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January 2021

  1. Gitanjali Devi

    In India, bioactive compounds uses, phytochemical properties and cultivation practices. Cissus quadrangularis has been used as a medicinal plant. The plant contain . This review reveals a brief account of Cis ed numerous sus quadrangularis, its medicinal

  2. Odah K., Akpavi S.,Aziadekey G. Etse K. D. , Bodjona B. P. I Tchaou, Bokobana A , Koukouma R. and Assignon K. ., Ledi K. K.,

    Bananas varieties of banana trees which have been inventoried and classified into three groups: the first group consists of bananas whose fruits are eaten raw (dessert bana plantains or bananas and the last one is the intermediate group represented by the variety Abidjankodu which is the subject of the current study. This variety has been found in Litimé Akébou Togo. This work will allow highlighting of this cultivated variety in order to improve and spread it. Mass cultivation of this variety enriches biodiversity of the banana tree and the pro varieties of the banana trees of Togo. are a staple food in the tropics where they are widely consumed. In Togo, there are several nas), the second one is the cooking and in Kloto which are production area located at the western part of the Plateau Region of , in motion of the elite

  3. Saif Al Ghais, Dr Vibha Bhardwaj and Pramod Kumbhar

    Antibacterial agents are extremely common in everyday products, such as toothpastes, facial cleansers, hand soaps, body washes, cosmetics, and numerous other products. Aquatic ecosystems are continuously contaminated by regulated, multi treatment plants after consumption and use by humans and animals. One antibacterial agent under scrutiny at this time is triclosan (TCS). Triclosan, an antibacterial agent, receive increased attention worldwide since significant levels of contamination have been found in various environmental compartments and organisms. Industries are now avoiding the use quantities can pose a severe risk to marine life in aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of this research was to develop an efficient, eco (GC-MS) method to detect t The experimental conditions, such as column temperature, solvents, flow rate, analytes extraction methods, and experimental procedure, were all optimized to find the best experimenta detecting triclosan in the samples. The ability to detect triclosan in personal care products, as well as in pool and river water samples, will hopefully encourage consumers to reduce or avoid the use of triclosan containing products. Usin triclosan in the soaps and tiles cleaner were found 0.043% (w/w). The average concentrations in the toothpaste, basin cleaner and detergents samples were 0.021% (w/w), 0.020%(w/w) and 0.024% (w/w), 0.010% (w/w) respectively. manufactured household and personal care products (PCPs). Non -purpose PCP contaminants enter aquatic systems through sewage/ wastewater -friendly, sensitive, rapid Gas chromatography riclosan in toothpaste, soap, tiles cleaner, basin cleaner and detergent. g the optimized method developed, the average concentration of - of triclosan, since very minute -mass spectrometry l conditions for

  4. Kulkarni, R.S. , Pruthviraj and Vijayakumar, K.

    The determination of moisture and ash content reflects nutritional state of the fish and studies on this aspect on l fish. Hence, the present investigation is undertaken on four fish species locally available in large numbers, fishes the fish market of Kalaburagi,were brought and analyzed for proximate compositions of moisture and ash content. The results o notopterus (73.6%), Pangusius bocourti (71.3%) and Red bellied pacu (73.3%). above fishes shows that (30.8%) ignition or after complete oxidation, is a part of proximate analysis for nutritional evaluation and it is an important quality attribute for some food ingred content is 35%, 34%, 30%and 33% respectively in the above fishes studied. Thus the results suggest that the fish However, the two fishes. The percentage of ash content was determined by weight of the ash divided by the weight of the original sample multiplied by 100% of sample size. All the results are of whole fish for four fishes. The moisture and ash content values reported here indicate that are within the values reported in other fishes. ocal fish species becomes important to assess the health and nutritional status of particular Labeo rohita ,Notopterus notopterus, Pangusius bocou are being consumed extensively as food fish by the people of Kalaburagi and are marketed in f the moisture show that the fish, Labeo rohita (71.9%), Notopterus Labeo rohita (35%), Notopterus notopterus (34%), Pangusius bocourti and Red bellied pacu (33%). The ash content refers to the inorganic residue remaining by ients such as minerals. The percentage of ash Labeo rohita has highest percentage of ash content as compared to other fishes. Notopterus notopterus though small weighing fish has higher ash content than other rti and Red bellied pacu. These Ash content in the expressed in gm/100gm

  5. Smriti Thakur and Rakesh Kumar Singh

    Lack of mountain specific technologies have proven less efficient in earning good income for the people of the rural areas. The traditional rural technologies in the state practiced from ages are at an edge of extinction due to high encouragement to the mo rich state in traditional knowledge have many such technologies which can prove rewarding to the rural people for income generation. Due to higher unemployment rate in the state, policy makers and the government providing financial aids and improving existing technologies, making them more competent. It is a need of an hour to implement these technologies as they are region specific, eco and climate resilient which makes them more robust in their implementation and for livelihood generation dern technologies. Himachal Pradesh being a should help in implementing traditional rural technologies in the villages by friendly, sustainable


    The scarcity of good quality seeds in Cameroon is among rice and is one of the main causes of consumers’ preference for imported rice. This work, done at the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD) Nkolbisson was aimed at evaluating the quality of ri germination rate, moisture content, and seed purity were performed using the following varieties: NERICA L 42, Tox 4133 and Tainan from Ndop; NERICA 8, NERICA L 56, CICA 8, Toubem from Tonga and finally NERICA 8, NERICA 3 from Ebolowa. Results showed that varieties from Tonga exhibited a good germination rate and varietal purity; Only NERICA L 56 (98.7%) exhibited a better specific purity while cholera (99.03%) an varietal purity. Varieties from Ndop; Tox 4133 showed a poor germination rate (84.66%) and NERICA L better germination rate and moisture NERICA 8. None of the seed samples met all the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development minimum requirements for quality seeds; inappropriate farming practices during pre management by farmers could be the cause, thus a rationale for the preference of imported rice over local rice. Some production and conservation practices have been recommended, so as to improve on farmers’ rice seeds in these localities. the major constraints in producing quality ce farmers’ seeds in the localities of Ndop, Tonga, and Ebolowa. Standard tests of d NERICA -42 for specific purity (94.43%) and varietal purity (79.26%). Ebolowa varieties had content but with poor specific purity and germination rate for Cholera and -8 (99.6%) showed a better -and post-harvest

  7. Ajaz Ahmed Waniand Rahul Kait

    Nations and organisations across the world are getting to grip with theirresponse to Covid contigency plan pandemic has also a significant implication on politics. This pandemic presents China's leadership with its most serious political challenge in decades. short term by an all hands on deck call across the bureaucratic and adminstrative spectrum for attentions and resources to be devoted in containing the virus. , supply chain disruption and market volatility continue, a novel coronavirus (Covid China's ability to engage in overseas initations will be hindered atleast in -19.While lockdown -19)

  8. Sangeeta Yadav and Lata Sharma

    Ethnomedicine is study of the traditional medicine based on bioactive compounds in plants and practiced by various ethnic groups, especially those with little access to western medicines, e.g.,indigenous peoples. Phytosociologica composition of the forest helps. For inter pretation about density dominance and frequency of the flora. The present paper deals with the phytosociological study of Kunkuri area Dist. out in the year 2018 method. The quadrate method includes laying down of a square sample plot of suitable size for detailed analysis of plants. study 40 medicinal plants has been extensively studied during rainy, 2018 to 2020 with special reference to their phytosociological aspects Viz. Relative Frequency, Relative Density, Relative l studies of the region give an idea about the structure and -2020.Monitoring of plant communities was carried out by using quadrate It is actually the sample plot method given by Clements (1977).In this Dominance as well as Important Value Index (IVI). Jashpur carried winter and summer season from

  9. Mandaloju Venkateshwarlu

    Currently, it is important represents a serious problem in terms of public health. The goal was to make a phylogenetic analysis of bacterial β previous classifications. A phylogenetic tree of clinically important bacterial β constructed using their molecular sequences. A cladogram was made to analyze the characteristics of the families and subfamilies. The cladogram lactamases to classify the mechanisms by which bacterial resistance occurs, since it -lactamases to prepare a classification based on their molecular se analysis shows the existence of three large families of β . This work represents an advance to classify β-lactamases by their molecular sequence. quence, unlike -lactamases was -

  10. Dastagiri, M.B. and Naga Sindhuja PV

    According to scientific theory, demolition of earth is an inevitability. The human mission to Mars is our destiny and the future is human colonization of the economic and ecological sustainable development. This is Exploratory research. Perspectives, Meta analysis, Vision and Economic analysis of research has been done. Data collected from Bryce Space and Technology, OECD, contribution of total global space economy was $366 Billion in 2019. United States, China, Russia, France and Japan allocated the highest budget on space. Revenue contributed to space economy the satellite industry was more than Spaceflight. Space investment provided benefits highly for environmental management, transport and urban planning, and R & D. Broadcasting activities help in social, e development. UNOOSA works to advance planetary defence mechanisms to increase the resilience of Earth to threats such as asteroid impacts. Solar powered satellites provide solution for global warming and easy energy generation using renewable energy in the world. Globally, China, Japan, United States, Germany and India have been generating higher solar energy. Applications of geospatial technology in the precision agriculture can make the crop production safer and reduce their detrimental impacts on nature and make agriculture sustainable. Space tourism activities are being advanced predominantly in North America and Europe, with zero private customers. United States, Europe, India, Russia, China, Korea and Japan have been launchingmany satellites to collect information on weather parameters. NOAA operated Geostationary Operational Environmental Sat observations and polar observations and polar space economy planet development, the global countries, UNOOSA, space agencies, private industries, institutes cooperate, collaborate in all areas and invest for the space develo cosmos. Space science promotes social, NASA, ESA, JAXA, IREA, and UNOOSA. The current study found that Government Space Budgets and Commercial Human solar energy. Asia and Europe contributed the highest -gravity/ parabolic flights, orbital space travel and sub ellites for short range warnings, forecasts and -orbiting satellites for longer-term forecasting -orbiting satellites for longer-term forecasting. The study suggests that as contribution more than spending for the development of socio - from ducational and economic -orbital flights provided to , warnings, forecasts and -economic-nature Philanthropic pment.

  11. Rukiya Aliyi and Chaube, A.K

    Four raw coffee samples purchased from Shashamene markets in Ethiopia were analyzed by High Pure Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry to determine the activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 40K. They acceptable value 412 Bq/kg. The average values of radium equivalent for different coffee samples in area under investigated was 47.44Bq/kg which is lower than the recommended maximum value 370 Bq/kg. The average v internal (Hin) hazard index due to the emitted 0.0325, 0.181, 0.107 mSv /year , 0.128 and 0.128 these worldwide values of 0.08, 0.42, and 0.50 mSvyear from 0.36 to 0.475 level index is lower hazard. Hence it can be concluded that the radionuclide concentration of measured coffee samples were poses no radiological hazard to the public. 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. All samples were found to contain a high mean content of had 591.185 Bq/Kg average values of 40K concentrations that were higher than the alues of absorbed dose rate (Dr), Dout, Din  -rays of the coffee respectively was of 26.49nGy h values were all lower than the assigned -1, respectively. Radioactivity level index ranged -1with average value is 0.4 Bq. kg-1. The average value of Radioactivity than one the recommended safe limit ≤1. Therefore, the coffee had no radiation , and Dtot , external (Hex) and -1,

  12. Ram Prasad Pandey and Samundra Gurung

    The electric power system continuously faces the problem of low frequency to lightly loaded synchronous generators connected to weak grid, variable loads and overloaded tie lines. This paper examines the problem of power system oscillation in the Integrated Nepal Power System (INPS). Furthermore, the p studied. The points for wind power injection are chosen suitably. The eigenvalue analysis is then run to identify the critical modes of oscillation as well as the participation factor which the potential problematic area in INPS with respect to small stability is analyzed with the help of time domain analysis. Our study results depict that the integration of doubly fed induction gene INPS. All the simulation results are analyzed and validated using the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT). otential effect of integration of wind turbine generation is also -signal stability. Moreover, the transient rator (DFIG) has both beneficial and detrimental effects in oscillatory stability due helps to identify

  13. DJOSSOU Ayihaou Armand, VODOUNNOU Edmond , BONOU Sidoine and VIANOU Antoine , CAZALBOU Sophie

    The main objective of this work is to carry out the thermophysical characterization of an eco giant snails shells collected in nature. Thermal effusivity and conductivity measurements in transient mode and rate cooling of specimens was carried out. The results obtained showed on one hand that thermal effusivity and conductivity respectively decrease from W.m a comparative study showed on other hand, that density, thermal effusivity and conductivity of synthesized eco plaster are lower than those of shown that temperature rise is the same for both types of plaster up to 15 s in mixin and; up to 30 s for mixing rate of 3.6. Beyond 15 s and 30 s eco-plaster heats up faster than imported plaster. When heat flow is eliminated, we notice that the two plasters are cooled in same way Achatina Achatina. To achieve this, it was first synthesized eco , were then carried out with hot strip method. Finally, a thermal behavior study face to surface heating and 555.386 J.m . K.s . to 377.736 .K to 0.104 W.m.K, when mixing rate increases from 1.8 to 2.7. In the same range of mixing rate, imported plaster. Surface heating tests with a constant heat flow for 180 s have respectively for rates of 1.8 -plaster made from -plaster from snail shells according to mixing J.m . K.s . and from 0.159 - g rate range from 1.8 - 2.7 - 2.7 and 3.6, we note that

  14. Smitha Mahindrakar

    The companies Act, 1956 is replaced the companies act, 2013 and corporate social responsibilities have been mandatory for a particular class of companies.CSR is describing a company’s obligation to be accoun that the many companies promote and implement CSR initiatives through human resources department ,foundation or collaboration with NGO’s .Companies now are set departments and teams to develop policies, strategies, and goals. Our analysis reveal how CSR activities connected to multiple stakeholders, including government, business, and society. Several companies have now passionately taken up to t are analyzed followed by challenges, development programs and factors affecting CSR activities in covid table to all of its stakeholders in all its operations and activities. It also has been revealed he cause of CSR in India. -19 pandemic situation and way forward. ting up specific In this paper CSR activities

  15. Ayesha Mariya and Mohammad Masood

    COVID and great loss (washing hands with soap and water), sanitization of public places using sodium hypochlorite spray, UVC and FAR infrared radiation. The treatment prescription may include Antithrombic medicine Aspirin, lifesaving sheeth of the virus ripping apart by the use of induction mixture of diethyl ether and sevoflurane and thus inactivating the virus in th tract. -19 a pandemic declared by WHO, spreads through droplets has inflicted a heavy toll of life to economy throughout the globe. The remedial measure include personal hygiene drug-Dexamethasone, Vasodialator-Nitroglycerine and for making the lipid inhalation of diethylether or savoflurane or a e lungs and bronchial

  16. Akilandeswari, A Thenmozhi, S and Jessilin Percis, T

    In recent years, air pollution has acquired critical dimensions and the air quality in most Indian cities that monitor outdoor air pollution fail to meet WHO detect the air pollution by using sensor and here we use AVR controller and sensors which will monitor the air pollution. As well as we will also be able to monitor the data wirelessly with the help of a web a greenhouse like carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide is also known as air pollution. We can purify the above statement by considering man this consideration has an adverse effect too. A report will be generated by web application for early prediction. Whenever any abnormal level of air pollution is determined then an automatic message will be sent to the person t store the data in cloud. Using machine learning technology, we can predict the air pollution at an earlier stage, the algorithm used in this project is linear regression. Thus, this pr prediction of the air pollution effectively. guidelines for safe levels. In this project we pplication developed using Node JS. Enhancement in global concentrations of gasses of -made emissions of hazardous ch o take immediate actions. With the help of Wi emicals as air pollution but -Fi Module we can able to oject helps to early

  17. Laércio Zambolim and Eveline Teixeira Caixeta

    Coffee leaf rust is the most important disease thorought the world. The disease caused by a biotrofic fungi growing areas of the world coffee leaf rust causes losses from Central American coffee park. identified in 1860. Madagascar and Java). I the disease was identified in Brazil. America, Caribean and Mexico. Currently, more than 50 identified by using coffee differentials clones of CIFC in the world. The most comum and widespread resistance genes ( identified by the differential interaction of genes of the host and of the pathogen. M technique, found two different genes in HdT 832/1 and HdT 832/2 not yet identified in differential clones ( to refer the isolates of system. Several pathotypes was found in several countri based on a set of differentials of CIFC was not enough to characterize complex isolates from derivatives into races. HdT832 their resistance was not supplanted in any other part of the world. On the other hand all the progenies derived from HdT 832/1 and resistance to complete resistance was not suplanted yet is S finding is very important due to the fact that cultivars containing the gene by the race that has the gene v reasons coffee breders must consider in their br 6,7,8,9) growers has to rely on the designation of CIFC system the pathogen is recessive and virulent (v resistant ( avirulent (Avr1 characterizing the hypersensitive reaction. Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br. has been a serious threat for the sustainability of all coffee . It caused the destruction of the coffee crop in Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Today, 35 – 50 % on average in Brazil and more tham 50% of the entire Coffee rust probably originates in southwestern Ethiopia and was Then the disease spreaded across the Indian and Pacific Oceans (Philippines, n the 1950s and 1960s, rust advanced across West Africa. In the 1970s-90s, leaf rust advanced to South America, Central H. vastatrix H. vastatrix race II is presente in all over the world. The CIFC diferential clones has nine SH1, SH2, SH3, SH4, SH6, SH7, SH8 and SH9) alone or in combination. Races are SH1-9), named as SH10 and SH11. In the present review, we are proposing the name pathotype H. vastatrix that could not be differentiated into races, according to the CIFC es. It became evident that race nomenclature The resistance of the differential clones HdT 832/1 (S /2 (SH 6,7,8,9,? - v6,7,8,9,?) was only supplanted in India by isolates colleted in the field; but HdT 832/2 cossed with ara H. vastatrix in the field in all the coffee growing areas of the world. The only gene that H3, in the dominant form, from 3, which is absent in most of the coffee growing countries. For these eeding programs cross HdT 832/1 and 832/2 (S with S 288-23 (SH3). Since there is no complete resistance to the disease all over the world chemical control of the disease. races and pathotypes according CIFIC system and Flor gene for gene theory. 1-9) and the host plants are dominant and SH1-9) and the interaction is susceptible (S). In our proposed syst -9) and the host plant is also dominant (SH1-9) and the interaction is resistant (R) In January 1970, physiological races have been olecular biology HdT H 6,7,8,9,? - v6,7,8,9,?) and bica coffee lost the complete C. liberica. This SH3 may be attacked only H Finaly this overview will discuss By the em, the pathogen is

  18. Tejeda-Rosales, Elena; Sánchez Sánchez-Ruiz, Juan Francisco -Tejeda, Guillermo; Sánchez-Tejeda, Juan Francisco and González-Ochoa, Guillermo

    Currently, it is important to classify the mechanisms by which bacterial resistance occurs, since it represents a serious problem in terms of public health. The goal was to make a phylogenetic of bacterial β previous classifications. A phylogenetic tree of clinically important bacterial β constructed using their molecular sequences. A cladogr the families and subfamilies. The cladogram analysis shows the existence of three large families of β lactamases -lactamases to prepare a classification based on their molecular sequence, unlike am was made to analyze the characteristics of . This work represents an advance to classify β-lactamases by their molecular sequence. analysis -lactamases was -

  19. Kautily Rao Tiwari, Km. Meenu, Arvind Dandotia , Radha Tomar, and Neeraj Kumar

    Zeolites have been used as an excellent and highly efficient catalyst for one tri substitut of benzil, aldehydes and ammonium acetate under mild conditions. The synthesized zeolites were characterized by various techniques such as Fourier Transform diffraction (XRD), Scanning electronic Microscopy (SEM). The synthesized products were characterized by FT with high to excellent yields. Furthermore, the ca for at least three times. ed imidazoles under solvent-free conditions. This route involves multicomponent reaction -Infrared S -IR and proton 1H NMR. This process was simple and environmentally benign talyst could be recovered conveniently and reused -pot synthesis of 2, 4, 5- pectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray

  20. Dr. Jaiswal Poonam, Dr. Patil Sanjay, Madhura A. and Dr. Gade Vandana J., Dr. Raut Ambar W, Dr. Chaudhari Aradhana, K. Dr. Upagade

    Aim: ResinGuttaPercha and AH Plus sealer. Objective: 1.To evaluate fractur 2.To evaluate fracture resistance of Cention N as intraorifice barrier. 3.To evaluate fracture resistance of RMGIC as intraorifice barrier. Materials and Methods: and prepared and obturated with gutta was removed and filled with different materials, except for control specimens. The specimens (40) were divided into four groups ( n = 10) on the basis of the intraorifice barrier material used. Group 1: Ever X Pos resistance of the specimens was tested. Results: following manner: Ever X Posteri Conclusions: endodontically treated teeth. To compare the effect of different intraorifice barrier materials Ever X Posterior , Cention N, -Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) on the fracture resistance of roots obturated with e resistance of Ever X Posterior as intraorifice barrier. Forty mandibular premolars were decoronated to a standardized length, -percha and AH Plus sealer. The coronal 3 terior, Group 2: RMGIC, Group 3: Cention N, Group 4: No barrier (control). Fracture The mean force required for vertical fracture to occur in all 4 groups can be arranged in or >Cention N > RMGIC> Control. Ever X Posterior and Cention N significantly increase the fracture resistance of -mm gutta-percha

  21. Dr Ankita Gharge, Dr. Shobhana Nayak –Rao and Dr. Pradeep Shenoy M

    Transplantation is the best and frequently the only life saving treatment for end stage organ failure. In 2014, 1,19873 solid organ transplants were performed worldwide. Although impressive, the annual number of organ transplants represents < quality of life for those on the waiting list. Although organ donation per se is a personal issue, the process of organ donation involves medical, legal, ethical, organisational and social fac professionals, especially doctors and those in the allied heath sectors including nurses, technicians, physiotherapists have a key role in the dissemination of correct knowledge and eliminating the various barriers regarding organ donatio relationship with a potential donor’s family. attitudes of medical as well as paramedical students towards organ donation. W based survey of 1000 students, including 618 undergraduate medical and 382 paramedical students. While students showed adequate knowledge with regard to aspects of organ donation and the legal framework, their attitudes needed s satisfactory program to incorporate aspects of deceased donor transplantation in the medical curriculum. The educational interventions should be holistic and cut across all disc courses as well 10% of the global need. Organ shortage leads to deaths and poor n amongst the public since they may be the first individuals to create a The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and ome motivation and positive support. The results support the need to develop a tors. Health care e conducted a questionnaire iplines to involve paramedical

  22. Danilo Coco and Silvana Leanza

    Teaching of surgery has changed during last 30 years due to technological advances from laparoscopy and Internet Access and Video Recording. surgical education and seem to potential to identify variations this way, surgical training is evolving concept in surgery .SVL use of low quality, video learning become a foe not a friend in learning point. current evidence for the video disadvantages on the teaching of technical and nontechn robotic surgery but also for the use of new technical an Videos should be used in addition to standard techniques in the reduce learning curve for complex procedures, seem to in operative technique as well as their impact on patient outcomes. and Surgical Video Learning (SVL) is became an emerging has advantages on the teaching but has many disadvantages becaus -based surgical education methods, discussing the advantages and ical surgical skills. d learning devices such as have the In e for the We reviewed the

  23. Dr. Nishasingh Dr. S S Raut and Dr. Vikashkumar

    Candida occurs as normal oral commensal in 20 colonization rate increases dramatically to 81.3% on an average Oropharyngeal candidiasis occurs when CD4 count is 200 candidiasis occur in HIV infecte (oropharyngeal and oesophageal) in HIV infected patients and to correlate them with CD4+ T lymphocyte count. Method study. Identi stain, cultural character on Saboraud dextrose agar, germ tube test, morphology on corn meal agar, colour difference on CHROM agar and sugar assimilation test. Findings candidiasis was 75.91%. with majority of the patients belonged to age group 31 female ratio was 1.93: 1 . 63.47% of patients belonged to Stage 4 of WHO clinical staging. Candida albicans was the most common species iso of which most common was C. tropicalis 32.61%, C. krusei 5.17%, C. parapsilosis 3.45%, C. glabrata 2.87%, C.kefyr 1.72%, C.dubliniesis 1.72% and C. guillermondii 1.15%. Conclusion Oropharyngeal C Candida albicans continues to be the common and important pathogen among the Candida species there is a increase in the incidence of non Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. -50% of Indian population. But in HIV infection the -500 cell/mm3, with fall in CD4 count to <200 cells/mm3 oesophageal d patients Aim- To identify and characterize Candida species - Two twenty two hundred HIV positive cases were selected for this fication of Candida species was done by conventional standard techniques using Gram’s lated 52.31%. Non Candida albicans isolates were 47.69% andida colonization remains common in HIV-infected individuals, even with ART. -Candida albicans species like Candida du - The prevalence of - 45 years. Male to - blinienses,

  24. Mrs. Dhanalakshmi, C., Dr. Bhagyalakshmi, M. and Dr. Hemalatha, S.

    The aim of study was to assess the knowledge regarding techniques of communication among first year B.Sc. (N) students, College of Nursing, SVIMS, Tirupathi. sampling technique, a descriptive research design was adopted students were taken as samples and data collection was done by using a self structured questionnaire. The study results revealed that out of 95 students, 31(32.6%) had inadequate knowledge, 38(40.0%) had moderate know variables with knowledge, there was significant relationship between knowledge with educational status at p<0.034 level and occupation of mother at p<0.042 level. day by day, various styles of communication attract the persons, lacking a good guidance and support from the teachers, the students might lack appropriate communication techniques. Hence the present study aimed to show the importance of gaining communication in order to develop positive relationship between student and patient. By using non . Ninety five 1 ledge, 26(27.4%) had adequate knowledge. In association of demographic good communication and improving knowledge on –probability convenient st year Nursing college As the technology is increasing

  25. Nikola Malešević ,Goran Bokan and Saša Lončar

    Congenital stenosis of the pulmonary valve usually occurs in younger people in two forms: isolated and more often, variable and usually manifests at a younger age. Ca pulmonary valve stenosis in adults are rare in the literature. This paper presents a case of a patient who was initially hospitalized for anasarca, and in the background there was a congenital stenosis of the pulmon associated with other heart defects. The spectrum of clinical manifestations is ses of previously undiagnosed congenital ary valve that was treated with balloon valvuloplasty.

  26. Dr. Ganapathi Rao, I, Dr Chandrakanth. M. Halli, Dr. Subhod Kamthikar

    Kshara Sutra refers to corrosive or caustic thread. Para surgical measures, because they perform the work of incision, puncture, and scarification to relieve derangements of the Tridosha and uniformly affect the diseased part to which they are applied. Kshar Darana, Katuka, Ushna, Tikshna, Vilayana, Shodhana, Ropana, Shoshana, Stambhana, Lekhana, Krimighna. Materials used for preparation of kshara Sutra are Snuhi Ksheer, Apamarga Ksha Haridra powder, Thread Linen Barbour No.20. Recent advances in kshara sutra; Although the standard Apamarga ksharasutra is used successfully in the management of fistula problem in its preparation and use are worth noting modifications in this thread creates many problems during preparation of the thread becomes more difficult disadvantage is that there is a severe pain felt by the patients during the application of the thread few cases, the intensity is so severe that the patients discontinue the therap problems, several researches have been carried out drugs having better actions and acceptability than that of Snuhi latex and Apamarga kshara drugs should be having binding propert veerya activities, and additional beneficial action Kshara is considered superior to all surgical and a possess the following qualities – Tridoshaghna, Saumyata, Dahana, Pachana, . These problems . One of the essential components of this thread is snuhi latex . It coagulates if not used early in summer, so preparation is possible only in limited seasons . The researchers are based on searching for the y on thread, easy availability in bulk, less irritant ), having vranashodhak and vrana ropaka properties, having anti ra, - in –ano, the have put necessity of further . This latex . Collection . Another . In y. To overcome these . These (sheeta -septic and anti- inflammatory

  27. Ananya Das and Salil Kumar Gupta

    Tyrophaguslongior infestation the wheat and rice get severely damaged and produces pungent smell. Its Life cycle at room temperature respectively. The fecundity was 25.2 ± 0.92 and 22.28 ± 0.59 eggs respectively for wheat and rice and female longevity was 25.53±2.19 and 35.43±3.19 days for wheat and rice respective life cycle was completed was sort of time in wheat flour on which fecundity was slightly higher apparently wheat flour appears to be more preferable to the mite compared to rice flour. is an important and notorious paste of stored wheat and rice and because of its reveals that it took 28.12 ± 3.21days and 29.32 ± 3.64 on wheat and rice ly. Since the

  28. Bina Nasim, Mohammad Saeed Yeddi, Niaz Ahmed Shaikh and Essam Ahmad, Ayesha Zafar Gondal, Jamila Mohammad Bin Adi

    Background: to determine the various primary extra To identify the patients with Covid monitor the development and onset of cli the hospital course and outcome of these patients. reviewing the charts of 111 patients COVID from March,2020 Out of the 111 patients admitted with COVID 19 infection under medica primarily had gastrointestinal presentation, 41(36.9%) had neurological presentation, 49(44%) had renal manifestations, 36(32.1%) presented with sepsis, 24(21.4%) were admitted with cardiovascular manifestations, 70(63%) had hemat 7(6.3%) had dermatological manifestations, 2 (1%) had arthritis, and 6(5.3%) were found to have psychiatric manifestations. had pneumonia at the time of admission, 6(16.2 %) developed pneumonia during admission and 15 (40.5 %) did not have pneumonia, alive. Out of the 41 patients who had neurologic presentation, admission, 13(31.7%) did not have pneumonia, whereas 11(26.8%) developed pneumonia during admission, Out of the 49 patients admitted (26.5%) developed pneumonia during admission, whereas 8(16%) did not have pneumonia.35(71.4%) patients were discharged alive and 14(28.5%) died in the hospital. Out of 36 patients who prese with sepsis, 21(58.3%) had pneumonia on admission, 12 (33.3%) developed pneumonia during hospital stay, 24(66.7%) were discharged alive and 12 patients (33.3%) died. Out of the 24 patients (21.4%) who were admitted with cardiovascular manifestations, admission and 2(8.3%) developed pneumonia during hospital stay, 18(75%) were discharged alive and 6 patients (25%) died. Conclusion: Our study shows that a considerable number of COVID patients presented with extra was discovered radio presentations infection. Covid-19 infection is primarily known as a pulmonary disease. -pulmonary presentations of Covid -19 infection presenting with extra nical and/or radiological features of Pneumonia, determine Methods: We conducted a retrospective study by admitted in Rashid Hospital, Internal -19 infection who primarily had extra-pulmonary presentations with or without pneumonia - June,2020. We excluded the patients who presented with pneumonia. ological features, 80(72%) had endocrine/metabolic features, Out of the 37 patients who had gastrointestinal presentation, 9 patients (24.3 %) died whereas 28 (75.6 %) were discharged 17(41. 35 (85.3%) patients were discharged alive whereas 6 patients (14.6%) died in the hospital. with renal manifestations, 28(57%) had pneumonia on admission, 13 -pulmonary manifestations and in these patients pulmonary involvement logically, therefore it is important for the physicians to recognize these atypical to avoid any potential hazard of exposure and any delay in the treatment of this We conducted a study -19 infection. Objectives: -pulmonary manifestations, Medicine department with Results: l team, 37 patients (33%) 16(43.2 %) 4%) had pneumonia at the time of nted 21(87.5) had pneumonia on -19

  29. Mishra Meenu , Shivhare Shwetal and Sharma Vivek

    Hypertensive crisis is an uncontrolled hypertension, defined as a systolic Blood Pressure >180mmHg or a diastolic Blood Pressure >12OmmHg. urgency injury. impending or progressive target organ dysfunction. severe elevation of Blood Pressure without progressive target organ dysfunction. Most sufferers (85%) of hypertension are asymptomatic and hence early diagnosis is the problem. This case report is presentation of hypertensive urgency of 60 years o drug therapy under the supervision of allopathic physician. This case report highlights the pharmacological role of antihypertensive drugs in hypertensive urgency and helped to control this severe condition Hypertensive crisis can be classified as a hypertensive and emergency depending on end organ involvement including cardiac, renal & neurologic Hypertensive emergency characterized by severe elevation in Blood Pressure with evidence of Hypertensive urgencies are associa ld male patient, which is well managed by modern to preceding life threatening. ted with

  30. Desai Shivani Sharad, Jaydeep Pol Apoorva Neeli ,Dipti Patil, Sanika Kulkarni and Abhineet Desai , Himanshu Soni,

    Lingual thyroid is a developmental anomaly with thyroid tissue usually seen in the base of the tongue. It arises from the unobliterated thyroglossal duct epith parenchyma histologically. Clinically it can be mistaken for minor salivary gland tumors and various benign cystic lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) coupled with radiology aids in the proper diagnosis o lingual thyroid diagnosed on FNAC by an intraoral approach. elium. It represents the normal thyroid f lingual thyroid and helps in planning further treatment. We present two cases of

  31. Dr. Imtiaz Shah, Dr. Yasir Aaffaaq Ahmed Mir Dr. Servishet Saraf and Dr. Momin Shah

    36 years old male patient who was being treated as right epididymoorchitis for the last 26 days at a private clinic came to urology OPD with non testis was enlarged as compared to the left testis with no tenderness and decreased sensation on the right side of scrotum. Ultrasound scrotum revealed heterogenous mass 2x2 cms in upper pole of right testis which was confirmed with CT scan, with no ly gonadotropin) and AFP (alpha feto protein) were within normal limits. FNAC confirmed seminoma right testis and was treated with right high orchidectomy. -resolving swelling of the right testis. Clinically ri mph node metastasis. βHCG (β human chorionic ght

  32. Burlaka Ie, A., Shevchenko T.A.

    Vitamin D is vitamin and hormone with huge range of calcium dependent functions. Chronic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy patients have a high incidence of cardiovascular and infectious morbidities. Increasing evidence indi vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular and infectious mortality risks. Kidne is a target organ for Vitamin D3. This article is to review and summarize the pleiotropic effects of Vitamin D in patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Diabethic Nephropathy. -dependent and calcium-non- cates a relationship between

  33. Dr. Sharon Jose,Dr. Navin Hadadi Krishnamurthy Dr. Umapathy, T. and Dr. Balaji P

    Introduction: perimeter, supraeruption of opposing teeth and changes in the patient’s occlusion. Hence, maintaining the primary tooth is utmost important for maintaining the arch integrity. T treatment of primary teeth can be achieved only through a detailed knowledge of root and canal morphology. using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Methods: from the institutional data base and private diagnostic centers. The CBCT images were reconstructed with the help of Results: which account for 72% of teeth and Variant II had three roots and thre palatal root fused in 28% cases. there was difference in the root canal configuration of primary maxillary first molars in the studied patients of an Indian p Premature loss of primary teeth can cause many problems including loss of arch Aim: To evaluate the root and canal morphology of primary maxillary first molars in Pediatric Indian population. CBCT images of 25 children (50 images) in the age group of 4 Scanora software evaluated and analyzed the data using SPSS version for windows. The majority of the primary maxillary first molar had three roots and three canals (Variant I) Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, we concluded that opulation. he successful endodontic Materials and -10 years were obtained e canals with distobuccal and

  34. Bode I. Shobayo , Bluefin M. Freeman and Laura Skrip

    The ongoing pandemic of COVID political governance. It has also highlighted the importance of anticipating and addressing threats proactively. Our actions or inactions have ramifications for (AMR) is a threat motivated by a rational over economics of satisfying it, and the politics of safely regulating use. Closely considering the moral obligations in the co more widely into policy making, practice guidelines and training programs to ensure the threat is eliminated. Here, we examine the ethical implications for AMR in the contexts of economics, regulation, consumption and agriculture. -19 has emphasized the interrelatedness of health, economics, and global health. Antimicrobial resistance -dependence on pharmaceutical intervention, the ntext of AMR remains vital for the ethical significance of AMR to be included healthcare,

  35. Abhijeet Arun Deshmukh and Rebeca Pramod Timothy

    Background: children evaluation of upper limb performance, reference values for YBT 6-12 years. going children. with 7 sub evaluated by YBT boys 102.15 score(CS) ranged from 55.14cm to 86.85 cm in both gender. UQ scores also increase in both genders. No significant gender differences existed, whereas males showed slightly greater values than females in all three reach directi Balance is important in various physical therapy evaluation in school going for performing various physical performance activities. Specific dynamic test for YBT-UQ is reliable method for assessment. Normal -UQ have not been established in school going Indian Objective: To estimate reference values of Y- Balance test in 6 Methods: Total 350 children (175 boys and 175 girls) was the estimated sample size -groups(6,7,8,9,10,11 & 12 years), 50 in each group i.e. 25 boys and 25 girls. Balance was -UQ in both groups. Results: The total excursion score(TES) of YBT +6.97 to 187.94+10.18cm and in girls 96.36+4.49 to182.63 Conclusion: children aged between -to12-years Indian school -UQ among + 3.61cm. The composite As age advances the YBT- ons (M,IL&SL),TES and CS.

  36. Mira Heriyanti, Budi Hartono , Lita, Oktavia Dewi and Dedi Afandi

    Background: declared home by the hospital. The problem of delay can hamper the task of medical records assembling which has an impact on the service of officers to patients. effectiveness of supervision with coaching method on returning the medical record documents of BPJS inpatients to the Inpatient Cashier at RSUD Kota Dumai research with a pre were sampled using simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by univariate and bivariate analysis. SOP supervision wi of fifteen days. After supervision, the average return of medical record documents was four days, and documents were immediately returned before 24 hours, and a maximum of fourte Wilcoxon test result shows that p coaching method, the faster medical record documents returned, and it is effective to BPJS inpatients medical record documents. problems that exist in various hospital units with the coaching method and be applied to all officers to be more effective in has a positive impact on hospital management the timely return of medical record document files is 2×24 hours after the patient is -experimental design (one group with pre-test and post Result: the average length of time to return medical record documents before conducting th the coaching method was six days with the fastest is one day and a maximum -value 0.000 < 0.05. Conclusion: Suggestion: RSUD Kota Dumai expected to increase supervision on overcoming every problem that exists in the RSUD Kota Dumai units so that it Objective: to find out the . Method: this was quantitative -test). Ninety-nine nurses en days. The the better the supervision with the

  37. Krishna Reddy KV, Saba Fatima and Syed Salman Ahmed

    Introduction: global issue for patient safety. A simple Hand hygiene is considered to be the primary measure necessary for re among health hygiene practices at a health and hence play a key role in hospital infection control. ‘Indication related compliance with hand hygiene practices’ among health care providers in general wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted by using WHO Hand hygiene observa hygiene action taken i.e., either hand wash(HW) or hand rub(HR) done for an opportunity indicated in WHO’s 5 moments of hand hygiene. A total of 400 opportunities were observed in general wards among doctors, nu action taken and compliance was calculated. Hand hygiene compliance was found to be 41% for doctors, 35% for nurses, 21% 16% for class IV employees. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 28%. Indication wise compliance was found to be 21% before touching the patient, 36% before doing any clean/aseptic procedure, 46% after body fluid exposure, 26.2% after t Conclusion: technicians, nursing staff and doctors. Adequate training is required to all staffs regarding importance of hand hygiene and its role in preventing Health Care associated Infections. Health care-associated infection (HCAI) affects millions worldwide and is a major ducing HCAI. Although the action of hand hygiene is simple, the lack of compliance -care workers continues to be a problem throughout the world. Evaluation of hand -care facility is one vital element of the strategy Aims tion form by randomly observing for the hand rses, technicians and housekeeping staff i.e., 100 in each category for hand hygiene Duration of study: ouching patient and 12% after touching patient surroundings. Lowest hand hygiene compliance was found among class IV employees followed by to improve hand hygiene and Objectives: To determine Nov 2019 to Dec 2019. Results: for technicians and

  38. Dr. Tulika Singh

    Infraumbilical surgeries are associated with significant postoperative pain. The pain is usually of a long duration. Post operative pain treatment is very important for a variety of reasons as its proper treatment influences the quality standards of ho study was conducted to evaluate postoperative analgesic efficacy of four doses of epidurally administered Bupivacaine versus Tramadol in infraumbilical surgeries. Epi efficacy than epidural Bupivacaine. Nausea and vomiting was more in group T which was easily treatable with anti emetic. elective infraumbilical surgery. Cases were allocated by computer generated randomization into two groups containing 20 cases each. Cases in Group B received 10ml of 0.125% Bupivacaine and those in Group T received Tramadol 100mg in 10m Tramadol with antiemetic had significantly longer duration of analgesic effect. longer dosage intervals compared to Group B cases re and similar between both groups than epidural Bupivacaine. Nausea and vomiting was more in group T which was easily treat emetic. spital care and associated comorbidities linked to an inadequate management thereof. This dural Tramadol has better postoperative analgesic Methods: 40 adult cases ranging in age from 30 to 50 years with ASA Grade I & l of normal saline,via the epidural route. Results ceiving Bupivacaine. Cardiovascular parameters were stable 2. Conclusion: Epidural Tramadol has better postoperative analgesic efficacy II, presenting for – Cases in Group T receiving epidural These cases also had significantly able with anti

  39. Giulio Tarro

    Children are infected with the virus without suffering a serious disease and represent an important source of infection. It has been experimentally proven that young mice respond to lung tissue damage from viral infection through prostaglandins, while adult mice succumb. The angiotensin enzyme (ACE) 2 receptor is particularly abundant on the cel situation explains the high incidence of bronchitis and pneumonia related to the severe infection of COVID similar to that of influenza such as that of 1957 or 1968., rather than those of SARS or MERS, characterized respectively by a fatality of 10% and ls of the lower lung pathways, whose -19. This suggests that the overall clinical consequences of COVID severe seasonal flu, which has a fatality rate of approximately 0.1%, or pandemic 36%. - converting -19 could ultimately be

  40. Maria Vasilievna Kushnareva and Ekaterina Vitalievna Vetrova

    Material and methods: phagocytic activity of blood neutrophils and the pathogen in 16 preterm infants (the main group) with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) complicated by “ cytological method. Microbio standard methods. Infants received IVIG for 3 consecutive days, starting from the second day of life. Results: premature newborns. IVIG stimulated phagocytosis of blood neutrophils a day after the start of treatment with the achievement of normal values and maintained the immunocorrective effect for at least three days after the course of immunotherapy. group (19 infants did not receive IVIG), phagocytosis was lower than normal at the beginning and in the acute period of the disease. Neutrophil phagocytosis was lower before IVIG administration and one day after IVI Ureaplasma urealiticum infants with bacterial pneumonia, but phagocytosis was high after a course of immunotherapy. risk of developing pneumonia stimulates neutrophil phagocytosis. This can contribute to the rapid elimination of pathogens and a less severe course o We investigated the effect of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) on the relationship between phagocytosis and the type of ventilator-associated” pneumonia (VAP). Phagocytosis was investigated by logical examination of tracheo-bronchial aspirate was performed using It was found that phagocytosis rates in these infants were lower than in 20 In newborns with VAP from the comparison G administration in newborns of the main group when , Chlamydia trachomatis were isolated from the respiratory tract than in in infants with intracellular Conclusion: Early use of IVIG in premature infants with RDS at f pneumonia. healthy Mycoplasma hominis, pathogens

  41. Dr. Soundarya Prabhakar, Dr. Laxminarayan Sonde, Dr. Rekha P Shenoy, Dr. Praveen S Jodalli, Dr. Imran Pasha and Dr. Junaid

    Forensic dentistry is the law application that defines the superposition between dentistry and the legal professions. In forensic dentistry areas, such as accidental or non assessment, dental history and mass catastrophe through analysing the anatomy of teeth and clues. These dental results/records can be useful in the forensic identification of a non person with teeth. Owing to the physiological changes and pathology of the knowledge of the tooth record is held during life and beyond. Lipper pr useful details and help us recognise individuals. Teeth may also help to assess the gender of dental DNA skeletonised remains. In teething crime investigation, forensic odontology plays a part as well, such as bite marks. The dentist will help the doctor determine bite marks as a result of violence. The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of dentist in various aspects of forensic odontology and procedures required for examination, identification, a , dentists play a crucial role through their experience in different -accidental oral trauma, violence and neglect in childhood, age ints and palatal rugae patterns may also provide nd investigations of bite marks. skin for -identified

  42. Dr. Jigna S Shah and Mahalaxmi Panda

    Rickets is a disorder caused by a lack of Vitamin D, calcium or emerged as a significant public health problem throughout the spite of wide availability of sunlight. delayed tooth erup conservative dental treatments such as composite sealant restorations and other preventive dental treatments. The aim of present article is to report a case of rickets in a 7 year old bo dental findings phosphate. Vitamin D deficiency has world, even in the Indian context in Dental manifestation of rickets includes enamel hypoplasia and tion. Careful and thorough management of this disorder can be done by and to raise awareness on characteristics of this disorder. y, describing

  43. Dr. Priyanka Saxena, Dr. Avnish Gaur Dr. Vimalkant Jain and Dr. Utkarsha Singh

    Aim & Objectives: diabetic patients. with type 2 diabetes mellitus in INDEX MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL, from June 2018 to July 2019.The study group comprised of males and females of age group 35 to 75 years. were divided into 3 groups according to HbA1 control) group 2, HbA1c levels between 6.5% to 8.5%(poor control) & group 3 HbA1c levels >8.5% (worst control). Venous WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were determined. patients included, significantly HbA1c. poorglycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, HbA1c levelscan be used as a disease monitoring tool for the follow up of diabetic patients. To investigate the relationship between NLR and blood glucose level in type 2 Material and Method: This observational study w c levels: group 1, HbA1c levels<6.5%(excellent fasting serum glucose, neutrophil count and leucocyte count counts were higher in group 3 compared with group 2>group 1. NLR had a positive correlation with Conclusion: Increasing level of NLR is associated with elevated HbA1c level and as conducted on 100 patients Patients Result: Of 100

  44. Nutan Makasare and Dr. Seema Singh

    Nursing personnel especially female Nurses have a higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among all health care workers. Improper body mechanics has a direct effect on the prevalence of LBP. Working with risky posture, prolonged standing, physical workload, bending and twisting are main contributing factors for LBP among Nursing professionals. Majority of Nurses lack knowledge, and hence don’t use body mechanics when turning, moving, lifting, and transferring the patients. Researches proved that physical exercises and yoga are an acceptable method for improving and maintaining physical and emotional health. Studies revealed that yoga appears to be an effective and safe intervention for low back pain. Educational training programs of body mechanics integrated with physical exercises and yoga can play a vital role in decreasing low back pain among Nurses

  45. Dr. Santosh A Hingu, Dr. Kuldip Chovatiya and Dr Paritosh Solanki

    Introduction: Spinal injuries are one of the common injuries in road traffic accidents and high velocity traumas. Needs special attentions regarding its managements and rehabilitations. Thoracolumbar is the second most common segment involved in the vertebral column following cervical segment in patients with spinal injuries. The goal of treatment of any spinal injury is restoration of the patient to maximum possible function with disability free life. Initially, Long segment transpedicular fixation was done , which is providing stability to spine but in this type of fixation Motion segments of spine are involved which leads to rigid and fix spine. To overcome this problem, Short segment fixation is developed in which Motion segments of spine can be preserved without disturbing stability of this study patients were managed with short segment spinal fixations and follow-up with various criterias regarding its out-come. Materials and Methods: 32 atients out of which 23 male and 9 female with thoraco-lumbar junctions injuries are managed with short segment posterior spinal fixation. And follow-up with various criteria regarding its outcomes such as vertebral heights attained, sagittal and anterior wedge angle, pain relief and complications such as inplant failure and infections. Mean duration of follow-up was 6 months. Results: in this study which was done on 32 patient. Mean age was 35.6 for males and 33.56 for females. The mean regional angle observed during pre-operative stages was 16.0 ° ±5.1and during pre-op-24th post op week it was 4.1° ± 4.2°. mean difference between this two is 11.95° and p<0.05 . the mean anterior wedge angle observed during pre-operative stages was 18.0° ±6.9° and during 24th post op week it was 5.2° ± 4.8°. mean difference between this two is 13.6° and p<0.05. The mean difference in vertebral height between the pre-operative stage and 6th post-op week was 7.96mm. in terms of complication one patient developed post-op infection. Conclusion: Short segment posterior instrumentation is a good implant system used in the treatment of vertebral fractures. There is a statistically significant restoration of vertebral body height, mean regional angle and mean anterior wedge angle, sparing of motion segments which are sacrificed in the conventional long segment fixation and avoiding morbidity of anterior approach for anterior reconstruction.

  46. Dr. Shahla Khan and Dr. Ghulam Sarwar Hashmi

    Introduction: The outburst and transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Related Corona virus 2(SARS-CoV-2), accountable for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused an urgent situation in the health care system globally. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic arguably represents the worst public health crisis of the 21st century. The coronavirus (COVID-19) has challenged healthcare professionals and those in dental education, evoking various response methods worldwide. However, no empirical study currently exists in the literature that examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dental education. Aim: The purpose of this manuscript is to evaluate the information and experience of dental students of India on dental education during COVID-19 pandemic.Methods: An anonymous online survey was administrated to professional dental students that focused on their experiences related to COVID-19. The survey included questions about student demographics, online teaching, attendance, importance of technologies, protocols for school reopening and student perceptions of institutional responses, student concerns, and anxiety & psychological impacts on dental students on India. Conclusion: Dental teaching and training is very much disturbed during covid-19 pandemic because dental education & dentistry is directly linked with the oral cavity

  47. Walifa Rasheed Karim

    This paper argues that work–life balance may influence the wellbeing of teachers in further education (FE) in the UK, and this may occur where the lack of adequate balance engenders emotional labour and burnout. This effect may be compounded where there is lack of social support. However, personality variables such as hardiness may influence the extent to which teachers feel in control of their work. It is argued that LOC (locus of control) and efficacy are other variables which may influence teachers’ perceptions of themselves and feelings of being in control of demanding situations. The extent to which LOC/self-efficacy and Work Life-Balance (WL-B) are significant influences on emotional labour and burnout among FE teachers in the UK requires exploration

  48. Walifa Rasheed Karim

    The UK is culturally diverse,with many further education (FE) colleges serving its communities. This is expected, as the UK participates in a global market. Diversity and ethnicity are linked conceptually and it is argued that in circumstances where teachers and students differ culturally, blocks tocommunication between the two may serve as a starting point for emotional labour and burnout among teachers in FE. This has yet to be researched. Culture is inextricably linked to gender roles. Where emotional rules differ, emotional labour and burnout may have varying occurrences between genders. This paper argues that there is a need to examine the link between emotional labour and burnout among culturally diverse groups as well as differences between gender. The paper also points out that the environment teachers work in may be a source of stress, and not ‘fitting in’ may culminate in stress leading to burnout.

  49. Ronakh R, Ramesh Patel, Ryan Job Vachaparampil, Guriqbal Singh, Pragya Sachan and Garima Harbola

    Background: The tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is surgically corrected by Intra Cardiac Repair which involves the resection of muscle bundles that obstruct the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) thus increasing the pulmonary blood flow. The most common problem following corrective surgery is residual RVOT obstruction. The aim of the study is to assess whether TEE can provide reliable estimate of the RVOT gradients in patients with TOF. Methods -60 patients who were scheduled for Intra Cardiac Repair for TOF were included in the study after obtaining informed and written consent. Study design-Prospective observational study. During the preoperative&postoperative phase, the RV-PA gradient was obtained from the ME ascending aortic short axis view ,UE aortic arch short axis view and the TG RV outflow view and the gradients so obtained were compared with the preoperative RV – PA gradient obtained by the surgeon using a needle-saline filled pressure transducer system. Results-Appropriate statistical analysis of the results revealed the following significant findings: • TEE can provide reliable estimates of RVOT gradients in patients with TOF, especially in the post CPB period. • In the pre CPB period, the intraoperatively measured highest echocardiography gradients showed a relatively weak correlation (R=.216) when compared to the needle gradients. • In the post CPB period, relatively strong correlation (R=.657) was observed between the highest intraoperative echocardiography gradients and the needle gradients. All the individual TEE views had a clinical and statistical significant levels of correlation with the needle-saline-transducer gradient. Conclusion: The use of intraoperative TEE provides reliable estimates of the RVOT gradients in patients with TOF undergoing ICR in both pre and post CPB period. TEE can be recommended as a less invasive modality to measure the RVOT gradients with accuracy instead of the more invasive needle-saline-transducer gradient measurements.

  50. Vinil Upendrababu and Dr. S. N. Nanjunde Gowda

    Coronary artery disease is still one of the leading causes of death around the globe even though the mortality is on the decrease since 1970 in most of the industrialized countries. This marked reduction in coronary artery disease was largely driven by the significance of advancement in the novel treatment modalities used in these western countries. These strategies have ranged from advanced diagnostic modalities to various novel treatment methods. This article will review the recent advancement in the treatment of Coronary artery disease in respect to therapeutics and diagnostic modalities.

  51. V. Tavadze, T. Koiava, M. Nagervadze, R. Khukhunaishvili and L. Akhvlediani

    Background: Nosocomial infections are the group of infections that pose the greatest threat in terms of their cause- microorganisms, developing and spreading resistance to antibiotics (Keskin Seremet, et al., 2020). In addition, prolonged hospital stays, violation of sterilization and disinfection regulations in some cases, lack of professionalism, and shortage of knowledge among medical workers (Butsashvili et al., 2010) contribute to the spreading of these infections and the development of antibiotic resistance. E. coli is the leading infection in the urinary tract. This bacterium is the one that predominates in both nosocomial and community-acquired urinary tract infections (Alaniz et al., 2018) (Plate et al., 2019). Objective: To identify E. coli in samples with suspected nosocomial infection, isolate pure culture, and determine antibiotic resistance in various biological fluids. Materials and Methods: The study covered the following biological material obtained from the patients who spent 48 hours or more in the intensive care unit (total of 540): sputum, urine, material from the surface of the tip of venous and urinary catheters. Various biological samples underwent a retrospective study. The bacteria were isolated and identified with the standard bacteriological methods, namely by sampling from the appropriate nutrient zones and then by separating the pure culture. Finally, cultures were identified using the API test, and sensitivity to antibiotics was determined by Kirby-Bauer diffusion and E-test. The double-disk method was applied to determine the producers of E. coli broad spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Result: The total of 540 samples was analyzed, out of which 236 were rejected as defective and 82 were gram-positive bacteria, and only 45 E. coli isolates were obtained from the remaining 158 samples. Thereof, 26 were resistant, and 23 were susceptible to antibiotics. Out of 158 samples, 89 were taken from sputum, –47 from urine, biological fluids-exudates from the tip of venous and urinary catheters. The highest degree of E. coli was found in sputum (56%) and urine (29%). The analysis for antibiotic sensitivity in samples showed that the resistance rate of E. coli isolated in the intensive care units in Adjara was quite high. All isolates were 100% resistant to antibiotics such as CXM/Cefuroxime, CRO/Ceftriaxone, CAZ/Ceftazidime, CTX/Cefotaxime, and AMP/Ampicillin. The resistance rate of 70-80% to FEP/Cefepim, CIP/Ciprofloxacin, LVX/Levofloxacin, ATM/Aztreonam, AMC/Amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, and DOX/Doxycycline was recorded in E. coli isolates. Conclusion: Only 3 antibiotics can be effective against Escherichia coli such as CST/Colistin, IPM/Imipenem, and MEM/Meropenem.

  52. Charvi Gangwani

    Entrepreneurial intention can be defined as willingness of a person to start new business. (Bird, 1988 & Thompson, 2009). Entrepreneurship is an engine for economic growth, a remedy for unemployment, and a way to create employment. The purpose of this study was to find out various factors that affect the entrepreneurial intention of college students in India. The study is exploratory and qualitative in nature. Content Analysis of previous researches was done to identify the factors which affect EI in college students. It was found that both Internal and External Factors affect the Entrepreneurial intention among college students in India. The Internal factors included Personality traits, Enterpreneur Education, Prior Business Experience, Relational support, Age and Gender. External factors included the entrepreneur utility, situational and environmental factors.

  53. Dinesh Hamangoda, Dr. Ajith Medis and Dr. Nalaka Wickramasinghe

    Background: The contribution of Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) to environmental depletion is surprisingly high. Green consumption of the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) sector would be an effective way to reduce the global environmental footprint. Studies related to FMCG's green consumer behavior in developing countries such as Sri Lanka are few and far between. Objectives: Considering the above, researchers in the study have tried to comprehend the factors affecting green consumerism in urban Sri Lankan in the FMCG sector. Hence the objective of this study is to scientifically research the factors affecting green consumer behavior and to promote the concept in developing nations. Methods: This research has applied the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) & Theory of Consumption Value. Researchers have used the value and attempted to introduce another factor affecting green behavior: Green Functional value, into the study. All the above variables were measured its appropriateness in influencing FMCG green purchase Intention and Behavior. A sum of 522 usable sets of responses was extracted with the help of a scientifically prepared questionnaire using a Proportionate stratified random sampling approach. SEM (Structured Equation Modelling) was applied to measure the strength of the relationships that existed among constructs. Results: The research findings reported that TBP supported the Green consumer purchase intention, which influenced the green buying behavior Subjective norms, which is a prominent construct of the TPB, was not supported as an influence on Green FMCG Buying intention. In contrast, new extensions like Eco literacy, Green functional value, WPP were supported with a statistical significance. It was proven that the addition of new variables improved the predicting power of green purchase intention and green purchase behavior in the TPB framework. Amongst others, WPP had the highest effect on the green buying intention with very high Q2and f2 values. Related implications and a discussion are embedded at the end. Conclusions: Subjective norm's influence on green buying intention is not accepted in Sri Lankan FMCG green market. At the same time, Green trust also seems not influencing Sri Lankans' green buying intentions. The new dimension introduced, called green functional value, seems substantially influencing the green buying intention of Sri Lankan Green consumers. The willingness to pay a premium (WPP) has a very significant positive influence on Green Consumer Intention for FMCG products. The basic stem of TPB, their positive relationship between Green Purchase Intention and Green Purchase behavior, is significantly validated in this research.

  54. Adriel G. Roman

    The study attempted to determine the challenges, coping strategies, and practices of tertiary mathematics teachers in preparation, facilitation, and assessment and evaluation of learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using phenomenological approach of research, 10 mathematics faculty of institute of higher learning participated in the study. Based on the result of this study, mathematics teachers faced a lot of challenges in terms of learning module, strategy in teaching, time constraints, and multiple preparations. Likewise, the study was able to show that there is a problem when it comes to internet connectivity resulting to communication gap between teachers and students. However, on the top of these challenges, teachers’ quality and commitment are more visible. Several coping strategies were identified such as utilization of technology and teaching tools, bridging the communication gap through online (verbal and chat). Teachers also ensured that instructional materials are prepared ahead of time. They also provide varied instructional assessment to cater individual learning capability of the students as well as they establish conducive and enticing online classroom environment where materials are already installed.

  55. Dr. Sivadasan Madhavan, Mr. Tesfaye Buche and Mr. Temesgen Markos

    The Second Language Acquisition is a topic of hot discussion among the language teachers and students at the level of higher education. This paper looks into the pros and cons related to internalizing a language other than one’s mother tongue. The factors that affect the acquisition of a second language are examined and described in this article from an academic point of view.

  56. Tanveer Aziz Dar and Dr. S. Prabhakaran

    The paper covets to draw attention to the origin and growth of coalition politics in India. The manuscript wants to emphasize the fruition of coalition governments in India. The assessment of coalition politics and a scrutiny of how far coalition remains vivacious nevertheless stable. However tough it is to make policy decisions once of ideologies forms the political government. Coalitions are shaped to avert a common enemy from the government and capturing the political power. Evenly fascinating is the reality a coalition devoid of ideological mornings survives till the rival is defeated. However manufacturing political adjustments, main beliefs may have to be set out-of-the-way and in this course Ideology becomes the primarily to suffer. Once the election success is ended, differences come to the float up and the formation of coalitation collapses like a bunch of cards. On the basis of facts, history and research one has to admit India lives in affairs of state of Coalition. In general the piece of work also throughs light on the pros and cons of coalition politics.

  57. Phelve Lourine T. Lato, Charina S. Alberca, Maria Elsie R. Laput, Jessica R. Carreon and Emily C. Rosal

    This review study includes 43 articles from 2016 and 2017 focusing on teachers’ professional development, as guided by the following twofold research question: “What characterizes teachers’ professional development in school, and how does this development influence school improvement?” The review indicates that teachers’ learning processes need to be developed if they are to lead to school improvement. It is not enough for researchers simply to study learning processes in schools; they must also conduct formative intervention studies. Ultimately, while conducting research on these processes, researchers should provoke and sustain an expansive transformation process led by and owned by practitioners—leaders and teachers in the whole school. Findings suggest that more research is needed to show how outside resource persons, such as researchers, can contribute to school development in collaboration with teachers and school leaders at work.

  58. Juheon Rhee

    Background: The coronavirus pandemic is arguably the direst issue of 2020, impacting the greater majority of the world’s population. One of the most prominent questions surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic is why there is such a wide distribution of total cases and deaths per countries, even in an adjusted population sample. This paper contains both the correlation and regression analysis showing the relationship between the coronavirus cases and deaths and their corresponding affecting factors. Objective: The study aims to verify several intuitions regarding the factors that impact population-adjusted total cases and total deaths with cross-sectional data of different countries. Methods: This was done by deducing from the correlation regression values as well as other statistical results. All the data utilized in this paper was provided by the Our World in Data database. Results: The statistical results showed that population-adjusted total cases are significantly positively affected by GDP per capita and COVID-19 tests per thousand, however, not as significantly affected by the population density and the population rate of elderlies. They also showed that the population-adjusted total deaths are significantly negatively influenced by population-adjusted hospital beds and GDP per capita but positively influenced by the population rate of elderlies. Conclusion: Through this study, it was revealed that while some results did not align with initial hypothesis in the correlation analysis, with supposedly deterring factors showing positive correlation with either population-adjusted total cases or deaths, they had negative relationships in the regression analysis when other independent factors were contained.

  59. Sandip Mandal

    It is not possible for a bird to fly on one wing. So for the development of a nation women should be educated with men. In Atharva Veda it is mentioned that Just as boys acquire sound knowledge and education by the practice of Brahmacharya, so should girls. So thoughts of girls empowerment is coming from ancient age. Several steps were taken with the change of era. As a result sati system was abolished, the scope of formal education system of girls has expanded but till now child marriage, sexual abuse of minor girls, child labour, trafficking, other forms of exploitation are existing in India. Present scenario of West Bengal is a matter of importance regarding the prevalence of child marriage. Proper education is needed for eradicating such type of evil practices in our society. After independence several measures are taken for proper education of girl child. In 2013, government of West Bengal launched a conditional cash transfer scheme, Kanyashree Prakalpa for incentivizing adolescent girls to complete secondary and higher secondary education, or equivalent in technical or vocational streams and to disincentivising marriage till at least the age of 18, the legal age of marriage. Increased rate of sanctioned Kanyashree application from 2013-2014 session to till date indicates the growth of enrolment of girls in formal education field. On the other hand Kanyashree girls campaign the evil effect of child marriage and also have interrupted child marriage forcefully with the help of police, BDO, NGO and others. Impact of this scheme enhances the attitude towards education and self power, self esteem of adolescent girl child which have a positive influence for the development our society. This scheme protects & empowers all adolescent girls by creating an enable environment for their participation and meaningful contribution to the society. It has immense potential to uplift the state by empowering girl child to an inclusive growth in the long run with sustainable development. If girls are allowed to be girls, then everybody wins. So Kanyashree Prakalpa is not just a social welfare scheme, it is future

  60. Dr. Nageswara Rao Thadvuai, Endalkachew Niguse and Gidey Yifter

    Tax is an obligatory price calculated by using an economic unit paid to a central authority without the expectancy of proportional enjoyment from the government. In a perfect world, all taxpayers might voluntarily pay their taxes and follow all their tax duties willingly. But in fact, no one enjoys by means of paying tax to the government and a plenty of viable financial units tries to limit its tax burden by using any means. The well-known goal of the tax payers is to take a look to evaluate the possible reasons why enterprising income taxpayers avoid their taxable earnings and no longer pay actual amount of tax to the authorities. The researchers suggest remedies to create attention to full payment of tax by means of default by tax payers. The study has diagnosed the viable reasons of tax evasion as lack of tax payer’s awareness on the subject and also discussed remedies to develop the tax payment by tax payers.

  61. Samsur Rahaman

    This paper attempts to analyze the vertical movement of SC and ST students of Jharkhand from primary school to higher education. The study has found that a small number of students can reach to higher education from SC and ST community. It is far lesser than the national enrolment rate as well as the national literacy rate. The educational progress rate of SC and ST of Jharkhand is also lower than the national level SC and ST progress. The study has found a quality crisis in the education among SC and ST of Jharkhand, although seen high gender parity from primary to secondary school in both the communities. But in higher education, significant gender imparity has been noticed. There must be a change of perception and mindset to quality progress in education among SC and ST. The study has also found reservation as an indirect incentive to influence the people to make them educated. The reservation or an affirmative action may act as a backup but can't transform the whole community at large.

  62. Shuddhi Ayurveda

    Tinospora cordifolia is significant therapeutic plant, from the family Menispermaceae, acting as one of the primary source of new drugs and medical care items. The whole plant posses’ bioactive properties and is being used from past many decades as folk medication as well as Ayurvedic medication for the treatment of various ailments. Therefore, this plant is also called as Amruta which means nectar because of its divine healing properties.

  63. Chappidi Divya Sreedevi

    The twenty first century witness the trait by substance and illicit drug abuse consider as a global challenging problem. According to the drug and crime (UNODC) estimated about seven percent of the global population between the 15-64 age group has been using an illicit substance almost in all developing and developed countries suffering with the greatest burning problem of drug users among youth. The risk factors for the illicit drug abusers may be having biological pre-disposition to drug abuse personality traits the reflect a lack of social bonding, low status of family, family relations, parental care, neglected defective emotional and psychiatric problems, stress and other problems among the youth in the world and particularly in the country like India. The concept of illicit drug abuse, drug addictions and abstinence syndrome need some clarity. In the sociological context drug is a term of habit-forming substance which directly effect upon the human body. So, illicit drug and substance abuse leads to physical and psychological health problems and effect on the youth in all over the world. Those using the drugs are just doing it for crazy experiment and for showing social status using while they are in the youth stage and sometimes it is very common to take some local drugs to relieve stress and to get rid of the psychological problems. It is a high to raising awareness about the consequences of substance use and the problem of health deterioration among youth.

  64. Azaz Ahamed and Nur Alam

    Background: Since centuries, health has been a concern with mankind, living in different countries of the World. Consequently, the health care utilization is one of the most important aspect of health sector to deal with development of health in any administrative region. The objectives of the present study is to investigate health care utilization and to find out associated factors in the state of West Bengal. The study is based on secondary source of data (National Family and Health Survey, NFHS-4, 2015-16). Method: The Karl Pearson Correlation Coefficient technique has been applied to reveal factors associated with health care utilization. Besides, a Dimension Index is constructed to depict overall situation in health care utilization. A numbers of tables, figures, maps have helped for easy depiction and illustration of the health care utilization and education across districts of West Bengal. Results: It is found in the study that the level of health care utilization and education is very low in Uttar Dinajpur and Malda districts of West Bengal while good performing districts are Darjiling, Nadia, Bankura, Birbhum, Kolkata, Hugli and Paschim Medinipur. The study finds positive association between literacy and health care utilization.

  65. Dr. Shakil Ahmed, Dr. Shokia Jehav Ul Nesa, Dr. Zahida Choudhary and Dr. Rahil Muzaffar

    Epistaxis is one of the most common ENT emergencies. It is more common in males than in females. It is caused by various etiological factors. The simplest treatment is pinching of ala nasi. Our study was the prospective study. We recruited 30 patients (all adults) who presented with epistaxis in ENT department of a tertiary care hospital. We managed our patients with merocel packs alone. Patients did not experience further episodes of bleeding following removal of merocel packs after 48 hours.

  66. Dr. Utkarsha Singh and Dr. (Major Gen.) S. K. Nema

    Aim and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the number of cases, location and types of oral lesions in patients attending OPD in Index Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Indore. Material & Method: The patients who came with complain of oral lesions were registered and detailed clinical data were recorded. These cases were divided in three age groups,i.e. less than 40 years of age, 40 to 60 and more than 60 years of age. The biopsy was taken and it was subjected to histopathological examination. Results: Total 70 patients were included in study who had complaint of oral lesions. Among 70 patients, 58.6% patients were diagnosed as Well Differentiated Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma, 20% Moderately Differentiated Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma, 8.6% Poorly Differentiated Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma, 10% have Leukoplakia, Verrucous carcinoma and Verrucous Vulgaris 1.4% each. Conclusion: The present study shows the increasing number of oral malignant lesions, most frequently due to use of tobacco in any form and alcohol.

  67. Purushothaman, S. and Dr. Bright Selva Kumar, N.

    The aim of this study is to find out the effect of different intensities of aerobic exercises on selected physiological variables among diabetic patients. Randomly selected 60 (N=60) diabetic patients whose blood glucose levels were more than 140 mmHg and who were undergoing treatment for diabetics in Government General Hospital, Nagercoil were treated as subjects for this study. They were randomly assigned into four groups consisting of 15 in each group. Group I was considered as low intensity aerobic exercises group (LIAE), group II was considered as medium intensity aerobic exercises group (MIAE), group III was considered as high intensity aerobic exercises group (HIAE) and the fourth group served as control group. Pre and post test scores on cardiac risk factors, breath holding time and cardio respiratory endurance were collected and statistically analysed. The results of the study proved that cardiac risk factors selected were beneficially altered by different intensities of aerobic exercises compared to control group and there was no significant difference among treatment groups. It was concluded that aerobic exercises of different intensities can be prescribed for diabetic patients for managing diabetics and the resultant cardiac risks.

  68. Virgo Leonardo D. Rosell, Ike Paul Q. Labrado, Mary Gay l. Labrado, Ana Liza B. Layasan, Esmeralda S. Salazar, Marilyn M. Miranda and Emily C. Rosal

    Human resource management in education is very important and disregard with it would result in jeopardy. This is because education personnel’s are the major instrument for achieving educational goals and consequently, national development. Human resources are the key to rapid socio-economic development and efficient service delivery. That’s why this paper stressed that without an adequate, skilled and well-motivated workforce operating within a sound human resource management programme, development is not possible. Every educational system at every level depends heavily on the human resources for execution of its programme. The function of human resource management in education includes staff maintenance, staff relations, staff development, procurement of staff and job performance reward. The challenges of human resource management include poor working condition, problem of staffing, funding, incessant transfer of teacher among others. To address the identified challenges, the following recommendations were made. Education should be made attractive by creating a conducive atmosphere for teachers. More government attention is needed for education sector through improved function as education remains the basis for the progress of all other sectors of the society. A united salary structure should be made for all categories of teachers within the education sectors. The paper equally recommended that best practices in terms of human resource in the City of Naga, Department should be up dated to meet the rapid social changes in our present society.

  69. Donovan Casas Patiño, José Martín Reyes Pérez, Alejandra Rodríguez Torres, Maria de los Ángeles Maya Martínez and Yuridia Sánchez Repizo

    Mexico ranks first in the world in Childhood Overweight and Obesity [OySP], in this context multiple proposals have emerged to combat OySP, from invasive clinical models to food policies such as food labels and calorie reduction in food, even so The OySP problem is on the rise. Objective: To build a technological application of the type App –Tics- Zörac in health that offers through digital interconnection, diagnosis with dietary guidance as well as promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity an integral management of obesity and overweight in children from Mexico. Method: Design and elaboration of Zörac App –Tics-, the following points were considered within the digital platform to be built: 1) Development of a child-friendly software through a Zörac App –Tics- concept, 2) Originate in a mediated way a food and physical activity orientation, 3) Creation of a children's menu space, 4) Statistics, prior settlement and informed consent, the page was presented to a group of children in a virtual way. Results: It is worth mentioning that this page was piloted in a group of 300 children between 8 and 12 years old, of which 69% presented OySP when entering the page, 24% normal weight and 7% malnutrition and, in a Over a period of 4 months, 6000 visits were registered by registered users, the most visited portals, Children's Menu [40%], I have Obesity [40%], I want to fight obesity [15%] and Knowing the enemy [5%], At the end of the four-month cross-section, we found 77% OySP, 17% normal weight and 6% malnutrition, this in registered users. Conclusions: This shows that the trend continues to rise, this could have been caused by the COVID 19 pandemic, which confined all citizens to isolation and little physical activity, and it is also shown that Mexico continues with two dichotomous aspects, OySP and malnutrition, this Zörac App –Tics page is a technological tool that can be very useful to monitor and combat these global pandemics. In Mexico, innovative programs that help to counteract this pathology must be supported.

  70. Rajesh Kumar Upadhyay

    The green vegetable Brassica oleracea one of the most delicious food item for the common people. It is cosmopolitan in distribution and the farmers cultivate it as cash crop throughout the year. Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis. The cauliflower is commonly called as fulgobhi. Brassica oleracea var. botrytis is a delicious as well as nutritive vegetable .It is rich in potassium, sodium, calcium, vitamin B6, very low quantity of fat, and carbohydrate. Cholesterol is totally absent, very low calories recommends it as a healthy food for the people. The farmers of Ramgarh produces abundant quantity of cauliflower and supply it to the metro cities through road and rail .It is one of the main crop to get sound earning. The vegetable pest Pieris brassicae Linnaeus, is a serious pest damage the vegetables of cruciferous plant. The larvae of this pest damage the crop at every stages. The younger stage larva just scrapes the surface of the leaves and later they enter in the flower eaten voraciously and result the destruction of the host plant and the flower remain with full of excreta .The infestation is so serious that sometimes all the crop of the field destructed by the pest. The younger stage larvae eat the soft leaves and damage the foliage, later the larvae eat the flower, the complete flower was damage and the excreta of the larvae remain there. The larvae is the only destructive stage. The pest not damage the crop only but it decline the nutritive value, the taste, it also damage the marketing of the crop. The life cycle was studied during the year 2018 -2020 at Ramgarh. During the study It was found that the life-history of pest was very simple generally it completed 04 to 05overlapping generations between September to May of a year .The pest damage the cultivated vegetable plants and loss not only the quality, quantity, and taste of the vegetables but also the profit of the farmers. Ramgarh is a beautiful district town, the rural area is known for agriculture and gross vegetable production, the climatic condition is moderate and suitable for the cultivation of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis vegetable. The experimental pest destroy the cultivated plant. The farmers are advised to control the pest by chemical pesticide spraying carbary l 0.2%, malathion 0.05%., or diazinon 0.02%.

  71. Dr. Harpreet Singh

    The word research has a wide meaning and much wider prospective than thought of. The young researchers in particular are not much aware about the actual concept of research and how elaborative is its scope, especially when they are planning to conduct a research as a beginner. Before visualizing a concept and drafting it into a project, a researcher must inculcate the meaning, concept and scope of research in its true sense.

  72. Abraham Oomman, Jamshed Dalal, C.K. Ponde, Manish Bansal, J.P. Sawhney, Brian Pinto, Neeraj Bhalla, Sanjeev Gera, Peeyush Jain, Rishi Gupta, Bharat Shivdasani, Kiron Varghese, Akshay Mehta, Sadanand Raghunath Shetty, Subhash ChandManchanda, Nikhil Parchu

    The burden of cardiovascular (CV) diseases in India highlights the need for early prevention and limitations of current practices. Evidences support the use of high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) as a potential stratification tool for identifying at-risk individuals. The currently available hsTnI assay sallow the detection of low circulating cardiac troponin concentrations, thus making ita potential predictor of risk in even asymptomatic individuals. Based on these reports and the availability of a CE-approved, cardiac-specific, ARCHITECT hsTnI, for CV risk stratification in apparently healthy individuals, an expert panel of cardiologists across India was convened. The panel discussed and arrived at a consensus on the feasibility of hsTnI assay in CV risk stratification of apparently healthy individuals in Indian settings and also proposed an algorithm. This consensus statement acts as a pragmatic guide for clinicians on the use of hsTnI assay as a prognostic marker and a guide for planning prevention strategies.

  73. Dr. Prashant Yadav, Dr. Pushpraj Anand, Dr. Utsav Patel and Dr. N.K Gupta

    Sepsis is a medical emergency that describes the body’s systemic immunological response to an infectious p Sepsis is a medical emergency that describes the body’s systemic immunological response to an infectious process that can lead to end-stage organ dysfunction and death. Despite significant advancements in the understanding of the pathophysiology of this clinical syndrome, advancements in hemodynamic monitoring tools, and resuscitation measures, sepsis remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. We are reporting a case of sepsis that presented to us with the features of multiple blisters and high-grade fever later when investigations where done and complete blood count revealed Pancytopenia which is a rare presentation of sepsis. [1]

  74. Dr. Khalida Naz Memon, Faique Ali Kalhoro, Mohammad Zakarya, Dr. Imdad Ali Channa and Dr. Nizakat Ali Kalhoro

    Background: The covid-19 is a newly emergent infectious disease. The currently prevalent pandemic situation arising from this disease necessitates that everyone be cognizant about its dynamics &methods of its prevention. The engagement in preventive behaviors against this virus plays a crucial role in protecting people from contracting the disease. Objective: To seek level of awareness regarding preventive measure for Covid-19 & its association to various socio-demographic characteristics of study population. Methods: Setting: Community residing in Qasimabad Hyderabad, Pakistan. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study Duration: Three months i.e. from March, 2020 to May 2020 Sample Size & Sampling Technique: The research was conducted on 735residents of Qasimabad, Hyderabad selected through convenience sampling. Data Collection & Analysis: Data collected on performed questionnaire & analyzed in SPSS version 22.0 by computing proportions, means ±s.d and by applying Chi-square test of significance. Results: Out of 735 participant 92.1% were male, 51.7% participants’ age was between 21 to 30 years and most of participants i.e. 49.7% were having undergraduate level education. Almost all i.e. 100% had heard about the corona virus. 52% participant said that this disease is a fetal disease, the 94.7% population had knowledge about the sign and symptoms of virus. Most of participant i.e. 95.5% were scared from the deadly virus. We found more strong association between age & adoption of preventive measures against covid-19 pandemic e.g. practice of frequent hand washing (p< 0.01), practice of using face mask in public places(p= 0.03); social distance was found as the most neglected preventive strategy for covid-19; it was found in our study that it was not associated to age (p=0.18), gender (p=0.13) or educational status (p=0.24). Conclusion: Preventive measures play a vital role in controlling a pandemic. The community is well aware & practicing all preventive measures but still there are few gaps like practicing social distancing which need to be improved in study population.

  75. Dr. Sharma, K.C. and Sham Singh

    The paper analyses the growth and instability in terms of area, production and productivity of potato in Himachal Pradesh. The growth was examined by Compound growth rate and Simple growth rate. The study relates to 1997-98 and 2017-18 time periods. The area under potato registered positive growth rate throughout the period in Himachal Pradesh. Potato is a major crop cultivated in Himachal Pradesh. The share of potato area in Himachal Pradesh to other crop area increased from 69.98 to 86.30 per cent in 2017-18. With the introduction of short duration varieties, there was an increase in productivity. Trend and instability analysis in the area, production and productivity of tomato for a period of 20 years were carried out. The estimated trends in the area, production, and productivity of potato, using semi log function revealed that there was a significant increase in an area with a compound annual growth rate of 1.05 per cent, the significant increase in production by 2.60 per cent and a significant increase in productivity by 1.54 per cent. Cuddy-Della Valle index provides the best estimates and instability was found to be more in productivity (18.87 per cent).

  76. Dr. Shilpa Parikh, Dr. Sheetal Sharma, Dr. Mahalaxmi Panda and Dr. Jigna. S. Shah

    The neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, therefore, is a hereditary condition. At least eight forms of neurofibromatosis have been recognized, but the most common is the (NF1), with a prevalence of 1:2200 to 3000 births. The signs and symptoms of this condition vary widely among affected people. The most common sign on the skin is multiple neurofibromas. Bone lesions, cardiovascular and neurological abnormalities are other manifestations of this disease. Oral manifestations may occur in this disease as high as 72% to 92% of all cases. The most commonly affected sites are the tongue and buccal mucous. Oral radiographic findings include an enlarged mandibular canal, mandibular foramen, and mental foramen. NF1 is diagnosed in an individual with two or more of the following signs: cafe au lait macules, two or more neurofibromas of any type or a single plexiform neurofibroma freckling in the axillary or inguinal region and optic glioma. Proper diagnosis and management of patients with neurofibromatosis should be carried out. A multidisciplinary approach should be carried out for the proper planning of the treatment plans. The aim of this paper was to report the clinical, radiographic orofacial characteristics observed in 4 famalies patients diagnosed with NF1.

  77. Mandaloju Venkateshwarlu

    The potentials of these and other ap¬proaches have been presented elsewhere in this volume. This discussion is focused on the radiation2 biology of cultured plant cells. Where information is incomplete or absent for cultured plant cells, we have drawn upon the microbial and animal cell literature for reference. In animals the lethal effects of ionizing radiation are reflected in killing of specific cell types (e.g. crypt cells of the intestine and the stem cells of the bone marrow), and this determines the survival frequency of the irradiated animal population (HALL, 1973). King P J (1984) and Venkateshwarlu M (2020).Nevertheless, studies on cultured mammalian cells have contributed much to our present understanding of the biochemical, biophysical, and genetic aspects of radiation damage and recovery in animals (see ELKIND and WHITMORE, 1967; CLEAVER, 1974). Rajendra Prasad et al (2018), Venkateshwarlu M (2019). In contrast, irradiation of plants, while produc¬ing some differential cell killing, does not appear to induce death of the organism by affecting a single cell type. Thus, studies with plant cells in culture may reflect more the effects of penetrating radiation on the organism as a whole than those with animal cell cultures. Venkateshwarlu M (2019 & 2008)

  78. Kusum Meena and Ashish Arsia

    Background: Genital warts fondly termed epidermal genital warts (EGW) are relatively uncommon but known skin problem since long time with underlying viral aetiology. Sometimes they regresses on their own and in some cases spreads extensively. Prevalence of infection increases with increased number of lifetime sexual partners, history of chlamydia or gonorrhoea infection smoking and HIV. Since anogenital warts are not reportable disease the incidence is difficult to estimate. Case Report: We are reporting two cases who were sexually inactive and immunocompetent but suffered due to condyloma acuminate (CA) at very young age .In both of them problem started with warty lesions around anus and rapidly involved whole of the circumference of anus. Conclusion: Though condyloma acuminata is commonly observed in sexually active young males with increased incidence in immunocompromised individuals ,both our cases were not having these high risk factors but had this disease to such an extent that nonsurgical options were of no use and both of them underwent surgical excision. Delay in seeking treatment was there as the disease is considered as social taboo and more so when involve the genital area and patients are not comfortable in discussing their problem with family, friends or medical practitioner. By publishing these cases we want to increase awareness and want to highlight that timely intervention can become escape route from surgery.

  79. Sri Widati, Oedojo Soedirham and Wee Eng Hoe

    The number of Covid-19 cases is increasing in Indonesia. Which is considered new, has been stigmatized by the Indonesian people. The purpose of this study is to analyze the content of mass media news to reduce the stigma covid. This study is an media content analysis. The study covered the online mass media from March to July 2020. Data collection was carried out using an electronic search engine with the keywords "expel covid officers, seize covid bodies, covid tombs dismantled". Data were analyzed using Content Analysis and then traced using theory and evidence based on various previous studies. The results showed there were 140 negative news about covid published in 106 media and 105 destigmatization (reducing the stigma) of covid news published in 79 mass media in Indonesia, from 7 March to 14 July 2020 or 130 days. Amount 33.6% reported about the action of seizing the dead body that will be buried with the standard covid protocol. Amount 8.6% uncovered the tomb of the covid corpse. Amount 47.8% contained news of threats and evictions to co-19 officers (doctors, nurses and health officer). Thus as many as 145 online mass media in Indonesia only contain news about covid stigma and as many as 64 online mass media only contain destigmatization. All of the information can be uploaded online to mass media for destigmatization. If stigma can be constructed through mass media, destigmatization should also be done through online mass media.

  80. Muhumuza, R., Ock, M.S., Yu, H.S., Sohn, W.M., Kong, H.H., Cha, H.J., Lee, J.H., Koh, I.Y., Kim, Y.M., Musasizi, B., Nakacwa, I., Kim, E.S, Byarugaba, P., Natukunda, I., Kabarangira, C., Igga, C., Opeto, L., Mutumba, A., Wandira, J., Adriko, M. and Tukahe

    Background: Neglected Tropical Diseases are a group of 13 major disabling conditions commonest among the world’s poorest people (Hotez, et al. 2007). Together, they contribute to a disease burden that is halfof all Malarias(Peter J. Hotez 2009). The diseases affect 2.7billion people that mainly live on less than $2 a day, are common in Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia (Tchuente 2011). In the last fifteen years, Uganda’s Ministry of Health (MOH) has conducted Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in NTD infected communities with the support of various agencies such as WHO, USAID, ENVISION/RTI, SCI, DFID and Carter Center (RTI 2011). MDA against Schistosomiasis using PPraziquantel (PZQ) and mass education on prevention has been conducted in schools and communities. The prevalence of Schistosmiasis reduced between 2003 and 2007, however the prevalence has increased since 2007 due to unsafe hygienic environment (MOH-UG 2017). The Mayuge district has trained about 1,384 teachers and 1,536 Community Medicine Distributors to support the NTD program. However little success has been realized today. This has been attributed to several challenges including shortage of medicines, lack of behaviour change, failure to reach the most at-risk population, failure to adhere to drug compliance among others. Further still, there has been limited documentation of prevalence studies conducted in Mayuge to ascertain the impact of the program and inform better programming. World Vision in collaboration of Korea International Agency (KOICA), designed a three-year project to address Soil Transmitted Helminthe (STH) and Schistosomiasis using WHO recommending mass drug administration(MDA) integrated control through WASH, and health education and increase awareness. The project will conduct prevalence studies before project implementation to understand magnitude of the diseases and use results for targeted implementation. Given that assumption of environment factors affect to SCH prevalence, the project uses ecological modelling for the prevalence study. After the project, another prevalence study shall be conducted to assess its impact on the reduction of the disease prevalence and make recommendations to MoH. Methods: We used an ecological modelling approach to determine the prevalence of SCH depending on the risk of exposure to potential vectors since it varies depending on natural environments such as temperature (Brown 1994); (Moodley, et al. 2003), precipitation ((DeWitt 1995); (O’keeffe 1985), soil type(Ekpo, et al. 2008) level of vegetation cover (Brown 1994), (O’keeffe 1985) land-use change and water availability (Xing-jian, et al. 1999), suitable elevation (Kloos, et al. 1998)and slope (Zhu, et al. 2015) are the main factors that are associated with the prevalence of schistosomiasis where considered. The approach was preferred to provide important information on identifying risk populations to enable an increase in the efficiency of schistosomiasis disease control (Magalhães, et al. 2014). Results: A total of 1167 children were selected from thirty schools across Mayuge district. The final sample included 1123 children, 49% boys and 51% girls. 863 samples (76.8%) were from students and 260 (23.2%) were non-school children. Age was classified into 5 groups; 7-10, 11, 12, 13, and 14-17 years. The mean age of the sample was 11.9 ± 1.4 years. The district was divided into four infection risks categorized as Very low, low, high and very high according to climate and geographic information. Student hookworm infection was 15.5% (p=0.5074) while control (non-school) was 13.9% (P=0.1706). Prevenances for S. Mansoni were 28.2% and 23.9%, for Students and Control groups respectively (p = 0.1706), while STH was 15.8%. The results on regional risk category indicated a higher prevalence in low or very low-risk regions than in high or very high-risk regions. Prevalence’s of all parasites were higher among boys than girls. Hookworm prevalence was 4.9% higher, S. Mansoni 3.4%, and any STH 5.5%. The infection prevalence tended to increase with age. The intensity of infection among children with S.Mansoni was mainly light (12.7%). Moderate (7.3%) and heavy (7.2%) infections were almost the same. A similar pattern was observed for hookworm infection with 14.8% of 15.1% infections light. There were significant differences between infections for children that lived near the lake or river (44.7%) compared to those that didn’t (15.2%, P=<0.0001) for S. Mansoni and any infections. Awareness and knowledge of infection route, hand washing behaviour with soap and lack of proper drinking water sources were all associated with reduced infections. However, incoherence was observed among infections of children that had anthelmintic and shoe protection as they had higher hookworm infection compared those without. Conclusions: There is a continued need for preventive chemotherapy forSTH and S. mansoni across Mayuge district, despite not being high-risk to achieve elimination and also because the district is predominately high risk. Slight differences in hookworm, STH and S. Mansonipr evalence between children that do and do not report school attendance were observed during the study. This suggests the importance of not implementing targeted intervention but blanket for all children in the target age category if resources allow.

  81. Dr. Suparna Sanyal Mukherjee

    Community elucidates a space between the isolated individual and the anonymous mass; it matters as a term because it identifies a group of people who shares knowledge, food, and creativity, conjointly working for each other, while malnutrition is a factor which may prohibit development as a whole. Protein Calorie Malnutrition is a common phenomenon among most people especially indigenous mass, the tribes. The forest-based tribes who are suffering from Malnutrition since time immemorial. The present sequel emphasized on the Lodha and the Santal tribes of the Jual Bhanga village, at Jhargram District, West Bengal, with different occupational status, food habits, available food and nutritional statuslead to malnutrition especially protein calorie malnutrition among them, while sine qua none of human being is value oriented, not, need based motivation. The study emphasized to conglutinate thetribe duo, in community enhancement program to bring their surplus in a common place and use thereat, for better orientation, introduction of community kitchen to propagate community development and restriction of malnutrition.

  82. Firdous Jahan, Muhammad Siddiqui, Manar Rashid Said AL Shahi and Muzna Said Rashid AL Asmi

    Background Ambulatory care gives a better opportunity for medical students to acquire appropriate medical knowledge with diversity of cases. Identification and managing factors affecting clinical teaching of undergraduate students training in primary care will improve health out come in community. This study aims the identification of factors influencing clinical teaching hence to improve health care in outpatient. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at College of Medicine and health Sciences. All students in clinical years invited to participates. Data was collected with self-filled questionnaire incorporating student’s perception regarding clinical teaching and learning. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Data was expressed in frequencies and percentages for questionnaire responses. Independent sample t-test was used to compare differences between two groups. Results A total of 100 students were participated in the study off which 62% were 6th year and 38% were 7th year students. Majority of students (99%) believed that lack of commitment to and interest in learning and increasing numbers of students in clinic influencing clinical teaching in primary health care. More than 40% of students believe that dedication and self-motivation in teachers is important factor along with inadequate supervision, teaching method, lack of feedback and conflicts between medical education and healthcare. More than half of the students think that inappropriate or small rooms for teaching, insufficient technological and audiovisual resources suitable for teaching and lack of institutional support are the main administrative problems. A significant statistical difference (p- 0.03; 95 % CI: -0.384-0.019) was observed between 6th year and 7th year students regarding student-related factors. However, no significant difference (p >0.05) was observed between 6th year and 7th year students regarding patients, clinical teacher and administrative support related factors. Conclusion Clinical practice is the most important component of health professional education. Undergraduate medical students require effective and conducive learning environment facilitates with appropriate supervision by teacher.

  83. Khaled Abdul Karim, Ali L Ahmed and Khaled N Abdelhakim

    Background: Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer, with increasing incidence in last years, especially in female with three to four times in female comparing to male, also the relative increasing incidence of DTC in the mulitnodular goiter which was clearly observed in this study. Aim of the Work: This is a retrospective study which aims to analyze the clinical and pathological features of DTC and their impacts on the prognosis for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who attended the Department of Clinical Oncology and Nuclear medicine in Ain Shams University Hospital between the years (2011-2016).Subjects and Methods: Data were collected and analyzed retrospectively from the files of the patients with DTC between the years (2011-2016), who attended the Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine Department of Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo – Egypt. Out of 102 patients with DTC, 21 patients were excluded due to insufficient data and loss of follow up, results obtained from 81 patients who were followed up until the end point of study. The mean period of follow up was 39.85±18.28 months. Results and Conclusion: The tumor size, lymph node metastases, capsular invasion, stage and grade were most important histopathological prognostic factors in relation to relapse risk, while the role of tumor multifocality and LVI were Insignificant. The role of different ablative doses of RAI131 was not significant in relation to risk of relapse in DTC patients. Recommendations: The use of proper risk stratification system by reassessing of relapse risk using the level of serum Tg and results of follow-up diagnostic images as markers of the response to initial surgery and radioactive iodine (RAI) remnant ablation. Further studies with larger number populations are needed to confirm the results obtained by the current work and to evaluate the role of gene mutations and other molecular markers which may affect the prognosis of DTC.

  84. Owuocha, Dorice Akoth Onguru, Daniel Ogungu, Otieno, David Odongo, Ojwang, Hellen Atieno, Muranda, Marion Agiza, Atito, Raphael Omolo and Onyango, Merceline Awino

    Despite Kenya’s commitment to equal access to healthcare for all by the year 2030, and the increase in the number of services provided, physically challenged persons still meet difficulty accessing health services for reasons attributable to different factors. This descriptive cross-sectional study identified existing community-related factors hindering access to healthcare services by the physically challenged persons in Gem Sub-county, Kenya. Stratified and systematic random sampling was used to select 108 physically disabled persons. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS (v23). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize social-demographic and physical attributes of the participants, qualitative data was subjected to thematic analysis and x2 test was used to detect the relationship between relevant variables (α= 0.05). Out of 108 respondents, 65(male=33) had difficulty in accessing healthcare services. Community factors like cultural beliefs, taboos and environment inaccessibility to health facilities were found to significantly influence access of healthcare services (p<0.05). The study highlights the importance of community leadership enhancing awareness creation to minimize beliefs and taboos hence improving social support to PWPDs from community to ensure the rights of PWPDs to healthcare services are put in place and implemented under legislation and policy. Further research is required to explore ways to remove barriers to access to healthcare.

  85. Dr. Asmaa Yahya Shafeeq, Dr. Zahra Adnan Ahmed and Dr. Shatha Adnan Ahmed

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a broad spectrum of alterations that go from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) and obesity are the principle factors associated to NAFLD. A 20-30 % prevalence in general population has been described. The survival of this type of patient is lower than the general population’s, showing a higher incidence of hepatic and cardiovascular complications. The aetiopathogenesis is still unclear, but we know the intervention of different factors that produce fatty-acid accumulation in hepatic parenchyma, causing oxidative stress, oxygen-free radicals and the synthesis of an inflammatory cascade, that determine the progression of this disease from steatosis up to advanced fibrosis. The diagnostic gold-standard is still the liver biopsy, even though the development of newer non-invasive techniques, like serological and imaging (radiology), have opened a new field for research that allows bloodless testing of these patients and better study of the natural history of this disease. Nowadays, there is still no specific treatment for NAFLD. The development of healthy life habits and moderate exercise continue to be the pillars of treatment. Different pharmacological approaches have been studied and applied, such as the control of insulin resistance, lowering cholesterol levels, antioxidants, and other alternatives in experimental trials.

  86. Dr. Nagarathna Chikkanarasaiah, Dr. Hrishida P. and Dr. Rohith S. and Dr. Navin Hadadi Krishnamurthy

    Ankyloglossia or tongue-tie is a congenital anomaly which occurs as a result of short lingual frenum. It may restricts mobility of the tongue and even lead to various problems including difficulties in feeding, mastication, speech impairment, poor oral hygiene, malocclusion during childhood, adolescence and even adulthood. Here, we are presenting a case of a four year old patient who was diagnosed with moderateankyloglossia which was treated by performing lingual frenectomy using electrocautery procedure.

  87. Durga Prasad, D. and Kishore Ravande

    The non-destructive tests on concrete with certain limitations used in accessing the limited properties of the concrete, and on cement mortar mass as of date there are no non destructive site test for assessing its strength parameters. To address these issues, a mathematical model was developed in predicting the mechanical properties of concrete Viz., compressive strength, tensile strength, split tensile strength, Impact strengths, shear strength, elasticity modulus, and in Cement mortar the model will be used in predicting the strength parameters of cement mortar. The statistical model of regression technique was employed on the concrete made of different types of aggregates i.e. a set of concrete prepared with that of conventional aggregates, the other set made of untreated recycled coarse and fine aggregates, and the final set made of treated (densified) coarse and fine recycled aggregates, the details of the chemical composition were obtained by processing the different concrete /mortar mass through XRD. Further regression methods were also employed in predicting the mechanical properties of the concrete /mortar mass from the chemical composition of the aggregate mass used in its preparation. The so developed mathematical model found to be an effective tool in assessing the condition of concrete /mortar mass from its chemical composition.

  88. KARIMOU Ambouta Harouna, ABDOU Gado Fanna and GUERO Yadji

    Bat guano is widely used in oasis basins in the Zinder region. However, no study has been conducted to determine its chemical components of this product. The objective of this present study is the physicochemical characterization of Magarawa's guano. Bat guano samples were collected from the caves of Magarawa mound and submitted for different analysis. After preparation and packaging, the samples were observed under a microscope (x10) then subjected to chemical analyzes of elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, bases and also lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. It emerges from this study that bat guano from Magarawa occurs in small sticks 2 mm in length and very friable in the dry state with the presence of fragments of insect remains and skeleton of bats or snakes or birds. It has a high nitrogen content (10%) and low phosphorus and potassium concentrations. The concentration of dry matter and protein remains high 92.5 and 60.66% respectively. Indeed, the physico-chemical characteristics of Magarawa's guano show that this product is a good quality organic fertilizer that is easy to handle and above all competitive compared to commercial guanos.

  89. Baystryk-Hlodan, L. Z., Stasiv, O. F. and Voloshchuk, O. P.

    The assessment of samples of various ecological and geographical origin of hybrid clover based on selection indices was carried out on the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian Region of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in accordance with generally accepted methods in 2016 - 2018.Field research, observations, counts and measurements were carried out in accordance with the guidelines for the study of the world collection of perennial forage grasses; calculation of variance, standard deviation and multiple correlations - according to Dospekhov.The object of research in the collection nursery of hybrid clover was 26 cultivars of various ecological and geographical origin.In order to identify the reliability of individual breeding indices and the possibility of their use and on the basis of structural analysis, the breeding indices were calculated according to V. M. Tishchenko: attractions (AI) - mass of heads per stem mass (M1 / M2); micro-distribution (Mic) - green mass per plant per number of stems (m3 / K); intensity (SI) - mass of stems per plant height (M2 / H). Two breeding indices were adapted to the culture of hybrid clover: foliage index (AI) - leaf mass per plant per plant weight (Ml / m3) and daily growth rate index (IDR) - plant height according to the interphase period, the number of days in the interphase period (H / Cd).The three-year average value of the attraction index in cultivars of hybrid clover was 0.20.The microdistribution index was 14.29.The leafing index on average over the years is 0.46.The average intensity index was 1.27.The average daily growth rate was 0.83.

  90. Dr. Nimmi. M, Dr. Manoj Joseph Michael, Dr. Ravindran Nair. K.S, Dr. Soumithran, C.S. and Dr. Ikram Bin Ismail. P.T

    Background: Mandibular fractures are influenced by various factors including the direction and impact of force, occlusal loading pattern, and biomechanical factors such as bone density and anatomical structures creating weak areas. Many studies have reported an increased risk of mandibular angle fractures in the presence of the mandibular third molars. However, there have been no formal assessments of this subject and the relationship between fracture risk and the mandibular third molar remains unclear. In this scenario we conducted the present study to evaluate the relationship between the presence of mandibular third molar and risk for angle fracture. Objectives: This study was designed toinvestigate the impact of the presence of mandibular third molar and the risk of angle fracture. Methods: This is a hospital based case control study. 100 patients who sought treatment in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery for mandibular fracture over a period of one year extending from March 2015 to February 2016 were taken. The whole sample was divided in to two groups of 50 patients each.First group (Study group) consisted of patients with mandibular angle fracture. Second group(Control group) consisted of patients with fractures other than angle fracture. Data were collected for the age, sex, mechanism of injury, mandibular fractures, and associated fractures of the facial skeleton and of the mandibular third molars. Using data and panoramic radiographs collected from the patients, the presence of third molars as well as incidence of mandibular angle fractures was determined. All the measurements were recorded in the pre-designed and structured proforma. Statistical analysis of the differences between groups was analyzed with the chi square test. Results: A statistically significant relation is present between overall incidence of mandibular angle fractures and the presence of mandibular third molar. In group I, third molars were present in 90% (45/50) of all fractures. In group II, 40% patients had mandibular third molars whereas the remaining 60% were without 3rd molars. These results signifies that the presence of third molar increases the chance of mandibular angle fractures, more so significantly (p=0.001) when it is impacted. Conclusion: On the basis of results of the present study, it can be concluded that the risk of angle fractures was higher when the mandibular third molar was present. Mandibular angle fractures are more likely to occur when third molar is impacted or in erupting stages than when it is fully erupted.

  91. Akwaji Patrick Ishoro, Onah, Dough Owojoku and Oden Glory Nicholas

    In view of the consequences of anthropogenic factors such as logging of forest trees for timber and other uses which leads to deforestation, fragmentation and degradation of forest ecosystem and eventually species extinction, this study assessed the structural framework of tree species using diameter at breast height (dbh) (cm) and height (m)in ten communal forests (two each) of the five Local Government Areas (Ogoja, Yala, Bekwarra, Obudu and Obanliku) of Northern Cross River State, Nigeria using the modified Whittaker design as well as diameter and height class intervals. The study was carried out from (November, 2015 – May, 2016). In each site a 30 × 90 m plot was laid out in a spoke design and tree species whose diameter at breast height (dbh) were (≥ 2.5 cm but ≤ 10 cm) for wildlings and 10 cm and above present on the plots were marked, identified, measured and counted. Results of diameter class size of the 352 tree species measured in the study area showed that there were more trees with average trunk size than wildlings (4.35%). Majority of the trees were in the diameter class of 30-39 cm (37.97%) and 20-29 cm (26.96%) with minimum and maximum height classes of 10-19 m (78.12%) and 20-29 m (8.81%). They were however no trees in the higher diameter class sizes of 70-79 cm, 80-89 cm, 90-99 cm and 100 cm and above. This study has therefore given baseline information on the structural framework of trees in these forests and the need for the different stakeholders to take appropriate decisions and measures in sustainable forest management.

  92. Anna Zakrocka, Grzegorz Zurek, Jason Crandall, K., Matthew Shake

    Physical inactivity is a primary contributor to the obesity epidemic (Gray, C. L., Messer et al. 2018). Obesity has been on the rise in both the United States and Europe. In the United States from 1999–2000 through 2017–2018, the prevalence of obesity increased from 30.5% to 42.4%, and the prevalence of severe obesity increased from 4.7% to 9.2% as reported by the CDC. In Europe the prevalence of obesity is estimated to be 23%. In Europe the prevalence of obesity has increased between 2010 and 2014, and has tripled since 1980 (Pineda E, et al 2018). What are the lifestyle contributing factors to the increase in obesity? How do European obesity rates compare to the United States? And what are some key differences? What can we determine from the comparison to help prevent future increases? This review will allow us to closely examine these questions and will help us with a fundamental understanding of the obesity pandemic across Europe and the United States.

  93. Canan Demir and Sıddık Keskin

    Background: Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis (NLPCA) is one of the explanatory dimension reduction techniques and presents numerical and graphical results for variable sets including linear or nonlinear relationships. In Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis, categorical and ordinal variables, as well as numerical variables, can be included in the analysis. Linearity assumption for observed variables is not required for Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis. In this study, an artificial neural network approach for NLPCA is explained and applied. Methods: The hypothyroid data with 19 variables from 422 patients were used in the application. In order to see the difference of NLPCA from PCA, the results obtained using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) together with NLPCA were interpreted by presenting in tables and graphics. Results: The first two principal components explained 95.65% of the total variance in the NLPCA, while they explained 90.08% of the total variance in the PCA. Conclusion: In the analysis conducted by reducing the number of observations, it was seen that NLPCA has a high explanation rate compared to PCA, regardless of the number of observations. This can be attributed to NLPCA's ability to identify nonlinear relationships. Accordingly, it can be said that NLPCA gives effective results in the analysis made with both numerical and categorical variables.

  94. Abdul Halim Miah, Bishnu Barman and Ranjan Roy

    Agricultural is one of the important occupations for the Indian farmers. The Indian half of the populations is directly engaged in this occupation. The agricultural sector is a play vital role for development of the Indian national income, also this sector providing works to three fourth of the total national population. It is also development the social status, human being and per capita GDP; it also will continue to be life line of the National economy. It is the largest private enterprise and it is contributes nearly one fourth of the national GDP, sustains of livelihood and it is backbone of agro based industry. Agriculture or cultivation is still shapes the backbone of our present national economy and it is play crucial role of a human being. It is also will still to be the life line of the national economy. The fields of agriculture in India subscribe almost one half of the Indian National income and it is also giving job three fourth of the total national population. There are many of population working in this sector, but the cultivator’s economic level or status is very poor. The crop combination discusses method or technique which defines location areas, cropping pattern, crop concentration, cropping variation and crop diversification of a given area. The present day cultivation is one of the most important economic activities of inhabited region peoples in Coochbehar district. One of the methods of agricultural regionalization useful for discuss of farming practices and planning of the Coochbehar district in the state of West Bengal. In the present research paper attempted has been made to impress crop combination regions in Coochbehar district of West Bengal by using the Rafiullah’s (1956) maximum positive deviation method. This district is one of the important agricultural regions in the state as well as North-East India.

  95. Kumar Vivek Anand, Pradeep Sharma, Sunil Kumar, Kalbe Jawad, Ajai Kumar, Prem Prakash Bharti and Mimoh Sharma

    Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common forms of arthritis. It gets worse as the disease progress and leads to chronic pain, stiffness as well as reduced mobility of joints. There are many attributable risk factors like gender, advancing age, obesity as well as mechanical factors. The pathology of the disease is characterized by cartilage destruction, inflammation of synovial membranes causing weak muscular strength. There are many specific and sensitive biomarkers for OA which may be helpful in the management of the disease. Objective: The objective of the study was to highlight the role of several biomarkers like Interleukin-1 Beta (IL-1β) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in post menopausal knee osteoarthritic female patients. Material & Methods: The present study was carried out in 200 female subjects of the age group of 45-70 years out of which 100 postmenopausal females without osteoarthritis and 100 were knee osteoarthritis diagnosed postmenopausal patients were selected. The blood samples were collected from department of Orthopedics of UPUMS, Saifai, Etawah, and then the serum levels of Interleukin 1 Beta and Alkaline Phosphatase was measured. Results: IL-1β was significantly increased (P<0.001) and ALP was also increased (P<0.05), in female patients with knee osteoarthritic as compare to the control group. Also, the correlation is made between IL-1β and ALP and a negative correlation (r<0.0791) obtained in osteoarthritic female patients. Conclusion: The result of our study shows that the biochemical parameters IL-1β play a more significant role than the Alkaline Phosphatase in the development of osteoarthritis disease in post menopausal knee osteoarthritic female patients.

  96. Asati, B.S., Chandrakar, M. K. and Sengar, S. S.

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is given great importance as a vegetable. The leaves, pods and flowers of this tree are used exclusively as nutritious food. The present trend in crop improvement programmes is the development of high yielding cultivars to boost the productivity and profitability. This experiment was conducted with 20 genotypes of drumstick in the randomized block design (RBD) with three replications during 2018-19 at Pt. K.L.S. College of Horticulture and Research Station, Rajnandgaon (C.G.).Genetic parameters studies for variability, correlation and path coefficients analysis of twenty genotypes of Moringa for twelve yield attributes revealed that the characters leaf length, number of pod per plant, plant height, pod girth, number of branches per plant and number of seeds per pod showed high GCV and high heritability along with high genetic advance and these characters are controlled by additive gene. The study of path analysis indicated that the direct selection of number of leaves per rachis, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of flower per inflorescence, stem girth, leaf length and plant height could be used as selection criteria for improvement. Association analysis revealed that selection criteria based on number of branches per plant, length of pod, leaf length, pod girth and number of pod per plant, pod weight and plant height can provide better result for improvement of pod yield in Moringa.

  97. M. I. P. Lubis, M. R. Z. Tala2, E. Ardiansyah

    This study aimed to determine the differences in immunohistochemical expression of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) in women with pelvic organ prolapse and without pelvic organ prolapse. This research was an analytical study of 2 unpaired study subjects with cross sectional design by conducting immunohistochemistry examination of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in paraffin blocks of sacrouterine ligament tissue in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse at Haji Adam Malik General Hospital Medan in January to February 2017. Most of the subjects in pelvic organ prolapse group were more than > 60 years old, mutipara, and had menopause. Most of them having pelvic organ prolapse grade 3. From the results of data analysis, a significant relationship was found between menopausal status with IL-8 expression based on Allred scores. There were also a significant relationship found between parity and IL-8 expression based on Allred scores with statistically significant differences between IL-8 expression based on Allred scores in pelvic organ prolapse group versus non pelvic organ prolapse.

  98. Pranav Puri

    The nations globally are struggling to contain the virus with various interventions ranging from lock down, masks, social distancing etc. But the vaccine seemed to be only modality to mitigate this virus. But advent of vaccine along with promising hope also brought along vaccine hesitancy.

  99. Dr. Munish Kumar

    Introduction: A novel coronavirus was identified in December 2019, as the pathogen to cause pneumonia in Wuhan, China, which was temporarily named as 2019-nCoV by the World Health Organization. Use of Face mask is a protective measure taken by individuals to protect them from contracting COVID 19. A Study is being conducted to see the Public awareness regarding use of mask during peak duration of COVID 19 in Patna Region, capital of Bihar state, India. Material and Method: The study conducted during peak of COVID-19, July- September 2020. A sample of 10000 (ten thousands) individuals from different parts of the city taken together about proper and improper wearing of mask. Results: A total of Ten thousand individuals randomly chosen, out of which 6814 (68.14 %) were male. Out of total only 3647 (36.47 %) persons wore the mask. About 63% persons do not wore the mask. Overall among ten thousand individuals only 14.03 % wore the mask properly. Various types of mask were used by individuals, of which cloth made mask was most common 70.24 %. Discussion: The available evidence suggests that near-universal adoption of non-medical masks when out in public, in combination with complementary public health measures could successfully reduce community spread if such measures are sustained. In this study it was found that only about 14 % peoples wore the mask properly, that can prevent virus transmission. Conclusion: Community spread of COVID-19 could be restricted by universal use of mask by people along with complementary public health measures. Even though repeated and widespread campaign by print and electronic media to wear mask in public places, peoples are not doing so. It shows lack of fear about the grievous situation of COVID-19 worldwide.

  100. William Kurumei, Collin O. Ogogo, Edward KO’chung and Cecilia Kimani

    Disability is a natural part of the human experience and therefore should not affect the rights of individuals to live independently, contribute to society, enjoy full inclusion in education and pursue a meaningful career. However, Youth with Disabilities (YWDs) in Elgeyo-Marakwet County, Kenya face socio-economic discrimination communally. Exclusion, isolation, abuse and lack of educational opportunities exist in Elgeyo-Marakwet County, Kenya. They do not enjoy the same human rights or equal access to goods and services as their peers without disabilities. The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of the socio-cultural support services on personal development of Youth with Disabilities in Elgeyo-Marakwet County Kenya. The specific objectives included determining the assistive technologies available for youth with disabilities in school in Elgeyo-Marakwet County. In addition, the study determined the influence of socio-cultural support services; education and vocational training, health services, employment and community perception on personal development (PD) of Youth with Disabilities in Elgeyo-Marakwet County. Two theories, Catherine Sanderson’s (2010) theory of socio-cultural perspective and Adams Stacy (1965) equity theory were studied to enable an understanding of the influence of the socio-cultural support services on personal development of Youth with Disabilities. A mixed methodology, using triangulation design with both quantitative and qualitative research was employed in this study to realize the objectives. The study targeted a total population of 492 of youth with disabilities, 320 parents of Youth with Disabilities in and out of school and 19 government officers. Sample size determination formula by Krejcie and Morgan (1970) was used to obtain the required sample of the Youth with Disabilities and their parents. Simple random sampling was used to select Youth with Disabilities and parents while purposive sampling was used to select government officers (key informants). A sample of 289 Youth with Disabilities, 175 parents and 19 government officers were picked for the study. Data was collected using questionnaires, interview schedule and an observation checklist. To determine content validity of the instruments, the supervisors were presented with the research instruments prior to the actual study. Their comments were adopted in modifying the instruments. The reliability of the instruments was established through a pilot study where a coefficient of Cronbach’s Alpha was determined, which was 0.741. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, while qualitative data were analysed thematically as the themes emerged. Study findings indicated that there was inadequate provision of socio-cultural support services which included education and vocational training, health services and employment. However, health services contributed 9.5%, to personal development of Youth with Disabilities. The study recommended, among others, funding of youth with disabilities support groups, initiating follow up support programs for youth with disabilities and wholly focusing on services that ensure that the ‘best’ is offered to the youth with disabilities as per government’s policies.The findings of this study may help in improving the education policy to have a focus on transition plans for youth with disabilities after school.

  101. Dellaiane Caroline Barbosa, Marco Orsini, Jacqueline Fernandes do Nascimento, Antônio Marcos da Silva Catharino, Thais de Rezende Bessa-Guerra, Adalgiza Mafra Moreno and Nicolle Nunes

    Background: Dyskalemia is a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). There is still controversy regarding the optimal level of serum potassium in these patients. Method: We studied patients who were admitted with a recorded diagnosis of AMI retrospectively. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we assessed the relationship between admission serum potassium concentration (SPC) and the risk of in-hospital mortality and arrhythmias. Potassium levels were divided as follows: K+< 3.5; K+= 3.5-<4.0; K+= 4.0-<4.5; K+=4.5-5.0; k+> 5.0mmol/l; with K+= 4.0-<4.5mmol/l as reference group. Results: Of the 2698 patients included in this study, 38.1% were diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 60.3% with non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Frequency of patients with diabetes, renal failure, atrial fibrillation and 2nd/3rd degree AV block were higher in theK+>5.0mmol/l group and those with Hypertension and ventricular arrhythmia in the K+<3.5mmol/l group. A U-shaped association between admission SPC and in-hospital mortality was observed (OR 1.30; 95% CI: 0.50, 7.35) and (OR 1.21; 95% CI: 0.55, 4.38) in patients with K+>5.0mmol/l and K+<3.5mmol/l respectively. However patients with AMI and diabetes demonstrated a J shaped curve with the highest in-hospital mortality observed in the K+>5.0mmol/l group. The lowest risk for in-hospital mortality was observed in K+=3.5<4.0(OR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.53, 2.19) followed by K+= 4.0-<4.5mmol/l. Conclusion: Potassium levels between 4.0 and 4.5mmol/l was relatively safe but not superior to levels between 3.5 and 4.0mmol/l. It might be beneficial to target SPC between 3.5 and 4.0mmol/l.

  102. Efstathios K. Metaxas, Nikolaos Soupos, Theodoros Margiolis, AntoniosKatsipoulakis, DimitriosTsitsimelis, Nikolaos Anastasiou

    It is about a 77 year old patient diagnosed initially with achalasia of the oesophagus, and finally with adenocarcinoma of the stomach grade III. He underwent successfully Oesophagogastrectomy with jejune interposition on achalasia oesophagus. Analyze strategy of treatment operative technique and literature review.

  103. Megha Tiwari, Vishal Dubey Nikita Srivastava and Akanksha Lahiri

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (abbreviated “COVID-19”) is an emerging respiratory disease that is caused by a novel coronavirus. The disease is highly infectious, and its main clinical symptoms include fever, dry cough, fatigue, myalgia, and dyspnea. To guarantee the final success, people's adherence to these control measures are essential, which is largely affected by their knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID- 19. Objective: This study aims to investigate the knowledge about public’s awareness about COVID-19 during the pandemic spike. Method: The method used is a survey based questionnaire. Result: The mean COVID-19 knowledge score was 10.8 (SD: 1.6, range: 0-12), suggesting an overall 90% correct rate on this knowledge test. Conclusion: In summary, our findings suggest that Indian residents of a relatively high level of socioeconomic status, have had good knowledge, optimistic attitudes, and appropriate practices towards COVID-19 during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak. Hopefully, under the combined efforts of Indian authorities and all Indian residents, India surely will win the battle against COVID-19 in the near future.

  104. Rajaveni Sundara Pandian and Muniappan Nagaraji

    Groundwater is the source of approximately 33% of the water supplied to households and to the public. It supplies more than 90 percent of the rural population with drinking water. As groundwater is the major source, its quality can be affected by rocks, sediments, industrial discharges, urban activities, agriculture, groundwater pumping, and disposal of waste. The quality of groundwater is therefore considered an extremely severe problem in many cities in developing countries. The objective of this study is to (1) evaluate the spatial distribution of physio-chemical parameters like pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulphate and nitrate, sodium, and potassium; (2) investigate the quality of drinking water by the Water Quality Index (WQI). An intensive field visit was carried out to collect groundwater samples. 8 different bore wells were chosen for determining groundwater quality. Groundwater samples are collected during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon months of May and November 2017 respectively. The groundwater samples collected from the field were analyzed in the laboratory for different physio-chemical parameters by using standard procedures. The results obtained were compared with the water quality standards specified by IS: 10500-2012. Based on the physio-chemical parameters, the water quality index has been computed for each water sample. The derived water quality index of the study area ranged from 89 to 120 (pre-monsoon) and 62 to 94 (post-monsoon). It is observed that the WQI for pre-monsoon has deteriorated quality compared to post-monsoon. The influence of precipitation to improve water quality by way of dilutions of the chemical components.

  105. Rahil Kittur, Syeda Mumtaz and Doddamani and Jahangirbasha

    Cesarean section (“C-section”), an incision through the abdominal wall and then into the uterus to deliver a calf potentially indicated in cases of dystocia when a calf cannot be delivered by fetal mutation and extraction or when vaginal delivery could endanger her life or the life of her calf. A prompt decision to perform a caesarean operation is important for optimum success. A successful prognosis depends on several factors, such as the skill and speed of the surgeon, duration of dystocia, physical condition of the dam, surgical environment, concurrent disease, and presence of a live calf. The following article discusses about the procedure of Cesarean section and the outcomes.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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