-67 in intracranial astrocytoma. This reprospective study is using cross-sectional method. The expression of MMP-9 and Ki-67 was evaluated, as well as its prognostoc value. The study is held at Haji Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan, North Sumatera with total samples of 19. Results: There is no significant correlation in astrocytoma classification with MMP-9 and Ki-67 Li expression (p=1,000). There is no significant correlation of MMP-9 overexpression with in mortality (p=0.117) however there is significant correlation of Ki-67 Li with mortality (p=0,005). Conclusion: There is no significant association between MMP-9 and Ki-67 Labeling Index in intracranial astrocytoma.

  31. Mostafa Abd Allateef, Omar Abdel-Raheem, AsemElsani M.A. Hassan and Ahmed Abd-El Maboud

    Objectives: assessment of the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic procedures under low-pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum and regional anaesthesia. Patients and methods: 30 adult ASA I or II patients admitted for different laparoscopic procedures were enrolled in the study. Pre-anaesthetic values of HR, RR, body temperature, BP and pulse oximetry were recorded. Spinal an aesthesia was given in sitting position with a 25 G needle into the L1 - L2 subarachnoid space. Different laparoscopic procedures were performed with the pneumoperitoneum was maintained with low CO2 pressure at 8-12 mm Hg. Anaesthesia time, Surgery time, Intraoperative complications and Conversion from regional to general anesthesia or from laparoscopic to open technique were recorded and the technical difficulty was ranked by the surgeon. Results: 28 of the patients (93.3%) completed the procedure under spinal anaesthesia and 2 (7.7%) were converted to general anaesthesia. Rank of technical difficulty ranged from 2/5 in 24 cases (80%) to 4/5 in one case (3.3%). Overall operative and anaesthesia times ranged from 30 to 65 minutes (Mean 37.33 + 10.15 min.) and 45 to 90 minutes (Mean 53+ 12.12 min.) respectively. No intraoperative complications and none of the patients was converted to open surgery. The vitals were maintained at a normal range. Mean arterial pressure ranged from 86.6 to 101.67 (Mean 93.6+5). The maximum respiratory rate during pneumoperitoneum ranged from 16 to 26 per minute (Mean 19 + 3.8). Conclusion: Laparoscopic procedures under regional anesthesia with low-pressure pneumoperitoneum seems to be safe and feasible.

  32. Ramadasu Uma Sahithya, Devaki Talluri, Nijampatnam, P.M. Pavani, Arumalla Renuka Devi, Shaik Parveen Sultana and Potluri Raja Sekhar

    Back Ground: Oral hygiene plays an important role in the well being of an individual. Obesity is a growing health related problem worldwide. Oral hygiene could have a relation with weight of the participants. Aim: To correlate the prevalence of oral hygiene status and body mass index of school children (3-16years) of Takkellapadu village. Material and Methods: The study design was cross sectional which included 150 school children of age 3-16 years in which 94 boys and 56 girls. Information regarding height and weight of the study participants were recorded by using standardized measuring scale and weighing machine there after BMI was calculated. Data was analyzed by using SPSS Version 22. Oral hygiene status of the study subjects was assessed using oral hygiene index simplified. Results: Among the study participants 94(62.7%) were boys and 56(37.3%) were girls. Oral hygiene status was fair among 99(66%) of children. BMI was <18.5 among 119(79.3%) underweight children. Among boys and girls there was no significant difference in oral hygiene status. Conclusion: From the analysis, it was concluded that oral hygiene status had a significant effect on BMI. Age with oral hygiene status was significant with correlation value 0.04 levels.

  33. Mahmoud Satte and Abdoalmonim Abdoalrahman Mohammed

    Background: The human kidneys are supplied by renal artery and vein. Close to the kidney hilum the renal artery is divided into anterior and posterior branches and then gives five segmental arteries before entering the hilum while the renal vein is formed by the union of the segmental veins. The variations can occur in these vessels according to the previous studies and these variations are important for surgeons. Objectives: This study was aimed to demonstrate variations of renal vessels close to the hilum of the right kidney. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on the human plastinated right kidney, during routine dissection for medical students in medical college, Najran University, KSA. Results: We observed six right segmental arteries and aberrant upper polar artery. In addition, we founded upper anterior, upper posterior and lower inferior renal veins leaving the hilum of the right kidney, the anterior upper one received three segmental veins while the upper posterior and lower anterior are continuous without receiving segmental veins. Conclusion: we observed a variation on renal vessels close to the hilum of the plastinated right kidney and this knowledge is important for surgeons doing kidney transplants.

  34. Dr. Anchal Bhola, Dr. Neelam Gupta, Dr. Neetu Bala and Dr. Rashi Garg

    Penile metastases of adenocarcinoma of prostate is rarely seen. It is a devitalizing condition at presentation with poor prognostic implication and poor survival. Conservative management is generally recommended with focus on improving the quality of life of such patients. We present a case of 93 yr male patient with a whitish growth over the glans penis along with left sided inguinal lymphadenopathy. Patient was a known case of prostatic carcinoma with raised PSA levels. Histopathological examination and Immunohistochemistry with Prostatic specific antigen revealed the diagnosis of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma

  35. Dr. Tharanika, M., Dr. Bhuvanaratchagan, A. and Dr. Ponmalar, M.

    AIMS & OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to clinically estimate the prevalence of common type of psoriasis in tertiary care hospital, Puducherry. MATERIALS & METHODS: The study was carried out as cross sectional study among 100 patients visiting the outpatient clinic of department of dermatology of our tertiary hospital for a period of 1 year. A structured interview schedule was used to elicit data regarding medical history. RESULTS: Detailed history was taken which shows itching and scaling as major complaints. Clinical examination of type of psoriasis based on site and distribution was carried out. Most common site of involvement is trunk, extremities, palms & soles. Symmetrical type of distribution is common. A majority of participants belong to the age group of > 40 yrs, males 62 % and females 38%. Clinical signs were elicited, Data was entered and analysed using SPSS software version 21. Out of 100 patients, Auspitz sign positive in 37%, Koebner phenomenon was elicited in 38% patients. Oil drop sign was present in only 1% patients, Wornoff ring which is seen in regressing lesions were present in only 1% patients. No signs were noticed in 10 % patients. Out of 100 patients The prevalence of Chronic plaque psoriasis is 37% , which is the most common type of psoriasis in our study, palmoplantar psoriasis being second most common type which is 27 % , scalp psoriasis is 12%, guttate psoriasis 11%, erythrodermic psoriasis 9 %.

  36. Prajakta Chaudhari, Chetan Bhadage, Ajay Bhoosreddy, Pragati Bramhe, Prutha Rathod and Shreya Dange

    Aim: To assess the diagnostic performance of Cone beam computed tomography in the detection of secondary carious lesions under composite resin restorations. Objectives: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the detection of secondary carious lesions under composite resin restorations. Materials and methods: 50 Extracted human permanent posterior teeth were collected and primary cavities were created. Then all the samples were randomly divided into two groups; Group A- study group (n=25) and Group B- control group (n=25). Group A included artificially created defects mimicking secondary caries under primary cavities restored with composite restorations; Group B included primary cavities restored with composite restorations. CBCT scans of all the teeth were taken and evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of secondary caries. Results: Sensitivity was found to be 82.6% and specificity as 56%. ROC curve was plotted which was obtained as 0.716. Conclusion: Due to less specificity CBCT has a limited role in detection of secondary caries under composite restoration.

  37. Atilla BEKTAS, Harun ERDAL, Meltem ULUSOY and Tayfun UZBAY, I.

    A recent article has suggested that alcohol consumption is completely harmful for human health. However, this argument is the result of several mistakes and wrong assumptions in the methodology chosen. On the contrary, our opinion about this matter is that consuming alcohol moderately has positive impacts on people by protecting them from coronary heart disease. As it has been revealed in evidence-based trials, it might even be beneficial in relation to NASH and NAFLD.

  38. Marwan Al-Hajeili

    Background/Aim: This study aims to determine the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of gallbladder cancer during the last nine years. Settings and Design: Retrospective chart review of the demographic and clinical profiles of gallbladder patients followed up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, for the period of 2008–2017. Methods and Material:We collected data demographic and clinical data (histopathological features, radiological findings, date of diagnosis, type of surgical treatment offered, type of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, intervention used, disease progression, date of the last follow up, date of recurrence, and date of death). Statistical Analysis: The Cox proportional hazards model was used for the univariate analysis and multivariate analysis model building. Results and Conclusions: A total of 21 patients were included in this study, with females representing 66.7% of the sample. The mean age of the patients was 57 years. Among the cases, 13 (61.9%) were identified as adenocarcinoma, and five (23.8%) were classified as dysplasia; the least frequent histologic diagnosis wascarcinosarcoma (n = 1, 4.8%).Tumor resection was performed in 14patients. Of these, 13 had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, whereas only one case hadhepaticoenterostomy. Univariate analysis did not demonstrate significant differences in overall survival by age, gender, histologic subtype, tumor grade, surgical margin status, lymph node invasion, or tumor marker status. We did not identify predictors of outcome in patients who were followedup and treated for gallbladder cancer at our institution. Future larger studies are warranted to study the patterns of outcome in our context.

  39. Ridha Dharmajaya

    Introduction: Meningiomas are the most common intracranial primary neoplasm in adults. We report 39 years-old-female with recurrent meningioma, the patient had craniotomy tumor removal 1 year ago, and the patient had second craniotomy tumor removal, and we performed an immunohistochemical staining with HER2.HER2 is a member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER/EGFR/ERBB) family. Amplification or over-expression of this oncogene has been shown to play an important role in the development and progression of certain aggressive types of cancer. Patient and observation: We report 39 years-old female with recurrent meningioma, the patient had craniotomy tumor removal 1 year ago with histopathologic result Meningothelial Meningioma (WHO Grade I) , and then the patient complain with bulging defect 6 months after surgery. CT Scan contrast shows isodens lobulated lesion, with homogeny enhancement. The patient had second craniotomy tumor removal and histopathologic result Meningothelial Meningioma (WHO Grade I), based on second pathologic result, we performed an immunohistochemical staining with HER2, we use c-erbB-2 Oncoprotein (SP3) Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody with catalog number RMAB008R manufactured by Diagnostic BioSistems. Discussion:HER2 is a member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER/EGFR/ERBB) family. Amplification or over-expression of this oncogene has been shown to play an important role in the development and progression of certain aggressive types of cancer. HER-2 is a type of oncogene in human carcinoma, and many studies have indicated HER-2 overexpression in several types of cancer and is associated with a particularly aggressive form of the disease. Conclusion: HER2 expression plays a role in the development of more-aggressive meningiomas or not is a question that needs to be clarified in further studies. The results of our case report did not advocate this role for HER2. For the HER2 targeted cancer therapy, numerous strategies including the blockage of receptor dimerization, inhibition of the tyrosine kinase activity, and interruption of the downstream signal pathway will be summarized. For the targeted drug delivery to HER2 positive tumor cells, various targeting ligands and their delivery systems will be described in details. Successful development of the humanized monoclonal anti-HER2 antibody (Trastuzumab) for the treatment of breast cancer further spurred scientists to develop various HER2 specific antibodies, dimerization inhibitors and kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy. On the other hand, the high expression of HER2 and the accessibility of its extracellular domain make HER2 an ideal target for the targeted delivery of anti-tumor drugs as well as imaging agents.

  40. Nayannika Mongmaw, Ritika Sharma, Vidyadevi Chandavarkar, Deepak Bhargava and Mithilesh Mishra

    Odontogenic keratocyst is an odontogenic developmental cyst. It is derived from remnants of dental lamina. The term was first termed by Philipsen in 1956. OKC was renamed as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) in the WHO classifications of head and neck tumors in 2005 due to its aggressive, high recurrence rates and specific histological characterstics and was reclassified into the cystic category in WHO classification of Head and Neck pathology (2017). They are unique odontogenic lesions that have the potential to behave aggressively, that can recur and can be associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This article focuses on a case of 38 year old female patient diagnosed with odontogenic keratocyst in the left retromolar region and a brief review of literature.

  41. Divya Jakhar, Gursimran Singh Pabla, Sadhvi Gupta, Fatinderjeet Singh and Pratibha Marya

    Dental professionals commonly experience musculoskeletal pain during the course of their careers. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal complaints in dentists is high and the past two decades have witnessed a sharp rise in the incidence of various disorders. The most effected regions have been back and neck. This article provides a brief review of literature on musculoskeletal disorders in clinical dentistry and various strategies of their prevention with a special emphasis on the neutral position for the clinicians and dental operators with an aim that it should help the dental operators to prevent these injuries and to work effectively and efficiently.

  42. Dr. Vikash Ranjan, Dr. Praneeta Priya, Dr. V. Naveen Shankar and Dr. Soumendu Bikash Maiti

    Aims and objective: Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of conventional radiography and orthopantomograph in detection of periapical lesion. Materials and Methods: The study groups comprised of 150 patients of either sex between age group of 20-60 year reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. The determination of 'true pathology' was based on the results of the simultaneous interpretation of both the periapical and the panoramic radiographs in standard. Results: The intra-observer reliability analysis is done to measure the consistency in rating method of the observer. It was observed that with Kappa value in range of 0.6 to 0.8, the observation at two different time are significantly agreement. The detailed statistical analysis very clearly indicates that the rating given based on observation from periapical radiograph is better than the observation from panoramic radiograph. The Pearson's R coefficient, Spearman Correlation, Kappa value and Cronbach’s Alpha values for periapical radiograph are 0.714, 0.696, 0.436 and 0.833 which are significantly higher than that obtained from observation of panoramic radiograph with values 0.541, 0.604, 0.375 and 0.702 within statistical significance level. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated with ROC analysis technique. The graph generated by the ROC curve is used to calculate the area under the curve obtained from each imaging technique. The ROC curve and area under each respective plot clearly indicate that the periapical radiography technique is better in diagnosis of lesions. Conclusion: the periapical radiographs provides more accuracy in terms of diagnosing the periapical lesion, which provides better diagnostic values as compared to the panoramic images.

  43. Seifu Bogale and Fikremariam Yirgu

    This paper presents a research finding which aimed to investigate the perceptions held by High School Students and English language teachers on the characteristics of an Effective English teacher and the effects of these perceptions in learning as well as to compare the perceptions held by the two groups in purposely selected four High Schools found in the Guraghe Zone. In this study, 134 students drawn from two grade levels, namely 9 and 11, and 27 English teachers who teach in those schools were involved as sources of data. The data were collected from the subjects through a five point Likert Scale questionnaire consisting of three categories of teacher effectiveness: English Proficiency (8 items), Pedagogical Knowledge (18 items) and Socio-Affective Skills (18 items). Overall, the students in this study perceived significantly different characteristics from the teachers in all the three categories with the students' high endorsement to Pedagogical Knowledge and the teachers' high ranking to English Proficiency. Both the students and the teachers in this study believed that the effective English language teacher should be able to read, write and speak English well, explain things well, provide interesting activities, arouse students' motivation to learn English well, help students develop self-confidence in order to learn English well, encourage students to try to do their best, set high expectations for students, have positive attitude towards his/her career and the learners and assess what the learners have learned reasonably.

  44. Dereje Haile and Saleamlak Aberra

    The purpose of this study was to assess teachers’ attitude and practice of using literary texts in teaching reading skills at Borena Secondary and Preparatory School. Descriptive research design was employed to achieve the objectives of the study. English language teachers and students of Borena Secondary and Preparatory School were the participants of the study. Stratified and purposive sampling techniques in an integrative way were used to select 344 students among the total population of 2500. 9 English language teachers were also selected by using comprehensive sampling as sample participants of the study. Then, data was obtained via questionnaire, semi-structured interview and classroom observation. Questions were developed by the researcher and filled in to SPSS version twenty for their standards and administered to teachers and students. Semi-structured interview was conducted with English language teachers face to face. Actual classroom observations were conducted in the classrooms. Next, the data which were relevant to the research objectives were selected and analyzed. Thus, from the data analyses, different findings were obtained. The study uncovered that: teachers had negative attitude on the relevance of literary texts in teaching reading skills. In addition, teachers’ practice of using literary texts was very low; they had lack of practice of using literary texts in teaching reading skills. Towards the extent to which they use literary texts to make their students exercise for each types and strategies of reading, most of them did not use any literary texts out of the textbooks. In fact, they often used literary texts in the textbooks to make their students exercise skimming, scanning, summarizing and intensive reading only; however, the teachers did not adequately use these texts to engage their learners exercise the following important reading skills: extensive reading, inferring, questioning, predicting, making connection and visualizing. With regard to genres of literature teachers mostly use, poems were the most frequently used because of the fact that more than half of the total literary texts in the textbooks in teaching reading skills are poems. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that the teachers should show their positive attitude for the use of literature in teaching reading skills and meaning full teaching of reading skills through literary texts should be practiced widely to develop learners’ reading comprehension ability.

  45. Juliet Ruth D. Mozar and Edilmar P. Masuhay

    This study reflects the town’s cultural heritage and their tender love and affections to culture in respect to human races, tourism advocates, enhancement of their children’s socio-educational talents, physical perspective.

  46. Mebratu Alemu and Belete Mulatu

    The aim of the study was to examine the significance of the indigenous traditional authority institution to conflict prevention and socio-economic development at the local level. The study covered the Majang zone in the Southern West part of Ethiopia. Semi structured questionnaires were designed and administered scientifically to come out with the primary data. Purposively three focus group discussions were also organized in the 14 kebeles to cross check the interviewed data. At the local level, indigenous traditional authorities are the main actor of governance and development. It is therefore essential to recognize them and include them in the formulation and execution of local development policies since to disregard them might lead to development failure. Currently, Ethiopia has adopted federal system of government where power is decentralized at local level but government officials in the country, especially in the study area, come to leading position based on their educational computation. This resulted indigenous traditional authority feel reluctant in actively involving them in different agenda of peace and socio- economic development. This Study have revealed that the segregation of indigenous traditional authority and their people from the development process has frequently led to unresolved conflict, breakdown of societal social interaction and poor project results at the local level. The study also revealed that Indigenous traditional authority has the most acceptances by their communities. They are in tad with their subjects at the grassroots and the societies thus it is anticipated that they should be the champions of their social, political and economic development. It is also important that inclusion of the indigenous traditional authority in political issue of the local community of Majang peoples by giving short and long capacity training to fight poverty and come up sustainable socio economic development.

  47. Pabasara Kalahe, K.P.M. and Rashika Mudunkotuwa

    Traffic congestion has become a significant issue in many cities in Sri Lanka. Colombo, being the commercial capital and largest city of the country, is gravely in need of suggestions to mitigate the loss of efficiency and money due to the idle time on roads. Thus, this paper intends to explore the perception of passengers on an Inland Water Transit (IWT) system which is underexplored or rather unexplored in the context of Sri Lanka. The study seeks to bridge the gap in knowledge between the factors to be considered when planning IWT as a public transit mode by transport planners/providers and the factors passengers would consider when opting for IWT as a public transport mode. Furthermore, the study also attempts to analyze the potential of IWT to be utilized for recreational purposes. Therefore, a conceptual framework was developed based on the literature written in the context of other countries and other modes incorporated with statistics from several authorities as well as data gathered through personal communications with industry experts. This was followed by a survey conducted via printed questionnaires and Google forms among a randomly selected sample of Colombo residents. The sample consisted of passengers bound to take the land routes crossing the canal system proposed for IWT. Details on demographics, trip characteristics and perception towards IWT as a novel public transport mode was collected to proceed with the analysis. After the Exploratory Factor Analysis, a Binary Logistics Regression model was developed to accomplish the primary objective of the research. Apart from the model, Chi-square test, KMO test and correlation analysis are some other analysis techniques employed in the study to derive conclusions on the overall perception of passengers towards IWT. The results suggest that the latent factor ‘Amenities’, including indicators such as availability of service information, customer service, online facilities, multiple counters, etc. are more significant when considering IWT as a public transport mode, than service issues such as cost, connectivity and punctuality. The findings of this study aim to provide a better understanding of the determinants of modal choice of IWT in Colombo, thus, to encourage the incorporation of such non-traditional service attributes in policy developing, transport planning and service providing. Subsequently, it will address the urgent need to discourage the escalated trend in the use of private vehicles due to the limited inhabitable space in this small island—Sri Lanka.

  48. Emmanuel Kengmoé Tchouongsi et Benoît Mougoué

    Cette étude analyse les facteurs de la pollution atmosphérique et les risques sanitaires encourus par les populations des quartiers précaires de la ville de Bafoussam. Elle combine les investigations de terrain et les analyses de la qualité de l’air en laboratoire. Les résultats obtenus révelent que dans les quartiers précaires de la ville de Bafoussam, l’air est pollué par les gaz tels que le dioxyde de soufre (SO2), le dioxyde d’azote (NO2), l’ozone (O3), le monoxyde de Carbone (CO), le dioxyde de Carbone (CO2). Les résultats des analyses de la qualité de l’air confirment une forte présence des particules de poussières (PM10 et PM2.5) dans l’air, représentant dont un risque pour la santé des populations. Le développement des activités industrielles, les déchets ménagers et la prédominance des voies en terre sont autant de facteurs qui exposent les habitants des quartiers précaires de la ville de Bafoussam aux maladies telles que la toux, les irritations oculaires, la tuberculose, les intoxications par inhalation.

  49. Mrs. Lakshmi V. and Dr. Shiva Shankar, K. C.

    According to the central statistical authority women account for close to 70 per cent of the micro enterprises in India are run by women. Women in advanced market economies own more than 25% of the business. This phenomenon is growing rapidly in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America. The main objective of the study is to find the role of digital entrepreneurship in economic development of country. The other objectives are getting theoretical background of entrepreneurship, digitalisation and technology in business and the role digitalisation in business. The data is collected from secondary data. The study is helpful to how the digital entrepreneurs are contributing for the growth of country.

  50. Cherrila Wangchuk Bhutia

    The history of CSR in India is a pre-independence phenomenon and was largely influenced by the nation–building belief inspired by Gandhiji. Over the years the model of CSR practice in India has moved from Trusteeship to Stakeholder model but the focus has not shifted much. The original idea of helping to develop self-reliant countrymen has continued despite the emergence of idea that development has to be co-ordinated and linked. While CSR has become a part of the corporate communication strategy of most of the companies earning above a threshold limit, it in most cases has not been able to transcend the corporate strategy and serve as an integrated approach for development in India. The corporate houses are well aware of the legitimacy granted to their activities by a transparent communication pattern, yet they have not been able to give up their practices of shrouding their activities in corporate mystery. It has resulted not only in sullying their intention of helping the stakeholders; it has also failed to develop a public discussion in deciding on the strategies of development. As a sum total, despite spending heavily on developing the human resources or building public resources, the big industries in India lack a cohesive pattern of development and most importantly it has remained immediate community specific in terms of stakeholders’ development. The developmental scenario would have been fundamentally different if the companies had a larger picture in mind and and took efforts in building stable public resources of development instead of helping out merely individuals only as individuals.

  51. Fifonsi Ayélé DANGBO, Oliver GARDI, Atsu K. Dogbeda HLOVOR, Juergen BLASER and Kouami KOKOU

    The estimation of aboveground biomass (AGB) at the landscape level is necessary for estimating carbon pools in forest and provides baseline data for future studies. The objective of this study is to combine national forest inventory and remote sensing data to estimate aboveground forest biomass from remotely sensed data, and assess the accuracy of the method developed. The AGB maps 2015 across forest’s zone in Togo were produced based on secondary data from national forest inventory (NFI) field measurement using open sources Landsat images. The 2015 national inventory data (168 plots) has served as the base for validation of the 2015 biomass map. Three measurements were made to quantify accuracy: root mean square error (RMSE), bias and the coefficient of determination (R2) of the linear regression between predicted and measured AGB values. A complete map of AGB maps at 30 metres spatial resolution was produced over 603'972 ha. The overall model shows 74% of variance. The predicted AGB values across the landscape are between 40.34 and118.71 Mg/ha, with mean equal to 75.83Mg/ha and standard deviation (S.D.) equal to57.93Mg/ha. The model has overestimated biomass of the AGB with low values (Forest plantation and Savanna) and underestimated the AGB with high biomass values (Fallow, Woodland, Dense forest and Gallery forest). The RMSE values vary between27.41 and 35.66 t/ha depending on the forest strata and the overall RMSE value is around 15 t/ha. The estimated mean biomass for the model ischosen from 40.34 (savanna) to 118.71 (dense forest) t/ha. This study can be considered as a reliable, cost-effective and reproducible approach to map AGB in dynamic forest landscapes and can support policy approaches towards reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD+).

  52. Lic. Elisa María Álava Mariscal Magister

    The analysis of the theoretical foundations related to contraceptive methods is a matter of relevance in our country, and specifically in the province of Los Ríos, where the number of adolescents with early pregnancy has increased rapidly in recent years, where ignorance The use of contraceptive methods is one of the causes, which have had the greatest impact on this problem that affects our society, which has also resulted in consequences, the increase in school dropout, the poverty rate and people suffering of sexually transmitted diseases and especially HIV or AIDS, which shows that there are still difficulties in sex education work, which are carried out in educational institutions, that is why the objective of this research is aimed at the use of methods contraceptives as an alternative to prevent early pregnancy in adolescence to a study

  53. Athanasia Gaitanidou

    The present paper investigates teachers' guidance from the transformational leader of the school unit in the implementation of cross-thematic teaching. More Specifically, the research focuses on (a) the existence of transformational practices and behaviors of school principals and (b) the thematic of the formal discussions of the Teachers' Association on cross-curricular teaching and the achievement of the School's objectives through a cross-curricular approach. It is concluded that there is a positive relationship between the practices, behaviors of the transformational leader of the school unit, and the explanation of the intersectional teachings and the expected results (R = 0.550, R square = 0.303, F = 30.401, p <0.00). The results can be taken into account in future training activities for teachers and principals.

  54. Zilpah Andiva Kageha and Enose M W Simatwa

    The implementation of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001:2008 Quality Management System (QMS) in education is a matter highly debated on whether or not the certification is appropriate for the education sector. Some scholars consider its adoption as a strategic decision by educational institutions to ensure delivery of quality service therein while others do not. Complaints by some academic staff and students in public universities in Kenya on the impact of ISO 9001:2008 QMS casts doubt on their level of satisfaction with it based on non conformities. For instance between 2012 and 2015 one university recorded 5310 non-conformities and another one recorded 5340 non-conformities which were higher than the other 12 Universities that recorded below 3940 non-conformities in provision of quality service delivery in public universities. In terms of the impact of ISO 9001:2008 QMS on academic staff’s service delivery in provision of quality teaching/learning facilities in public universities, the non conformities recorded in one of the universities were 1100 and the other 1200 being higher than the non conformities recorded in the rest of the other universities for the period 2012 to 2015 in Kenya. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of ISO 9001:2008 QMS on provision of quality teaching/ learning facilities in public Universities. The study established that ISO 9001:2008 QMS had significant influence on provision of quality teaching /learning facilities such that for every one unit increase in ISO 9001:2008 QMS conformities in provision of quality teaching /learning facilities in public universities improved academic staff’s service delivery by .617 units. In effect ISO 9001:2008 QMS accounted for 10.3% of the improvement in the provision of quality teaching /learning facilities in public universities as was signified by the Adjusted R square coefficient .103. The other 89.7% was due to other factors that were not subject to this study. This means that when non conformities decline there is improvement in academic staff’s service delivery in public universities. ISO 9001:2008 QMS was a significant predictor of academic staff’s service delivery in provision of quality teaching/learning facilities (F (1,252) = 24.976, P<.05). The study concluded that ISO 9001:2008 QMS improved service delivery in the public universities. The study recommended that public universities should strive to minimize non conformities for excellent service delivery. This study provides information to lecturers, Kenya Bureau of Standards and university management on the way forward in improving the provision of quality of teaching/learning facilities in public universities.

  55. Dr. G.V. Vijayasri, M.A., (MBA) Ph.D.

    The Consumer Electronics exports have been widely studied. It also examined the trends in Consumer Electronics production, Changes in the direction of Consumer Electronics Exports and also studies the export of top items, major companies Exporting Consumer Electronics. Singapore, Hongkong & Other South Asian countries remain the top destination of Consumer Electronics during the year 2017-18. Smart Cards are emerged to be the top item during the year 2017-18. It has been observed that the Consumer Electronics sector not only contributes significantly to export earnings and GDP but also emerges as a major source of employment generation in the country. Though the Consumer Electronics sector in India is small at present, there are several advantages which India can effectively leverage to achieve higher growth.

  56. Pratima Negi and M. Fahim

    In the present work, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics(NEMD) simulation was carried out to get an insight into the atomistic scale viscosity of graphene–polystyrene nanocomposite. The open access software Packmol was used to create amorphous PS and graphene+PS systems. The initial distribution of atoms in the two systems were created using cubic cells with periodic boundary conditions. Four pieces of graphene with side length of 5 nm x 5 nm and 400 polymeric chains consisting of three monomers per chain were randomly placed in the cubic cells to achieve a low concentration of graphene. The simulation box containing only PS was also created to provide a control. The simulations were conducted using LAMMPS with AIREBO potential and time step length of 1 fs. A Nose–Hoover style was selected to retain the system temperature. The SLLOD equations of motion were then applied to allow the system to undergo the flow under the NVT condition and mean square displacement (MSD), diffusion coefficient (D) and shear viscosity () were calculated.

  57. Pratima Negi and M. Fahim

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies were carried out on a single atom layer graphene sheet to get an insight into the temperature dependent uniaxial deformation. Uniaxial deformation was performed on a 50 nm x 50 nm graphene sheet in zig-zag mode at a constant temperature and a constant engineering strain rate of 0.001 per second. It was observed that failure strain and ultimate stress at failure strain decreased with increasing temperature. Although the variation in mechanical properties with temperature was small, it became significantly large for 1200K and 1500K. The results have been validated using existing mathematical models.

  58. Joise P and Jennet P

    Indian market is flooded with several fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of corticosteroids with one or more broad spectrum antimicrobial (antifungal and antibacterial) agents which under no circumstances can be considered as rational. In 2013, such 2 irrational steroid cocktails were the highest selling corticosteroids in the country. This haphazard use of topical corticosteroid preparations is triggering off recalcitrant infections, distorting clinical diagnoses and is indubitably a public healthconcern. Indian Dermatologists are witnessing an epidemicof fungal infections. The current alarming situation of emerging chronic, recurrent or recalcitrant dermatophytosis haunts the country. Fungal infections that were easily manageable are now resistant – with even the most potent antifungal creams failing to treat them. A big concern surrounding topical steroid cocktails i.e. fixed dose combination of a steroid and one or more antimicrobial agent(s), is the reduction of local cellular immunity that is vital to curb dermatophytes. This paves the way to recalcitrant mycosis and other atypical presentations. The daunting dearth of comparative clinic-epidemiological data necessitates dire need for well-designed large-scale studies to combat this dermatophytosis epidemic in India.

  59. Sóstenes Muniz Sampaio Sabiá MD, Plínio Pinto Malveira MD, Jorge Luis Bezerra Holanda MD and Francisco Barbosa de Araújo Neto MD

    Ascariasis is the most common parasitic infection in humans and is more common in developing tropical countries. The worm is usually seen in the small intestine, and cases involving the biliary tract are considered rare, and in these cases may be associated with serious complications. Imaging tests play an important role in detecting findings that demonstrate biliary tract infestation, often incidentally identified.

  60. Dr. Vikash Ranjan, Dr. Sambuddha Chakrabarty, Dr. Soumendu Bikash Maiti and Dr. V. Naveen Shankar

    Background: Age estimation from teeth is a key indicator to establish identity in forensic cases. CBCT provides several advantages compared to conventional radiographic methods which has been used regularly in forensic cases. Purpose: Dental Age estimation by pulp-to-tooth volume ratio using cone-beam computed tomography. The Retrospective study will attempt to establishing a correlation between the chronological age of a certain individual and the pulp/tooth volume ratio using Cone-beam computed tomography. Materials and Methodology: In this study a total of 50 scans (25 males and 25 females) respectively were collected from the archives of a imaging centre located in Delhi-NCR region. Out of this 50 scans, 20 scans (i.e 10 males and 10 females) of age group between 15-75 years were selected for the study based on the inclusion & exclusion criteria of the study. Results: Mean difference and Standard error difference between the Chronological and Estimated age was not significant as p> 0.05, that is the difference between the Chronological and Estimated age was less. The Pearson Correlation(r) were highly significant, p<0.01. Estimated age was more accurate in middle age. Regression formula for maxillary canine (overall) Age = 48.009 – (973.172 × Pulp/ Tooth Volume Ratio). Conclusion: In our study standard error difference between chronological and estimated age is ±4.09781 years. There was a negative correlation between chronological age and Pulp/ tooth volume ratio, as the advancing age is associated with a decrease in the pulp/ tooth volume ratio.

  61. Dr. Pavneet Kaur Pandher, Dr. Kusum Kumari, Dr. Srimathy S Arora, Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla and Dr. Geetinderpreet Kaur

    The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block is the most frequently used mandibular injection technique for achieving local anesthesia in mandibular surgical procedure. However, the IAN block does not always result in successful anesthesia.Authors reviewed literature regarding comparison between inferior alveolar nerve block & its various modifications relating to specific local anesthetic delivery systems, degree of pulpal anesthesia, anesthetic efficacy.

  62. Paul Nsirimobu Ichendu and Ugwu Rosemary Ogochukwu

    Background: To increase HIV detection in countries with high HIV prevalence, UNAIDS/WHO/CDC recommends provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) strategy for HIV screening. The aim of this study was to assess the uptake of the PITC program, determine the HIV case finding among the population and the proportion of those who tested HIV positive that were enrolled into care and treatment. Method: All patients (aged 0-18years) who visited the children out-patient department of UPTH, who met the inclusion criteria and did not opt out were offered PITC for HIV after an initial screening with Bandason screening tool. Data was analysed and presented in prose, frequency tables and pie chart; chi square was used to compare categorical data while p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Among the 5,697 children who were eligible for the study, 1,117 (19.6%) were screened out using Bandason screening tool while 4,558 (80.0%) accepted HIV testing. Of the 4558 participants who were tested for HIV,303 (6.65%) were found positive. All (100.0%) of those that tested positive were enrolled in care and treatment in the Paediatric HIV clinic of UPTH and other centres. Among the children who were HIV positive, majority 105 (34.65%) were aged 1-5years and this was statistically significant (X 2 =29.59, p=0.001). Conclusion: PITC uptake for HIV was highly acceptable and has a good case finding rate. All patients found to be positive were linked to care and treatment. Public health initiatives (such as the PITC strategy) that facilitate early detection of HIV and referral for early treatment should be encouraged for broader HIV control and prevention in Nigerian communities.

  63. Bassel Salaheddin Saleh and Hassan Mohammed Sarhan

    Background: Investors and portfolio managers who intend to invest in stocks listed on Damascus Securities Exchange (DSE) should understand and evaluate the performance of portfolios constructed using different asset allocation strategies, which in turn helps them shape their allocation decision with this understanding in mind. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of asset allocation strategy on portfolio performance. It compares the out-of-sample performance of mean-variance, minimum variance, equally weighted and market value weighted strategies. The study utilized Sharpe ratio as a proxy for performance measurement. Methods: This paper discusses first the background and literature related to asset allocation strategies’ performance comparison. Then, moves on to test the impact of four asset allocation strategies on portfolio performance of stocks listed on Damascus Securities Exchange (DSE) using bootstrapping technique as a robust inference method proposed by Ledoit et al. (2008). They suggest to construct a studentized time series bootstrap confidence interval for the difference of the Sharpe ratios and to declare the two ratios as significantly different if zero is not contained in the obtained interval. Results: Mean-variance, minimum variance, equally weighted and market value weighted strategies do not realize significantly different performance as measured by Sharpe ratio. Conclusion: The asset allocation strategy does not have an impact on portfolio performance of stocks listed on Damascus Securities Exchange (DSE).

  64. Ahmed M M Gomaa

    Objectives: To indicatea single surgeon's experience in using of port-a-cath in patients who have cancer and discover the most frequent complications encountered with such procedure during a particular period in a single institution. Methods: A subcutaneous port catheter was received in a potential study between 2015 and 2018 by 130 patients; Data on implantation complications and complications during usage of the catheter have been collected. Results: The procedure was performed with an average of 44 minutes in most of the patients under local anesthesia. Many patients had their catheters inserted with almost no intraoperative complications through the right internal jugular vein. Postoperative complications arisen in 17 patients (13.1%).In 5 patients, complications occurred in the form of port site infection (3.8%), 3 patients blocked catheter (2.3%), venous thrombosis in 3 patients (2.3%), In 3 patients, persistent fever with a positive blood culture (2.3%), puncture site hematoma in 1 patient (0.8%), skin necrosis in 1 patient (0.8%) and upside down tilt of the hub in 1 patient (0.8%). Conclusion: In modern oncology, Port-a-cath is a reliable and effective venous access but associated with a certain risk of complications. Medical staff should give care for both the patient and catheter to reduce the risk of complications.

  65. Mohan, A., Karthik, K., Kameshkumar, K. and Saravanan, M.

    In the content of the advanced technology engineers and scientists have visualized and conceptualization many composite and success of their material and concepts is the materialization of their composite. In short it can be said that production and manufacturing units consummate the composite material. Thus, the industry which gives the shape of the theoretical composite material. The basic element of composite material is testing and comparing with GFRAA. To investigate the mechanical properties like Tensile, Fluxural and Impact Strength of glass fibre expoxy laminate with and without Aluminium powder using Ansys.

  66. Thushara Joy, Dr. Jayadevan, C.V., Dr. Sundaran, K. and Dr. Vinodkumar, M.V.

    Exploration of medical literature is a method to revive past tradition and upgrade the theoretical framework of treatment. Bhranthukalpam is such a traditional text detailing the practice of manasroga (Ayurvic mental health care) under the terminology “kirika”. Exploratory study of this text was conducted to identify the characteristics of traditional manasroga treatment and the medical significance of the concept of “kirika” in contemporary psychiatry. Methodology: An exploratory study was done on text Bhranthukalpam with special reference to term kirika. The comparative study of it was done with five other traditional texts (one palmscript, two Tamil texts and two Malayalam texts) with kirika reference identified through field survey and other similar references in Ayurvedic classical texts. The agreement between the similar texts was analyzed by Kappa scoring. Results: The references in the text had parallels in Kerala tradition (a state in South India), it was variant from Tamilnadu (a state in South India) tradition as well as from classical Ayurveda texts. Symptoms of kirika showed more congruence with mood disorders. Conclusion: The traditional manasroga practice was extensive one but the current practitioners were not aware of it. Treatments of these texts could be observed for their efficacy.

  67. Sony Wibisono Mudjanarko and Huwainan Nisa Nasution

    Background: Hypomagnesemia is one of the conditions that can accelerate diabetes complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by altered insulin function and secretion. Hypomagnesemia has been linked to poor glycemic control due to increased insulin resistance and impaired of insulin secretion. Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the association between serum magnesium levels and glycemic control in patients with T2DM who treated with metformin or pioglitazone. Methods: Serum magnesium levels and HbA1c were examined from a total of 41 patients with T2DM treated with metformin ≥ 750 mg/day for at least 3 weeks or pioglitazone ≥ 15 mg/day for at least 4 weeks with a body mass index (BMI) of < 30 kg/m2. An examination of HbA1c was analyzed using Variant and D10 with National Glychohaemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) certification. The serum magnesium level was analyzed using Roche/Hitachi Cobas C 311/501 System. Results: The mean value of serum magnesium levels was 2.04±0.19 mg/dl and the mean of HbA1c was 7.44±1, 57%. There was significant negative correlation between serum magnesium levels with HbA1c (r-0.449, p-value 0.003). Low serum magnesium levels was correlated with poor glycemic control. Conclusion: Serum magnesium levels in patients with T2DM treated with metformin or pioglitazone was inversely correlated to glycemic control. Serum magnesium levels monitoring is important to reduce the risk of diabetes-related complications.

  68. Dr. Shaik Sharmila Sufia, Dr. Shabnam Sufia Shaik and Dr. Madhavi Kondeti

    Periodontitis is the most common multifactorial oral disease of microbial origin characterized by loss of attachment apparatus of tooth leading to edentulism if left untreated. It releases systemic and local inflammatory byproducts which are the possible risk factors for major components of the metabolic syndrome such as Diabetes, obesity, hypertension. Metabolic syndrome is a complex pathology that constitutes of increased plasma glucose, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, elevated abdominal circumference. The presence of above any 3 factors constitute this syndrome. Therefore, this reviewarticle will emphasize on iniquitous relationship between periodontitis &metabolic syndrome, their pathophysiology and evidence / lack of evidence in supporting their association in disease progression.

  69. PhD Juan Miguel Peña Fernández, MSc. Roberto Chávez Chávez Mg Carlos Hugo Angulo Poroso Lcda. Libia Josefina Olvera Pérez and Mg Eliza María Álava mariscal

    Este trabajo es el resultado de una investigación realizada por los autores que consistió de una estrategia de intervención familiar que fue aplicada con el objetivo de contribuir a la preparación de la familia en función del área motriz, para el desarrollo del mismo se tomó como muestra a 20 niños (as)de ellos 8 del género femenino y 12 del género masculinode la comunidad Caymari del municipio Manzanillo, en la República de Cuba, donde se utilizaron los siguientes métodos de investigación: analítico- sintético, inductivo –deductivo, histórico lógico, sistémico estructural, observación, medición y el coaxi experimento y las técnicas de encuestas, entrevistas y revisión documental, los que nos permitieron obtener los datos relacionados con los indicadores de las variables dependientes e independiente, que posteriormente fueron procesados mediante la aplicación del método estadístico del cálculo porcentual, de los resultados obtenidos durante el post test, que fue aplicado al final del coxi experimento, permitieron corroborar que la estrategia de intervención familiar influyo de forma positiva en el desarrollo del área motriz de los 20 niños (as) que fueron objeto de investigación.

  70. PhD Juan Miguel Peña Fernández, Mg Alex Arturo Perlaza Estupiñan, Mg Lorena Bonne Lajones and Mg Giovanni Álava Magallanes

    Este trabajo es el resultado de la experiencia investigativa del autor principal en el deporte de Levantamiento de Pesas, el cual se titula efectividad de la tecnica del ejercicio clásico arranque y su objetivo es analizar la efectividad del ejercicio clásico arranque en los levantadores de pesas de la categoría 15- 16 años de la Federación Deportiva de la Provincia de Los Rios, donde se evidencio que los sujetos investigados presentan dificultades en la ejecución de las partes de la técnica de este ejercicio, debido al debilitamiento de los músculos extensores de las piernas, el tronco y de los flexores de los antebrazos de los diferentes segmentos del cuerpo que trabajan en la cadena acción muscular y a las dificultades de la preparación general y especial, de los sujetos que fueron investigados.

  71. Adah Musati Makokha and Marciana Nafula Were

    The child narrator is a popular narrative technique in children’s literature, especially magical stories and fantasies. However, most authors prefer adult narrators when narrating issues like political instability, gender-based violence, the AIDS scourge and religious exploitation, as this voice projects a feeling of seriousness and authority of experience to potentially attract a bigger readership, especially the adults in the society. Nevertheless, child narrators are an interesting choice because of the degree of emotions they inject in a story, which gives it an earnest tone and makes the reader want to empathize and sympathize with the narrator. Further, since their identities are in the process of formulation, the reader can see, understand and critique how ideologies play a role in the formation of identities and worldviews. Child narrators also appeal to child readers who form a large section of any country’s population and future leadership. The objective of this study was to interrogate the deployment of the child narrative voice in NoViolet Bulawayo’s We Need New Names (2013) in its effectiveness in re-presenting Zimbabwean’s different identities. This study critiqued the effectiveness of the child narrator in presenting, representing and (re)presenting experiences of and challenges faced by Zimbabweans within their country and diaspora. The study targeted blooming authors who are hesitant to use child narrators as the protagonists in their works, and readers and critics who might be interested in discovering ways in which child narrators can be used by an author to address myriad concerns.

  72. Adah Musati Makokha

    The child narrator is a popular narrative technique in children’s literature, especially magical stories and fantasies. However, most authors prefer adult narrators when narrating issues like political instability, gender-based violence, the AIDS scourge and religious exploitation, as this voice projects a feeling of seriousness and authority of experience to potentially attract a bigger readership, especially the adults in the society. Nevertheless, child narrators are an interesting choice because of the degree of emotions they inject in a story, which gives it an earnest tone and makes the reader want to empathize and sympathize with the narrator. Further, since their identities are in the process of formulation, the reader can see, understand and critique how ideologies play a role in the formation of identities and worldviews. Child narrators also appeal to child readers who form a large section of any country’s population and future leadership. The objective of this study was to critic the deployment of the child narrative voice in No Violet Bulawayo’s We Need New Names (2013) in presenting Zimbabwe’s post-independence realities. This study critiqued the effectiveness of the child narrator in presenting, representing and (re)presenting experiences of and challenges faced by Zimbabweans within their country and diaspora. The study targeted blooming authors who are hesitant to use child narrators as the protagonists in their works, and readers and critics who might be interested in discovering ways in which child narrators can be used by an author to address myriad concerns.

  73. Fuad A. A. Saad and MohammedY. M. Akabat

    A total 453 Serum Samples from Women in Thamar with history of one or more unexplained abortion were screened for the presence IgG and IgM antibodies against Cytomegalovirus and Rubella virus by (ELISA). About 71 % (322/453) of the screened females were positive for either Cytomegalovirus or Rubella antibodies. Cytomegalovirus Ig M positive were (4.9 %) , Rubella IgM positive were (28.6 %) were positive CMV IgG (98.7 %) were positive Rubella IgG (27 %) ,and aborted women showed mixed infection with CMV IgM, with Rubella IgG. The rate of one miscarriage abortive women was 4.3 % (14/322) higher than to two and three miscarriage 1.5 % (5/322), 1.5 % (5/322), respectively.

  74. Dr. Sanjoy Ghosh

    The green chemistry revolution is providing an enormous number of challenges to those who practice chemistry in industry, education and research. So, green chemistry is one of the most explored topics these days. Major research on green chemistry aims to reduce on eradicate the production of harmful bi-products and maximizing the desired product in an eco-friendly way. The green chemistry is required to minimize the harm of the nature by anthropogenic materials and the process applied to generate them. Green chemistry involves 12 set of values which minimize on eliminates the use or production of unsafe substances. Scientists and chemists can significantly minimize the risk to environment and health of human by the help of all the valuable ideology of green chemistry the three main developments in green chemistry include use of super critical carbon dioxide water as green solvent, aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent and use of hydrogen in asymmetric synthesis. In order to reduce carbon footprint the customary method of heating are increasingly replaced by microwave heating. The principles of green chemistry can be achieved by the use environmental friendly harmless, reproducible and solvents and catalysts during production of medicine and in researches. This paper explain ideology certain examples and application of green chemistry in everyday life, in industry, the laboratory and education.

  75. Maryam H. Al-Zahrani

    Epithelial ovarian tumors have been reported to mostly come from the simple cuboidal epithelial covering of the ovaries, accounting for 75% of all ovarian tumors and 90-95% of ovarian malignancies. This literature review aims to summarize the evidence of types, staging and management of Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is responsible for the highest mortality rate among women secondary to gynecologic malignancy, with a low 5-year relative survival of only 44%. The possible explanations for such low survival rates are the high incidence of resistance towards the chemotherapeutic agents used in the management of EOC and the lack of consideration of the great degree of heterogeneity of epithelial ovarian cancers in the current standards of care. The current literature review highlights the latest perspectives of EOC including the identification of the various subtypes of EOC, the most practical staging system used, and the current therapeutic advancements for EOC.

  76. Mcwinner Yawman, Mencho Loayan and Junnie Rex Ambos

    The high cost of hybrid seeds and seedlings is one of the key problems faced by famers. Problems in percent germination and germination time make it uneasy for farmers to attain uniform crop establishment and timely harvest. Seed viability decreases over time, and the natural ability in plants for inducing germination weakens with prolonged storage and dormancy. However, the use of plant growth regulators such as the synthetic gibberellic acid (GA) could be an alternative for enhancing germination of expired and long stored seeds. Thus, this experiment aims to test effect of synthetic gibberellic acid (GA) in enhancing germination of expired and unexpired mustard green (Brasicca juncea) seeds. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomized design with four treatments and four replications. Result of the study revealed that applying 900ppm synthetic gibberellic acid (GA) significantly repair expired seeds and improve germination percentage from 64% to 98% (34% enhancement rate) within 80 hours. For unexpired seeds, GA could be used to achieve maximum germination of 100% within 60 hours.

  77. Dr. Deepak Kumar Routray

    Over the years, mathematical statistics have become increasingly important in the social sciences. In fact, the use of mathematical statistics methods is now ubiquitous: Almost all social sciences rely on statistical methods to analyze data and to form hypotheses, and almost all of them use more or less a range of mathematical methods to help us understand the social world to some extent. Focusing on this the paper analyse and surveyed a variety of mathematical methods that are used in the social sciences and argued that such techniques, in spite of several methodological objections, can add extra value to social scientific research. It also discus some of their philosophical questions and focused on methodological issues in statistics- the part of mathematics that is most frequently used in the social sciences, in particular in the design and interpretation of experiments. The paper also analyzes the emergence of the rationale behind the ubiquitous significance tests, as well as explained the pitfalls to which many researches fall prey when using them. Finally, after comparing significance testing to rivalling schools of statistical inference, the recent trends was discussed in the methodology of the social sciences.

  78. Dr. Khushbu Talreja, Dr. Krishna Dubey, Dr. Mayank Sharma, Dr. Sushil Kumar Mewara and Dr. Ajay Gupta

    Introduction: The use of biological markers in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is a breakthrough. Demonstration of elevated levels of Pleural fluid Adenosine deaminase (ADA), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tuberculous proteins/antibodies lysozme etc. have been proposed. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) estimation in pleural fluid has been shown as reliable biomarker specially when there is suspicion of tuberculosis. Detection of mycobacterium DNA by PCR is also a proposed test3,4. However India being a developing country with much of its people below poverty line cannot afford expensive tests like ELISA, PCR, IFN-γ. Hence, there is need for relatively cheaper and simple tests with feasibility and sensitivity going hand-in-hand5 TPE being proposed to be a delayed hypersensitive reaction and lymphocytes play a major role in the pathogenesis. With >50% lymphocytes in the pleural fluid, combined criterion of lymphocyte to neutrophil ratio of >0.75 with a raised ADA level increased the specificity of diagnosis in many recent studies10,12. Aims and Objectives: The aims and objectives of our study are - To analyse the cell count, protein and glucose levels in pleural fluid. To correlate cell counts with ADA levels of pleural fluid in order to confirm diagnosis of tuberculosis. To correlate cytomorphology of pleural fluid with clinical and other details available of patient in order to arrive at the diagnosis. Material And methods: The present institutional based prospective study was undertaken after obtaining Ethical clearance. 500 patients presenting with pleural effusion were studied. In all the patients, a detailed history was taken and physical examination of pleural fluid was done in which colour of fluid, amount and nature of fluid was noted. Pleural fluid was received for cytological examination. Total and differential count (TDLC) was done by manual method. Glucose and protein estimation in pleural was also done. Pleural fluid ADA levels wasmeasured by spectrophotometric method. Clinicocytological as well as ADA correlation was done in all cases for the diagnosis of tubercular pleural effusions. All cases except hemothorax and empyema were included in the study. Pleural fluid was collected in 2 separate containers one for biochemical analysis- protein, glucose and ADA estimation, another for TDLC and cytological examination. About 20 cc fluid was collected for the study. The pleural fluid was subjected to the above mentioned tests within 3-4 hours. -Pleural fluid Glucose, Protein, ADA level were estimated by spectrophotometeric method using (COBAS C311, (Hitachi-Roche) instrument.

  79. Mahfuja Khatun, Rehana Khatun and Md. Shahadat Hossen

    Urban heat island (UHI) is a phenomenon of higher atmospheric and surface temperatures occurring in urban areas than in the surrounding rural areas due to urbanization. Rapid urbanization leads to increase in impermeable surfaces in the form of pavements and roads that may reduce natural vegetation cover and increase the surface temperature. Characterization of UHI is an important issue due to its harmful effects on human health and environment. The study was carried out to observe urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon under different land use land covers (built-up area, vegetated area, water body and bare soil) and its effect on human comfort in capital city Dhaka and its suburban area (Savar), Bangladesh. The last 30 years (1987-2016) temperature and relative humidity were collected from Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) to investigate the presence of heat island phenomenon in the study areas. Air temperature and relative humidity under different land use land covers were measured using Thermo-hygro data logger from July to September, 2017 (10 July, 8 August and 8 September) in order to find out the thermal behavior of different land use land covers (built-up area, bare soil, vegetated area and water body). During the period of 1987-2016, annual average temperature increased by 0.024 °C / year in Dhaka, 0.0199 °C/year in Savar. In comparison with the rate of temperature increase with its suburban area, the rate of increase in Dhaka was higher, indicating the existence of urban heat island in this city throughout the study period (1987-2016). In Dhaka, the highest (3.5 °C) urban heat island intensity (UHII) was in 1999 and the lowest (0.6 °C) was in 2011. The built-up area exhibited the highest UHI effect in comparison with bare soil, vegetated area and water body. Highest UHII of Dhaka was 3.3 °C in built-up area and lowest was 0.2 °C in vegetated area. Thermo hygrometric index (THI) ranged from 26.2 °C to 32.6 for Dhaka city and 25.7 °C to 31.8 ° C for Savar sub-urban area indicating the more comfortable condition in Savar. From this study, it is found that land use land cover changes (from vegetated to impervious layer) in urban areas increased urban heat island phenomena compared to its surrounding sub-urban area.

  80. Dr. Abdulhammed Khairalddin, Ahmed Bawazir, Saleh Al-Qhtani, Faisal Al-Humayied, Shoaib Al-Ahmari and Adham Al-Shammari

    The purpose of this research paper is to compare health care systems within The vision 2030 of Saudi Arabia .A new primary health care system has been founded and initiatives have been implemented, to make sure we are developing within the right path, we have to compare our healthcare system to those in highly advanced industrialized countries, a comparison will be between the health care system of United States of America (USA) and Nordics countries ( Sweden, Denmark, Norway) and Saudi Arabia, it will be formulated by Murray-Frenk framework. The first part of the research paper will focus on the description of health care systems in the above-mentioned countries while the second part will analyze, evaluate and compare the three systems regarding equity and efficiency. We start by providing a general description and comparison of the structure of health care systems in United Statutes of America (USA) and Nordics Countries (Sweden, Denmark, Norway) and comparing within our healthcare system in Saudi Arabia.

  81. Jestony K. Escobar, Meriam Ruby T. Coquilla, Johnny Rey A. Libay, Gil M. Alegre and Edilmar P. Masuhay

    Students’ decision on their career choices has been studied thru interviews, a simple mathematical expression using spreadsheet has emphasized the importance of this study. Eventually, there were students failed to land their career choices and overpowered by their parents’ wants, entrance exams and standards negates their first career choice and took their present course of studies by chance. However, this chance turned into their choices.

  82. Dr. Nasheen Bagali, Dr. Maheboob Bagali and Dr. Praveen Kumar, S.P.

    Background: This study was carried out to describe the pattern of lymphadenopathy with demographic and clinical profiles of the patients presenting with cervical lymphadenothy and assessing relative diagnostic efficacy of the clinical evaluation, fine needle aspiration biopsy and open biopsy. Method: This prospective study was conducted in department of pathology in AL Ameen Medical collage , 150 cases of chronic cervical lymphadenopathy came to pathology department for FNAC or Histopathology were enrolled in this study. Results: Tuberculous adenitis is the common cause of cervical lymphadenitis with 63% cases followed by chronic non-specific lymphadenitis with 27.33% cases, lymphoma with 5.33% cases, secondary carcinoma with 2% cases and drug induced 2%.There were 44% males and 56% females Most of the patients belong to the poor socio-economical class and 80.7% of TB lymphadenitis belonged to low socioeconomic status,most of the cases were from rural area. Presenting symptom was swelling in the neck, unilateral lymph node involvement was seen in 92%,upper anterior deep cervical lymph node 44% followed by Sub-mandibular and sub- mental nodal involvement 22% cases were seen. Only 4% of the patient showed evidence of active tuberculosis on radiology, FNAC is conclusive up to 88%. Conclusion : Tuberculous adenitis is the common cause of cervical lymphadenitis usually present as unilateral lymph nodes enlargement without constitutional symptoms upper and anterior deep cervical followed by sub-mandibular and sub-mental commonly involed lymph node. In cervical lymphadenopathy FNAC is most reliable diagnostic tool, which is easy to perform, cost effective.

  83. Dr. Nasheen Bagali, Dr. Maheboob Bagali and Dr. Praveen Kumar S. P.,

    Background: The aim of this study is to find out association of H.Pylori and acid peptic disease in patients with symptoms of Dyspepsia. Materials and Methods: 100 patients presenting with the symptoms of dyspepsia who underwent upper GI Endoscopy in department of surgery and those refered pathology department for histopathology. Results: Majority of patients were male and age group between 20 to 39 years i.e 47%. On endoscopy majority of the findings were gastritis 35% patients, followed by duodenitis 22% pts, esophagitis 19% patients, gastric ulcer in 5% pts, duodenal ulcer in 4% pts and 2% pts had gastric cancer. 13% patients has normal on endoscopic findings. The highest positivity of RUT was seen in pts of Gastritis 91.42% and duodenitis 81.81%, followed by esophagitis 68.42%. The positivity of RUT in gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer was 80 % and 75 % rescpectively. Pts with normal mucosa having 69.23% RUT positive. culture was positive in 17 pts. H. Pylori was isolated from 7% pts of gastritis, 4% pts in duodenitis, 1% from gastric ulcer, 2% from duodenal ulcer and 3% patients with normal scopy findings. Conclusion: H.Pylori is now widely recognized as the most common cause of primary or unexplained gastritis in patients present with the symptoms of Dyspepsia and RUT is accurate for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection.

  84. Dr. Jayakumar Perumal and Prof. Thiruvalluvan, A

    Introduction: Ependymomas are glial series tumours that can occur throughout the neural axis, usually in close proximity to the ventricles (especially the fourth ventricle) or central canal., The histological features,which remain identical despite the varied morphology of intraventricular versus intraparenchymal tumours, are also considered. Case report: Here we report 4 cases of extraventricular intraparenchymal supratentorial tumors. Headache was the commonest presenting complaint seen followed by vomiting, seizure, raised intracranial pressure etc. Surgery was advised as the first line of management. Two patients recovered post operatively and are asymptomatic under follow up. Two patients were taken for adjuvant radiotherapy, one in view of recurrence and another patient in view of subtotal resection. We present the symptomatology, histology, imaging characteristics and management options in detail. Conclusion: As the tumour is amenable to total radical resection, radical surgery alone is an option. The need for postoperative adjuvant therapy has been controversial for supratentorialependymomas. Postoperative radiation therapy must be administered in every case of partially resected ependymomas. Adults have a better five-year survival rate than children. When considered together, age at diagnosis along with extent of the surgical resection was better correlated to outcome.Patients with symptoms lasting less than 1 month before diagnosis have a worse outcome than those with a more protracted course. In regards to tumour location, patients with supratentorialependymomas have generally a better survival rate than patients with posterior fossa ependymomas.

  85. Dr. Arun Kumar M.S., Dr. Reshmi, T.S., Dr. Shashikanth Hegde and Dr. Rajesh K.S.

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating matter, measured in the billionths of meters, roughly the size of two or three atoms. Nanotechnology has revolutionized all fields including health care and engineering, and dentistry being no exception. The way forward for nanotechnology in the various fields of dentistry seems to be full of possibilities as dental practices have the potential to be performed using these nano-eqiupments and devices. The recent nanotechnology innovations are increasingly providing a suitable solution for the treatment of many dental illness including periodontal disease. Therefore, a better understanding of the science behind nanotechnology is inevitable to appreciate how nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance of near perfect oral health. The present paper focuses on the impact created by nanotechnology in the field of Periodontology at preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic level, and also the current status of nanotechnology-based approaches for periodontal disease therapy.

  86. Plínio Pinto Malveira MD, Sóstenes Muniz Sampaio Sabiá MD, Ana Cláudia Ferreira Câmara MD, Jorge Luis Bezerra Holanda MD and Francisco Barbosa de Araújo NetoMD

    Visceral artery aneurysms are uncommon conditions and, depending on the mechanism of formation and etiological factors, they can be divided into pseudoaneurysms and true aneurysms. Pseudoaneurysms are mainly caused by pancreatic inflammatory and infectious processes (pancreatitis), which allow the dissemination of proteolytic enzymes that promote vessel wall weakening and erosion. A 44-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with abdominal complaints. He underwent ultrasound and computed tomography that diagnosed vascular pseudoaneurysm adjacent to the head of the pancreas and biliary tract. Endovascular technique has currently been the strategy of choice for the treatment of pseudoaneurysms, as it is a safe and effective method, less aggressive, generally as a shorter hospital stay.

  87. Fasihah Irfani Fitri

    Introduction: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is one of the leading causes of neurodegenerative dementia in people under 60 years old. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most well-established environmental risk factor for dementia. Case Report: We present a case of 59-year-old male patient with 3 years history of behavioral abnormalities and personality changes with gradual onset. He had history of severe TBI about 20 years before the initial presentation, in which he needed a surgery for intracranial hemorrhage evacuation.The neuropsychological examination showed perseveration, impairment in executive function, verbal and visual memory and visuospatial. He was cooperative during examination but sometimes would show inappropriate and bizarre behavior toward the examiner. The MRI Brain result showed frontal and temporal atrophy. The patient was given symptomatic treatment, as there was no approved pharmacological therapy for FTD. Discussion: Behavioral changes are the presenting feature and dominate the clinical picture throughout the disease course. This patient was diagnosed with FTD because of the progressive abnormality of the behavior along with personality change. The imaging results showed lesions that caused by the TBI which happened almost 20 years before the initial symptom but also showed frontal and anterior temporal atrophy. In the absence of definitive biomarkers, the diagnosis of bvFTD is dependent on clinical diagnostic criteria. Conclusion: The present study emphasized the importance of a detailed history and neurological examination, including neuropsychological examination and brain imaging in the case of middle-aged patients with insidious onset of personality changes and behavior problems.

  88. Dr. Aishwarya Ramkumar, Dr. Raghunath N., Dr Munaif V. and Dr. Naveen Chandran

    There is an increased tendency for researchers to focus on accelerating methods for tooth movement due to the huge demand by adults for a shorter orthodontic treatment time. Unfortunately, adults typically require longer treatment periods because their metabolism is much slower than in younger patients. Probably the best way to shorten treatment time is to speed up tooth movement. Long orthodontic treatment time poses several disadvantages like higher predisposition to caries, gingival recession, and root resorption, decreased patient cooperation. Thus the need for shorter treatment durations with effective treatments has brought about the use of various modalities to accelerate tooth movement .

  89. Sounderraj, K., Nagarangani Prakash, Sreeshma, C.S., Anu Raveendran and Avinash, N.T.

    Selection of a suitable implant biomaterial is the most important criteria for the success of treatment. Implantology has become mainstream practice and accepted as a desirable treatment and as an alternative to conventional removable and fixed dental prosthesis. It is mandatory for a clinician to have a knowledge about various biomaterial used for dental implants for their judicious selection and application. This literature review makes an effort to summarize the evolution of various biomaterials their properties and characteristics and its impact on treatment outcome.

  90. Dr. Kashish Sachdev, Dr. Dilip Khambete, Dr. Abhijeet Shete, Dr. Pradnya Khatavkar, Dr. Priyanka Pol and Dr. Ankita Dhekane

    An increasing number of adult patients have been seeking orthodontic treatment, and a short treatment time has been a recurring request. To meet their expectations, a number of innovative techniques have been developed to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. Corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment is an established and efficient technique that has gradually gained popularity as an adjunct treatment option for the orthodontic treatment of adults in which there is selective alveolar decortication with or without bone grafting. Orthodontic closure of old, edentulous spaces in the mandibular posterior region is a major challenge because of high density of mandibular bone. In this case report, we have performed corticotomy that can expedite space closure while maintaining control over tooth angulations in adult patients with long-standing edentulous sites.

  91. Rusmiati, S.KM., M. Si, Rachmaniyah, SKM, M.Kes, AT.Diana Nerawati, SKM, M.Kes

    This research was motivated by microbial air contamination such as mold, fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Indoor microbiological air contamination is more dangerous rather than outdoor microbial contamination. The purpose in this research was to understand the decreasing of Indoor Mold Number using Humidifier Modification with Sanseviera sp. Extract Solution. To understand this thing, we would count indoor mold number before and after using sanseviera extract as additional material in humidifier, next we would analyze the effectiveness of this method. Pra experiment was done by using One Group Pre-Post Test Design. Independent variable in this research was Sanseveira extract concentration (50%, 70%, and 100%) and dependent variable was mold number. Data was tested using paired t test and anova test. The average results in 0% concentration was 30,59 CFU/m3, 50% concentration was 24,62 CFU/m3 and 70% concentration was 28,62 CFU/m3. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the mold number before and after sanseviera added. But the results of mold number in both concentrations still can not fulfill the Indonesian regulation Permenkes 1077/ Menkes/Per/V/2011, that was 0 CFU/m3. Only 100% of sanseviera extract that fulfill this regulation. The percentages of mold number decreasing in 50% concentration was 23,74%, in 70% concentration was 42,79% and in 100% it decreased until 100%. It also makes 100% concentration was the most effective to decrease indoor mold number. The conclusion from this research was Sanseviera Solution Extract can be used as additional material in Humidifier Modification to decrease indoor mold number. We recommend for the development of science and technology that are appropriate for environmental health related to the control air pollution tested to modify the Sanseviera extract solution or other extract which can also absorb pollutants.

  92. Dr. Tejinder Pal Singh, Dr. Nitin Saroch, Dr. Sanjay Soni and Dr. Paramjot Jagdev

    A considerable amount of overall population suffers from inordinate dental anxiety/fear that makes them to avoid the dental treatment. Avoiding dental offices can lead to many complications with bad consequences. It is the most frequently encountered issues in the dental offices. To perform an effective dental procedure on a patient suffering from anxiety/fear, it is very important to diagnose dental anxiety/fear and manage it in proper manner. It is important for a practitioner to properly assess patient’s behaviour, cause of his/her anxiety and treat it with adequate therapy methods. The aim of this review is to present causes of dental anxiety/fear as well as management of it.

  93. Dr. Aman Abrol and Dr. Ishita Agarwal

    Background: Root canal preparations done using many rotary endodontic instruments results in formation of root dentin defects because of the stress induced by the instruments within the root canal during cleaning and shaping, thereby worsening the long term prognosis of the root canal treated teeth. Many rotary instruments are been globally studied for the purpose of generating a correct instrument for root canal preparation. Objective: To compare dentinal microcrack formation whilst using ProTaper Next file, HyFlex EDM file and Two Shape file system. Materials and methods: Thirty mandibular first molars were selected and were divided into three groups. ProTaper Next, HyFlex EDM and Two Shape files were used to prepare the mesial canals. Roots were then sectioned 3, 6 and 9 mm from the apex, and the cut surface was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and checked for the presence of dentinal microcracks.

  94. Dr. Amit K Walvekar, Dr. Meharunneesa Nallakkendavida, Dr. Amitha Sathish Dr. Ammu Jose Paul and Dr. Kith P Jose

    Background: In spite of the relatively minimal knowledge on the etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease inflammatory activity in the brain has been proposed to be the most plausible cause. Researches have indicated that, peripheral infection /inflammation can have an impact on infection in central nervous system. Chronic periodontitis is a common peripheral infection with predominant bacterial etiology and a marked increase in the serum C Reactive Protein count. Periodontitis, lately has been known to be involved in various systemic diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: A literature review was performed by referring to the scientific papers on the internet from the PubMed and Google Scholar and databases from 1985 to 2019 The present article reviews the pathogenesis of periodontitis associated with Alzheimer’s disease along with few probable mechanism by which periodontitis can contribute to Alzheimer’s disease. Result: Periodontal disease can influence Alzheimer's disease through different mechanism. Conclusion Because Periodontitis is a treatable disease it could be a modifiable risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

  95. Dr. Kaveti Vihitha Reddy, Dr. Prasad Kulkarni and Dr. Rahul Kishore

    Introduction: Autologous blood transfusion is the collection of blood from a single patient and re-transfusion back to the same patient when required. The primary driving forces for the use of autologous blood transfusion are to reduce the risk of transmission of infection and to protect an increasingly scarce resource. Case report: A 60 Year old female patient posted for thyroidectomy. On examination solitary swelling in front of the neck of 8*8 cm, oval in shape, smooth surface, extending superiorly upto hyoid bone and inferiorly till suprasternal notch. TFT showed euthyroid state and Blood counts revealed thrombocytosis-7lakhs cu mm. All other investigations were within normal limits. Patient planned for General anaesthesia with nasal intubation(MO<2F). ENT opinion was taken and bilateral vocal cords were reported to be normal.Intraoperative events uneventful. Postoperative subsequent retransfusion of red blood cells along with normal saline was done to preserve adequate blood volume. This technique reduced the platelet count without a significant alteration in coagulation factor activity.Postoperative subsequent retransfusion of red blood cells along with normal saline was done to preserve adequate blood volume. This technique reduced the platelet count without a significant alteration in coagulation factor activity. Discussion: Thrombocytosis is a commonly encountered clinical scenario, with a large proportion of cases discovered incidentally. Thrombocytosis can be spurious, attributed to a reactive process or due to clonal disorder. The threshold for clinically significant thrombocytosis is variable from patient to patient, a platelet count of ≥450 × 109/L is a generally accepted value. ANH is performed in the anaesthetic room shortly after induction of anaesthesia. A large-bore cannula is inserted to allow the collection of 15–20 ml kg−1 of blood prior to surgery. Blood volume is restored with crystalloid or colloid. The collected blood is carefully labelled and kept with the patient in the operating room at all times; there is no need for refrigeration. The blood is transfused back to the patient at the end of surgery once haemostasis is achieved. Conclusion: Autologous blood transfusion, when used appropriately, can provide a safe alternative to allogenic blood transfusion. However, there will always be a need for allogenic blood (even patients who have autologous blood may need further transfusion with allogenic units). There is an important need to balance use of resources in ensuring safe blood transfusion for all those who need it.

  96. Dr. Syed Ghazanfar Imam, Dr. Devendra Saini, Dr. Rajendra Bagree, Dr. Jagram Meena and Dr. Shubhanshu Gaurav

    Background: Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy in Indian women. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment. Modified radical mastectomy with or without reconstruction or breast preservation in addition to axillary lymph node dissection are common surgical procedures in breast cancer. Surgery of the axilla is associated with numerous complications, including infection, lymphedema of the ipsilateral upper extremity and collection of fluid in surgical site (seroma). Most common complication after breast cancer surgery is seroma. The exact etiology of seroma formation remains controversial. It is an accepted fact that negative suction prevents seroma collection and helps in the adherence of the walls of the axilla thus reducing the dead space and allowing the lymphatics to close. But, High negative suction pressure generated by the drain can maintain lymph drainage by a negative pressure gradient, paradoxically, not allowing the lymphatic channels to close leading to continuous drainage and a higher incidence of seroma formation. In our study, we evaluated two groups of patients, who had, the full and half vacuum suction pressure drains in situ, respectively, for their effect on seroma formation. Methods- The study was conducted in the general surgery / Oncosurgery department of S.M.S. Medical College and attached group of hospitals, Jaipur, from March 2018 to Dec 2019. 40 patients each belonged to the two respective groups that were compared and evaluated for the seroma formation. Results: In the present study it was observed that high suction caused prolonged drainage, which can possibly be explained by the hypothesis that high negative suction may not allow, leaking lymphatics to close. Therefore no suction or high suction drainage both may contributed to the same result that is higher incidence of seroma formation and longer hospital stay. Discussion: To strike a balance between not having suction at all and having a very high or full negative suction, half negative suction drainage was used in the present study to achieve a shorter hospital stay without any increase in the rate of post-operative seroma formation. But it was not found to effectively reduce the Hospital stay and also did not increase the postoperative morbidity as compared to high (full) negative suction group.

  97. Anjana Pradhan, Kusum Gurung and Sanchi Subba

    Rapid Biodiversity Survey assessment was carried out along the sampling path of Lhonak Valley in the north district of Sikkim in October 2018 and a total of 102 floral species were recorded out of which, 81 species were represented by herbs and 21 species by scrubs. These species belonged to 55 genera in total (48 dicots, 4 monocots and 3 gymnosperms) and 33 families (27 dicots, 3 monocots and 3 gymnosperms). Out of the 102 species, 88 were dicots (86.3%), 11 were monocots (10.8%) and only 3 were gymnosperms (2.9%). Asteraceae was the largest family which contributed 11 species followed by Rosaceae (8 species), Gentianaceae (7 species) and Ericaceae and Caryophyllaceae (6 species each). The life-form spectra of the region shows dominance of hemicryptophytes with 43.3% followed by chamaephytes (29.9%), phanaerophytes (13.4%), therophytes (7.2%) and crypotophytic geophytes (6.1%). The high percentage of hemicryptophytes shows the indication of high altitude area and cold climate. The survey also reported the presence of 14 faunal and 21 avi-faunal species through direct and indirect evidences.

  98. Annie A. Parmis, Mary Cris M. Pole and Flordeluna I. Pinote

    This study was an investigation of students’ oral presentation with regard to their personality traits and difficulties and how these variables relate to their speaking proficiency. Descriptive research method was used wherein the first set of respondents composed of 40 graduating Bachelor of Arts in English Language (AB-EL) students answered a questionnaire on personality traits in conducting oral presentation and a speaking proficiency test. Results showed that personality traits affect moderately the performance of the students when it comes to oral presentation. Also, the respondents fall under “competent users” in their speaking proficiency. Findings further revealed that personality traits really affect the respondents’ capability to present well in front of the audience, and that there is a significant relationship between the respondents’ personality traits when they do oral presentations and their speaking proficiency. Also, the direction of the relationship is positive which means that the variables increase together. The second set of respondents composed of 40 First Year Bachelor of Arts in English Language Studies (ABELS) students were made to answer a questionnaire on oral presentation difficulties and a speaking proficiency test. Results revealed that majority of the respondents are generally “moderate” in having difficulties in conducting oral presentation and were “competent users” of the English language. However, the study further showed that the oral presentation difficulties are statistically not related to the speaking proficiency of the respondents. This research suggests that students engage themselves more in oral activities and exercises to train themselves to enhance their confidence when it comes to oral presentation. Moreover, this study recommends that students build a strong rapport and friendly relationship among themselves and their mentors to make the classroom environment more relaxing and conducive to learning.

  99. Ryan Ray G. Gatbonton and Geraldine Rowena Galang-Gatbonton

    Background: Anemerging and innovative method of applying technology in teaching is the use of mobile applications for learning. This meta-analysis aimed to provide evaluative data about several experiments that explore the effects of mobile applications in instilling knowledge, skills, and attitudes among students. Methods: In order to investigate these effects, this study scrutinized—using specific inclusion criteria—six full-text articles searched in academic databases. Effect sizes were computed for each research, and the mean effect size for all the studies was obtained. The review’s findings reveal that the six research articles involved 1,483 study subjects, with6 effect sizes determined accordingly. Results: The mean effect size of 2.32 reveals that mobile teaching applications produce remarkable improvement in knowledge, skills, and attitude outcomes relevant to physics education. Android-based applications are observed to produce the largest effect size (9.95) while integrating mobile devices with learning management systems produced the lowest effect size (–1.84). Conclusions: Consistent with educational and learning theories, the results of this academic synthesis provide convincing and converging evidence as to the wisdom of incorporating mobile applications in the teaching-learning milieu of physics students, in particular, and the academic community, in general.

  100. McWinner Yawman and Justice Appiah-Kubi

    This study examined how family background impacts the academic achievement of senior high school students, and how students with different family backgrounds are able to cope with problems they face in school. The study sample consisted of grade ten to twelve students from Baguio City National High School in Benguet, Philippines. Approximately 250 students consisting of 100 boys and 150 girls from five Departments in the School were randomly selected for the study. Data were gathered using questionnaires. The findings showed that family background has no significant effect on students’ Academic achievements. On the other hand, it was noticed that boys are able to significantly adjust to problems in school more than their female counterparts with the same or similar family backgrounds. It is therefore suggested that parents pay more attention to their girls in senior high school to help them adapt to their school environments.

  101. McWinner Yawman and Wijawati Rainu

    This study reviews four of the human needs theories as they relate to the commitment of employees in institutions of higher learning. Many factors account for why employees leave their jobs.This study tries to look at how factors such as stress and organizational climate influence organizational commitment. It begins by discussing the various components of the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs as they affect the commitment of employees. It continues to discuss ERG theory, Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory, and finally, McClelland’s Acquired-needs Theory. It is seen in that a factor such as stress has both positive and negative relationships with employee commitment. Stress could serve as a catalyst for growth; however, it could also lead to lack of commitment depending on the type of stress and nature of work. On organizational commitment, it is concluded that positive environment or climate increases employee commitment and vice versa.

  102. Abeje Kumilachew

    Background: participating in any sport activity has social, health and skill related benefits due to this physical disability individuals that participated on sport activity have increase their confidence. Objective: the main objectives of this study were to find out the incidence and the factors that affect the participations of Disability students in sport activity. Methods: to find out the factors the researcher were used cross-sectional research design in Woldia University totally 46 disability students so the researcher were used all students. Result: the prevalence of the disability students were 46 from those 6 students were visual impairment the rests were physical disability. 95% of the respondents were not participating with any sport activities. All respondents were having interest to participating on sport activities. 65% of the respondents knew the benefits that participating on different sport activities. Conclusion: the respondents were described the causes that limited on physical activities. Some of the were Lack of awareness’ about the benefits of participating in sport, haven’t knowledge about the adapted sports, the attitudes of the community on their village on the disability individuals, the physical Education teachers excluded those students during practical activities at elementary and high school, there was no coordinator and motivator for participating different sports and there was no launch different sport activities for disability students in our university.

  103. Abeje Kumilachew

    Background: Football is one of the most widely played sports in the world. FIVA represents over 200 million played football. Objective: the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and causes on football players of a club in Woldia F.C in the season of 2018-2019 G.C. Methods: Descriptive survey study was used. For this study all players and coach was included on the selected club (21 volleyball players and 1 coach). A self– administered questions and observation were used. The collected data were taken and analyzed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. The results are displayed using table and figures. Results: response rate of 100% was obtained, 76.19% of the players experienced with one or more injuries in the season, 61 injuries occurred on the seasons and the rate were 2.9 per player. Among the injured players the most injuries and body’s were skin (abrasion) 85.7% and thigh (muscle strain) 47.62%. Most injury occurred due to failed on ground and improper landing during heading the ball. Conclusion- abrasion and muscle strain injuries were the most common types of injuries occurred on players. physiotherapy services were not functional in the club due to absence of physiotherapists.

  104. Hussein Finjan Al-delfi and Mohammed A. Abdulkareem

    A field trial was conducted on a farm at Al- Dujaila area, 36 km southeast of Kut city, Wast province, Iraq during the growing season of 2018 to study the response of sunflower to eight organic fertilizer treatments added with four levels. Treatments included: control (T0); 100% composted poultry manure (T1); 100% uncomposted poultry manure (T2);composted (66%poultry manure + 16.5% wheat straw + 16.5% conocarpus) (T3); uncomposted (66%poultry manure + 16.5% wheat straw + 16.5% conocarpus) (T4); composted (50% poultry manure + 25% wheat straw + 25 conocarpus) (T5); uncomposted (50%poultry manure + 25% wheat straw + 25 conocarpus) (T6); composted (33%poultry manure + 33% wheat straw + 33% conocarpus) (T7) and uncomposted (33%poultry manure + 33% wheat straw + 33% conocarpus) (T8). The organic fertilizer levels were: 0% organic fertilizer + 100% chemical fertilizers (L0); 50% organic fertilizer + 50% chemical fertilizers (L50); 75% organic fertilizer + 25% chemical fertilizers (L75); 100% organic fertilizer + 0% chemical fertilizers (L100). The chemical fertilizers 200 kg N ha-1, 80 kg P ha-1 and 120 kg K ha-1. The experiment was conducted in a three replicates with randomized complete block design. All fertilizer were applied by mixing method with 20 cm upper layer of the raw. Sunflower seeds (Vr. Panam) were sowing in 1 March 2018 and plants were harvested in 20 June 2018. The results revealed that N, P, and K concentrations in leaves, oil content and protein content in seeds were significantly increased in plants received organic fertilizers alone or in combination with chemical fertilizers over plants received chemical fertilizers alone. Composted organic fertilizers recorded highest values of growth parameters as compared with uncomposted fertilizers. The crop under integrated treatment T1L50 recorded highest N concentration (35.03 g kg-1) and highest seed oil content (45.38%). However, crop under treatments T3L100 and T1L100 recorded the highest P (3.93 g kg-1), K (35.08 g kg-1) and protein content of seeds (26.97%), respectively.

  105. Thirupathi, G.

    Poor aqueous solubility, hepatic first-pass metabolism, presence of barriers and enzymes might be hamper the oral absorption of the majority of new chemical entities. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) can be an attractive for oral drug delivery vehicle as they grip tremendous possible to improve the oral bioavailability of drugs, associated reduction of drug toxicity and stability of drug in both GIT and plasma. SLNs are in submicron size range and are made of biocompatible and biodegradable materials capable of incorporating both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs. SLNs are also considered as substitute to other colloidal drug systems and also used controlled systems and targeted delivery. This review provides the summary on the development of SLNs of poorly water soluble drugs for improved oral delivery. Further, special focus will be made on the current status of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies reported on SLNs.

  106. Mukesh Kumar, Priya, Shivakant, Anoop Kumar and Shobhit Kumar

    The scientists have faced major challenges in Ocular drug delivery system because of the unique anatomy and physiology of eye. In treating anterior segment diseases topical eye drop is the most convenient and patient compliant route of drug administration. There are two types of barriers in ocular drug delivery system: static and dynamic barrier. Static barrier includes cornea, sclera, retina and blood- retinal barriers while dynamic barrier includes choroidal and conjunctival blood flow, tear dilution and lymphatic clearance. These barriers influence the bioavailability of drugs. Current article reviews the manacles in conventional ocular therapy, indispensable factors in ocular pharmacokinetics. It also describes a variety of approaches such as eye ointments, gel, prodrug, intravitreal injections, viscosity enhancers, penetration enhancers, liposomes, microparticles, niosomes, ocular inserts, implants, nanoparticles, nanosuspension, microemulsion, in situ-forming gel, iontophoresis, and periocular injections to increase the ocular bioavailability of drug and provide controlled and continous release of the drug to the anterior and posterior chamber of the eye.

  107. Sanjay V. Satpute

    Traditional herbal medicine is a chief source of biologically active compounds needed for the treatment of human ailments. There are many more medicinal plant species used as folklore medicine, but very few attempts has been made so far to validate those claims. Credibility assessment of medicinal plants is necessary for wider acceptance all over the world. Authentication and scientific validation of medicinal plant is a fundamental requirement of industry and other organizations dealing with herbal drugs.

  108. Sanjay V. Satpute

    Wounds are unpreventable events in life. Healing is a survival mechanism and it maintains normal anatomical structure and function of the skin through tissue regeneration. Plants play an important role in wound treatment, and induce healing and regeneration of the lost tissue by multiple mechanisms. Therefore, a survey was carried out with the help of local herbal halers in study area regarding use of plants in the treatment of wounds. It was found that, total 27 plant species are used by herbal healers in wound treatment. Plant parts used and treatment procedures are given in detail. Proved biological activities of 22 species are mentioned as experimental evidence in support of traditional use.

  109. Sarika S. Kandharkar, Pratiksha D. Talawar and Dinesh D. kelgaonkar

    Charak samhita is believed to written around 400-200BCE. It is one of the most ancient and authoritative writings to Ayurveda. Acharya Charaka mentioned nineteen plant drugs of which Fruit is the useful part (Charak Samhita, 2011). These drugs are mainly indicated for Vaman, Asthapan, Virechan and shirovirechan karma ( Charak Samhita, 2011). Among these phalini drugs Dhamargava, Ekshvaku, Jimut, Krutavedhan, Madanphala, Kutaj, Trapush and Hastiparni are indicated for vaman, and Aasthapana karma. Apamarga is indicated for Nasya karma. Remaining drugs from Phalini group are indicated for Virechan Karma. Acharya charaka mentioned only names, useful part and karma of these dravyas. Some of them became controversial later. It is tried to describe the drug which is similar in properties for controversial drugs. Now also most of the drugs are available and there useful part is fruit. Acharya Charaka mentioned the name of medicinal plant, useful part and karma. Here in the present article properties of these herbs are studied collectively.

  110. Dr. Maria Vasilievna Kushnareva and Dr. Elena Solomonovna Keshishyan

    The review contains information on preclinical and clinical studies of cell therapy for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. It includes an analysis of 53 scientific publications devoted to this issue. It is important to remember that cell therapy for BPD is at the stage of experimental and clinical trials. Currently, there are no standards of its use in infants with this disease. When deciding on the use of stem cells for therapeutic purposes, in addition to drug therapy, the physician should take into account the medical legislation of the country regarding cell therapy and comply with all legal formalities.

  111. Ms. Vasantha Gurusamy and Dr. M. Gandhimathi

    Background: Patients undergoing hemodialysis with end stage renal disease (ESRD) experiences many complications. Fatigue and sleep are the most common problems faced by them and there is a need for an effective intervention to minimize these complications. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation on fatigue and sleep quality of patients undergoing hemodialysis with ESRD. Jacobson’s progressive muscle relaxation (JPMR) is a relaxation technique on the skeletal muscles by giving the sensation of tension in a skeletal muscle group and then to focus on getting the sense of relaxation. Methods: It is a quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group pre-test – post-test design. A total of 100 samples were selected for the study using purposive sampling technique and they were assigned to two groups namely group I with 50 samples who received JPMR therapy and group II the control group with 50 samples who received routine treatment of the dialysis unit. Outcome variables measured were fatigue and sleep quality on 1st week before intervention, end of 4th week and at the end of 8th week after the intervention. Demographic variables, Revised Piper Fatigue Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep quality Index were used to measure the outcome variables. Statistical analysis was done using the chi-square test, Student t- test, repeated measures ANOVA, F- test and Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient test. Results: The findings showed that there was a significant reduction in fatigue score (F=562.33, p=0.001) and improvement in the sleep quality score (F=327.66, p=0.001) in the progressive muscle relaxation group while comparing to the control group. Conclusions: It can be concluded that JPMR therapy had a positive effect in reducing the fatigue and improving the sleep quality of patients undergoing hemodialysis with ESRD.

  112. Mr. Vijay, P. and Mrs. Gowri Devi, K.

    Cancer is a broad group of various diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. Cancer is the name given to a collection of related diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues. Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. Objectives: To assess the knowledge on Prostate cancer among school teachers, to find out the association between level of knowledge on Prostate cancer with selected demographic variables. Methodology: The research approach used for the present study was Quantitative Approach and research design was Cross-Sectional Descriptive Design. The sample of the study chosen by Non-Probability Purposive Sampling Technique, which includes 100 school teachers. A self structured questionnaire was used to collect the data which consists of 30 dichotomous questions. Results: The major findings of the study was out of 100 school teachers 51 (51%) had adequate knowledge, 35 (35%) had moderate knowledge and only 14 (14%) had inadequate knowledge regarding Prostate cancer. The associations of demographic variables with the level of knowledge on prostate cancer were determined by using chi-square test which revealed that there was a significant association with education of the school teachers, type of job, residence, habit of alcoholism, type of diet. Conclusion: The study concluded that majority of school teachers had adequate knowledge on prostate cancer. Hence there is a need to improve the knowledge regarding preventive measures for prostate cancer. So informational booklet has been given for improving knowledge and practices.

  113. Mrs. Harpreet Kaur and Mrs. Veena Barkat

    Introduction: Thermoregulation is the ability of neonates to balance heat production and heat loss in order to stabilize internal body temperature. The neonates have special requirement for temperature maintenance due to large surface area in relation to body weight, less adipose tissue and subcutaneous fat and underdeveloped sweating and shivering mechanism. All neonates including term, preterm and SGA are at risk of heat loss especially during first 12 hours of life. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge of mothers regarding thermoregulation in neonates in selected hospital of Ludhiana, Punjab. Material and Method: A quasi-experimental approach with two groups pre-test and post test research design and purposive sampling was used. A self structured questionnaire was used which had two parts demographic data and questionnaire to assess the knowledge of mothers. Structured teaching was conducted on the experimental group. Analysis of data was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The data was analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The pre-test knowledge score was almost same i.e average knowledge in both the groups. In control group maximum mothers obtained average knowledge score whereas in experimental group majority of mothers obtained good post-test knowledge score. The difference between pre test and post test knowledge score of control group was statistically non- significant at p< 0.05 level but in experimental group it was statistically highly significant at p< 0.001 level. Conclusion: The study concluded that structured teachings programme was significantly effective in raising the knowledge of mothers regarding thermoregulation in neonates.

  114. Chijioke, I. A., Prof. H. C. Inyama, and Dr. Onyesolu, M. O.

    With the enormous rise in social media users globally, e-commerce payment systems are becoming ubiquitous, being applied rapidly in all facets of life. However, securing e-commerce payment systems have become more complex and have further made the CIA triad: confidentiality, integrity, and availability of enterprise’s data insecure, and prone to breaches and fraudulent activities. Securing enterprise e-commerce payment system is of paramount importance. An important facet of implementing e-commerce payment system in an organization is the development of security related issues within the enterprise information systems for the organization processes. In this study, the Enterprise Information Systems (EIS) security conceptual framework was adopted that comprised: security policy, security awareness, access control, and top level management support. A narrative review of prior research that focused on vast works of literature that revealed significant information on our conceptual framework and existing systems on e-commerce payment systems security, analysis and synthesis was adopted. The authors also extracted peer-reviewed articles within the last five years from electronic databases, using some keywords such as “e-commerce system security”, “e-commerce security threats”, “cyber-attacks and security”, etc. Findings of the study show that breaches and fraudulent activities exist that may be perpetrated against e-commerce payment systems such as Skimming attacks, phishing attack, hacking, and physical attack, etc. Also, systems strategies that guarantee e-commerce payment systems security exist within the implementation of procedures, policies, resources, and operations to mitigate certain e-commerce payment systems security threats, vulnerabilities, and risks. Result from this study may bring trust and enhance e-commerce payment system adoption rate, new innovation and influence that may advance and guarantee e-commerce payment systems security innovations in Nigeria.

  115. Alcides Romualdo Neto Simbo

    Angola have been allocating budget to many high-risk business areas. The return of the investments is so far down from the expected values. This paper deals on developing a risk analysis algorithm for responding the question How to allocate the interests to each economics sectors and business areas? We considered three economic sectors and thirty business areas, including Markowitz quadratic programming model in the algorithm. We considered high-risk business area when the interest take values until 1%, moderate-risk when taking values above 1% until 10% and law-risk when taking values bigger than 10%. For risk minimization Until 2030 Angola have to allocate 22,4% of General Budget to the Primary sector, 39,3% to the Secondary and 38,3% to the Tertiary. The good business areas will be Clothing and footwear industry, Materials industry, Forest, Maintenance, Diamond extraction, Iron extraction, Other minerals extraction, Culture and sports, Hotel and tourism, Universities, Fisheries, Livestock, Bank and insurance and Transports. Moderate investment will be done on Mechanic, Information technology and Real estate which are Moderate risk business areas. Else, investor will find high-risks when making business.

  116. Krishanko Das, Prof. Nandini Chatterjee, Prof. Shantasil Pain and Sourin Mukherjee

    Fungal meningitis in an immunocompetent host is generally uncommon, and infections due to brown-black or dematiaceous fungi are distinctly rare. These are distinct neurotropic organisms causing mostly cerebral abscess and paranasal fungal sinusitis. We report an unusual case of dematiaceous fungal meningitis in a man with no significant co-morbidities and no other identifiable risk factors for disease. CV junction meningeal biopsy was done which revealed this organism. Since these are so infrequently seen in clinical practice, randomized clinical trials are impractical and there is no consensus regarding treatment. He was treated with empirical antifungals and fortunately, he responded to treatment.

  117. Dr. Heba Zaid Mohammed Wafeq, Dr. Khairi Awaad Hamad and Dr. Israa Basheer Abd Allah

    Objective: Assessing the value of conventional ultrasound (US) for detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesion. Setting: The examination conducted in Radiological department in Al-Zahrawi Teaching Hospital, IBN-Sina Teaching Hospital and Oncology and Nuclear Medicine Hospital. Participants: Selective 80 patients referred for US department with focal hepatic lesion and their diagnosis confirmed by CT and histopathological examination. Result: Of 80 patients with focal hepatic lesion, 41 cases (51.2%) found in male and mean age group is between 51-60 years. The hepatic focal lesion found to be multiple in 46 cases (57.5%) and the right lobe of the liver is predominately involved in 45 cases (56.3%). Benign hepatic lesions were more common than malignants which was 43 cases (54%) of total sample. Solid hepatic lesion forms large constituting in about 53 cases (66.25%) that show low echogenicity in 21 cases (37.5%). Finally the lesions have been diagnosed by CT in 43 cases and histopathological examination in 37 cases show correct diagnosis by US in 24 cases and 26 cases respectively. Conclusion: US imaging is considered a reliable and cheap modality which is commonly used in evaluating most of the focal hepatic lesions as a first diagnostic method especially cystic lesions. Hydatid disease and secondary hepatic metastasis are more common focal hepatic lesions in our patients.

  118. Pratiksha D. Talawar and Sarika S. Kandharkar

    Life style diseases are defined as those health problems that react to changes in lifestyle. The changed living habits due to increasing sedentary lifestyle, job requirements, competitive living are the main culprits against a healthy life. Ayurveda is a holistic science. It aims primarily to maintain healthy life in healthy individuals & secondly to treat the disease in diseased individual. Lifestyle diseases are becoming more common these days and affecting the majority of the population. Lack of physical activity, Unhealthy diet,Poor sleeping patterns, Alcohol Smoking,Sedentary life style, Stress are some of the causes of lifestyle diseases. The major lifestyle diseases include Heart diseases, Hypertension, Obesity, PCOS, Type 2 diabetes, Cancer. We can prevent Lifestyle Disorders through Ayurveda Regimen which includes Dincharya (Daily Routines), Rutucharya, Panchakarma therapy, Rasayana thrapy and sadvrutta palan. All referances for The concept of Ayurveda regmen is studied from Charak samhita and Ashtang Hriday. In this study we focus on the Lifestyle disorders, their causes and prevention through Ayurveda Regimen.

  119. Dr. Indu Yadav, Dr. Charnjeet alhuwalia, Dr. Manju Yadav and Dr. A.K Yadav

    Brenner tumor is a raresurface epithelial group of ovarian neoplasm . It most commonly have benign presentation. They are divided into benign, borderline and malignant neoplasms. The majority of them are asymptomatic in nature and are found incidentally. On imaging ,these have nonspecific findings.Microscopically demonstrate nest of benign transitional epithelium against background of numerous spindle shaped cells that are arranged in the form of diffuse sheets and fascicles.there is no consistement tumor marker and express immunohistochemical marker like CK7, uroplakin III and p63 Here, we present a rare case of Brenner tumor of ovary.

  120. Sanela Halilovic Suskic, Amer Suskic, Alina Fazlic, Mirela Hadzifejzovic, Aida Vatres and Muhamed Zuko

    Background:Coronary artery disease is a major vascular complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus with a high mortality rate. Serum hemerin levels are involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and are associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the association and significance of serum chemerin concentration with the presence of coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The study is retrospective-prospective, clinical, comparative, descriptive. The sample of the study was patients from the internal ward of Travnik hospital (86 subjects), who had coronary angiography. One group was made up of type 2 diabetes mellitus (37 subjects) and the other group was non-diabetic subjects (49 subjects). All subjects were analyzed for serum chemerin concentration and coronarography performed. Results of the study: In the cohort of diabetic subjects, 57.4% had coronary disease and in the control cohort, 42.6%. The serum concentration of chemerin is significantly higher in the cohort of subjects with diabetes and coronary disease compared to the cohort of non-diabetic subjects. The serum concentration of chemerin does not depend on the severity of the coronary disease, although it does depend on its presence. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum chemerin concentration was an independent determinant of the presence of coronary artery disease in subjects with diabetes (OR = 1.037; 95% CI = 1,000 to 1,076; p≤0.05). In addition, linear regression analysis showed that the serum concentration of chemerin had a positive statistically significant association of different strengths, with the following relevant relevant parameters analyzed: waist circumference, HbA1C, cholesterol, triglycerides, BMI, and cardiovascular risk level, until statistically significant coronary disease severity was established. significant connectivity. Conclusion: Elevated serum chemerin levels may be considered an independent predictive marker of the presence of coronary artery disease in patients with diabetes.

  121. Dr. Nishat Akhtar and Dr. Nazli Tarannum

    Background: labour is a natural process of child birth. The partograph is a graphical representation used to monitor labour. Close monitoring of labour and early detection of prolonged and obstructed labour can prevent disastrous complications. WHO modified partograph is universally adopted for monitoring labour. However, inspite of its universal recommendation it is rarely used. The major drawback for its non compliance is its complex nature of graph and shortage of doctors and nurses. Dr Debdas introduced paperless partogram for monitoring labour which is graph less, simple, non time consuming, and two step calculation. It calculates alert ETD (Estimated Time of delivery) and Action ETD to arrive at accurate time to intervene for ensuring a safe delivery. Objective: The present study was done to evaluate the simplicity, acceptability, user friendliness and also to determine overall use of paperless partograph in comparison to WHO modified Partograph. Methods: 400 pregnant women with singleton uncomplicated term pregnancy with cephalic presentation were included and divided into two groups of 200 each and their progress of labour and outcome were followed . Group A was followed using Paperless partogram and Group B using WHO modified Partograph. 16 resident working in Labour room in shifts were asked to fill either of partographs for monitoring labour and outcome. A total of 200 partograph were randomly checked for completeness. A structured questionnaire with score from 1 to 10 was used to analyze preference of residents for using either of the two partograph. Results: It was found that maternal and perinatal outcome were similar in group A and B (p>0.05). However, paperless partograph was more acceptable, simple and user friendly than WHO modified partograph (p<0.0001) and the difference was highly significant. Conclusion: The paperless partograph was found to be equally effective in monitoring and management of low risk labour as WHO modified partograph. However it was more acceptable and user friendly among residents and nurses. Thus paperless partograph may be a good alternative to WHO modified partograph to monitor labour in a facility with less staff and high patient load.

  122. Dr. Amulya Vittal Rai and Dr. Balaram Damodar Naik

    Background: Tooth discolorations frequently affect people of various age groups and are multifactorial in nature. Increasing demand in aesthetic dentistry has resulted in the widespread practice of extra-coronal bleaching or vital bleaching. An important complication following bleaching is decreased bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel when bonding immediately after the bleaching process. The use of antioxidants immediately after bleaching showed increased bond strength to bleached enamel. Hence, the main aim of the present study was to determine the effect of antioxidants, namely 10% Tulsi leaf extract, 10% Olive leaf extract &10% Pine Bark extract on the shear bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel. Materials & method: Ninety freshly extracted human anterior teeth were divided into five groups: GroupI(n=18) – bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide gel (without antioxidant), GroupII(n=18) - bleaching with application of 10% Tulsi leaf extract, GroupIII(n=18) - bleaching with application of 10% Olive leaf extract, Group IV(n=18) – bleaching with application of 10% Pine Bark extract, and Group V(n=18) - control group i.e., no bleaching. These groups were further subdivided into two subgroups based on whether composite build-up was done immediately (Subgroup A) or after a delay of 2 weeks (Subgroup B). Shear bond strength of the specimens were tested using universal testing machine. Data were statistically analysed using Two-way ANOVA test & Tukey's multiple posthoc test and independent t test. Result: There were statistically significant differences between shear bond strength of control groups & experimental groups and also among the experimental groups. Conclusion: The use of antioxidants effectively reversed the compromised bond strength of bleached enamel. Among the natural antioxidants, 10% pine bark extract application after bleaching showed better bond strength.

  123. Dr. Monisha, K.P., Dr. Meena Ajay Aras and Dr. Vidya Chitre

    Loss of an eye can be disfiguring esthetically and psychologically. This article describes the use of two techniques for fabricating an ocular prosthesis namely the conventional paint on technique and the digital photography technique. A sequence of fabrication steps have been described for both the techniques. Both the techniques have their advantages and disadvantages.

  124. Kunal Singh

    Introduction & Ojectives –A major limitation of Radical perinealprostatectomy(RPP) was second access for pelvic lymph node dissection. We aimed to assess feseability of pelvic lymphadenectomy through same perinealinsciscion. Methods –A total series of eighteen RPP cases were categorized by partin risk estimation. Eleven cases were risk (greater than 5 %). Pelvic lymphadenectomy attemted in eleven cases, lymphadenectomy operative time, number lymphnode removed, conversion and completion noted. Results: Lymphadenectomy attempted through same perinealinscision in all the elevenpatients, completed in five patients (45.45 %) and not feasiblein six patients (54. 54%). The averagelymph nodes removed were 4.7 (3- 15) in right and 3.8 (0-6) in left.Lymphadenectomy Operative time(Mean) 74.55 ( 60 - 90) minutes. The average distance between common iliac artery -bifurcation and pubic symphysis(midpoint) calculated preoperatively from imaging (CT/MRI)was 12.44 cm (11.5-14).The completion of lympadenectomy in distance < 12.5 cm was 80 % and conversion rate indistance > 12.5 cm was 66.66%.

  125. Wanyi Zhong and Huilan Xu

    Background: This study was designed to investigate the status of diabetes-related health literacy among the elderly in rural China and to explore the influencing factors. Methods: The "Chinese Public Diabetes Prevention and Control Literacy Questionnaire" and a general socio-demographic questionnaire were completed by the participants selected by the multistage cluster random sampling method. The collected data were used to analyse the factors affecting diabetes-related health literacy of the rural elderly. Results: A total of 867 elderly aged 60 years and over participated in this study. The average score for diabetes-related health literacy was 18.64±8.68; among the study population, 2 individuals, 408 individuals, and 457 individuals were in the high, medium, and low levels of health literacy, respectively. The results of a statistical analysis showed that sex (OR=1.511, 95% CI:1.052 - 2.172), marital status (OR= 0.571, 95% CI: 0.384 - 0.849), personal annual income (OR=1.575, 95% CI:1.009 - 2.457), history of hyperglycaemia (OR=0.363, 95% CI: 0.184 - 0.717), and pre-diabetes (OR=23.406, 95% CI: 15.661 - 34.981) were the main influencing factors of diabetes-related health literacy among the elderly in Yiyang City, Hunan Province. Conclusion: The level of diabetes-related health literacy was very low among the elderly in China's rural areas. This indicates that diabetes health education for the rural elderly population should be strengthened through multiple channels in the future, and more attention should be paid to older male adults with unstable marriage, poor economic conditions, prediabetes, and no history of hyperglycaemia.

  126. Ms. Ritwika Verma and Ms. Deshna Suryanarayan

    Urban Poverty is an essential issue of urban advancement and administration in developed as well as developing nations. However, it is more intense and disturbing in developing nations like India. The most challenging of the urban difficulties, undeniably, is the problem generated by urban poverty. Economically developed states keep incoming people from backward states, which leads to a rise in the quantity of individuals and families living in an urban focus, this causes demands for new housing and services. The urban zones have neglected to meet the requests of this expanding populace weight bringing about extensive holes in provisioning of essential civilities of lodging, drinking water, sewerage, transportation and so on. The paper tries to view how local governments have a particular preferred standpoint in distinguishing the poor because of their vicinity to the general population through the aid of a case study

  127. Teshale Shode

    The main objective of the study was to examine the effect of service marketing mix on customer satisfaction and the effect of customer satisfaction on customers’ loyalty at Commercial Bank of Ethiopia branches located in Hawassa District. The study was heavily dependent upon primary data collected from the sample customers. A sample of 400 customers from 10 randomly selected branches was contacted for the survey purpose. Nonetheless, 340 customers have responded completely on the questions. Survey questionnaire was used as tool for data collection. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The findings of the study show that although customers have positive perception towards service mixes of the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia, they were highly satisfied on the people and physical evidence attributes than other mixes. Further the result of regression analysis shows that people and physical evidence as independent variables have significant positive relationship with customer satisfaction. Product as major service mix of the bank doesn’t satisfy the customers as per their expectations. Further, customer satisfaction as an independent variable does have strong effect on customer loyalty. This indicates that highly satisfied customers seem to be repeated customers of the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia. Generally it can be concluded that despite the banks effort to manage its services marketing mixes, it contributes moderately for customer satisfaction. Based on the findings, it is recommended that Commercial Bank of Ethiopia need to give due importance to new product development, promotional strategies and appropriate pricing for lending.

  128. Abdel hafiz Abdelrahman Mohammed Taha and Prof. Tahiyah Alshaikh Yousif

    This research aims at the significance of studying Problems Encountered by Students in Reading Skill, a case study at Al-Ameeriah Secondary Schools in Gezira State (Wad medani). The purpose of this phenomenon is to be crowned by raising standard of students hence, they develop their reading skill that will give them chance to be good readers. In addition to that improving students' performance of comprehending any reading text. To enlighten the teachers and the parents of the students' difficulties that faced them. Then, promotion of listening comprehension by using visual aids, projectors, and audio lingual labs, only to improve students' abilities of approaching texts Finally. the outcome of these problems will be an implication of teaching comprehension's strategies to the researcher selected a sample of 120 learners language male students to answer the vocabulary level test investigating Problems Encountered by Students at Al –Ameeriah Secondary School for boys in Wad Medani (Gezira). In this study the researcher conducted statistical analytical descriptive research method. Later on, this study was statistically analyzed by (SPSS) program, to reach its findings and recommendations. Ultimately, the researcher concluded his study by the following recommendations Teachers should concentrate on the weakest students to read. as well as, write very accurately. Teachers must use multi mass media as vital element for teaching listening comprehension. Priority must be given to motivate learners by choosing graded reading texts according students' needs. The use of various teaching strategies enhance the process of comprehension lesson cession positively. The significance of parents role to evaluate their sons performance at home and inside class room. Using of computers, cassettes and projectors for teaching comprehension, as well as to listening to material before reading a passage That will motivate learners to answer a pretreating questions.

  129. Mrs. Saleha Hussain Saad Al Ahmari and Dr. Akilandeeswari, K.

    Speaking performance is one of the core components of English language for the university students which are highly important to acquire to perform well during the class hours. Speaking is not merely opening mouth and say words and sentences, but it includes a cultural background of a target language which is spoken to get meaning interaction. The aim of the study is to investigate the factors affecting in the speaking skill performance of students and teachers feedback were found the significant differences. The questionnaire administered to the students and the teachers to elicit the data. The results revealed that the various factors affect students’ speaking performance, the majority of the teachers those who were holding masters degrees says students feel good in speaking ,but they could not able to perform well in the classroom, they were more anxious and worried about making mistakes in the classroom. The most important factors affecting the students were time for preparation and anxiety in speaking performance. The second factors were listening ability because of lack of confidence to perform well. The research concluded that most of the students in first level were not in intrinsically motivated, feed back during speaking task were forced to perform well, and they have inadequate integrated skills that would enable them to express themselves in the classroom.

  130. Aijaz Panhwar, M. Azhar Naeem, Syed Zainulibad, Mehtab Ahmed, Aijaz ul Haq and Siraj ul Haq

    ISO/IEC-17025 is an ideal International laboratory management system for testing and calibration laboratories. All over the world the testing and calibration laboratories are accredited as per ISO/IEC-17025 standard. Accreditation is an objective way to comfort your clients that you have established technical competency to issue authentic and correct results to enhance the reliability and confidence of the customer. PCSIR is the first ISO/IEC-17025 accredited testing laboratory in Pakistan, accredited in 2004 by Pakistan National Accreditation Council (PNAC). In 2007, PCSIR-KLC laboratories were also accredited by Norwegian accreditation, Norway. The laboratories have completed its 4 cycles of accreditation and 5th cycle 2019-2021 is in progress from PNAC. First cycle of accreditation was of 4 years and other 3 years each. At present more than 400 parameters are accredited and more than 100 technical personnel are involved in testing& calibration activities. The quality policy of the laboratory is to make sure accurate and appropriate analytical services to its customers particularly trade community/ exporters by meeting the needs of the customer from government and private sector. PCSIR is also largest testing and calibration laboratory and research organization of Pakistan, have active research in a number of areas. The number of scientist, engineers and technologist are keenly participating in research & testing activities as per records of the last decade. The personnel/scientists are experienced with higher degrees in related fields from highly ranked institutes. Distinguishing features of the laboratory including its infrastructure, area, size, equipment, trained personnel, implementation of ISO/IEC-17025 made the laboratory confident and reliable, to handle internal research, testing and calibration in the same laboratory.

  131. Dr. Kiranmai R., Dr. Satyanarayana O., MD., DLO., Dr. Srinivasa Rao CH., M.D., Dr. Rajaram G., MD., D.D and Dr. Janardhana Raju B., M.D.

    Background: Dengue and Chikungunya infections are increasing in worldwide. As there is similarity between these viruses in seasonal transmission cycle and clinical presentation, it becomes difficult to distinguish them without specialized diagnostic techniques. Aim and objectives: To estimate the sero prevalence of Dengue and Chikungunya mono-infection and co-infection in Pediatric population and to analyze the outcome of all positive cases. Method: The study was conducted for a period of one year from November 2018 to October 2019. Blood samples were collected from suspected Paediatric fever cases. Serum was separated and tested for both Dengue and Chikungunya IgM antibodies by ELISA method in Microbiology department. Result: Out of 300 samples tested, 113 were IgMpositive for Dengue/Chikungunya or both. Among these, 54 were positive only for Dengue, 31 for Chikungunya only and 28 for both viruses. Mortality was higher in co-infection than in mono-infection. Conclusion: Simultaneous screening for both viruses in endemic areas would help to improve arboviral surveillance and also potentially aid in clinical management of these infections.

  132. Namita Chandra, Sunita Chandra, Navneet Kumar and Shaleen Chandra

    Background: Super ovulation and Intrauterine insemination is an effective treatment for infertile couples. Probability of pregnancy is increased by increasing the number of oocytes available and by correcting any subtle defects of ovulation. Clomiphene citrate has been the first line of treatment for subfertile couples for quite some time. Letrozole also has been successfully used for the ovulation induction and in contrast to Clomiphene Citrate, it does not deplete the estrogen receptors. Objective of this study is to compare Letrozole 2.5 mg and Clomiphene Citrate 100 mg as first line ovulation induction drug in sub-fertile women. Methods: 126 Treatment naive sub-fertile women were randomized to treatment with 2.5 mg Letrozole (63 Patients) or 100 mg Clomiphene Citrate (63 Patients) daily starting day 2 to 6 of menstrual cycle. Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI) was carried out 36 to 40 hrs after Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (HCG) injection. Ovulation rate, endometrial thickness, pregnancy rate were compared and analyzed. Results: The groups were randomized so that the mean Body Mass Index (BMI), age and duration of infertility in both the groups were similar. Ovulation rate was 66.67% (42/63) in Letrozole group and 74.60% (47/63) in Clomiphene group. The median endometrial thickness on the day of hCG showed no significant difference between Letrozole group and clomiphene group. It was 8.1mm. Pregnancy rate in the Letrozole group was 9.52% (6/63) and in the Clomiphene group was 7.94% (5/63). Conclusion: No significant difference was seen between clomiphene citrate and letrozole as both have a comparable clinical pregnancy rate. However, letrozole has the advantage of development of fewer follicles; hence it may reduce the risk of multiple pregnancies.

  133. Dr. Nitin Kumar Verma

    Combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) is a birth control measure that reversibly inhibit female fertility and it includes a combination of estrogen and progesterone. Non contraceptive uses of COCP include amenorrhoea, menorrhagia, dysmenorrhoea, PCOS. Pyogenic granuloma is a reactive tumour like lesion which arises in response to various stimuli such as low grade local irritation, traumatic injury, hormonal factors or certain kind of drugs like oral contraceptive pills. A 32 year old woman with complaints of bleeding gums and pain while eating was on COCP for dysmenorrhoea and menorrhagia. The gingival inflammation as an exaggerated response to plaque due to the use of hormones further lead to inadequate maintenance of oral hygiene which further detoriated the periodontal status and association of pyogenic granuloma wrt 47. Patient was treated by discontinuation of COCP after consultation of gynaecologist which lead to visible minimisation of the gingival growth. Pyogenic granuloma was surgically excised and periodontal therapy completed subsequently.

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Pakistan
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
India
Dr. ASHWANI KUMAR DUBEY
India
Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
India
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
France
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran