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May 2015

  1. Dr. Nupura Vibhute

    Context: The nature of chewable areca nut and tobacco consumption in India has undergone rapid transformation with introduction of pan masala and gutkha. The negative health effects of tobacco on oral soft tissue including premalignancy and malignancy are well documented, however research on its effect on oral hard tissues especially on tooth wear is lacking. Aims: To assess and compare tooth wear among tobacco chewers and non chewers in the rural population of Karad, Maharashtra, India. Settings and Design: Methods and Material: A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 subjects selected randomly from those visiting the Krishna Charitable Hospital, Karad. Tooth wear was assessed for both tobacco chewers and non chewers. The chi square test was used for statistical analysis. Statistical analysis used: SPSS version 15 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) Results: The subjects chewing tobacco had significantly greater tooth wear as compared to the controls. The wear was especially significant in mishri chewers compared to the other tobacco combinations. It was also observed that the frequency and duration of chewing tobacco was directly proportional to the number of pathologically worn sights. Conclusions: Tobacco products containing abrasives contribute to tooth wear and this factor must be taken into account for treatment planning for these patients.

  2. Dr Jyothi, K. C., Dr Shama Sundar, N. M., Dr Anupama, K., Dr Prathap Kumar, J. and Dr Radhika, P. M

    Background: The three minute bones in the middle ear, the malleus, incus and stapes form articulated chain across the tympanic cavity. Sclerosis, ankylosis or any disease of these ossicles cause immobilization and dissociation of the chain leading to impaired hearing. Increasingly otologic surgeons are performing surgeries for deafness like ossicular replacements and ossiculoplasty. A resultant achievement of good hearing following surgery is one of the greatest challenges to the otologists. Successful ossicular repair depends on precise dimensions of implants. Objectives: To study the morphometric measurements and morphological features of Incus and compare the results with other studies. Material and Methods: 50 formalin fixed human temporal bones were dissected to remove incus by dissection method. The bones were photographed and measured using software and weight of individual ossicles were taken and recorded. Results: Incus showed few morphological variations. Conclusion: The knowledge of variations of the ossicles and its morphometric data will help the otologist during reconstructive surgery and provide necessary information for the prosthesis designer

  3. Ajay Raj Mallela, Hariprasad Shetty, Rohini Koya, Ganesh Shetty and Shastry Ba

    Hypoparathyroidism is rare atypical clinical consequence of iron overload in patients of Beta thalassemia major (BTM) who are on regular blood transfusions. We report a case of 22 yr old male who presented with generalized tonic clonic seizures. Laboratory investigations showed anemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia with very low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level. Patient was started on calcium and vitamin D supplementation.Serum calcium levels were optimized. The patient gradually improved with no further episodes of seizure. Rarity of this endocrinopathy in beta thalasemia major made us report this case.

  4. Domnic Marera and Nyaribo Cyprian

    Forensic age estimation is a scientific process in a forensic medicine which aims to determine in the most precise way possible, the chronological age of a person of an unknown or doubtful age involved in medical or legal proceedings such as unregistered children, asylum seekers, immigrants, marriage, sporting events and criminals. With the current concerns of migration trends, criminal activities and ethical legal dilemma, forensic medical team and anthropologist have tried to come up with several ways to determine the biological profile of living individuals. The skeleton and dentition has been used for age estimation for years, but with the new technological advances such as digital x-rays, computer tomographic imaging and ultrasound machines, age estimation has been made simple, faster and near accurate. This article reviews the use of bones for age estimation, with emphasis to various methodologies of bone assessment, limitations of this modalities and possible recommendation that may accurately bring to precision, the current methods of age estimation in the future. Sources and selection of data: comparison between old and new literature was reviewed and information was obtained from search engines such as the PubMed and Google scholar.

  5. Dr. Sushama Bhosale

    A growing body of scientific research suggests connection between spirituality and mental health. So researchers across a range of disciplines have started to explore and acknowledge the positive contribution of spirituality can make mental health. Spirituality is more individualistic and recent studies indicate that spiritual practices benefits the patients very positively. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. This paper reviews the evidences and explores the impact that some expressions of spirituality can have as part of integrative approach to understanding mental health and wellbeing.

  6. Dr. R. Kanagavalli

    A descriptive study to assess the knowledge regarding organ transplantation among staff nurses in a selected hospital at Mangalore. According to Indian government statistics, every year more than 10 lakh people in India are estimated to suffer from organ failure. Medical advancement and technology has demonstrated most miraculous achievement in modern medicine on organ transplantation. Nurses are expected to come forward and motivate the public about Organ transplantation. Nurses are the person who works with the client and family for 24 hours and so able to change the attitude of the public about the organ transplantation. Hence, the researcher felt to study the knowledge of staff nurses regarding organ transplantation. It may helps the patients to lead and achieve a normal life. The nurses were selected through non probability convenient sampling technique. The data was collected by administering the questionnaire to the samples. The result of the study showed that majority (68%) of staff nurses were having knowledge on organ transplantation. Nearly 32 % of nurses were need to update their knowledge on surgical procedure, preservation techniques and management regarding organ transplantation. The study result suggested that in service educational programme need to be planned on regular basis about organ transplantation.

  7. Sandhya Bhavani, M., Thirunavukkarasu, P.S., Kavitha, S. and Baranidharan, G. R.

    Ultrasonography has become an important imaging modality for the evaluation of small structures, such as adrenal glands, because it is relatively inexpensive, it is non-invasive and it does not require general anesthesia. Both normal and abnormal small structures can be seen, though this depends to a great extent on the quality of the equipment and the operator skills. Adrenal glands of normal and hyperadrenocorticoid dogs were examined ultrasonographically and results discussed.

  8. Murari Pradeep Kumar, Sughosh Kulkarni, Rohit A. and Anoosha P Bhandarkar

    Objectives: To study the clinical and epidemiological profile of dengue cases admitted at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at SDM College of Medical Sciences and Hospital on all serologically diagnosed dengue cases admitted from 1st October 2012 to 31st December 2012. The serological diagnosis was done using Rapid Immunochromatographic Card Test (RICT) in the clinical microbiology laboratory of the hospital. Detection of at least one component (NS1, IgM or IgG) was considered to be positive for sero-diagnosis. A pre-designed, pre-tested proforma was used to collect information from the patients. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 17.0 software and descriptive statistics was used. Results: Majority of cases 66.2% (149) were of Dengue fever (DF) according to WHO classification and highest number of dengue cases was in the age group of < 14 years. Male (58.2%) preponderance was noted among the cases. Fever was the presenting symptom in all cases followed by vomiting (47.1%) and headache (45.3%). Hepatomegaly was noted in 27.1% and splenomegaly in 9% of the cases. The mean platelet count was lower than normal values in all the cases. Conclusion: Detection of large number of cases in a short duration signifies high incidence rate. Dengue should be suspected in all cases presenting with symptoms like fever, vomiting and headache. Dengue fever (DF) is more common clinical syndrome than the most serious dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS).Dengue shock syndrome occurs more frequently in younger age group and diagnosing in children is very important. The use of Dengue RICT helps in the prompt and early diagnosis and management of the case and prevent complications of the dengue.

  9. Rohit Sane, Nilay Chakrabarti, Shalaka Indap, Ratnakar Shetty, Satish Mali and Vinayak Sabnis

    Background and Objectives: Kidney stone disease varies in frequency and stone type between different climates and racial groups. Our aim was to identify the presence of stone forming substances, in the urine samples of patients with symptoms suggestive of urolithiasis but without radiological evidence of calculi at present, a condition often referred to as crystalluria. Data was analyzed to determine the extent of correlation between the presence of factors believed to be associated with urinary stone formation and the presence of stone precursors in urine of the study group, which would then help in prevention of actual stone formation in the future in these patients. Methods: This 2 month prospective case series study was conducted in a tertiary level teaching hospital with a study population of 35 participants. The data was collected using a questionnaire and entered using MS-Excel. Significance of the individual risk factor and clinical presentation were established by using Chi square test in order to find out the P value and appropriate conclusions were based on the above analysis. Result: In our study the incidence of crystalluria was found to be 17.1% with Calcium Oxalate being the only type of crystal seen in urine. Daily water intake (P<0.05), Diabetes (P<0.05), history of repeated Urinary Tract Infection (U.T.I.) (P<0.05) were found to be significant factors resulting in crystalluria. Conclusions: Risk factors for crystalluria were identified, i.e. decreased daily water intake, diabetes and history of repeated U.T.I., which played a significant role in its occurrence in the study population (P<0.05). Symptoms such as pain, burning micturition, vomiting and hematuria, were noted but were found not to have a significant association (P>0.05). A dietary chart was handed over to all the participants in order to prevent the recurrence of crystalluria and thus prevent the formation of urinary stones in the future. This study with a small subject group and of short duration was intended as a pilot study on this subject with larger and longer duration studies to follow which would make the assertions more conclusive.

  10. Dr. Abhisek Mitra, Dr. Palash Das, Dr. Siddhartha Bhowmik, Dr. Sangeeta Das Ghosh, Dr. Mandira Chakraborty, Dr. Soumya Dasgupta, Dr. Indrani Bhattacharyya, and Dr. Dilip Kumar Bera

    In India, Fasciolopsiasis has been reported mainly from Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra (Raj, 2007). Only few sporadic cases have been reported eversince from the remaining states (CD Alert,2005). We are reporting a case of Fasciolopsiasis in which the patient had vomited out an adult worm of Fasciolopsis buski which is quite an unusual presentation.

  11. Dr. Mahendra Wawhal, Dr. Vajed Mogal, Dr. Mahendra Sonawane, Dr. Pratap Gole and Dr. Kulin Seth

    We report second case of mycoplasma related postmyocarditic cardiomyopathy in adults which is perhaps the second case report in literature After the case report of by Kyung Rim Huh43 2008 in Korea . A 56 year old male presented with fever, running nose, sore throat and bodyache since 15 days and 2 days prior to admission he developed pedal oedema, progressive dyspnoea on exertion with palpitation. He recovered very well with antibiotics, diuretics, anti-hypertensives and short steroid therapy. Microbial myocarditis treatment is not clear, antibiotics and steroids can be of great help in reducing the sequelae of dilated cardiomyopathy.

  12. Mohamed E Hegazy, Noha Kh M Khalil, Haytham M Sameer and Dina M Hassan

    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinical condition that comprises a wide spectrum of liver dam¬age, ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, ad¬vanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with normal or elevated serum alanine transaminase enzyme (ALT). NAFLD tends to develop in people who are overweight or obese or have diabetes, high cholesterol or high triglycerides. Methods: The study is a case control study conducted on 50 patients who were diagnosed to have fatty liver assessed by ultrasonography and 25 controlled healthy individuals with matched age and sex. All the study persons underwent full clinical assessment and laboratory investigations including ALT and AST-, serum albumin, prothrombin time and INR, complete blood count (CBC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), (HbAiC) and fasting lipid profile including, serum total cholesterol, triglyc¬eride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and serum ferritin and iron. Results: The study shoed high statistically significant difference between patients group and control group as regards serum ferritin level p value (<0.001) , and there was high statistically significant positive correlation between serum ferritin level and BMI, TG, AST, ALT, Fasting Plasma Glucose, HBA1C , serum uric acid , LDL, serum IRON ,TIBC with p value (<0.001) . Conclusion: Serum ferritin can be used as a useful marker for evaluation of the presence of NAFLD and useful marker for evaluation of associated dyslipidemia , diabetes and presence of metabolic syndrome.

  13. Nevein M. El Ashry and Mona Hassan Abdel Al

    The aim of this study was to assess self management strategies to control auditory hallucinations among patients with schizophrenia. An exploratory descriptive research design was used for the current study. The study subjects consisted of 60 patients from psychiatric inpatients units of El Abassia mental health hospital. Three tools were used to collect data for this study, TOOL (I): A Structured Interview sheet for the Socio- demographic and clinical data of Psychiatric Inpatients units. TOOL (II): frequency and distribution of auditory Hallucinations by Phenomenology Scale "Modified Version": TOOL (III): Structured interview sheet of self management strategies to control auditory hallucinations: The study results revealed that, there was statistically significant difference between behavioral strategies and both cognitive and physiological strategies. The effectiveness of cognitive and behavioral strategies of self management to control auditory hallucinations in male patients is more than in female patients. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that patients can utilize self management strategies to reduce the characteristics and severity of auditory hallucinations and to experience a significant decrease in these symptoms. In the light of results of the present study, the following recommendations are suggested: Psychiatric health care provider (psychiatric nurse and/or psychiatrist) should provide accurate information to patients with schizophrenia, who have auditory hallucinations, about different self management strategies used by other hallucinating patients, to encourage further self effective self management strategies.

  14. Dr. Farhan Ali, Dr. Adnan Bashir Bhatti, Dr. Siddique Akbar Satti, Fareha Iqbal Shah Faisal Ahmad Tarfarosh and Muhammad Usman

    Dengue fever is one of the major public health problems in the tropical countries and the adjacent subtropics. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a serious form of this disease. As this infection is becoming more and more common, the incidence of unusual presentations associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever is increasing. Except for the pleural effusions, pulmonary manifestations are highly unlikely in this disease. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in DHF is very rarely reported in the medical literature. We report a case of 19 year old female with DHF who presented with acute onset of breathlessness which was diagnosed to be due to ARDS according to the Berlin definition. After ruling out almost all possible causes of ARDS in this female, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) was considered as the cause of this complication. The need of the hour is to make the medical practitioners in dengue fever endemic areas aware of this atypical complication of DHF so that proper diagnostic and treatment steps can be taken at the earliest possible convenience and the lives of such patients can be saved.

  15. Adnan Bashir Bhatti, Muhammad Usman, Farhan Ali, Siddique Akbar Satti and Nabiyah Bakhtawar

    Background: Asthma represents one of the most important cause morbidity among adolescents. Therefore, this study was conducted with an objective in mind to find out the frequency of asthma is one of the most vulnerable age groups i.e. adolescences. Moreover, the study was also meant to find out different determinants that are responsible for the attacks of asthma in this age group. Objective: To investigate the frequency of asthma in adolescence and its determinants. Material and Methods Study Design: It was a cross sectional study Study Setting and duration: This research was carried out in Capital Development Authority (CDA) Hospital. The duration of the study was 4 months, from 1st April, 2014 to 31st July 2014. Inclusion criteria: Asthma patients were selected from medical and pulmonology wards of Capital Development Authority (CDA) Hospital. Data Collection and analysis: Data was collected from the patients via a health questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of several open and close ended questions in order to collect personal, social, medical and environmental data. Results: Results showed that mean age of adolescents to develop asthma is around 17 years. The frequency of asthma is higher in male subjects as compared to females, 56.7% and 43.3% respectively. Frequent attacks of asthma are associated with symptoms like cough and difficulty in breathing (72.3% patients), waking up at night due to coughing and difficulty in breathing (65.1% patients) and wheezing (57.8% patients). Middle socioeconomic group and outdoor pollutants like dust and smoke are the most important determinants (P< 0.05). Conclusion: The frequency of asthma is quite high during adolescence (mean age 17 years). Outdoor pollutants like smoke and dust are the main determinants that govern the development of asthma in such individuals.

  16. Adnan Bashir Bhatti, Farhan Ali, Tariq Mehmood Satti, Zarine Anwar Ghazali, Siddique Akbar Satti and Muhammad Usman

    Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder involving antibody and cell mediated destruction of platelets and suppression of platelet production that may predispose to bleeding. Over the past few decades, the rising awareness of treatment and it side effects and newer medications have led to newer recommendations. Treatment is mainly directed at achieving a safe platelet count to prevent a major bleeding event rather than correcting the platelet count to normal levels. Splenectomy is now a second line treatment. Corticosteroids with IVIG or anti –Rh(D), danazol, alone or in combination with azathioprine, and dapsone have been used as first line drugs. Rituximab and Thrombopoietin receptor agonists are also approved for treating adults with chronic ITP. This paper deals with all aspects of treatment modalities and their safety with latest recommendation.

  17. Dr. Rabia Bilal

    There is a rising influx of adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment in the recent era.20-25% of orthodontic patients are reported to be adults and this trend is likely to rise by leaps and bounds in near future in view of society becoming more esthetic and health conscious. Unfortunately, long orthodontic treatment time poses several disadvantages like higher predisposition to caries, gingival recession, root resorption and enamel demineralization. Hence it is imperative to explore and understand various aspects to reduce the orthodontic treatment time, to counteract the side effects of prolonged treatment and reduce the irritation among adult patients. This review discusses various ways to accelerate the orthodontic tooth movement and what are the most viable options amongst those. Also it emphasizes on the advantages & disadvantages posed by these different techniques. Biological, physical and surgical techniques were discussed along with their pros and cons. Prostaglandins, relaxin and vitamin D showed lesser promising use on humans, because most of the work done is on animals. Lower laser irradiation therapy was found to have more assuring results amongst the physical and mechanical ways. Surgical techniques though being most successful & widely used had the drawbacks of invasiveness & discomfort. Piezoincision is a less invasive surgical technique and hence has a lot of scope in future. Most of the methods discussed have been successfully proven to reduce treatment times by up to 70% .It was concluded that all these techniques offer efficacious results one way or the other as far as the acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement is concerned.

  18. Asish Bhaumik, Prasenjit Das, Dr. Tajendra Bhakta, Rabindra Tripura and Sravaya, S.

    Meyna spinosa Roxb, a medicinal plant enjoys it use in the traditional medicine in all over the India for the treatment of a number of ailments. In Bengali it is called as Monkata. It is a wild common plant distributed in India, Bangladesh and in both northeastern tropical Africa and tropical Asia. The main objective of the present research work was to determine various bioactive compounds and to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of different fruit extracts of Meyna spinosa Roxb against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Based on this, a new series of constituents had been planned to extract by Ethanol (E1), Methanol (E2), Ethylacetoacetate (E3) and Chloroform (E4) from the fruits of Meyna spinosa Roxb. The in-vitro antibacterial activity was carried out by Paper disc diffusion method and MIC was determined by Agar streak dilution method. The results displayed that the various extracts of fruits of Meyna spinosa Roxb, had a potential antibacterial activity against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria with an MIC range of 9-22 µg/ml (gram positive organisms) and with an MIC range of 10-26 µg/ml (gram negative organisms). The MIC values of various extracts (E1, E2, E3 and E4) of fruits of Meyna spinosa Roxb for different gram positive bacteria were found to be S. aureus (MIC: 9-18 µg /ml ), B.subtilis (MIC: 10-21 µg /ml), S. typhi (MIC: 11-22 µg /ml) and S. epidermidis ( MIC:12-21 µg /ml). The extracts (E1, E2, E3 and E4) of fruits of Meyna spinosa Roxb were active against all the tested gram negative microorganisms with the range of MIC values for P. aeruginosa (MIC: 10-20 µg/ml), P. flurocense (MIC:12-25 µg/ml) and E. coli ( MIC: 11-26 µg/ml) and V. cholerae (MIC:12-23 µg/ml).

  19. Dr. AnithaCherian and Dr. Biju Gopal

    Introduction: Amblyopia is reduced visual acuity even with proper optical correction in one or both eyes , resulting from altered visual development despite ophthalmoscopically normal retinal and optic nerve anatomy. Anisometopia is one of the leading causes of amblyopia. Decreased vision because of uncorrected refractory errors is a major public health problem of school going children in India. School screening programmes have been established in India since 1907. These programmes are primarily aimed at detecting amblyopia and refractive errors. Objectives: To study the prevalence of amblyopia in school going children with refractory errors and to determine the type of refractory error which causes maximum amblyopia. Methods: A descriptive study were 28,852 students between the age group of 6 – 15 years from 65 schools were screened . 540 students were found to have refractive errors and they were further assessed to study the prevalence of amblyopia and associations. Results: Out of 540 students 15.7% had Amblyopia . It was commonly seen in children between the age group of 11 – 13 years 38.3% . Myopia and Myopic astigmatism was seen associated with maximum number of amblyopic children 48.4% and 33.9% respectively. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of amblyopia in school children with refractive errors which points towards the inadequacies in the present school screening programmes in detecting refractive errors at an earlier stage and thereby preventing development of amblyopia.

  20. Shekhar Gogna and Priya Goyal

    A prospective randomized study has shown that, in 50 women with breast cancer undergoing modified radical mastectomy with level III axillary clearance, perioperative and postoperative administration of tranexamic acid 1 g three times daily resulted in a significant reduction in the mean postoperative drainage volume compared with patient not receiving tranexamic acid (781.4248.64 vs. 1023196.3ml; p<0.001). The frequency of post drain seroma formation was increased by tranexamic acid administration (44% vs. 20%). None of the patient developed hematoma, flap necrosis in both the groups. Three patients developed wound infection in the study group and none in the control group. Two patients developed wound dehiscence in study group while 1 in the control group. Stage of breast carcinoma, total number of nodes dissected and number of lymph nodes positive for metastatic diseases does not effect the seroma formation. Tranexamic acid may be used for longer duration to reduce the frequency of postoperative wound complications following surgery for breast cancer.

  21. Dr. Adnan Bashir Bhatti, Dr. Farhan Ali, Dr. Siddique Akbar Satti, Muhammad Usman and Shah Faisal Ahmad Tarfarosh

    Dengue is a mosquito borne viral hemorrhagic fever which is endemic in the tropical countries and adjacent subtropics. Severe dengue is of two types, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), both of which are life-threatening. In the medical literature, a large number of atypical presentations of dengue fever have been documented till now. However, we are reporting a rare and deadly complication of dengue fever in the form of acute pancreatitis. A 16 year old female had presented with severe dengue with shock and acute pain in abdomen because of pancreatitis. The physiopathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in dengue has not been worked out yet, but there are various possible mechanisms which have been postulated. The need of the hour is to know in depth the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in severe dengue, so that specific management strategies can be devised for this critical complication.

  22. Arvind N. Bagate, Rajanikant K. Musande, Sandip R. Dukare, Dnyneshwar S. Jadhav, Sheela L. Gaikwad and Grace F. Dcosta.

    Aim: To study the clinicopathological features of Thyroid lesions at SRTRGMCH, rural set up. Method: Total 312 of THYROID lesions were studied. Patients of all age group, of both sexes with complaints of swelling over neck were included. Patients were subjected for clinical palpation, Ultrasonography(USG), Lymph Nodes examination, thyroid profile, Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and accordingly treated with surgical and medical mode of management. All operated specimens were sent for histopathological evaluation. Results: 182 patients (58.33%) were between age group of 20 to 40 yrs with a female preponderance. Of total lesions Non-neoplastic category constituted the majority of lesions (79.80%). These cases include Nodular goiter, colloid goiter, hashimoto’s thyroiditis, lymphocytic thyroiditis and toxic goiter. Neoplastic lesions constituted 20.20% of all cases which include follicular neoplasm, hurthle cell adenoma, papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma. 56 cases underwent histopathological examination of which 43 cases (76.78%) were benign and 13 cases (23.22%) were malignant. Conclusion: Taking into consideration Histopathology report as a gold standard, correlation of FNAC finding with histopathology finding showed 78.50% sensitivity, 95.20% specificity with 84.61% positive predictive value and 93.02% negative predictive value.

  23. Hatim A Mostafa, Mohamed O Gadour, Fathia H Mubarak and Ahmed M Musa,

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of HLA Class-II loci and their frequencies in Sudanese patients with celiac disease. All blood specimens from celiac disease patients (n=70), and control group (n=30) were tested for (tTG IgA, Gliadin IgG and EMA) antibodies by IIF and ELISA. All tests were repeated on all patients (n=70) to check their response to the Gluten free diet (GFD). HLA-class II, DR and DQ alleles were typed from the DNA of all samples . Analysis of the gel was done by using One Lambda Software. Analysis of case-control data was performed using the Chi-square test with P< 0.05 considered significant. HLA-DRB1*0301 (HLA-DR17) was found in 74.3 % of the patients compared to 26.67% of the healthy controls (p= 0.002) with a risk factor of 4.4. The frequency of HLA-DQB1*0201 (HLA-DQ2) was found to be 81.42% and 53.3% in patients and in healthy controls respectively (p=0.006) with a risk factor of 3.8. HLA-DQB1*0301(HLA-DQ7) was found to be significantly frequent in patients (24.3%) compared to (3.3%) among the controls (p= 0.011) with a relative risk of 9.3. This in contrast to Caucasian patients where the frequency of HLA-DQB1*0301(HLA-DQ7) is only 2%. There was no significant difference between patients and controls regarding HLA-DQB1*0302 allele (HLA-DQ8) which was frequently seen in 17.14% patients compared to 30% in the controls (p=0.18) with a relative risk of 0.48. HLA-DQ7 is highly specific to Sudanese CD compared to HLA-DQ8.

  24. Dr. Sowmiya, R. and Dr. Vinodha, R

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the visual functions in Migraine patients. Materials And Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Thanjavur Medical College, Thanjavur. The subjects were recruited from Outpatient Clinic of Department of Neuromedicine, Thanjavur based on International Headache Society classification for Migraine. Subjects with episodes of headache for atleast 2 yrs , 2 attacks per month in last quarter year were included in the study and with history suggestive of other types of headache, Tension Type Headache (TTH), cluster headache, sinusitis and Visual field defects were excluded . Forty subjects (16 with Aura and 24 cases – Migraine without aura) and forty age / sex matched controls were selected. Informed written consent was obtained. The results were analysed statistically using student ‘t’ test. Results: There was significant prolongation of P100 and N145 latency (p<0.05) in both Migraine with and without aura compared with controls. P100 Amplitude was increased in study group especially in cases with Aura than the control group but was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Thus, Visual Evoked Potential can be considered as useful, non-invasive, reliable and diagnostic technique for effective management in Migraine.

  25. Dr. Rubha, S. and Dr. Vinodha, R.

    Aim: Protein energy malnutrition affects myelination and growth of the nervous system. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of protein energy malnutrition on auditory evoked potential response in children. Materials and Methods: Study group includes 40 malnourished children of 5 – 10 years of age based on IAP and WHO classification for malnutrition. Control group consists of 40 normal children of same age group. Genetic and endocrine causes for short stature , children with ear pathology were excluded. Informed written consent from the parents / guardian was obtained. Brainstem auditory evoked potential was recorded. Results were analysed using unpaired student ‘t’ test. Result: There was a significant prolongation in wave I, II, III, IV latency , IPL I-III ,III-V in children with Grade III malnutrition and IPL I – III in Grade IandII malnutrition ( p < 0.05 ). Conclusion: The present study shows significant alteration in brainstem auditory evoked potential in children with malnutrition which may be due to nutritional deficiency affecting myelination of auditory brainstem pathways which depends on duration and severity of malnutrition. So brainstem auditory evoked potential can be used to detect malnutrition at its early stage.

  26. Hatim A. Mostafa, Mohamed, O. Gadour, Fathia H. Mubarak and Ahmed M. Musa

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of HLA Class-II loci and their frequencies in Sudanese patients with celiac disease. All blood specimens from celiac disease patients (n=70), and control group (n=30) were tested for (tTG IgA, Gliadin IgG and EMA) antibodies by IIF and ELISA. All tests were repeated on all patients (n=70) to check their response to the Gluten free diet (GFD). HLA-class II, DR and DQ alleles were typed from the DNA of all samples . Analysis of the gel was done by using One Lambda Software. Analysis of case-control data was performed using the Chi-square test with P< 0.05 considered significant. HLA-DRB1*0301 (HLA-DR17) was found in 74.3 % of the patients compared to 26.67% of the healthy controls (p= 0.002) with a risk factor of 4.4. The frequency of HLA-DQB1*0201 (HLA-DQ2) was found to be 81.42% and 53.3% in patients and in healthy controls respectively (p=0.006) with a risk factor of 3.8. HLA-DQB1*0301(HLA-DQ7) was found to be significantly frequent in patients (24.3%) compared to (3.3%) among the controls (p= 0.011) with a relative risk of 9.3. This in contrast to Caucasian patients where the frequency of HLA-DQB1*0301(HLA-DQ7) is only 2%. There was no significant difference between patients and controls regarding HLA-DQB1*0302 allele (HLA-DQ8) which was frequently seen in 17.14% patients compared to 30% in the controls (p=0.18) with a relative risk of 0.48. HLA-DQ7 is highly specific to Sudanese CD compared to HLA-DQ8.

  27. Matilda Asante, Maria Pufulete, Jane Thomas, Edwin Wiredu and Freda Intiful

    Aim: To compare food consumption pattern of a first generation Ghanaian population in London with an urban population in Accra, Ghana Methods: Eighty participants aged 25-60 years were recruited in London and matched for age, gender and occupation to 160 participants in Accra. Dietary intake was assessed with a food-frequency checklist. A self-administered questionnaire was used to acquire information on health and lifestyle determinants. Results: Consumption of most traditional Ghanaian staples, vegetables and cooking oils in London was less frequent. In addition, consumption of meat in London was significantly frequent in London while consumption of fish was lower. New foods had been adopted and substitutions of some foods were evident. Conclusions: These differences suggest that migrants may adopt some habits of the host country that may be healthy and protective against cardiovascular disease risk but also develop other unhealthy habits that may have adverse effect on health

  28. Dr. Abul Ghani, Dr. Kanav Padha, Dr. Rashid Anjum and Dr. Aamir Hakak

    Interlocked nailing as a treatment modality for long bone fractures is one of the most widely performed orthopedic trauma surgeries. Closed locked nailing is the gold standard method of treating the long fractures. One of the most difficult steps in this surgery is distal locking of screws. Various techniques have been described for distal locking, but sometimes they become unsuccessful, time consuming and involve excessive radiation exposure. Also they involve various specialized equipments which increase the surgical time and cost. We present a simple, safe, cost effective and highly reproducible technique for distal locking which involves pushing the drill bit into the locking holes with hand.

  29. Pavulraj Selvaraj, Saminathan Mani, Prabakar G and Albert Arockia Raj, P

    Oral delivery of vaccine proteins has been shown more efficient compared to subcutaneous or intramuscular injection vaccines due to the increased chance of provoking mucosal immune responses, which in turn stimulate cell mediated immune responses. Edible vaccines clutch swear as a cost effective, easy to administer, easy to store, readily acceptable vaccine delivery system especially in poor and developing countries. Another advantage of edible vaccine technology is the multi-component ability that is possible due to the crossing of two different plant lines. Resulting multi-component vaccine proteins are known as second-generation vaccines. They allow for several antigens to approach. A multi-component edible vaccine can also be multivalent. It can be designed to confer simultaneous protection against multiple diseases in humans and animals as well. There are several advantages over other methods of biological protein production viz. they are efficiently grown on agricultural land, low cost of production with minimum inputs, large scale production is possible by simply increasing the number of plants.

  30. Leonardo Baumworcel, Pedro Guilherme Manes Rothman, Patricia Garcia Romualdo, Ludmilla da Rocha Freitas Vieitas, Bernardo Pereira Lima de Figueiredo, Leonardo Branco Sartore and Annibal Scavarda

    Some emergency service works with a triage care system to differentiate the urgency level of each patient. The objective is to deploy Smart Track system in a general emergency. This new care system intends to screen and begins initial therapeutics in less than twenty minutes of patient arrival in the hospital. This is an analysis from February to December 2014. In the first quarter of this project, the emergence performed around 3400 calls per month and in the last quarter was carried out making more than 5000 calls/month. Protocols for a preferred route were open 90 cases per month, on average. A third of these patients were admitted to hospital treatment. Throughout this period, the hospital spent on human resources less than a half of the spent in the others regular triage emergency services. Changing the emergency room processes to Lean based model is possible.

  31. Effectiveness of whatsapp application on smart phone as a communication Tool in orthopaedic surgery

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of WhatsApp application on smartphone as a communication tool among the staff of orthopaedic surgery and also as a media for interspeciality communication in a tertiary care health centre. Materials and Methods: We used WhatsApp as a medium of communication among staff, for various aspects of routine patient care, decision making in emergency trauma room and academic purposes. Results: The use of WhatsApp led to a rapid communication amongst staff .Seeking advice of offsite senior consultant was never so easy, thus leading to a timely and appropriate management. All the residents and consultants associated with this study were satisfied with this new method of communication. Conclusion: This method of communication is beneficial in the interest of patient care and academics. It is cheap, very quick and very easy to operate.

  32. Junaid Mahmood Alam, Humaira (Howrah) Ali, Ishrat Sultana, Mehwish Amin and Syed Riaz Mahmood

    Background: Microalbuminuria is a significant clinical outcome of diabetic nephropathy and related hypertension. Moreover, diabetes mellitus is a known dangerous metabolic disorders, resulting into induction of complications such as cardiovascular, glomerular hyperfusion and end stage renal disease (ESRD). Aim and Objectives: Objectives of this study are 1) to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria in selected age groups of diabetic patients, 2) to determine correlation of microalbumin with hypertension and renal insufficient in male and female patients. Materials and Research Design: A total of 240 subjects (n = 160 diabetic patients, n = 80 controls) were selected for present study and classified according to gender, age, clinical categories (renal insufficiency and hypertension) and control groups. Urinary microalbumin was analyzed in 2nd morning urine of all selected patients and control groups by TINA-QUANT (Roche-Diagnostics) albumin methodology on Cobas 6000 c501 analyzer. Results: Variable concentrations of microalbumin were detected in urine samples of male and female diabetic patients in both hypertensive and renal insufficiency co-morbids. Furthermore age-dependency on the correlation of microalbumin was noted, depicted by higher level of urinary microalbumin in older subjects as compared to younger ones. Conclusion: Micro-albuminuria was noted to be more prevalent in renal insufficient diabetic patients as compared to hypertensive diabetics. Additionally age-dependency was also factor in higher levels microalbuminuria.

  33. Enteroendocrine Cells- Unfolding The Mystery

    The enteroendocrine cells form the largest system of endocrine cells in the body scattered diffusely in the gastrointestinal mucosa from stomach to rectum. These cells and their secretary products are essential for wide array of functions including digestion, nutrient absorption, immune response to luminal chemicals, toxins and microbes, luminal sensing via gut-brain axis, gut motility and epithelial renewal. Recently several molecular mechanisms underlying these diverse functions as well as underlying the diseases like irritable bowel syndrome, obesity and type 2 diabetes with possible role of enteroendocrine cells have been elucidated providing novel therapeutic targets. In this review we elaborate current knowledge on development, morphology, secretions, functions, molecular mechanisms and clinical implications of enteroendocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the adult human being.

  34. Ghada M. Merghani, Rashad M. O. Mahmoud,Idris M. M. Hamid. And Mahdi H.A. Abdalla

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is one of the major types of anemia found in Sudan. Numerous studies provide Hypercoagulable state in SCA. Many genetic polymorphisms are considered as a risk factor for Hypercoagulability in sickle cell anemia. The aim of this study was to examine the association of MTHFR (C677T) polymorphism with the risk of vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) among sickle cell (SC) patients in Sudan. The study included 34 SC patients with VOC, their fibrinogen level (measured by Clauss modified method), D-Dimer (measured by i-CHROMATM system), MTHFR C677T genotype frequencies (detected by PCR/RFLP) and haematological charecteristics (Sysmex KX-21N) were determined and compared with 62 SC patients in steady state, without history of previous VOC, as control. Fibrinogen and D-Dimer levels were elevated in all SC patients either in steady state or with VOC, the levels were significantly higher among SC patients with VOC than those in steady state. Our study showed low frequency of mutant MTHFR C677T genotype with 1% TT genotype (homozygote) & 12% CT (heterozygote) with no signifi¬cant association of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with the risk of VOC in SCA. In conclusion, our data suggest a low impact of MTHFR C677T polymorphism as risk factors in the pathogenesis of VOC among the study group.

  35. Dr. Jayashree. M. H, Dr. Mubashir Angolkar, Dr. Oza Mrunal, J., Mutisya M Faith and Dr. B. R. Ashok Kumar

    Background: Tuberculosis is among the top ten causes of global mortality. Among infectious disease, according to global tuberculosis report by WHO 2014, 9.0 million people develop TB and 1.5 million died from the disease. Objectives: To determine the factors causing delay in treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Material and Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients seeking treatment of DOTS under RNTCP at civil hospital Belagavi district. Purposive sampling was used to get 110 patients. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to collect data on Socio-economic and demographic particulars, health seeking behavior after obtaining informed consent. Data was entered through SPSS version 16 and frequency, percentage and chi square test were calculated. Results: A total of 110 patients were enrolled in the study where mean age was found 40.81 yrs, majority of males 19(17.3%) were laborers whereas females 20(18.4%) were housewives. Among the participants 36(32.7%) were illiterates, 81(73.6%) were married and 27 (24.5%) were unmarried. 89(80.9%) participants lived in urban area and 73(66.4%) were living with >6 members in a family. Factors like self medication, use of traditional healers and alcohol use caused patients delay more than 30 days. Health System Delay for > 7 days was strongly associated with Self medication and use of traditional healers. Majority of the patients 49(44.5%) said being too busy was their reasons for not visiting health care providers (HCP). Conclusion: Self medication, use of traditional healers and alcohol use were factors associated with patients and health system delays.

  36. Moulali, D. and Dr. Sarma, D.V.H.S. S

    Pre-eclampsia is one of the greatest medical enigmas of obstetrics machine all over the world. This peculiar multiorganic syndrome and its major catastrophe – Eclampsia still takes a large toll of maternal and fetal lives in underdeveloped and developing countries. Eclampsia was described several centuries before the time of Christ. The word eclampsia was used by Hippocrates to mean “fever of sudden onset.” Originally, the term Eclampsia is derived from a Greek word meaning “like a flash of lightening.” Egyptian, Chinese, Indian and Greek literatures mention about this word. Both Adharvana veda (1000-800 BC) and Shushrutha, (1st century AD) have mentioned the grave prognosis of eclampsia. Mauriceau (1694) observed that primiparas are more likely to develop convulsions than multiparas. Hamilton (1775) noticed that twin gestation predisposed to eclampsia. Lever and simpson (1848) observed proteinuria in pre-eclamptic pregnant women. Sheeham (1950) concluded that edema is principally due to vasomotor disturbances. The onset of pre-eclampsia occurs after 30th week of gestation in 90% of cases and between 30-36th week in 50-70% of cases. (Dickman, 1952). The combination of proteinuria and hypertension during pregnancy markedly increases the risk of prenatal mortality and morbidity.

  37. Sreedevi, L., Suma Divakar, Geethakumari, V. L., Nirmala, C. and Nandini, P. V.

    The study was carried out with the objective to study and compare the quality characteristics of “rasakadali” variety of banana, cultivated by conventional and organic farming techniques. Physical characteristics, sensory qualities of fruit, shelf life, nutrient/chemical composition, anti nutrient and pesticide residue were the parameters investigated in the present study. Among the physical qualities, mean fruit weight revealed significantly higher values for organically cultivated “rasakadali”. Sensory qualities were evaluated to be better for organic products, with significantly higher values for appearance and taste. Sensory qualities and chemical properties showed uniform trends in storage among both treatments. Moisture content, total minerals and vitamin C content were seen to be higher in organically cultivated “rasakadali”. Potassium, ,calcium and iron were significantly higher in organic “rasakadali”. With respect to anti nutrients, tannins were significantly higher in organic “rasakadali”. Pesticide residue was not detected in any of the samples.

  38. Dr. P. Praveena, Ulaganathan, Jennifer Ambrose, M., Jayanthi, Dr Chandrasekar and Dr. D. Sudarsanam

    Certain variations of the BRCA1 gene lead to an increased risk for breast cancer. Researchers have identified hundreds of mutations in the BRCA1 gene, many of which are associated with an increased risk of Breast cancer. The 3D structure of protein brca1 is retrieved from PDB. Then the new drug is designed by obtaining similar features from the cyclophosphamide and then that structure is chemically modified using Chemsketch. The various biochemical parameters are checked by Log p, Molsoft, Lipinski, ADMET properties etc. Finally the newly designed drug was allowed to dock with the protein and the energy score was calculated. Finally the tabular column was drawn to compare the Energy score. The lowest free Energy Binding has high Energy score. Thereby From the tabulation, the newly designed structure can also be used in the treatment of Breast cancer. Further modification of ligand molecule can increase the property of active site binding.

  39. Gehlot, H. S. and Jakher, G. R.

    The utilization of different habitats was influenced by availability of preferred food plants as well as human interference through different activities. We studied the habitat utilization by wild ungulatesnamely Blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra) and Chinkara (Gazellabennetti) in non-closed area of Jodhpur. Data obtained from different study sites were compared by correlating the percentage time spent on different plant species during different seasons.We collected the data from different habitat of arid region of Jodhpur during August 2003 to July 2005. A review of information available on the food plants and preferred habits of wild Thar ungulates revealed that the both wild ungulate Blackbuck and Chinkara spent maximum time in HCF during summer and monsoon season. Analyses of the compiled data on food plants show that the Crotalaria burhia was the most dominant plant species with 74.11 of Importance Value Index (IVI) at JajiwalDhora and with 74.45 of IVI at Surpura area of Jodhpur.

  40. Krishna Kumar and Ebanasar

    The Ramakkal Lake is situated at Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu, India, this Lake is extensively been used for the purpose of irrigation, fishing and also for the animal requirements. The fresh water pollution has long been an issue of concern for the life scientists. This work is intended to determine the overall water quality of the Lake. Lakes are the most fertile, diverse, productive and interactive ecosystem in the world. For the present research work four sampling sites were identified and lake water quality was analysed for pollution status on a monthly basis over a period of 13 months. Every water sample was analysed for temperature, pH, salinity, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, hardness, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chloride, nitrate, phosphate, ammonia, biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand. The study revealed that the lake water was alkaline. The chloride, Ammonia, Nitrite and conductivity concentrations were high in all the four sites chosen. The sites which showed greater pollution had lower levels of dissolved oxygen. High levels of pollutants in lake water causes an increase in biological oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Dissolved Oxygen, Nitrites, Ammonia and hence make such water unsuitable for drinking. The remedial measures suggested for the restoration of this lake include increasing the water levels in the lake, increasing the ground water level and improving the lake water quality. Checking of soil erosion, desilting the lake, establishing a water treatment plant and creating public awareness can be some of the constructive efforts to revive this ancient lake.

  41. Nickson Erick Otieno, Giliano Casavana, Alexander Tellier and Julian Giroux

    Eastern Wild Turkey is considered a corn pest across its range despite lack of solid evidence. Analyses of δ13C and δ15N isotopes in EWT feather tissues and food sources were used to test influence of key land cover features on EWT assemblage and corn consumption within 3 focal regions across farmlands of south-eastern Quebec, using Mixing Model tools and 3-year fall and winter observation datasets from 29 sites. Mean EWT abundance was highest in the most structurally heterogeneous Asbestos region (50.5±6.2).Contribution of corn to EWT diet was influenced by forest cover proportion (R2 = 0.650, p = 0.046) but not crop-field size. Accordingly, most corn was consumed across the most forested Dunham region. Although crop-field size strongly influenced EWT abundance (R2 = 0.451, p < 0.016) it was unrelated to corn consumed indicating EWT’s non-attraction to corn. Conversely, total road network length negatively affected EWT corn consumption (R2 = -0.764, p = 0.033) suggesting impact of hunter traffic.C3 plants were the most important food source for adult EWT while juveniles mostly consumed invertebrates. In conclusion, EWT consumed corn only opportunistically when corn neighboured forest, and are potentially more important as natural pest controllers rather than as corn pests.

  42. Paramita Barman, Minati Sen and Tapan Kumar Pal

    Dhapa, the largest open waste dumping ground of the city of Kolkata, India, is famous for "Garbage farming" all over the World. More than 40 per cent of the leafy vegetables in the Kolkata markets come from these lands. The main objective of the study is to compare the nutrient contents of selected leafy vegetables cultivated in Dhapa land-filled ground (DLG) with Normal ground (NG). Accordingly six selected samples (Red Amaranth, Green Amaranth, Bottle Gourd Leaves, Ceylon Spinach, and Spinach) were collected from both the places throughout the year and analyzed. From the analysis it is observed that there is no significant variations (p> 0.05) in the values of nutrient contents like moisture, total carbohydrate and soluble protein in both the categories of samples excepting ash and total protein contents, where significant variation is noted (p<0.05).

  43. Akpan, H. D. and Dan, P. H

    This study determines antidiabetic potential of diets containing Vernonia amygdalina leaves in Streptozotocin- induced diabetic rat model. Fifty albino wistar rats were divided into five groups with 10 rats in each group. Group 1 and Group 2 (normal and diabetic control respectively) were fed with control diet; Group 3 and 4 (diabetic) were fed with diets containing Vernonia amygdalina leaves at 5% and 7.5%, respectively. Group 5 (diabetic) was fed with control diet and administered insulin. Feed and water were given ad- libitum for 28 days. Fasting blood glucose, plasma glucose, insulin, c-peptide, hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin were determined using standard methods. Results showed that diabetic rats consuming Vernonia amygdalina leaves had significant (P<0.5) increase in plasma insulin, c-peptide and hemoglobin concentrations relative to the diabetic control. Diabetic rats consuming Vernonia amygdalina had significant (P < 0.5) reduction in the level of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations relative to the diabetic control. The results for Vernonia amygdalina diets were similar to insulin on the measured parameters except for plasma glucose concentration and their levels were not significantly different (P >0.5) when compared to the normal control. It was concluded that diets containing Vernonia amygdalina leaves are potential antidiabetic agents.

  44. Uma Maheswari, R., Ohm Rajkumar. R., Surendran, A. and Krishnamoorthy, S

    Land use and land cover changes of Kodaikanal hills by using multi-sensor satellite data and to monitor the changes in various land use / land cover classes using digital remote sensing techniques. The spatial coverage of each class may be visualized on both maps. The area of each class for the year 2006 and 2011 data has been compiled. The land use/ land cover maps prepared using the methodology of (Anderson et al., 1976) (LISS-III data of 2006) and (LISS-III data of 2011). The spatial coverage of each class may be visualized on both maps. The area of each class for the year 2006 and 2011 data has been compiled. The land use/ land cover map of year 2006, depicts that built up area constitutes 14% of total area, while the agriculture classes like Crop land, Fallow and Plantation covers 36% the study area. Water bodies and Barren land covers 1% and 4.5% of area respectively. The forest classes like forest plantation, forest Deciduous, Forest scrub and forest evergreen covers 49% in the study area. In year 2011, the built up area obtained from digital image processing techniques has been 34% of the total area. The agriculture covers an area of 26.5% which shows an area of 9.5% decrease in agriculture land. The water bodies cover 1% and the barren area is converted in to built-up area. The forest classes also showed a decrease of 10% area and the present forest covers 38% of the study area. The decreased classes in the agriculture and forest are converted in to built-up area which clearly shows the population increase. The study was successfully able to detect vegetation change and concluded that the area of the urban has increased whereas the area of crop land and plantation has been decreased within the period 2006-2010. Kodaikanal area is identified as one of the bio¬diversity area in India. Proper land use planning is essential for a sustainable development of Kodaikanal Taluk.

  45. Prasad Bylla, Gulab khan. R, Ravi. C, H, Radha. T and Christopher, T.

    Pungency genotyping of commercially cultivated chilli peppers of Capsicum species seggregate in to pungent and non-pungent at seed level itself using MAP1 and Csy-1 molecular markers. MAP1: A single DNA band admeasuring 494 bp was observed in 10 commercial chilli peppers, C. annuum Pragna, Teja, LCA-335, Special bullet, G-3, G-273, G-4, Badiga-1 and G-5 and C.chinense variety Kotpar. A single DNA band admeasuring 479 bp was observed in C.annuum varieties California wonder and Yolo wonder (positive control) using Pun1 allel specfic primer MAP1. Csy 1: A single DNA band admeasuring 981 bp was observed in 10 pungent chilli peppers, C. annuum Pragna, Teja, LCA-335, Special bullet, G-3, G-273, G-4, Badiga-1 and G-5 and C.chinense variety Kotpar. The DNA band corresponding to 981 bp was absent in C.annuum varieties California wonder and Yolo wonder (positive control) using capsaicin synthase gene Csy1 primer.

  46. Rawal, A. V. and Pawar, K. B.

    Nutritional status of plants has important role in increasing yield and quality of crop plants. Macronutrients and micronutrients are essential elements for metabolism of plants. Influence of aqueous leachate (at 20% and 0.01% concentration) of dried and dropped petals of Delonix regia (Boj Ex Hook) Raf was studied on mineral contents of seedlings of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. var. Kalyani) in petriplate and soil bioassays under laboratory conditions. Petal leachate increased content of phosphorus except at lower concentration in soil bioassay. Sodium and magnesium were decreased in seedlings in petriplate bioassay while increased in soil bioassay. Petal leachate reduced the level of calcium. In petriplate bioassay potassium content was increased at lower concentration and in soil bioassay it was increased at higher concentration. There was decrease in iron content at both concentrations and in both bioassays. Manganese and zinc were decreased in seedlings in petriplate bioassay and increased in soil bioassay at high and low concentrations of petal leachate. The alterations in mineral contents may lead to further metabolic disorders in the petal leachate treated Chickpea seedlings

  47. Jaipal, B. R. and Gehlot, H. S.

    Tarragon is a unique arid ecosystem and It also called the "The Great Indian Thar Desert” which is situated between 22°30’ N to 32°05’N and 68°05’ E to 75°45’E. It is one of the smallest deserts in the world, but it exhibits a wide variety of habitats and biodiversity. This arid region of Rajasthan has two wildlife sanctuary Desert National Park and Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary. It is a home to the endangered wild species Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotisnigriceps), Desert Cat (Felissilvestris) and Chinkara (Gazellabennetti) in Rajasthan.But the populations of these wild fauna have been declining within the Thar Desert of Rajasthan over the last few decades due to destruction of habitats, indiscriminate hunting, and increase feral dog, human and livestock population in their habitats and similarly the transformation of desert grassland into agriculture fields under irrigation schemes of Rajeev Ghandhi Canal, drilling for gas and petroleum, mining, stone quarrying, growth of industries, and power projects along with the expansion of roads, putting up electric poles, wind turbines and many remaining grasslands are subjected to high grazing pressure from domestic livestock and intensive harvesting by local communities consequently the Rajasthan’s state bird Great Indian Bustard (GIB) has become enormously rare now. The field survey was conducted January 2009 and December 2011through road and line transects.

  48. Samuel I. Noya, Juan E. Nápoles Valdés and Luciano M. Lugo Motta Bittencurt

    In this note we obtain sufficient conditions under which we can guarantee the continuability of solutions of a system which contain the classical Liénard equation.

  49. Arshad Arain, Zafar Saeed Saify and Seema Ashraf

    Molecular weight determination of both micro and macro, molecules without a molecular peak and fragment peaks in spectrum is the characteristic feature of this method. In this method molecular crystal ions are generated separated, and plotting a graph between their abundance and weight, m/z molecular weight of sample is determined.

  50. Fernando del Ama Gonzalo

    The use of a glazed façade has the disadvantage of introducing an excess of energy in the building by means of solar radiation during the summer months. The absence of walls that could absorb this thermal load causes the interior space to overheat, needing therefore to cool it with high energy-consuming air-conditioning installations. The water flow glazing, combined with geothermal heat exchangers, provides the thermal inertia required to stabilize the temperature of the building’s envelope, reducing therefore the cost and increasing the energy efficiency. The flowing water absorbs the infrared solar radiation that strikes on glass façades and dissipates it in geothermal wells. This strategy can serve for both, reducing thermal loads and pre-heating hot domestic water. The goal of this paper is to study the integration of the water flow glazing technology with a ground source heat pump, and to evaluate the energy savings produced in real buildings. The results of this article prove that the use of this water flow glazing façade improves the energy performance of the building, reduce energy consumption for Air Conditioning in summer time and increases the thermal and visual comfort of its occupants.

  51. Archana Kelkar and Prof. Sagar Gawande

    The project is to be carried out with Pre aerated Sludge in Activated Sludge Process to observe the effect of Pre-aerated Sludge on BOD, COD , Phosphate, Nitrate, Mlvss mainly in treatment of dairy wastewater. The experimental process involves the conventional Activated Sludge Process (ASP) in which microorganisms are kept in suspension by mixing and aerating the wastewater. The study was conducted by following two methods: 1) utilizing non pre-aerated sludge and 2) utilizing pre-aerated sludge. In the first method the dairy wastewater measuring five liters and 400 ml of non-pre-aerated sludge is filled in the aeration tank and was aerated in the aeration tank where air (or oxygen) is supplied for regular intervals of 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes respectively and samples are collected before aeration and at regular intervals. In the second method the dairy wastewater measuring five liters and 400 ml of pre aerated sludge (with 20, 40 and 60 minutes pre-aeration) are filled in aeration tank. This tank was aerated for regular intervals of 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes respectively and samples were collected before aeration and at regular intervals. The sludge was not recycled to the aeration tank. Testing of different parameters like BOD, COD, Phosphate, Nitrate and Mixed liquor volatile suspended solids were carried out on the samples aerated with different aeration time, with and without pre-aerated sludge and consequent results are to be found. By utilization of pre-aerated sludge, the concentrations of various parameters to be considered for study are to be found decreased when compared with the values of concentration without using pre-aerated sludge. It was be observed that removal of various parameters from wastewater is effective up to the optimum period for pre-aeration beyond this period removal of various parameters from wastewater will not be effective.

  52. Nikhitha K. Nair and Navin, K. S

    Cloud computing came into importance because of its salient features supporting large amount of users to store and share their files and services. Data security is one of the concerns to be considered while dealing with cloud. Various encryption techniques can be used to enhance data security. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is one of the most recent and efficient encryption schemes which are used by the Cloud and the Third-Party Auditor in order to provide data security and auditability. By the process of public verifiability by a Third-Party auditor, the users can ensure the correctness of data that is being stored in the cloud. In this paper, correctness of data that is being stored in the cloud has been enhanced by the involvement of third-party auditor and AES encryption technique.

  53. Ikhlas Jabir Mahmood

    Study of the interaction of laser radiations (Nd-YAG) laser at (1.0 6µm) wave length with pulse duration (100 µsec) on some solid material (Ag,Au,Sn,CO) by using three dimension function solutions that is laser beam transition function and through this we can study thermal distribution on surface and into materials and thermal dropping into material when the laser beam intensity is steady and variable with time. From research results seem that the thermal distribution into material and on surface is decrease when the laser beam intensity is variable with time. We conclude that the absorption coefficient of material is grater when the interaction process is better. In research we are using matlab 7 program for applications.

  54. Parag S. Dawane and Prof. Sagar M. Gawande

    Waste management is been a vital environmental issue since last few decades. It has been seen that the generation of waste increases with increasing population, industrialization& urbanization etc. This paper is a review of waste management system, its elements & disposal system of waste. The necessities of waste management system, bad effects of mismanagement, various issues are raised in previous studies are mentioned in the paper. It has seen that the waste management system should adopt by Proper collection, storage, processing, transport & disposal of waste so that the impacts of waste can be minimised & the quality of life can be improved.

  55. Ashishgoud Purushotham, Usha Rani G. and Samiha Naik

    If multiple images of the same scene are available, this can be achieved by image fusion. Image fusion is the process by which two or more images are combined into a single image retaining the important features from each of the original images. Contrast and edges are two important quality factors in image processing. Contrast and edge enhancement are frequently referred two of the most important issues in image processing. Edge is a collection of the pixels whose gray value has a step or roof change, and it also refers to the part where the brightness of the image local area changes significantly. Image edge is the most basic features of the image. When we observe the objects, the clearest part we see firstly is edge and line. In this paper a new fusion technique has been proposed based on the discrete wavelet transform. For edge enhancement we use sobel operator. The input image is decomposed into four frequency sub band images using DWT, and then sobel operator is applied on low-high, high-low, and high-high frequency sub band images for edge enhancement.

  56. Warle, B. M., Riar, C. S. and Gaikwad, S. S. and Mane, V. A

    Sorghum grains were germinated under controlled condition and their soaking and germination time was finalized for best results. The ungerminated and germinated flours were evaluated for its chemical (proximate) and physicochemical properties. It was found that the germination of sorghum grains reduced the carbohydrate 70.02 to 60.04 (%) starch from 65.2 to 58.1 (%), amylopectin from 53.7 to 42.1 (%), ash content 1.79 to 1.39 (%), fat from 6 to 4 (%), falling number from 365 to 70 (%) and oil absorption capacity from 3.78 to 3.17 (%). The germination of grain increased the moisture content from 9.9 to 10.2 (%), total sugar from 8.92 to 11.98 (%), reducing sugar 2.81 to 3.82 (%), non-reducing sugar from 6.11 to 8.16 (%) protein content from 7.25 to 9.85 (%), amylose content from 11.5 to 15.8 (%), water absorption capacity from 121.6 to 129.6 (%), particle size from 0.029 to 0.031(μm) and water solubility index from 14 to 17 (%), respectively.

  57. Amadou Haoua, Laouali Mahaman Sani and Manzola Abdou Salam

    Bourgou (Echinochloa stagnina) production under irrigation with wastewater was carried out on two wastewater processing units. Channel 1: (B12) bourgou pond fed by anaerobic wastewater, Channel 2: (B4) of bourgou pond fed by sewage that passed through two hyacinths ponds. The parameters that characterize the organic pollution and nutrients of waste waters and bourgou growth were followed. Weed cutting took place every forty-eight days. The results showed that bourgou growth depends not only on nutrients contributions, therefore the nature of waste water but also plants oxygenation. The bourgou of channel 1 has grown much faster than that channel 2 because wastewater from the channel 1 was richer in nutritive elements (nitrogen-containing organic matter, ortho phosphate ...) than that of channel 2. Wastewater underwent treatment through hyacinth planted filters in both ponds. The yields of fresh and dry bourgou were higher in the (B12) pond than in (B4) pond. Thus they were respectively of 6.11 t / ha and 0.74 t / ha for (B12) against 3.9 t / ha and 0.57 t / ha for (B4) at the first cut on the one part, and the other 18.6 t / ha and 4.03 t / ha for (B12) against 4.13 t / ha and 0.80 t / ha for (B4) at the second cut.

  58. Dr. Al-Ali, Ibrahim Mohammad and Dr. Laila M. Al-Taweel

    Quality in higher education has become a target for all universities in the world. Student learning outcomes are rapidly taking center stage as the principal gauge of higher education’s effectiveness. Research has mainly focused on the quality of inputs and processes in higher education, but does not provide a sufficient attention to the outcomes (the level of graduates). In order to address this issue, we developed some possible indicators to evaluate the quality of education outcomes (in courses, classes, faculty, and university) by analyzing students’ grades as proxies of student learning outcomes (SLO). We were able to adopt several indicators that rely on calculating the means and ratios of students' degrees in courses, classes, faculty, and university. In addition, we provided suitable indicators to assess the quality of learning outcomes for graduates and distinguished students, and estimate the ratio of distinction using special calculations for graduates and distinguished students.

  59. Sreyasree Mandal and N. K. Mandal

    Theoretical studies have been carried out to find the performance of a waste –water treatment plant where PID controller is applied for PH control of waste water. Steady state errors of the system have been determined for application of different types of input signal, such as unit step, unit ramp and unit parabolic. A programming using ‘C’ language has also been developed to find overall gain of the system and hence to find the frequency response of the same. Some numerical calculations have been made. Results have been tabulated, shown graphically and discussed.

  60. Kannan, R., Jayaraman, D. and Aravindhan, S.

    Pure and 0.1mol% crystal violet dye doped L-Alanine Thiourea (LATU and CVLATU) crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. The cell parameters and crystallinity of pure and dye admixtured LATU crystals were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder crystal X-ray diffraction and high resolution X-ray diffraction analyses. The doping of the crystal violet dye in the grown crystal has been confirmed qualitatively by the FTIR spectroscopy. The optical transparency of the crystals was identified from the UV-vis-NIR transmission spectrum. The laser damage threshold value significantly enhanced for CVLATUcrystal in comparison with pure LATU crystal. Thermal analysis has been performed on the grown crystals. The crystals were further subjected to other important characterizations such as dielectric measurement, micro hardness and NLO studies. The improvement in Second Harmonic Generation efficiency of doped crystal has also been reported.

  61. Dr. Ratna Roy

    The volume of groundwater is much greater than that of all fresh water lakes and streams combined. Underground water plays an important role in the water balance of the earth. It is a primary source of fresh water in several urban and rural areas. The quality of ground water in some parts of the country, particularly shallow ground water is changing as a result of human activity. It is less susceptible to bacterial pollution than surface water, as the soil and rocks through which it percolates screen out most of the bacteria. But freedom from bacterial pollution alone does not mean that the water is fit to drink. Many dissolved mineral and organic constituent are present in ground water in various concentrations. Most are harmless or even beneficial; though occurring in frequently, others are harmful, and a few may be highly toxic. Ground water quality comprises the physical, chemical, and biological qualities of water. Naturally it contains mineral ions which slowly dissolve from sediments and rocks as the water travel along mineral surfaces in the pores or fractures of the unsaturated zone and the aquifer. These are referred to as Total Dissolve Solid. A list of dissolved solids in any water is long, but it can be classified into major constituents, minor constituents, and trace constituent. In water all of the dissolved solids are either positively charged ions or negatively charged ions. In recent years the growth of industry and technology has increased the stress upon both our land and water resources. Locally the quality of ground water has been degraded. Municipal and industrial waste entered the soil, infiltrated some aquifers, and degraded the ground water quality. In recognition of the potential for pollution, physical and chemical analyses are made routinely on water supplies. State and local agencies are taking steps to increase water quality monitoring. Analytical techniques have been refined so that early warning can be given, and plans can be implemented to mitigate water pollution.

  62. Devendra Singh Kushwaha and Dr. Vikash Kumar Singh

    Green computing concept is to improve environmental condition. The main aim of green computing is to reduce poisonous materials. We systematically analyze its energy consumption which is based on types of services and obtain the conditions to facilitate green computing to save overall energy consumption in this system. Today it is the major issue to prepare such equipments by which we achieve efficient energy and to minimize of e-waste and use of non poisonous chemicals / materials in preparation of e-equipments. We can implement green computing in computer’s fields as CPU servers and other peripheral devices (mobile devices). By using green computing we can reduce resources consumption and disposal of electric waste (e-waste). The other poisonous materials which are used in computer/electronics industry are also harmful for environment. In this paper, we will involve widely survey the concepts and architecture of green computing, as well as its heat and energy consumption issues. Green computing can facilitate us to safe, secure place and healthy environment all over in the world. This paper will help us to take some initiatives currently under in the field of computers/electronics industry and new ways to save vast amounts of energy which is wasted in very large scale.

  63. Neelam K. Yadav, D. Kishore and Bhawani Singh

    Enol ethers 9(a-b) and chalcones 10(a-b) were synthesized from quinoxalino-oxohydrocarbazoles and oxohydroazacarbazoles 8(a-b) using Japp-Klingemaan and Fischer indole synthesis. Isoxazole derivatives of carbazolo and azacarbazolo fused quinoxalines (12a,13a) and pyrazole derivatives of carbazolo and azacarbazolo fused quinoxalines (12b,13b) were prepared by the cyclocondensation reaction of corresponding enol ethers 9(a-b) and chalcones 10(a-b) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and hydrazine hydrate respectively. The structures of all the compounds have been established on the basis of their elemental analysis and spectral (IR, 1HNMR and MS) data.

  64. Jyothi Karjagi, Mr. Veerappa, B.N. and Dr. Md Rafi

    Participatory Sensing is an emerging computing paradigm that enables the distributed collection of data by self-selected participants. It allows the increasing number of mobile phone users to share local knowledge acquired by their sensor-equipped devices, e.g., to monitor temperature, pollution level or consumer pricing information. While research initiatives and prototypes proliferate, their real-world impact is often bounded to comprehensive user participation. If users have no incentive, or feel that their privacy might be endangered, it is likely that they will not participate. In this article, focus on privacy protection in Participatory Sensing and introduce a suitable privacy-enhanced infrastructure. First, we provide a set of definitions of privacy requirements for both data producers (i.e., users providing sensed information) and consumers (i.e., applications accessing the data). Then, we propose an efficient solution designed for mobile phone users, which incurs very low overhead.

  65. Raj, R.K. Gunasekaran, S. Gnanasambandan, T. Seshadri, S

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 4-methylumbelliferone (4MUB) have been recorded in the region 4000–400 and 3500–100 cm-1, respectively. The optimized geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of 4MUB were obtained by the density functional theory (DFT) using6-31G(2d,3p) and 6-311++G(2d,3p) basis sets. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were scaled and compared with experimental values. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The UV–visible spectrum was also recorded and compared with the theoretical values. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The first order hyperpolarizability (0), related properties (, 0 and ) and the Mulliken charges of the molecule were also computed using DFT calculations. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that charge in electron density (ED) in the * and * antibonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies (E2) confirms the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. Information about the charge density distribution of the molecule and its chemical reactivity has been obtained by mapping molecular electrostatic potential surface.

  66. Jigisha Parmar, Ashishgoud Purushotham and Usha Rani, G

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a very large collection of sensor nodes which organized into different form like tree, mesh etc. This sensor nodes are work on the power source i.e. battery which is essential for its communication There are to main approaches to sleep scheduling i) random ii) synchronized. Main purpose of any sleep scheduling algorithm is to maintain network connectivity to save the power of the network we used the scheduling technique with WSN to increase the life of the network. In sleep scheduling most of the nodes are put into sleep mode to increase the lifetime of the network. Sleep scheduling is very important to become a network more efficient and flexible. Main aim of sleep scheduling algorithm is to live the network for long period of time. The different technique is used with the sleep scheduling like routing and tree based algorithm which is really improve the performance of the network.

  67. Benabadji Noury, Sari-Ali Amel, Bemmoussat Fatima Zohra and Belkhodja Nassrine

    Diachronic mapping (2004 and 2013), conducted as part of a program of phytoecological studies on “Oued” Tafna stations, illustrated a heterogeneous physiognomy of Tamaricaceae vegetation. The presence of salts and the appearance of a degraded structure affected the physiognomy of vegetation which is often organized according to a gradient of the soil substrate. Sequential dispersion of these populations was observed spatially. The Tamarix, the Atriplex and bioclimate also contributed to changes in environmental variables, including salinity, which are partly responsible of the large installation of halophytes, such as Atriplex halimus, Salsola vermiculata or Tamarix africana, on banks of “Oued” Tafna. Other formations also changed between 2004 and 2013. Installation of food crops was sometimes excessive; their surfaces generally exceeded 45% of the plots mapped. Thus, this study highlighted the evolution, over nearly 10 years, of the vegetation aspect on “Oued” Tafna banks and more specifically Tamaricaceae’ formations.

  68. Marcio Pizzi de Oliveira, Annibal José Roris Rodriguez ScavardadoCarmo and Mônica de Almeida Duarte

    Advertising has a wide range of instruments to slowly bring the consumer to the time of sale. Amid this arsenal we identify music with a function, or even specific functions within the audiovisual advertising. This article proposes the investigation of these functions focusing on the Huron approach (1989) and his confrontation with some approaches to film music.

  69. Mrinal Das, Bakul Let, Dr. Santanu Patar and Rathindranath Datta

    Posture is that state of body in which it moves around on two legs in erect position. We humans are unique in the animal kingdom, in that we move around on two legs than four as most other animals do. But due to uses of heavy weight bag which are full of books and copies it affect the children’s normal posture. Three type of bad posture has been seen, they are – kyphosis, lordosis and scoliosis. For the purpose of the study 30 school going children were taken randomly along with their parents responded to a self constructed questionnaire designed in the light of set objectives from three different schools namely Bolpur High School, Bandhgora Kalikrishna Vidyalaya and Srinanda High School, 10 from each school, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India, age ranged from eleven to fourteen years to observe postural deformities photographic method was used and obtained data was treated with percentage method only.

  70. Sadaf and Prof. Abdul Munir

    The main objective of the paper is to find out the impact of environmental conditions on health status of slum dwellers in civil line area of Aligarh city. The main components of environmental conditions included in this study are related to housing conditions, water supply, sanitation, garbage and electricity. The study is based on primary data collected from a survey of 300 households in 5 different slum localities of the civil line area of the city. It is observed that the environmental conditions of the slum population are alarming. There is lack of all basic amenities and social facilities which greatly affected the health conditions of the sampled respondents. There is dearth of drainage, drinking water and toilet facilities. Open drains and adjacent houses are characterized by dirty and unhygienic conditions. The impact of these conditions is reflected in diseases like skin problem, backbone problem, malnutrition, gout, asthma, malaria and ulcer in the study area. Health is basically related to nutrition as well as to hygiene. Income is also one of the main factors that affect the health profile of the slums. Besides income, lack of education and awareness also plays an important role in the health status of slums. The study shows the slum people in civil line area of Aligarh city are engaged in rickshaw pulling, Baildari and rag picking. The monthly income of the slum people is very low. Due to their poverty slum people are forced to do self medication instead of going to any health centre for medical check-up. The present scenario of the slums draws our attention to take effective steps in order to improve the quality of their life.

  71. Humphrey Joseph Mtuy and Dr. Esther Waiganjo

    This study examined the influence of transformational leadership style on employees’ retention in nongovernmental organizations in Arusha Town District in Tanzania. The conceptual framework consisted of transformational leadership style as the independent variable and employees’ retention as the dependent variable of the study. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques were used, in the study that adopted survey research design to capture objective of the study. The findings indicated that the transformational leadership has positive influence on employee retention, since employees in these organizations were found to have control of their jobs and were satisfied with their jobs and that employees were much more willing to work the entire contract period. The study recommends that non-governmental organizations in Arusha Town District to adopt this leadership style and that other supplement rewards and incentive mechanisms should be established to attract suitable staff development and financial plans to retain qualified employees.

  72. Dr.Vishaw Gaurav, Sandeep, Mukhwinder Singh and Pankaj Bhanot

    The purpose of this study to compare the selected cardiac parameters between trained and untrained basketball players. For the purpose of the study forty (N=40) male basketball players were selected as subjects from colleges affiliated to Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar. The selected subjects were categorized on the basis of training status (trained: N1=20, mean age is 21.15 ± 2.28 years; the mean height is 180.04 ± 10.62 cm; the mean weight is 71.00 ± 11.14 kg and mean BMI is 21.75 ± 2.36 and untrained: N2=20, mean age is 21.15 ± 2.28years; the mean height is 177.40 ± 10.61 cm; the mean weight is 67.00 ± 11.14kg and the mean BMI is 21.22 ± 2.44). All the participants were assessed for height, weight and selected cardiac variables. The independent samples t-test was applied to assess the differences between trained and untrained basketball players. The level of significance was set at 0.05. The results of present study revealed There was slight increase in resting heart rate in untrained basketball players as compared to trained basketball players but not statistically significant There was statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (p˂ 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (p˂ 0.05) in trained basketball players as compared to untrained basketball players.

  73. Uppe Gangadhar and Dr. Jayanthi Pujari

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the “attitude of inclusive teachers trained by Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan towards inclusive education of the children with intellectual disability in Asif Nagar Mandal, Hyderabad. The study is a descriptive research design used by survey method. The views of inclusive teachers in the areas of attitude towards concept of inclusive education, attitude towards strategies to improve inclusive education and attitude towards collaboration between inclusive teachers and regular teachers. The questionnaire was used to analyze the attitude of inclusive teachers’ towards inclusive education of the children with intellectual disability. The sample size of the study was 40 inclusive teachers’ (male 18 and female 22), from Government schools in Asif Nagar mandal, Hyderabad and the random sampling technique was used for the selection of the sample. The analysis of the data was done by using software called SPSS. To find out the attitude of the subjects towards inclusive education of the children with intellectual disability, the investigator compared with the variables age, gender, educational qualifications and teaching experiences. The independent t-test was used to compare the attitudes of the subjects towards inclusive education of the children with intellectual disability within the two groups of the variables. Finally the investigator found that there is no significance difference among the inclusive teachers towards inclusive education of the children with intellectual disability with respect to age, gender, educational qualifications and teaching experiences. Hence the researcher has been rejected the hypotheses at 0.005 levels. As the study shows that attitude of inclusive teachers towards inclusive education of the children with intellectual disability was highly positive.

  74. Hasan Hüseyin Sahan

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between occupational anxiety and self-esteem levels of prospective teachers and to explore whether these levels vary in accordance with gender, field and source of teacher training and the relation between occupational anxiety and self-esteem levels. Mean scores, t-test, one way analysis of variance, LSD test and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) for detecting source of the difference were used during the analysis of data that were collected from 413 prospective teachers through prospective teacher anxiety scale and coppersmith self-esteem inventory. At the end of the research, it was concluded that occupational anxiety levels of prospective teachers were low, whereas their self-esteem levels were high and as self-esteem levels of prospective teachers increased, and occupational anxiety levels decreased. As well as that this conclusion is at an accepted level, the teacher applications devoted to teachers’ gaining self-confidence for increasing their self-esteem levels more through their own experiences may be increased. Moreover, making social and economical conditions of teaching profession better may serve this purpose. A similar study may be carried out with larger sample groups with the aim of researching various variables.

  75. Dr. Vijay S. Khare

    Politics is a fact of life in organization. When employees in an organization convert their power into action as described them as being engaged in politics. Those with good political skills have the ability to use their bases of power effectively and political skills means the ability to influence others in such a way as to enhance one’s objective. According to various researches political behavior arises in organizations to displace legimate power due to problems or gaps in other systems of influence and influences need not satisfied within these systems. This paper focus on how political behaviour arises at workplace and what are the impacts of it on work efficiency.

  76. Ashwin J. Baliga, Dr. Lewlyn L. R. Rodrigues, Dr. Shivaprasad H. C.

    It is observed that the customers expect more, have various choices and are less Brand Loyal these days. The organizations will have to continually improve their methodologies, processes, and products in order to stay in the business as well as attract and retain the potential and existing customers. The aim of this study is to present an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach methodology thatprioritises the various sub criteria’s, which increases the customer satisfaction levels of solar water heater users. The study has used the three criteria of Perceived Ease of Use, Benefits and Innovativeness for gauging Customer Satisfaction levels. This study shows how AHP approach can be used effectively used in prioritising the sub criterions that gauges the satisfaction levels of solar water heater users in Southern city of India (Mangalore).

  77. Dr. Mounir Ben Zid

    The present study aims to promote an applied global ethic and adopts a religious posture that, instead of nurturing differences, teaches children to appreciate universal human principles. Based on examples of core religious values from various backgrounds and faith traditions, the paper suggests a paradigm different from one of mere religious diversity and maintains that a key strategy to heal the current division between different faith traditions and promote an inter-faith dialogue among children is not in diversifying books or designing new laws or policies to protect children's religious rights, but rather in vaccinating children with universal glocal values from infancy to early childhood.

  78. Dr. Shruthi Raj, Dr. Shruti Nayak, Dr. Maji Jose and Dr. Vishnudas Prabhu

    The giant cell fibroma is a localized reactive proliferation of fibrous tissue, much like the irritation fibroma. Clinically it usually manifests as a small, may have be sessile/peduncalate lesion. It is painless, often has lobules/ nodules on its surface. Microscopically the lesional tissue contains cells with large, stellate shaped fibroblasts, near the surface of the fibrous mass, beneath the overlying epithelium. In this article we report a case of 30-year old female who presented with a growth in the palatal gingiva adjacent to the maxillary central incisors. The lesion was excised and sent for biopsy. Microscopically the section showed epithelium and connective tissue stroma with large stellate shaped giant fibroblast. Based on microscopic findings, the lesion was diagnosed as “giant cell fibroma

  79. Dr. Abhishek A Nerurkar, Dr. Mishil S. Parikh and Dr. Arvind B. Goregaonkar

    Scapular fractures generally result after high energy trauma. Approximately 8 – 9 % of scapular fractures involve the acromial spine. Historically scapular fractures have been treated non operatively due to limited knowledge about the surgical procedures and fixation devices. Thus majority of acromial spine fracture have been under treated and the complications have been accepted. We have reported a 49 year old male patient with minimally displaced acromion spine fracture, without reduction of the subacromial space. This fracture can be classified as type 1 fracture as per Kuhns Classification for which conservative treatment is recommended. We have treated this patient with a shoulder spica cast after closed reduction of the acromial spine fracture under image intensifier guidance. Serial X rays were done every week to check for displacement. Cast was continued for 4 weeks and shoulder mobilization was started thereafter. After 3 months, patient has good functional range of movement and strength at shoulder joint (UCLA Scale 33/35). There was no evidence of displacement of fracture after 3 months. The guidelines in literature for the treatment of undisplaced and minimally displaced fractures are controversial and there are no factors to predict the delayed displacement of such fractures. Thus we conclude that every acromion spine fracture should be protected to prevent further displacement, to provide a good functional outcome and to avoid the requirement of delayed surgical procedure.

  80. Srijita Dutta

    Wolfram syndrome is the association of juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, also known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy, and Deafness). Patients present with diabetes mellitus followed by optic atrophy in the first decade, cranial diabetes insipidus and sensorineural deafness in the second decade, dilated renal outflow tracts early in the third decade, and multiple neurological abnormalities early in the fourth decade. Other abnormalities include primary gonadal atrophy. Death occurs prematurely, often from respiratory failure associated with brainstem atrophy. A Wolfram gene has recently been mapped to chromosome 4p16.1, but there is evidence for locus heterogeneity, and it is still possible that a minority of patients may harbour a mitochondrial genome deletion. The best available diagnostic criteria are juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, but there is a wide differential diagnosis which includes other causes of neurodegeneration. In families in which the causative mutations have been characterized, molecular carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis can be performed. Management is supportive and includes an annual screening for DM, vision, D, urodynamic testing, nephropathy and daily insulin injections and a controlled diet to treat DM.

  81. Dr. Malathi, S.

    A descriptive study was conducted to assess the knowledge regarding Lifestyle Modification of Elderly in the Rural Salem, Tamil Nadu, India The sample size of the study was 225 older adults selected by using simple random sampling technique. The instruments used for the data collection were demographic variables and questionnaire on knowledge of lifestyle modification through interview method, The overall mean knowledge score was 10.17  3.17, which was 25.42% of total score revealing that older adults had poor knowledge regarding the life style modifications.

  82. Sawsan A. H. Aldeaf, Ahmed M. Elhassan, , Lamyaa A. M . Elhassan, Alsadig Gassoum, Mohamed Saad A. Saad, and Mohamed A. Arbab

    Background - Rosai – Dorfman disease, or sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadennopathy was first described as clinical distinct clinicopathlogical entity in 1969, in 43% of cases, extranodal sites are involved. The disease is most common in children and young adult. It has morphological features of greatly exaggerated reactive process. The etiology of the disease is uncertain, possible causes include, abnormal immune response and infections. Case history- A 20 years young man, born of consanguineous marriage, presented to our outpatient neurosurgical clinic with a history of rabidly progressing backache over the course of 6 months, he had nocturnal low grade fever and lower limbs pain for the same duration. Peripheral blood picture showed, Neutrophils 71%, lympocytes 18%, monocytes 9%and essinophils 2%, ESR 50 mm/hr. biochemical profile of renal and liver functions was normal. CT chest revealed no abnormality. MRI lumbo sacral spine was done and revealed, Straight lumber spine, there is an extra dural mass lesion noted occupying the posterior aspect of the dural sac, extending from the level of L1 lower border down to the upper border of L5. The patient underwent partial laminectomy L3 L5 and excision of the tumor. MRI in our case revealed that , diffuse enhancing lobulated masses without bony destruction this findings may be a diagnostic challenges for radiologist, although the diagnosis of Rosai dorfman disease depend on histopathological features and immno stain.

  83. Dr. Nageshwar Iyer, Dr. Amisha , Dr. Girish Aggarwal, Dr. Bharatdeep Garg and Dr. Karan Gera

    Surgical robots have revolutionized a number of surgical subspecialties, including laparoscopic surgery, urology, gynecology, and orthopedics. Robots offer a number of potential improvements over unassisted human hands, such as tremor filtration, scaling of motion, enhanced dexterity in confined spaces, and extremely high precision. Several designs and prototypes have recently been introduced for use in craniofacial surgery and they have been tested in animal models. Maxillofacial surgical robots have the potential to expand our treatment armamentarium, reduce complication rates, and hold future promise to treat surgical conditions that remain incurable today. Advances in the basic scientific research within the field of computer assisted oral and maxillofacial surgery have enabled us to introduce features of these techniques into routine clinical practice. One of the most significant developments in medical technology in the past decade is the advent of Robot-assisted maxillofacial surgery. Robotic surgery has distinct advantages over conventional open surgery, and most surgical procedures can now be performed by the robots. However, the popularity and acceptance of computer assisted surgery is far from universal, mainly due to the technical difficulties in the procedure. Robot assisted surgery requires training and skill, and has a long learning curve. Robot-assisted surgery may help overcome some of these problems.

  84. Chiranjeevi kumar Endukuru, Maruthy and Sharan B. Singh

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to perform the set of standard autonomic function tests in children with a family history of hypertension and compare the results with children of normotensive parents. Background: Hypertension is considered one of the highest causes of morbidity worldwide and it becomes one of the leading causes of death due to cardiovascular and renal failure. Hypertension can be especially hard to manage when combined with other disorders, such as diabetes or obesity. Most of the children with a family history of hypertension forms the risk factor for being hypertensive in future life. Results: The study included 60 young and healthy children. Out of them, 30 children were selected based on their family history of hypertension while the remaining were the children of normotensive parents. The subjects were selected based on exclusion-inclusion criteria. All the children underwent for a set of autonomic function tests which are non-invasive, simple and comfortable. Results showed that children with a family history of hypertension have abnormal values on autonomicfunction testing, when compared with children of normotensive parents. The results were obtained using ANOVA and student‘t’ –test, to study the significance of autonomic parameters. Conclusion: This study stated that the children with family history of hypertension experienced mild to moderate autonomic fluctuations in early age which may make them more susceptible to hypertension in their future life.

  85. Syed Baasit Shafi Shah, Naveed Bashir, Mohammad Ahsan and Aijaz Ahmad

    Objectives: Tennis elbow (TE) or lateral epicondylitis, first described by Runge in 1873, is a common myotendinosis. Different modes of treatment are used in its management. This study was conducted to report the results of autologous blood injection (ABI) in the treatment of TE. Materials and Methods: A prospective case study was performed to evaluate the results of ABI in the management of TE. Twenty three patients with tennis elbow were injected with 2 ml of autologous blood. The patients were evaluated under regular follow-up during which the satisfaction was assessed. The effectiveness of the procedure was assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Nirschl Phase Scale (NPS). If pain was not relieved entirely after 6 weeks a repeat injection was offered. Results: Twenty-three patients with diagnosed TE were treated by ABI (12 males, 11 female) and were followed-up for an average period of 10 months (range 6-19). The mean age of the patients was 44 years. . After first autologous blood injection the average pain score (VAS) decreased from 8.2 to 2.5 and the average Nirschl phase scale (NPS) decreased from 6 to 2.0. The patients who opted for second injection after they were not completely relieved were evaluated further. And it was noted that both scores decreased thereafter earlier than what was achieved after first injection. Conclusions: Given the acceptable outcomes, autologous blood injection can be considered a good treatment option for TE when traditional treatment has fails.

  86. Lankamalla Jhansi Rani, Prasad Uma and Prasad Usha

    Background: Non specific symptoms in borderline and malignant tumors are a gray zone. An appropriate knowledge of these symptoms with investigations would detect the tumors at an early stage. Aim of the study: To compare the clinical presentation, morphological appearences of various tumors of the ovary and their significance in diagnosis. Materials and methods: It is a prospective study for a period of three years. Clinical data was recorded followed by laparotomy. The tumors were thoroughly grossed and subjected to histopathological examination. Results were tabulated and Chi square test was applied to know the significance. Results: 158 ovarian tumors were analyzed.69.62% tumors were benign, 15.82% were borderline tumors and 14.55% tumors were malignant. Borderline and malignant tumors were common in age group beyond 40 years except for germ cell tumors which were common in younger age. Nonspecific symptoms were seen in 52% of borderline and malignant tumors. Purely cystic tumors were benign,purely solid tumors were malignant. Tumors which were partially cystic and partially solid ,histopathological examination is a must to sub categorise the lesions further. Conclusion: Women beyond the age of 40 years presenting with non specific symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and increased urinary frequency should be subjected to ultrasonography followed by laparotomy and histopathological examination for early diagnosis and institution of therapy.

  87. Dr. Vijay Mohan Das

    To understand rythmicity and heart (B-Bit - computing system in SA Node of Heart that controls Heart rate) and as regard Pace making information s (Code PcPs of pace making) and cardiac arrest (no rythmicity and later followed by no pace making information s) , we have to understand Basic Building Blocks of the universe (Fig- 1) (mass – B.B.B Bit or B-Bit) and Information s (Code PcPs) and Divine Mechanics Unit (CCP, Code PcPs and CP).

  88. Shanmugapriya, C. and Vinodha, R.

    Introduction: Obesity is a rapidly escalating metabolic disorder. The impact of obesity is highest in the younger age which increases the risk for cardiovascular morbidity/mortality and shortens the life expectancy. Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic training on Weight and BMI of obese sedentary females. Materials and Methods: 80 females were selected with BMI>30 Kg/m2, aged 35-45 years. They were divided as two groups, exercise (n=40) and control (n=40). Healthy subjects without H/o pathologic/ orthopaedic limitations were included. Morbidly obese women were excluded. Informed consent was obtained. Experimental protocol was approved by Institutional Ethical Committee. For all the participants, weight was recorded before the study and BMI was calculated. They were all requested to follow their usual diet. Control group did not perform any training. For the exercise group, aerobic training was given using Treadmill for 3 alternate days in a week for 6 weeks. Each session was provided by 10 minutes warming and stretching with 1.7 mph, adjusting the level at 60-70% of maximum HR up to the exhaustion level, followed by 10 minutes cool down &stretching. For the first 4 weeks, 20 minutes and next 2 weeks, 30 minutes exercise was given. Weight was recorded & BMI was calculated after the study. The results were statistically analysed using paired ‘t’ test. p<0.05 was accepted as significant. Results: The exercise group showed statistically significant favourable improvements in weight, BMI (p=.000, p<0.05) whereas controls showed no significance (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results revealed that aerobic training is more beneficial to improve the fitness in obese females by reducing the body weight and BMI and thereby to reduce the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  89. Dr. Sriram Chandramohan and Dr. Abdulwahab. A. Alkhamis

    The development of new medical treatments and cures would not happen without health research and the active role of research volunteers. Behind every discovery of a new medicine and treatment are thousands of people who were involved in health research. Thanks to the advances in medical care and public health, we now live on average 10 years longer than in the 1960's and 20 years longer than in the 1930's. Without research, many diseases that can now be treated would cripple people or result in early death. New drugs, new ways to treat old and new illnesses, and new ways to prevent diseases in people at risk of developing them, can only result from health research. The research proposal is an important step in developing a research project. In the first instance it helps you to further define your research question and enables you to demonstrate how you intend to go about answering that question. Secondly, the research proposal is able to give an overview of the research project so that other people understand the scope of the research, the significance of the research. This Paper attempts to provide the researchers, the various steps involved in formulating a health research protocol.

  90. Vasanth, S., Dipu, M.T. Mercy, A.D and Shyama, K

    An experimental study was carried over a period of 42 days using 160 day-old commercial broiler chicks (Ven Cobb) to study the effect of copper and flavomycin as feed additives on growth promotion in broiler chicken. The birds were divided into four groups with four replicates of ten chicks in each replicate. The treatment (T1) was control with standard broiler ration and Cu as CuSO4 at 100 ppm, 200 ppm and flavomycin at 10 ppm were supplemented in the basal diet to form treatment 2 (T2), treatment 3 (T3) and treatment 4 (T4) respectively. The chemical composition of T1, T2, T3 and T4 rations contained 15.43, 106.49, 212.54 and 18.69 ppm of Cu in broiler starter and 12.67, 101.13, 202.72 and 20.20 ppm of Cu in broiler finisher, respectively. The results of the present study revealed that the supplementation of Cu as CuSO4 (100 and 200 ppm) or flavomycin (10 ppm) showed no significant difference among the treatment groups with regard to the feed consumption, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio up to six weeks of age. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of broiler chicken with Cu up to 200 ppm and flavomycin at 10 ppm did not have any adverse effect on protein efficiency ratio (PER), energy efficiency ratio (EER) and production efficiency factor (PEF) in broiler chicken.

  91. Dr. Surekha Dilip Jadhav and Dr. Balbhim Ramchandra Zambare

    Flexor pollicis longus muscle may have accessory slips which arise from coronoid process of ulna or medial epicondyle of humerus; known as accessory head of flexor pollicis longus or Gantzer’s muscle. It runs downwards and obliquely to join the tendon of flexor pollicis longus. It may compress median, ulnar and anterior interosseous nerves and produce many neurological conditions. Aim of this study was to note incidence and morphology of accessory head of flexor pollicis longus. We used 57 adult Indian cadavers (52 males and 5 females) and each forearm was dissected carefully to see the existence of accessory heads of the flexor pollicis longus and its morphology, its relations with nearby structures. Weobserved it in 76.31 % specimens. It was present bilaterally in 53.84% male cadavers. We noted that, the median nerve ran over the accessory head of flexor pollicis longus while the anterior interosseous nerve ran posteriorly. Compression of these nerves from this muscle could occur and give rise to anterior interosseous syndrome. Therefore, the precise knowledge about this muscle should be kept in mind by clinician and surgeons.

  92. KhurshidWani, Imran Gattoo, KaiserAhmed and WaseemQadir

    Background: Neonatal sepsis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among young infants. Neonatal mortality in developing countries is usually due to an infectious cause. The gold standard of investigation in developing countries is a positive blood culture. It is important to know the aetiology of neonatal bloodstream infections so that empirical treatment can be effective. Methods: We conducted a retrospective clinical study over one year between April 2014 until March 2015, looking at the aetiology of both early and late onset neonatal sepsis. We analysed data from 362 (26.6%) culture proven sepsis patient isolates out of 1360 suspected cases of neonatal sepsis. Blood samples were cultured on MacConkey, blood and chocolate agars and bacteria were identified based on characteristic morphology, gram stain appearance and standard commercially prepared biochemical tests. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was performed for ampicillin, cloxacillin, gentamicin, amikacin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone. Results: Culture proven sepsis was noted in 26.6% (362/1360) of the study participants. Isolated bacterial pathogens were predominantly Cogulase Negative Staphylococcus aureus(26.79%),followed by Klebsiellaspp(12.98%) and Acinitobactor species(11.87%). Resistance of blood culture isolates was high to ampicillin 77.7% (280/362) and cloxacillin 70.1% (254/362)), moderate to ceftriaxone 14.91% (54/362) and cefuroxime 19.88% (72/362), and low to amikacin 2.2% (8/362). The overall neonatal mortality was 13.97% (190/1360), being higher in neonates with sepsis 90/362 (24%) as compared to those without 100/998 (10%). Conclusions: Cogulase Negative Staphylococcus aureus was predominant isolate followed by Klebsiella and Acinitobactor species. There was high resistance to ampicillin and cloxacillin. Mortality rate due to neonatal sepsis was high in our setting. Routine antimicrobial surveillance should guide the choice of antibiotics for empirical treatment of neonatal sepsis.

  93. Manoj Kumar

    Estimation of age of an individual whether living or dead is a subject of great medico legal importance and is the necessity for the purpose of administration of justice. Perhaps it is the second commonest medico legal problem after trauma. In our study, 610 orthopantomograms of individuals (292 males and 318 females) with known age and gender were evaluated. The age ranged between 7- 21 years. Third molars are the teeth with the highest variability concerning anatomy, agenesis and age of eruption. Age estimation for medicolegal purposes by means of third molar development is used in the age between 14-21 years when all other permanent teeth have finished their formation. According to the recommendations of the interdisciplinary Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics, it is suggested to use Demirjian’s developmental stages for third molar mineralization analysis. It can be concluded, that in the case where two mandibular molars are present, the probability for an Indian individual to be at least 18 years is 99.5 or 99.3% for males and females, respectively in the case were tooth mineralization is completed (Demirjian’s stage H).

  94. Piyush Paul

    An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Datia district of Bundelkhand during study period. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 35 species of plants distributed in 33 genera belonging to 24 families to treat various diseases. In this study the most dominant family was Fabaceae and trees were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure various human diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Datia district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition

  95. Pavan J Kundur, Ashwathanarayana, R., Keerthi, C. M., Brijesh, A. S., Harish, B. G. and Shashidhar, H. E

    Deep root system study is an important component of drought resistant rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety. Root morphology is a complex trait combining various components. Drought acts as major limitation for growing rice in rainfed ecosystems. Therefore, there is a need to screen and breeding rice genotypes for drought resistance. The objective of this study is to elucidate the genotypic variation among rice genotypes in root distribution and root angle including deep-root development. The experiment was conducted with eight genotypes using basket method in aerobic and well-watered conditions. The results from genotype × year interactions for the S-R (Shoot-root) ratio, with Devamallige, AM65, and BJ21 responded more to water stress as compared to other genotypes. Genotypes azucena had highest root diameter (1.5 mm) followed by devamallige (1.4 mm) and AM65 (1.4 mm) under both aerobic and well-watered conditions. IR20 showed lowest root diameter/thickness (0.7 mm) in both the conditions. Increase in number of roots at 00-450 under aerobic condition indirectly measures the increase in deep root length. Correlation coefficients between total root diameter and deep root length were also high in both aerobic (r = 0.724 and r = 0.924) and well- watered (r = 0.605 and r = 0.842) conditions which subsequently evolved into greater deep root length.

  96. Ekanim, M. P., Ofodile, S. E. and Etim, I. N

    The appearance of tar balls on the coastline is an indication of oil spill although natural seeps also contributes to this. Problems do ensue between the host communities and the oil producing companies as a result of this. Tar balls picked from Ibeno Beach, Akwa Ibom State in the Niger Delta Basin of Nigeria were analyzed to trace their origin using GC/FID. The parameter used was pristane/phytane ratio, (Pr/Ph), The results obtained from the tar ball analyses revealed that in most of the tar balls analyzed, pristane and phytane were absent as a result of extensive weathering; however, in those tar balls that still contained some amount of pristane and phytane there was a predominance of pristane over phytane giving a pr/ph ratio of more than unity (>1). Comparing this result with those obtained from the unaltered crude oil sourced from some selected oil wells in the Niger Delta which were also analyzed, revealed that the tar balls could be from Niger Delta oil wells. These oil wells Idoho Bravo, W/24, EST. 25, Soku FS, Utorugu 55 and Umuechem Pumpline. However, in four tar ball samples, a predominance of phytane over pristane was observed; an indication that such tar balls are foreign to Niger Delta environment. This study revealed that, Pr/ph ratio cannot be conveniently used to trace tar balls back to their origin because during weathering most of the isoprenoids especially pristane and phytane are altered; some even completely disappear with extensive weathering. However, the pr/ph ratio of some of the tar balls did not match those of the Niger Delta oil wells analyzed. They are suspected to be from neighboring West African countries like Gabon and Congo Brazzaville etc which may have been transported by ocean currents and left stranded on the Nigerian coast line. The significance of these study is that pristane/phytane ratio alone cannot be used to trace petroleum residue back to its source.

  97. Nicholas Gregory Okello, Bruno Ocaya and Apollo Kasharu

    The main role of financial institutions is to facilitate the flow of funds from the saving units to the borrowing units and they include commercial banks and microfinance institutions amongst the depository institutions. The study investigated the relationship between microfinance savings mobilization and loans deployment at institutional level. A panel of secondary data was pooled on the intermediation role of microfinance institutions in Acholi sub region as partitioned into seven districts. The basic model for the analysis of data was the Pooled Regression Model. The key determinants of financial intermediation at institutional microfinance level were the savings mobilized, the capitalization funds and the willingness to borrow which were all significant at . Debt repayment which may be unmatched with additional capital funds had a negative effect on loan deployment. Whole sale capital funds to microfinance institutions should be lent on longer term duration to complement savings mobilized and equity funds to create greater impact to the community across the sub region. Savings mobilization drive should remain a central focus to increase loanable funds. The borrowers are the major driver to loan deployment, hence strict criteria for eligibility should be met at implementation stage.

  98. Ibrahim Konate, Kouadio Amani, Mathurin Koffi, Raissa N., K. Guei, Adama Ouattara, Charlotte D. Tonessia, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Doffou S. Akaffou

    We evaluated six selected commercial herbicides commonly used for the control of several weeds in Daloa (Côte d’Ivoire), for their toxicity against density of rhizobacteria in experimental field conditions, and against survival of symbiotic and associative bacteria in vitro. Herbicide applied under dose recommended and reduced to 50 %, decreased the soil bacteria density from 2,83.1010 to 3,7.106 CFUg-1soil, respectively for control soil and spots treated. The loss of rhizobacterial population was estimated to be more than 36 % (5,75.103 CFUg-1soil) after a week and a month of herbicides application. All six herbicides have shown differences concentrations in their toxicities on bacterial strains survival in culture medium. The inhibitory effects with more than 80 % were observed at concentrations within the range of at 13,5-27 µl/ml, 13,5-27 µl/ml, 27-54 µl/ml, 1,7-3,4 µl/ml respectively for Rapid max, Roundup, Bibana and Herbo select. But, Killer and Detru-herb were less toxic (40 %) even at label concentration and were considered suitable for field application.

  99. Brnesh Hailemariam, Tsegaye Gadisa, Tadese Habtamu and Gelaye Gebremichael

    The status and diet of Menelik’s bushbuck (Traglaphusscriptus meneliki) in the Wof-Washa Forest (WWF), central highlands of Ethiopia were studied from January-August, 2013. The highland forest was classified into three habitats, the Natural forest, Plantation and Erica woodland. Transect line count and direct observation procedures were used to record the population size and diet of the species, respectively. A total of 64 and 72 Menelik’s bushbucks were counted during the dry and wet seasons, respectively. The population was dominated by adult individuals (65 and 63% during the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and the sex ratio biased towards females (1:1.65). The highest number of animals was counted in transects sampled from the natural forest. A total of 22 plant species of all growth forms were identified as a source of food for Menelik’s bushbuck and young leaves were the most used (64%) plant parts. Designating wildlife conservation area, at the regional or federal level, is recommended to conserve the unique highland forest island and to ensure the survival of the isolated endemic antelope population.

  100. Neeraj Choudhary, Rohit Bhati and Tanu Bisht,

    Chlorophytum borivilianum family Liliaceae is a traditional rare Indian medicinal herb widely used in the treatment of many clinical conditions in India. It is an important drug commonly known as 'Safed Musli'. It has many therapeutic applications in Ayurvedic, Unani, Homeopathicand Allopathic system of medicine. In the Ayurvedic literature, Safed Musli is celebrated as a Divya Aushad with unparalleled medicinal properties. Chlorophytum borivilianum is widely cultivated throughout India. Major antibacterial and antifungal activies reported from the roots of C. borivilianum include mainly antibacterial activies of E.fecalis cold, E. fecalis ethanolic and E.coli methanolic and antifungal activies of A. fumigatus methanolic, A .fumigatus ethanolic and C. albicans cold, C. albicans methanolic, C.albicans ethanolic In this paper, an attempt has been made to explore various dimensions of the drug including antibacterial and antifungal activies studies carried out on this drug.

  101. Junaid Mahmood Alam, Humaira (Howrah) Ali, Jawed Altaf Baig, Aijaz Ahmed and Sheikh Matinuddin

    Background: Clinical significance of urinary micro-albumin in diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension generated interest amongst scientist, researchers and clinicians to enhance its measurement accuracy and level of precision. Aim and Objectives: Present study describes the comparative precision analysis of urinary micro-albumin on conventional Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer and modular Cobas 6000 c501 system. Material and Methods: A total 240 patients (Males = 120, Females = 120), n = 40 for each disease (Diabetes, Hypertension, Renal disease) in both genders, were selected for the present study during Dec 2013 to Dec 2014. Determination of micro-albumin was performed in 2nd morning urine collected from all patients and co-morbid groups and analyzed in duplicate using TINA-QUANT albumin methodology (Roche Diagnostics). Results: Comparative precision analyses data showed 93% to 97% correlation of analytical precisions among both conventional Hitachi and Cobas modular systems, thus guaranteeing equitable quality assurance of methods and instrumentations. Conclusion: It was concluded that 93% to 97% linear linked precision existed in analytical steps of conventional and modular system with R2 0.93 to 0.97 in various clinical groups of patients, suggesting considerable unbiased accurateness.

  102. Varsha Dawande and Rajaram Gurav

    Eulophia nuda, a terrestrial, endangered orchid was clonally propagated using seed derived in-vitro grown rhizomes. Cytokinins are most commonly used plant growth regulators, to stimulate cell division and morphogenesis in tissue culture. The effect of commonly used cytokinins, N6 Benzylaminopurine, Kinetin and Thidiazurone was studied for induction of shoots from in vitro grown rhizomes. The rhizomes were cultured and proliferated on Murashige and Skoog’s medium fortified with cytokinins with different concentrations. Among the three cytokinins tested BA (6.66µM) showed best results with respect to number of shoots induced and length of shoots. (4.51±1.6 number of shoots per explant and ~ 5cm length) within 20 days. Kn was found to be least effective for shoot induction. TDZ induced shoots were less in number and also stunted as compared with BA. The regenerated shoots easily developed roots in various strengths of MS medium (75% in 1/4 MS with 5 roots/shoot and 2cm length). The regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized and transferred to earthen pots.

  103. Ratna Kumar, P.K., Shiny Niharika P., Hemanth, G. and Samuel K. Kolli

    Soil mycoflora were isolated from the rice fields of Narasanapeta during a period of one year ie., from January 2013 to December 2013. Isolation of the mycoflora was done by serial Dilution Plate Method. During the investigation period a total of 118 fungal colonies of 27 fungal species were observed. Identification was done by using standard manuals and literature. The maximum percentage contribution was that of Aspergillus niger (13.55%), followed by Aspergillus flavus (11.01%) and the minimum percentage contribution was that of Aspergillus restrictus and Trichoderma koeningii (0.84%) and also of unidentified species of Mucor and Penicillium. Among the isolates were Aspergillus candidus, A.clavatus, A.flaviceps, A.flavus, A.fumigatus, A.nidulans, A.niger, A.oryzae, A.restrictus, A.tamarii, A.terreus, Bispora species, Curvularia clavata, C.lunata, Fusarium oxysporum, F.solani, Mucor recimosus, Mucor species,Penicillium chrysogenum, P.frequentens, P.funiculosum, P.species, Rhizopus nigricans, R.stolonifer, Trichoderma harzianum, T.koeningii and T.viride were authentically characterized. Most of the fungal species belonged to anamorphic fungi ie., Deuteromycotina (94 colonies), Zygomycotina (17 colonies) and the remaining to that of unidentified white mycelia (7 colonies) were observed. The percentage frequency of the fungal species was statistically analyzed.

  104. Santhosh Kumar, D.P., Deecaraman, M., Vijayalaksmi, M., Ramesh Edamula, Krishnappa, H., Latha, M. and GeethaRao, G.

    Acetaminophen induced hepatic injury may also mediate its developmental toxic effects. The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of herbal hepato-protective formulation (Liv.52) against acetaminophen induced developmental toxicity (embryo-fetal toxicity and teratogenic potential) in Wistar rats. Acetaminophen induced toxicity during embryogenesis was evaluated by administering daily doses of 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day through oral gavage starting from gestation Day 0 pregnancy until Day 19 of gestation. Dose-dependent decrease in maternal body weights and food intake, gravid uterine weight and total and male/female fetal weights as well as fetal length during gestation were observed in dams exposed to 500 and 1000 mg/kg/dayof acetaminophen. At 1000 mg/kg/day of acetaminophen, dose-dependent decrease in red blood cells, haematocrit, red blood cell distribution width, total number of fetuses and mean litter size were observed. The administration of Liv.52 formulation did not induce any toxic effects during embryogenesis in Wistar rats. However, co-administration of Liv.52 (1000 mg/kg/day) with acetaminophen induced partial or complete reversal of acetaminophen induced developmental toxic effects. In summary, Liv.52 an herbal hepato-protective formulation shown a significant protection against acetaminophen induced developmental toxicity in Wistar rats.

  105. Rajesh S. Gaikwad and Rajendra B. Kakde

    Occurrence of various shapes, size and colours of macrofungi reveals that the climatic conditions together with forest and garden waste provide favorable environment to these macrofungi. During the period of study from July 2014 to August 2014, many mushrooms were collected from Mantha village and at the Swami Vivekanand College campus. Study of only ten macrofungi has been emphasized on the basis of their dominance of occurrence. These are Coprinellus micaceus, Guepinia spathularia, Irpex lacteus, Macrolepiota phaeodisca, Mycena ascendens, Parasola leiocephala, Phellinus robustus, Scleroderma citrinum, Schizopora paradoxa and Xylaria hypoxylon. Morphological study of these ten wood rotting fungi was done with botanical name, common name, thallus dimension, spore dimension, spore colour, substrate and edibility.

  106. Afaf Megzari, Abdellah Farah, Mohammed Iraqui Houssaini, Cherif Haouat Amina, El Bergadi Fatimzohra and El Mestafa EL Hadrami

    This work aimed to compare the yields and to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity and phytochemical constituents of hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and methanol extracts of seven individuals of Rosmarinus Officinalis Var. Prostratus obtained by the ultrasounds. The statistical study shows that there is an individual effect on the yield and on the antibacterial activity of these extracts. The Phytochemical screening revealed that the flavonoïdes and tannins are present in important quantities in the ethyl acetate extract, especially in individuals 4 and 7.The results of the in vitro antibacterial activity show that the extracts have significant inhibitory effect against M. smegmatis, Bacillus and E.coli especially in individuals 4 and 7. These results suggest that the flavonoids and tannins can be responsible for the differentiation of the antimicrobial property of Rosmarinus Officinalis Var. Prostratus. The quantitative study (CMI) confirmed the results of the qualitative study and showed that the ethyl acetate extract of individuals 4 and 7 present the highest antibacterial effect.

  107. Semila Pushpam, Paul Raj and Ebanasar,

    The Chloride and Fluoride are two key factors in any aquatic ecosystems. The present paper highlights the seasonal variations of Chloride and Fluoride in Tamiraparani River (West) from June 2011 to May 2013. Twelve stations were selected for the study. The study reveals that high Chloride of 1050 mg/l was found in S12, during the months of June to August 2012, low chloride of 10 mg/l was found in stations S4, S5 during December to February 2011-2012, March to May 2012. The Fluoride was found high in stations S4, S6 as 0.6mg/l during June to August September to November 2011and June to August, September to November 2012, March to May 2013 and low Fluoride of 0.1mg/l was found in stations S1, S2, S4-S12 during December to February 2011-2012 and March to May 2012. The Fluoride levels seem to be high in upper reaches and a decreasing trend is found towards estuary. In contrary, Chloride level was low in upper reaches and it increases at the upper reaches of estuary and was maximum in the last station (S12). However, higher Chloride level was found during South West monsoon seasons in all the station studied. The fluctuation in due to rain water influx is also discussed. The Chloride and Fluoride was found to be significantly correlated (r=0.8021) in the 7th degree polynomial fit and the relationship established and discussed.

  108. Entissar S. Al-Suhaibani and Nermin A. El-Morshedi

    Isothiocyanates are naturally occurring small molecules that are formed from glucosinolate precursors of cruciferous vegetables. Many isothiocyanates, both natural and synthetic, display anticarcinogenic activity because they reduce activation of carcinogens and increase their detoxification. Recent studies show that they exhibit anti-tumor activity. Moreover, this work focused on the mitochondrial pathway. Cells were incubated with isothiocyanates concentrations, 50µM/L, 70µM/L, 90µM/L and 120µM/L for 72h at 37°C and 5%CO2. Isothiocyanates induced cells death in a dose-dependent manner. Isothiocyanates treated cells had an antiproliferative effect, additionally, a typical characteristics of apoptosis as: DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 over expression and fall of mitochondrial membrane potential by Bcl-2 expression down regulating, p53 activation as signal for cell cycle arrest and cytological alterations. Future study will may deal with further investigations of isothiocyanates possible usages as a new alternative or complementary chemotherapeutic agent for human cancer types specially colonrectal cancer type.

  109. Bharathi Dhevi, V. R. and Dr. Bhooma, N.

    India is a home to a large number of tribes known for their varied culture and tradition. The irular tribes are the ancient tribal group living in the lower slopes of the Western Ghats Mountain spread over Coimbatore district. The present study was conducted in nine Government tribal schools situated in iular tribal areas. Before initiating the study, permission was sought from the district tribal welfare officer and the respective school headmasters. A questionnaire was developed to collect the details regarding the family size, occupation and income level, directly from the tribal adolescent girls. The screening test for finding the prevalence of anaemia was planned in all the nine schools. The information regarding the screening was passed on to all the nine schools through announcements in school assembly and put up in the school notice boards. Total number of registered tribal adolescent girls was 615. But only 523 participated in the screening programme. As a part of the screening, clinical examination was carried out for all the 523 adolescent girls for the presence of signs and symptoms of anaemia. The haemoglobin level of all the girls was estimated using Sahli’s haemometer method (Pal et. al 2003). The results showed that all 523 adolescent girls were anaemic. Clinical examinations revealed that these girls were having signs and symptoms of anaemia.

  110. Dnyaneshwar K. Sherkar and Ashok M. Chavan

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) is a one of a major cereal crop in world. Sorghum is also known for its nutritional value, but now a day this important cereal crop is suffered from yield loss. This is mainly Due to fungal diseases,especially grain mold disease of sorghum. Various field fungi like Fusarium, Alternaria, Curvularia, Phoma, Aspergillus, Penicillium etcare associated with grain mold disease. In Marathwada region Bhagyalakshmi-296, Jk-22 sorghum varieties are commonly cultivated. On which Fusarium, Curvularia, Alternaria, and Aspergillus fungi occur very on all the varieties. Fusariumis one of most important pathogen associate with this disease. In the present study effect of Fusarium toxin were observed on sorghum grain germination in laboratory conditions. It shows several seed abnormalities which mainly includes of germinability, abortive seeds, discoloration etc which reduce the quality of seeds.

  111. Kannan, N. and Saravanan, K

    The present investigation was carried out with a view to study the heterosis, combining ability and gene action for seed cotton yield, yield attributing traits, ginning outturn and important fibre quality parameters in tetraploid cotton (G.hirsutum L. and G.barbadense L.). A set of 31 genotypes consisting of 21 (HxB) hybrids, Seven Lines of G. hirsutum and three testers of G. barbadense and one check hybrid DCH 32 were grown at Rasi seeds Research and Development Farm Attur. The hybrids were developed adopting Lines and Testersmating design. Analysis of variance showed significant differences amongst parents and hybrids for all the characters indicating presence of genetic variability. Combining ability analysis indicated that both additive and non additive gene effects were important in the inheritance of all the traits. The ratio of variance due to GCA to that of SCA was less than one for all the character under study indicating importance of dominance gene effects in the inheritance of these characters. The parents CG 64 (hirsutum), CG67 (hirsutum) and CG45SB (barbadense) were good general combiner for the seed cotton yield per plant and number of bolls per plant.CG 45SB was also a good general combiner for the 2.5 per cent span length. The cross CG 64 x CG 45 SB recorded the highest per se performance and standard heterosis for seed cotton yield. Two crosses and CG64 x CG45SB and CG67 x CG45SB registered significant per se performance, positive sca effects along with significant positive standard heterosis for seed cotton yield and majority of yield components and fibre quality traits.

  112. Abu Bakr El- Bediwi, Feryal Dawood, Mustafa Kamal

    Structural, electrical resistivity, thermal and mechanical properties of Bi- Sn- Pb- Cd- In- TiO2 and Bi- Sn- Pb- Zn- In- Ag alloys have been investigated. Melting temperature of Bi- Sn- Pb- Cd- In- TiO2 alloys increased with increasing TiO2 content and decreasing Bi content. Elastic modulus, Vickers hardness, internal friction, electrical resistivity and thermal parameters varied with increasing TiO2 content and decreasing Bi content. Melting temperature, internal friction, Vickers hardness of Bi- Sn- Pb- Zn- In- Ag alloys decreased with increasing Bi content and decreasing Sn content. Elastic modulus and electrical resistivity of Bi- Sn- Pb- Zn- In- Ag alloys increased with increasing Bi content and decreasing Sn content. The Bi49Pb15Sn22Cd3In10 (TiO2)1 alloy has best properties (low melting point= 91 ºC, high elastic modulus= 36.2 GPa, high Vickers hardness= 19.1 kg\mm2, and lower internal friction= 0.055) for nuclear applications. The Bi25Sn62.5Pb3Zn3In4Ag2.5 alloy has best properties (low coast, low melting point= 174 ºC, high elastic modulus= 30.6 GPa, high Vickers hardness= 19.25 kg\mm2, and adequate internal friction= 0.078) for electrical fuse.

  113. Mahalakshmi, V. and Ramamoorthy, S.

    A combined system of a thyristor controlled reactor (TCR) and a shunt hybrid Power filter (SHPF) is used for reactive power compensation and harmonic reduction. The SHPF is the combination of a small rating active power filter and a fifth harmonic tuned LC passive filter. Five level neutral points clamped (NPC) 180° mode converter is used in shunt active power filter to improve power quality without using higher passive elements which has a reduced switching stress and switching losses that improve the lifetime of converters. The TCR along with tuned passive filter is used for reactive power compensation, to improve the power factor. A nonlinear control is developed in proportional-integral controller for current tracking and voltage regulation, which is based on decoupled control strategy that considers the controlled system, may be divided into an inner fast current loop and an outer slow voltage loop. Thus, an exact linearization control was applied to the inner loop, and a nonlinear feedback control law is used for outer voltage loop. A simulation study of the implementation topology has been carried out using MATLAB.

  114. Indira, S. Ramesh, K and Viruthagiri, G.

    The spectacular advances made in the growth of single crystals with or without suitable addition of impurities have facilitated the fabrication of transistor, IC’s, piezoelectric filters, solid-state lasers and so on. The crystal growth technology directly used for the growth and development in the field of electronics, fibre-optics communication and laser. The pure crystals of copper sulphate, nickel sulphate, nickel sulphate doped with zinc sulphate, zinc sulphate and magnesium sulphate were grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The grown crystals were subjected to dielectric and AC conductivity studies and the results are discussed.

  115. Sunil S. Pattanshetti and Sagar M. Gawande

    It seems that almost every day there is another story about pollution of one form or another, in the food we eat, the water we drink and the air we breathe. Fresh water is a precious resource and the increasing pollution of our rivers and lakes is a cause for alarm, the major cause for river and ground water pollution is found to be the domestic and industrial waste water which is mixed in such sources of water without any treatment. This article is an review of issues related the river pollution, treatment of sewage, and environmental and health problems due to untreated waste water. It also states the necessity of Sewage treatment plant. Some challenges in this field.

  116. Mr. Chandrashekhar, M. V. and Mr. Santoshkumar, M.

    This paper focuses on an application that performs Kannada OCR (Optical Character Recognition) in hand held devices. The objective is to make use of the visual capabilities of the built in camera of Android devices to extract text from Kannada sign boards, newspapers etc., and use the same platform to implement the OCR technology with the help of Kohonen algorithm. The image is processed, eliminating small distortions present. The image is then converted to a grey-scale image, which is segmented and the result is displayed along with a vocal output.

  117. Boubacar Abba

    Many mathematicians have worked in this erea by using classical groups, normal form of matrices or some known vector spaces and came out some good results. But few of them have used symplectic spaces to construct authentication codes with arbitration. Then in this paper we give a new construction of authentication code with arbitration based on sympletic spaces and also compute parameters and probabilities from this code. The main objective of studying authentication codes with arbitration is to use them for the provision of better security in practical information communications. In the first part of this paper, we present and study the concept of authentication code with arbitration. The historical perspective of the development of authentication code with arbitration is also presented. In the part two of this paper some essential conceptions of symplectic spaces over finite field, which constitute the basic of this paper are introduced. In the same way several theorems are given, then parameters and probabilities of authentication code with arbitration are easily computed. In part three a new construction of authentication code with arbitration from symplectic geometry is presented. In our discussion, we describe the subspaces geometrical characteristics with matrices and use this method to deal with the counting problems in the computation of parameters and probabilities.

  118. Dr. N. Venkateswaran

    The 3D printing industry can be seen as a growing industry with developments being made at every stage. No wonder newer technologies are emerging. But there is requirement of new 3D printers that can be used for multiple platforms with multiple filaments. 3D printing has been evolving as a technique to create 3D models and prototypes, in many industries, namely, automotive, aerospace, healthcare, and consumer products- in order to investigate the possibility of completing a project in lesser time and with few resources. It was 2010-11, when the term 3D printing was just beginning to enter the public mindset. More companies were realising the potential of 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing or rapid prototyping. However, in the last two decades, 3D printing has made a radical shift from rapid prototyping to rapid manufacturing mainly, because of its advantages over traditional manufacturing practices such as injection molding, CNC machining, and vacuum casting. The major driving factors which makes the Indian firms that support the exponential growth of 3D printing include - the development of new and improved technologies, financial support from governments, large application areas, rapid product development at a low cost, and ease in development of custom products. Since India shows a positive signal towards 3D printing which provide tremendous growth opportunities especially in manufacturing technologies. India is aggressively taking initiatives such as huge investment and government funding in R&D, to promote 3D printing as a manufacturing technique across all the sectors. 3D Printing was initially a solution looking for a problem. With any world changing technology, it only matters once it actually does change the world.

  119. Rajiv Kumar Dwivedi, Dr. Manoj Pandey and Dr. Anil Vashisht

    The faculties in higher education have to become change leaders in bringing out innovation in the teaching pedagogy and they have to become successful researchers. They have to become high contributors inside the classroom and outside as well ie contributors towards the academic institution, professional organizations (in and around) and more importantly contributors towards the society and towards the human kind at large. With the increase in global challenges towards excellence in imparting quality education to the future leaders it has become very important for the faculty members to be equipped with the latest innovation in teaching pedagogy and learning strategies and it demands the perfect delivery methodology as well.

  120. Dr. Singh, S. P. and Neha Mehta

    Employees being the internal customers of the banks expect and perceive the bank services within the structure of their responsibilities towards their banks. Therefore, the factors like customer persuasion, customer satisfaction, customer relationship management and employees’ work culture influence them from a point of view that is dissimilar to the outside customers. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of customer persuasion, customer satisfaction, customer relationship management and employees’ work culture on employees’ expectations and perceptions. A sample of 70 employees was randomly selected across commercial banks in National Capital Region. It was found that, customer persuasion, customer satisfaction, customer relationship management and employees’ work culture did not have a significant impact on employees’ expectations in banks. However, employees’ work culture had a significant impact on employees’ perceptions. Customer persuasion, customer satisfaction and customer relationship management did not have a significant impact on employees’ perceptions as internal customers in banks.

  121. Parasto Masjedi, Abbas Panahi, Maryam Mohaghegh, Masoud Khazaei Poul, Mohsen Bahrami Nia, Mostafa Khazaie and Esamail Hemati Azandariani

    Archaeological survey was conducted by the authors (Khazaie, BahramiNia and Masjedi) in Kojour in the south of Caspian Sea and in Alborz Mountain in summer 2011. Kojourwas selected because of its suitable conditions for human occupation such as water sources, suitable soil, intermountain plains and finally its suitable elevation that protected this region from extensive environmental changes during prehistoric times such as glacial periods in high levels of Alborz Mountain as well as from Caspian Sea's water elevation changes. In our survey 47 archaeological sites were registered among which 10 sites had evidence from prehistoric times, 27 sites had evidence from historical times and 22 sites had evidence from Islamic times. Settlement pattern at the understudy area changed across the periods. Water sources and arable land with low slope and population were the most important factors of these changes.

  122. Aminul Hoque and Samiran Mondal

    Background: Perception is a process of recognizing and interpreting environmental event. It is very important in many professions. Scientists are suggested regular participation in endurance exercise may improve perception. But the data of single bout endurance exercise effect on perception is very limited. Aim: The aim of this study was to find out effect of single bout endurance exercise on perception. Methods: Seven healthy male willing students (aged between 21-23 years) from APC College, Newbarrackpore, West Bengal were selected as the subject for this study. Depth perception was measured with Howard –Dolman Apparatus and Visual perception was measured with Muller-Lyer Apparatus. The average of 5 trials of each test was used for analysis. Ten minutes slow continuous running was conducted as a single bout endurance exercise intervention for this study. The data was recorded prior to pre and after post exercise. Results: Depth perception score of pre and post exercise recording was 3.88±0.32 mm and 3.24±0.18 mm respectively, and the percentage of reduction was 16.34%. In visual perception subjective reading assessment, pre and post exercise recording was 14.10±0.90 cm and 14.08±0.33) cm, and the percentage of change was ignorable (0.20%). In degree of illusion (dI) assessment of visual perception, pre and post exercise recording was 1.89±0.91 cm and 1.92±0.33cm and the percentage of increase was negligible 1.21%. Interpretation: Reduction in depth perception score (improvement) may be due to the single bout endurance exercise effect on information processing, neurotransmitter function, and allocation of attention and memory. Whereas, no visual perception changes may be due to the less impact on retinal and cortical factors. Conclusions: Acute endurance exercise plays an important role in improving depth perception and has potential applications especially in those occupations and performance requiring good depth perceptual sensitivity, judgment of distance and direction.

  123. Mr. Sarbeswar Haldar

    It is a well known fact that psychology and environment are closely interrelated. Any kind of environmental change brings a psychological change among the human being. In my present study I try to examine a causal relationship how new environment (environment of college campus) brings lots of psychological change among the newcomers of college coming from different schools. In my study I also try to analyse the positive and negative impacts of above mention psychological change on the new students. It is generally seen that many students having good academic profile in the school can not cope up with the new environment which creates a significant academic degradation of that students. On the other hand many students having medium academic profile can adjust themselves well with this environment which helps to bring a momentous academic progression of that students. On the basis of different parameters which are related to the new students of college I discuss the student's failure and success in the context of environmental change as well as the psychological change of the students. I collect information about the new college students from five different colleges of West Bengal and on the basis of these information I also mention some causal effect relation of student's behavioural change with changing environment and it's impacts on the student's academic profile in this paper.

  124. Dr. Sanatan Ghosh

    The district is situated in a flood plain region of moribund delta of West Bengal. River bank erosion is a common environmental disaster in Murshidabad district like any other deltaic region of the World. The district is well drained by a number of river systems such as Padma, Bhagirathi, Jalangi and Bhairab. Murshidabad district is centrally located in West Bengal lying between 23˚43'30''N to 24˚50'20''N and 87˚49'17''E to 88˚46'E. The geology of the district is mainly Quaternary alluvium. The Bhagirathi River is almost divided the district into two equal physiographic divisions. The western part of Bhagirathi River is known as “Rarh” and the eastern part of Bhagirathi River is known as “Bagri”. The rivers in the district have been continuously changing its meandering-geometry actively since second half of the twenty century. But the dimension of river bank erosion has been increased after construction of Farakka Barrage. The recurrent bank failure and displacement of a large number of people make huge environmental neo-refugees in every year. As a result, the encroachment of fertile arable lands; destruction of standing crops, human settlements, roads and communication are the matter of deep anxiety for the riparian people as well as district administration. The aim of the present work is to study river bank erosion and its impact on socio-economic conditions of environmental neo-refugees. Data and information are both collected from primary and secondary sources. The major sources of primary data include observation and questionnaire survey in the selected environmental neo-refugees areas such as Toltoli (Muradpur Mouza), Tekpara (Hasanpur Mouza), Ganje Singeswari, Nirmal Char, New Bamnabad and other places. The secondary sources of information are satellite imagery, published reports and articles. The result shows that the displaced people are forced to accept their loss due to bank erosion. Most of the environmental neo-refugees live below poverty line and temporary houses, also lack of health, electricity and sanitation facilities. Most of the male people mainly non workers in these areas are forced to migrate to other states and countries for seeking the jobs. Females are mostly house wife and also engaged in agriculture and Bidi cottage industry with minimum wages. Most of the bank protection work is based on engineering, not consider the social dimension. Therefore socio-economic upliftments as well as holistic planning are urgently needed to tackle these problems.

  125. Akhilesh, V. P. and Sebastian, C. D.

    Dytiscus marginalis are the diving beetles with their wings covered by hard wing cases known as elytra. It is the largest order including more species known to science than any other order not only in the class insect, but also in the entire animal kingdom. The order is huge and includes a wide variety of groups. In the present study we have isolated, PCR amplified and deciphered the partial nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) of D. marginalis from Kerala and its phylogenetic status. DNA sequence similarity searches of COI gene of D. marginalis (GenBankAcession: KM 230115) revealed that it is genetically identical to Cybister ventralis (DQ 813688) and Cybister cognatus (DQ 813672) isolated from USA. The results indicate slow evolution of the COI sequences among the morphologically distinct and geographically isolated D. marginalis.

  126. Megha, P. and Ambica, R.

    Metallo- β-lactamase (MBL) is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics. These include the antibiotics of the Carbapenem family, which are a mainstay for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. The emergence of MBL in Gram negative bacilli (GNB) is becoming a therapeutic challenge worldwide. Detection of MBL is also a challenge for routine microbiology laboratories, since there are no standardized methods for MBL detection. The aims of this study were to know the prevalence of MBL production in various Gram negative bacilli, to evaluate different phenotypic methods to detect MBL production and to find out antibiotic sensitivity profile of MBL producing gram negative bacilli. (Nirav et al., 2011) A total of 100 clinical isolates of GNB were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing. Ertapenem resistant clinical isolates were taken as positive for MBL screening. Three different phenotypic methods were used to confirm the MBL production: Ertapenem (ETP)-EDTA combined disc test, EDTA disc potentiation using Ceftazidime and Modified Hodge Test. Out of 100 clinical isolates of GNB, 48 isolates were resistant to Ertapenem. These 48 isolates were considered screening positive and further tested for MBL production by three different methods. 30 isolates were MBL positive by ETP-EDTA combined disc test and 23 isolates were MBL positive by EDTA disc potentiation using Ceftazidime and 19 isolates were positive by Modified Hodge test. In this study, 58.62% species of GNNF, 51.35% of E.coli, 41.67% of Klebsiella pneumonia and 20% of Proteus mirabilis were MBL positive. The detection of MBL-producing isolates is crucial in GNB isolates and ETP-EDTA combined disc test is the most effective method.

  127. Rajeev, T., Himanshu, V., Mrinda, J. and Anurag, A.

    Pericardial fibroma is a very rare occurrence in clinical practice (< 0.0001%) (Lam et al., 1993). They may be asymptomatic or can present as case of cardiac failure or even lead to sudden death (cardiac arrythmias). Many a times they are encountered while patient is being evaluated for other reasons (Meng et al., 2002). We present here, a incidentally diagnosed and successfully managed case of 61 yr old male COPD patient with pericardial fibroma (known diabetic, chronic smoker and chronic alcoholic) who presented to us in shock and respiratory distress and who during his hospital stay had various cardiac manifestations (cardiac failure, ventricular tachycardia, sudden cardiac arrest) and respiratory complications (bilateral pneumothorax).

  128. Mrs. N. Gayathri and Dr. Mrs. S. Kamala

    Menopause is considered to be as an inevitable event in every woman’s life. During the menopausal transition, women may experience bothered some symptoms which may affect the quality of life. Menopause is determined by the reduction of the ovarian function and decreased production of estradiol, leading to depletion of the ovarian follicles. Depriving the body of estrogen determine the appearance of specific symptoms such as the vasomotor, psychological and urogenital and more generalized physical changes such as weight gain, skin and hair thickness and general tiredness, and the late problems associated with menopause are osteoporosis and coronary artery disease. Thus, the early 21st century, prescription and use of hormonal therapy is still controversial (Garefalakis, 2008). Therefore, alternative therapies can be used to treat the same symptoms of menopause. Approximately 80% of American women experience hot flashes, while only about 20% of women in many parts of Asia experience them. The researcher believes that the difference between the two groups is the amount of phytoestrogens consuming in the diet. These substances, which are found in plants, act a lot like estrogen when they get into the human body. Although these phytoestrogens are much, much weaker than regular estrogens, they may help to ease the symptoms of the menopausal period for many women. The benefits of phytoestrogens are, bone protective, cardio protective, antioxidants, and cancer prevention. Research evidence shows that, approximately 80% of American women experience hot flashes, while only about 20% of women in many parts of Asia experience them. The researcher believes that the difference between the two groups is the amount of phytoestrogens consuming in the diet. These substances, which are found in plants, act a lot like estrogen when they get into the human body. Phytoestrogens may help to ease the symptoms of the menopausal period for women.

  129. Ahmed Elhassan Hamid Hassan and Ahmed Yagoub Alnur Terab

    This study was conducted during 2013-2014 academic years in Jazan University, The aims of this study to determine availability of psychological traits and academic characteristics of special education teacher among special education students. We used descriptive statistic methods. Questioner technique is used as method of data collection. Study group include (400) special education students from Faculty of Education School and (110) malestudents were selected randomly as study group sample. The data was analyzed by using SPSS program, the results were as following:The availability of psychological traits of a special education teacher among special education students significant, or positive, and it is significant at (p<0.05). The availability of academic characteristics of a special education teacher among special education students significant, or positive, and it is significant at (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the views of special education students about availability of psychological traits and academic characteristics of special education teacher according to specialization and levels(p>0.05). The study recommends that proffers of special education students should look after the psychological traits and academic Characteristics when they are teaching and training their students.

  130. Saurabh Sharma, Pawan Parashar, Rahul Bansal, Amit Mohan Varshney, Arvind Kumar Shukla, Sartaj Ahmad, Dharmender Singh and Neha Shukla

    Background: Plaque control, which involves its active removal, is a responsibility undertaken personally by individuals for better oral hygiene. Tooth brushing and oral rinsing are mechanical cleaning procedures which are considered to be the most reliable methods of effective plaque removal and thus prevention of periodontal diseases. Objective: To assess the tooth brushing frequency and rinsing habit and its effects on oral hygiene index scores (OHIS) among the school children in Meerut. Methods: Study population consisted of 503 randomly selected school children 05-18years in Meerut. Participants were examined by a dentist to assess their oral hygiene index Score (OHIS).Questionnaire on oral hygiene measures, their brushing and rinsing habits was completed by a social worker. Results: The results of this study show that the majority of the school children brushed their teeth once a day. Female children had better brushing habits than males. Only oral rinsing with normal water at night before sleep is significantly better than doing nothing but it’s not equivalent to brushing before sleep. Conclusions: For improvement oral hygiene among school children regular tooth brushing and rinsing habit is important factors. Motivation to apply instructions given on oral health care and regular reinforcement are essential.

  131. Savita, Seema Barnabass and Harjit

    An exploratory study was conducted to assess the Knowledge of Antenatal Mothers regarding Cord Blood Banking in a Selected Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab. Objectives of the study are to assess knowledge of antenatal mothers regarding cord blood banking to find the relationship of knowledge with following variables: age, educational status, occupational status, family income, place of living, gravida, type of family, type of medical services, source of information, to find out the deficit areas in knowledge and to prepare pamphlet for promotion of knowledge regarding cord blood banking of antenatal mothers. The conceptual framework of the study was based on a “three phase theory” described by Fitts and Posner (1967). A non experimental research design was adopted for the study. Structured knowledge questionnaire regarding cord blood banking was prepared after extensive review of literature and expert’s opinion. The tool used had two sections, part one was to obtain demographic data. The second section had 3 areas with total 26 items on knowledge regarding cord blood banking. A try out of tool was done on 4 subjects. Pilot study was done on 20 subjects. The study accessible population was antenatal mothers admitted as well as visiting antenatal outpatient department in the selected hospital of Ludhiana, Punjab. 200 antenatal mothers were selected by purposive sampling technique. Data was collected from antenatal mothers by structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics and presented through tables and figures. Findings revealed that majority 55% of antenatal mothers had average knowledge regarding cord blood banking and 26.5% had below average knowledge. Mean percentage of knowledge score was highest (45.63%) in ‘Advantages and disadvantages’ and least in ‘General information’ (27.37%). Educational status, occupational status, family income were found to be significant factors related to knowledge of antenatal mothers, while other variables were found non significant related to knowledge. Majority of antenatal mothers had average knowledge regarding cord blood banking. Hence it is concluded that there is need to enhance the knowledge of antenatal mothers by means of pamphlet.

  132. Garg Kamal

    Background: Early diagnosis and treatment of progressive periodontitis is important because of the irreversible nature of periodontal disease. . In the field of periodontology, traditional clinical criteria are often insufficient for determining sites of active disease, for monitoring the response to therapy, or for measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression. Patients with periodontitis may have elevated circulating levels of specific inflammatory markers that can be correlated to the severity and present state of the disease. This review highlights the various potentials of oral biomarkers as non-invasive method of periodontal disease diagnosis. Methods: The Google scholar and Medline search was conducted and the relevant literature concerning the applications of oral biomarkers for periodontal diagnosis was reviewed. Results: Based on the literature, salivary markers that have been studied as potential diagnostic tests for periodontal disease include proteins of host origin (i.e., enzymes, immunoglobulins), phenotypic markers, host cells, hormones (cortisol), bacteria and bacterial products, ions and volatile compounds. Conclusions : A number of markers show promise as sensitive measures of disease and the effectiveness of therapy. Longer-term longitudinal studies, however, are required to establish the relationship between specific markers and progression of periodontal disease. Furthermore, analysis of oral biomarkers may offer a cost-effective approach to assessment of periodontal disease in large populations.

  133. Sheela Kumar Gujjari, Divya, S., Nada Musharraf Ali, *Divya Arora and Anil K.Gujjari

    The days following periodontal flap procedures are usually associated with bleeding, pain, swelling and infection. Conventionally, analgesics, antibiotics, periodontal dressings, antimicrobial mouthwashes/gels are used to prevent plaque accumulation and promote wound healing at the surgical site. HIORA GA gel is a polyherbal formulation that derives its benefits from four main ingredients namely-oil of Myrstica fragrans, extracts of Terminalia arjuna, Pterocarpus marsupium & Triphala. Each of these components are found to have significant effect on wound healing. The present study evaluates the efficacy of this gel in preventing the recolonisation of periodontopathic bacteria and promoting wound healing as compared with a periodontal dressing. The results of this clinical study clearly shows that HIORA-GA gel is effective for post periodontal surgery use as an alternative to periodontal dressing. The overall effect was also found to be significant. There were no adverse reactions either reported or observed during the entire study period and overall compliance to the treatment was excellent.

  134. Tesfatsion Dominiko Abiyo

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the psychosocial experiences of Podoconiosis patients. To this end, the study examined the psychosocial experiences of 120 Podoconiosis patients, of which 12 purposively selected patients participated in the in-depth interview. Patients were selected from patient register document by using systematic sampling. The instruments employed in the study were interviewer-administered questionnaire and semi structured interview. The questionnaire includes social experience measure scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and SRQ20. Methods for data analysis employed in the study were descriptive statistics, bivariatecorrelation, and one way ANOVA. The results of quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data disclosed that Podoconiosis patients experience negative social experience like displacement, interpersonal relationship, marriage, and decision making adversities. The patients have low self-esteem and high mental distress. Males experience more negative social experience and high mental distress than females, and the older age group patients’ experience less negative social experience and mental distress than younger Podoconiosis patients. The self-esteem of the patients decreases when their educational status increases, whereas mental distress decreases with increasing educational level. When the severity level of the diseseincreses, their negative social experience and mental distress increases. Sex and severity level have positive correlation with social experience and mental distress, whereas age of the patients is negatively correlated with the social experience and mental distress. Physical disability, economic challenge, absence of counseling service, bad smell of the leg, societal negative reactions were the major glitches hinder Podoconiosis patients from integrating withthe wider community. On the basis of the findings, the study finally provided discussions. Providing counseling services toPodoconiosis patients, integrating the disease into the health care system of the country, and stakeholders’ concerted effort to change the negative psychosocial experiences of the patients were the major recommendations of the study.

  135. Dr. Sangeeta Das Ghosh, Dr. Mandira Chakraborty, Dr. Indrani Bhattacharyya, Dr. Abhisek Mitra, Dr. Siddhartha Bhowmik and Dr. Dipankar Paul

    We present 2 cases of urinary tract infections from rural areas of West Bengal, caused by Serratia mercescens. Though Serratia marcescens is an important nosocomial pathogen, it’s emergence as a community acquired uropathogen has not been reported frequently. Further, both the cases were immunocompetent & of extreme age groups- contradicting the idea of its age & immune status dependent virulence. In both of our cases, the isolated Serratia marcescens strains were beta lactamase producing, conferring resistance to broad spectrum beta lactam antibiotics. So in our cases treatment was modified to ceftazidime & patients’ conditions improved.

  136. Praveen Y. Talakeri, Mubashir Angolkar, Jitendra Kumar Sah and Agre Deepchand Hirachand

    Background: Poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions play major role in the increased burden of communicable diseases in developing countries. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practice regarding personal hygiene among school children. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Belagavi district, among 200 children of urban and 200 children of rural area aged between 8 to 16 years. Pre-tested and self administered questionnaire was used to collect information. Percentage and chi-square test were calculated to see the association. Ethical clearance, informed consent and assent were obtained from the concerned authority and person. Result: The study revealed that more of urban school children (91.5%) compared to rural school (51.5%) were having good knowledge about personal hygiene and (48.5%) of rural school children were having poor knowledge about the same with P<0.001. A statistically significant difference was detected among the practices of urban and rural school children with P<0.001. Conclusion: Urban school children were having more knowledge regarding personal compared to rural school children. Periodic personal hygiene education is needed to improve hygienic practices

  137. Domnic Marera and Willis Oyieko

    The determination of an individual’s age is an important aspect of forensic medicine. The clavicle has the longest period of growth; therefore, it has been investigated by various researchers in order to establish a reliable age indicator when all other epiphyseal age indicators have already been inactivated. Several authors have developed different techniques of age determination using the clavicle, however, there is still no standard system agreed upon with respect to use of the clavicle in age assessment. The use of X-rays has proved that the onset and fusion of the medial epiphysis of the clavicle can be used to determine an individual’s chronological age. Thus, the purpose of this review article is to present the different methods of age estimation using the clavicle and to discuss the variations in the time frame of the ossification of the medial clavicular end as reported by previous researchers.

  138. Swapnil S. Khairnar, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Avinash B. Darekar and Ravindranath B. Saudagar

    Maha Kumbh Mela - occurs every 144 years, only in Allahabad. Kumbh Mela is celebrated at different locations depending on the position of the planet of Bṛhaspati (Jupiter) and the sun. When Jupiter and the sun are in the zodiac sign Leo (Simha Rashi) it is held in Trimbakeshwar, Nashik. When the sun is in Aries (Mesha Rashi) it is celebrated at Haridwar When Jupiter is in Taurus (Vrishabha Rashi) and the sun is in Capricorn (Makar Rashi) Kumbha Mela is celebrated at Prayag. and Jupiter and the sun are in Scorpio (Vrishchik Rashi) the Mela is celebrated at Ujjain. Each site's celebration dates are calculated in advance according to a special combination of zodiacal positions of Sun, Moon, and Jupiter.

  139. Marera, D.O. and Oyieko, W.

    Introduction: Prolonged labor have been associated with increased fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality; therefore, it is essential to identify women who are at risk of dystocia and to choose the most appropriate way of delivery at an early stage in pregnancy. X-ray pelvimetry has thus been used to identify women at risk of dystocia especially in rural health facilities of developing countries such as Uganda. However, there is still a need to review how this practice is useful in predicting the outcome of labor, and whether or not its continued use is sustained or discouraged. Material and methods: This was a retrospective study on 200 patients at near term or in early stages of labour who had undergone X-ray pelvimetry at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Western Uganda. The pelvic dimensions including anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the pelvic inlet and pelvic outlet diameters were analyzed against the expected and final modes of delivery. Results: The average antero-posterior diameter of the pelvic outlet was 12.95 ±0.95 whilst that of the transverse diameter was14 ±0.6 cm. Of all the cases, 80% (160/200) had large pelvic inlet however 20.6% (33/160) still underwent caesarian section. The average pelvic outlet diameter was 8.4±0.4 cm. Discussion and conclusion: In this study, pelvimetry has shown to increase the chances of caesarian section. However, its value in early detection of obstetric complications is well appreciated.

  140. Prof. Dr. Riyaz Farooq, Dr. Ajmal Mir, Dr. Mehnaz Rajab and Dr. Aamir Purra

    Biodentine material has been recently introduced in dentistry in order to provide dentin substitute for coronal and radicular pulp. Although number of materials like Amalgam, GIC, Composite and MTA are available in market for repair of dentin loss in tooth structure, none of these possesses ideal properties. Despite of number of advantages of MTA, its limitations cannot be overlooked. These drawbacks have been overcome by a new calcium silicate based material named Biodentine which has good handling properties, short setting time and improved mechanical properties. In nut shell it is able to act as a promising dentin substitute in coronal and radicular portion of tooth.

  141. Singh Geetika, Lal Mohan, Singh Tejbir and Deepti Sundar Shyam

    Background: Health status of women is one of the most serious social issues affecting the community particularly in developing countries. Women are more vulnerable during the reproductive period. If women remain healthy during the antenatal period, then this leads to a healthy newborn. Hence, intervention during antenatal period is essential. Objectives: 1. To study the utilization of maternal health services. 2. To study the impact of interventions regarding the utilization of antenatal services. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in village Naagkalan of Amritsar district from 1st January, 2014 to 31st December, 2014. This study included all the pregnant women of the village. Author filled in the predesigned and pretested questionnaire, containing questions regarding registration, antenatal checkups and utilization of services including IFA supplementation, Tetanus immunization etc. Results: The antenatal registration before intervention it was 90% while after intervention almost 100% registration was done. 22.73% women still preferred to visit private practitioners. Even after intervention, IFA compliance rate was 82.88%. Conclusion: This study found that although there has been considerable improvement after intervention in the utilization of antenatal care, these evidence based results can be further used for better delivery and utilization of maternal care services for the optimum health of the pregnant women.

  142. Dr. MandiraChakraborty, Dr. Sangeeta Das Ghosh, Dr. IndraniBhattacharyya, Dr. Dipankar Paul, Dr. Manoj Kumar Gupta and MD.SamidulHoque

    A 50 year old diabetic male patient with underlying Chronic Alcoholic liver disease and Hepato-renal syndrome type 2, presented with chief complaints of fever and pain over right side of the abdomen along with vomiting and generalised weakness. On two occasions, in the routine examination of un-centrifuged and centrifuged urine, we found septate hyphal mass. After culture on Saboraud’s Dextrose Agar (SDA), morphologically we diagnosed it as Trichoderma species. Due to lack of definitive diagnostic tools, we could not establish its pathogenic role but since the patient was immunocompromised and catheterised, we could not rule out the organism as a mere contaminant. This scenario prompted us to report the case.

  143. Chaudhary, A. K. and Jain, N.

    The eight values of organizational culture namely (openness, confrontation, trust, authenticity, pro-action, autonomy, collaboration and experimentation) were analyzed through t-test. The purpose of the present research work is to compare culture of universities of Rajasthan i.e. top and middle management. Respondents were directly contacted for filling up the standard questionnaire of OCTAPACE-Profile, developed by Dr. Udai Pareek. The results conclude that there is significant difference on openness, confrontation, trust, authenticity, pro-action, collaboration and experimentation dimensions of top and middle management. The significance of the study is based on the challenges facing higher education and to improve their academic standard through organizational culture of top and middle level management.

  144. Sheema Sheikh, MD., Nazia Quyoom, MD. and Mudasir Magray MS.

    Neural fibrolipoma is a tumor like lipomatous process that involves principally the volar aspects of hands, wrists and forearms of young persons. It usually manifests as a soft yellow growing mass consisting of proliferating fibrofatty tissue surrounding and infiltrating major nerves and their branches. Median nerve is the most frequently involved nerve. Other less frequently involved nerves are ulnar, radial, branchial plexus, superficial peroneal nerve, inferior calcaneal nerve and medial planter nerve. An 18 year old male presented with swelling over right lateral gluteal region. Histopathological examination of the excised specimen showed features of neural fibrolipoma. To our knowledge no reported case of neural fibrolipoma at this site has been reported so far. We report a case ofneural fibrolipoma in lateral cutaneous branch of iliohypogastric nerve.

  145. Mowar, A. B., Himanshu, V., Smita, G., Mirinda, J. and Ashita, M.

    Dengue is one of the most commonly occurring epidemic, particularly in rohilkhand region of Uttar Pradesh. The clinical manifestation ranges from being asymptomatic (in upto 80% patients) to mild illness (fever, thrombocytopenia, hepatic/renal dysfunction) to severe form (DHF/DSS – dengue haemorrhagic syndrome/dengue shock syndrome, DIC, MODS). Also it has been observed that the clinical and biochemical profile of dengue infection varies from epidemic to epidemic. We in this prospective study aim to study the epidemiological pattern, clinical profile and incidence and extent of hepatic complications in cases of Dengue fever in patients admitted at SRMS-IMS, Bareilly. We found that males were predominantly affected (73.3%). Most patients belonged to 15-45yr age group (85.5%). The incidence of DF, DHF, DSS were 64.4%, 26.7% and 8.9% respectively. Fever (100%) followed by headache (68.8%) was most common symptom. Malena (17.8%) followed by petechial rash (12.2%) and hematuria (3.3%) was most common hemorrhagic manifestation. Thrombocytopenia (platelet < 1lac/mm3) was present in 79% of patients. IgM antibody positive was seen in 40% patients and IgM was weekly positive in 15.5% patients. Raised bilirubin was present in 28.9% patients. Raised SGOT, raised SGPT, raised PT and raised APTT was present in 62.2%, 68.9%, 83.4% and 90% patients respectively. The most common finding on abdominal ultrasonography was ascitis (24.4%) followed by pleural effusion (18.9%), splenomegaly (14.4%) and hepatomegaly (6.6%).

  146. Dr. Ramesh Agrawal, Dr. P. K. Khatri and Dr. R. S. Parihar

    Background: Influenza has a major impact on public health, annually affecting 15-20% of the global population. First outbreak of influenza as a pandemic declared by WHO in June 2009. Aim: This study was aimed to determines the incidence of influenza A (H1N1) virus by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) method in different age groups of patients. Methods: A total of 2868 respiratory samples (throat swabs/nasopharyngeal swabs) were collected from patients suspected influenza like illness who attended OPD or admitted in Dr S. N. Medical College & Associated group of Hospitals in January 2015 to March 2015 (3 months period). The samples were collected and processed as per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Viral RNA was extracted and one-step rRT-PCR was performed to detect Influenza A (H1N1) virus. Results: A total of 668 (23.29%) were positive for influenza A (H1N1) virus, Group specific influenza A was positive in 524 (18.27%) samples. It was observed that influenza A (H1N1) virus was prevalent in western Rajasthan (Jodhpur) during the study period. Conclusion: Such surveillance data are important in the early detection of any antigenic variants that may be helpful in global influenza vaccine preparation and for any pandemic preparedness activity.

  147. Geeta, S.H. and Rama, N.K.

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents among Staphylococcus aureus is an increasing problem. Emergence of Methicillin resistance in hospital acquired and also among community acquired Staphylococcus aureus has resulted with very few therapeutic options to treat staphylococcal infections. The Macrolide Lincosamide Streptogramin B [MLSB] family of antibiotics is one such alternative with clindamycin being the preferred drug due to its excellent pharmacokinetic properties. Hence clindamycin is commonly used to treat serious infections including skin and soft tissue infections produced by drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus including MRSA. As clindamycin is a safe drug to use in serious MRSA infections, it was continuously misused resulting in increased resistance to the drug. Clindamycin resistance may be constitutive or inducible. Two common genes responsible for resistance to macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics are the ermA and ermC genes. In vitro routine tests for clindamycin susceptibility may fail to detect inducible clindamycin resistance due to erm genes resulting in treatment failure; thus necessitating the need to detect such resistance by a simple disc approximation test [D test] on a routine basis. The present study was undertaken to know the rate of inducible clindamycin resistance and erm genes among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in our hospital. Materials and Methods: 355 Staphylococcal species were isolated from various clinical specimen in the department of microbiology over a period of 6 months. Of which, 81 S. aureus isolated and identified by standard protocol were included in the present study. MRSA & MSSA were detected using cefoxitin [30 µg] disc as per CLSI criteria. Antibiotic sensitivity to routine antimicrobial agents was done by Kirby Bauer’s disk diffusion method. D test was performed on all erythromycin resistant MRSA and MSSA isolates to detect phenotypic expression of clindamycin resistance. ermA and ermC genome identified by PCR on D test positive isolates. Results: Out of 81 isolates of S. aureus, 18 (22%) were found to be MRSA & 63(78%) MSSA. Erythromycin resistance was seen in 70(86%) & 11(14%) were erythromycin sensitive of S aureus. Out of the total 70 erythromycin resistant strains of Staph aureus, 22(31%) isolates showed inducible clindamycin resistance, 26(37%) showed constitutive clindamycin resistance and 22(31%) were MS phenotypes. Hence D test was positive among 16(73%) MSSA & 06(27%) MRSA isolates. D test positive strains (22) were tested for ermA and ermC genes. 4/22(18.2%) ermA genes and 15/22(68.2%) ermC in erythromycin resistant S aureus strains respectively. Conclusion: Clindamycin is a very safe and effective drug which can be used against CA & HA MRSA infection. Development of in vivo therapeutic failure can be prevented by doing a D test routinely in microbiology lab.

  148. Oinam Prabita Devi, Davina Hijam, Abhishek Dubey, NingthoujamOmita Devi, Sungdirenla Jamir, Sumpi Percy, Chubalemla Longkumer, Taruni Ng and Amuba Singh, M.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the levels of serum apolipoprotein B-100 in type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 96 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients (thirty three with cardiovascular complications and another sixty three without cardiovascular complications) attending Diabetic Clinic and Medicine Ward RIMS, Imphal. Serum Apo-B was estimated by ELISA and enzymatic methods were used for estimation of serum lipid parameters (Triglycerides, Total Cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were measured). Fasting and postprandial blood sugar were measured by glucose oxidase method. RESULTS: Serum apolipoprotein-B levels for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients with and without complications were found to be 2 (0.1 – 6.5) g/l and 1.1 (0.2 – 7.4)g/l respectively. Both of these were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than normal value (0.85 g/l – 1.0 g/l) and patients with cardiovascular complications had higher serum apo-B levels than those without complications (p < 0.05). Serum apo-B was positively correlated with total cholesterol (r = 0.339, P < 0.05), Triglycerides (r = 0.373, P < 0.05), VLDL (r = 0.367, P < 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol level (r = 0.356, P < 0.05) and was negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol level (r = - 0.393, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Raised serum apolipoprotein B-100 level may have some relationship with vascular complications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus especially coronary heart disease. Serum apolipoprotein B-100 may be a preferred marker of coronary heart disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients.

  149. Quaiser Saif, Khan Ruhi and Kamal Athar

    Microalbuminuria is associated with increased risk for renal and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in diabetes mellitus, hypertension and patients with acute myocardial infarction but the significance of microalbuminuria in other chronic diseases has been very rarely explored. This article highlights the pathogenesis, implications and methodology of testing for microalbuminuria in various systemic disorders.

  150. Rajesh Narayan

    Aim: Anthropologic history provides evidence that urinary calculi existed since time immemorial. Accurate knowledge of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the urinary calculi is vital for understanding calculogenesis and development of prophylactic measures. Method: Chemical “Spot test” is the common and practical test for chemical analysis of urinary stone done by Winer and Mattice Urinary stones are multicomponent system and identification of the constituents in urinary Calculi may enable the investigator to accurately characterize the ionic conditions prevailing at the time of nucleation and growth. Result: Winer and Mattice “Spot testing” have proven to be simplified and reliable & cheap method of analysis of urinary calculi with only 2% error in detection of components of calculi. On Moh’s Scale of hardness (2-5) 93.33% stones were present. 46.67% calculi were pure and 53.33% were mixed in nature. In pure variety oxalates were 30% and phosphates 13.33%. In mixed calculi the most common combination was oxalate+phosphate+urates constituting 20%. Conclusion: Chemical “Spot test” is accurate in detecting the components of urinary calculi. Spot test is simple, reliable and cheap method of chemical analysis of urinary calculi. For the practitioners without access to large analytic laboratories, the most useful, relatively simple and cheap method is chemical Spot test to formulate a therapeutic plan that will be useful in preventing future stone diseases and recurrences. Knowledge of the percentage composition of urinary calculi contributes to the ability to predict the most probable cause of that calculus.

  151. Meenakshi Sable, Sangeeta Gawli, Rutuja kowale, Kowale, A. N., Harshada kamble, Zingade, U. S., Pandey, G. R. and Borule, P. D.

    Introduction: In obese people presence of adipose tissue around the rib cage, abdomen and in the visceral cavity loads the chest wall and reduces chest wall expansion which in turn reduces the pulmonary functions. In obesity, abdominal muscle strength is also decreased which in turn affects pulmonary functions. So the present study was conducted to investigate whether there is correlation between various adiposity markers like Body mass index, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio and abdominal strength with pulmonary function parameters like, FVC, FEV1 and MVV. Methods and Materials: The Present study was conducted on 80obese and non- obese subjects of both the sex between 30 to 55years of age. The parameters studied were anthropometry measurements (height, weight, BMI), adiposity markers (waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio) and abdominal strength with Pulmonary functions. Results: There was statistically significant reduced pulmonary functions among the obese (BMI-28.99+3.34kg/m2)subjects compared to non-obese (BMI -22.81+3.48kg/m2) subjects. Among the adiposity markers BMI shows negative correlation with pulmonary parameters like FVC, FEV1and MVV. While waist circumference, waist hip ratio did not show any correlation with PFT parameters and abdominal muscle strength shows positive correlation with PFT parameters. Conclusion: It is well recognized that obesity affects the mechanics and physiology of the respiratory system. The result suggests that BMI is an important and better predictor of pulmonary function than abdominal adiposity markers. Poor abdominal muscle strength affects pulmonary functions adversely.

  152. Arjun Agarwal, Azam Haseen and Cheena Garg

    Thrombus is a recognized cause for limb ischaemia with success rates for revascularization decreasing with increasing time.This article describes a case of a successful femoropopliteal embolectomy for a patient with a 6 month history of claudication in right leg. The authors want to emphasize that physical nature of thrombus should be routinely checked during revascularization as a soft , friable thrombus can be successfully removed using a fogarty balloon catheter obliviating the need for a bypass procedure.

  153. Ins. Saba Jasim Jwad and Ali Shaker Mahmood

    This study is from December, 2013 to March, 2014 in Al-Batool hospital for childbirth and center laboratory. About 240 samples of blood divided into two groups, the first group is the (240 samples) healthy ones who are going to marry and the second is a hundred pregnant women as samples. Antibodies of plasma of a sample have discovered by using diagnostic equipment RPR-Carbon. The study shows that the first group is uninfected, while the second group about (13%) is positive and the highest rate which infected those who under (30) years old with a rate of gravity (6.1) and on the other side the infected pregnant in the first three months of the pregnancy is (81%).

  154. Ramesh Edamula, Deecaraman, M., Vijayalakshmi, M., Santhosh Kumar, D. P., Krishnamurthy, H. N. and Krishnappa, H.

    The postnatal developmental toxicity of Crocus sativus (saffron) was evaluated in a mammalian species taking Wistar rat as the model. Saffron administered as an oral gavage from implantation (day 5 post coitus) through lactation up to lactation day (LD) 20 at the doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day did not elicit any effects on maternal/lactation body weight gains, food intake and fertility. The mean number of pups born and weight of male and female pups and pup’s survivability were unaffected. The results obtained conclude that saffron did not induce any maternal toxicity or any toxicity on the developing fetus/pups including its survivability and hence saffron is considered to have no postnatal developmental toxicity potential.

  155. Gorgiladze, L., Meparishvili, G., Sikharulidze, Z., Tsetskhladze, Ts. and Koiava, L.

    Using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method low molecular diversity was detected among D. tritici-repentis isolates recovered from wheat leaves collected in different locations in Georgia. The most of isolates were of highly similar. Similarity index varied between 0.333 -0.944. Maximum index was 0.944 for isolates A1a and A1b, low index (0.167-0.444) was seen for 23 pairs. High degree of genetic similarity was found among isolates obtained from Dusheti region and among Sachkhere isolates. The dendrogram of PARD data contains two groups. The grouping by DNA polymorphism showed no association with the geographic origin of the isolates.

  156. Debasree Ghosh, Amal Kumar Mondal and Sanjukta Mondal (Parui)

    The Extrafloral nectaries are nectar-secreting structures that are especially common in the family Fabaceae. Light and electron microscopic structure reveals that the morphologically well-differentiated petiolar extrafloral nectaries of Acacia auriculiformis, A. catechu, A. mangium have an complex anatomical structures consisting of an epidermis, central secretory region and vascular region. The categories of EFNs following a structural-topographical classification, and characterize the vascularized and complex nectaries and secretory trichomes. Four species possess more than one morphotypes of gland structure. Observations and experimental field studies also support the anti-herbivore role of EFN-gathering ants in these plants.

  157. Josephin Jeevakumar and Lalitha Ramakrishnan

    The aim of the study is to determine the phytonutrient content in fresh and dried seed spices and compare with various traditional cooking methods. Spices may be derived from parts of the plant: bark, buds, flowers, fruits, leaves, rhizomes, roots, seeds, stigmas and styles or the entire plant tops. The phytonutrient contentslike lycopene, polyphenol and total carotenes in fresh, dried, roasted, paste, and decotion of seed spices were determined by using ethanol and acetone solution. Commonly consumed seed spices like sesame, pepper, coriander seeds, poppy seeds and mustard used in Kerala and Tamilnadu were studied, by using UV spectrophotometry and calorimetric methods. Cooking caused a significant change in some components of the proximate nutrients. Lycopene content was increased in dried spices when compared to fresh spices. Polyphenol content increased to some extent in roasted and dried spices. An increase in total carotene content was observedin dried and roasted spices. When spice were blended and made into a paste there was loss of flavour and aroma and spice oil oozes out and there is reduction in phytonutrient content.

  158. Chaudhari, D. D., Thakar, K. P. and Pandya, S. P.

    The present study entitled "Cost of cultivation of summer bajra in Banaskantha district of Gujarat state" was undertaken to calculate the cost of production of summer bajra. The study is based on data collected from 126 farmers selected from 6 randomly selected villages and 20 market functionaries in two market areas namely Deesa and Tharad of Banaskantha district of Gujarat state.

  159. Mohd.Javed Kamal Shamsi

    Heavy metals, nowadays are the major environmental problems which deteriorate the natural phenomenon of all the living beings of the ecosystem. The present investigation was carried out in two freshwater fishes, Cyprinus carpio and Oreochromis niloticus exposed to Lead acetate and Nickel chloride to determine the lethal concentration (LC50) for 96 hour. The 96h LC 50 for both the species was computed as 14.35 mg/L (O.niloticus) and 16.75 mg/L (C.carpio). The same fishes were treated with sub-lethal concentrations for determining the hematological parameters. All the variations in parameters were dose dependent and were in parenthesis. The experiment was carried out for four weeks and observed that erythrocytes count, hemoglobin and the hematocrit value increased gradually with exposure time while the leukocytes count decreased. Serum protein and serum glucose were found to be affected significantly. Lead acetate seems to be more effective than the nickel chloride.

  160. Samyappan, K., Saravanan, R. and Chitra, N.

    Heavy metals occur in aquatic systems from natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The pollution of aquatic environment by heavy metals affects aquatic organisms and poses considerable environmental risks and concerns. The gills are one of the vital organs which come into direct contact with water and are indicative of any environmental stress. Preliminary toxicity tests were carried out to find the median lethal tolerance limit of experimental fishes to copper for 96 hours. The LC50 was found to be 12 mg/L. One-tenth (1.2 mg/L) was taken as the sublethal concentration for the study. The fishes were maintained for a period of 14 days in sublethal concentration. Experiment was conducted using sublethal and toxicologically safe concentration. The present study would decipher the effect of heavy metal copper on the modulations in the activity of gill ATPases in fingerlings of freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

  161. Najoua El Moussaoui, Anouar El Hassane and Abdenbi Bendriss

    The stability of melatonin in different storage conditions and under ultrasound-assisted extraction has been studied. This work aimed on the analysis of the melatonin stability variation with time and under the light, air and temperature effects, in order to determine the best recommended storage conditions. The results showed that melatonin has an acceptable stability in all tested storage conditions: Darkness at 25ºC, darkness at 50ºC, light at 25ºC and light at 50ºC until day 13. However, the samples kept at 25ºC in light and in darkness without air protection; which degrades strongly from the beginning, to reach more than 41% on the sixth day and more than 66% on the fifteenth day. Under the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions, e.g. the presence of air, incidence light and high temperature (50 ºC), the results showed that the melatonin is stable and not degradable at higher temperature.

  162. Pyrbot, W. and Laloo, R. C.

    The water quality of Myntdu River at Jaintia Hills District Jowai has been studied as a comparative analysis of toxic metal seasonally during spring, monsoon, autumn and winter. The results showed the maximum metal content was obtains from the tributaries as compared from the originate source of Myntdu River in which value exceeded the permissible limit according to WHO (2006). The quality of river has deteriorated year by year due to the continuous discharge of domestic waste and coalmine seepage from various drains to the tributaries of Myntdu River. Therefore the water supply for domestic purposes from the Myntdu River should be treated and immediate action should be taken in order to stop the pollution load into the river water.

  163. Liliane N. Tandzi, Eddy M. Ngonkeu, Eric Nartey, Martin Yeboah, Hortense A. Mafouasson, Karine Moche, Honore Tekeu, Jacob Ngeve and Vernon Gracen

    Thirty inbred lines collected from Institute of the Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), IITA and CIMMYT were evaluated in four environments at the Bimodal Humid Forest Zone (BHFZ) of Cameroon under acid soil condition from 2012 to 2013. An environment was made of experimental site, agricultural campaign and year. The objectives of the study were to assess the genetic diversity of parental maize inbred lines and classify them based on their performance under acid soil. Morphological data were collected as describe in the Descriptor for maize. The local inbred lines had flint and indented kernel, with a yellow color. Most of them had primary –secondary tassel type with reddish color. All the lines were divided into two major groups. The first group was subdivided into three sub-groups containing the most susceptible lines, the susceptible lines and the moderately tolerant lines. The second major group was made of tolerant lines. The diversity among the lines was not too wide.

  164. Ramesh Edamula, Deecaraman, M., Vijayalakshmi, M., Santhosh Kumar, D.P., Krishnamurthy, H.N. and Krishnappa, H.

    The effects of post natal saffron exposure on physical development milestones such as pinna unfolding, incisor eruption, ear/eye opening including the land mark signs of attainment of sexual maturity with reference to preputial separation in males and vaginal opening were studied in Wistar rat offspring’s whose dams received saffron administered as an oral gavage from implantation (day 5 post coitus) through lactation up to lactation day (LD) 20 at the doses of 50 (low dose), 250 (mid dose) and 1000 (high dose) mg/kg/day. A total of 23 litters (6 each in control, low and high doses and 5 in mid dose) born after 21 days of gestation were used. The results showed that the ages of pinna unfolding, incisor eruption, ear/eye opening including the land mark signs of attainment of sexual maturity were not affected by saffron exposure.

  165. Ratna Kumar, P. K., Samuel K. Kolli, Suneetha, J. and Hemanth, G.

    Edible aroids find an important place in the food basket of many regions of our country as they have critical role in fulfilling the multifaceted needs of the people contributing to nutrition, food security and poverty eradication. Amorphophalluspaeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson is known as Elephant foot yam which is considered to be the highest income earner to the cultivator irrespective of the production system and temporal variations. It has both nutritional and medicinal values and is usually consumed as cooked vegetable. The present study focuses on the traditional cultivation in field areas located in west Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh, India.

  166. Mohan Rao, P., Ramesh, M and Sudhakar, G

    Introduction: Natural selection is one of the important evolutionary factors, which brings about a change in the gene pool of a population. This change is brought about by differential fertility and differential mortality. Differential fertility and mortality are due to difference in genetic fitness of individuals which can be determined in terms of viable offspring produced by the individual. These variables operates singly or jointly to determine the fitness of a particular population in a given environment. Objectives: The main object of the present work is to study the extent of variation provided for the natural selection to operate through differential mortality and also to find out the factors responsible for the variation in sub groups of Salis caste population according to Crow’s formula and the modified method suggested by Johnston and Kensinger and also to compare the present findings with some related findings from other populations of the state. Materials and Methods: In the present study, A house to house survey was conducted for demographic information on 520 families of the Sali sub populations (PS-I: 265; PS-II: 255).Data on fertility and mortality were collected through the in-depth interview with each married woman using structured schedules. The index of total selection intensity (I) and its mortality and fertility (Im and If) were calculated by using the original formula of Crow's and the modified method suggested by Johnston and Kensinger. Results: The study was observed that the total index of natural selection using Crow’s method is higher in PS-II (Pattusalis) (0.5625) than PS-I (Padmasalis) (0.3626). The index of selection due to fertility component is more than mortality component in both the subgroups. Johnston and Kensinger’s index showed the same trend of more contribution of fertility component to the total index of natural selection than mortality component. The higher contribution of fertility component to the total index among the two subgroups of Salis supports the contention that due to better living conditions and proper medical care.

  167. Pallab Deb, Prabhat Kumar Rai and Parimal C. Bhattacharjee

    The present population status survey of Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) was carried out at 10 specific localities in Kanghmun Village Safety Reserve Forest from November 2012 to March 2013 based on information gathered from the forest department and local inhabitants. The majority of the Gibbon groups (5 groups) was recorded by direct observations and only 1 group recorded by indirect (call count) observations. We recorded a total of 19 individuals in the 6 family groups during our population status survey. Of the total 19 individuals , 6 (31.57%) were adult males, 6 (31.57%) were adult females, 2 (10.52%) were sub-adults, 2 (10.52%) were juveniles, 3 (15.78%) were infants. The immature class formed by sub-adults, juveniles and infants include 7 (36.84%) of the total population. We estimated the average group size to be at 3.16 individuals ranging from 2 to 4 individuals. The estimated adult sex ratio (male: female) was 1:1. The Jhum cultivation (Shifting cultivation) is the main factor leading to the destruction and fragmentation of Gibbon habitat

  168. Tulika Mishra

    Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. Belonging to family Nyctaginaceae is an important medicinal plant. An efficient protocol was developed for in vitro propagation of B. diffusa. Leaf explants was used for callus induction and regeneration of B. diffusa on MS basal medium, with different concentrations and combinations of cytokinins (BAP, Kinetin) and auxins (NAA, IAA). Best response to shoot proliferation was achieved with MS medium supplemented with 3.0mg/l BAP and 1.0mg/l NAA. Efficient rooting was achieved at low concentrations, 0.5mg/l of IAA. About 80% of the regenerated plants survived in the field conditions.

  169. Malik D. S., Pradip Kumar Maurya and Hemant Kumar

    The present investigations confirm that stress due to various pollution specially heavy metals in fish H. fossilis, collected from Kali river. Haematological (Hb, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, platelets count, HCt, neutrophile, lymphocyte, eoinophil, and monocryte), distervence does create physiological stress like, swimming imbalance, breeding, sexual maturity (Haemolysis) and leucocytosis in fish population affecting the immune system and making the fish vulnerable to stress. The results of correlation analysis of haematological indices show highly, medium, positive and negative correlation. Concentration of heavy metals (manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), Cupper (Cu)) was determined in the gills, liver and muscles of Heteropneustis fossilis from Kali river located at Muzaffarnagar. The pattern of metal accumulation in studied selected organs was in the order: Mn> Cu> Cr> Cd> and Pb. All the metals concentration in the liver showed greater but Cu and Cr was maximum compare than other metals.

  170. Christopher Joseph Kiiza and Dr. Esther Waiganjo

    This study investigated the role of civic education of youth on democratic governance in Tanzania. The conceptual framework consisted of civic education as the independent variable and democratic governance as the dependent variable of the study. To capture the objective of the study, both qualitatively and quantitatively approaches were used, with the study adopting a case study research design. The findings indicated that majority of the respondents strongly agreed to have participated in the civic education program while a small percentage strongly disagreed to have participated on the program. The study recommends progressive policies and allocation of resources to address youth marginalization in the distribution of opportunities for participating in decision making so as to build their capacity through civic education.

  171. Shorinwa Olusayo Aderonke, Onwuka Chinedu Kester and Ukwueze Stanley Ejike

    Mimosa pigra is used in traditional medicine to lower blood glucose in diabetic patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of the ethanol root extract of Mimosa pigra in albino rats. The rats were divided into five groups, each containing five rats. Group 1 served as the normal control (non-diabetic), groups II and III were treated with 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg of the ethanol extract of Mimosa pigra respectively, group IV was treated with glibenclamide and group V, the diabetic control group was untreated. Diabetes was induced through intraperitoneal injection of 160mg/kg alloxan monohydrate. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanol extract revealed the presence of steroids (triterpenes), tannins, flavonoids, phlobatannins, and saponins. The LD50 was found to be greater than 5000mg/kg In the acute study, the 250mg/kg extract showed a reduction in the blood glucose level at the 6th hour which was statistically significant (P<0.05) compared to the diabetic control group, while the 500mg/kg extract showed no statistically significant reduction (P<0.05) compared to the diabetic untreated animals. In the prolonged study, on days 1, 3, 7, 10, the 250mg/kg extract showed a statistically significant reduction in blood glucose level compared to the diabetic control group, while the 500mg/kg extract showed a reduction in blood glucose levels on days 1, 3, 5 which was statistically significant (P<0.05) compared to the diabetic control group. The results suggest that extract of the root of Mimosa pigra possess significant anti-diabetic activity.

  172. Debashish Dey, Bidhan Chandra Patra and Debidas Ghosh

    HIV is the most important known risk factor that promotes progression to active TB in people with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The lifetime risk of tuberculosis in immune competent persons is 5% to 10%, but in HIV positive individuals, there is a 5% to 15% annual risk of developing active TB disease. In India, there were 2.5 million people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) at the end of 2007 while the incidence of TB was approximately 1.8 million cases per year. Hence, the present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of HIV amongst a cohort of TB patients registered in selected Tuberculosis Units (TUs) of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) in East Midnapore, West Bengal, India. The present study shows that the prevalence of HIV among TB patients registered under RNTCP is 3.9% at three T.Us. of East Midnapore district of West Bengal, India. HIV was more prevalent among men than women (2.8% vs 1.1%).

  173. Tamilarasi, P., Ramya, P., Sukumaran, M., Rengarajan, R. and Siva, T.

    Scylla serrata is an important crustacean species in Agniyar estuary region having good nutritional value. The present study reflects the effect of copper sulphate on Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme in some vital organs of the estuarine mud crab Scylla serrata. Crabs of equal size were treated with different concentrations of copper sulphate (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 ppm) respectively. The mortality rate was noted up to 96 hours. After deducting the LC50, the crabs were treated with a sub-lethal concentration of copper sulphate (2.0 ppm) for 5, 10 and 15 days respectively. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity estimation was done in the case of sub-lethal concentrations (10 % and 30 %) of copper sulphate exposure and compared with the control group of crabs. There is increased in all tissues on comparison with control. The results indicated the toxic nature of the heavy metal copper sulphate.

  174. Ramya, P., Tamilarasi, P., Sukumaran, M. and Rengarajan, R.

    Heavy metal pesticides are common pollutants of freshwater ecosystems where they induce adverse effects on the aquatic biota. Estuarine mud crab, Scylla serrata is an important crustacean species of Agniyar estuary in Thanjavur region having good nutritional values. Crabs living in close association with the sediment may accumulate copper sulphate. In the present investication, the toxic effects of the copper sulphate LC50 4.85 ppm (CuSO4) on some biochemical characteristics (total protein in muscle, gill and hepatopancreas) of the estuarine mud crab, Scylla serrata were estimated. There is decreased in all tissues on comparison with control. The results indicated the toxic nature of the heavy metal copper sulphate.

  175. Dr. Ambrose, T.

    Aquatic insects have been extensively studied to know their ecological relationship with other freshwater communities. One stable and one temporary pond- representing a wide hydroperiod gradient were selected from each district viz. Chennai (Chetpet and Koyambedu) and Kancheepuram (Chengalpet), India. Members of each genus of water bugs occupy a distinct habitat and exhibit diagnostic behaviour patterns. Micronecta s cutellaris prefers limnetic shallow water. Diplonychus rusticus inhabits water column as well as near the shores. Anisops bouvieri colonizes limnetic water column. Tenagogonus fluviorum occupies open water surface, preferentially under shade.

  176. Dr. Ambrose, T.

    Occurrence, prevalence and distribution of representative key species of aquatic heteroptera were investigated in selective fresh water bodies at Kancheepuram and Chennai districts of Tamilnadu. Traditional unrestricted sampling method was adopted. Water bodies with silt loam substratum showed higher correlation with abundance of aquatic bugs than with sandy loam, loamy sand, clay loam and clay. Taramani pond with clayey substratum was not colonized by M. scutellaris. Soil organic matter influences the colonization of bottom region of shore water resulting in dominance of M. scutellaris in permanent habitats. Permanent pond at Chetpet, Chennai having silt loam (silt 55 %, sand 25% and clay 20%) soil substratum and 10.2 % organic carbon showed abundance of aquatic bugs. The first two consecutive positions in community structure indices are shared by permanent pond ecosystems followed by temporary pond community. Species diversity index represents equitability in species abundance among species. Chengalpet permanent pond exhibits very poor species diversity index in spite of having high species abundance next to Chetpet pond. Habitat stability and abundance of niches influence colonization dynamics. In newly formed habitats, through climate change, the bugs colonize so rapidly that the fauna is in equilibrium with the prevailing environmental conditions. Colonization and community structure of aquatic insects vary among stable ponds, temporary ponds and lakes.

  177. Pesticides are one of the most important components of high-input farming. Fenvalerate is one among the type II synthetic pyrethroids that has replaced other groups of earlier insecticides due to its improved insecticidal potency. Susceptibility of the Oriental corixid, Micronecta scutellaris (Stål) to the synthetic Pyrethroid, Fenvalerate was investigated. Acute toxicity was observed as a function of duration of exposure and concentration of the toxicant. Nymphal stages were more susceptible than adults. Adult females were more tolerant than adult males. 96h LC50 values were 14.36, 14.2, 6.83 and 5.71 mg/l for adult female, adult male, V stage nymph and IV stage nymph respectively.

  178. Boaz Maloba

    Language determines the way we view the world around us, how we categorize and stratify ourselves in the society is a result of the kind of mindset that our culture has inculcated in us. Language is the medium of our culture; the stereotypes and prejudices that bedevil our culture are transmitted and repeatedly reinforced through language. Patriarchy characterizes most African and western societies and its focal point is a belief that condones male supremacy and dominance over women therefore perpetuating gender inequalities that exclude women from key decision making processes. It is not clear however; whether men are actually superior to women. The main objective in this study is to establish how notions of power and powerlessness are manifest in the use of interruptions from a call-in show corpus among the Luhya of western Kenya. A mixed method approach is used to collect and analyze both quantitative and qualitative discourse data. The Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is used focusing on communicative features that play a role in the production of dominance by one group over another. It views language as a form of social practice that focuses on the ways social and political domination are reproduced by text and talk. The current study reveals that in as much as there are differences in the speech in the use of interruptions, other factors including age, status, and economic prowess other than gender can determine the way one speaks in general conversation. The findings reveal that men are dominance oriented, more assertive and competitive in their speech while women were found supportive and cooperative but this is dependent on the context. It is recommended that future studies in language and gender must take into account the variety of contexts and other external factors. More studies need to be done in different contexts to examine gender behaviour on the discourse level.

  179. Arjun, Mrs. K. A. Nethravathi and Mrs. K Saraswathi

    In this paper an attempt is made to find the sand and clay percentage of the selected region by performing various tests like: sieve method and hydrometer. The readings of the sand, clay and silt present in the soil sample are calculated. The water content of the soil for different layers of the soil samplesis identified and the density of soil for the region selected is calibrated. The zigbee s2 (mesh) is used as the mote; the sensor has a good receiving capability upto -98dB, an Arduino is used at the receiving end. There are 3 motes used, one of them at the above ground, which was configured as the coordinator, and the other two underground sensors were made as the router, this was able to communicate in a mesh network. Then the motes were connected to the moisture sensor and temperature sensor, and the reading was taken wirelessly by burying inside the ground upto 40cm from the ground surface.

  180. Taghreed.H.Al-Noor, Amer J.Jarad and Salwan Bahnam Abo

    Complexes of Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II)and Zn(II) with mixed ligand of 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) and tributylphosphine (PBu3) were prepared in aqueous ethanol with (1:2:2) (M:L:PBu3). The prepared complexes were characterized using flame atomic absorption, FT.IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods as well as magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. In addition biological activity of the two ligands and their complexes against three selected type of bacteria were also examined. The general compositions of the complexes are found to be [M(4-AAP)2(PBu3)2] Cl2 Where M= Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II)and Zn(II). Some of the complexes exhibit good bacterial activities. From the obtained data the octahedral structures have suggested for all prepared complexes.

  181. Hussein A. Shaia

    The surface roughness of FRP composite piles may be significantly altered during the driving process. This change could affect the interface pile design parameters. Therefore, an accurate quantification of this change is required to precisely determine the pile shaft resistance. This letter presents the results of an experimental study that investigated the change in surface roughness and interface shear coefficient of two different FRP counterface surfaces that sheared against two different types of sand under increased normal stress levels. The test results indicated that quantifiable surface roughness and interface resistance changes could be induced by the interface shearing process under increased normal stress levels. A conceptual explanation is provided in this study to interpret the observed behaviour. In conclusion, the outcomes of this study demonstrate the importance of considering the shear induced wear of FRP materials during the driving installation process.

  182. Mr. A.D. Dhanorkar and Mr. P. S. Choudhary

    Many developers have intended their models in binary and quaternary logic using 0.18µm CMOS technology. In Binary logic, circuit has limitations of increase interconnections giving rise to complexities and their by impact on size. Some authors concentrated on put back in place of binary logic with MVL or quaternary logic to prevail over the limitation of size. Second is that for half and full adder (for addition/ arithmetic operations) the quaternary logic method required the conversion of quaternary logic level into binary level for implementation. Our aim is to intend and develop MVL or quaternary logic for full adder without converting these levels to binary logic. It will reduce the one additional step and improve the performance offer less chip size, saving more power. MVL or quaternary logic can be implemented in three different modes. From that mode, voltage mode type model is beneficial to design and give high performance with less dynamic power dissipation. The design is targeted for the 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Design tool for simulation will be ADS (ADVANCED DESIGN SYSTEM) software. We will estimate area, power and delay of the design HAq / FAq without any need of conversion, and compare to existing binary circuits (HAb / FAb).

  183. Belkhiri, F., Baghiani, A., Boumerfeg, S., Charef, N., Khennouf S. and Arrar, L.

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Tamus communis L. root extracts (TCRE), which is a plant used in traditional medicine in Algeria. The antioxidant potential of pattern was evaluated using two complementary techniques, inhibition of free radical DPPH and the test of β-Carotene / linoleic acid. The antioxidant test indicates that non-polar fractions of TCRE (chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions) were more active than the polar fractions. Among these fractions, the chloroform extract appear in the DPPH test an IC50 of (0.0189 mg/ml) comparable to that of BHT (0.0186 µg/ml). This fraction was able to inhibiting the oxidation of β-Carotene with a percentage of inhibition (89.84 %). In antibacterial test, non-polar fractions showed antibacterial activity very important compared with the polar fractions. These fractions have inhibited the growth of four from nine bacterial strains, causing zones of inhibition from 08 to 14 mm of diameter.

  184. Vijesh Joe, C., Shinly Swarna Sugi, S., Veenaa Deeve, N.V. and Narmatha, K.

    The need for reduction in infrastructure cost and to implement shared services has given rise to enthrone cloud computing in various field. Along with the boons of cloud computing the number of threats on the security of information store in shared mode is high. The most discussed issues in cloud computing is security: still the benefits on cloud computing usage is dominant. Here in our paper we have performed a complete and detailed study on various threats impended while using cloud computing resources and the advantages of using cloud computing

  185. Kavitha, S and Hanumanthappa, M.

    In this paper we proposed the comparative study of hand gesture classification for the Indian Sign Language hand gestures using different class association rules and classification models. In knowledge discovery process association rule mining and classification aretwo important techniques of data mining and widely used in various fields. This paper tries to explain the basics of class association rule mining and classification through WEKA for hand gestures. How problems of classification and prediction can be solved using class association rules were discussed. In the simulation on WEKA, we have used selected classification techniques to propose the appropriate result from our training dataset.

  186. Ahmadi Karvigh, Hassan

    Quantum entanglement offers unique insights into the fundamental principles of physical world, because entangled states exhibit correlations that have no classical analog. However, despite a great deal of highly sophisticated work by a large number of very bright people, the phenomenon still looks as a manifestation that humans’ intuition, shaped by classical physics for many years, cannot describe all of its intricacies. In this paper, the possibility of considering null frames and null points is shown. All events consisting in a light wave traversing various points in space, in the null frame would be both simultaneous and single-positioned. The null frame concept clearly explains why and how the entanglement and other seemingly weird phenomena of the quantum theory happen. The null point is, in fact, a singularity of four-dimensional space-time. There is no time flowing, no distance, and no direction in a null frame.

  187. Mamata Sahu and Prafulla K. Sahoo

    Chemically modified jute fiber (Tossa variety) was grafted onto 2-ethyl hexylacrylate (2-EHA) to prepare copolymer using in situ developed transition metal complex initiating system; CuSO4/glycine/potassium monopersulfate (KMPS). Then its composites were prepared by incorporating montmorillonite (MMT) clay. The above samples were characterized by Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The thermal behavior and tensile strength of the samples were studied. The fire retardant properties were studied using oxygen consumption cone calorimeter. The biodegradability of the composites was tested to see if it is ecofriendly by nature and viable for better commercialization.

  188. Pathan, J. M., Gulam Rabbani, Khan, A. R. and Yusuf H. Shaikh

    Dendritic Pattern grown in electrode position under suitable working conditions gives rise to fractal pattern with complexity of shape, structure and texture. Such dendritic patterns exhibit interesting characteristics and in most of the cases fractals obey scale invariance over a wide range of length scale. The study of the dendritic patterns grown in a cell with circular geometry, with a view to explore the growth rate of different electrode position patterns. It is found that the dendritic patterns with few branches, when closely examined exhibit microstructures that are of interest from the point of material science and newer materials with non conventional characteristics. The rate of growth is studied from the point of linear growth, volume gained and mass added as a function of time.

  189. Dr. Diaaelden Mohamed Amin Tantawy

    Interior design is a profession that serves for the human habitation in the environment. In the context of human needs, there are many different dimensions and levels of satisfaction. The interior space can satisfy the need of security, or it can lead to a satisfaction level from security to self-esteem. Recent global debates focus on to a basic need that is to survive. We have defined the Interior wall cladding as the main point of the Interior Décor, which influence the entire atmosphere in the house as the cladding of the wall giving the rhythm to the following design of the room in general. Need of sustainable environment, cladding is an obligation rather than a will, in order to survive. In the following research, we have reviewed the classification of the sustainable materials and clarified the meaning of the term “sustainability”, “green design”; “intelligent materials”; indicated the alternative solution for the harmful materials in the wall cladding as bamboo, cork, wood etc. In addition, we have revised the role of the Designer and the barriers for the implementation of the sustainable Interior Design.

  190. Jacques Thierie

    We assume that the distribution of "biological objects" (species, family, phyla,) inside a "set" (community, assemblage, etc.) is at random. Although similar assumptions have been put forward by others (see text), our treatment is basically different. Based on a simple algorithm describing the random partition of a set, we obtain the resulting statistical laws characterizing the partition (that is to say: probability density, repartition function and moments). The theoretical results are supported by mathematical simulations of thousands random drawings. Assuming that the reduced variable characterizing a biological object is analogous to a probability, we adjust curves of rank / relative abundance type (like non-log plots Witthaker type, Fisher plots,) with probabilities calculated through our statistical functions. The results are compelling both for eukaryotes (not shown) and for prokaryotes. The sole fitting parameter is the partition order, M (number of parts of the set). As a rule, this number is an integer. Nevertheless, we are discussing the possibility that this variable can be considered as a simple index and may have non-integer values. This index, which we call the PASTA index (from the French Partition STAtistiques) is defined as a biodiversity estimate and characterizes what we call the bioclusters number of the assemblage. We take as true that this index can be applied to characterize structural, genetic biodiversities and thus applies to various levels of description of an assemblage.

  191. Jacques Thierie

    We assume that the distribution of "biological objects" (species, family, phyla,) inside a "set" (community, assemblage, etc.) is at random. Although similar assumptions have been put forward by others (see text), our treatment is basically different. Based on a simple algorithm describing the random partition of a set, we obtain the resulting statistical laws characterizing the partition (that is to say: probability density, repartition function and moments). The theoretical results are supported by mathematical simulations of thousands random drawings. Assuming that the reduced variable characterizing a biological object is analogous to a probability, we adjust curves of rank / relative abundance type (like non-log plots Witthaker type, Fisher plots,) with probabilities calculated through our statistical functions. The results are compelling both for eukaryotes (not shown) and for prokaryotes. The sole fitting parameter is the partition order, M (number of parts of the set). As a rule, this number is an integer. Nevertheless, we are discussing the possibility that this variable can be considered as a simple index and may have non-integer values. This index, which we call the PASTA index (from the French Partition STAtistiques) is defined as a biodiversity estimate and characterizes what we call the bioclusters number of the assemblage. We take as true that this index can be applied to characterize structural, genetic biodiversities and thus applies to various levels of description of an assemblage.

  192. Amol R. Naik

    Management of solid waste is vital difficulty in developing as well as under developing countries like India. The manufacturing industries are major source of solid waste. In the Solapur region the production of bidies from the Tendu leaf is main source of income for the low and middle income group. The bidee production produces large quantity of its by products which directly dump into nearby the production yard and indirectly environment as whole without any pre-treatment. This paper tries to concentrate on the parametric study on the surroundings of dumping yards. During the experimental study in laboratory as well as on the study area, the primary observations place conclusion that the solids waste from beedi industry needs effective management to reduce and control the original quality of local environment.

  193. Dehghanian, C. and Farnush, M.

    Dengue High energy electron beam was used to treat the Al surface. Electron beam irradiation produces an ultra-fast cycle at the surface which results in deep subsurface hardening (about 100 μm) which improves corrosion and wear resistance. Analysis of top surface of Al showed shock hardening and condensation of chemical species. Electrochemical characterization of treated Al surface in 3.5% NaCl solution showed an increase improvement in uniform and pitting corrosion in comparison to untreated samples.

  194. Gunjal Shrikant Uttam

    Alternatives in cooling of cutting zone during metal cutting have been paid more attention in order to minimize the flank wear, surface roughness and cutting zone temperature. The usage of coolant lowers the cutting zone temperature which minimizes the wear of cutting tool and hence, the surface finish of the product is good. Several technologies for cooling of cutting zone have been developed in recent years for controlling the temperature in the cutting zone like cryogenic cooling, solid coolants/lubricants, High Pressure Coolants (HPC), internal tool cooling and use of compressed air. Many researchers and scientists developed lot of experimental studies to analyze the effect of various methods of cooling of cutting zone in order to minimize the wear of cutting tool and surface roughness are reviewed in this paper.

  195. Khakpoor, A. A. and Agahi Keshe, B.

    Topological indices are defined based on graph theory and are the constants of graph, which are used to study quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and quantitative structure Properties relationship (QSPR). This graph describes the simplest connection of atoms in a molecule (Zarrabian, 2000). In this article we will randomly choose a number of organic compounds of titanium and calculating four topological indices: Wiener, Harary, Balaban and Randic. Then we try to fit a model to predict the physical and chemical properties of some organic compounds of titanium. To offer this model, the physical and chemical properties of the samples were calculated using the Gaussian software. The results indicate good agreement on the application of topological indices Harary and Randic, to predict the physical and chemical properties.

  196. Jesintha Prabha, J. and Anitha Thulasi, J.

    This paper proposes an efficient solar tracker system using a dual MPPT controller. It consists of three step DC to DC converter, which has been controlled by a microcontroller based unit. MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) is used in photovoltaic system to maximize the PV array output power, irrespective of temperature, irradiation conditions and electrical characteristics of the load. The first MPPT controller is a dual axis solar tracker, which ensures optimization of the conversion of solar energy into electricity by properly orienting the PV panel in accordance with the real position of the sun to track azimuth and elevation angles. The second MPPT controller controls the duty cycle of the converter using modified Incremental Conductance algorithm to enable the PV array operate at maximum operating power at all conditions. The proposed control scheme eliminates oscillations and tracks the global maximum power point (GMPP) accurately. The simulation has been accomplished in MATLAB software.

  197. Vijayan, S. N., Sendhilkumar, S. and Kiran Babu, K. M.

    The automotive chassis serves as a frame work for supporting the body and different parts of the automobile. Also, it has to withstand the shock, twist, vibration and other stresses caused due to sudden breaking, acceleration, shocking road condition, centrifugal force while cornering and forces induced by its components. The chassis acts as the backbone of a heavy vehicle which carries the maximum load for all designed operating conditions. This paper describes design and analysis of heavy vehicle chassis as the prime objective of any automobile industries in today’s fast changing world. In the present paper, the pertinent information of an existing heavy vehicle chassis of EICHER is taken for modeling and analysis by considering polymer composite materials namely, S-Glass Epoxy, and cross-sections like C, I and Box type subjected to the identical load as that of a steel chassis. The numerical results are validated with analytical calculation considering the stress distribution and deformation.

  198. Zena Mohammed Ali Abbas

    The aim of this research prepared and studying some structure properties of (ZnO)0.4 (ZrO2)0.6 nanocomposite Prepared by Powder metallurgy Technique. The structural and surface morphology of the nanocomposite were examined by means of X-Ray Diffraction and scanning electron microscopic (SEM). The particle size calculations were done using XRD Scherer’s formula (15nm),and sample contain a mixture of the monoclinic, tetragonal hexagonal structure.

  199. Sonal Jain, Ruchi Middha, Shelja K. Juneja and Pallavi Kaushik

    Heavy rainfall generally results in flooding of rivers which outflow; and submerges the land which is usually dry, although this is not a usual phenomenon in the arid regions of Rajasthan, India. In 1981, the Chaksu block of Jaipur district, Rajasthan suffered from severe flood, which caused massive erosion of the soil. This region was then restored by Joint Forest Management (JFM) in 1984. This effort of Government and community has resulted in increased green cover on land and has led to improved soil quality. The present study was conducted to analyse the physico-chemical characteristics of soil samples, which were collected from the Thooni Ram Laxmanpura of the Chaksu Block, Jaipur. The soil parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, organic matter, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium, phosphorous and total nitrogen were analysed. Water holding capacity and moisture content of the soil were also estimated. Upon the statistical comparison using student’s t-test between the physico-chemical characteristics of restored and unrestored samples significant difference was found, therefore, it can be concluded from the results that the restoration measures adopted by community and forest department were quite effective in improving the quality of soil.

  200. Ali. Hatefi and Dr. Mohsen Izanloo

    The economical and political sanctions that have been issued by western countries and outstanding international organizations had always lots of affections on the economical and political affairs of target countries and caused non-growth or defected growth for these countries. This essay in its sections has tried to give a comprehensive definition about sanction and its nature, to law analyze this fact that how the sanctions can be effective, to study sanction affections on economical and political affairs of target countries and the role of international institutions and at conclusion section in addition to give conclusion from noticed points in essay has also tried to give more topics for the next research about sanctions.

  201. Sambhu Prasad and Kesatie Legesse

    A survey study was carried out on one hundred and twenty (n=120) college students, aged 18-25 years, belonging to Mekelle university of Ethiopia with a view to compare study habits between sports science and other sciences students. Maximum effort and meticulous care have been put to precision and accuracy in the measurements. Study Habits Inventory by M.N.Palsane, Pune University, Pune, India was used to measure study habit. To compare study habits between sports science and other sciences students independent t test was employed and the level of significance was chosen at 0.05.The result revealed that study habits showed significant difference sports science and other science students (t=2.47, p<0.05). Thus, this study concludes that other sciences students (viz. Biology, physics and chemistry) were better in study habits as compare to sports science.

  202. Judith B. Ty – Pelobello and Christopher A. Duran

    This study determined the relationship between attitude towards English and academic performance among third year college students in ESSU -Salcedo Campus during the school year 2013 - 2014.This study is a descriptive- correlation research wherein a survey questionnaire was used to gather the needed data. It is descriptive since it described the attitudes of the students toward English language. The respondents of the study were third year college students enrolled at Eastern Samar State University - Salcedo campus during the school year 2013 - 2014. These students were from the different colleges of the campus enrolled in the different programs and have already taken all English subjects in their first and second years. The data collected were summarized, categorized, tabulated and analyzed using frequency counts, percentage and mean. The Cramer’s V correlation coefficient was computed to determine the correlation between the independent and dependent variables set at 0.05 level of significance. On the bases of the information and outcomes presented and discussed, the study revealed the following findings: Majority of the third year COED students were 18 to 19 years old (60%), female (67.5%), single (96%), with a monthly family income of Php4,999 and below (56.5%) and have attended in public schools (89.5%). Most of the respondents’ fathers attained elementary level (29.5%) while respondents’ mothers attained high school level (25.5%). As regards to teachers’ performance, outstanding ratings were given to: commitment to teaching (m = 4.68); knowledge of subjects (m = 4.67); teaching independent learning (m = 4.76) and community responsibility (m = 4.73). Third year college students obtained satisfactory academic performance ranging from 1.9 - 2.2. (51%) and exhibited a highly favorable attitude with a mean value of 2.47. Consequently, attitudes toward English were found to have no significant bearing to academic performance of third year college students (r = 0.320; p = 0.993).

  203. Estelita D. Calvo and Marina S. Apilado

    This investigation explored into the level of awareness and quality of knowledge regarding climate change among students enrolled in ESSU Salcedo campus, during the second semester of school year 2013-2014. The descriptive method of research was employed in this investigation utilizing survey questionnaires. There were three hundred twenty (320) students who served as respondents of the study chosen through stratified random sampling from among the officially enrolled students in the campus. The data collected were subjected to appropriate statistical treatment such as means and percentages and finally to statistical analysis and analysis. Based on the results and findings of the study the following conclusions were drawn: College students considered global warming to be extremely serious problem. Radio and television are the vital sources of student's information on climate change. Due to low level of awareness and knowledge regarding climate change, they tend to have unfavourable attitude towards the phenomenon. Thus the development of an information communication material may help improve their level of awareness and provide additional knowledge that will likely promote better attitude in them. Likewise, based on the findings revealed, the researchers recommend the following: Integrate climate change concepts in general education subjects in the undergraduate courses to increase the level of awareness, knowledge and attitude of students. Use the information communication material developed in this study as reference material in classroom discussions as well as extension activities of the institution to encourage positive actions to minimize the impact of climate change in people's lives. Conduct another study regarding practices of people to mitigate climate change.

  204. Dr. Falguni Chhelshanker Shastri

    This study seeks empirical evidence on the causal relations between Economic Value Added (EVA) and stock returns in the Indian context. Based on pooled time series, cross-sectional data on 70 well-performing companies in National Stock Exchange (NSE) over the economic slow-down period 2008-13, the study tests the hypothesis that EVA affects stock returns under linear regression framework, using alternative models. The results suggest that EVA, along with cost of capital, provides statistically significant information content and adds explanatory power in predicting stock returns in India. However, there exists some time lag before adjusting the impact of these measures on stock returns. The findings of this research corroborate the EVA reporting relevance within the context of an emerging capital market like India.

  205. Marina Sabalberino-Apilado

    The study examined the lifestyle of Eastern Samar State University – Salcedo, Guiuan and Maydolong Campuses college students that included alcohol consumption, smoking, sexual activities, cell phone use and its relationship to the different factors such as age, gender, marital status, level of happiness, parental strictness and academic performance. This study involved three hundred forty-eight college students who were mostly twenty years old and above, female, single, moderately happy and with liberal parents. Their academic performance was average. Some (13%) of them consumed alcohol two or more times a week, and attended classes drunk while others missed classes due to hang-over. This kind of lifestyle was often practiced by male students with liberal parents. Majority were not smokers but have boyfriend/girlfriend who engaged in dating practices and mostly disapproved premarital sex. Academic performance of college students was significantly related to smoking. This study revealed that in general, level of parental strictness is a protective factor in the promotion of healthy lifestyle among college students.

  206. Manoharan, N., Hemavathy Ramasubbian and Arunkumar Thangavelu

    Exports have played an increasingly important role in India’s economic growth in the last two decades. Demand for green agricultural products is a stimulant growth for input markets. This paper forecasting the Agricultural exports in India. The secondary data were collected from the websites of DGCIS. The collected data were analyzed using the trend analysis method and predict the future trends of agriculture exports, where some of the product shows positive growth and some were in negative signs. This analysis helps to alert the policy makers and the people involved in this occupation to predict the future trends.

  207. D. Muthana Fidel Ali, 2,A. P. Alyaa Hussein Salman and L. Alyaa muatteHmyad

    Researcher studying and analyzing the Euphrates River in the same vast farmland area of the Abbasa, which is dominated by the cultivation of rice and wheat for the most part, and enters this river to the study area after Tafrah South rump city into two Shatt al-KufaAbbasa Shatt we are going to talk about it, has reached through the analysis of the physical and chemical properties of this water, they suffer from the pollution caused by the discharge of water Alambazl it, as well as the lack of water purity, an analyst from the water purification plant, which requires making a lot of chemical and biological efforts in this vital area to get to the water unusable human in the study area and to the first level of purity is Bumpass World Health acceptable for avoiding falling health and environmental problems affect the lives of the population and economic activities

  208. Sheikh Iqbal and Tiwari, S. C.

    The Achanakmar Amarkantak Biosphere reserve is one of the premium Biosphere reserves of India. The human induced agricultural and cultivation practices in forest lands of Achanakmar not only affect the genetic diversity conservation but also affect the storage of carbon stocks.The present paper deals with measuring the SOC stocks along different sites and altitudinal gradients in Mixed Sal Forests of Bilaspur District of Achanakmar. The stocks of SOC were found to be decreasing with decreasing altitude and Significant variations across different altitudinal sites and depths were observed (significance at 0.05% level of probability). The present study calls for the development of sustainable forest management practices against human influences especially along the lower altitudinal gradients where lower carbon stocks and vulnerability of carbon loss have been found.

  209. AmitYadav, Mohsin Ali, Maira Anis and Sadhana Tuladhar

    Tax and revenue generation is one of the key factors for the economy and development of country like Nepal. Thus, an empirical investigation has been conducted to find out various aspects of tax contributions to national revenue. The research methodology implied the use of survey research design and purposive sampling method to select respondents from tax administrators, tax experts, and tax payers. Questionaries’ and statistical data were instruments used for the study. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used for data analysis to work out the most adequate design proposal for an area undergoing tax and revenue. AHP is a robust multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method for solving corporate, social and governmental decision problems. AHP is used to rank the alternatives under different criteria and shows the relation between them. The result showed that there is positive relationship between tax and revenue. The study also delighted the various methods of collecting revenue, which are the enforcement of tax administration, tax experts, business man, tax payer, employee, online tax system. The findingsof the study show that revenue administration needs to be reviewed to generate more revenue in the country.

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India
DR. M. ARUNA
India
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Malaysia
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
India
DR. IRAM BOKHARI
Pakistan
Dr. FARHAT NAZ RAHMAN
Pakistan
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
India
Dr. ASHWANI KUMAR DUBEY
India
Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
India
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
France
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran