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December 2016

  1. Alaybeyoglu, F., Erkılıc, E., Kesimci, E. and Kanbak, O.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects generated ondreaming in female patientsundergoing spinal anesthesia; by three different sedative agents. Methods: Thiswas a prospective and randomized study and it was approved by TurgutOzal University School of Medicine Ethics Committee, and the patients’ informed consent was received. 120 ASA I-III female patients, 18 - 60 years of age, were planned to undergo surgery by spinal anesthesia. All the patients had bispectral index (BIS) monitorization. The patients were randomized into three groups, so that Group P received propofol infusion, Group M; midazolam infusion, and Group R;remifentanil infusion for sedation. The infusion dosages were decreased by 50% when BISwas80, and titrated thereafter to keep BIS between 60-80. The patients’ post-operative sedation levels were evaluated by Assessment of Alertness and Sedation Scale (OAA/S). Following recovery, Brice interview was administered to the patients. Results: The duration of BIS value to be 80 in Group R was significantly longer than those of the other groups. The length of stay in postanesthesia care unit (PACU) in Group P was significantly shorter while the incidence of nausea/vomiting in Group R was significantly higher.The groups did not differ with regard to objectivity/subjectivity of the dreams, vividness and dynamism of the events, relation of story to everyday life, and dream recallability. Conclusion: These results indicate that either propofol, midazolam or remifentanil do not exert significantly dissimilar effects on dreaming, hemodynamic parameters or side effects.

  2. João Carlos Comel, Marco Antonio Stefani, Márcio Roberto Martini, Neusa Sica da Rocha, Carlos Otávio Corso and Antonio Cardoso dos Santos

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the content validity of the construct of worker quality of life for the subsequent development of an assessment instrument. The present study used a qualitative approach involving a focus group of experts in worker quality of life who provided data regarding attitudes, opinions, perceptions and behaviors related to worker health and quality of life. The focus group discussion constituted the first step toward the elaboration of a specific questionnaire for the assessment of this construct. Method: This was a qualitative study, using a focus group design, involving experts in worker health and quality of life. Bardin content analysis was used to identify domains and subdomains of worker quality of life. Results: The focus group defined worker quality of life in terms of five domains: physical, environmental, psychological, social and occupational. Each of these domains was further divided into several subcategories, all of which were considered by the expert panel to constitute the construct of worker quality of life. Conclusões: The present study yielded a comprehensive definition of the concept of worker quality of life, which will be used to develop questions for an assessment instrument and may serve as a basis for future studies on the topic.

  3. Mohammad Abu Bin Nyeem, Md. Moniruzzaman Khan, Rabiul Islam, B. M., Md. Abu Hossain, Meher Nowrose and Md. Abdul Awal

    Operculina turpethum is a perennial with milky juice belongs to family Convolvulaceae. This plant was widespread in old tropics from E. Africa to N. Australia and common in Godavari, Andhra Pradesh India & Bangladesh. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity and antidiarrhoeal activity of the ethanolic extract of the Operculina turpethum in mice. Ethanolic extract of the Operculina turpethum (Linn.) was administered orally in mice at various dose levels to determine the acute toxic effects and the median lethal dose (LD50). Antidiarrhoeal activity was tested by castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice, at the doses of 500 mg/kg body weight comparable to the standard drug loperamide at the doses of 50 mg/kg body weight. The acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract was found to be 5.0 gm/kg body weight within 95 % confidence limits. The mice showed signs of cerebral irritation before dying. Histopathological examinations of the viscera showed necrosis of the liver and kidneys. The antidiarrhoeal effects increased mean latent period and decreased the frequency of defecation significantly (P<0.05; P<0.01). This study suggested that the extract possess antidiarrhoeal activity. It was concluded that the extract of Operculina turpethum is safe and possess antidiarrhoeal activity, however the cerebral mechanism that lead to the death of the mice need to be investigated and find out the active metabolites responsible for antidiarrhoeal activity.

  4. Augustina Chinonso Amaechi, Dr Catherine Hayes and Paul Summerfield

    Aims: Pre-eclampsia (systolic blood pressure of >140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg) is a fundamentally unique condition, occurring in the post-partum as well as the pre-natal period of pregnancy. It is a progressive and acute condition, characterised by high blood pressure and proteinuria which can have deleterious impact on both the health of mother and child. Few reviews to date have examined trends in the pharmacological management of pre-eclampsia from a global perspective. The aim of this study was to highlight the pharmacological management strategies that currently operate on a global level to reduce the prevalence of pre-eclampsia. Method: An electronic search was conducted using Cochrane, Cinahl Plus, Medline and Science Direct for randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment and management of pre-eclampsia in pregnancy in addition to searching reference lists using a predefined search strategy. The review included quasi-randomised trials, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies and programme evaluations. The primary outcome measures incorporated theeffectiveness of a range of pharmacologicalinterventions. Risk of bias and the quality of evidence of the qualitative studies selected for inclusion were assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Tool. Quantitative studies were assessed using SIGN Critical Appraisal Checklist 2 for randomized controlled trials. Results: The review identified 4,838articles of which 8 met the inclusion criteria. Eight papers were included in this review. From these eight papers, several interventions were used in the treatment and management of pre-eclampsia. Two of the eight studies (25%) investigated the efficacy of vitamins (Vitamins C and E) in the management of pre-eclampsia in pregnancy. One (12.5%) of the included study examined the effects of exercise in managing the condition while five (62.5%) investigated the efficacy of drugs/medicines. Conclusions: Pharmacologic interventions in pre-eclampsia with anti-hypertensive medications appear to be the most efficacious pharmacological intervention used in efforts to reduce the prevalence of the condition.

  5. Ravudai Singh and Kusum Datta

    Interocclusal appliances, or more commonly termed as bite splints, have been advocated for the control and treatment of conditions such as bruxism (bruxomania), trauma from occlusion and temporomandibular joint disorders. Many different types of splint designs have been advocated, each aimed at eliminating a specific etiologic factor. The selection of the appliance design should be based on sound therapeutic goals. A well designed interocclusal appliance may help reduce nocturnal bruxism, clenching and decrease the pain in orofacial region via a physical action or a placebo effect.
    This article describes the fabrication of an occlusal splint for a 60 year old female patient with a history of bruxism and clenching that resulted in much loss of tooth structure through attrition, a reduced masticatory efficiency and associated pain in the orofacial region.

  6. Vani Mamillapalli, Koleti Sindhu, Padma Latha Khantamneni and Petla Lakshmi Prasanna

    Pharmaceutical waste is type of medical waste, the improper disposal of which is causing the harmful effects on the environment in turn affecting health of all forms of living creatures. If appropriate action is no taken the adverse effects may lead to serious consequences. This paper discusses about generation of pharmaceutical waste from different sources, types of pharmaceutical waste, various regulating bodies, waste treatment and disposal methods and solutions for pharmaceutical waste management. So there is a need for providing better facilities to ensure proper waste management and to reduce the amount of waste generation by bringing awareness and education.

  7. Ignatius Chomba, HongweiGao, Deguo Xing and Sambiani K.Mingzhi Gong

    Background: Chronic hyperglycemia enhances osteoporosis in diabetic patients mainly by inhibiting osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Nuclear receptor co repressor (NCoR) has been reported to negatively modulate osteogenic differentiation of Rat BMSCs in a standard culture medium, conversely, its knockdown promoted osteogenic differentiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of NCoR knockdown on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs under a high glucose microenvironment. Methods: Cells from Wistar rats were isolated, transfected with NCoR small interfering RNA (NCoRsiRNA), cultured in various glucose concentrations (5.5, 16.5,25 and 35mmol/L) and then cell proliferation determined using methyl thiazolyltetrazolium (MTT). Osteogenic differentiation of cells cultured in normal (5.5mmol/L) and high glucose (25mmol/L) was determined through quantitative changes in mineralization (calcium accumulation), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and expression of osteoblast marker genes including Runx2, osteocalcin (OCN), Osterix, bone sailoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN)using quantitative Real Time PCR. Results: NCoR knockdown in MSCs cultured in high glucose (25mmol/L) inhibited cell proliferation but resulted in increased Calcium accumulation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and elevated mRNA expression of all osteoblast related genes. Conclusion: NCoR knockdown inhibited proliferation but promoted osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs under a high glucose micro-environment.

  8. Dr. Madhuri Gopal, V.

    Aim: To evaluate the efficiency of different analgesic and/or anaesthetic techniques for endoscopy and complications associated with it. Materials and methods: The present study of 350 patients between the age group of 1-85 years was carried out at Fathima institute of Medical sciences. The study included patients posted for endoscopes with diagnostic as well as therapeutic indications. The types of scopies included are (1) oesophagoscopy, (2) bronchoscopy. The scopes used were rigid as well as fiberoptic scopes. Three techniques were used – • Topical anaesthesia, • Topical anaesthesia with sedation and/or a analgesia, • Balanced general anaesthesia. Drugs used for sedation were as follows - They were used in combination as well as a sole agent intravenously prior to the procedure. • Pentazocine hydrochloride - 15-30 mg IV • Pentazocine + Diazepam - Pentazocine 15 mg IV (fixed dose), Diazepam 5-10 mg IV depending on the requirement of the patient. • Pentazocine hydrochloride + Promethazine hydrochloride - Pentazocine 15-30 mg IV and Promethazine 12.5-25 mg IV. • Diazepam - 5-15 mg IV. Result: The results obtained were analyzed and it was observed that local anaesthesia when supplemented with analgesic and/or anaesthesia, patients tolerated the procedure well and there was not much effect on haemodynamics. Conclusion: The study concluded that topical anaesthesia with sedation sufficed for majority of patients and general anaesthesia is reserved for a small set of population requiring endoscopy.

  9. Deepika Meesala, Talla Harshavardhan, Nimma Vijayalaxmi and Madhulatha Gopaladas

    Certain signs manifested in head and neck region including oral cavity serve as an imperative clue in diagnosing systemic disorders. The visibility of these signs often enables the physician to make an instant or spot diagnosis. The word diagnosis means ―thorough knowledge, it is the greatest task and a key to successful clinical practice. Hence a thorough knowledge regarding various presenting signs and symptoms is of utmost importance to a clinician for precise diagnosis and management of a disease. This present article reviews various fascinating ―SIGNS” which in medical lexicon refers to an objective physical finding observed by an examiner. Only signs that are visible, palpable, or elicited by direct manipulation, and dermatologic signs associated with oral involvement are included herein.

  10. Dr. Ankit Srivastava, Dr. Kondajji Ramchandra Vijayalakshmi and Dr. Mubeen Khan

    Chondrosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm that is characterized by formation of cartilage, with progressive local invasion to the surrounding tissues. Currently, it is the second most common bone tumour next to osteosarcoma and comprises 10-12% of all malignant bone tumours. They usually involve the long bones, approximately 1% to 3% of chondrosarcomas occurs in the maxillofacial region, predominately in the anterior maxilla, while other facial bones are less affected. The favoured site of involvement in mandible is the molar region and symphysis region, they rarely occur in ramus, condyle and coronoid process. Even though, the clinical and radiological features are characteristic but not conclusive at early stages. It is reported that ultimate diagnosis of chondrosarcoma takes about 12 months in average, due to its varied clinical behaviour. Treatment of chondrosarcoma is usually surgical but prognosis of the jaw lesions is poor as compared to that of long bones due to their direct extension to the skull base or distant metastasis. Thus, clinical course of chondrosarcomas of jaws necessitates a prompt diagnosis and early intervention which could be crucial in saving patient’s life. Hence, Oral physician plays a pivotal role in early diagnosis which could contribute towards better prognosis. This paper reports a rare case of chondrosarcoma of mandible in a 40 year old male who has presented to our department with a chief complaint of swelling in left parotid region with a follow up of 4 months.

  11. Santosh Palla, Dr. Vishwanath Rangdhol, Sitra, G. and John Balaiah

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a medical condition, which occurs due to insufficient production of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary gland. The GHD is associated with retarded growth on brain, bones, muscles and gonads affecting the person physically and emotionally. The goal of a dental professional in this regard is to identify the dentofacial manifestations that commonly occur due to GHD, perform a radiographic examination which will not only aid in confirming the clinical features but also simultaneously screens for growth or tumours in parasellar region. Elimination of social stigma and associated psychological factors by counselling is needed for complete monitoring of the patients growth along with hormonal therapy and provision of planned dental care. This article describes a case report of a child with dentofacial manifestations of GHD highlighting importance of various dental radiographs.

  12. Osama Abul Fetouh, Hamada Mohamed Tolba Khater, Ahmad Ata Sobeih and Noha Daai El Khair

    Aim: To screen for septic arthritis of the hip joint in neonatal sepsis to know the prevalence and factors associated with septic arthritis. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted on 80 septic neonates (cases) and 20 normal neonates (controls) in Benha University NICU from February 2015 to January 2016. Cases were screened for diagnosis of septic arthritis of the hip joint by using ultrasonography (General Electric 2012). Results: Among 80 septic neonates and 20 normal neonates about 16 cases of them had positive hip findings. There were 8 cases out of 80 (10%) presented with septic arthritis, 7 cases (8.8%) presented with tenosynovitis and only one case (1.25%) presented with developmental dysplasia of the hip joint. They showed a highly significant correlation with femoral arterial blood gas sampling, interventions for urinary tract and also similar conditions in the family as risk factors. Ultrasound revealed severe effusion with turbidity in septic hip arthritis and minimal effusion with no turbidity in tenosynovitis. Conclusion: Our results revealed that 16 cases (20%) out of 80 septic neonates had positive hip findings by ultrasound examination as follows: 8 cases (10%) with septic arthritis, 7 cases (8.75%) with tenosynovitis, and one case (1.25%) with developmental dysplasia of the hip joint.

  13. Azza Abo Senna, Jehan H Sabry, Mohamed A Al Hindi, Hesham A Eissa, Abdelmonem Ahmed and Basma M Salem

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO), a vasodilator molecule, is produced from L-arginine by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and it regulates endothelial function. The presence of eNOS variants might further complicate endothelial dysfunction and nephropathy through reduced production of NO. This study aimed to find out the possible association and synergistic effect of eNOS 4a/b and G894T polymorphisms on the risk of diabetic nephropathy. Patients and Methods: This study conducted on 45 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and 15 healthy subjects serving as a control group. All candidates were genotyped for the eNOS polymorphism using PCR-RFLP technique. Results: there are significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies between patients and control for eNOS G894T and (4a/b) Polymorphisms with p value ˂0.05, and It also showed significant differences between patients with DN and patients without DN for the GT genotype, a and T alleles with p value ˂0.05. The subjects with GT or aa genotypes were associated with risk to develop micro and macroalbuminuria when compared with controls but the presence of both them had no significant effect. Conclusion: Analyzing both eNOS 4a and 894T alleles revealed that in the presence of either eNOS 4a or 894T allele, the risk of developing DN increased significantly. However, the presence of both alleles together was not associated with increased risk of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria.

  14. Dr. Nishi N. Kapasiawala, Dr. Nakul R. Raval and Dr. Amol S. Patil

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the normalcy of the dimensions of frontal sinus and compare the relationship of the frontal sinus with the different skeletal malocclusion and also to find a relationship between the length of the mandible and the dimensions of the frontal sinus. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 pretreatment digital lateral cephalograms were selected according to the criteria and grouped into 3 groups, group 1: Class I (n=20), group 2: Class II (n=20) and group 3: Class III(n=20). Lateral cephalograms were traced and analysed on basis of frontal sinus i.e. the following linear measurements were recorded: maximum height, maximum width, area of frontal sinus region and the length of the mandible. Statistical Analysis: One-way ANOVA test was performed to compare the difference between the skeletal classes. Multiple comparison test was performed with post hoc with Bonferoni and Sidak statistical tests were performed. Results: The linear measurements of maximum height, maximum width, area of frontal sinus region showed statistically insignificant differences in Class I, Class II, and Class III (p-vaule=0.16, 0.4 and 0.12 respectively). Conclusion: We observed there is a no significant difference between maximum height, width and area of frontal sinus with respect to Class I, Class II and Class III. Hence, we can say frontal sinus is not so reliable in depicting skeletal malocclusions.

  15. Nikunj R. Godhani, Harshil C. Shah, Jaimin K. Shah, Ankur B. Pachani and Vikash Singh

    Background: Endoscopic trans sphenoidal approach is increasingly used in the treatment of pituitary adenoma. It is considered approach of choice in pituitary tumor surgery. There are varying opinions about results of endoscopic approach in pituitary surgery. We therefore Retrospectively & prospectively studied the outcome of endoscopic Approach in Pituitary surgery. Aim: To investigate the outcome of endoscopic Trans sphenoidal approach in patients with pituitary adenoma surgery. Methods and Materials: A prospective study of 70 patients undergoing endoscopic Trans sphenoidal excision in our institution from July 2013 to December 2015 was carried out. Diagnosis of pituitary adenoma was done by preoperative computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonace imaging, visual field charting, hormone profile. The results of Pituitary surgery were determined by assessing clinical signs of visual acuity, post op Hormone profile, Visual field charting as well as by MRI / CT scans. Results such as extent of excision, rate of relapse in functioning adenoma, visual improvement, incidence of DI were compared with other studies done in past. Results: Most common age group to be affected by pituitary tumors falls between 41-50 years of age.It is more common in Female 52% compared to Male 48%. Most common clinical symptoms in our series are Headaches followed by Visual disturbance. These symptoms of mass effect are much common than endocrinologic dysfunction of acromegaly and galactorrhea amenorrhea syndrome. Optic nerve involvement is other common clinical finding presenting in form of decreased vision or loss of vision, field defect or fundus changes. Commonest field defect is bitemporal hemianopia. Approximately half of the patients exhibited normal preoperative pituitary function in form of baseline hormone profile. Among 70 patients 37 were NFPA, 18 were GH adenoma, 2 were ACTH adenoma, 11 were prolactinoma and 2 patients with apoplexy. MRI is the diagnostic investigation of choice in pituitary tumors to define extent, invasion and relationship to major vessels and nerves. Total/near total removal was done in 63 patients and subtotal removal done in 7 patients. Adjuvant therapies were given in 8 patients. Two patients were given radiotherapy and 3 were given pharmacotherapy. The post operative complications were CSF leak 6%, Diabetes insipidus 21%. 59 patients had improvement in their symptoms including relief from headache, improvement in vision and endocrinal dysfunction. Post operatively visual functions improved in 35 patients and it remained stationary in 34 patients. Only one patient complained of worsening of his visual function and it was improved in follow up period. Conclusion: The Pituitary constitutes a unique class of intracranial neoplasia. widespread use of MRI is now accepted as imaging procedure of choice in the evaluation of these tumors. Trans-Sphenoidal surgery is the primary treatment of choice for this class of tumors. Which can achieve superior extent of resection with acceptable rate of complication. Though long term follow up is needed for better understanding of the result.

  16. Dr. Shazia Rani, Dr. Pushpa Goswami and Dr. Qamarunissa Muhabat Khan

    Objective: To determine the awareness and practice of thromboprophylaxis among different health care personals working at Liaquat University Hospital (LUH). Methodology: This descriptive study was conducted at Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad/ Jamshoro. All the willing health care providers/professionals practicing individual or under supervision of seniors were included in the study. A questionnaire is used to explore the range of knowledge and practices regarding thromboprophylaxis. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Frequency and percentages were calculated for different variables. Results: During the study period, 250 health care personals working in LUH at different positions in surgery and allied i.e. 26 nurses, 68 house officers, 81 postgraduates of different courses like masters/ FCPS and 75 consultants participated in the study. The majority of health care personals evaluate their patients for thromboprophylaxis and almost the same number give thromboprophylaxis to their patients, consultants are at top priority followed by postgraduates, then house officer and in last nurses in evaluation then giving thromboprophylaxis. As the majority of the participants give thromboprophylaxis so the different modalities were also assessed. Early mobilization is the first choice utilized by all participants, followed by Heparin and in last stockings was preferred. Conclusion: Although the majority of health care personals were using thromboprophylaxis, however, there are not any proper guidelines to be followed.

  17. Sohini Chakrabarti, Dr. Debasish Maji and Dr. Madhusnata De

    The thyroid gland constitutes such an organ in our body where oxidative processes are indispensible for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. Hydrogen peroxide and free radicals produced from iodine and tyrosine residues participate in various metabolic processes in the thyroid. This makes oxidative stress common in thyroid disorders. Vitamin C is one of the most important nutritional antioxidant and free radical scavengers present in our body. The purpose of this study is to evaluate vitamin C levels in hypothyroid patients with benign thyroid nodules and correlate them with thyroid function and disease status.

  18. Ghazi Daradkeh, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Samir Al-Adawi, Wafa Yazidi, M. Hammami, Lugan, Asma AL-Muhanadi, R. ALsaadi, Naeema.ALahneem and Eman Abuhasan

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess the nutritional status and macronutrients adequacy of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and controls, attending treatment from a specialised unit in Qatar. Research Design and Method: This study was conducted among male attendees follow up with Rumailah Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation-Doha, Qatar from August 2014 to June 2015 (21 cases and 21 healthy volunteers). The attendees were consecutive patients with TBI. Demographic variables were solicited via medical records or directly from the attendees with TBI. Anthropometric measurements and dietary intake (24-hour recall method) were collected and assessed by super tracker. Results: Half of the participants (52.4%) were of age 30 -38 years range. Approximately 23.8% of cases were classified as having ‘mild TBI’ while 28.6% and 47.6% were classified as moderate and severe TBI respectively. In terms of nutritional parameters, three fourth (76.2%) of the cases were at high or moderate risk of malnutrition, 23.8% of cases were underweight, while 66.7% in normal range and 9.5% were overweight. TBI patiens were noted to have deficiency in energy (30.2%), carbohydrate (43.0%), protein (24.8%), and fiber (54.1%) intake. Conclusion: Despite the high prevalence of TBI in emerging economies such as Qatar, to our knowledge, there is dearth of studies examining the nutritional status and its correlates among the TBI population. This study indicates that TBI patients in Qatar are at a high risk of developing malnutrition, and macronutrients deficiency. Therefore, nutritional assessment, intervention and support are highly essential to improve TBI patients health status beyond the brain injury.

  19. Waseem Raja, Sunil K Mathai, Benoy Sebastian, Rohey Jan, Ashfaq Ahmad and Mary George

    Background: Foreign body ingestion is one of the commonest indication for emergency endoscopy. Removal of FBs has always been a challenge for an endoscopist. The aim of this study is to to assess the magnitude and spectrum of FBs among patients admitted in our Gastroenterology units. Methods: A hospital based retrospective study was conducted at Medical Trust Hospital Kochi- Kerala, one of the tertiary care referral centre, in South India over a period of 2 years. We reviewed all patients’ files with full notations on age, sex, type of FB and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes (complications, success rates, and mortalities). Patients with incomplete files and those with FBs not identified at the endoscopic examination were excluded. Results: A total of 57 patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 85 years. Slight male predominance was noticed (52.6%). The most frequent presentation was a history of FB ingestion without any associated manifestations (52.6%). Fish bones were the most com¬monly encountered FBs 43.8% (25/57), and majority of FBs 43.8% were removed within 6-12 hours .Upper esophagus was the most common site of trapping 38.5% (22/57). The overall success rate was 96.4% (55/57). Upper endoscopy successfully resolved the problem by either FB removal 78.9% (45/57) or dislodgment of the impacted fleshy meat bolus to the stomach 21 % (12/57). The rate of complications was 3.5%. Furthermore, no mortalities due to FB ingestion or removal had been reported throughout the study. Conclusion: Our experience with FB removal emphasizes its importance and ease when per-formed by experienced hands, at well-equipped endoscopy units, and under conscious sedation in most cases, with high success rates and minor complications.

  20. Tejaswini Pisati, Santoshini Allamsetty and Anusha Vajhala

    Chronic kidney disease is a global health burden with a high economic cost to health system and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The final stage of chronic kidney disease is End-stage renal disease in which the kidneys no longer function well enough to meet the needs of daily life. Dialysis is a treatment that replaces many of the kidney's important functions. Hematological profiles are the main target in renal disease and this becomes more pronounced as the disease progresses. The study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Southern part of India taking a sample size of about 221 ESRD patients who are on dialysis with the main objective of evaluating the impact of hemodialysis on essential blood components after dialysis. The study revealed that there was a marked decrease in Hemoglobin concentration and platelet counts in 89.1% and 97% of patients respectively. The leukocyte count increased in 81.5% of patients, decreased in 13.6% of patients and remained stable in 4.9% of patients. This study concluded that there is a noticeable effect of hemodialysis on hemoglobin concentration (Hb), red cell count, leukocytes and platelet count. Hence extreme care must be taken in screening and directing the therapy to ESRD patients on dialysis to prevent serious complications.

  21. Saleh, Sama Mohammed, Saleh, Ruzan Mohammed and Alhasan, Ahmed Hassan

    Background: Headache disorders are among the most common pain disorders of the nervous system. Half to three quarters of the adults aged 18–65 years in the world have had headache in the last year and among those individuals, more than 10% have reported migraine. Aim: To explore the updates of migraine diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Systemic review of PubMed filter finds publications to support keywords of the current study. Findings: A psychological evaluation is usually not a routine diagnostic method in headache diagnosis. However, it is recommended for patients who suffer from a stress factor triggering their headaches. Blood chemistry and urine analysis including tests for several new compounds targeting 5-hydroxytryptamine, neuropeptide, and other receptors are under examination. The changes in treating acute attacks of migraine have produced better understanding and classification of the pharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and provide impetus for improving the classification of headache. CT scans are also used in diagnosis, if CT is normal, then the indication for lumbar puncture and MRI. Migraine therapy ranges from the use of simple analgesics such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or acetaminophen to triptans, antiemetics, or the less commonly used dihydroergotamine. Abortive treatments are usually more effective if they are given early in the course of the headache; a large single dose tends to work better than repetitive small doses. Conclusion: Migraine is a common, chronic, incapacitating neurovascular disorder, characterized by attacks of severe headache, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, new diagnostics approaches and treatment modalities were declared.

  22. Karuna Kumari, Shwetha Nambiar, K., Vanishree C Haragannavar, Dominic Augustine, Sowmya, S. V. and Roopa S Rao

    Plasma cells are the only cells that sustain antibody production and hence are an essential part of immune system. In the bone marrow plasma cells produce immunoglobulins which assure long-term humoral immune protection and in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) plasma cells secrete IgA which protect the individual from pathogens invasion. This review illustrates plasma cell development and their role in both health and disease.

  23. Siddharth Sisodia, Shakuntala Goswami and B. J. Shah

    The American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) defined a difficult airway as “The clinical situation in which a conventionally trained anaesthesiologist experiences difficulty with mask ventilation, difficulty with tracheal intubation or both”. Lymphangiomas are the most common etiology of macroglossia in children. A 2 yr old female weighing 10 kg presented to paediatric surgery department with complaints of tongue protrusion since 3 months.Local examination showed non tender diffusely large tongue, protruding and keeping the mouth permanently open. Investigations revealed low Hb of 8.13 gm%, platelet count of 6.4 lac. Premedication was given in form of injglycopyrrolate 0.04mg, inj fentanyl 20 mcg, injEmset 0.2 mg. The child was first intubated orally then nasal RAE no. 4.0 uncuffed tube inserted after removal of oral endotracheal tube. The patient was successfully extubated with stable vitals. Anaesthetic management of lymapangioma of tongue is a real challenge to anaesthesiologist. The importance of a thorough preoperative evaluation, attention to difficult intubation and maintenance of airway should be emphasized.

  24. Dr. Luxita Sharma

    Obesity is a state which arises by excess accumulation of fat. Obesity is an epidemic that’s spreading rapidly in developing countries like India also. The present study was conducted in rural area of Kurukshetra and urban area of Delhi. The obese female subjects were selected by purposive random sampling. The subjects having BMI > 29.9 kg/m2 were selected. The main purpose of the study was to improve the nutritional status of obese subjects with achievement of weight loss as well. The nutrient intake was studied minutely and the micronutrients were also kept for consideration. Three experimental groups were E1 – the subjects doing exercise, E2- Hyocaloric diet and E3 – Exercise and Hypocaloric diet and Control group who were not following any interventions. The study concluded in there was significant improvement of vitamins & minerals such as Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin A and Ascorbic acid in the diet simultaeneouly decrease in energy, proteins, calcium and fat intake.

  25. : Dr. Surya Prakash Yarramalle, Kartik Munta, Dr. Manimala Rao, S. Dr. Yogesh Harde, Dr. Sandeep, G.B. and Dr. Rajkumar Jupally

    Acute pancreatitis secondary to viral infections is well established. Acute pancreatitis as a complication of fulminant hepatic failure has been mostly reported but as secondary to non fulminant hepatitis especially due to HEV infection has been rarely reported. Leakage of intracellular enzyme and cell destruction has been attributed as main cause. We describe a case report of acute pancreatitis secondary to viral hepatitis due to HEV infection.

  26. Krishna Prasada Lashkari and Alka Shukla

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess association between smokeless tobacco consumption and prevalence of dental caries in Dakshina Kannada population. Materials & Methods: In this study 172 elderly dentate and consenting individuals (79 females, 93 males) were included. Patients were subjected to clinical examination under natural light with the aid of mouth mirror, No. 23 explorer and cotton rolls. Age of study group ranged from 20 years to 65 years. Tobacco consumption habit data were collected through validated questionnaire. DMFT (Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth Index-WHO modification 1987) was used to assess caries experience of study group. Results: Mean DMFT score of smokeless tobacco chewers was 5.66 ± 1.55 and of non-tobacco chewers it was 3.99±1.6 which showed significant association between smokeless tobacco consumption and dental caries experience in Dakshina Kannada population ( p= 0.001). Among various forms of smokeless tobacco, tobacco along with paan leaves was the most adopted one (15.1%); but the highest mean DMFT score being 6.00±1.26 was observed in patients who consumed gutka. Conclusion: This study throws light on possible contribution of smokeless tobacco consumption towards increased caries experience and it also reflects potential role of form of smokeless tobacco consumption towards dental caries.

  27. Sangeetha Subramanian, Dhayanand John Victor, Prakash Ponnudurai Samuel Gnana and Mohammed Arshad

    Surgical crown lengthening is a procedure that resects periodontal tissues to increase clinical crown height and reestablishes biologic width. This may be performed for esthetic or for functional purposes. The preservation of a healthy periodontium is essential for the long term success of a restored tooth. It is however important that while undertaking this procedure, its impact to the underlying periodontal tissues be appropriately understood by the periodontist as well as the restorative dentist. This case report discusses the management of a tooth with subgingivally extended caries and with inadequate width of attached gingiva. This case highlights the multiple factors that are to be considered and suggests an appropriate management of this complex interdisciplinary problem.

  28. Venkata Ramakrishna Tukkapuram, Nikunj Godhani, Satish Rudrappa and Swaroop Gopal

    This article emphasises on the role of spinal disability support group in patients who are paraplegics and quadriplegics post spinal cord injury. The relationship between hope and reconciling life after spinal cord injury is highlighted. The introduction of spinal disability support group improves quality of life in patients of spinal cord injury not only physical wellbeing but also hope inspiring confidence and liaison. The supportive group aims at motivating spinal cord injury patients in changing their perception towards life. Thus helps in improving the overall quality of life such as physical function, independence, emotional wellbeing, occupation, finances, relationship and social functions.

  29. Dr. Chaudhary Nilesh, H., Dr. Patel Krutik, A., Dr. Mittal Saurav and Dr. Prasla Shopnil

    Background: These diseases are considered as professional diseases. Severity of technological disease usually responds to the level and duration of exposure, and usually occurs after many years of exposure to harmful factor. Diseases occur due to excessive work at the computer, or excessive use of keyboards and computer mouse, especially the non-ergonomic ones. Objective: This randomized controlled study was conducted to compare the effectiveness on pain and upper limb function of mirror therapy and ergonomics in mouse shoulder. Methods: Of 30 patients which include 15 for control group who was received stretching and strengthening for 40 min. and 15 for experimental group who was received stretching, strengthening with mirror therapy program and ergonomics for 40 min. and advised them vertical mouse. The primary end points were a reduction in the shoulder pain disability index scale score of pain. The secondary end points were improvement in motor function and Posture. Results: The mean scores of both the primary and secondary end points significantly improved in the mirror group. No statistically significant improvement was observed in any of the control group values posture and shoulder pain and disability index (p= 0.188 and p= 0.1038) but experimental group has shown essential significant result in posture and shoulder pain and disability index (p= 0.0001 and p= <0.0001) Moreover, statistically significant differences after treatment (P < .0001) and at the 4 weeks follow-up were found between the 2 groups. Conclusions: The results indicate that mirror therapy and ergonomics are effectively reduces pain.

  30. Al Ghouthani Jamal

    Background: More than 220,000 patients are admitted to hospitals each year with acute pancreatitis in the United States alone. Acute pancreatitis is relatively common. Aim: To explore the modern modalities focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of acute gallstone pancreatitis (GSP). Methods: Systemic review of PubMed filter finds publications to support keywords of the current study. Findings: Among the numerous causes, two factors which account for about 70 -80% of cases of acute pancreatitis are biliary tract disease and alcoholism. Abdominal pain is the major manifestation of acute pancreatitis. The pain may vary from mild and tolerable to severe, constant and incapacitating distress. Marked elevation of serum amylase levels during the first 24 hours, followed within 72 to 96 hours by a rising serum lipase level. Hyperglycemia is common, hypocalcemia may result from precipitation of calcium soaps in necrotic fat, and hypertriglyceridemia occurs in 15 to 20% of patients. Direct visualization of the enlarged inflamed pancreas by radiography is useful in the diagnosis of pancreatitis. In the majority of patients [85–90%] acute pancreatitis is self-limited and subsides spontaneously, usually within 3–7 days after treatment is started. About 5% with severe acute pancreatitis die from shock during the first week. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure are dangerous complications. Conclusion: GSP is a disease with a wide spectrum of severity. Diagnosis and management have evolved in recent decades with the advent of new and improved technology. Advances in imaging techniques have limited the need for diagnostic procedures in many cases, and various treatment options are becoming more widely available.

  31. Neha Vijay and Dr. Ghanshyam Gupta

    Poor nutrition and bad health during pregnancy, due to ignorance or poverty, may reversely affect both – mother as well as newborn. This is well known fact that Tribes are different from general population in their socio-demographic characteristics, literacy, cultural practices and in their health seeking behavior. Apart from maternal factor one more important infantile factor affects the anthropometric parameters of newborn i.e. the gender of babies. Aims & Objective: Present study was conducted on tribal newborns of Udaipur district to know the effect of gender on anthropometric parameters of Newborns. Material & Method: A Cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, RNT Medical College and Hospitals, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. All the anthropometric parameters of 680 tribal newborns were taken from; newborns delivered at Government health institutes of Udaipur district, at Pannadhay Ward of Maharana Bhopal Government Hospital of RNT Medical College and Hospitals. Results: Mean values of Birth weight, Crown Heel Length, Head Circumference, Chest Circumference, Abdominal Circumference, Foot Length and Skin Fold Thickness were significantly higher in male. Mean values for Thigh Circumference, Mid arm Circumference and Calf Circumference was also higher in male; however it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The anthropometric parameters of newborns revealed a significant difference between male and female newborns.

  32. Reddy Lavanya, Neeharika Satya Jyothi Allam, Mamatha Boring, Shefali Waghray, Dara Balaji Gandhi Babu and Raj Kumar Badam

    Background: Radiography in dentistry has got paramount importance in diagnosing oral diseases and conditions. However, this useful diagnostic aid carries dangerous risk of radiation exposure hazards. Though the radiation dosage of dental radiographs is relatively low, the cumulative effect caused by repeated exposures is of concern. Hence certain measures and protocols for radiation protection are to be followed. Objective: The present study intends to know and analyze the knowledge and attitude of emerging dental practitioners i.e. the interns regarding radiation protection. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional, structured questionnaire containing 16 questions regarding awareness of radiation protection was distributed among interns who attended a pre-dated, state-level Continuing Dental Education (CDE) Program, near Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. The results were further statistically analyzed using SPSS software. Results: A total of 211 interns have participated in the study and were asked to fill the questionnaire. The results have shown that the participants’ knowledge regarding radiation protection was relatively poor. Conclusion: Though the knowledge and way of practice of the respondents was relatively poor, they showed a positive attitude towards the need for radiation protection and safety. They were willing to practice dental radiography with safety precautions. The results of study also show the need of continuing dental education programs regarding radiation protection and safety.

  33. Sushil Kumar, Bikram Kumar, Brajesh Kumar, R. S. Sharma and Sunay Damle

    Abdominal injury as a result of both blunt and penetrating trauma has an appreciable mortalityrate from haemorrhage and sepsis. This study represents the experience with blunt trauma to the abdomen ofpatients from a tertiary care Centre. The study was undertaken to know the demographic details, mode of injury, management and outcome of blunt trauma abdomen (BTA). All the blunt trauma abdomen cases admitted inRIMS Ranchi during period of July 2014 to September 2016. There were 55 consecutive cases of blunt traumaabdomen. Most common age group involved was 30-40 years followed by 20 to 30 year. Male and Female ratio was 3:1. Most common mode of injury was RTA 47.2%. Diagnosis was established in all cases by clinicalexamination, X-ray, ultrasound or CECT. Spleen (49%) was the commonest organ injured next Liver (21.8%).67.2% (37patients) of cases underwent successful conservative treatment and 32.7% (18) operative treatment.Mortality was 10%.Non operative management (NOM) for BTA was found to be highly successful and safe.Definitive indications for laparotomy were hemodynamic instability and peritonitis. Patients with initial Hemodynamic instability are associated with a high risk of NOM failure. USG (FAST scan) in haemodynamically unstable patients as compared to CECT in stable patients were investigations of choice. Associated injuries influenced morbidity and mortality.

  34. Nchekwube Chidimma, Prof Timothy Paget, Dr. Catherine Hayes and Dr. John Fulton

    Background: The World Malaria Report has estimated that 3.4 billion people are still at risk of infection via malarial parasites irrespective of global efforts to control infection and elimination. Over 80% of these cases are diagnosed in Africa. Aims: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of mosquitoes across a residential university campus (Nnamdi Azikiwe) via the collection of eggs, larvae and pupae. The secondary aim was then to compare the relative incidence and prevalence rates of malaria diagnosis with the relative distribution of these malarial vectors amongst students living in the study area. Methods: A cross sectional survey was executed with 384 participants living in residential accommodation at Nnamdi Azikiwe University via a questionnaire. Mosquito eggs, larvae and pupae were manually collected using ovitraps and ladles. The mosquitoes were taken to the National Arbovirus and Vectors Research Division Enugu, Nigeria for positive identification. Results: The study showed that an increase in malaria vector had a significant impact in the prevalence rates of malaria diagnosed amongst students living in residential accommodation at Nnamdi Azikiwe University. The comparator study recorded 58 (39%) prevalence in 2012 while the research study indicated a prevalence of 116 (43%) which was calculated to be double the prevalence of the students recorded as being exposed in 2012). Malaria vector abundance also increased by a ratio of 1:5 between 2012 with 38 (19%) and 195 (61%) in 2016. Conclusion: Ensuring adequate interventions to maintain vector density low as well as continuous vector surveillance to prevent increasing incidence and prevalence rates of malaria are required.

  35. Kamal Nayan Shringi, Anil Saxena, Suman Khangarot, Shahihlal N. and Anees, K. V.

    Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma (LCNEC) is a comparatively rarecarcinoma of lung with a poor prognosis. They are aggressive tumours and areincluded in the group of non-small cell carcinoma. Though aggressive in nature they respond to treatment more or less similar to small cell carcinomas of lung. We here report a case of 75year old man who presented with diffuse metastasis mainly to thoracic and lumbar spine, brain and liver. The primary was laterdiagnosed as LCNEC of lung through Computer Comography and cytological analysis.

  36. Shilpa Chawla Jamenis

    Very often we come across patients who have an excessive gag reflex. Gagging in dental patients can lead to avoidance of dental treatment and hence hinder the patient care. It can compromise the treatment at every stage, starting from diagnosis to rendering active treatment to the patient. Etiology and Management of gagging have been dealt with in the previous articles in this series. We hereby present cases where severe gaggers were managed and their orthodontic treatment carried out with appliance modification and other gagging control techniques.

  37. Shilpa Chawla Jamenis,

    Very often we come across patients who have an excessive gag reflex. Gagging in dental patients can lead to avoidance of dental treatment and hence hinder the patient care. It can compromise the treatment at every stage, starting from diagnosis to rendering active treatment to the patient. This series of articles will outline the etiology and management of gagging. A literature search of PubMed, Cochrane and Wiley using keywords like ‘gagging’, ‘retching’, ‘dental’ was performed and all the articles till date were included. Additional articles were selected from hand searches of the reference articles of the articles got by the electronic search. The language was restricted to English.

  38. Atin Singhai and Parul Jain

    Introduction: Diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in children is generally based on clinical symptoms, CSF findings, CT scans and response to anti tubercular drugs since conventional methods like microscopy and culture are unsatisfactory. Therefore the present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in children. Materials and Methods: The CSF samples referred to the pathology laboratory of a tertiary care center from children >6 months of age and with a high index of clinical suspicion of tuberculous meningitis were considered as cases and those with non tuberculous meningitis as controls. CSF examination was done in both the groups including gross appearance, lymphocytic count, protein, sugar, AFB staining and PCR for M. tuberculosis using IS6110 as the target gene. Results: A total of 126 CSF samples from pediatric patients were included in the study of which 77 were cases and 49 were controls. Presence of cobweb and predominant lymphocytosis were significantly higher in the tuberculous meningitis group than the control group. AFB and TB PCR were positive in 7 (9.1%) and 18 (23.4%) cases respectively and in none and one controls respectively (p value= 0.04 for AFB positivity and 0.0007 for TB PCR positivity). TB PCR (23.4%) was 2.5 times more sensitive than AFB stain (9.1%) for diagnosing M. tuberculosis. Conclusions: Though PCR is a good tool for confirming tuberculous meningitis in children, better gene targets should be looked for, to make it an ideal screening test.

  39. Bhushita B Lakhkar and Bhushan N Lakhkar

    Foreign body ingestion is very common among pediatric age groups and most of the times they pass through the gastrointestinal tract without any complications. Very few patients require any intervention. Most common foreign bodies ingested are coins, but marbles, button, batteries, safety pins, glass and bottle tops are also found. Radiological localization is mandatory for decision making regarding the removal. (Wyllie, 2006) Smooth foreign bodies do not pose much threat but Sharp foreign bodies, if not retrieved at the earliest may cause complications.

  40. Luz Virginia Pacheco Quijano, Betty Sarabia Alcocer, Ana Rosa Can Valle and Liliana García Reyes

    Self-concept can be defined as a set of perceptions that the subject has about himself, perceptions from the private experiences of each individual, and from the consideration and testimony he receives from significant people who are close to He: family, school, same (Calleja, 2005). A social order of representations around gender allows individuals to perceive themselves and others by virtue of concepts and stereotypes endowed with a certain degree of consistency. It is evident that the attitude that has towards itself has a powerful influence in the adjustment, personal well-being and its professional development; Thus constituting a frame of reference through which the individual interacts with the world, which affects his way of thinking, feeling and behaving. It has been proven that the person who has a realistic, integrated, extensive and adapted self-concept generally behaves in a healthy, trusting and constructive way, because he feels less threatened by difficult tasks, people and situations, he relates better, he perceives Reality more correctly and is more respectful of herself and others. Therefore, the objective of this study is to know the dimensions of self-concept and the gender differences existing among new students in the Degree in Psychology of the Autonomous University of Campeche, Mexico. The method used was a descriptive, non-experimental study, since there was no active manipulation of any variable, but rather observed these variables as they occur naturally, without intervening in their development. We worked with a sample of 127 students of new admission to the Degree in Psychology, denominated basic area in the Autonomous University of Campeche. It is made up of 81 (64%) women and 46 (36%) men, between 18 and 21 years old, of low socioeconomic level. They were applied as instrument, the questionnaire of Self-concept form 5 (AF5), by Musitu and García (2001). The results obtained from the group of 46 men (36%) in the averages of the self-concept dimensions were: academic work (average 55.13), social (average 77.95), emotional (average 59.21), family (average 35.37), and physical 60.94); And in the group of 81 (64%) women, presented the following averages: academic work (average 52.64), social (average 41.05), emotional (average 54.64), family (average 63.78) and physical (mean 56.68). Because we can conclude that there are significant differences between genders in two of the dimensions of self-concept valued as men obtain higher levels of physical self-concept and women stand out in family self-concept. Men have a much higher perception of themselves in social self-concept than women, among the possible explanations of the differences is the construction of gender in society where differential expectations are especially accentuated. In contrast to previous data, women reach higher levels of family self-concept than men, we may think that there is a different treatment received from parents, in the sense that the behavior of women within the household can meet the expectations of parents. There are no significant gender differences in emotional self-concept, physical self-concept, psychological self-concept, and global self-concept. We can conclude that gender theory explains that because women's undervalued position in the historical, economic, socio-political and cultural context is the reason why women present lower levels of self-concept than their male counterparts.

  41. Kotagiri Ravikanth, Deepak Thakur, Anirudh Sharma, Adarsh Choudhary and Abhinay Chauhan

    Background: The aim of the present study was to standardize Janova by two biomarkers Piperine and Gingerol-6 present in the herbs used for formulation by adopting sophisticated instruments High performance liquid chromatography and High performance thin layer chromatography methods. Janova is a very effective Ayurvedic polyherbal medicine used to treat anoestrus, one of the most common causes of infertility in cattle. Ingredients of commercial herbal medicines are assessed for quality primarily to ensure their safety. Janova contains four herbs including Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum and Piper longum. Methods: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and High performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) methods were prepared for the standardization of the Janova with respect to the biomarker compounds Gingerol-6 and Piperine of respective herbs. The developed methods were validated on parameters including linearity, selectivity, precision, recovery, LOD and LOQ in accordance with the statistical method of validation given in ICHQ2R1. Results: Methods developed were being successfully applied in identification and quantification of phytotherapeutic constituents. The average recovery of (Gingerol-6) 99.47 % and (Piperine) 98.20 % were computed from regression equation. RSD for inter-day and intra-day variability were also found to be less than 1%. Conclusion: The outcome of the present investigation underlines the importance of standardization of Ayurvedic formulations and how overall phytochemical consistency of herbal medicines is pivotal to their efficacy. Establishment of harmonized multilaboratory-validated analytical methods developed may be further used to standardize other formulation containing Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum and Piper longum.

  42. Jessica Anna Thomas, Pushpalatha, C., Swaroop Hegde and Mahantesha, S.

    Traumatic dental injuries are very common in young children in the age group of 2 to 5 years. This is most often due to the increased motor development during this period. Different types of traumatic injuries affect the primary dentition. The potential for disturbances of the developing germs is relatively high following injuries to their predecessors. Developmental aberrations in the form of coronal discolorations, eruption disturbances, crown/root dilacerations, bifid roots and cessation of root formation are encountered. The current case report highlights an unusual presentation of the sequelae following trauma sustained during early childhood in a permanent maxillary incisor.

  43. Vilas L. Rajguru, Shankar P. Dange, Sonali S. Dahiwale and Ulhas E. Tandle

    Free end saddles are liable to be displaced under occlusal pressure. This can be because of displaceability of mucosa. The altered cast technique is employed to try and prevent this by making an impression of mucosa under controlled pressure.

  44. Arnav Kr Roychoudhury and Reeta Dhar

    Introduction: Salivary glands are the site of origin of non neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. The histopathology of these are more various and diverse.Salivary gland tumours affect the parotid gland in more than 70% of cases, submandibular gland 5-10%, sublingual gland 1% and minor glands 5-15%. Aim of the study: To clinicopathologically study the various neoplastic and non neoplastic lesions of salivary glands. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of pathology at Mahatma Gandhi Mission Hospital, Navi Mumbai during the period from October 2008 to October 2014, a total of 11,197 specimens were received for histopathological examinations, of which 50 specimens were of salivary gland lesions. Results: Chronic sialadenitis was the commonest (53.8%) non neoplastic lesion, Pleomorphic adenoma (64.8%) was the commonest benign tumor, Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (13.5%) was the most common malignant tumor of the salivary glands. Parotid was the commonest site accounting for 67.5% of all tumors followed by minor salivary glands (29.7%) and submandibular gland (2.7%). A female preponderance was seen in almost all tumors except Warthin’s tumor with peak age incidence of 2nd to 6th decade. Conclusion: From the present study, it is evident that histopathological examination of salivary gland lesions is the most important modality in establishing the final diagnosis in predicting prognosis and typing of non neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of salivary glands.

  45. Dhanashree Sakhre, Shailja Chatterjee, Prachi Goyal and Jaspreet Kaur Bhattal

    Orthodontic tooth movement is a biological process involving interactions between physiological bone changes and chemical mediators such as growth factors, cytokines, arachidonic acid metabolites etc. Complex molecules are released by bone cells such as-osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes which cause bone changes/remodeling which are compatible with tooth movements. Various theories of tooth movement have been discussed in this article in conjunction with biological processes encompassing these.

  46. Dr. Ankur Prajapati, Dr. Pronob Kumar Sanyal, Dr. Priyavaswani and Dr. Sushma, R.

    An immediate complete denture is a dental prosthesis constructed to replace the lost dentition and associated structures of the maxillae and/or mandible and inserted immediately following removal of the remaining natural teeth. This treatment modality preserves a person from social stigma of being without teeth. But, a major disadvantage is the inability to review teeth arrangement and esthetics before processing and following denture insertion. This clinical report describes the treatment of restoring the anterior teeth of 45-year-old female with partial edentulous upper and lower jaw. A teacher by profession, her prime concern was no period of edentulousness. Patient esthetics is not impaired by giving immediate denture immediately after extraction of his poorlyprognosed natural anterior teeth. The critical consideration was given to restore phonation, oral hygiene, followed by esthetics while fabrication of immediate denture.

  47. Rigoberto Fimia Duarte, Jaime Wilfrido Aldaz Cárdenas, Nancy Guadalupe Aldaz Cárdenas, Jorge Jagger Segura Ochoa, Jenny Janeth Segura Ochoa, Omelio Cepero Rodríguez, Ricardo Osés Rodríguez and Lisvette Cruz Camacho

    The principal permanent breeding grounds in the 13 municipalities of the province of Villa Clara were sampled to examine the species of larvivorous fish existent in these reservoirs. The species of mosquitoes associated to these reservoirs were identified. An experiment was carried out to assess the predation capacity of the copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Also, an economic evaluation was made to assess the expenses inverted in the Intensive Campaign in the year 2006 with the purpose decreasing mosquito populations. The proportions of positiveness for Stegomyia aegypti were compared between the different cycles of the campaign; this was achieved using a logistic model and a proportional hypothesis test. On the other hand, the results of the experiment of depredation were processed using simple ANOVA and polinomial regression. The results show that the species of mosquitoes and fish most widely distributed in the province corresponded to Anopheles albimanus, Ochlerotatus mediovittata, Oc. taeniorhynchus,Psorophora confinnis, Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus, and to Gambusia punctata, Girardinus metallicus,Poecilia reticulata, Limia vittata and Cichlasoma tetracanthus respectively. Also it was demonstrated in vitro, that the copepod Me. aspericornis is able to depredate up to eight larvae of Cx.quinquefasciatus in 24 hours. We also concluded that the use of biological agents is a simpleand relatively economic alternative within the integrated programs of control of mosquito vectors of diseases in Villa Clara,unlike the utilization of insecticides which are highly expensive and noxious to the environment.

  48. SamiaPerwaiz Khan, Maria Fatima Ali, Muslim Abbas and MariumYounus Paracha

    Background: In Medical and Dental Colleges there is significant psychological distress with negative effect on mental health students, which may lead to a high frequency of depression, anxiety and stress in these students. The competitive studies and movement from pre-clinical to clinical stages in medical education with challenges related to trainers, professionals and interaction with patients in combination with the performance of procedures on patients is known to precipitate anxiety, stress. Long term anxiety and stress may cause depression. Methodology: The Medical and Dental Undergraduate Students of from the Jinnah Medical and Dental College were included in this study. A questionnaire, on the basis following DASS Score -21 was filled in by the students. An additional question regarding the use of anxiolytics or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (antidepressant) for coping with anxiety, stress and depression was added. Results: Assessment according to DASS-21 in medical and dental undergraduates has shown high scorerange in 4students (severe) and 2-3 students (extremely severe). These students had high scored but were not aware. None of these student had been prescribed any anxiolytic or antidepressant. Conclusion: Better option for students with high scores should be that they are advised psychotherapy to manage anxiety, stress and to prevent depression.

  49. Abhilash, V., Dr. Reetha Ismail and Binu Babu

    Wilson’s disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, leads to the impairment in copper transport characterized by accumulation of anomalous amount of copper in the body tissues especially in the liver. The classical clinical presentation of the Wilson’s disease include presence of Keyser-Fischer ring, low serum ceruloplasmin levels and increased 24 hrs urinary copper levels. Here we present a case of 15 year old young girl who does not have classical clinical features of Wilson’s disease, rather she presented with psychotic onset, hepatic failure, near normal serum ceruloplasmin levels, status epilepticus and absent Keyser–Fischer rings. The Diagnosis confirmed with help of urinary copper values and brain CT scan. Wilson’s disease can be veiled for a long time with the psychiatric and neurological symptoms and rarely it may be complicated with frequent seizure attacks and it may be harmful for the patient. In this kind of unequivocal cases, mutation analysis is an imperative diagnostic measure.

  50. Dr. Ankur Prajapati, Dr. Pronob Kumar Sanyal, Dr. Priyavaswani, Dr. Shivsagar Tewary, Dr. Subha Joshi and Dr. Karuna Pawashe

    Statement of Problem: The fracture of complete denture is a common occurrence in the field of prosthodontics. Often if all other criteria are met such as good aesthetics, occlusion, and functionality; denture repair is acceptable. If denture fractures, we would want the joint surface strength to be as good as original. Purpose: Influence Of different Surface Design and Chemical Treatment On the transverse Strength of Repaired Denture Base by Auto polymerizing resin Materials and Methods: Seventy specimens of heat cured acrylic resin of dimension 65 mm × 40 mm × 2 mm were prepared using a special metal plate. Transverse strength of 10 samples was calculated which served as a control group. Transverse strength of two differently designed joined contours treated with chemicals or without chemicals was then compared with control group and also they were compared with each other and result was statistically analysed with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Post hoc ANOVA. Result: Transverse strength of original specimen was higher than that of repaired specimens. Transverse strength of chemically treated specimens (Ethyl acetate) which were repaired with Zigzag design was found to be higher than others. Conclusion: Methods of surface modification and chemical treatment have significant effect on strength of repaired denture.

  51. Takashi Kato

    The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (Trp) is the important precursor of a number of biologically active metabolites. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxigenase (TDO) is a liver-specific enzyme for tryptophan catabolism. Although the regulation of TDO expression is understood to involve glucagon In vitro, it is largely unknown in vivo. To investigate the regulation of TDO expression in mouse liver during starvation, I performed real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. At first, I assessed the changes of body weights and the liver histology with Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining during starvation, and found that starvation lead into depletion of glycogens and glycoproteins and so on. I also observed that Tdo mRNA and TDO protein were increasedduring starvation by comparing the normal controls. I thus conclude that starvation increases the hepatic TDO expression. Tryptophan and/or its catabolism(s) could play important roles in liver and whole body during starvation.

  52. Abhijit P. Patil, Mahantesh Bembalgi, Raghunath Patil, Sounyala Rayannavar and Sayed M. Killedar

    Background and Objectives: Contaminated impressions can cross infect gypsum casts that are poured against them. Prosthodontic treatment procedure may begin with the making of the dental impression which forms the first link in the microbial contamination during dental care. The disinfectant must be effective antimicrobial agent, yet cause no adverse effect to the dimensional accuracy and surface features of the impression material and the resultant gypsum cast. Method: 80 impressions of die constructed according to ADA specification No. 19 were made with special tray fabricated with two types of commercially available zinc oxide-eugenol impression paste materials and disinfected by 2% gluteraldehyde, 1:213 iodophor, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and distilled water for five minutes followed by rinsing in a tap water and dried then kept in the water bath at 370C, simulating the mouth temperature under the weight of 1 kilogram simulating operators finger pressure. Dimensions of the resultant casts made of type IV die stone poured after disinfection of impressions were measured using stereomicroscope.Surface quality of resultant casts was assessed by visual examination under stereomicroscope and grading of casts surfaces were done according to specific scoring system. Conclusion: 1:213 Iodophor causes least dimensional and surface quality changes in impressions made from Denzomix and DPI zinc oxide-eugenol impression paste materials where as Chlorhexidine disinfectant causes more dimensional and surface quality changes. So it may be advisable to consider 1: 213 Iodophor as a selected disinfectant for disinfecting Denzomix and DPI zinc oxide-eugenol impression paste impression materials for 5 minutes.

  53. Dr. K. Saraswathi Gopal, Dr. B. G. Harsha Vardhan, Dr. G. Nandhini and Dr. N. Balaji

    Background: A large number of disorders affecting the masticatory system can cause restriction of mouth opening. The most common conditions related to this problem are those involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the masticatory muscles, is an usual finding. Coronoid process hyperplasia is a rare cause of mandibular hypo mobility. Literature review states that the morphological variation in the shape of coronoid process and sigmoid notch may be due to hereditary or functional changes and have a correlation with the mode of degree of attachment of temporalis muscle. Materials and Methods: A Study was conductedin 100 (200joints) South Indian individuals who presented with various temporomandibular joint disorders. The shape of coronoid process and sigmoid notch and length of coronoid process were analysed bilaterally using Cone Beam Computed tomography (CBCT). Morphological alteration of coronoid process and its length and sigmoid notch were analysed and compared for differences on either sides. Results: The length of coronoid process was found to be approximately 1.9 mm longer on the right side than on the left side; the mean value of right side being 14.96mm and left side being 13.06mm Triangular coronoid process was found to be the commonest with 31% right side and 60% in left side followed by beak shaped with 48% right side and 20% in left side and then round shaped with 21% right side and 20% in left side. The shape of sigmoid notch wide shape was found to be the commonest with 60 % right side and 41 % in left side followed by sloping shape with 32% right side and 23% in left side and then round shape with 8% right side and 36% in left side.

  54. Keerthi, K. and Amala Kumari, P.

    The advertising campaign of Millet fest with tagline Your Health Our Pride as central theme, consisted of print, radio, T.V, mobile message service, online and conventional media, to publicize the millet fest. An interview schedule was developed to collect feedback from the visitors to analyze the impact of advertising campaign on millet fest. The data collection was continued for three consecutive years from 2012-13 to 2014-15. A total of 2250 visitors were interviewed @750 per year. Professionals like doctors, software personnel etc and students occupied the send line. In fact this was the target group of the campaign around whom the significance of millets as neutraceutical in management of life style disorders was focused. Thirty six stalls in the first fest, increased to 72 in the final fest. This was effectively advertised in various media materials. Paper inserts and T.V. scrolling effectively carried the advertising messages. In the third year paper inserts and T.V. scroll together contributed 66% of visitors. The messages communicated through advertising campaigns finally get translated to output indicators in terms of consumer behavior change in the form of spending time and purchase of products. There was increase in no of visitors, almost doubled in consecutive years. The average time spent was also increasing from less than an hour to two hours. The purchase behavior increased to almost five folds. The percent of Returns on Investment (ROI), which was the proportion of sales promoted for the investment made on advertising campaign has increased to around 500 times.

  55. Abderrahim BENSLAMA, Safia AFISSA, Asma SAIDI and Abdenassar HARRAR

    This work was carried out to study the antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of Limoniastrum guyonianum (Plombaginaceae) extracts, traditionally used in folk medicine in Algeria. The aerial part were submitted to extraction by water and methanol to give methanolic (Met.E) and aqueous (Aq.E) extracts with that yields are 10%and 17,5% respectively. Quantitative analysis of polyphenols and flavonoids content showed that the Met. E had the highest amount (285.37µg EAG/mgE and 44.11µg EQ/mg E, respectively). The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated by 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ABTS free radical-scavenging test. Results showed that the Met. E exhibited the highest antiradical activity against DPPH and ABTS free radical with EC50=0,099 mg/ml, and EC50=0.024mg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the antibacterial activity was determined on the five bacterial strains, using disk diffusion method. The Met. E showed inhibition zone averages only on M. luteus, and S. aureus (12 and 13 mm respectively) and with MIC is 25 μg/ml. Our results showed that the methanolic extract of L. guyonianum reported a considerable antioxidant and antibacterial activities which may be due to their richness on polyphenols and flavonoids.

  56. Daniel, U. I., Vincent-Akpu, I.F., Umesi, N. and Togi, P. D.

    A study was conducted to evaluate the carbohydrate, lipid, ash, protein, moisture and fiber contents of samples of African bullfrog (Pyxicephalus adspersus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) collected from ARAC, Aluu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria from Novenber 2013 – February 2014. Slight variations in chemical compositions of both species, some of which were statistically significant, were observed in the study. The range of mean values of carbohydrate (0.54 ± 0.01 – 1.29 ± 0.10%), lipid (0.99 ± 0.33 – 4.54 ± 2.13%), ash (4.02 ± 0.51 – 7.20 ± 1.67%), protein (6.41 ± 0.46 – 13.53 ± 0.74%), moisture (71.86 ± 0.51 – 78.95 ± 3.44%) and fiber (2.31 ± 0.54 – 14.67 ± 2.31%) recorded were consistent with values reported in previous studies. P. adspersus and O. niloticus both represent an attractive and important source of animal protein, providing approximately some 10 – 13% of animal protein for human consumption. Animals with lipid content < 5% are classified to have low-oil content. Lipid contents of P. adspersus and O. niloticus recorded in this study were all below 5%, and therefore falls within the low-oil category that is nutritionally fit for human consumption.

  57. Gift G. Moyo, Enoch Ng’oma and Meya Kalindekafe, P.

    A comparative study of impacts of wild animals and anthropogenic activities on survivorship and abundance of Raphia farinifera along three close streams was donein Thondwe area, Malawi because although these plants are conspicuously exposed to threats no study has been made on their conservation status. In this study, we divided each stream into three equal sections where we determined the adult and juvenile palm abundance through total counting once in the study period. The average distribution of adult and juvenile palms per km/stretch of Ntalikachawo, Naiwale and Namikango streams were 9; 280; and 70 respectively with no any palm observed in the upper sectionsof the streams. Weobserved that the survivorships of sampled adult and juvenile palms as follow: middle and lower Ntalikachawo had 100%, middle and lower Naiwale had 73.9% and 100% respectively while middle and lower Namikango had 64.5% and 82.4% respectively. Study was also conducted on R. farinifera use, land use activities and impact of wild animals where data were collected through direct observation and interviewing of 47 households. 76.6% of respondents indicated that people do not enhance palm growth in the area. On dispersal, 63.8% of respondents indicated that Raphia fruits are dispersed by water within the stream while 14.9% of respondents had the view that they are dispersed by human beings. Therefore from this study weconclude that wild animals and human beings play little role in the dispersalof R.farinifera but human beings have a role on its profusion and survivorship along the study streams.

  58. Aizat Khairi and Che Mohd Aziz Yaacob

    This article analyses about the role of the National Unity and Integration Department (DNUI) as one of the government agency in Malaysia to deal with the ethnic relation’s issues. Due to the colonial era, British had rule Tanah Melayu (Malaya) and brought in foreign labourers especially from China and India to ensure large-scale activities can be completed accordingly. All of these economic activities are based on the policy of divide and rule practiced by the British. The different placements and activities between each ethnicity in Malaya at that time resulted in a lack of communication and interaction between the ethnic groups. May 13 1969, after 12 years of Malaya independence, marks the black history of the inter-ethnic conflict outbreak in the country. Consequently, the government established the Majlis Gerakan Negara (Mageran) or National Operations Council (NOC) to study and find the possible solutions to address the issues of conflict among ethnicities in Malaysia. As a result of the NOC initiatives, one of the government agencies that were established in order to deal with ethnic conflicts that occur in the country and create substantial value of reconciliation is the Department of National Unity and Integration (DNUI). The initiatives taken by DNUI is to establish the Rukun Tetangga (RT) or Community Organization, Skim Rondaan Sukarela (SRS) or Volunteer Patrol Scheme and the Tadika Perpaduan or Unity Kindergarten. Through the establishment of the DNUI as a government agency responsible for addressing ethnic conflicts in Malaysia from happening again, the DNUI has played a part in creating peace-building activities.

  59. Rehab Subhi RAMADHAN, Reem Jaafar Ali and Rebah Najah Jabbar AL-gafari

    This study investigates Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) relation to infertility through a biochemical and molecular at methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and PCOS gene. Samples from patients suffering PCOS were collected from Kamal al-Samarrai Hospital. Twenty tissue samples were collected from Madinat al-Amamin Al-Kazimin Al-Tibbia Hospital. Fifty blood samples from healthy women served as the control. Average ages of patients and control group were 20-50 years. Subjects were divided in to three age groups (20-30), (31-40) and (41-50), years old. Serum samples for all PCOS patients were measured for fertility hormones levels like Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH and Testosterone hormone. The FSH hormone recorded a significant decreased in age group (41-50) years old, while LH and Testosterone recorded a significant increase in age group (31-40) years old. The study confirmed the incidence of SNPs detected in PCOS gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done using a specific primers set to amplify exon (2) of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Another three primers were designed to amplify the exons (5-10) regions of (PCOS) gene. It was found after PCR product sequencing that the percentage of substitution mutation was 88%, while the deletion mutation percent was 12%.

  60. Allah Jurio Khaskheli, Waqas Ahmed, Zeeshan Ahmad and Juan Hong li

    In present study benzylaminopurine efficiency was tested on shoot proliferation efficiencies under in vitro condition. About 45 explants were cultured on each of medium supplemented with different concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg/L BAP. Concentration of BAP significantly affected the average of survival rate, shoot numbers, and shoot length per explants. Whereas, MS basal medium supplemented with 2.0mg/L concentration of BAP showed astonishingly survival rate and the maximum number of shoots (16shoots/explant). MS medium supplemented with 4mg/L of BAP followed by 3mg/L of BAP showed optimal efficiency. While, shoots regenerated on MS basal medium (control) without addition of BAP showed significantly lower survival rate (57.86%), and resulted lower number and length of shoots up to the end of experiments.

  61. Ilham Elsayed and Nagat Elmulthum

    Emphasizing the importance of women contribution in growth and development, this paper aim to study and analyze the possibilities of achieving Saudi vision 2030 goals to empower Saudi Women. Descriptive and quantitative analysis using data from higher education statistics, and Saudi Arabian Monetary agency, was done. The study shows that, the number of males and females are more or less equal according to 2015 population data for Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, but when it comes to labor force mismatch between them is observed with higher opportunities for males. The study concludes that, the labor market does not coup with the steady increase in the number of female graduates. Focusing on empowerment of Saudi women, the study proved that contribution of women in business directors, services, and engineering sectors is limited compared to males as the gap widening in both services and engineering sectors. The study found that students enrollment in varies engineering specializations is dominated by male. Moreover, females’ involvement in technical training, in comparison to males is very limited. On the other hand, the study found that, there is a gradual increase on the number of females joining postgraduate studies recently compare to that previously graduated. Recent data, 2014, indicates Saudi female teaching staff is almost double non Saudis emphasizing empowerment of women with high prediction to achieve 2030 Saudi Vision goals. The study recommends investment in further education for females by providing more opportunities for females to receive Ph.D. degree from local and international Institutions. Moreover, it is recommended to increase number of graduates in specialties that required by labor market and hence increase possibilities to empower Saudi women focusing on that directly affects decision making and strategic planning depending on clear effective swift plans to cope with Saudi Arabia 2030 Vision.

  62. Mea Arsene, Abo, K. J. C., Kassi, Y.T. and Irie Bi, J. S.

    An aqueous extract of Anacardium occidentale (AEAo) with a concentration from 1 mg / kg b.w. to 50 mg / kg b.w. induces dose-dependent hypotension on rabbit arterial blood pressure (p <0.01). The respiratory movements of the animal grow in amplitude and frequencies. High doses of 40 and 50 mg / kg b.w. lead to severe hypotension followed by respiratory gasps. AEAo reduces hypertension induced by adrenaline to 5x10-3 mg / kg p.c. Injected to the animal before or after the injection of adrenaline, AEAo reduces hypertension. The greatest reduction occurs when AEAo is injected before the adrenaline injection (p <0.01). Hypertension induced by adrenaline results in a decrease in the amplitude of respiratory movements (p <0.05). Injection of AEAo rapidly restores these depressed respiratory movements (p <0.01). Atropine significantly reduces hypotension induced by AEAo. This suggests that this hypotension is due to muscarinic cholinergic substances contained in the plant. The presence of atropine abolishes the observed gasp respiratory effect. Respiratory movements under these conditions are not significantly modified (p <0.05).

  63. Kathiravan, S. and Krishnakumari, S.

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of various substrate sterilization methods and age of spawn on the growth and bioefficiency of Pleurotus florida, white oyster mushroom. The spawn of P. florida was prepared from the culture slants. The spawn of varying age viz. 25 days, 35 days and 45 days were chosen for the study. The processed paddy straw substrate was used for preparing the mushroom beds. The substrate was sterilized using three different methods viz. chemical, boiling water and steam. The days for spawn run, days for pin headed appearance, days for first harvest, second harvest and third harvest, yield in first harvest, second harvest and third harvest were observed and recorded. All the parameters were compared and results showed that paddy straw substrate sterilized by steam gave better results with fast and optimum growth followed by boiling water sterilization. Chemically sterilized substrate gave low yield compared to other substrates. Among the different age of spawn used, 35 days spawn gave better results compared to 45 days spawn. 25 days spawn inoculated beds gave low yield than others. Accordingly, bioefficiency was also high in steam sterilized substrate followed by boiling water sterilization and chemical sterilization. The study confirmed that steam sterilized substrate and 35 days spawn are very appropriate for the cultivation of white oyster mushroom, Pleurotus florida.

  64. Ronanki Srivalli, Anila Kumari, B., Uma Maheswari, K., Neeraja Prabhakar, B. and Jessie Suneetha, W.

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder and it is one of the free radical mediated diseases characterized by hyperglycemia. Among the various anti-diabetic therapeutic approaches one major strategy is reducing gastrointestinal absorption of glucose by inhibition of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes α -amylase and α - glucosidase. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory activities of methanolic extracts of tomato powder incorporated rice based cold extrudates on α- amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. The α- amylase inhibition assay showed that the methanolic extracts of control extrudates and TP extrudates were found to be 42.13 mg/ml and 40.47 mg /ml respectively exhibited 50% α- amylase inhibition activity at the mentioned concentrations. The α- glucosidase IC50 for the extrudate extracts of control extrudates and TP extrudates was found to be 52.50 mg/ml and 45.14 mg/ml respectively. The results of the work therefore clearly indicate the potential of these extracts to manage hyperglycemia.

  65. Josephine Jenifa Lourduraj and David Ravindran Abraham

    Effect of different carbon source, nitrogen source and different concentration of silica, iron and salt in the growth medium on growth, biomass and lipid content of N. palea (Diatom) were investigated. The addition of high concentration of iron in Csi media significantly increase the growth, biomass and lipid content of N. palea. 0.05% (glucose), 0.05% (urea and nitrogen starvation), silica (100 mg/L and 20 mg/L), Ferric ethylene diamine tetra acetate (0.026Mm and 0.023mM) and salt (20ppt and 40ppt) showed a marginal rise in biomass and lipid content respectively. Among these, silica concentration and salt concentration played a major role in yielding highest biomass (0.838 ± 0.019 g L–1 dw, 0.88 ± 0.018 g L–1 dw) as well as highest lipid content (68.5 ± 0.84 %, 66.7 ± 1.12%) respectively. The present work highlights the importance of optimising culture media (Csi) in enhancing both biomass and lipid content to provide N. palea as efficient stain for biodiesel production.

  66. Jnaneshwari S. Joshi and Dr. Venkateshwarlu, M.

    Spiders with various foraging strategies to prey on insects and pests in rice fields can be considered as biological pest control in rice fields. They prey on several species which harm the growth of rice plants and, thus help to increase the yield of rice in rice fields. The biodiversity study was conducted in two rice fields in Puttur taluk of Dakshina Kannada District. This resulted in confirmed identification 30 species of spiders belonging to 6 families - Salticidae, Araneidae, Oxyopidae, Tetragnathidae, Thomisidae, Pisauridae. In this study Salticidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Oxyopidae dominate the field controlling pests in the field and act as biological control agents in agricultural ecosystem.

  67. Thilsath Fatima Quraiza, M., Kumari Sethu Lakshmi Bai P. K. and Ramani Bai, M.

    Bombyx mori L. is a commercial exploited variety used large scale production of silk. One of the most important characteristics of the silkworm, B.mori is its ability to switch plant protein from feeding material to silk protein. The current study revealed that the impact of feeding B.mori with plant and animal protein enriched mulberry leaves has been examined with reference to biochemical content and economic parameters of sericulture. Fortification of the mulberry leaves by nutrient supplementation can be increased the quality and productivity of silk. The feeding of mulberry leaves soaked in 3, 5 and 7 per cent plant protein (soya flour) and animal proteins (T. castaneum larvae) to B.mori larvae from the first day of third, fourth and fifth instar. Biochemical constituents such as protein, carbohydrate and lipid content of silk gland, haemolymph, fat body and muscles were noted. B.mori proteins are stored in the middle silk gland and they are discharged through the anterior duct and spinneret, at the end of the fifth instar. The highest silk gland protein (92.01 per cent) was noted in the anterior silk gland at the 5 per cent soya flour treated groups. During the feeding period of the last larval instar, all the major proteins are synthesized by the fat body and secreted in to the haemolymph for temporary accumulation. The results of present study clearly demonstrated that the protein content of haemolymph and fat body were 55.68 and 36.25 per cent significantly increase when the larvae fed with 7 and 3 per cent soya treated groups. Among the treatments 5 % animal protein showed a significant increase in shell ratio (19.44 per cent) and filament length (81.26 per cent) and 7 % plant protein showed significant increase above parameters (18.66 and 80.43 per cent) when compared to control.

  68. Henrique Kuhn Massot Padilha, Ênio Egon Sosinski and Rosa Lía Barbieri

    The Capsicum peppers are consumed worldwide for diverse uses, but mainly as food due pungency of fruits responsible for heat sensation. Peppers were one of the first domesticated species in the western hemisphere. There is a great genetic diversity among species of Capsicum genus, even as the genetic variability within each species. The characterization is essential for the maintenance and preservation of genetic resources favoring genotypes availability for immediate or future use. The aim of this work was to perform morphological characterization, genetic divergence evaluation of peppers accessions (Capsicum baccatum and Capsicum chinense, Solanaceae) and estimate the entropy of descriptors. The evaluation occurred by analysis of 21 accessions from the Capsicum Genebank of Embrapa Temperate Agriculture. 47 qualitative descriptors were employed for morphological characterization. Qualitative data were statistically analyzed by hierarchical clustering UPGMA and Tocher method. The entropy level of characters (H) was estimated by Renyi entropy coeficiente. Morphological descriptors were efficient to characterize the accessions. There is genetic diversity for C. baccatum and C. chinense accessions evaluated. The UPGMA and Tocher grouping methods partially agree to formation of groups. The descriptors with highest entropy values were flower position, stigma exsertion, colour of fruit at mature stage, pungency, plant height and fruit shape. Stem shape, leaf shape, placenta length and seed colour presented the lowest entropy values.

  69. Sai Vinay, B. J. V. and Shruthi Gadhe

    Pomegranate is suggested by nutritionists in the diet for weight reduction and cholesterol controlling programs. Regular inclusion of fruits in the diets boosts immunity, improves circulation, and offers protection from cancers. It is also good source of many vital B-complex groups of vitamins such as pantothenic acid (Vitamin B-5), folates, pyridoxine and vitamin K, and minerals like calcium, copper, potassium, and manganese (Rudrappa, 2009). The quality changes of pomegranate samples kept at different temperatures namely 0, 5 and 100 C are determined with the help of different experiments. The methods of measuring different data, instruments used and various tests are described.

  70. Arjun N. Shetty and Srinath Rao

    The present study describe about direct somatic embryogenesis and investigations on antioxidant enzyme activities during somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane. Somatic embryos were produced directly from the cut end of spindle leaf explants on MS medium (Murashige and Skoog’s, 1962) containing different concentrations of 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) alone or in combination with Kinetin (Kn). Maximum number (41.07±0.89) of somatic embryos were observed on MS medium augmented with 5.0mg/l 2, 4-D + 0.5mg/l Kn. Activities of antioxidant enzyme viz., Ascorbate peroxidase, Peroxidase, Catalase and Superoxide dismutase wasestimated during developmental stages (10, 20, 40 and 50 days) of somatic embryogenesis. Increased levels of APX and POX activity was observedduring initiation of embryos and small increase in activity till heart shaped and torpedo stage embryo formation, while SOD and CAT activitiesshown low levels of activity at embryo initiation stages andincreased steadily during heart and late heart-shaped embryo formation. This indicates tissue specific activation of these enzymes had occurred at different stages of embryo development. Protein profile shown one specific protein band with molecular weight of 27.4 kD appeared during globular, heart and torpedo stages of embryogenesis. However these bands disappeared during germination of embryos. And protein with molecular weight 36.8 kD was appeared from heart to germination stage of SE. therefore the present study may help in identification of specific proteins and role ofantioxidant enzymes during different stages of somatic embryo induction in sugarcane.

  71. Steffen, G. P., Maldaner, J., Morais, R. M. de., Saldanha, C. W., Steffen, R. B., Antoniolli, Z. I., Jacques, R. J. S.

    Soil biological activity is a key component for maintaining crop production sustainability. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of mineral fertilization (phosphorus and potassium) and soil and plant bioactivation (Penergetic technology) in agricultural crops by assessing food consumption of fauna and edaphic microorganisms. The tests were conducted on soybean (summer) and wheat (winter) crops subjected to different forms of fertilization and application of bioactivator. To assess food consumption in experimental plots, was used the bait-lamina methodology. The bait-laminas remained in the soil for 21 days. The percentages of empty, partially empty and full holes were evaluated in two soil layers: 0 to 8 and 9 to 16 cm deep, in addition to attributing scores to the pattern of food consumption. Principal component analyses were performed (PCA) using the feeding activity results, food consumption scores, crop yields and basal respiration. The combined use of bioactivator with phosphorus and potassium mineral fertilizer promoted a significant effect on feeding activity of fauna and micro-organisms present in the 0-8 cm soil layer in the soybean crop. There was no significant effect of soil fertilization and bioactivator on soil biological activity in the winter crop (wheat).

  72. Senol Celik

    After the analysis of variance, selection of multiple comparison statistics is important. Analysis of variance is performed only when the assumption of homogeneity of variance hold. Nevertheless, it is a test suitable for heterogeneous variance that can be used when there is a deviation from equal variance assumption. Having inappropriate multiple comparison statistics will increase type I and II errors of hypothesis and then conclusion of study may be bias. In this study, Tukey HSD and Scheffe tests gave good results when group variances were homogeneous. Tamhane's T2 and Games-Howell tests gave good results when group variances were heterogeneous.

  73. Veerachari, K. and Parashurama, T. R.

    An ethno-medico-botanical field survey was conducted during from 2013-2014 for document the medicinal plants used by traditional herbal healers in Harappanahalli taluk of Davangere district, Karnataka state, India. The information about plants species and their local names, part used, mode of drugs preparation, dosage and duration were collected from 27 herbal practitioners and knowledgeable elder people residing in 16 randomly selected villages using semi-structured and questionnaire based interview. The present study indicated that 45 plant species belonging to 35 families by folk practitioners to treat various common to chronic human and veterinary ailments. Leaves exhibited the most frequently used plant part for the preparation of medicine.

  74. Fulya TAN, Cihangir SAĞLAM and Güven AKAR

    Anhydrous ammonia is chemical compound used as a fertilizer in agricultural today. It is rich in nitrogen (82.2%). Anhydrous ammonia (NH3) exists in liquid form under high pressure. Anhydrous ammonia turns to a gas when applied to the soil. Anhydrous ammonia is used and stored under high pressures. Specially designed and well-maintained equipment require in the application and storage phase. For this reason, the use of anhydrous ammonia as a fertilizer in the agriculture of our country is undeveloped. In this research, in order to application of anhydrous ammonia a suitable equipment was designed and developed. Injection unit consists of a knife type with an injection tip behind it designed to place the AA 15-20 cm deep in the soil.

  75. Sumedh S. Ingle, Nandedkar, V. M. and Kalpana G. Joshi

    Biodiesel at present, the most widely accepted alternative fuel for diesel engines due to its technical, environmental and strategic advantages. Biodiesel can be used neat or blended in existing diesel engines without significance modification to the engines. This study is devoted to the performance and emission evaluation of automotive diesel engine using blend of palm and castor biodiesel utilization. The concentration of biodiesel in the test was ranged from B0, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100. The engine performance wasevaluated through brake power, brake thermal efficiency, brake mean effective pressure and brake specific fuel consumption while the emission was evaluated through smoke density and NOx. The result shows that the blend B40 and B80 has the optimum emission as well as performance characteristics.

  76. Inez Helena Vieira da Silva Santos, Mariangela Soares de Azevedo, Wanderley Rodrigues Bastos and Maurício Reginaldo Alves dos Santos

    Acai is a Brazilian palm tree which fruits are widely used by the Amazonian population and play an important socioeconomic and cultural role. Knowledge of food compositional, nutritional and functional properties is fundamental for defining the quality of tropical fruits – characterized by both the abundance and bioavailability of essential nutrients. This study is aimed to evaluate the composition of water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, fiber, caloric content, and the minerals calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, zinc and copper in acai products – pulp, jam and jelly. The samples of these products were lyophilized until complete dehydration to estimate the humidity percentage. The protein content was estimated based on the total content of nitrogen of the samples in natura by the Kjeldahl method. The determination of the lipid content was carried out by extraction in a Soxhlet with acid hydrolysis. The portion of carbohydrates was determined by subtracting the weights of water, proteins, lipids and ashes from the original sample. The analysis of the dietary fiber was based on digestion in an acid medium followed by digestion in an alkaline medium. The energy content of each product was estimated from the content of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. In order to determine the content of minerals, the samples were calcinated and acidified in an open system and then quantified by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The content of nutrients and caloric content found in the study were compared to the Daily Reference Value (DRV) established by the Ministry of Health based on a daily diet of 2,000 kcal for healthy adults. Water, protein, lipids, and fiber were higher in pulp than in jam and jelly. Carbohydrates and caloric content was higher in jam. Minerals were higher in pulp. The higher nutrient concentrations in pulp indicate that the processing, especially cooking, leads to loss of nutrients. An exception was observed for carbohydrates and energy content, because of the inherent addition of sugar in the production of jam and jelly.

  77. Ouafae. El ghadraoui, Mohammed. Zouhairi, Farid.Abdi, Taj-dine. Lamcharfi, Hamza. Bali, El houssine. El ghadraoui and Michel. Aillerie

    In this work the effect of doping with magnesium on the structural and physical properties of BaTiO3 were studied. The ceramic materials of composition Ba1-xMgxTiO3 (x ranging from 0 to 1) were prepared by the sol-gel process at low sintering temperature (700°C). The results of XRD analysis showed a good incorporation of Mg in the BT structure for x ≤ 0,15 and a mixture phases for x > 0,15, moreover, a photoluminescence spectra is observed for high Mg contents, while a flat response is obtained for x ≤ 0.15.

  78. Prof. Amar Nath Singh, Er. Rishav Ranjan and Er.Pranay Kumar

    Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science which deals with the concept of intelligence. Intelligence is a kind of implementation of logic in an effective manner to solve the complex task within fewer steps and less burden. The AI is mainly appears in the form of Expert System, Artificial Neural Network, fuzzy logic which are mainly used to solve the complex problems in a effective manner. The AI technique is mainly used to make the system intelligent as like as human so that it can have a decision capability like a human thinking. The machine should able to compute the complex problems in a specified manner within the stipulated time and fixed number of steps.

  79. Prof. Amar Nath Singh, Er. Dipika Nayak, Er. Mrinalini Sahoo, Er. Diksha Kumari and Er.Sahista Khan

    Artificial Mines are the place from where we are extracting the ore and through the ore we get our goods which pose significant threats to society, yet a large fraction of them lack accurate maps (Tanmoy Maity, 2001). This article discusses the software architecture of an autonomous robotic system (A application of Artificial Intelligence) designed to explore abandoned mines (Environment Degradation). We know that, now a day we are fully dependent on machine whether it a small task or a larger one. We neither ignore the importance of machine nor the mine product such as fuel, ore or our day to day requirement goods (Dissanayake, 2003). So to identify the safest mine and exploration of abandoned mine, we have built a robot capable of autonomously exploring abandoned mines (Baker, 2003). A new set of software tools is presented, enabling Robots to acquire maps of unprecedented size and accuracy. On May 30, 2003, our robot “Groundhog” successfully explored and mapped a main corridor of the abandoned mine near Courtney, PA (Apostolopoulos et al., 2001). The article also discusses some of the challenges that arise in the subterranean environments, and some the difficulties of building truly autonomous robots.

  80. Gemechu Bekana Fufa

    The study was designed to assess the impacts of producing cash crops on socio-economic status of producers. The major objectives of this study is to assess the impact of producing cash crops on producers in terms of education, food security and ability to finance. A random sample of 205 producers were selected using multistage random sampling from the study area. Multiple regression Models, Logistic regression models, test hypothesis: Z- test, t - test and coefficients of determination methods of data analysis were used in this study. Comparisons were made between producers and non-producers as well as food security and insecurity using the Z- test and regression analysis. This study defines producers as those who produce cash crop (coffee and chat). If the producer not produces coffee and chat, he/she is considered as non-producer. To assess the impact of producing cash crops on the educational status of the family, the ratio of children in schools to the total number of school aged children in the family, expressed as percentage. The status of food security of the households' family was also seen in terms of the frequency of feeding the children and the adult. The percentage of farmers having corrugated iron sheet roofed houses, the percentage of farmers having separate kitchens other than their living rooms for cooking and the percentage of farmers having separate structure for livestock other than the living room were used to assess the impact of cash products on the housing conditions of the producers. It was found that producers of cash crops are better off than the non producers in terms of sending children to elementary school, housing conditions and ability to finance their families’ food requirements. The impact of father’s education, number of children and livestock ownership on the improvements in the livelihoods of the farmers and the problems facing the producers were also emphasized. After all analysis, it can be concluded that production of cash crop products enables the producers to send children to school, have improved housing conditions, and food secured than the non-producers. Finally, the results were recommended as creating the awareness about the uses of education, business awareness and advising the producers and non-producers of cash crop products.

  81. Georgios Savvidis, Maria Zarkogianni, Evaggelos Karanikas, Ioannis Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos Nikolaidis and Eforia Tsatsaroni

    The UV protection properties of cotton fabrics printed with ten natural colorants of plant and insect origin were investigated. The ability of the printed sample to reduce UV radiation transmittance differed widely from excellent to practically zero depending on the pigment used. The above pigment behaviour was correlated with their chemical structure and their UV-absorption spectra. UV radiation protection provided by synthetic fabrics polyester, acrylic, polyamide dyed with natural dyes has also been studied. UV radiation protection values vary with the fibre and the dye used from insufficient to excellent with the dyed/undyed polyester fabric presenting excellent values apparently due to a UV absorbing agent built-in the mass of polyester.

  82. Sri Bala, G.

    Municipal and Industrial solid wastes are considered to be a large quantity of organic fraction, a vital source of energy, which could be adopted for energy recovery by using coversion processes such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation. The net energy output in the form of methane and ethanol are calculated using chemical reactions of the above said processes. More potential is obtained from wastes subjected to the reaction of anaerobic digestion compared to fermentation. The calorific value of different organic wastes is found theoretically using a chemical formula. It indirectly gives the potential of the waste.

  83. Manikandan, S., Maria Berjilia M. and Dhanalakshmi, K. B.

    Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have been developed as an emerging technology for treating hazardous organics in wastewater and groundwater. In the present study, the effect of oxidants peroxomonosulphate and peroxodisulphate on the photocatalytic oxidation of catechol on illuminated TiO2 surfaces has been investigated. The efficiencies of these oxidants on photocatalytic degradation of catechol are compared with that of peroxomonosulphate and peroxodisulphate. The experimental results indicate that these oxidants exhibited enhanced rates of mineralization of catechol. A reaction mechanism, involving the generation of both hydroxyl radicals and sulphate radicals, was proposed.

  84. ExpeditoV. Acorda

    The focused of the study is to determine the viability of Taysan Soil mixed with Calacabottom ash (CBA) as an alternative road base material. The study also aimed to determine the varying proportions of each sample and select the best proportion that would serve as the basis for the road base material. Findings showed that the soil sample has a moisture content of 7.32%. While the soil sample obtained of a plastic limit of 16.54%, a liquid limit of 22.58% and aplasticity index of 6.04%. The liquid limit did not exceed 25% and the plasticity index attained the 6% requirement of the DPWH Standard Specification. Based on the result of particle size the soil sample is composed mostly of gravel according to the USCS and AASHTO having a percentage of 76.387% and 87.723% respectively. However the soil sample attained a CBR value of 89% at 100% dry density and 73% at 95% dry density. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) value of the Taysan soil is greater than 80% as required by the DPWH standard specification. Furthermore, moisture content of 15.42% and CBA is a non – plastic material. In terms of particle size based on CBA sample according to AASHTO is consists of 52.23% of gravel, 41.56% of sand and 6.21% of clay while according to the USCS, it consists of 32.30% of gravel, 61.49% of sand and 6.21% of clay. The CBR values of the Taysan soil with CBA increases as the percentage of CBA increases.

  85. Suhas Shivajirao Patil and Uttam Pralladhrao Dolhare

    “In this paper the concept of contraction mapping for multi-valued maps in complete metric space is introduced. The point to set map is also called multi-valued (multifunction) which guarantees the existence of fixed point generalization for some multi-valued contraction mappings such as Banach Contraction principle extended by Nadler (S. B. Nadler Jr., Multi-valued contraction mappings, pacific J. Math.30(1969)475-488), generalization of Banach and Caristi fixed point theorem for multi-valued maps was developed by many authors such as (Y. Feng, S. Liu, Fixed point theorems for multi-valued contractive mappings and multi-valued caristi type mappings, J.Math.Anal.Appl. 317(2006)103-112) and (N. Mizoguchi, W. Takahashi, Fixed point theorems for multi-valued mappings on complete metric space, J.Math.Anal.Appl.141(1989)177-188). Here we generalize N. Mizoguchi, W. Takahashi fixed point theorem and our result improves a latest result by Klim and Wadowski (D. Klim, D. Wardowski, Fixed point theorems for set valued contractions in complete metric space, J.Math.Anal.Appl.334(1)(2007)132-139).
    Mathematics Subject Classification: - 54H25, 47H10

  86. Maria Berjilia, M., Manikandn, S. and Dhanalakshmi, K. B.

    Undoped and doped ZnO photocatalyst where characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FTIR), Diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). From these studies we investigated the optical absorption (λmax), functional group, surface morphology, particle size and elementary composition of undoped and doped ZnO. The dopants used where four atomic percentage of Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+ and Ni2+.

  87. Ratna Shrivas and Jayati Chatterjee Mitra

    The survey indicated that many of the people is this region of Raipur have either dental or skeletal fluorosis. A study has been carried out for the determination of fluoride in drinking water in selected area of Raipur. Fluoride was determined by using SPAND reagent and acid zirconium chloride by spectrophotometer of 570 nm. The value range from 0.6 mg/L to 5.83 mg/L. Most of the city have higher concentration of fluoride than suggested by WHO and BIS and most of the people were affected by fluorosis like dental fluorosis or skeletal fluorosis. After the analysis of sample is this region. It was found that high 60 percent of citizen are prone to fluorosis which caused by excess fluoride concentration in drinking water.

  88. Gogoi, K., Hazarika, P. J., Sanu S. and Hazarika, J.

    Son preference is the obsession for male child among couples. This obsession is basically seen in Indian society. The couples generally prefer two children. The four probable chronological combinations of having two children are son, son (SS); son, daughter (SD); daughter, son (DS) and daughter, daughter (DD). The preference for son stimulates the couple to go for third child. This mainly happens if the first two children are girls. In the hope for son, a couple goes on expanding their family. However, there are other socio-economic and demographic factors that affect the son preferences. With this background, the investigators carried out an empirical investigation at Manipur, India where it is assumed that son preference means preference for atleast one son in the family. The objective of the study is to trace the determinants of son preference as an indicator of fertility differential. This paper is based on the above investigation. Information are collected through a cross-sectional study using a well structured questionnaire from 530 women of reproductive span. As findings of this study, using a generalized regression model, it is observed that education, religion, income, locality (rural/urban) and communities are determinants of son preference. On the other hand, the place of residence (hill/ plains), caste and age of mother have no role on son preference. In this context, the role of education is noteworthy.

  89. Muhammad Aminu Mode

    Proverb is often linked with wisdom in talk or utterances. People are usually described as wise when they decorate their statements/talk with proverb. Proverb is a stylistic/literary device which people apply in their daily discussions in order to, among others, warn, advise, support, reject or remind a listener/reader. This article, which is analytical, is set to show the use of proverbs in Modern African Drama as a common phenomenon; and equally show the class of people who mostly deploy it in their talks. The specific purpose of the article is to analyze the proverbs deployed by Ola Rotimi in his play,'Ovonramwen Nogbaisi'. Hence, the analysis is to explicate proverbial meaning therein. The findings include and confirm the use of proverb in the play to reinforce position, emphasize a point, give warning or advice etc. The article concludes that the device (proverb) as deployed by the characters in the play, was an effective tool through which they make their points.

  90. Dr. Obianuju Mary Chiekezie, Gerald Emejulu and Anzor Edith Chima

    The study examined the influence of person-environment fit (decomposed as employee turnover) on performance (decomposed as customer satisfaction) of selected commercial banks in Enugu state Nigeria. The objective was to ascertain the relationship between employee turnover and customer’s satisfaction of selected commercial banks in Enugu state. The study employed descriptive survey design. Primary and secondary sources of data were used for the study. Pearson’s Product moment correlation was used to test the relationships between key variables. Results indicated that employee turnover have negative relationships with customer satisfaction. This implies that when employee turnover increases, bank performance decreases as a result of customers’ dissatisfaction. Our empirical analysis demonstrated that turnover intention have a significant negative relationship with customer satisfaction. The study concluded that employees who are better fitted in their organisations have less intention to leave the organisation. This in effect implies that employee retention will enhance effective performance of the selected banks thereby leading to customers’ satisfaction. It recommended among others that managers of these banks should focus on selecting such employees whose personality and values are in congruence with that of the organisation.

  91. Razia Fathima, L. A. and Dr. Kalaiselvi, A.

    Indian radio industry is one of the largest broadcasting organization in the world in terms of language of broadcast. Radio has come a long way from where it started in 1923. Radio is expected to be the second fastest growing medium of media communication. In India radio broadcasting has begun in 1935 by air and in 2001 the first private FM radio went on air. With the entries of private players in FM radio segment, FM radio has gained popularity in India. This paper deals with listening attitude of the audience towards FM radio in Coimbatore city.

  92. Nurun Nabi, Shayekh Munir, Abu Al Tareq Ahmed and Jenepha Eyesmin

    In the era of Globalization, competition is ever where and the business environment is becoming complex day by day. To survive in such competition the businessman and the businesses are always busy to make the new strategy and new business model. The workmen are very important who have the great contribution to the production and productivity in the organization. Profit is the ultimate goal of any business. To attain the goal of the business the motivation is very important. It works like a blood of a man in the business arena. Motivation is nothing but it’s an inner and psychological process where it works to energies the employees and workmen to attain the target goals of the organization. Motivation is closely related with the production. Motivation converts the performances into the outcomes and motivation converts the abilities in to the performances. Where the motivation is high, the rate of production is also high and where the motivation is low, the rate of production is also low and the performances will be also low. Motivation may be positive and negative and it works always the goal oriented. Faire work environment, salary and incentives and work recognition and advancement and performances appraisals and fringe benefits are the ways of motivation of an organization. This research paper shows the relationship between motivation and production. In long run success, motivation is important. The understanding and mutual relationship is essential elements of motivation among the employees. Motivation is the best ways to get something from the workers. There are some theories and models of motivation by which workers can be motivated. Management by objectives and goal settings, participative management, Monetary incentives, Flexible working hours, Quality working life, Effective criticisms, Rewards and benefits, Job enrichment, Job analysis, job design, job recognition and approval are the best ways of motivating the employees. Here we have tried to the level best to show the relationships between manager and employees Motivations is the best medium of exchanging the opinions and conveys of the manager. Financial benefits are attractive to the employees.

  93. Jabiulla and Basavaraj

    Steep growth in the international business transactions of enterprises under common control has led to adopt a disciplined approach towards Transfer Pricing regulations by the tax jurisdictions world over. UN Model Tax Convention and OECD efforts including the report on BEPS have given due significance to Transfer Pricing issues. India has been following the foot prints of the developed countries in this regard. Aggressiveness of India’s approach in its Transfer Pricing policy and practice has made the researchers to study the corporates’ views on this. The empirical study is based on the views of 150 corporates consisting of 86 manufacturing and 64 service undertakings. The study analyses India’s Transfer Pricing structure and discusses the corporates’ views. The study reveals that in general the corporate assessees are in agreement with the Indian Transfer Pricing framework; however, they expect improvement in areas like documentation requirement, disposal of appeal, cooperation of Transfer Pricing authorities with assessees, etc. The paper suggests that India should adopt international benchmarks like OECD Transfer Pricing regulations in its policy and practice.

  94. TekleLeza, Sundaraa Rajan and Berhanu Kuma

    This study aimed at investigating determinants of employment growth among MSEs in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed to select 352 enterprises by using Yamane (1967) formula with 5 per cent precision and 95 per cent confident level. Data were collected using interview schedule through face-to-face interview and observation, key informant interview, focus group discussion and data analysis were carried out by using descriptive and inferential analyses as well as econometric models. The econometrics result indicated that age the promoters, education, previous work experience, risk taking, achievement motivation, age of enterprises, managerial training, size enterprises, access to finance, start-up capital, access to infrastructure, access to premises, social networks, vertical and horizontal linkages, and supporting markets of enterprises were included for analysis. Both size and age of the enterprises were negatively determined employment growth. This gives evidence that smaller and younger MSEs grow faster than older ones. Moreover, enterprises which are engaged in access to finance, education and promoters training were positively and significantly determined employment growth whereas supporting market, physical infrastructure and Vertical linkage determined employment growth negatively and significantly. Social networks can help promoters identify business opportunities as well as overcome a number of obstacles related to transaction costs, contract enforcement, and regulation determined employment growth positively and significantly. Promoting inter-firm and Buyers/Sellers cooperation, enhancing share capital contribution, enhancing micro-financing efficiency, improving infrastructural facilities such as information dissemination, educating and training of MSEs promoters in business development services (BDS) were recommended to enhance employment growth of MSEs.

  95. Robert Gaspar and Ponnambalam, A.

    Some people are engaged with their work while majority are not because of the lack of motivation. The issue of what truly motivats is self-interest-pursuing the satisfaction of needs that are important to them. From birth to death our behavior is completely defined by our pursuing the satisfaction of inborn needs. Self-interest is the single driving force behind all human behaviour. This means that if you are a leader & expect employees to get excited about giving all their energy, creativity and passion to performing their jobs, we have to accept the fact that they come to work already motivated to pursue their self-interest not ours. It will be difficult to make individuals self-interest, look like ours. We have to find a way to connect their self-interest with the interest of the organization. This is what employee engagement is all about.

  96. Diogo Guido Streck Vendruscolo, Ronaldo Drescher, Samuel de Pádua Chaves e Carvalho

    This study evaluated the performance of artificial neural networks (ANNs), and a mixed linear regression model to predict the height of trees of Tectona grandis, teak, due to categorical and numerical variables. The data were originated from forest inventories carried out at 11 and 16 years of age. The prediction of the time by networks was simulated with different combinations of variables input and neurons numbers in the middle layer. We also evaluated different scenarios, by reducing the number of trees in training / adjustment. The two techniques were compared by statistical indicators and graphical analysis. Neural networks provide results similar to those of regression, with high predictive capacity, and the statistics variation was lower than 1% between the two techniques. The use of ANNs was superior in predicting the height of larger diameters trees when compared to the mixed regression.

  97. Sandeep Kumar Pathak, Munish Kumar Mishra, Rashmi Sharma, Rajeev Kumar and Lav Kesharwani

    Vehicle Registration Numbers are used as a unique identification number of any motorized vehicle, but these can be obliterated by painting during the use of vehicle in criminal activity such as murder, hit and run cases, dacoity, thefts, so that the ownership cannot be traced. Nowadays only very few methods are available for restoration of obliterated painted registration numbers on the metal plate surface. Chemical etching remains the most common and successful method for restoration of obliterated painted registration number on metal registration plate. In this study three different methods have been proposed along with 10 different etching reagents used for restoration of obliterated numbers by using a gentle and careful squeezing of the surface uniformly with a small, handy and densely rolled ball of dry cotton. Here the best results were archived with the used of method third with etching reagent R10 (composition: Carbon tetrachloride-30ml, dioxin-50ml and Ethyl acetate-20ml). The proposed third method can be best utilized along with reagent no. R10 for restoration of obliterated painted number on the vehicle registration number plate.

  98. Joemar Braga Alves

    This article intends to open space for future research on the development of more effective leaderships in Higher Education Institutions (IES), in the sense that when the teacher perceives that his leader's actions are abusive can signal and even protect himself from the effects that Such actions may cause in their performance and organizational well-being. Private Higher Education Institutions (IES), like all profit organizations, need to survive in the business world, not only by providing quality education but by ensuring profits for the operation of their activities. These need to guarantee the adequate application of their resources to be able to capture clients / students and survive in a capitalist world in which the search for capital is increasingly frenetic, no matter how much the means must be applied to conquer it, that is, in words Of Machiavelli: "The End justifies the means". And in this scenario of the great competitions arise the modern questions about the possible styles or types of leadership that would be more adequate to make the organizations reach their objectives, that is, it would be necessary to make that the organizations reach their objectives that the directions Or coordinators of higher education apply abusive supervision, because what has been observed, currently, is that in the eagerness to earn profits, or reach their goals, some leaders of IES has been leaning in the lines of Machiavelli and are very inclined to exercise leadership Abusive. Thus, the key point of the research will be to analyze the impacts of an abusive coordination on the performance of teachers in the work with focus on "knowledge generation"; Such a study is of great relevance to the organizational world and, mainly, to Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), since these are the main ones responsible for "knowledge generation".

  99. Ayhan DOLUNAY and Gökçe KEÇECİ

    Regarding the issue of copyright, our study firstly defines the concepts of “visual communication” and “communication ethics”, mentions the origin of copyrights; and then discusses the copyrights in the Turkish Cypriot Law and the copyright issue in terms of Turkish law and Common Law due to the relations with Turkish Cypriot Law. Finally, this study will deliver concrete solution proposals upon the improvement of copyrights from the perspective of Turkish Cypriot Law.

  100. Temesgen Yaekob

    This study examines the relation of government expenditure with economic growth and poverty reduction in Ethiopia using time series data over the period 1980 to 2013. Employing modern time series econometric techniques such as unit root tests, bound test co-integration approach and error correction techniques within an ARDL framework which yields more robust estimates. It is found that government spending affect economic growth positively and significantly by increasing real private investment and fixed capital accumulation which increase capital accumulation, reduction in current account deficit, external debt burden and improve education/skills of the households by improving human capital. Findings emerge from this study that government expenditure has significant short run impact on poverty reductions in its lag form in which it might be examined by the role of fiscal policy in alleviating poverty of current year in Ethiopia. The study suggested policies that the role of government should be extended to ensure the magnitude and the quality of private investment as high as possible.

  101. Temesgen Yaekob Ergano

    The economic performance in Sub-Saharan Africa has been insignificant, particularly in comparison with other developing regions like East Asia. Using a panel data for 19 Sub-SaharanAfrican countries for the period 1995-2014, this study investigates the relation of health and education sector investment on the Economic growth of the SSA Countries. Employing the theoretical model based on an augmented Solow growth model; by using the newly developed panel ARDL co-integration econometric strategy. The result shows that health investment has not significantly driven economic performance whereas Education spending is negatively affect performance of sub-Saharan Africa. Accounting for the effect life expectance at the birth, however resulted in a significant positive effect on economic growth. Researcher further found that, the obverse seems rather plausibly the case, as economic growth significantly increases life expectancy in the countries. The results suggest that, other factors affecting growth in the region would indirectly improve on the health status of the population of SSA.

  102. Paramasivan, C. and Subathra, S.

    India is amongst the fastest growing countries in the world today, with a GDP growth rate of more than 9% during the Twelfth plan period. This high level of growth can be sustained only when all sections of the society, specially women become equal partners in the development process. Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector has emerged as a highly vibrant and dynamic sector of the Indian economy over the last five decades. MSME is not only play crucial role in providing large employment opportunities at comparatively lower capital cost than large industries but also help in industrialization of rural & backward areas, reducing regional imbalances, assuring more equitable distribution of national income and wealth. The development of women entrepreneurship has become an important aspect of our plan priorities. Government has taken several measures to encourage women entrepreneurs to set up small scale and micro enterprises through the schemes of MSME sectors. This paper mainly focused on the growth of women entrepreneurship in MSME sector. The main objective of this study is to know the growth and performance of MSME Sector in India and to highlight the Current Scenario of women entrepreneurs in Tamil Nadu.

  103. Mohana Priya, D.

    Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the important commercial vegetable crops grown in India. It is widely grown in different parts of the country mainly by small and marginal farmers .Onion is produced and consumed not only in India but also throughout the world. Onion is classified as a vegetable and has special qualities which add taste and flavor to food. It is used extensively in Indian cuisine and culinary preparations both in cooked and raw form. Onion possesses very good nutritive and medicinal values. Onion is consumed by all classes of people-poor and rich and hence assumes a place of an essential item. Nitin Gadkari said India is the third-largest exporter of onions after the Netherlands and China. It enjoys 19% share of the global onion production. The annual average production is 12 lakh tones. In this study an attempt is made to know about the Indian onion export.

  104. Charito B. Lacasa, Engr. Arvin Anthony S. Araneta, Dr. Marinal S. Apilado, Dr. Lito D. Lacaba and Prof. Judith T. Pelobello

    This study attempts to find out and understand the experiences lived by the college teenage pregnant students of Eastern Samar State University Salcedo Campus in relation to its causes, effects, challenges faced and coping mechanism undertaken during pregnancy. The study utilized a typical-purposeful sampling where data is confirmed based on in-depth interviews among teenage pregnant students. The study find outs that teenage pregnancy becomes the reason of extended family, wherein the children are living with their parents while having a family of their own, relying their needs and child’s needs on their parents. Based on the findings, the study identifies realistic recommendations needed to decrease teenage pregnancy in the campus. The study suggests further studies to find out more distinct struggles experienced associated with teenage pregnancy.

  105. Apolonio I. Machica, Jr

    Financial behavior pertains to money apportionment and utilization or raising and using money properly. With multitude needs and wants, it becomes a challenge on how to properly apportion and utilize fixed income for consumption, cash flow, credit, savings and investment, and insurance needs. Hence, this descriptive-correlation study was conducted to determine the financial behavior of the teachers and non-teaching personnel of the Eastern Samar State University Salcedo Campus. Results revealed that of the eleven demographic profile variables only household size and work category showed significant association with financial behavior. Both teachers and non-teaching personnel showed “satisfactory” financial behavior on consumption, cash flow, and credit; “fair” on savings & investment; and “fair” and “poor” on insurance, respectively. Generally, teachers exhibited “satisfactory” financial behavior, meaning, they often apportion and utilize their financial resources for consumption, cash flow, credit, savings and investment, and insurance needs, while non-teaching personnel showed “fair” financial behavior, or they seldom apportion and utilize their financial resources for the aforesaid needs. Their difference in financial behavior (t=15.043; p=0.000) was highly significant.

  106. Apolonio I. Machica, Jr. and Agnesia A. Machica

    This open-field experiment utilized RCBD, four treatments, and three replications to determine the performance of vermicast obtained from various substrates on the growth and yield of pechay. Growth was measured at 10, 20, and 30 days from transplanting while yield was measured at harvest. T1 or control utilized chicken manure while T2, T3 and T4 utilized various Eudrilus eugeniae worm castings which were applied per spot or per hill. It was disclosed that plants fertilized with vermicast obtained from 100% carabao grass (Paspalum conjugatum) consistently produced high measurements on plant height, width of leaves, and number of leaves from transplanting to harvesting compared with other vermicast treatments. When compared with plants fertilized with chicken manure, it was during the 30th day after transplanting that chicken manure fertilized plants registered wider leaves and heavier weight measurements. All vermicast treatments registered abrupt growth responses at 10 and 20 days growth periods, but mean values on growth indices of vermicast and chicken manure treatments taken during the 30th day were not significantly different. However, plant weight measurements between vermicast and chicken manure fertilized plants were significantly different at 5% LSD. For the production of organic pechay, utilization of vermicast fertilizer is recommended.

  107. Dr. Priyanka Ostwal

    The financial integration of different markets leads to co-movement of volatilities which further suggests volatility spillover from one market to another. The present study focuses on analyzing the integration between Indian Capital market and US Capital market. Exchange Rate, Crude oil and Gold return has also been considered for the study to see the impact of external shocks on the volatility of the markets. Daily data volumes ranging from January 2008 to October 2016 has been used and ADF Unit root test, ARCH –LM and GARCH (1,1) has been applied. All the variables are found to be non-stationary at level but become stationary after first difference. ARCH-LM test suggested presence of ARCH affect in the mean equation. The study concluded uni-directional spillover of volatility from S&P 500 to Nifty but not vice versa. Previous period’s information about return and volatility is found to explain the behavior of Nifty and S&P 500 both, but exchange rate, crude oil, and gold prices are found to affect the volatility of S&P 500 only.

  108. Francisco Javier Segura Mojica, Ricardo Rodríguez Tovar and Alma Lorena Rodríguez Contreras

    This paper presents the results of research conducted with university students in order to determine connections between their propensity to entrepreneurship and their predominant learning style. The relationship that could exist between family business background and work experience with entrepreneurial behavior are also explored. A sample of 240 college students was designed. Computerized Adaptive Test to assess personality Enterprising (Pedrosa, 2015), and the Honey-Alonso Questionnaire on Learning Styles (Alonso, 1991) were used as instruments to collect information. The information was processed using the software XLSTAT and analysis of variance was used to determine wich one is the difference between the subsamples studied. Evidence of connection between the theoretical and pragmatic styles of learning with the general index of entrepreneurship were found, as well as between this indicator and work experience. The originality of this article is the exploration of the relationship between entrepreneurship and learning, whose ties have been little studied.

  109. Beena Tripathi, Bahula Verma and Vikas

    Minerals and organic matter are produced by weathering and breaking up the rock particles. The soil enriches with organic matter and minerals from aerial and subterranean parts. These are the main and important constituents of soils, which are influenced by biological activities. The role of the vegetation is relatively less in arid zones because of the scanty sparse canopy cover and the poor development of aerial parts but the root systems often exhibit exceptional development and have the greatest influence of the cracking of the rocks influencing soils formation processes. The parent rocks had definite relation with the soil nutrient and material which supports the vegetations. But in western Rajasthan the studies of relation between parent rock material and soil and further correlation of these aspects with different types of vegetations e.g. herbs, shrubs and trees supported by the soil is quite deficient. The present paper, therefore, highlights by the fact that the vegetations including herbs, shrubs and trees and most importantly the herbaceous vegetation vary from soil to soil depending upon minerals present in the soil and these minerals and derived from the parent rock materials. The present investigation may bridge this gap in the Aravalli hill ranges occurs in semi arid region. Therefore, the objective of this paper are to study the type of soils formed under the influence of parent rocks found in and around the Bar region of Delhi Supergroup. Another region is to investigate nutrient availability and different characteristics of soil for finding out its relation with the different type of vegetations it supports.

  110. Anulawathie Menike, H. R.

    From the latter part of 1950s to 1977 in Sri Lanka, inward-looking economic development policies and import substitution industrialization strategy were given priority. There was increased government intervention and state regulation of economic activities in this period. Since 1977, the government has been deregulating, privatizing and opening up the economy to international competition. The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of outward-looking development strategy on the economy of Sri Lanka. The study exposes that under the outward-looking development policy, the country was able to acquire a great success and a noteworthy accomplishment in the growth of economy than inward-looking economic policy introduced in before 1977. Specially, Sri Lankan economy has been performing relatively well, with continuous increase in GDP per capita and an increase in exports of goods, and also it has managed to reduce poverty. The highest rate of unemployment in the country during the period 1950 to 1977 has been reduced under the open economic policy. Apart from that, a sharp development is remarkably observed in the fields of education, health services, nutrition, housing facilities and infrastructure facilities etc. Further, during the period 1950 to 1977, the annual growth of industrial sector was 3.4% has developed up to 7% after 1977.

  111. Jamal Abed Al Wahid Jassim Al Sudany

    The study aims to employ Minwer to the wind catcher heat exchange from the earth to the air WETHE to promote the hours thermal comfort, Because the heat exchanger systems are inadequate and need to run equipment, By integrating the Minwer with a passive evaporative cooling of the proposed system. Part of the wind catcher rises above the surface of the housing and a portion of the soil depth of 4.0 m Provider spraying water system to the lining of the wind catcher, Pottery tubes along the 80m wetted because of groundwater, And depending on the air pressure of the air column and it is moving exchange between the air and the walls of the Minwer and tubes within the concept of evaporative cooling, Experimental readings adopted and the development of a heat exchanger model based on computational fluid dynamics to predict system performance, These results show a decrease in air temperature in the summer season, the temperature dropped 19°C when she was abroad 46.7°C, and improve the relative humidity to 35%, The winter season has increased the temperature 6.1°C when she was abroad 11.3°C. Moreover, there is a difference in temperature within the tube path and also because of the difference in airspeed, It could be argued that the system can be applied in future residential complexes to reduce energy consumption and that alone is enough to achieve thermal comfort in summer and winter need assistance.

  112. Manvinder Singh Tandon and Vaishali Sethi

    The development of green marketing has opened the door of opportunity for companies to co-brand their products into separate line. Green marketing not only has the potential to boost brand esteem and win greater customer loyalty; if applied to the marketing process itself, it can save money and add “green” to the company’s bottom line. This paper discusses how businesses have increased their rate of targeting green consumers, those who are concerned about the environment and allow it to affect their purchasing decisions. The paper identifies the challenges which the Green marketers are facing and strategies which they need to adopt to sell their green products by differentiating them from others along with the present trends of green marketing in India and reason why companies are adopting it.

  113. Hershey R. Alburo, Gil G. Dialogo, Paul Anthony A. Torres and Renato A. Padullo

    This study aimed to design, develop and test the Farmers’ Record Management System at the Municipality of Salcedo, Eastern Samar. This was conducted to help the Municipality specifically the Office of the Municipal Agricultural Services (OMAS)to come up with a form of information management system that is query-specific and meets the demands of a user looking for information based on certain criteria. Effective collection, storage, management, processing and generating of pertinent information related to farmers, agriculture and livestock are all concerned of the OMAS. This study also envisions to assist that department provide necessary data to those queries in a timely manner through the implementation of a computerized information management system. Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 was chosen as the programming language in designing and developing the system where the gathered data served as inputs to it.Acceptance tests were done in two stages - Benchmark and Pilot test in which this test is further divided into Alpha and Beta tests. For the Benchmark test, the researchers were the ones who evaluated the system and got a grand mean of 3.71 which was interpreted as Very Good. The second test was the Alpha test where all ICT faculty handling major subjects tested the system and got an overall grand mean of 4.31 which was interpreted as Excellent and the third test was the Beta test in which all OMAS personnel evaluated the system and got a grand mean of 4.42 and was interpreted as Excellent. All these tests were conducted through using the McCall’s score card. This score card encompasses three criteria: Product Revision, Product Transition and Product Operation where each is divided into sub criteria. Product Revision covers Maintainability, Flexibility and Testability of the System, Product Transition includes Portability, Reusability and Interoperability, while Product Operation encompasses Correctness, Reliability, Efficiency, Integrity and Usability. Based on the results of the different tests, the researchers concluded that the developed system was functional since it can store, retrieve, process and generate reports needed by different agencies for policy formulation, decision-making and assistance generation.

  114. Souza, B. R., Moura, J. B., Oliveira, T. C., Ramos, M. L. G., and Lopes Filho, L. C.

    Sustainable production in an agro-ecosystem derives from the balance between plants, soils and organisms. The objective of this work was to evaluate the rate of mycorrhizal colonization and spore density as an index of soil quality in agricultural ecosystems in the region of Vale do São Patrício. The experiment was conducted in the areas of settlements, new dawn and Itajá in Goianésia-Goiás. The experimental design was a factorial 5 x 3 in randomized blocks with three replications plus the additional comparative treatment of native Cerrado (vegetation typical of the Brazilian interior), where the factor 1 was represented by systems used: Ecological Sustainable Integrated Production, Agrossilvipastoril System, Agroforestry System and Isolation of springs. Factor 2 was represented by the time of installation of systems: 4 years, 2 years, and newly installed. There were no differences between the treatments studied. Independent of the agroecosystem and the age of systems, the density of spores and the rate of colonization were equivalent to the system of native Cerrado.

  115. Manoj Kumar

    Climate change related policies, action plans and GHG Protocol’s Lifecycle Accounting and Reporting Standard were used to develop a model for assessment of carbon foot print of a large opencast coal mine in India. 28 numbers of mining activities grouped into Scope-1, Scope-2 & Scope-3 as per GHG protocol corporate standard. These activities either direct or indirect emitters are main contributors of GHG emissions during coal mining process. 20 nos. of empirical mathematical relations were used with assumptions. The paper also describes the Green House Gas (GHG) reduction measures in an opencast coal mine.27 pathways of GHG reduction along with 14 general pathways have been identified from different sources. The paper will certainly help the mine managers to reduce their carbon foot print & help the India’s INDC commitment for reducing 2% of carbon emission as per Paris 2015 submits. Rural settlement sets on transforming to urban settlement on development of mines in a locality. Thus knowledge of carbon footprint beforehand will also help planners in planning and developing urban settlement in and around an open cast mine As per study although overall GHG emission has increased the GHG emission per unit of coal production has shown a decreasing trend. The majority of GHG emissions apart from fugitive emission are from diesel consumption. The study can be replicated in other similar units of India also. The results have been illustrated through graphs, tables and figures.

  116. Phuntsog Tundup, Tsewang Tamchos and Tsewang Norbu

    Jammu And Kashmir State is divided into three divisions Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh. Ladakh was added to the state as a result of fierce campaigns of the ruler of Jammu, Gulab Singh to whom the British subsequently take over in 1846 the land of Jammu and Kashmir. The present research paper is an attempt to provide an outlook and effect of climate change on the historical monuments of Ladakh. Traditional Ladakhi structures are constructed with locally available material in harmony with the region’s climatic conditions. The mud bricks in the upper storeys help to reduce the weight of the superstructure and have excellent thermal properties. Unlike modern concrete structures, these ancient historical mud structures remain cool in summer and warm in winter: they are well suited to the extreme variations in temperature in Ladakh, which range from –30o C to +30o C. However, unfortunately, old mud structures are unable to withstand heavy rainfall, and in the last few years there has been a trend towards much heavier precipitation compared with earlier decades. Mud structures are easily eroded by water and, all too often, more than 1000 years old precious wall paintings have been washed away. Recent changes in Ladakh’s climate therefore pose considerable challenges for the conservation of the region’s historical buildings.

  117. Chaudhary, B. S.

    Remote Sensing (RS) plays a significant role in Groundwater investigations. Hydrogeomorphological mapping which emphasizes on study of Groundwater potential on the basis of landforms and underlying geology has proved beyond doubt. Satellite remote sensing has the capabilities of permanent record, synoptic coverage, repetivity, viewing over larger spectrum beyond visible range, unbiased information, stereoscopic coverage, cheap and speedy over larger areas and stereoscopic coverage. These characteristics of the satellite data have continuously increased the potential of this technique in Ground water studies. Present paper mainly deals with the preparation of hydrogeomorphological map in parts of Mahendergarh district, Haryana State, India. Hydrogeomorphological map has been prepared by employing visual image interpretation techniques by considering various image interpretation elements. Ground truth was conducted in selected areas for checking and verifying the prefield interpreted map. The prefield map thus prepared was updated by keeping field observation into consideration. The final map was assessed in terms of groundwater prospects. The main hydrogeomorphic units mapped in the study area are fluvio-aeolian plain, alluvial plain, sand dunes, structural hills, residual hills and buried pediments. Each geomorphic unit is assessed for groundwater potentiality.

  118. Rakesh Kumar

    We find huge divisions in India; most prominent being the divide of Bharat and India i.e., the nation of rural people and India represents urban people. The major part of the poor consists of rural poor. The benefits of Economic successes have not percolated down to all parts of the society and the reason is that all sectors have not yet been integrated in the loop of economic growth. India’s economic growth is urban-led, with the gaps in living standards between the cities and countryside widening the recent years. An important aspect of generating “inclusive growth” is shifting the target of government aid to rural areas. Typically, large projects such as power generation, roads whereby freight can travel, and airports receive the lion’s share of government subsidies, while rural infrastructure receives comparatively little. Rural infrastructure, which serves 70 percent of the population, doesn’t get the attention it deserves. There is an increasing feeling that only few sections of the population such rich and middle class particularly in urban areas, corporate sector, foreign institutional investors, IT sector have benefited from the economic reforms. But there is an important element of inclusive growth, which is related to whether the benefits of overall productivity expansion result in higher private earnings for all groups within the economy. In short, to what extent will individuals in rural areas and, within rural areas, those not endowed with substantial land or other physical resources, benefit from expanding productivity through access to better paying and more secure employment? This is an active and growing area of research that is also of substantial interest to policy makers. The key components of the ‘inclusive growth of rural India’ strategy requires a sharp increase in investment in rural areas, rural infrastructure and agriculture, spurt in credit for farmers, increase in rural employment through a unique social safety net, and a sharp increase in public spending on education and health care. The high growth rates witnessed in recent years would become unsustainable if growth is not made inclusive and uniformly spread across the country. The urban-rural divide has to be bridged and rural areas integrated with the economic processes to ensure equitable and inclusive growth in rural India.

  119. Yuvraj P. Meshram, S.A. Deshpande and Sheeba Valsson

    Open spaces can directly or indirectly affect the microclimate and local air quality by modifying the urban climate. Well planned and maintained open spaces (parks) can improve their microclimate and thermal comfort to the users whereas undeveloped open spaces can augment their un-comfort level. Vegetation processes such as photosynthesis, Evapo-transpiration which helps to reduce the radiant temperature and anthropogenic heat generated by the built structures and hard surfaces which lead to urban heat island effect. Thus, the potential cooling effect of Developed parks are particularly important in urban areas. The process of cooling by vegetation, the relative humidity value increases with the reduction in ambient air temperature, causes human thermal comfort. The environmental conditions of urban open spaces have momentous impact on the comfort conditions experienced inside them especially in seasons of stressful climate (hot summer).The aim of this paper is to understand by a comparative analysis between Developed and Undeveloped Open Spaces in context to Thermal Comfort during summer. To understand and researching these issues field survey has been carried out with the help of Digital 4 in 1 Anemometer (Lutron - L8000A), used to recording the ambient air temperature and humidity of the open spaces.

  120. Indra Muchlis Adnan dan Wandi

    Post-Amendment to Article 18 B of the 1945 Constitution, it is the breath of legal pluralism again got fresh wind making it possible to cultivate local laws (customary law and local law) including labor laws in accordance with local knowledge of each region within the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. Therefore, strengthening local laws (legal development in the area) should continue to be fostered and directed at efforts to improve the welfare of the community. Methods of research in this paper is a normative juridical, which in this study using primary legal materials in the form of books, legislation relefan with this research topic. From the research results can be generated that the development of labor law after the regional autonomy have provided space for local governments to administer and manage his own family, especially related to matters that have been bestowed by the central government to the regions through concurrent affairs division. With the delegation is expected to keweangan yurudis as the basis for local governments in establishing employment law to raise the dignity of labor itself.

  121. Dr. Sunil Tarode and Dr. Manjusha Litake

    Sertoli cell tumour is a sex cord gonadal stromal tumour of Sertoli cells. Sertoli cell ovarian tumours are very rare and constitute less than 0.5% of ovarian tumours. They differ from Sertoli leydig cell tumours in as they do not contain leydig cells or immature gonadal stroma. Most tumours are unilateral, confined to ovaries and are seen during second and third decades of life. These tumours are characterised by the presence of testicular structures that secrete androgens.

  122. Rajkumar, J. S., Avvai, T., Anirudh Rajkumar, Akbar Syed, Prabhakaran Raju and Deepa Ganesh

    Myasthenia Gravis when caused by a tumor in the thymus, is potentially curable. We present a case report of a young girl who was diagnosed to have Myasthenia Gravis due to thymictumor which was removed thoracoscopically. She had a stormy post-operative period with repeated intubation and ventilatory support caused by circulating antibodies for which she required plasmapheresis. She made a complete recovery. In this article, we highlight the technical aspects of thoracoscopy and the need for post-operative plasmapheresis to tackle the circulating antibodies.

  123. Dr. Chavi Sethi and Dr. Shambhavi

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become a pandemic with ever looming danger of its transmission in health professionals. As such anesthesiologists and intensivists are exposed to potential risk of disease transmission on a daily basis. A continuous need is felt in this arena to prevent the catastrophic consequences of AIDS in our medical fraternity while treating such patients in operation theatres and critical care units Prioritization of safety measures should be mandatory for any health care provider. It requires a lot of attitudinal and behavioural modification and bridging of gaps in current preventive and precautionary measures, support from hospital authorities and an active role of governmental or regulating agencies to fill these gaps with appropriate global evidences is desirable and the need of the hour.

  124. Kaushalya Kanagasabapathy and Dr. Pradeep Kumar, R.

    Visual Impairment is one of the most common disabilities in India. However, very little light has been shed on the oral status of these individuals. This descriptive study aims to determine the oral health status of visually impaired individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. A total of 88 study subjects were selected from the Institute for the Visually Impaired, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The results showed that majority them had untreated dental caries and gingivitis. It can be concluded that being unable to visualize the condition of the oral cavity, caries and other abnormalities is left unnoticed. Hence, method to maintain oral health has to be taught to these individuals.

  125. Rishav Singh, Mukesh Kumar and Sankalp Verma

    Introduction: Conservation of dental hard tissues has become the milestone for any recent caries excavation technique. Furthermore, leaving the caries-infected dentine in some critical regions of the cavity is now regarded as acceptable by many, nowadays, provided that creation of a proper marginal seal can be achieved and maintained. Thus we need highly specific and sensitive tools for identification of carious lesion Aim: to investigate the accuracy of caries detecting dyes in identification of carious lesion in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted human primary posterior teeth without pulpal exposure were sectioned mesiodistally through the center of the lesions using a water-cooled disk. The dye was applied using a small brush and removed after 10 seconds by a 5-second water spray. The specimens were then examined under a Light microscope to find bacterial penetration into dentinal tubules. Sensitivity and specificity of dye was calculated. Results: The specificity and sensitivity of the caries detecting dye was found to be 100% and 74% respectively. Conclusion: Caries detecting dyes can be used as a screening test for identification of caries. However its applicability as the sole diagnostic tool is still doubtful.

  126. A. Samabasiva Rao and Hareesh Reddy, M.

    Ramipril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, used to Hypertension (high blood pressure) and congestive heart failure (CHF). These inhibitors relax (arterioles) the muscles around small arteries. They expand the arterioles and allow to blood flow through more easily. This reduces blood pressure (B.P). Controlled release matrix tablets of Ramipril were prepared by using three polymers, one of the hydrophilic polymer hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K15M (HPMCK15M) with four concentrations (drug: polymer ratios-1:0.25, 1:0.50, 1:0.75, 1:1), PVPK300, and Karayagum by wet granulation method. The granules were evaluated for bulk density, tapered density, bulkiness, angle of repose, Hausners ratio and compressibility index. In vitro release studies revealed that Ramipril formulation with high proportion of HPMCK15M (1:1) was able to control the drug release for 12 hours (85.4±1.26). The in-vitro drug release data, curve-fitting kinetic analysis and all the formulations followed the mechanism of erosion and diffusion. All the formulations were subjected to stability analysis for stored at 45°±2°C, 75±5%RH up to 45 days.

  127. Ashok Kumar, M. and Fayaz Ahmed Syed

    Background: Pleural effusion refers to the excessive or abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. Pleural effusion often present as a common diagnostic dilemma to the physicians in clinical practice (1) as the differential diagnosis is wide and may indicate the presence of pleural, pulmonary, or extra pulmonary disease, as the no cause can be found in many cases in spite of care full evaluation Methods: This study was carried out on 65 patients with pleural effusion admitted to the pulmonary medicine ward between August 2008 to August 2011. Etiological diagnosis of pleural effusion was confirmed according to appropriate clinical and /or laboratory findings or criteria. Results: Sixty five patients with pleural effusion of different etiology were studied. The commonest type of effusion being tuberculosis 34(52.3%) followed by malignancy 17(26.15%), transudation effusion 7(10.7%) parapnemonic effusion 5(7.6%) and 2(3.07%) cases of empyema. Conclusion: The findings of the present study in confirmation with previous studies indicate that tuberculosis and malignancy are the most probable cases of exudative pleural effusion. Additionally, those results confirm that, despite the development of new diagnostic procedures, pleural fluid analysis and pleural biopsy remain the best diagnostic methods for evaluation of pleural effusion, as well as for determining the etiology in patients with pleural effusion.

  128. Jeyanthi, S., Narkeesh Arumugam and Raju K Parasher

    Background and Purpose: Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), is a prevalent, highly impairing neuro developmental disorder defined by developmentally inappropriate symptoms of inattention, impulsiveness and overactivity. In India the prevalence of ADHD is reported to be increasing, furthermore a pilot study revealed that the motor skill and Physical fitness of ADHD children are found to be reduced compared to the typically developing children. The purpose of this case study is to find the effectiveness of Neurolinguistic Programming and Structured exercises on motor skill, physical fitness and attention in a ADHD child. Case description: A 9 years old boy, who was diagnosed with ADHD, received Neurolinguistic Programming once in a week for 6 weeks along with Structured exercise Program for 3 times/ week for 6 weeks period. Each session was given for 45 minutes. Outcome: Motor skills, physical fitness and attention was measured using a battery of test: (1)muscle strength, muscle endurance, Sit and reach test, Vertical jump test,12 Minute walk/run test, Step test, Single leg triple hop test, Ball throw test, Nine hole peg test, Trail making test. Conclusion: This case study concludes that the 6-week combination of structured exercises and Neurolinguistic Programming had a positive effect on the gross motor skill,Fine motor skill, overall fitness level, and attention of a child with ADHD.

  129. Dr. Aasim Farooq Shah and Dr. Manu Batra

    Oral health is a vital component of overall health, which contributes to each individual’s wellbeing and quality of life by positively affecting physical and mental healthiness, appearance and interpersonal relations. Individuals with special needs have greater limitations in oral hygiene performance due to their potential motor, sensory and intellectual disabilities and are thus, prone to poor oral health. The present study was planned to determine the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene, malocclusion and traumatic injuries in sensory impaired children. A total of 104 children, within the age group of 5-16 years attending special Deaf and Dumb school in Tulsibagh, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir were included in the present study. Prior to the examination of children a written formal permission was taken from the administrative authorities of the selected school. A type III examination was carried out, DMFT index was used in the permanent teeth while for the primary teeth the ‘deft’ index was used. Oral hygiene Index-Simplified was used for assessment of oral hygiene status. The mean deft in the blind population was 2.51 and mean DMFT was 2.64, while in the deaf/dumb group mean deft was 2.17 and mean DMFT was 2.20. Caries prevalence in group A (blind) was found to be higher (78%) as compared to the deaf/dumb (72 %). The oral hygiene of the blind group (4.22) showed higher OHI-S score showing that this group had poor oral hygiene as compared to the deaf / dumb group (3.81). Trauma was more common in blind group. It can be concluded that the prevalence of dental diseases especially dental caries plaque and debris is slightly high that seen in the normal children (60-70%) and that there is a need for administration of proper professional dental treatment in these children.

  130. Chaudhary Nilesh, H., Mittal Saurav, Patel Krutik and PraslaShopnil

    Introduction: Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using heavily T2 weighted sequences is a non-invasive modality useful for evaluation of pancreatic and biliary system. Purpose of study: Our aim was to study MRCP findings in various pancreatico-biliary diseases. Results: Total 45 patients were studied out of which pancreatic pathologies were present in 14 patients, biliary pathologies were present in 27 patients, and both were present in 4 patients. Inflammatory lesions and calculi were the commonest pathologies both were present in 20 cases each, followed by congenital lesions (n=6), neoplastic lesions (n=4) and stricture in 1 patient. Conclusion: MRCP plays an important role in diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic pathologies.

  131. Fahimeh Nakhzari Moghadam, Seyed Hamidmousavi Roshkhari, Iraj dashti and Mahboobeh nakhzari moghadm

    Background and Aim: A brief look at the history of wastewater treatment shows that wastewater treatment began in the twentieth century and with the removal of suspended and organic matters from the wastewater. However, with the passage of time and the emergence of inappropriate environmental conditions, experts decided to do to a fuller treatment of the wastewater. Phosphorus is essential for the growth of algae and other living organisms, but due to eutrophication in waters and various complications that it creates, it is known as a severe pollutant. Given the importance of the issue, this research is conducted to evaluate the efficiency of phosphorus removal from aqueous solutions by Fenton method. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive study that the removal of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by the Fenton was carried out by preparation of the water solutions. The studied concentrations of phosphorus were in the range of 1-5 mg/l, pH 3-9, contact times 5 to 30 min, and the Fenton ratios in the range of 1:1 and 1:5 and 1:10. The Results: The optimum obtained values of the studied parameters to maximum 80% removal, the phosphorus concentration 3 mg/l, pH = 4, Fenton ratio (H2O2: Fe) =1:5 and the contact time of 20 min. Discussion and Conclusion: According to experiments conducted in this study, it was found that this method is effective in removing phosphorus from aqueous solutions.

  132. Dr. Pradkhshana Vijay, Dr. Nilesh Pardhe and Dr. Ishank Singhal

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune disease which is possibly life threatening affecting the skin and oral mucosa. The epithelial lesions are formed due to auto-antibodies which act in response with desmosomal glycoproteins on the keratinocyte surface causing loss of cell adhesions. This loss of intercellular adhesion leads to intraepithelial bullae formation. We report a rare case of oral pemphigus vulgaris with skin involvement in a middle aged female patient with brief on review of literature.

  133. Kusuma, M.P., Archana Jorige and Vijaya Bhargavi, M.

    Diet rich in cruciferous vegetables contain glucosinolates associated with decreased incidence of many types of cancers. These health promoting effects are due to the breakdown products of glucosinolates formed by the action of myrosinase found in them. Myrosinase released from the damaged plant cells after cutting or steaming hydrolyze glucosinolates, breaks the β thioglucoside bond of glucosinolates, producing glucose, sulfate, nitrile, thiocyanates and isothiocyanates. Myrosinase in broccoli remained stable till 100oC for 5 min and till 75oC in red cabbage whereas upon microwave treatment the activity of myrosinase remained intact at 450W for 5min exposure in both of the samples.

  134. Duncan D Mugala, Joseph Musowoya, Martha Lungu and Womba Kadochi

    Chingola is a mining town and the mining activities have been going on for a long time. It was founded in 1943 when the Nchanga Mine was started up. It is a town in Zambia in the province of the Copperbelt. In terms of development, Chingola is rated as the 5th most developed cities in Zambia. There are two hospitals: The Nchanga North General Hospital which is Governments owned and the Nchanga South Hospital is a privately owned hospital. In Chingola there is a high level of unemployment which has led to illegal mining activities in the district which is a problem. There are many Newspaper reports but very few research and medical reports have been written. There has been reports of illegal miners who have died as a result of copper mining. We present a male resident of Chingola. The patient was injured after a rock fall during an illegal mining expedition. The patient had craniotomy which was done via Burr holes and the hematoma was drained. He was saved but has ended up with a right hemiplegia. What is really worrisome is the number of victims who get injured and are maimed for life with no legal / government requirements to look after them following ‘mining’ accidents.

  135. D. Rani Prameela, D. Sreenivasulu, P. Vijayachari, N. Nataraj Seenivasan, P. Eswar Prasad and S. Vijaya Lakshmi

    During the process of isolation and identification of leptospira from different parts of Andhra Pradesh Leptonema organisms were also isolated and identified. A total of 458 clinically suspected samples were collected from suspected cases of cattle (26), sheep (42), dogs (13), pigs (15), humans (53), rats (299) and stagnant water from rice field (10) and subjected to isolation of leptospira using EMJH liquid medium. A total of seventeen (17) isolates were recovered from sheep (5), rats (5), pigs (4), humans (2) and rice field water (1) on isolation. Out of 17 isolates two isolates were found to have sluggish motility which is different from that of leptospira and suggestive of leptonema.

  136. Al-Saffar, F. J. and Al-Zuhairy, M. F.

    The present study was conducted to investigates the histomorphological and histochemical developmental changes established in the duodenum of the domestic cats at three different postnatal ages, that were one week (suckling kittens), 4-6 weeks (weaned immature cats) and adult of one year and up cats. Macromorphometric measurements of duodenum were conducted and listed in tables. Histological sections prepared and stained by general and special stains. Gross findings revealed that the duodenum is U-shaped of longer descending part and shorter ascending part. The beginning of the duodenum contains duodenal papilla in which found central orifice for the exits of bile and pancreatic secretions. The internal mucosal surface of the organ showed gross circular folds called plicae circularis. Histologically, the wall of duodenum in suckling kittens possessed thick tunica muscularis and thin mucosa, but it changed in weaned immature and adult cats to become thin tunica muscularis and thick mucosa. At all ages the submucosa remains thin layer, but slightly thickened in the first part of descending duodenum due to the presence of Brunner's glands. Characteristically goblet cells in cat's duodenum were rounded or circular in shape rather than globular shape as usually found. Their number in the villi was higher than those counted in the duodenal crypts at one week, but approximately equal in number in the 4 weeks and were conversely changed in adult in which the percentage of goblet cells was higher in crypts than in the villi. Histochemically they were stained faintly with PAS stain showed moderate amount of neutral mucin in their cytoplasm. Paneth cells were detected in the duodenal crypts in 4 weeks aged cats and subsequent adult cat but not after birth in one week aged kittens. It could be concluded that the duodenum was not fully developed in cats at birth.

  137. Pradip Kumar Sarkar, Paramvir Singh, Amarjeet Singh and Mandeep Singh Dhillon

    In certain circumstances doctors consider that the danger to the mother and baby would be greater with a vaginal delivery. So they go for a planned CS. One such situation is where the women had undergone laminectomy in the past4. Though the experts’ advice for CS in such cases, many interventions have been tried and tested abroad to create evidence for the efficacy of physiotherapy in facilitate vaginal delivery even in laminectomy cases

  138. Dr. Rashmi, L.

    Aims: To study the maternal and fetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. Settings and design: This is a retrospective study done over a period of 1 year in Subbaiah Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore from 1st april 2015 to 31st march 2016. Data was collected with information covering maternal risk factors and obstetric outcome after fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Materials and methods: 200 women with teenage pregnancies (13-19 yrs) were evaluated for maternal risk factors and obstetric outcome. All pregnant females admitted to the Hospital in the age group of 13-19 years during the study period were included and all pregnant females equal to or more than 20 years admitted to the Hospital during the same period were excluded from the study. MS Excel was used for statistical purpose. Results: Teenage pregnancy comprised 5.57% of the total Obstetric admissions. In this study 52% teenage pregnancies were associated with complications. The major maternal complications were Preterm labour 26.9%, Anemia (22.11%), Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy 15.38%, Premature Rupture of Membranes 15.38%,. Low Birth Weight 17%, preterm births 23% and NICU admissions 6% were major adverse fetal outcomes. Conclusion: Teenage pregnancy has adverse impact on the health of teenage mothers leading to various adverse maternal and fetal outcome.

  139. Zohabhasan Sayyad, Padmashree, S., Rema, J., Padma Pandaeshwar, Naveen Kumar, N. and Shilpa, P.

    Aim: To determine the developmental stages of third molars on digital orthopantomogram in relation to the chronological age of an individual in Indian population and to compare the accuracy of two different methods [Demirjian and Gleiser and Hunt modified by Kohler]. Materials and Methods: The study consist of 100 subjects (50 males, 50 females) attending Vydehi Institute of Dental sciences and research center. The panaromic radiograph of each subject was taken. The image of panaromic radiograph taken was imported into Adobe Photoshop CS2 (Adobe Systems Incorporated, San Jose CA) to enhance the view. Development of third molar was evaluated according to the scoring method of Demirijian et al. & Gleiser and Hunt modified by Köhler et al by two observers. Repeated scoring was done by both the observers with time interval of 2 months. Results: It was found that intra and inter observer agreement was better for the method given by Demirjian et al than Kohler’s method though both the method showed moderate agreement. Conclusion: Mean mineralisation age of third molar was earlier in males than females according to staging criteria given by both the methods. It was also found that coefficient of determination (R2) in males was relatively high for Demirjian’s method than that of the Kohler’s method where as it was same for females according to both the methods.

  140. Kumar Madhu, Konyak Ponwang, Babu Suresh, Singhai Atin, Sinha Rahul Janak, Sankhwar, S. N. and Singh Vishwajeet

    Introduction: Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy involving the urinary system and the ninth most common malignancy worldwide. As per Indian cancer registry data in men, it is the ninth most common cancer accounting for 3.9% of all cancer. Interpretation of Immunohistochemical expression of Ki67 and Her2/neu in urothelial tumors and correlation with clinical as well as histopathological parameters might have prognostic value as well as therapeutic implications. Aims & Objectives: To correlate the immunohistochemical expression of Ki67 and Her2Neu with clinical parameters and histopathological parameters in urothelial tumors of urinary bladder. Materials & Methods: Total 40 cases of urothelial tumors were included in this study. Biopsy tissue received, processed, stained with Hematoxylin &Eosin (H&E), ERG and p63 immunohistochemical stain, all staining were applied as per standard protocols on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections of urothelial neoplasm and examined. Results: The Ki67 expression had significant association with tumor histological grade and muscle invasion. The association of Her2neu expression had significant association with tumor histological grade (p=0.001) and muscle invasion (p=0.001). Muscle invasive tumors showed high expression of Ki67 (70.6%) as compared to non-muscle invasive tumors (30%). Her2neu over expression was in accordance with grade, 31.3%, 60% and 93% of low, intermediate and high grade respectively. Conclusions: Ki67 and Her2neu expression correlated with tumor grade and progression. Evaluation of both Ki67 and Her2neu co-expression was more accurate in predicting the clinical outcome and had therapeutic implications.

  141. Abeer A. Alrafaa, Shatha Aldhilan and Wesam F. Abdulmoneam

    Background: Classic recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a localized condition representing a relatively simple disease, although a minority of patients may be predisposed to it by systemic conditions or diseases. Aim of the study: To evaluate the level of basic awareness of various risk factors ofaphthous ulcer among dental students in Qassim Province. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional qualitative study recruiting dental students from three dental colleges in Qassim province. A total of 190 dental students participated in the study. Each participant was given a self-administered questionnaire to solve on the spot. The questionnaire investigatedthe basic knowledge of recurrent aphthous stomatitis; the way of management and awareness of predisposing factor that may provoke the ulcer.Respondents were graded on a four-level scale as poor, fair, good and excellent. Results: A total of 39 female respondents (40.6%) had excellent awareness, while males students only 11 (11.7%) were having same level of awareness regarding RAS. On the other hand the highest percentage of males 35(37.2%) had good awareness and for females 35(36.5%) had good awareness with highly significant difference between both groups (p<0.001). Conclusion: The study showed that the female dental students have better level of awareness regarding RAS in than male dental students. The study also reveals that the higher academic years have higher degree of awareness regarding RAS.

  142. Ameigh Verderosa Worley, Syed Moiz Ahmed, Veronica Tucci, Nidal Moukaddam, Sandy Lee, Asim Shah and Michael P Wilson

    Depression mostly remains underdiagnosed during pregnancy and results in adverse outcomes for both mother and the fetus. Primary care physicians (PCPs) should be vigilant in recognizing nonspecific somatic symptoms, which could be the manifestation of underlying depression. Universal screening for depression should be done at least once during prenatal period by the PCP, using either Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale or the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire. If depression is diagnosed, the PCP should initially assess the suicide risk and need for hospitalization. With regards to the pharmacotherapy, no drug is deemed completely safe as all psychotropic drugs cross the placenta. SSRIs are preferred, but paroxetine should not be considered a first line drug. Other options include psychotherapy, and in severe cases of depression, electroconvulsive therapy.

  143. Dr. Bhagyalakshmi Avinash, Dr. Shivalinga, B. M. and Dr. S. Balasubramanian

    Objective: To evaluate the aesthetic perceptions of 12 year old children and their parent for Orthodontic Treatment Need and to compare their perception with that of Orthodontist. Methods: The sample consist of 100 children aged 12 years. The self assessment by children and the recording by one of their parent and orthodontist were carried out using the Aesthetic component and Dental Health Components of IOTN. Results: The results showed a strong association in the perception of dental appearance by children and the views of other dental assessors. These correlations were highly statistically significant (p<0.001) with the highest correlation between the parent and the Orthodontist (r=0.816). The study also focused that about 50% of the children were in the “definitive need for orthodontic treatment”. Conclusion: There is a strong relationship in the perception of dental appearance by children, parents and orthodontist. IOTN index can thus be used as an effective tool in communication and achieving realistic treatment needs.

  144. Seyda Akkaya, Merve Badem, SilaOzlem Sener, Nuriye Korkmaz and Rezzan Aliyazicioglu

    Background and Objectives: Consolida genus belongs to Ranunculaceae and includes about 52 species world-wide. The aim of our study was to investigate in terms of phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of Consolida orientalis. Materials and Methods: Reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used for the identification of the phenolic compounds of C.orientalis. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract was investigated by two methods, namely ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) activity. Results: Chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and sinapic acid were determined as main phenolic compounds in the methanolic extract. The IC50 value for DPPH assay has been found as 0.4178 ± 0.0113 (mg/mL), FRAP value is 200 ± 1.732 (μMTrolox/g sample), and total phenolic content value is 6.6 ± 0.153 mg gallic acid per gram sample in methanolic extract of the aerial parts of C.orientalis. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of C.orientalis might be used as raw material by pharmaceutical and food industries for the preparation of natural drugs.

  145. Dr. Sarika Kapila, Dr. Tejinder Kaur, Dr. Yashmeet Kaur, Dr. Ramandeep Singh Bhullar and Dr. Amit Dhawan

    Ameloblastoma is the most commonly encountered clinically significant odontogenic tumour and its incidence appears to equal or exceed the combined incidence of all other odontogenic tumours exclusive of odontomas. Various histopathologic subtypes of ameloblastomas are recognised: follicular, acanthomatous, granular cell, basal cell, desmoplastic, plexiform and unicystic 1. Most tumours are found to be composed purely of one histopathologic subtype but sometimes mixtures of different patterns can be observed. The desmoplastic variety was first observed as a distinct variant of ameloblastoma by Eversole et al in 1984 with a marked predilection to occur in the anterior-premolar region, distinctive histologic features and radiologic characters mimicking benign fibro-osseous lesions 2. We report a unique case of a hybrid ameloblastoma containing both desmoplastic and plexiform histology with unusual clinical and radiological presentation.

  146. Shilpa Chawla Jamenis

    Very often we come across patients who have an excessive gag reflex. Gagging in dental patients can lead to avoidance of dental treatment and hence hinder the patient care. It can compromise the treatment at every stage, starting from diagnosis to rendering active treatment to the patient. This series of articles will outline the etiology and management of gagging. A literature search of PubMed, Cochrane and Wiley using keywords like ‘gagging’, ‘retching’, ‘dental’ was performed and all the articles till date were included. Additional articles were selected from hand searches of the reference articles of the articles got by the electronic search. The language was restricted to English.

  147. M. Mahesh and D. Nagaraja Reddy

    Background: Organophosphate compounds are the commonly used pesticides in our country. These compounds are highly toxic. Organophosphorous poisoning is therefore associated with high mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key in the management of these cases. We report our experience with the intensive care management of serious OP insecticide poisonings. Materials and Methods: An observational study was made in 60 patients who were admitted with OP poisoning. They are treated with atropine and pralidoxime (PAM). Ventilatory and circulatory support was provided, if required. Conclusion: Results showed that majority of cases were due to suicidal attempt and outcome improved with early intervention. However, mortality still remains high due to lack of proper guidelines in the management of such cases and probably, the limited resources in hospitals in terms of trained doctors, nurses, support personnel, laboratory facilities and finance, may be partially responsible for the high number of deaths.

  148. Chengalvarayan Gopal, Ramesh Arumugam and Suresh Kumar, N.

    Introduction: Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is a complex of medical disorders; when they occur together have clinical significance like increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular accidents, diabetes mellitus (type two) and atherosclerosis. There are different definitions for defining metabolic syndrome and they all include the main components – obesity or waist circumference, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. The associations of metabolic syndrome with nephrolithiasis were showed by many studies in a defined population. The exact patho-physiology of this association was not clear, but shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome patient’s urinary constituents like decrease in urinary PH, increased urinary calcium and uric acid excretion and decreased excretion of urinary citrate which is an important inhibitor of nephrolithiasis. We investigate this association in patient population in our institute with nephrolithiasis and compare with individuals without nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in institute of urology, Madras Medical College, Chennai. The study was prospective study conducted from March 2012 to February 2013. Patients with unilateral or bilateral renal calculus was included as cases and individuals without renal calculus was included as controls. Results and Observations: The Mean age group of control (Group 2) was 35.62 + 10.99 years. The mean age group of cases (Group 1) was 38.25+9.67 years. In Group 1 (cases) there were 47 females and 53 males. In Group 2 (controls) there were 48 females and 52 males. The components of metabolic syndrome were waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, serum triglycerides and serum high density lipoprotein. Each component of the metabolic syndrome was compared between cases (Group 1) and control (Group 2) Conclusion • Metabolic syndrome is significantly associated with nephrolithiasis • Of the components of metabolic syndrome a statistically significant association with nephrolithiasis is noted for increased waist circumference and hypertension. • In the present study the other three components of metabolic syndrome namely diabetes mellitus, increased serum triglycerides and decreased serum HDL were found to be statistically insignificant with regard to nephrolithiasis

  149. Samy M. Selim, Mohamad Soliman, Mostafa G. zahr, Gasser H. Elshyal and Usama Elshokhaiby

    Hydrocephalus is a serious condition, result in impaired circulation and absorption of CSF. Ventricular shunting has been used successfully and have become the most common therapy in treatment of hydrocephalus, various types of shunt valves have been developed during the last 50 years. We compared between three shunt systems: Codman, Medtronic and Chhabra shunts,used in sixty patients divided in three equal groups and randomly selected.The end points of the study were shunt malfunction, shunt migration, wound complication, death, or no problem at 1 year. Of all patients, 5% died. The occurrence of complications in all patients were infection (10%), migration/disconnection (5%), wound complication (6.7%), valve malfunction (1.7%), ventricular catheter obstruction (8.3%), and peritoneal catheter obstruction (3.3%). There was no statistically significant difference in any outcome category for patients receiving the Codman, Medtronic or Chhabra shunt. Abbreviation: CSF = Cerebrospinal Fluid, VP= VentriculoPeritoneal, TLC = Total leucocytic count.

  150. Navjot Kaur and Jasbir Kaur

    Childhood is the most crucial period in which behaviour can be easily molded. Today children are more exposed to mobile phones and they spend most of the time in using mobile phone than participating in other activities like playing reading and doing homework. In this exploratory study 53% of children spend 0-2 hours on mobile, one third (32%) spend 3-4 hours and 13% spend 5-6 hours. 78.7% parents reported that their children became more confident 76.4% children are comfortable and relaxed while talking to others, 88% of children started neglecting their personal hygiene and 74.2% started showing temper tantrums as perceived by parents due to the influence of mobile phone viewing. Mobile phone plays a role in the change of behavior of children as perceived by parents. There is both positive and negative impact of mobile on children.

  151. Savitha, N. S., Divyia Jayakumari and Krishnamoorthy

    Anterior dental cross bites are one of the most prevalant orthodontic problems that we observe in growing children. Z spring has been used as the most conversant appliance as it is easy to fabricate and applies adequate magnitude of force to advance the teeth in cross bite. But most of the times a succesful outcomes becomes difficult due to compliance issues. So we decided to use fixed Z’ Spring to obtain better patient cooperation and acceptance. Presented in the article is a case report in which anterior cross bite is corrected successfully with the fixed appliance and a positive result was obtained in 3 weeks time. An apt intervention at the right times proves to be of much help in these children with compliance issues.

  152. Bisht Tulsi and Rishishwar Poonam

    The aim of present work was to develop once daily sustained release matrix tablet of aceclofenac by wet granulation technique using gum acacia. Aceclofenac sodium being the newer derivative of diclofenac having short biological half life (4hrs.), so it require more than one dose per day to maintain therapeutic dose. Total four formulations of aceclofenac matrix tablet were prepared using different concentration of gum acacia and evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, hardness, swelling index, friability, percent drug release and various release profile like zero order, first order, higuchi's, and koshemeyrs-peppas studied. All the evaluation parameters met pharmacopeial specifications and through dissolution studies it was concluded that MTX1showed height percent drug release and MTX4 showed lowest percent drug release at the end of 8 hrs. Matrix tablet of aceclofenac was successfully prepared and evaluated and it can be concluded that matrix tablet prepared with gum acacia showed release rate for a prolonged time and can be of great importance for “once daily” tablet to reduce side effects and toxicity related with NSAIDs.

  153. Dr. M. Ashok Kumar and Dr. L. Pavan Kumar

    Introduction: Pneumothorax is defined as accumulation of air in the pleural space with secondary lung collapse. They can either be spontaneous, traumatic, or iatrogenic. A PSP occurs in individuals with no known underlying pulmonary disease, while a Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax (SSP) develops in patients with underlying lung disease. Material and Methods: All the patients above 18 years and admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of SP were included. All cases of spontaneous pneumothorax with pregnancy, significant heart diseases, coagulopathies, diabetes mellitus were not included. Any case without consent or chest CT were excluded. A total of 62 patients(Male patients-55), with 70 episodes of SP were enrolled in the study. Results: There was smoking history in majority of patients and their details are given in. PSP was diagnosed in 72.72% of patients aged less than 30 years where as SSP was diagnosed in those over 40 years. Dyspnoea was the commonest symptom at presentation in 58 (93.54%) patients followed by pleuritic chest pain in 49 (79.03%) patients. The commonest risk factor of SSP was COPD 38.7% (n:24) followed by pulmonary tuberculosis 30.6%( n=19), Bronchiectasis in 6.45% (n:4) and pyogenic infections in 4.83%(n=3) and interstitial lung disease in1.61%(n=1). In our study, pulmonary tuberculosis was the second most frequent casuse of SSP. The treatment options available for spontaneous pneumothorax are observation, supple-mentary oxygen, simple aspira-tion, tube thoracos-tomy, tube thoracostomy with instillation of sclero-sant, thoracoscopy, and open thoractomy. 15 This study revealed that most of the patients had resolution of pneumothorax within 2-3 weeks of chest intubation. It can be concluded that if the pneumothorax does not resolve within this period, then surgical intervention is advisable. Conclusion: PSP is primarily a disease of young people and is predominant in males. PSP is usually caused by the rupture of the subpleural bleb which are usually multiple and mostly occur at lung apices. It is well established that smoking increases the risk of contracting first pneumothorax. SSP is most often associated COPD. In our country, Pulmonary tuberculosis is a common cause of secondary pneumothorax. Rupture of subpleural tuberculous lesion or cavities are believed to be responsible for development of pneumothorax but the exact mechanism of SSP in pulmonary TB is unclear.

  154. Dr. Shakuntala Bethur Siddaiah, Dr. Umapathy Thimmegowda, Dr. Pavana Mysore Parameshwara and Dr. Jaya Agali Ramachandra

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) have significant impact on the quality of life of affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence, gender influence, etiological factors, treatment need associated and the relation between MIH and dental caries. This cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a randomly selected 1004 children from the 8-9 years age group of south Bangalore. Hypomineralized molars and incisors were recorded based on the MIH diagnostic criteria of the European Academy of Pediatric dentistry (EAPD) and DMFT (Decayed, Filled Missing teeth) determined using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. A detailed personal and family history in the questionnaire form included general information of the child and the mother with the prenatal, natal and post natal problems. Out of 1004 children, 115 (11.5%) had MIH with no difference between genders. Mother’s and child’s medical histories during prenatal, natal and postnatal periods showed increased incidence of MIH in children. The overall mean number of caries affected teeth was 0.4. The prevalence of MIH in a group of South Bangalore children was 11.5%. No gender differences seen. Prenatal, natal and postnatal medical conditions were more prevalent in children affected by MIH. The DMFT value was not statistically significant in MIH affected children.

  155. Chandramani B. More, Palak Shah and Rao Naman Rajeshkumar

    Branchial cleft cyst is one of the common congenital anomaly and a cystic lesion of neck. It arises from branchial arch remnants, mainly from second branchial cleft. It commonly presents as a slow growing, solitary, painless swelling in the anterior triangle of the neck. Brachial cleft cyst can be misdiagnosed as other cysts of neck or as other swellings of oral and paraoral region. It is imperative to make correct diagnosis in order to design an accurate treatment plan. Clinical examination, FNAC, ultrasonography and CT scan are the diagnostic aids that provide findings suggestive of branchial cleft cyst and the diagnosis can be confirmed by biopsy. Once the diagnosis is established, the treatment of choice is surgical excision. Recurrence of this lesion is rare. Here, we present a rare case of classic clinical presentation of branchial cleft cyst.

  156. Basma Hamada Mohammed, Dr. Talal Ahmed Abd-El-Raheem, Dr. Olfat Gamil Shaker and Dr. Mohammed Hassan Mohammed

    Background: Psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory disease of multiple etiological factors, mainly immunological, affecting skin and joints. Many cytokines produced by T lymphocytes, especially T helper type, have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Objectives: This study aimed at detecting the role of interleukin 17 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Methodology: This study was a case control study. IL 17 was measured in twenty plaque psoriatic patients in both lesional and non lesional skin and the results were correlated with the disease severity and compared with twenty sex and age matched healthy volunteers that were included as control group. Results: IL 17 was statistically significant higher in lesional than in non lesional areas and also than the control group.

  157. Naveen Kumar Naveen, Naseema V. Kanase, Soudamini Gandhi, Kunda Dimble, Bilal Mohammad, Indrajit Gupta and Tushar Munnoli

    Background and objectives: Bupivacaine is the commonly used drug for spinal anaesthesia. To improve upon the quality of analgesia and prolong the duration of its action, many adjuvants have been tried.Intrathecal dexmedetomidine has potent central antinociceptive properties with analgesic effect at spinal level. Low doses of dexmedetomidine have shown effectiveness in intensifying spinal anaesthesia. So dexmedetomidine along with local anaesthetics improves the quality of intraoperative analgesia and also provide postoperative pain relief for longer duration. Objective: To evaluate the effects of adding dexmedetomidine to hyperbaric bupivacaine for lower limb orthopaedic surgeries. Methodology: 75 ASA grade I/II patients aged between 18 - 50 years undergoing elective lower limb orthopaedic surgeries were selected and divided into three groups of 25 each. Group “A” 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg + 0.5ml of normal saline. Group “B” 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg+5 µg Dexmedetomidine. Group “C” 0.5%hyperbaric bupivacaine15mg+Dexmedetomidine 7.5µg. Total volumes in all groups are kept constant at 3.5ml. Parameters: Onset and duration of sensory and motor block, Duration and quality of analgesia, perioperative hemodynamic parameters were assessed. Results: The onset of sensory and motor blockade was faster in group C than in group B than in group A. Duration of sensory block and analgesia was significantly prolonged in group C and Group B so also was the duration of motor block. There was no significant hemodynamic changes in all the three groups. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine potentiates bupivacaine spinal anaesthesia by improving the quality of intra operative and post-operative analgesia.

  158. Thosar, N., Chandak, M., Bhat, M. and Basak, S.

    Background: Various essential oils like tea tree oil, thyme oil, peppermint oil were mixed with calcium hydroxide cement to form the paste. Susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis with all test materials was evaluated which was then compared with calcium hydroxide saline paste. Materials and Methods: Different types of pastes used in the study were: calcium hydroxide with tea tree oil paste (CaOH+TT), calcium hydroxide with thyme oil paste (CaOH+Th), calcium hydroxide with peppermint oil paste (CaOH+P), calcium hydroxide with saline paste (CaOH+S). CaOH+S was used as control paste with which all the other test materials were compared. Susceptibility of E.faecalis with all the test materials and control material was evaluated in terms of zones of inhibition using agar diffusion method. In this method, wells of 6mm diameter were punched in Muller Hincton agar, filled with test and control material, incubated at 37ºC for 24 hrs. and zones of inhibition measured in mm. All the data was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test at the significance level of 5% Results: It was observed that susceptibility of E.faecalis in the form if zones of inhibition (in mm) in decreasing order were: CaOH+Th paste (33.33±1.03)> CaOH+TT paste (24.00±1.78)> CaOH+S paste (17.33±3.01)> CaOH+P paste (12.66±1.03) with statistically significant difference between and within groups (0.0001, p<0.05). Conclusion: Best results were obtained with CaOH+Th paste followed by CaOH+TT paste, CaOH+S paste and CaOH+P paste. CaOH+Th paste can be effectively used as root canal filling material in primary teeth against the most resistant microorganism i.e; enterococcus faecalis.

  159. Piyush Sagar, Atin Singhai, Suresh Babu, Nuzhat Husain and Sankhwar, S.N.

    Objectives Histopathologists often face difficulties in diagnosing Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) or borderline Adenocarcinoma (PAC) cases on the basis of hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stain alone. Recent immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies have shown ERG overexpression linkage with carcinomatous changes whereas CK5 expression in normal basal cell layers in prostate is an established fact. Limited review of literature reveals high specificity of multiplex antibody cocktail mixtures comprising of neoplastic acinar as well as basal cell markers for demarcating prostatic lesions. Aims: Objective of this study is to evaluate diagnostic efficacy of multiplex antibody cocktail mixture of ERG and CK5 in delineating PIN and PAC cases. Settings and Design: A sample size of 30 cases was targeted including Hyperplasia (BPH), PIN and PAC. All the relevant clinical details including serum PSA were recorded. Methods and Materials: Cases were subjected to routine H & E staining along with IHC evaluation by multiplex antibody cocktail mixture of ERG & CK5. Results: Out of 30 cases, 11 were labeled as BPH, 9 PIN and rest 10 as PAC on H & E staining. Of 11 BPH, 10 showed CK5 positivity alone, while 1 showed both ERG & CK5 coexpression. Subsequently diagnosis was revised as PIN. Of 9 PIN, 5 were ERG negative and CK5 positive; hence diagnosis revised as BPH. 2 were ERG positive and CK5 negative; hence rechristened as PAC. Rests 2 were consistent with PIN in form of ERG negativity and CK5 positivity. Of 10 PAC, all were CK5 negative, but only 7 were ERG positive. On review, rest 3 ERG negative cases had high Gleason’s score. Conclusion: Immunohistochemical evaluation by multiplex antibody cocktail mixture of ERG and CK5 has great utility in resolving diagnostic and prognostic problems of PIN and PAC cases. It has potential to be considered as screening immunohistochemical module for reporting of prostatic biopsies.

  160. Subashani, Sunil Dhaded, S. Sai Swethaa, K. Lokesh Kumar and Sangamma K Tippashetty

    The catalyst for change, Computer Aided Designing technology has been the digital platform for various innovations in the recent years. The speed, accuracy and ability to make complex geometries directly from the CAD and 3D Printing technology are used for the fabrication of various dental prostheses. 3D printing is performed by computer assisted methods with optimum safety, simplicity and reliability. (Alharbi et al., 2016) To date scientific evidence is lacking regarding the effect of different factors on the mechanical properties of the printed restorations with the additive manufacturing technique. (Zandparsa, 2014) The time and efficiency of fabricating prostheses with 3D printing technology has improved innovatively and eliminates multiple time consuming conventional steps to create well fitted esthetic and functional restorations. 3D printing is a process for creating objects directly, by adding material layer by layer in a variety of ways, depending on the technology used. This review outlines about the materials, mechanical properties and the procedure of 3D printed prosthesis and how it varies from the prosthesis made from conventional procedures.

  161. Naji, Y., MedaghriAlaoui, O., Naji, A., El Attar, H. and BenYahya, I.

    Brown tumor is a rare clinical entity. It’s an osteolyticand non neoplasic lesion due to hyperparathyroidism. This report describes the case of a 48 year old man who presentedwith a painless swelling in the mandible lasting for three months as chief complaint. The diagnosis of brown tumor was confirmed after performing the biopsy and doing the blood tests for calcium and parathyroid hormone levels which were severely high: 1962 pg/ml. those investigations led us to discover a parathyroid carcinoma. This work highlights the diagnosis challenges and pitfalls linked to this rare and poorly understood disease. It also emphasizes the interest of the early screening of such endocrinopathy.

  162. Rashmi Kushwaha, Madhu Kumar, Malti Kumari Maurya, Rana Pratap Maurya, Sunit Kumar Jurel and Reema Kumari

    Background: Waste generated if not disposed off properly can become a potential health hazard to health care workers, patients, waste handlers, community and to environment by increasing chances of infections, toxicity, polluting environment. A significant amount of hospital waste is generated from the laboratories, hence, the staff needs to be trained properly for the waste handling and management. Objectives: To understand the knowledge, awareness and to assess the practice of BMW management in staff members in Department of Pathology and other associated laboratories in a tertiary health care centre in North India Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional questionnaire based survey. Target population was various consultants, Resident doctors, laboratory technicians and other health care workers in Department of Pathology and other associated laboratories, King George’s Medical University Lucknow. This included 19 consultants, 44 resident doctors, 36 Laboratory technicians, 20 laboratory assistants, 29 laboratory attendants, 18 class IV employees and 6 research students. Knowledge, awareness and practice of BMW management was assessed in them with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. Results: Only 47.67% of staff members were trained on BMW management. None of the class IV employees were trained. Only 55.81% staff was using personnel protective measures like apron and gloves while at work. 94.4 % of class IV employees were not aware of correct colour coding of BMW management. Knowledge about diseases transmitted by improper handling of BMW was minimal amongst Laboratory assistants and class IV employees. Conclusion: Regular training and awareness programmes regarding BMW management should be conducted for all the health care workers in laboratories with special emphasis on technical staff and class IV employees.

  163. Nuria Rosich Domenech, Josefa M Panisello Royo, Eurald Castells Panisello, Joseph Allins, M Loreto Tarraga Marcos and Pedro J. Tárraga López

    Objective: To evaluate the evolution of anthropometric parameters and the quality of the diet of overweight or obese children and their families. Patients and Method: Eleven children (10 girls and 1 child) aged 6 to 12 years, all overweight or obese, were included in the program. They were selected by the head of the Basic Health area of the population. Both the patients and their parents received all the program information at a meeting, and agreed to participate voluntarily in the meeting. The parents also carry out a previous interview where information about the family context, the health history and the stressful life events, if any, are collected in the child's life. The program is grouped in two simultaneous and separate spaces, one for children and one for parents and / or grandparents or relatives. The measurements made to the children at the beginning and end of the program are: anthropometric measures: weight, height, BMI. Psychometric averages: anxiety with the CMAS-R test 3) and depression with the CDI test. Assessment of body perception and satisfaction with his body, through closed questions (with scales ranging from 0 to 10. The sample of parents is evaluated, at the beginning and end of the course, with the following instruments: Anthropometric measures: weight, height and BMI. KIDMED questionnaire that assesses the quality of the diet in relation to the Mediterranean diet of both adults and their respective children (self-administered). STAI anxiety questionnaire for the assessment of anxiety trait and anxiety status. The data obtained from anthropometric assessments and self-administered questionnaires were entered into a computerized database using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 20.0. Since our sample of subjects is small (N of children = 11, N parents = 11) we have opted to analyze the data with nonparametric tests. Results: In the 11 children BMI decreased from a mean (SD) of 26.34 (3.18) to 25.13 (3.6) (p <0.001) and from 2.20 (0.69) to 1.97 (0.91) (p <0.001. At the beginning of the course the average score on the KIDMED was 7.33 (DT = 0.87) (needs to improve) while at the beginning of the course the average score on the KIDMED was 7.33 The mean score was 9.78 (SD = 0.32) (the optimal diet), and the diet of the children who participated in the program improved at the end of the program, and the differences were statistically significant (p = 0.006). In the relatives, the weight decreased significantly in 7 cases, 2 was not modified and others could not be calculated because they did not come to the last consultation. They improved their state of anxiety and trait status. They also increased their adherence to Mediterranean diet. Conclusions: The application of the "Families in Motion" program led to a decrease in BMI and an increase in the quality of the Mediterranean diet.

  164. Daskalov, Hr., Kanazirska P. and Kanazirski, N.

    The current tridimensional interrelation of the retained teeth with the adjacent structures is impossible to be visualized with two-dimensional methods of imaging-diagnostics.
    The objective: Of this work is to present the potentials of CBCT in diagnostics of clinical cases with complex relations between retained and other teeth of the mandible, and determining the operative access for their treatment.
    Material and method: We present a clinical case of treatment of atypical tooth retention in complex position in relation to the surrounding structures. The diagnostics and the operative access are determined with the assistance of CBCT.
    Results: The operative intervention was performed with lingual access. This allowed the preservation of the adjacent teeth.
    Conclusion: The tridimensional interrelation of the retained teeth with the adjacent structures, is possible to be visualized with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). The use of this method helps the adequate planning of the surgery.

  165. Dr. Deepak Kotwal, Dr. Divya Gupta, Dr. Preeti Dhingra and Dr. Manish Sharm

    Introduction: Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world and ranks number one (12 % of all cancers) among men and number three (8% of all cancers) among women in Indi. The most common oral cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. Tobacco and alcohol are the most important risk factors associated with oral cancer. Diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma is confirmed with a biopsy for histopathological examination. Aims & Objectives: To find out the topographical distribution, incidence of lymph node metastasis, type of malignancy and dietary habits of patients of oral cancers and associated predisposing factors. Material & Methods: The present study was conducted for a period of one year. Out of the patients attending/admitted in the Department of E.N.T, with suspected oral lesions, thirty histologically proved cases of oral cancer were taken for the study. After history and examination, all the patients were subjected to complete routine investigations. Biopsy (punch or excision biopsy) was taken from all the 30 patients for histopathological confirmation of diagnosis and for categorizing the type of malignancy. Results: Majority of patients (50%) were in the age group of 51-60 years with mean age of 53 ± 7. Majority of patients (93%) were males with male: female ratio of 14:1 with most common site involved being lateral border of tongue (36.6%) followed by buccal mucosa (30%). Out of the 30 patients, only 10 had palpable lymph nodes. 6 patients had N1 disease, 1 patient had N2a disease, 2 patients had N2b disease and 1 patient had N2c disease. There were no patients who had lymph node more than 6cm i.e. N3. Most common risk factor in the present study was tobacco use whether alone or in combination with alcohol i.e in twenty four (80%) cases. 80% patients in the present study were tobacco users. Majority of males (73%) had a history of tobacco consumption, where as tobacco use in females was low (6%). Among tobacco users, 70% patients were tobacco chewers and 12.5% were tobacco smokers. Majority of patients (66%) consumed fruits occasionally. The majority of patients (53%) consumed green leafy vegetables occasionally. The majority of patients (83%) were non vegetarian whereas only (16%) were vegetarians. In the present study most common clinical complaint was ulceration followed by swelling. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histological type found in 93% of patients in the present study. Conclusion: There is high male predominance (14:1) since in our state tobacco intake, which is most potent risk factor, is predominantly seen in males and also because of male labour migration to our state. Tobacco intake for more than five years is commonest of all risk factors. Chewing of tobacco was more prevalent risk factor (70%) as compared to smoking. Buccal mucosa is next common site (30%) as it is affected more by chronic irritation caused by tobacco and alcohol. Majority of our cases were non vegetarian, though the exact reason for this is not fully established. Regular use of fruits and green leafy vegetables is found to decrease the risk of oral cancer, may be because of more minerals and antioxidants properties in them.

  166. Soman Mani, Liji Menon, M., Harishankar, S. and Anna Mathew

    Background: As computers become part of our everyday life, more and more people are experiencing a variety of ocular symptoms related to computer use. Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS), also referred to as digital eye strain describes a group of eye and vision related problems that result from the prolonged computer, tablet, E-reader and cellphone use. CVS may have a significant impact not only on visual comfort but also on occupational productivity. Objective: To study the prevalence of Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS)using the Computer Vision Questionnaire among Information Technology (IT) students studying in a rural area in South India. Methodology: The study covered 339students from a rural engineering college. Demographic data such as age, gender, socioeconomic status and medical history were collected and entered in the case study form. Clinical examination with a torch light was carried out in all subjects to exclude gross corneal abnormalities. Those screened who were found to be normal were handed over a questionnaire, based on the results on which they were grouped into those with CVS and those without CVS. The visual acuity and retinoscopic examination of all were also carried out. The data were collected and analyzed using chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of CVS was found to be 55.46%.79.3% of those who worked on the computer for more than 3 hours per day and 76.08% of those sitting at a stretch on computer for more than 2 hours developed computer vision syndrome. Only 38.3% of those who took periodic breaks had symptoms of CVS while 82.0% of those who did not take a break developed CVS. Conclusion: The prevalence of CVS among rural engineering students studying information technology was found to be 55.46%. This study revealed a positive association between total hours of work on computer per day, work at a stretch on computer, taking periodic breaks and computer vision syndrome.

  167. Abdullah Ali Al-Zahrany and Nihad A. El-Nashar

    Osteoporosis is a chronic worldwide problem. It is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue leading to bone fragility. Cessation of ovarian function is the most widespread cause for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. This study included 37womenaged 40 to 60 years. They were categorized into 3 groups according to their bone mineral density (BMD): Group I: 15 Normal control (T-score up to -1.5), Group II:12 Osteopenic women (T-score between– 1.5 to –2.5) and Group III:10 Osteoporotic women (T-score below– 2.5). For all subjects, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed. Osteocalcin (OC),alkaline phosphatase (ALP), free galactosyl hydroxylysine (Gal-Hyl),calcium (Ca),inorganic phosphorus (P) and estradiol (E2)were measured in serum, whereas, deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) and creatinine levels in urine. Simultaneously both osteopenic and osteoporotic groups showed significant decreases in BMD when compared to the controls. Osteocalcin, ALP and Gal-Hyl showed significant increase (p<0.0001) among the osteopenic and osteoporotic groups versus the control group. Significant decrease in E2 levels were obvious among the osteopenic (p<0.0001) and osteoporotic (p<0.0001) women when judged against the controls. Urinary Dpd was significantly increased in the second and the third group (p<0.001) together. In osteoporotic group, significant negative correlations were observed between OC and BMD. Positive correlations were detected among the osteoporotic group between OC and ALP and between OC and Gal-Hyl. High significant negative correlations were confirmed between E2 and OC among both the osteopenic and the osteoporotic groups. Also, a significant negative correlation was established between E2 and Dpd in the osteoporotic group. In comparing between osteopenic and osteoporotic groups, significant decrease was recognized in BMD and significant increase was predicted regarding ALP, (p<0.05) Gal-Hyl (p<0.0001) and Dpd (p< 0.001). In conclusion, the decreasing level of E2 in early and post-menopausal women is the main cause of osteoporosis. Also, the measurement of serum Gal-Hyl may be of clinical value to identify groups at higher risk of osteoporosis and to predict bone loss.

  168. Kadian, J., Gupta, A., Chugh, S. N., Chugh, K. and Sharma, T.

    Background: Diabetes is a chronic disease associated with various micro and macro complications. Increased state of oxidative stress associated with these complications. Benfotiamine, a lipid soluble derivative of thiamine, thought to reduce oxidative stress and hence complications associated with diabetes. Objectives: To study the effect of benfotiamine on markers of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with controlled blood sugar levels. Methods: 50 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus with controlled levels of blood sugar were enrolled from diabetes clinic of Pt BDS PGIMS, Rohtak. All patients were evaluated for markers of oxidative stress and other routine tests at the start of the study. All patients were then started on 200 mg of benfotiamine and followed up weekly in person or telephonically for a month. After 30 days, patients were again evaluated for same markers of oxidative stress and other routine tests. Results were compared at the end of the study. Results: In present study 50 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were studied for oxidative stress at baseline and after 30 days of benfotiamine therapy. All patients had controlled diabetic status at start of study (Fasting blood sugar 119.28 ± 24.40 mg/dl and post prandial blood sugar 177.80 ± 37.84) with glycosylated HbA1C of 6.81 ± 0.13 and the controlled state was maintained throughout the study period (Fasting blood sugar 102.82 ± 16.93 mg/dl and post prandial blood sugar 171.32 ± 30.38). All patients also had a controlled blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure 124.64 ± 5.25 mm hg and Diastolic blood pressure 79.16 ± 3.40 mm hg). Oxidative stress at baseline was elevated despite control of hyperglycemia as evidence by high MDA levels (2.59 ± 0.85 µmol/l vs 0.69 ± 0.24 µmol/l, p < 0.001), low vitamin E levels (7.47 ± 1.07 mg/dl vs 13.33 ± 2.02 mg/dl, p < 0.001) and low reduced glutathione levels (10.38 ± 0.67 mg/dl vs 22.28 ± 2.22 mg/dl, p < 0.001). All these markers improved after 30 days of benfotiamine therapy MDA levels decreased from 2.59 ± 0.85 µmol/l to 1.14 ± 0.40 µmol/l, p < 0.001, vitamin E levels increased from 7.47 ± 1.07 mg/dl to 9.76 ± 1.19 mg/dl, p < 0.001 and reduced glutathione levels increased from 10.38 ± 0.67 mg/dl to 13.54 ± 0.68 mg/dl, p < 0.001. Conclusion: The study showed that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have elevated level of oxidative stress despite adequate control of hyperglycemia. Benfotiamine, a lipid soluble derivative of thiamine effectively reduces oxidative stress and thus reduces various complications associated with diabetes.

  169. Nilofer Shaik, Surendra Kumar, C., Satyasri, S., Harita Krishna Veerapaneni, Sajit Kishan Gollapalli and Raghu Ram Uppalapati

    Back ground: Diabetes mellitus has been reported to modify the presenting features of pulmonary tuberculosis, but there are varying data, particularly regarding the association with lower lung field involvement. Objectives: Clinical and radiological study of pulmonary tuberculosis in diabetic patients. Methods: 70 cases of diabetes mellitus with pulmonary tuberculosis were studied. Their clinical profile, relevant tests and chest radiograph results were analysed. Results: The predominant clinical symptoms noted were anorexia (77.14%), cough (74.29%), and fever (64.29%). 81.63% of male patients were smokers. Clubbing was noted in 14.29% of our patients. Average duration of diabetes was 6.59 years. 74.29% of patients were anaemic and 60% of patients had an erythrocyte sedimentation rate above 50mm hr-1. The average FBS value was 227 mg/dl. 72.73% of patients were sputum positive for acid fast bacilli under the age of ≤50 years. Cavitary lesions were noted in about 52.88% of patients. 27.14% of patients had infiltration. Fibrosis was noted in 30% of patients. Lower lung field involvement was noted in 25.71% of patients and was more common in patients greater than 50 years. Conclusion: Multiple cavities and multiple lobe involvement are more common in tuberculous diabetics and lower lung field is involved more commonly in older age group patients. Severe hyperglycaemia appears to be a contributory factor to the development of pulmonary tuberculosis in diabetics. Diabetes appears to have no effect on the presenting features of pulmonary tuberculosis to a large extent.

  170. Mohamad Qulam Zaki Bin Mohamad Rasidi and Dr. Gheena, S.

    Objectives: Aim and objectives: The aim of this research is to find out current awareness on musculoskeletal disorder among dental students especially in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Thiswould help in gaining knowledge on dental students' awareness in this specific pathology disorder based on their previous and current knowledge in medical field. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire consisting of 13 questions are given through online communication system (Whatsapp Apps) with attached link to the online questionnaire that had been prepared earlier (http://app.surveyplanet.com).115 students from 4 dental institutions in Chennai took part in this survey. Dental students from SaveethaDental College, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Sri Ramachandra Dental College and Ragas DentalCollege. Results: Awareness of dental students in Chennai is calculated based on their best answer response toward the MSDs based on their current knowledge. Therefore, out of counted questions, the total number of students of 12 counted questions from survey given is 1380 (12 counted questions x 115 dental students). The total best answer from the 12 counted questions is 670. Hence, the percentage of awareness of dental students on Musculoskeletal disorder in Chennai is 48.55%. Conclusion: Based on recent study, the awareness percentage among dental students in Chennai is only 48.55% which is below the minimum percentage of awareness.[3] The rest are having less awareness or least exposure on MSDs and its effect on them is a major factor that contributed to this result.

  171. Azhar Hussain, Madeeha Malik and Anam Zahid

    With the advancement of medical science, immunization has improved worldwide. This advancement can only be proven beneficiary if being practiced as well. The aim of this review paper is to summarize research findings for better understanding about the immunization rate, factors affecting immunization, the role of parents in immunization, barriers in the process of immunization and the strategies to improve immunization in developed and developing countries as well as Pakistan. A total of 67 studies were reviewed out of which 56 were from developed and developing countries and fourteen from Pakistan. It was concluded that extensive research is required to identify the perceived barriers in effective implementation, role of parents and role of expanded immunization program in control of communicable diseases/vaccine preventable diseases. Different health care system collaborative models and appropriate strategies must be identified that fit into the local context to promote active immunization which can lead to improved childhood immunization and control of vaccine preventable diseases.

  172. Dr. ChhayaAdalja, Dr. ChandniAdalja, Dr. Chandramani B. More and Dr. Rao Naman Rajeshkumar

    The growing field of Stem cells therapy has been proving its accurate results day by day due to the continuous researches. It is also found to be beneficial to various non-curable diseases that had no specific treatment earlier. These cells are the principal cells due to its unique and special property of capability to differentiate too many other cell types, its potency and its self-renewal. The stem cell therapy has been recently tried on the Orofacial region for the regeneration of various Soft and Hard tissues namely Enamel, Dentin, Pulp and Alveolar bone using the adult mesenchymal stem cells. Very few researches are conducted on the stem cell therapy for oral premalignant and malignant lesions like oral ulcers, leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, lichen planus, oral cancer and others. Moreover, there is very less literature available on the functionality and efficacy of stem cell therapy application for these lesions and so the present review will enlighten about the functionality, efficacy and accurateness of the stem cell therapy for oral premalignant and malignant lesions. All the articles for the review were taken from the esteemed data bases like PubMed, Cochrane, EBSCO and more.

  173. Gurmeet Singh, Digamber Chaubey, Athar Parvez and Jain, K. B.

    A 60-year-old man was admitted and underwent laproscopic surgery with a provisional diagnosis of acute appendicitis. During surgery, omental torsion was diagnosed and the involved omentum was resected. The patient had no previous surgical history. Omental torsion is a rare cause of acute abdomen in children and adults who may present with various signs and symptoms; a preoperative diagnosis may therefore be difficult and can usually only be established during surgery.

  174. Dr. Prakash Chandra Mishra and Dr. Lalmohan Nayak

    Paperless partogram is a simple clinical tool, which in a gravid women in active phase of labour, can predict the expected ‘time’ of delivery (ETD) of the baby and also programmes management of labour. This tool was developed by Dr A K Debdas 2006 (India) and is widely quoted in the net. Objective: The objective of this study was to check the validity & effectiveness of Paperless partogram. Materials: A total 436 women of normal singleton pregnancy in “natural spontaneous labour” at 37 weeks to 42 weeks of gestation, were included for the study in prospective manner from the labour unit of VSS Institute of Medical science, Sambalpur, Odisha. During November 2013 to August 2015. The proportion of Primi to Multi was 66.98% : 33.56%. Method: At the very first PV examination in “active phase” of labour ETD was calculated by application of Friedman formula of dilatation of cervix in labour of-1cm/hour and recorded in BOLD letter, The whole procedure is “paperless” and is a split-second ‘mental’ calculation. Result: On matching the ‘actual time of delivery’ with the calculated ETD, it was found that 70.8% of primi & 88.8% of multi delivered before the predicted ETD. Those who (both primi & multi) failed to deliver by their predicted delivery time – they all however delivered by the 4 hours action time point. Conclusion: Paperless Partogram is a highly reliable, simple clinical tool, which effectively manages labour, prevents prolonged & obstructed labour. So Paperless partogram may serve as a valid alternative to the conventional WHO Partogram which is very complex & time consuming.

  175. Amruta Kamble, Rajkiran Lokhande and Swati Pakolu

    Introduction: The oro-facial region is usually an area of significant concern for the individual. Lip protrusion and chin prominence is assumed to be most important factor in assessment of male and female facial attractiveness. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate influence of the lower lip prominence for varying degrees of chin prominence in male and female in the sagittal plane by lay people and orthodontists. Materials and Methods: An idealized profile image of male and female was selected. The image was manipulated to create six images each demonstrating different degrees of retrogenia and progenia altered in 4-mm increments from -12 mm to +12 mm and six images each demonstrating chin and lower lip prominence in 4-mm increments from -12 mm to +12 mm. Laypeople and orthodontists ranked the images from the most to the least attractive by Visual Analog Scale. Results: It was seen that in males, when chin is protrusive- forward lower lip and if chin is retrusive- unaltered lower lip was more attractive. In females, when chin is protrusive- unaltered lower lip and if chin is retrusive- unaltered lower lip was more attractive. No difference of opinion was seen between orthodontists and laypeople. Conclusion: The ideal and preferred sagittal position of chin is on or in front true vertical line, with slight forward lower lip for male while for female chin position on or behind true vertical line with unaltered lower lip position. Overall direction of opinion was same for lay people and orthodontists.

  176. Dr. Mukesh Kumar and Dr. Krishnakumar, R.

    Objectives: To report few unusual causes of sciatica-like pain due to non discogenic causes. We propose a new terminology “sciatica mimickers” to describe these conditions. Methods: A single centre retrospective study. Results: All patients were evaluated by various imaging technique and treated either by conservative or surgically and improved with our treatment. Conclusion: All sciatica is not due to disc prolapse, non discogenic causes of sciatica are not uncommon and should always be kept in mind in evaluation of patient with sciatica. We propose the term “sciatica mimickers” to describe sciatica like pain due to non discogenic causes.

  177. Sundus Fadhil Hantoosh, Dr. Muhammad-Baqir, M.R. Fakhrildin, Dr. Manal Taha Meteab and Dr. Rajwa Hasen Essa

    Background: Cytokines play considerable role in reproductive system. Objectives: Study role of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interleukin-27 (IL-27) in ovulatory process, endometrial receptivity, and implantation processes and their pathogenic contribution to infertility and their effects on pregnancy outcomes after ovulation induction/intrauterine insemination (OI/IUI). Materials and Methods: Twenty unexplained infertile and twenty-seven polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women subjected to (OI/IUI) and sixteen fertile women as control group were enrolled in this study. Serum IL-17 and IL-27 concentrations for study cases were measured before triggering of ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration and also were measured for control group. Results: Only two (4.25%) PCOS women became pregnant after OI/IUI. There were significant increase in concentrations of IL-17 and IL-27 for unexplained infertility women (p=0.0004, p=0.006, respectively) and for PCOS women not became pregnant (p=0.02, 0.0041, respectively) compared to control group. The two PCOS women who became pregnant exerted no significant difference in IL-17 concentration (p=0.39) and significant increase in IL-27 concentrations (p=0.006) compared to control group. Conclusions: Abnormal IL-17 and IL-27 concentrations adversely affected OI/IUI pregnancy outcome.

  178. Karan Raj Singh Sandhu and Ajay Bibra

    Today immediate loading (IL) of dental implants is an eminent and acknowledged treatment strategy which is extensively being used for the rehabilitation of missing teeth in healthy as well as medically compromised individuals. IL may be described as functional loading (with occlusal contacts) immediately after implantation (or within 3–4 days after surgery) without waiting for the healing period. IL has gained popularity due to less tissue trauma, reduced overall treatment time, decreased patient’s anxiety and discomfort, high patient acceptance and better function and aesthetics. A fundamental prerequisite for implant success is substantial primary stability at the time of insertion and following loading of the implant. Hence, in the present literature review, we aimed to assess and clarify the significance of immediate loading and its various modes surfaced over the years comprising All-on-Four Concept, Weld One Concept, Basal Implants and Zygomatic Implants.

  179. Ambaga, M.

    The evolution significance of the membrane three state dependent regulations appeared in the three domain of life as Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya and gradually specialized, turn to fist variant of the membrane - redox potential, a three state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance. If did not develop the branched hydrocarbon chains attached to glycerol by ether linkages in the membrane lipids of Archaea prokaryotic cells in early phases of evolution it would be impossible the formation of modern variants of the membrane - redox potential, a three state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance inside human body. During clarifying the evolution significance of the membrane three state dependent regulations and the full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance by us established that: 1. One is variants of the membrane - redox potential, a three state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance was the fluid alpha state of the membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance inside human body consisting of unsaturated fatty acids with high levels of oxy potentials conducting the flow of protons and electrons. 2. Also, second variants of the membrane - redox potential, a three state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance was the solid betta state of the membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance inside human body consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids conditioning a high levels of red potentials conducting the flow of protons and electrons. 3. Third variants of the membrane - redox potential, a three state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance was the gamma state of of the membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance inside human body consisting of decreased contents of saturated - unsaturated fatty acids, conditioning a decreased levels of redoxy potentials conducting the flow of protons and electrons.

  180. Dr. Manjari Kishore, Dr. Manju Kaushal and Dr. Manju Kumari

    Filariasis is a major public health problem, largely confined to tropics and subtropics. The diagnosis is conventionally made by demonstrating the microfilaria in three consecutive night blood samples. However, in early stages, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the enlarged lymph nodes is a useful diagnostic tool and may reveal the parasite. Although many risk factors like HIV infection, immunosuppression, malnutrition and diabetes predispose to development of tuberculosis, few studies have addressed the effects of co-incident helminth infection on incident tuberculosis (TB). Herein we present an incidental finding of microfilaria on FNAC of sub-mandibular lymph node along with tuberculosis TB infection, which is a rare association.However, the patient did not have any clinical features of filariasis or peripheral blood microfilaraemia.

  181. Rohey Jan, Waseem Raja, Nita George, Mohan Mathew, George Jacob and Monika, D.

    Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection diagnosed in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in spite of advances in diagnostic techniques and management it remains a common cause of hospital morbidity and mortality. Aims/objective: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence, the bacterial pathogens causing VAP in our setup, along with the susceptibility pattern for antibiotics and detect the multi-drug resistant pathogens among them. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in department of Critical Care Medicine, Lakeshore hospital & research centre over a period of 2 years from November 2014 to October 2016, enrolling patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for >48h in MICU’s. Exclusion criteria- age <12 years, patients with COPD, Tuberculosis, ARDS, Bronchial asthma on admission & patients with Pneumonia prior to or within 48 hours of mechanical ventilation are excluded from the study .Endotracheal aspirates were collected from patients with suspected VAP and semi-quantitative cultures were performed on all samples. VAP was diagnosed using Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS). Results: Out of 100 cases studied, 19 (19%) patients were diagnosed to have VAP, out of which 42.11% had early-onset (< 96 hours of mechanical ventilation) VAP and 57.89% had late-onset (>96 hours of mechanical ventilation) VAP. Ventilator associated pneumonia was more preponderant in males (63.15), the commonest age group being >60 years followed by age group 41 to 50 years (26.3%). Reintubation of more than one times, infection at other sites and prolonged ventilation are the risk factors for VAP. Acinetobacter species followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most commonly isolated pathogens in both types of VAP. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern revealed most of the pathogens to be multi-drug resistant. There is significant difference in VAP and Non-VAP groups in terms of outcome variables like death, and discharge from the hospital. Motality rate in our study was 26%, which was significantly higher in late onset VAP due to MDR pathogens. VAP prolongs the duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care and the duration of hospital stay compared to the Non VAP cases. Conclusions: This study provides a baseline data of current scenario of VAP in our set up, which can be utilized to formulate infection control strategies. The present study also shows that VAP is increasingly associated with MDR pathogens which lead to increased mortality, morbidity and indirectly the health care costs.

  182. Pramod Kumar, Ruby Pandey, Harendra Singh, Divya Raghuvanshi, Beenu Tripathi, Uma Shukla and Shukla, D. N.

    The present investigation reveals the seasonal changes in concentration of physico-chemical parameters in river Alaknanda in the year 2015-16. Water samples were collected from different sites viz. Vishnu Prayag, Nand Prayag, Karna Prayag and Rudra Prayag of Uttarakhand during summer, monsoon and winter season. The physico-chemical parameters as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total solids, chloride, turbidity and electrical conductivity (EC) were used to analyze the pollution status of river Alaknanda at four selected sites. The results revealed that the Karna Prayag site showed maximum concentration 1.97±0.91, 83.0±7.55, 63.33±8.50, 13.33±3.06, 252.0±48.5, 136.3±40.5 of BOD, TH, TA, Turbidity, TS and TSS respectively. The water quality was recorded below the permissible limit setup by United Nation Public Health Services (USPHS) and World Health Organization (WHO). However it may exceed in future with increasing population and anthropogenic interference in the basin and can make ecological imbalance in river flora and fauna.

  183. Kalaiarasan, A.

    We investigation report the biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ficus macemosa fruits extract. Decidedly that Ficus macemosa fruits extract the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the synthesized Ag and Au nanoparticles were tested again gram-positive and gram negative determine seven human pathogenic organisms using disc diffusion method. The different concentration of synthesis of silver and gold nanoparicles Ficus macemosa fruits extract was taken1mM and 2mM. The result obviously that silver and gold nanoparticles was 1mM extract highly zone of inhibition Bacillus subtilis 12cm against than Staphylococcus aureus 7cm, Escherichia coli 6cm, Kilebsiella pineumoneae 5cm, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4cm. The 2mM silver and gold extract were was moderate activity then Staphylococcus aureus 2cm, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1cm, Bacillus subtilis 10cm, Kilebsiella pineumoneae 3cm and Escherichia coli 6cm. The antifungal activity of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus Small inhibition of synthesis silver and gold nanoparticles. The report recorded indicate that Ficus macemosa fruits synthesized silver and gold extract also has excellent potent in antibacterial activity and small zone of inhibition in all extract in antifungal activity.

  184. Shafia Banu, H. and Dr. Jahanaara Razick

    Polycystic ovary syndrome, or PCOS, is one of the most common endocrine disorder in women. It is a heterogeneous complex genetic trait of unclear aetiology. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on the criteria used to make the diagnosis. Clinical manifestations of PCOS include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Earlier it was thought of as a fertility problem, but it is now known that PCOS is a metabolic disorder like diabetes that can have serious health consequences, if not diagnosed and controlled. Risk factors for PCOS in adults include hereditary factors and environmental factors like physical inactivity, greater intake of junk food, obesity and its associated insulin resistance. Insulin resistance affects 50%–70% of women with PCOS leading to many comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Studies show that mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility in patients with PCOS. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS needs to be individualised and includes medication for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism along with effective approaches to nutrition and exercise to improve body composition, endocrine features, reproductive function and cardiometabolic risk profile. Proper diagnosis and efficient management is essential to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications. This review article focuses on the various dimensions of PCOS.

  185. Vashistha, J. and Paulose, P. V.

    Siliserh Lake is an important water body of Rajasthan state. In Siliserh Lake, zooplankton community composed mainly of Crustaceans (particularly Copepoda and Cladocera) and Rotifers. Other plankton groups were also observed at low density and frequency, such as Protozoa, Ostracoda and Insecta. Plankton samples were collected by means of horizontal haul, using plankton net (No.25) with a mesh size of 55 µm. In the present study. The correlation between various physico-chemical parameters and zooplankton groups were tested using Pearson-Moment Correlation. Zooplankton population was observed to be composed of 37 species belonging to 29 genera. Out of 37 species, 16 represented Rotifera, 6 Copepoda, 7 Cladocera, 3 Protozoa, 3 Ostracoda and 2 Insecta. The total density of zooplankton varied between 12.44 x 101 L-1 and 144.84 x 101 L-1 during the study period. Minimum species density was recorded in the monsoon season, while the summer season was characterized by maximum zooplankton density. Total zooplankton density was found positively correlated with total hardness, Mg hardness, and free CO2 and negatively correlated with conductivity, TS, TDS of water. Copepoda was the dominant group both in winter and summer season. So the present study validates the fact that this freshwater lake remains oligotrophic during summer and winter season but becomes loaded with nutrients during monsoon season reaching eutrophic condition.

  186. Maria Johana González Vera, Andréa BiccaNoguez Martins, Fernanda da Motta Xavier, Geri Eduardo Meneghello, Catalina SoledadGaona Duarte, Viviana Maria Palacios Acuña, Pamela Peña Almeida, YesminaLezcano Aquino and Diego Torres Arza

    At post-harvestperiod, quality of corn sedes may be influenced by several important factors such as: presence of harmful microorganisms, chemical treatments, host speciesgeno type and storage conditions. Seed treatment with fungicides is a recommended practice to protect the seeds from pathogens, therefore, seed treatment is advisable in most cases. Seeds were treated with different fungicides in order to evaluate the treatment effect on the physiological and sanitary quality of the crop. The incidence, severity and index of damage were determined, as well as plant height, dry weight and root length. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications, in a factorial scheme 4x2 + 1; factor A: fungicides (carbendazim + thiram; carboxyn + thiram; methyl thiophanate + thiram and tebuconazole); factor B: dose (minimum and maximum); and 1: control. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and for the comparison of means, Tukey’s test was used at 5% error probability. The results showed that there were no significant differences for the variables that determined the sanitary quality of seeds when treated with the fungicides compared with the control, due to the low presence of pathogens in the same and in the soil, as well as there were no significant differences in the variables that determine the physiological quality. It is concluded that due to the low presence of pathogens, it was not possible to determine the effectiveness of the fungicides and, once treated, the maize seeds were not affected by the same with regard to the physiological quality.

  187. Kalpana Sagar, Srivastava, R.K. and Gufran Beig

    Monitoring of PM2.5 particularly in Jabalpur is extremely important due to their impact on the global burden of disease. Changing seasons seriously influence the use and management practices in residential/industrial built environments which subsequently affect the level of exposure to various pollutants. The measurements were carried out using BAM particulate matter instrument during winter, summer and monsoon seasons from 2014 to 2015. The variations of PM2.5 concentrations were significant for the three seasons. During winter and summer the mean concentration of PM2.5 was higher than monsoon season during two year study in Jabalpur area.

  188. Obaiah Jamakala and Usha Rani, A.

    The present study was carried out to know the cadmium (Cd) induced bioaccumulation and oxidative stress in liver and kidney of Cd treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10th LD50 / 48h i.e. 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15 and 30 days (d) long sojourn. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and tissues like liver and kidney were isolated for the analysis of Cd bioaccumulation and assay of oxidative stress enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione -S‑transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. There was a significant elevation in Cd bioaccumulation in both the test tissues with increased period of Cd treatment. Maximum Cd accumulation wasfound in 30d Cd treated rat kidney. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. Our study clearly reveals that Cd intoxication can disturb the antioxidant defense system and increase the body burden of Cd in the tissues.

  189. Richa Tandon, Ojit Singh Keithellakpam, Gunapati Oinam, Onkar Nath Tiwari, Girdhari Lal Tiwari and Indrama Thingujam

    The present investigation deals with the cultural studies, pigment analysis, lipid profiling, total sugar content, extracellular ammonium excretion and molecular characterization of cyanobacterium Aphanothece sp. BTA 9019. The study of the bioactive compounds showed a high and comparable amount of sugar, pigments, chlorophyll, carotenoids, phycocyanin, phycoerythin, allophycocyanin including high protein and ammonia excretion in culture conditions. Total carbohydrates were carried out and this study strain produced high content of carbohydrates. The study also revealed that investigated organism produced good amount of secondary metabolites in culture conditions during decline phase of growth; saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid i.e. palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) were found high. Furthermore, this alga could be considered as a source of supplement of food, therapeutic agent or for use as an ingredient in cosmetics in the future.

  190. Chathurdevi, G. and Uma Gowrie, S.

    Casuarina junghuhniana is one of the most important members of nitrogen fixing, woody, non leguminous tree in the family of Casuarinaceae. The roots form a symbiotic association with Frankia-an actinomycete that fixes atmospheric nitrogen enabling the tree to tolerate varied environmental constrains. It is a multipurpose tree which is widely used in soil reclamation, agro forestry systems, dune stabilization and in wind breaks. It has also end uses such as pulp wood, fuel wood and as poles for constructions. Increasing work has been reported on genetic improvement and yield of this species, not much work has been documented on the phytochemistry of the tree. Therefore, the present research work focuses on the presence of potent secondary metabolites of Casuarina junghuhniana root. Casuarina junghuhniana root samples were collected from the State Forest Research Institute, Kolappakam, Chennai. Different extracts of root samples were evaluated for the presence of phytochemicals by qualitative and quantitative analysis. Anti fungal activity was tested against different phytopathogens. The maximum zone of inhibition was found against Fusarium oxysporum (20±0.2mm). FT-IR analysis revealed the presence of functional groups such as alkyl halides, aliphatic amines, aromatic amines, nitro compounds, amides, alcohols and phenols. The chromatographic studies such as TLC, HPLC, GC-MS revealed the presence of a rich source of phenols and flavonoids in root extract. The secondary metabolites present in the root may also play an important role in plant growth and resistance to their pathogens and herbivores. Further, this study may also help us to understand the compatibility of Casuarina sp cultivation with different intercrops and to design and promote the suitable intercropping system in agro forestry.

  191. Wagh, N. S., Katkarand, R. N. and Kharche, V. K.

    The field experiment was conducted to study the “Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Soil Quality and Cotton Productivity under Different Tillage Practices in Vertisol” at the Research farm, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Dr.PanjabraoDeshmukhKrishiVidyapeeth, Akola.The treatments thus involved two main treatments and eight sub treatments. The experiment main plot comprises of two treatments i.e. conservation tillage (CNS) and (CNV). The seed cotton yield was slightly higher under conservation tillage as compared to conventional tillage Highest seed cotton yield was recorded in the treatment receiving 100 % RDF (60:30:30 NPK kg ha-1(15.57 q ha-1) followed by 50% RDF + 50% N (FYM) (14.84 q ha-1).The higher available zinc (0.44 mg kg-1) and iron (6.70 mg kg-1) were recorded under conservation tillage as compared to conventional tillage (0.43 mg kg-1) and (6.65 mg kg-1) in conventional tillage. The highest available zinc and iron (0.46 mg kg-1) (6.92 mg kg-1) in 50 % RDF + 50 % N (FYM) while lowest (0.39 mg kg-1) (5.94 mg kg-1) in 100 % RDF (60:30:30 NPK kg ha-1) respectively.The available manganese (8.87 mg kg-1) in CNS and (8.83 mg kg-1) in CNV, copper (1.96 mg kg-1) in CNS and (1.85 mg kg-1) in CNV.The highest available manganese ranged from (9.11 mg kg-1) in 50 % RDF + 50 % N (FYM) and lowest (8.34 mg kg-1) in 100 % RDF (60:30:30 NPK kg ha-1). The highest available copper ranged from (2.15 mg kg-1) in 50 % RDF + 50 % N (FYM) and lowest (1.48 mg kg-1) in 100 % RDF (60:30:30 NPK kg ha-1).The highest available boron was recorded in 50 % RDF + 50 % N (FYM) (0.47 mg kg-1) followed by 100 % RDF (60:30:30 NPK kg ha-1, 0.36 mg kg-1).

  192. Anjali Bhayal, Dr. Hemant Pandit and Dr. Kanhere, R.R.

    The study of phytoplankton are the subject of great interest becomes phytoplankton is basic link of food chain in an aquatic ecosystem. The abundance of phytoplankton is more of less governed by the interaction of number of physical, chemical and biological process. There are significant in determining the pattern of fluctuation in yield of total plankton. The phytoplankton communities are species of the following groups Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Euglenophyceae has been observed in Kasal pond during study periods. A total 24 species belonging to four groups have been identified Chlorophyceae 11 species, Bacillariophyceae 8 species, Cyanophyceae 4 species and Euglenophyceae 1 species. The population density of phytoplankton varies from month to month and recorded maximum density 613 No./lit in the month of January and minimum density 189 No./lit in the month of August. The diversity of the different of phytoplankton in more winter seasons than summer and raining seasons.

  193. Juliana Joice Pereira Lima, Marcella Nunes de Freitas, Renato Mendes Guimarães, Antonio Rodrigues Vieira and Maria Alice Bento Ávila

    With the search for new sources of vegetable raw material for biodiesel production, the crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst) emerges as an alternative because of its high oil content, around 40%. Therefore it is necessary to know more about these species and the germination behavior of its seeds. Among the factors that affect germination, the main are temperature and light. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of temperature and light on germination and vigor of crambe seeds. Crambe seed of cv Brilhante FMS were used and submitted to three temperatures (15, 25 and 35 °C) and two light conditions (presence and absence of light). The following tests were performed: germination, first count of germination, germination speed index, percentage of abnormal seedlings and seeds no germinated. Data were submitted to analysis of variance. Means were compared by Tukey test at 5% and regression analysis was performed. The germination and vigor of crambe seeds was higher at 25 °C in the dark. The presence of light reduced the germination and seed vigor at 15 and 25 ° C. The temperature of 35 ° C does not promote germination in crambe seeds.

  194. Sanbagavalli, S., Somasundaram, E. Ganesan, K. and Marimuthu, S.

    Farmers have struggled with the presence of weeds in their fields since the beginning of agriculture. Weeds can be considered a significant problem because they tend to decrease crop yields by increasing competition for water, sunlight, and nutrients while serving as host plants for pests and diseases. Today, some farmers have a renewed interest in organic methods of managing weeds since the widespread use of agrochemicals has resulted in purported environmental and health problems. It has also been found that in some cases herbicide use can cause some weed species to dominate fields because the weeds develop resistance to herbicide. The recent upsurge in environmental awareness of the public, interest in organic food production and some problems with herbicide use, has led to a range of sustainable techniques being developed for non-chemical weed control. It is important to understand that under an organic farmer must rely on cultural practices, mechanical control and biological methods for weed control. This has made it difficult for conventional farmers to readily take up organic production since putting an end to herbicide use may cause a potential increase in weed population and negatively affect crop yields and profits. However, proper organic weed management or non-chemical techniques can alleviate these potential problems. In this review, various non chemical weed control methods are considered separately from methods of controlling weeds directly and also given the sub-divided to define and discuss more closely the different areas of interest that lie within them.

  195. Umadevi, U., Madhu Mathi, P., Saranya, K. and Umakanthan, T.

    Twenty seven cattle of different age and sex, including listeriosis cases, were clinically examined and found affected with partial to total loss of vision, with no specific common cause. Group A of 3 cattle kept as control and group B of 4 animals were treated with vitamin A and multi-vitamin injections daily. They showed no improvement. Group C of 20 cattle were given freshly ground Syzygium cumini and Anisomeles malabarica extract 2 drops intraocular and the remnant in oral, for 7 – 15 days. Recovery noticed in 19 animals at 15th day treatment.

  196. Salunke, M. D., Dr. Pithia, M. S. and Dr. Metha, D. R.

    Two mungbean crosses namely, GM 4 x BPMR 145 and K 851 x AKM 6822 made during kharif season (2012) were studied for estimation of heterosis, inbreeding depression and transgressive segregation. The F2 and F3 generations of both the crosses were sown in randomized block design and data were recorded on days to initiation of flower, days to maturity, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant, pod length, 100 seed weight and seed yield per plant. The significant and positive heterosis was fond in 100 seed weight in both the crosses. None of character showed significant inbreeding depression in cross K 851 x AKM 6822 and in cross GM 4 x BPMR 145, 100 seed weight showed positive and significant inbreeding depression. In F2 generation of GM 4 x BPMR 145, forty per cent plant population showed transgression for seed yield per plant, while in F3 generation 50 % of plant population showed upper limit transgression segregants for seed yield per plant. However in cross K 851 x AKM 6822, F2 generation showed the 80 % transgressive segregants for seed yield per plant while in F3 population maximum 90 % of transgressive segregants were observed for seed yield.

  197. Bilal A Tali, Rubaya Sultan, Aijaz Hassan Ganie and Irshad A Nawchoo

    Natural as well as anthropogenic catastrophes have led to the tremendous biodiversity crises all over the world. A growing concern regarding these catastrophes has led to the extensive compilation of threatened species lists, the aim of which is to identify the risk of extinction of taxa and to promote conservation actions that would help to halt the biodiversity crisis both globally as well as at the regional level. Awareness regarding the possible extinction of certain taxa is largely attributed to the development of the world conservation union’s (IUCN) Red List and/ or Red Data Books (RDB). This information identify the threatened taxon which in turn is important to devise conservation strategies, research and monitoring of such taxa. The aim of present paper is to highlight the history, importance and role of IUCN in conservation of biodiversity.

  198. Eman Mohammed Mohammed Abd-Ella

    Introduction and aim of the work: The protective effects of Moringa oleifera leaves extract (MOLE) against orally administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) for 3 months on male albino rats were examined. Methods: The rats were divided into five groups • Group 1: rats were orally administrated with saline as a negative control group, • Group 2: Rats were orally administrated with TiO2 (1200 mg kg−1) (1\10 LD50), Group 3: Rats were administrated orally by MOLE (50 mg kg−1 BW), Group 4: co-treatment of MOLE and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months and Group 5: post treatment of TiO2 by MOLE for 3 successive month as therapeutic treatment. Spleen was examined for alterations in cytokines expression as CD3 and TNF-α, histopathology and histochemically by estimation of total proteins and polysaccharides. Results: TiO2 NPs up-regulated CD3 and TNF-α expression in spleen where TNF-α expression was significantly increased (p<0.05) and CD3 expression was significantly (P<0.05) decreased but MOLE administration as co-treatment or therapeutic normalized cytokines expression. Conclusion: present findings confirmed the protective and therapeutic effects of MOLE on TiO2 NPs induced alteration in immune responses in male albino rats.

  199. Ramana, T. V., Rathor, O. S. and Gyananath, G.

    The present study reports the effect of leaf extracts of Hygrophila ringens (L.) on the blood sugar and body weight changes in alloxan induced albino mice and acute toxicity. The results showed that no mortality and abnormal behaviour was observed even after administration of a dosage of 2000 mg/Kg of body weight in the treated mice. A comparison of blood sugar levels & weight changes between treated & untreated mice indicated distinct changes after 21 days. The preliminary studies also suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of H. ringens (L.) contained safe principles and thus Hygrophila ringens (L.) could be a more useful plant possessing medicinal properties.

  200. Yogendra Singh

    The importance of medicinal plants in traditional healthcare practices, providing clues to new areas of research and in biodiversity conservation is now well recognized. However, information on the uses of plants for medicine is lacking from many interior areas of Aligarh district. Ethnobotanical studies were carried out in different areas of Aligarh district. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in uses for curing Diarrhea and Dysentery by local people, vaidhya etc. During ethnobotanical studry, 38 species of medicinal plants, belonging to 37 genera under 26 families are used as phytoremedy. The mode of administration of different plant species for treatment of diarrhea and dysentery are presented here with their family and local name.

  201. Samer Shamshad and Savita Chaurasia

    Aim: In the present study we compared the antimicrobial and Anti Tumoractivity of two varieties of Indian medicinal plants. Tetracycline was used as the positive control in anti-microbial assay. Methods: Agar well diffusion assay, Carrot disc assay. Results: Methanoic extracts of Elettariacardamomum and Ferula assa-foetida leaves were tested against Escherichia coli (gram negative bacteria), Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans (gram positive bacteria) and Candida vulgaris (fungi) using agar well diffusion assay. The Anti-tumor activity was evaluated by Carrot disc assay. The range varied from 4 mm to 7 mm against E.coli, 7 to 11 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, 12 to 15 mm against B. subtilis, 4 to 10 mm Streptococcus mutans and lastly mild antifungal activity of 2 mm was observed for Candida vulgaris. All the extracts presented comparatively higher MIC values than that of tetracycline (a standard antibiotic used as positive control). Both plants exhibit significant anti-tumor activity. Significance and impact of study: Based on these findings presents a good scope for developing a potential antimicrobial and Anti-tumor agent in suitable compounds formulation with least amount of side effects.

  202. Meena Deswal and Laura, J.S.

    Eight herbal medicines (Six herbal extracts-Yastimadhu, Aloevera, Haritaki, Ashwagandha, Rasna, Nirgundi and two herbal formulations- Arogyavardhini Vati and Chanderprabha vati) were tested for levels of heavy metals (Lead, copper, cadmium, iron, chromium, manganese, nickel and zinc). Both herbal extracts and herbal formulations showed presence varying quantities of heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals were greater in the herbal formulations as compared to herbal extracts. Iron was found in maximum quantities as compared to other heavy metals .Very high quantities of Iron were detected in the two Ayurvedic formulations. The paper discusses the significance of these quantities in terms of Daily Limit given by various international food and drug administration agencies. The intake of the heavy metals has been calculated by taking into account the recommended daily dose of the given Ayurvedic medicines. Intake of heavy metals through medication is compared with the daily maximum dose given by the various agencies. It was observed that the quantity of all the heavy metals daily intake as per recommended medicinal dose are within the prescribed limits. Iron, Zinc and copper are classified as micronutrients, the minimum level of these are required for good health. However, these metals have been reported to be deficient in the diet. The prescribed medication of tested Ayurvedic medicines provides the required intake of these micronutrients. The study concludes that the eight ayurvedic medicines tested have safe limits of heavy metals and in addition provide for required micronutrient.

  203. Elizana Lorenzetti Treib, Juliana Possebon Delgado, Lisiane de Almeida Martins, Eloisa Lorenzetti, Valter André Treib, Monica Borchart Nicolau, Anderson Luis Heling, Danielle Mattei, Nicanor Pilarski Henkemeier, Carla Rosane Kosmann, Samara Brandão Queiro

    Currently the population is more conscientious of the relation between health and feeding, consequence of this is the increase in the consumption of vegetables and fresh fruits. These foods had never been issue of serious concern, therefore they were considered safe. Lately, however, considering the increase of soaring related to contaminated fruits and vegetables, this idea has changed and a lot of researches are being done in order to investigate the microbiological growth, as well as products and methodologies that reduce or eliminate these contaminations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of three sanitizing agents generally used in domestic and industrial level for the hygienic cleaning of fruits and vegetables, in three different concentrations: sodium hypochlorite at 1%, 2, 5% and 5%, sodium dichoroisocyanurate at 1%, 3% and 5% and vinegar as 6%, 25% and 50%, when applied in standard strains of Shigella, Proteus, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus. The results evidenced that the sodium dichoroisocyanurate as 3% and 5%, the sodium hypochlorite as 2,5% and 5% and the vinegar as 6%, 25% and 50%, are efficient in the elimination of standard strains. Therefore, it can be evidenced that the process of hygienic cleaning is indispensable to get a safer food, reducing the risk of occurrences of food intoxication and infection caused by pathogenic microrganisms, preserving the health of the commensal.

  204. Samer Shamshad and Savita Chaurasia

    In present study the methanolic extracts were evaluated for phytochemical composition, total Phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant potential by Total antioxidant assay, and Reducing activity assay. Methanolic extracts of two traditionally used Indian medicinal plants namely Elettaria cardamomum and Ferula assa-foetida were selected for the study. Phytochemical analysis of plant extracts indicated the presence of major phyto constituents, including phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponin. Total phenolic content (1.71 mg/ml and 1.40 mg/ml expressed as gallic acid equivalents) was observed in Elettaria cardamomum and Ferula assa-foetida repectively. Antioxidant activity was measured by Phosphomolybdenum method. The methanoic extract of E. Cardamomum and F. Assa-foetida showed total antioxidant capacity and it was 25.60 mg/ml and 18.43 mg/ml respectively calculated as Ascorbic acid equivalents. Both the extracts exhibited the higher Reducing activity. The higher scavenging activity was observed in Ferula assa-foetida (82.55%) as compared with Elettaria cardamomum (54.0%). The results of one-dimensional TLC analyses show that different phenolic compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acids, are present in the investigated extracts. A largest number of flavonoids (rutin, quercetin and some unidetified flavonoid-glycosides) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, coumaric and vanillic acid) was found in methanol extract. The extracts contain Rutin, some unidentified flavonoid-glycosides, coumaric, caffeic and chlorogenic acid. HPLC analysis showed that the extracts of E. Cardamomum and F. Assa-foetida leaves contain various secondary metabolites. The standards used for analysis were tannic acid, vanillin and cathechol. The tested plant extracts showed promising antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, thus justifying their traditional use.

  205. Shobha V. Rupanar, Shirish S. Pingale, Chitra. N. Dandge and Deepa Kshirsagar

    The present study reports in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf and stem extracts of Gymnema sylvestre. The water and water: ethanol (1:1) extracts of Gymnema sylvestre stem and leaves were screened for antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The phytochemical analysis of the above extracts was also studied to check presence of active phytochemicals like Tannins, Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Saponins, Carbohydrates, Glycosides and Phenolics. Antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) as standards. Antioxidant activity of stem extract was good in 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), -carotene bleaching and ABTS radical scavenging assays. Determination of the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent indicated higher phenolic content in leaf extract.The antimicrobial activities of samples were investigated against eight bacterial strains. All the samples exhibited prominent activity against Pr.mirabilis, B. subtilis and P. asplenii. A moderate activity was indicated by the stem extract against P. aeruginosa.

  206. Neha Singh, Vigya Mishra and Devina Vaidya

    Shelf-life of freshly harvested mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) is limited to 1-3 days at ambient temperature because they transpire at the same rate as the fruiting sporophore. Condensed water on the underside of plastic pouches causes a thin layer of moisture to persist on caps and thus supports growth of fungus which leads to the requirement of moisture absorbers to increase the shelf-life of mushrooms. The present study was conducted to determine the combined effect of packaging material and absorber on quality and shelf-life of fresh packaged mushrooms. Freshly harvested mushrooms were washed with 0.5 % CaCl2 + 0.5 % KMS + 0.5 % NaCl solution, packed in polypropylene with different concentrations of absorbers (desiccant mixture of bentonite 0.55 g + sorbitol 0.25 g + CaCl2 0.20 g g-1), and were subjected to the storage period of 3 days at refrigerated conditions. During storage, different physical and biochemical parameters were analyzed. After 3 days of storage, mushrooms packed in polypropylene pouches with 12 g absorber showed best results with respect to weight loss and visual observation. Quality of mushrooms was found to be maintained with moisture absorber. A notable decrease in surface moisture of mushrooms was observed when packed with absorber containing 16 g of desiccant mixture.

  207. JoseilaMaldaner, Tamires Silveira Moro, Evandro Luiz Missio, Cleber Witt Saldanha, Gerusa PauliKist Steffen, Luciane AlmeriTabaldi

    Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust and its toxicity potentially limits the growth of plants grown in acid soils. The phytotoxic effects of aluminum on the seed germination and initial growth of Schinus molle seedlings were investigated in the present study. The treatments consisted of six aluminum concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg L-1) in the form of chloride (AlCl3) with four replicates of 12 seeds each. The majority of the evaluated variables responded in a negative quadratic form to Al concentrations. Our results indicate that intermediate Al concentrations tested were more harmful than the highest in this experiment for most of the evaluated variables, which shows that S. molle seeds have the potential to overcome the harmful effects of Al and to germinate in environments with high concentrations of this metal.

  208. Vishnupriya, R.

    The leaf mite, Aceria pongamiae Chan. is host specific eriophyid mite infesting pungam leaves. This mite produces foliar galls on the adaxial surface of the lamina which is either epiphyllous or hypophyllous pouch gall; mostly lopsided with a short pedicel and widened body. Galls are mostly solitary but in later stages of growth it becomes dense, masking the entire leaflet and green in colour. Biochemical analysis of the mite infested leaves revealed that there was decrease in moisture content and chlorophyll content. Increase in total sugars and reducing sugars, total free amino acids, phenols, crude protein content and enzyme activities. Among the nutrients, nitrogen was found to increase while phosphorus, potassium, secondary and minor nutrients were found to decreased due to mite feeding.

  209. Dr. Dileep Singh Nirwan, Dr. Mamta Choudhary, Dr. Vyas, R.K. and Dr. Yogita Soni

    Background: Type 1 diabetes previously reffered as “juvenile onset or insulin dependent” in which the pancreas fails to produce the insulin which is one of the essential hormone for regulation of blood glucose level. Most frequently developes in childhoood with highest incidence in northern European states, but is being increasingly noted later in life. When blood sugar is high, it can put too much stress on kidneys and liver, causing serious damage to the blood vessels, leading to kidney and liver disease. Liver plays a central and crucial role in regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Its normal functioning is essential for the maintenance of blood glucose levels and a continuous supply to organs that require a glucose energy source. This central role of liver in glucose homeostasis offers a clue to the pathogenesis of glucose intolerance in liver disease but little insight into the mechanism of liver disease in diabetes mellitus. Aims & Objective: The aim of the study was to find out the levels of renal (urea and creatinine) and hepatic function markers (especially AST, ALT, ALP and GGT) in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Method: In study 50 patients with Type 1 diabetes were compared with 50 normal healthy subjects as controls. RFT and some LFT’s were estimated using standard kit methods. Data were statistically evaluated by Student’s t-test. Result : A significant increase in the serum levels of renal markers and liver enzymes (Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatise) were observed in type 1 diabetic subjects as compared to controls. Conclusion: Type 1 diabetes results in abnormal organ function tests. Proper and timely screening of these parameters can help in prevention and early diagnosis of renal and liver damage.

  210. Bhagwan M. Waghmare, Rahul K. Dhabale, Suvarna T. Kadam and Surendra R. Shinde

    Soymida febrifuga and their aried stem bark (10 gm) was extracted with different solvents and used for screening of phytochemicals. The phytochemicals are the basic constituents of medicinal plants therefore in order to know the type, nature and action of different phyto-components. In this text the stem bark of Soymida febrifuga was tested for their phytochemicals analysis and alkaloids and tannins were found. The highest concentration of tannins and alkaloids were detected in stem bark of Soymida febrifuga while carbohydrate was not found in their presence.

  211. Samah O. Noor and Ghadeer K. A. Alsubeihi

    Pathogenic bacteria is a major health problem that causing a large number of diseases and their treatments with antibiotics lead to the appearance of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Moreovere, the use antibiotics eliminated the beneficial bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract, thus the effect of some plant extract. Three plants, Pimpinella anisum, Syzygium aromaticum and Punica granatum, used traditionally as medicine or food additive, were extracted and their inhibitory effects on four pathogenic bacteria and two genera of gut microbiota were determined. It was shown that all tested plant extracts showed an inhibitory effect on pathogenic bacteria, while gut microbiota was affected only by S. aromaticum and P. granatum extracts. The MIC of the methanolic extracts of the used plant extracts ranged from 3.1 to 93.7 mg/ml and no toxicity was found on Artemia salina of Pimpinella anisum. Additionally, P. anisum was increased the cell count of Bifidobacterium by studying the growth curve of gut microbiota.

  212. Anjana Kuldeep

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc deficiency on secretion of anterior pituitary hormones of male Wistar rats. Experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. For this study thirty albino male Wistar rats (pre-pubertal period) weighing 40-50 gm were divided into three groups: Zinc Control (ZC), Zinc Deficient (ZD) and Pair Fed (PF). ZC and PF groups were fed with 100 ppm zinc and ZD group were fed with 1.00 ppm zinc in the diet. For hormonal assay blood samples were collected from experimental group through cardiac puncture by using heparinized disposable syringe. Serum and plasma were stored at -20ºC until assayed. Serum FSH, LH, Prl, TSH, GH and plasma ACTH were determined by Chemi Luminescent Immuno Assay (CLIA). The results showed that serum FSH, LH, GH, PRL, TSH as well as plasma ACTH level exhibited a significant (P<0.05) decrease when ZD (2- and 4- weeks) group were compared with their respective controls. However serum GH level showed a non-significant decrease on comparison between PF and ZD (2- and 4- weeks) groups. Meanwhile, prolactin level exhibited a non-significant decrease on comparison between 2 PF and 2 ZD and significant decrease when comparison was carried between 4 PF and 4 ZD. In conclusion, it has been observed that a low level of zinc affects secretion of pituitary hormones thus affecting overall physiology and functioning of the body. The impact of zinc deficiency was more pronounced after four week of experiment.

  213. Sandhvi Swiny and Kumari Pooja

    The health and well being of children depend upon the interaction between their genetic potential and exogenous factors like adequacy of nutrition, safety of the environment, social interaction and stimulation. Micronutrients are that nutrients needed by the body in minute amounts, play leading roles in the production of enzymes, hormones and other substances and help to regulate growth activity, development and functioning of the immune and reproductive systems. Deficiencies of micronutrients are a major global health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers that more than 2 billion people worldwide suffer from vitamin and mineral deficiencies, primarily iodine, iron, vitamin A and zinc, with important health consequences. The groups most vulnerable to micronutrient deficiencies are pregnant women, lactating women and young children, mainly because they have a relatively greater need for vitamins and minerals and are more susceptible to the harmful consequences of deficiencies. For a young child, micronutrient deficiencies increase the risk of dying due to infectious disease and contribute to impaired physical and mental development. Its’ deficiencies increase the general risk of infectious illness and of dying from diarrhoea, measles, malaria and pneumonia. These are silent epidemics that affecting people of all genders and ages, as well as certain risk groups. They not only cause specific diseases, but they act as exacerbating factors in infectious and chronic diseases, greatly impacting morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. Micronutrient deficiency conditions relate to many chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis osteomalacia, thyroid deficiency colorectal cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

  214. Rejane Flores, Paola Zuquetto Flôres, Glaucia Schmohel Bempck, Joseila Maldaner and Maria Salete Marchioretto

    Alternanthera hirtula is a native plant from the Pampa biome in Brazil that is threatened with extinction due to loss of suitable habitats. Thus, the in vitro clonal propagation is a useful way to produce plants for the conservation of its germoplasm and to introduce it in nature. Shoots, obtained from wild plants were used as the source of nodal segments for in vitro culture.The effect of cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin or thidiazuron) and carbohydrates (sucrose, fructose or glucose) on plant production was tested. The best shoot multiplication was achieved on medium with 1.0 μM thidiazuron. Among carbohydrates tested, sucrose (30 or 40 g L-1) and glucose (20 g L-1) promoted better multiple shoot proliferation and plant development. Plants were successfully acclimatized and showed normal development in a greenhouse. Some plants were planted in botanical gardens and others were reintroduced into natural habitats. The proposed method could effectively be applied for clonal propagation and conservation of this important and endangered plant. Abbreviations: BAP: 6-benzylaminopurine, DW: Dry Weight, MS: Murashige and Skoog media, TDZ: Thidiazuron.

  215. Saroha, S. P. S., Mehrotra, K. and Ganjewala, D.

    Imperative to evolve thermodynamic characteristic of Rubidium carboxylate (caprylate, caprate and laurate) apparent molar volume insight from density studies have been measured in alkanols. Limiting apparent molar volume and experimental slopes Sv tooaredetermined from Masson equation φv =φv0 + Sv . φv0 has been interpreted in terms of solute-solvent interaction. Ion-solvent interaction and solvent- solvent interaction are quite stronger in alkanols an insight in the structure making or breaking capacity of individual ions.

  216. Ndiaye, M. A. F., Diouf, A., Ndiaye, M. and Diop, T. A.

    Niébé or cowpea [Vignaunguiculata(L.)Walp.] is a grain legume which occupies an important place in african agriculture. The ripe seeds contain high levels of protein, starch, B vitamins (folic acid), and are also rich in essential trace elements (iron, calcium and zinc). Protein-rich tops are also a preferred feed the livestock. In combination or in rotation with other crops, cowpea may yield 60-70 kg / ha of fixed nitrogen for the next crop (Rachie, 1985). The objective of our study is to estimate the biological fixation of the nitrogen of various varieties of cowpea from the national germplasm and to estimate their genetic variability to target interesting varieties. Isotope techniques used for the assessment of biological nitrogen fixation of 16 cowpea varieties have allowed us to classify the different varieties according to their potential for nitrogen fixation (NdFix) and their ability to take nitrogen from the soil. The results obtained allowed to target cowpea varieties that can be introduced into soil fertility improvement programs and increasing crop yields.

  217. Dr. Jayati Chatterjee Mitra and Dr. Neena Rai

    Nowadays plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has great interest and achievement due to its eco-benign and low time consuming properties. In this study silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using Morinda tinctoria leaf extract under different pH. The aqueous leaf extract was added to silver nitrate solution; the color of the reaction medium was changed from pale yellow to brown and that indicates reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Thus synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Dispersity and morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM); crystalline nature and purity of synthesized silver nanoparticles were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). FTIR spectrum was examined to identify the effective functional molecules responsible for the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles synthesized by leaf extract. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined by degradation of methylene blue under sunlight irradiation. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles were effectively degrading the dye nearly 95% at 72 h of exposure time.

  218. Nageswara Reddy, P., Mohan Rao, C. P. V. N. J. and Ch.Satyanarayana

    Improvement of automated frameworks for detection of brain tumour is the real need of the clinical enhancement. A Moderate numbers of methods are introduced to analyse the biological symptoms and produce the report to be recognized by the trained professions. Conversely, the final analysis is prone to errors due because of human interpretations. Also the computer aided reports leave huge scope for multiple further diagnoses. Thus the need of a novel algorithm for predictive analysis of diseases for brain disorder is much expected. This paper presents a fully reliable brain disease detection mechanism based on an enhancement in accuracy of multilateral filter and EM-GM method. The multilateral filter enhances the image edges for better segmentation using signal amplitude moderation of the pixel. The final outcome of this paper produces the brain regions detected with anomalies and possible diseases, thus the number of possible further medical investigations are reduces.

  219. Mukesh Shukla, Dr. P.K. Rai and Rinku Singh

    Big data describes the collection of new information which must be made accessible to high numbers of users close to real time, based on enormous data inventories from multiple sources, with the goal of speeding up critical competitive decision-making processes. Enormous amounts of data have become available on hand to decision makers which is making analysis and decision making task much more challenging and tedious. Considering the sheer volume and variety of data, the analyses, predictive exploration of situations and business intelligence workloads are beyond the capabilities of traditional tools & solutions. In recent years a number of Big Data tools& solutions have arisen to handle these massive quantities of data. The objective of this paper is to analyze the scope of big data in different fields and it’s ability to revolutionize individual area for enhancing the decision making process. This objective is considered via wide ranging review of literature.

  220. Patil, N. P., Bhole, S. L. and Patil, V. S.

    Design of distillation column is a crucial task and becomes even more difficult when deals with high density foaming liquids like fermented wash. Fermented wash is a high density liquid (alcohol-water mixture) produced as a product of fermentation of molasses by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Almost 99 % of biorefinaries employ distillation for recovery and concentration of ethanol from fermented wash. Since distillation is the highly energy intensive operation, it consumes almost 60 % of the total energy consumption of any distillery. Therefore optimization of distillation, to reduce the energy consumption is necessary. In view of this, the major areas where there is a possibility of energy optimization are identified. Wash handling column is one of such highly energy intensive area. Also there are operational difficulties like foaming and chocking of the trays due to higher density of fermented wash. The paper in details covers the modeling and development of excel program for design of distillation column. The papers also explain the newly designed parameters for design of distillation column to make it compatible for operating in multi-pressure distillation.

  221. Gomathi, S. and Sharmila, J.

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems are traditionally advised by demography into annual user-specific abstracts to enable applied use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms accept been developed which bypass the subject specific adjustment and accredit accelerated use of the system. A brain switch is a accurate BCI arrangement area the arrangement is appropriate to analyze from two abstracted brainy tasks agnate to the ON-OFF commands of a switch. Such applications require a low False Positive Rate (FPR) while accepting an adequate Response time (RT) until the brain switch is activated. In this work, we advance a methodology that produces optimal brain switch brain switch behavior through subject specific (SS) adjustment of: a) a multitrial anticipation combination model and b) an SI classification model. We adduce a statistical model of accumulation classifier predictions that enables optimal FPR arrangement through a subject independent abbreviate arrangement session. We accomplished an SI classifier on a training synchronous dataset and activated our adjustment on abstracted arbitrator synchronous and asynchronous brain switch brain switch experiments. Although our SI standard acquired agnate performance amid training and adjudicator datasets, 86% and 85% for the synchronous and 69% and 66% for the asynchronous the amid subject FPR and TPR air headedness was top (up to 62%). The abbreviate arrangement affair was again active to allay that botheration and accommodate accommodation thresholds that accomplish if possible a ambition FPR with acceptable accurateness for both datasets.

  222. Harjinder Singh and Amandeep Singh Sappal

    This paper introduces a low-complexity metahaustric hybrid memtic algorithm optimization based model coefficients extraction solution for digital pre-distortion (DPD) technique of radio frequency (RF) power amplifier (PA). The proposed modified memory polynomial behavioral modeling digital pre-distortion technique uses indirect learning architecture. The model requires a very low number of numerical operations per iteration, leading to considerable reduction in implementation complexity. The simulation results for Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access (WiMAX) 10 MHz PA system show the extraction solution achieves excellent linearization accuracy.

  223. Navdeep Banga

    In this paper my main emphasis on the Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE). Pulse detonation engine (PDE) is an air-breathing combustion engine in which detonations are triggered at high frequencies through simultaneously burning and accelerating the fuel-air mixture. Pulse detonation Engine is next generation technology which will change the present aerospace propulsion techniques both in military and space flights. Aircraft will cross continents and oceans at higher speeds and efficiencies. Spacecraft launching with higher safety factors and lower costs. Military aircrafts will operate in many flight conditions with increased performance. This is the potential for Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) technology; it has the capability to revolutionize the aviation industry. Also change the way rockets and missiles are launched. We will also discuss about the how pulse detonation engine revolutionize the future hypersonic and missile or spacecraft technology.

  224. Alexander Sh. Neduva, Lidia O. Nikiforova and Andrew Yu. Nikiforov

    Electric fields depending on tension render on biosystem as the activating and inhibiting influence. In article the effects found in cages and microbes’ communities which arise under the influence of electrostatic field, tension of 4 - 20 kV/m and the fixed time spent of cages in the field within 30 seconds which the period without influence of the field within 2 hours followed are described. The electrostatic block has been installed out of the bioreactor. Microbes mix continuously circulated between the bioreactor and the external block with electrostatic processing. All cycles of tests of advanced production were compared to control system (without electrostatic processing). At recirculation of 50% and the fixed parameter of the physical field depending on a cellular mycelium received acceleration of oxidation of an intracellular substratum to 40% in comparison with oxidation in control system. On the basis of the received experimental results it is offered to use electrostatic fields for acceleration of the second stage of biosynthesis of antibiotics, for optimization of processes of oxidation of organic pollution in bioreactors at biochemical sewage treatment.

  225. Vijayabaskar, S., Mahalingam, V. and Kalaivani

    A novel, economic, and time-efficient stability-indicating, reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-UPLC) method has been developed for the analysis of verapamil hydrochloride in the presence of both impurities and degradation products generated by forced degradation. When verapamil hydrochloride was subjected to acid hydrolysis, oxidative, base hydrolysis, photolytic, and thermal stress, degradation was observed only in oxidative and base hydrolysis. The drug was found to be stable to other stress conditions. Successful chromatographic separation of the drug from impurities formed during synthesis and from degradation products formed under stress conditions was achieved on a Shimpak XR ODS, 75 mm x 3.0mm, 1.7µ particle size column, UV detection at 278nm and a gradient elution of ammonium formate, orthophosphoric acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The method was validated for specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, robustness and can be used in quality control during manufacture and for assessment of the stability samples of verapamil hydrochloride. To the best of our knowledge, a validated UPLC method which separates all the sixteen impurities disclosed in this investigation has not been published elsewhere. Total elution time was about 18 min which allowed quantification of more than 100 samples per day. The analytical method discussed in British Pharmacopeia was pH sensitive but the method reported in this study is not involved any pH adjustment.

  226. Showkath Ali Khan Zai, AkshayHalyal, Dr.Sadath Ali Khan Zai, Dr.P. S. Nagaraja and Dr. Shashishankar, A.

    Studies on strength and ductility aspects of the concrete are constantly increasing and are one of the most developing areas in the design of concrete structures. High Performance Concrete (HPC) exhibits excellent strength and durability properties. Various factors such as adverse environment, climatic conditions, specific application, etc.demand the use of special type of concretes to meet the durability and performance requirements of infrastructures such as high rise buildings, dams, bridges, transportation terminal facilities like harbours, airports, etc. Detailed experimental investigation on flexural behaviour ofHigh Performance Concrete modified with Carbon Nano Tube (CNT) and Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) latexon four test beam specimens having dimension 150mmx230mm with the effective length of 2000mm to obtain Load-Deflection response were carried out. The results of the study indicate that ductility factor, resistance to energy absorption capabilities and toughness index of CNT and SBR latex modified High Performance Concrete are enhanced significantly as compared to HPC.

  227. Aman Raj, Shivang Singh Pundhir, M. Jasmine Pemeena Priyadarisini, Murugesan, K., SrinivasaRao Inbathini and Sardar Basha

    This paper proposes a method for the detection and identification of vehicle number plate that will help in the detection of number plates of authorized and unauthorized vehicles. This paper presents an approach based on simple but efficient morphological operation and Sobel edge detection method. This approach is simplified to segmented all the letters and numbers used in the number plate by using bounding box method. After segmentation of numbers and characters present on number plate, template matching approach is used to recognition of numbers and characters. The concentrate is given to locate the number plate region properly to segment all the number and letters to identify each number separately)

  228. Jonnalagadda Surya Kiran, Dwarapu Suneetha and Prof. Mogalla Shashi

    Twitter is a fabulous source for information to keep track of latest happenings and concerns in the world. Whenever something is happening, people around the world start tweeting away. Often they include hash tags, allowing us to selectively search for tweets about a certain event or thing. Many twitter users also engage in conversations, and looking at these conversations allows us to identify leaders and frequent actors. Tweets, in their raw arrangement, while being useful, can also be devastating. For both end-users and data experts, it is a terrible to cultivate complete millions of tweets which contain massive amount of noise and redundancy. This paper includes development of a frame work for extracting representative tweets on a given topic along a time line incrementally to address the problem. This frame work is capable of capturing changing dynamics on the topic in social media and tracks the trend as a series of snap shots. The proposed framework perform Real-Time summarization of selected domain for current trending topics like US President Elections 2016 and Demonetization from twitter stream. It proposes an approach that extracts representative tweets from given domain. It mainly focuses on summarizing current trending topics while identifying outdated topics to be discarded.

  229. Chandraprabha V.J., Jagadeesh Prasad, D. Gayathri, B. H. and Prashantha Naik

    Synthesis of novel propenones (2E)-1-(C)-3-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) prop-2-en-1-one (3) by the condensation reaction. The new target compounds were analyzed for their structures using FT-IR,1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and LC-Mass further these newly synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-TB and anti-malarial agents and the results of each such studies of these synthesized compounds revealed to possess excellent activity.

  230. Dr. P. Sulochana

    We consider MHD oscillating flow of an incompressible electrically conducting non-Newtonian fluid through porous medium in a pipe under the influence of uniform magnetic field and taking Hall current into account. An investigation is made to perceive the influences of magnetic field, permeability and Hall current on the flow of non-Newtonian fluid. The closed form analytical solution is obtained making use of Fourier transform technique.

  231. Satyajit Sinha and Abdul Rishad, K. T.

    Tourism is one of the main catalysts for the community development in India. It can be used as a tool for fighting poverty. Growth of tourism in developing states, where widespread poverty exits, has paved way for policy makers to use tourism effectively to enhance Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) and eradicate poverty. It is labour intensive businesses which need people from different strata of society and results in increasing Economical Multiplier Effect (EME). Many states in India are encouraging investors for the development of the destination to support the economically backward class dwelling in the destination. International agencies are using tourism as a tool for alleviating poverty globally. The phenomenon of ‘Pro-Poor Tourism’ (PPT) is different from other type of ‘conventional tourism’ and has to be used wisely to achieve the desired objectives within the prescribed time limit .This conceptual research paper analyzes how tourism potentiality can be used as a measure to eradicate poverty and develop a sustainable framework for community in a state like Arunachal Pradesh where poverty is above national average and huge amount of untapped tourism resources is available.

  232. Shubhangi Satdeve, Dr. Mahendra D Choudhary and Dr. D.K. Aggarwal

    Societies contantly facing Plastic solid waste (PSW) challenges and finding opportunities of their sustainability awareness and technological advances. Stonedust used as reinforcing material (filler) with addative stearic acid for processing. Stonedust added with recycled polymer in different proportions and its effect as a filler on thermal properties of recycled polymer was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) test. Addition of stonedust not disturbed its remarkable thermal properties and shows negligible effect of binder on Tg and Tm values.

  233. Sepideh Sangsefidi, Shahla Hojjat, Somayeh Sangsefidi and Mohammad Mahdi Sangsefidi

    The present study aims at investigating the effect of Faradarmani lifestyle on aggression in female players of Iranian Basketball League. The statistical population of the study included all the female players of the 2015-16 Iranian Basketball League season. 40 players voluntarily participated in the present study. They were randomly divided into two groups of 20 people each, i.e. experimental and control groups. First, the objectives of the study were fully elaborated to the officials, coaches, and players as well. The consent of all the participants was also obtained before conducting the study. Prior to the training, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) was distributed among them. Then, the experimental group received Faradarmani treatment for 6 weeks (3 sessions of 30 to 45 min per week), while the control group received no treatment. After 6 weeks, both groups filled out the same questionnaire. The process of data analysis was done in light of descriptive statistics and independent t-test using SPSS/21, at significance level ≤0/05. The study yielded the results that Faradarmani training has a significant effect on aggression, physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility in female players of Iranian Basketball League. Regarding the results of the study, Faradarmani, as an effective lifestyle, is recommended to the coaches, players, and basketball officials for managing players' aggression.

  234. Somayeh Sangsefidi, Hasan Matinhomaee, Sepideh Sangsefidi and Mohammad Mahdi Sangsefidi

    The present study aimed at investigating the impact of ultra-therapy [Faradarmani] and lavender supplementation on the markers of DOMS in young girls. The statistical population of the study incorporated healthy young girls who have not done regular physical activities during the last year. 48 girls were selected among volunteers as the samples of the study. They were randomly divided into four groups: ultra-therapy group (12 participants), lavender supplementation group (12 participants), ultra-therapy and lavender supplementation group (12 participants), and control group. As the first phase of the study, the whole procedure of the research was fully explained to the participants. Then, the first experimental group performed ultra-therapy exercises for four weeks (one 30-min session per day); the second experimental group consumed 60 drops of lavender tincture per day; the third experimental group both performed ultra-therapy exercises and consumed 60 drops of lavender tincture as well. However, the control group neither performed ultra-therapy exercises nor consumed any supplementation. After a month, the participants' pain feeling and creatine kinase levels were all measured in pre-test using visual analogue scale (VAS) and blood sampling, respectively. Afterwards, all the participants underwent a training program including a 5-min warm-up and 30-min running on a treadmill with a slope of -10% and at a rate equivalent to 65% of the participants' VO2 max. 24 hours and 48 hours after the training, the above-mentioned tests were administered again. Finally, the process of data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, one way ANOVA with repeated measurements, as well as Tukey's post hoc test via SPSS/21at the significance level a≤0 / 05. The study yielded the results that ultra-therapy and lavender supplementation have a significant effect on the young girls' muscle pain feeling and creatine kinase levels.

  235. Marco C. Berongoy, Dr. Marina S. Apilado, Arvin Anthony S. Araneta and Judith Ty Pelobello

    This descriptive research was conducted to determine the adversity quotient of the students in Bachelor of Science in Computer Science (BSCS) at Eastern Samar State University Salcedo Campus. Respondents of the study were the four hundred nineteen (419) out of five hundred ninety four (594) or 70.53 percentBSCS students enrolled during the first semester of school year 2015 - 2016. A modified standardized instrument, Adversity Quotient questionnaire was used in this study. Results showed that regardless of the grouping, students had “Below Average” adversity quotient. Based on the findings of this study the following therefore are recommended: The administration and faculty of BSCS should be cautious in dealing with the students. Their actions might lead to frustrations in some of these students. There is a need for well-designed activities in school. Curricular and co-curricular activities should be designed in a manner that will improve the AQ of the students. Further study should be made involving other factors to affirm the results of this study. Studies should also be done integrating activities for the development of the students’ AQ.

  236. Arvin Anthony S. Araneta, Hershey R. Alburo, Charito C. Berongoy, Eduardo A. Lumagbas and Renato A. Padullo

    Evaluation of the website followed after its development to get an idea on how far the website attained. From the evaluation of the developers, the website got an overall mean score of 4.30 and was interpreted as excellent, the experts rated the website and got an overall mean score of 4.31 and was interpreted as excellent and the last evaluation from the heads of the different offices of LGU Salcedo got an overall mean score of 4.48 and was interpreted as excellent. From the evaluation, the researchers concluded that the website was technically and operationally effective. The researchers came up also the following recommendations:the website should be implemented by LGU Salcedo;trainings for the LGU personnel should undergo training on the use of the website and further studies must be conducted in order to add more details not specified in the website and to further enhance its structure.

  237. Arun Joshi

    The paper deals with the systematic description of Glossopteris taenioides from Barakar Formation, Early Permian of Prakasham Khani Open Cast Mine II, Manuguru Area, Telangana, India. Earlier the species was reported from the Karharbari and Raniganj formations of lower Gondwana deposits of India. However, this is the first detailed systematic investigation of G. taenioides from the Barakar Formation, Early Permian, lower Gondwana deposits in the area.

  238. Dr. Abubkr Ahmed Elhadi Abdelraheem

    The paper presents the applied of kaizen and support the competitive advantage of industrial companies – Khartoum state. The researcher tested the following hypothesis: There are significant relationship between applied the kaizen and support the competitive advantage of industrial companies -Khartoum state. The study reached some findings from which: In competitive environment, kaizen may be used as a better way of working for change and continuous cost improvement, kaizen Contributes to support the competitive advantage of industrial companies - Khartoum State. The study recommended following: Make use of kaizen to reduce waste in production processes, do more studies in all the Sudanese industrial companies to the benefit of adoption the kaizen to support the competitive advantage.

  239. Arshi Gouhar and Mahapatra, B. C.

    Interactive media is a collection of text, audio, video, animations, graphics, sound etc. used to create a proper communication channel in between the user and computer. In other words, it is the use of technology in the field of education to facilitate easy and proper learning and also to make the learning efficient and interesting. The use of interactive media has really revolutionised the field of education. Its use has really increased the area as well as utility of education. The basic reason of including interactive media in education was to facilitate effective and efficient learning and it has achieved its objective. Now a number of well known companies like TATA, HCL, and NIIT etc. are working in this area and are providing a variety of resources for the teachers as well as students.

  240. Pradip Kumar Das

    Du-Pont Chart is an operationally useful tool for evaluating profitability of the business activities. Analytic chain in this chart is developed along with two-tier i.e. profit margin and assets turnover. The operating efficiency i.e. profitability of ACC Ltd. (formerly known as The Associated Cement Companies Limited), a leading cement company in India has been judged with the help of Du-Pont Chart or analysis during the period of ten years from 2006 to 2015.An examination of the first tier shows that profit margin of the selected company decreased over time; growth of profit was also less than the growth of investment in the company. Although high operating cost somehow affected the operating profit, profit margin decreased but sales increased over the period in the company under study. The second tier i.e. assets turnover shows that in all cases, the selected company had turnover more than its investment. Thus, the study based on Du-Pont Chart or analysis does not reveal overall satisfactory operating efficiency i.e. profitability in ACC Ltd.; still there is a need to control on operating cost. Management should utilize assets more efficiently and judiciously so that increase in production as well as in sales is possible.

  241. Batola David, Peace Enyonam Amoako and AddaiKyeremeh Emmanuel

    The research was conducted to evaluate cloud computing in Ghana; Benefits and contribution to organisational performance in the Techiman Municipality. In all, sixty (60) questionnaire was distributed to Fiagya Rural Bank and Aspet ‘A’ Company limited. The study used the systematic random sampling and probability sampling techniques to ensure that participants were accessible throughout the period of study. Within this research work, the descriptive research type was used. Descriptive analysis factors like frequency tables, mean scores and percentages were generated, and their interpretations thoroughly explained and interpreted. The study found out that, the major benefits of cloud computing were improved collaboration between employers and customers, cost savings, extensive technical support from cloud providers, business continuity through disaster recovery, unlimited storage and safety in data storage. The lack of capital and inadequate technical expertise was among the factors that prevented SMEs for reaching their potential. The study also revealed that the awareness level of SMEs on the availability and accessibility of cloud services is low. Security in the cloud is among the greatest challenges that confront service providers and users. It is therefore evidently clear that the issue of security within the cloud cannot be over emphasised due to threats from within and outside of cloud environments. Additionally, the study showed a significant positive relationship between adoption of cloud computing and organisational performance. This is an indication that, as SMEs tend to adopt Cloud computing, the organisational performance of that organisation tend to increase and vice versa. Based on the findings of the study, the study recommended that Cloud computing should be incorporated into a holistic national ICT policy or framework for development. This will shape the development of viable strategies by policy makers and agencies in technology that can increase the adoption and use of cloud services amongst SMEs.

  242. Jihan Ahmad

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) play a vital role in a nation’s development and economic growth. However, in spite of their contributions SMEs are criticized for their high rate of bankruptcy which was caused by the non-performing loan (NPL) and default problem. This study is conducted with the aim of assessing the relationship between money attitude dimensions towards loan default and moderated by religiosity among Muslim Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The theoretical underpinning Plan Behavior and Default Behavior serves as the basis framework of this study. The objectives of this study are to examine the relationship between money attitude dimensions which include power-prestige, retention-time, distrust, anxiety towards loan default and to investigate whether religiosity moderates the relationship between money attitude dimensions and loan default among Muslim owner-manager of SMEs in state of Kedah. The study employs a quantitative approach through self-administered survey structured questionnaires. Using multistage cluster and systematic sampling technique, a total of 612 questionnaires were distributed. The finding validates a significant effect of money attitude dimensions and religiosity on loan default. The study indicates significant relationships between power-prestige, retention-time, and distrust with loan default. In addition, religiosity fully moderates the relationship between the power-prestige and distrust dimensions and loan default. The implications of finding are discussed and recommendations are made to the financial institutions and the policy maker of SMEs sector to improve the performance of loan record parallel with their vital role contributing in the economic growth of country. Suggestion also made on the direction of research in future time.

  243. Faïrouz NAJI and Yassine HILMI

    In the professional sphere, women still face multiple inequalities. By detecting, evaluating and removing it, the audit is the key to a real workplace equality. This article analyzes the correlation between the audit approach and the implementation of workplace equality and assesses the situation of equality at work and firm practices promoting it. 375 women and men working in private enterprises of all sectors responded to our empirical comparative investigation of the Moroccan and French contexts.

  244. : Sosima Carrillo, Zulema Cordova Ruiz, Loreto María Bravo Zanoguera and Juan Benito Vela Reyna

    The this research aims to determine the way in which variations in the exchange rate affect the operations and financial results of the companies micro and small enterprises located in the urban area of the border city of Mexicali, Baja California, to making acquisitions abroad. Design research is descriptive, experimental, and transverse. Using as an instrument of measuring a questionnaire that is applied to 80 companies that perform operations on currency foreign. Within the results showed that companies have had to raise their prices constantly, causing a decrease in sales and profitability. Besides size and financial structure of such enterprises is not equipped with any type of coverage to protect against this type of economic events, situation that affects its liquidity and threatening is permanent. Some companies have established some strategies to remain in the market because they are not only affected by the volatility of the exchange rate but also by the increase of tariffs on import products and are essential to its operation.

  245. Murat Ertekin

    Turkey oak (Quercuscerris) is one of the 18 oak species that spread naturally in Turkey. Turkey oaks have been found to be particularly sensitive to soil drought. The growth and the survival of oak juveniles are influenced by water availability. The goal of this study is to determine the drought and silvicultural effects on crown dieback, branch mortality and chancing biodiversity on the coppice forests of central Anatolia in Turkey. Crown dieback or branch mortality, expressed as the percentage of dead above ground biomass (stems, branches and leaves), was used as a measure of tree vitality. The pattern of branch mortality distribution was recorded in different vertical parts of the crown. A systematic sampling design will chose for this study. All type of woody vegetation will record for all sampling plots.All the statistical analyses will perform using the statistic program SPSS and PC-Ord V.6 Program,final choice of number of groups by means of the indicator species analysis.

  246. David Iheke Okorie and Sylvester Adasi Manu

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Nigeria for the period of 1980 to 2014. The study employed the analysis of Johansen co-integration and VAR-based techniques. A long run relationship exists among the variables. The result shows that in the long run, electricity consumption has a similar movement with economic growth, following the positivity hypothesis. The Granger causality test reveals that there is a unidirectional causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. The study recommends that the industries increase daily generation of power to meet up with the increasing demand for power, more plant stations should be built, and the alternatives to power supply by PHCN should be made more competitive so as to increase productions and the output of the economy as a whole.

  247. Hajer Al Hamed

    The Algerian female author, Ahlam Mosteghanemi, wrote the trilogy Dhakirat Al Jasad, Fawdha Al Hawas and AbirSaririn Arabic.The first two volumes, Memory in the Flesh and Chaos of the Senses, were translated into English by BariaAhmer. In my analysis of these twonovels, I wish to discuss the relationship between art and politics in Algeria, focussing on body disability and the destabilisation of boundaries between reality and artin the context of postcolonial Algeria.

  248. Dr. Krishna R. Rajput, Poonam B. Chauhan, Ankita P. Leanwala and Hiren Prajapati

    Biodiversity is defined as the “diversity of life on Earth.” This paper provides evidence to support the case for protecting biodiversity. Biodiversity is recognized as important but can often be overlooked or given a lesser weightage. This is partly because decision-making involves weighing costs and benefits and it is difficult to include biodiversity in this because its value is either overlooked or not understood. Therefore, valuation of diversity becomes necessary therefore to illustrate the importance of biodiversity. Valuing biodiversity requires an understanding of the range of benefits it provides. The main drivers of biodiversity loss are deforestation, desertification, overexploitation, invasive species, pollution, and climate change. Biodiversity underpins economic development, but it is threatened globally and its ability to continue to provide the goods and services that support economic growth is failing. Awareness-raising activities are diverse and often rolled up with activities that have broader objectives of personal and social involvement, public health or civic responsibility. In such circumstances, biodiversity awareness may be secondary or even incidental to other objectives. Due to industrialization pollution has become one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Many species cannot cope with the rapid changes in physical parameters which are occurring to our environment. The widespread introduction of exotic species by humans is a potent threat to biodiversity. The recent phenomenon of global warming is also considered to be a major threat to global biodiversity.”The loss of biological diversity is second only to nuclear warfare in its threat to human and other life on this planet”.

  249. Rohini, R. and Raja Meenakshi, J.

    Adolescence is a stage of maturity on the purview of physical, psychological, emotional, and social domain. The developmental task at the stage of adolescence is to create the identity free from role confusion. This stage is considered to be a period of turmoil in the life span of development in an individual. In the existing scenario the psychological wellbeing of the adolescence can be upgraded with the facilitating involvement of the parent and incessant social support. Mental Health in adolescence is considered to be a state of well-being where the adolescence realizes the potential imbibed within and is able to cope up the stresses, work productively and contribute their effectiveness to the community. The psychological wellbeing has to be vividly maintained among the adolescence, as the identity for their self will be the immediate effects of their attitudes which will produce a long term effect on their behaviors. This will have a greater impact on recognizing their personality with unique identity.

  250. Aouatif Benkhayat

    Business-It alignment is ranked the number one of IT and Business executives concern. Having alignment has been found to lead to stronger business performance, higher perceived value of IT and improved IS strategic planning. However measuring this alignment is still ambiguous. The economic growth in morocco in the last decade has led to greater availability of IT as a critical resource. Despite the increasing interest in Moroccan IS issues by researchers and practitioners, empirical research focusing on Business-IT strategy alignment are limited. So, in this study we tried to measure the alignment degree in 13 Moroccan firms, and to study the maturity levels’ of this alignment using SAMM model. Than we validated our model via a linear regression study applied to the results of our model and those of SAMM.

  251. Seyit Taha KETENCİ, Zeynep KARAÇOR and Duygu BAYSAL KURT

    The effects of budget deficits on different units of the economy are one of the topics that are often discussed in the economic literature. One of the most critical discussions in theliterature is theeffect of budget deficits on economic growth. There are different thoughts among economists regarding the impact of budget deficits on economic growth. According to Keynesian economists, while budget deficits have had a positive impact on economic growth, neo-classical economists have argued that there is a relation between budget deficit and economic growth inversely. On the other hand, there is no relation between budget deficit and economic growth according to Ricardo's point of view. The aim of this study is to econometrically measure the impact of budget deficits on growth in Turkey. The data used in the analysis for the period 1975-2013 were obtained from the International Finance Statistics published by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Electronic Data Distribution System published by the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. According to the impulse-response analysis, the 1% positive shock Gross Domestic Product responded negatively to the budget deficit. Response is meaningful statistical and economically. The response continues through outthewhole period, but after the fourthyear it becomes meaningless. Nevertheless, the size of the response is small. According to the analysis results, exchange rates and inflation also have a negative effect on economic growth. The empirical analysis result confirms the hypothesis that neoclassical economists have negative economic effects on budget deficits.

  252. Kumar, Prabhat and Gupta, N. C.

    Agriculture soils of any country significantly contribute to the greenhouse effect primarily through the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG’S) like methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The climate change risk in Asia may impact Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) which may be affected greatly by the melting of Himalayan glaciers. The dominant land use by farming community in the IGP is rice-wheat cropping system. CH4 emission depends on crop, growth season, fertilizer application and prevailing environmental conditions of the region. Various agricultural soils, climate and farm management practices control the CH4 and N2O emissions. CH4 and N2O from rice fields are prominent greenhouse gases which are emitted from paddy fields. The present investigation was carried out through close chamber techniques to find out the variation in CH4 and N2O fluxes at two different locations of IGP region during 2012. The value of CH4 flux (Kg ha-1 d-1) from rice crop varied from 0.348 to 1.343 at Chachula and 3.794 to 13.686 at Meerapur while the flux (g ha-1d-1) varied from 0.30 to 7.9 at Chachula and 0.60 to 8.5 at Meerapur for N2O respectively. Appropriate application of fertilizer and irrigation in lowland rice field also decrease nitrous oxide emission. It is observed that the emissions of CH4 as well as that of N2O are increased with the application of commercial fertilizer in both the locations of Chachula and Meerapur from western Uttar Pradesh of Indo-Gangetic region. Statistical comparisons of CH4 and N2O flux were also performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

  253. Dr. Thingnam Nandalal Singh and Dr. Naveen Kumar

    The purpose of the study was to compare the physical activity index between Indian and Foreign male students of Delhi State. To achieve the objective of the study, two hundred (N=200) Indian male students and two hundred (N=200) Foreign male students between 17 to 25 years were selected conveniently and purposely from the regular students of different Universities and colleges of Delhi State as subjects. Physical activity index Questionnaire (B. Mayfield, Personal Nutritional Department, 2006) was used to assess physical activity index of students. To determine the significant difference between the mean scores of Indian and Foreign male students on physical activity index,‘t’ test was employed with the help of SPSS software. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results of the study revealed that there was no significant difference found on physical activity index between Indian male and foreign male students of Delhi state.

  254. Lekshmi V Nair and Reeja, P. S.

    Coming to terms with the death of a loved one is one of life’s most challenging journeys. When it is suicide, family members and friends can experience an even more complex kind of grief. While trying to cope with the pain of their sudden loss, they are overwhelmed by feelings of blame, anger and incomprehension. Adding to their burden is the stigma that still surrounds suicide. The present paper tries to analyse the impact of suicide on the life of the wife who is left behind. Qualitative study has been conducted in 10 families in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, where the husbands committed suicide. The paper brings to lights the grief, the guilt of the women who has lost their husband, their fear about future compounded with the stigma attached by the society. It ends by a few suggestions such as how survivors of suicide and their friends can help each other and themselves by gaining an understanding of grief after suicide.

  255. Mohammad Aneesul Mehmood, Shafiq-ur-Rehman, Sartaj Ahmad Ganie, Asmat Rashid and Adhfur Sherwani

    Flood situation (September 2014) in Jhelum River radically changed its water quality status from pre to post flood season due to both natural as well as anthropogenic sources. The aim of this study is to highlight the positive as well as negative consequences of catastrophic floods particularly the physico-chemical and heavy metal characteristics of river water. River Jhelum water samples were assessed for physico-chemical characteristics (pH, Temp. EC, Ca, Mg, N, P, K, Na, Cl and S) and heavy metal content (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn) in pre and post flood seasons at six sites along its whole stretch from Verinag to Baramulla. Two sampling sites each were selected in three different zones of the river viz, upstream, middle stream and downstream. Results from the study provides an insight that water quality gets drastically changed in post flood seasons and most of the quality parameters of water were recorded at elevated levels in post flood seasons except a few like pH. The elevated levels of quality parameters in post flood season can be attributed to inputs from both punctual and non punctual sources.

  256. Chinmayee Mishra

    The phenomenon of social change has been present in every existing society at all times. As modernity embarked, many communities have undergone changes by the forces of social change. The present paper titled ‘Impact of Social Change on Community- A Case Study of the Snake Charmers (Sapua Kela) of Padmakesharipur, Odisha’ attempts to find the impact of social change and occupational transition of the community. The research uses exploratory research design. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for collecting data. It was found that snake charming tradition of Sapua Kela is quite old (add) as more than three generations of the community has been involved in snake charming. Stricter laws were responsible for the decline of snake charming but more than half of the respondents believed that the popularity of snake charming as a source of entertainment has not reduced yet. The current occupational profile shows that many of them areengaged as daily wage labourer and in private jobs. Job satisfaction as compared to their hereditary profession was found to be low. Despite the ban, snake charming is still in practice but it is practiced by few members of the community that too occasionally. There has been fall in their income as compared to earnings they got from snake charming. The paper concludes with the note that efforts should be made to strike balance between conservation of wildlife and preservation of cultural heritage of the community through sustainable alternatives.

  257. Pushpanathan, T.

    It is highly significant that the skills of the teachers in this globalised and standardized world should be updated up to the expectations of their wards/students in the classroom. As this profession seemed to be highly challenging and risky where the participants are technology driven, language teachers working in schools should be highly proficient and competent as for as communicable English is concerned. Mushroom growth of technological devices has paved the way for vast knowledge enrichment by the learner community. Even though teachers are qualified as per the norms prescribed, they have to have excellent proficiency in terms of vocabulary, grammatical structures, and so on. Studies on students of various disciplines regarding skills deficiencies, needs analysis, etc. have been carried on by researchers. But very less number of studies conducted on identification of language needs of the prospective teachers (B.Ed./M.Ed.) students which is the need of the hour. They are training in the methodology of teaching like micro-teaching, macro-teaching, evaluation measures, etc whereas the communication needs of these students are highly neglected area as for as research studies are concerned. Hence, this study attempts to identify the language needs of the teachers working in the schools of Tiruvannamalai District, Tamilnadu.

  258. Riyanka Roy Choudhury

    Depreciation is necessary to be allowed to compute income over a period of time therefore, there always was a legislative intention to use both words 'use and used' when the Income-Tax Act was passed in the year 1961. The paper would explore the evolution of ‘user test’ and allowance of depreciation under the Section 32 of the Income Tax Act, 1961. We have analysed in the paper the various areas dealing with user test and tried to understand the legislative intention when the Act was passed in dealing with the connotations “used” and “ready to use”. Finally the paper would looks into the judgments of High Courts and the Apex Court while dealing with lacuna of allowance of depreciation and the user test. We have adopted the descriptive research attempt to describe systematically a situation, related to the problems in the disparity in use of the word “used” under the section 32 of the Income Tax Act, 1961. It is a secondary form of research involving various books, articles, reports, Acts, cases and internet sources. Also we have deduced conclusions on allowance of depreciation and the user test. Therefore the paper adopts the doctrinal method as research methodology and gives a normative account on the subject. Unbiased and objective analysis on the topic wherein each step is taken in an unbiased manner and each conclusion is drawn to the best of our ability and without introducing our own vested interest.

  259. Mohammad Adamu, Jan-Jan Soon and Siti Aznor Ahmad

    Nigeria’s Public universities massively depend on government funding to run their affairs. However, the funding continuously becomes scarcer as the universities continuously growing in relation to student enrolments and establishments of new departments and faculties. It becomes a concern to the government about how these universities utilise their resources and do their goals really delivered as expected? Therefore, this paper uses the prevailing non-parametric technique (DEA) mostly used for efficiency analysis of public institutions with multiple inputs and outputs (example, universities) to investigate the technical efficiency of Nigerian public universities from 2007/2008 to 2011/2012. The result shows that 2 universities out of the total of 18 are found to be technically efficient for the whole 5 years observed while 6 universities have never been efficient in any of the 5 years. Policy recommendation is given to the government for making the efficiency index as a yardstick toward fund allocation, hence, this encourages a favourable competition among the universities to be efficient enough in discharging their duties of teaching and research as expected.

  260. Karunarathna, K. D. K., Weerakoon, S. R., Somaratne, S. and Weerasena, O. V. D. S. J.

    Weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) (WR) is widely distributed in rice growing areas in all climatic zones in Sri Lanka and shows spatial distribution and genetic affinities to cultivated rice. The present study attempts to relate the agro-morphological and molecular data to the distribution pattern/s of WR populations in different climatic zones. WR eco-types were collected from five different locations in twelve districts representing Wet, Dry and Intermediate zones. Five replicates of each eco-type planted in plastic pots and arranged in CRD. Agro-morphological characterization of WR, wild rice and cultivated rice was based on the Standard Characterization Catalogue. Ten SSR primer pairs were used for molecular study. Capillary electrophoresis was performed using GENE MAPPER software and identified different peaks among samples. The principle component analyses (PCA) were carried out for data. PCA of morphological variables of WR populations results nine components explaining 73.87% and 10 labeled SSR primer pairs resulted six components explaining 80.34% of total variation. Occurrence of agro-morphological characters of WR, wild and cultivated rice showed a weak trend with climatic zones. The pattern of genetic diversity and differentiation of WR populations suggest the common origin centered on the species; O. nivara for dry zone WR eco-types and O. rufipogon for wet zone eco-types.

  261. Somaratne, S. and Weerakoon, S. R.

    Weedy Rice (WR) competes with cultivated rice and leads to loss of yield. The differential growth responses of WR and cultivated rice to increasing CO2 are important in controlling and managing WR. The effect of changing atmospheric CO2 concentrations on growth responses of WR-biotypes and cultivated rice (CR) using three WR biotypes (Wet, Intermediate and Dry climatic zones) and cultivated rice variety Bg300 in a growth chamber with varying concentrations of CO2 (300, 400 and 500 µmol mol-1 24 hd−1) was tested. Data were collected at vegetative stage at 20, 30 and 54 Days after sowing (DAS). Destructive sampling was used for biomass determination. Differential sensitivities of WR-biotypes and CR-Bg300 to increasing CO2 concentration was observed for leaf-width, leaf-area, number of culms and number of leaves, root biomass and total biomass. Elevating CO2 significantly increased vegetative growth and biomass-accumulation in WR biotypes than Bg300 showing higher physiological plasticity in WR biotypes contributing to the wide occurrence of WR in rice fields in Sri Lanka.

  262. Dr. Nilesh Vishwakarma, Dr. Siddhant Jain, Dr. Sarabjeet Kohli, Dr. Shaival Chauhan, Dr. Kuldip Salgotra, Dr. Philip Cintra and Dr. Julio Gali

    The goal of deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis is prevention of mortality and multiple other major or minor complications resulting from venous thromboembolic events. Many guidelines have been proposed and available for ready reference and are also rigidly followed in patients undergoing knee arthroplasties. The medicolegal ramifications of obviating the deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis is immense. We take a review of all the available medications and treatments modalities including mechanical devices in the present article.

  263. Dr. Ullas, P.

    A randomized, double blind, pilot clinical study was performed to compare the effectiveness of a herbal – based test toothpaste on reduction of existing plaque, gingivitis and extrinsic dental stains with a normal commercially available fluoridated toothpaste, over six weeks. 40 subjects were instructed to brush twice daily with the assigned toothpaste (either of the toothpaste) and toothbrush using modified bass method of brushing and refrain from other unassigned forms of oral hygiene aids. No prophylaxis was undertaken prior to commencement of the study. Subjects were assessed at baseline, and 6 weeks using plaque index, gingival index and Macpherson et al. modification of Lobene stain index and bleeding index. Immediately after completion of six weeks, subjects received a professional prophylaxis. The present study concludes there is significant reduction in the dental plaque accumulation and thus significantly reducing the chances of gingivitis in the subjects which used toothpaste having papain and bromelin. Also these natural extracts in the toothpaste showed significant reduction in stains after 6 weeks when compared to a regular fluoridated toothpaste.

  264. Mangala Kohli and Anjali K. Singh

    According to report of the National Initiative for Allied Health Sciences (NIAHS), there is a total national shortage of approximately 64 lakh AHPs (Allied Health Professionals) with highest gaps in the states of Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh. Effective delivery of healthcare services depends largely on the nature of education, training and appropriate orientation towards community health of all categories of medical and health personnel and their capacity to function as an integrated team. There are several shortfalls that need to be addressed in the development of human resources for public health services. There is a dire need to establish training facilities for public health specialists along with identifying the scope for their contribution in the field. The Public Health Foundation of India is a positive step to redress the limited institutional capacity in India by strengthening training, research and policy development in public health. Developing a health workforce which can offer primary to tertiary services requires a well-functioning governance infrastructure. Health workforce assessment, policy development, planning and monitoring require dialogue between stakeholders from government and non-government partners.

  265. Ramy Sedhom and David Barile

    Breaking bad news is a difficult task for all physicians and an important part of the patient doctor relationship; yet medical education offers little formal preparation for a daunting task. Due to deficiencies in training, physician discomfort can lead to internal conflicts for health care providers and disengage them from patients emotionally. Poor communication significantly impact patient and family perspective on illness, resulting in increased stress and anxiety, poor adjustment, high rates of post-traumatic stress, and poorer health outcomes. More training is required, beginning at the medical student and resident level, to skillfully navigate difficult conversations. This educational intervention would have a meaningful impact on patient care, physician satisfaction, and long-term health consequences for loved ones and surrogate decision makers.

  266. Angelova, M., Miteva, K., Atanasova, Z. and Pecora, T. M.

    Objective: A medication for the treatment of microlesions caused by human papillomavirus or due to dryness of the vaginal mucosa. Intended purpose: A protective ointment forming, due to its properties, a protective barrier contributing to the treatment of intraepithelial lesions caused by HPV /papillomavirus/, improving the healing process. Indications: Spectrum of activity with respect to: Lipid coated viruses: Human Papillomavirus, Herpes Simplex virus type 1, Herpes Simplex virus type 2.

  267. Dr. Gayatri Deshpande , Dr. Murtaza Akhtar, Dr. Divish Saxena and Dr. Kanav Kumar

    Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency. The histopathological diagnosis of a classic suppurative appendicitis is usually made by the presence of neutrophils in the muscularis propria. "Acute eosinophilic appendicitis" is a rare variant of acute appendicitis. It clinically mimics acute suppurative appendicitis and is characterised by a grossly inflammed edematous appendix, but with the absence of neutrophils in the muscle layer. The clinical significance of this less understood variant of acute appendicitis is that these patients seldom proceed on to suppuration prior to surgery. However, this entity can be diagnosed only on histopathology of the appendectomy specimen. The histological hallmark of this entity is eosinophilic infiltration of the muscularis layer with accompanying oedema separating the muscle fibres, typically called the "eosinophil- edema lesion". We herein, present the case of a 34 year old male presenting classically as acute appendicitis but was found to have acute eosinophilic appendicitis on histology.

  268. Alma Sofo-Hafizović and Adisa Chika

    Background: The cell has developed mechanisms for maintaining hemostasis in defense from unfavorable external and internal influences. Apoptosis with its internal and external signaling pathways is one of those mechanisms. Failure of these mechanisms results in diseases of which the most serious are malignant diseases. Oncogenes which suppress apoptosis are bcl-2 and bclx1and c-myc, as opposed to bax, bad and bid which enhance apoptosis and which are encountered in lymphoma and which are incorporated into external and internal signaling pathway of apoptosis. Aim: disclosure of connections between apoptotic factors in signaling pathways in diffuse large B cell lymphoma DLBCL in relation to achieving first complete remission (CR1). Material and methods: Study was retrospective-prospective. 60 patients were analyzed with de novo DLBCL. Median was 47 months (3-91 months). Patients were divided into the following groups: germinal center B-cell like (GCB), not germinal center B-cell like (non GCB), CR1 and a group of unwanted occurrences (progressive disease, relapse and death). Groups are put in correlation to expressions CD10, CD138 i MUM1, bcl6, bcl2, bclxl, bad, bax, bid and Ki67. Results: Positive correlation was confirmed for bad and bax in the overall sample, GCB group and CR1 group p< 0.0001. Bad that was included into external signaling had positive correlation with bcl6 p=0.006 and CD 10 p=0.03 in overall , GCB and CR 1 group. Negative correlation was confirmed for bclx1 and bid in non GCB group p=0.022. Positive correlation was found for MUM1 and bcl2 p=0.004 and negative correlation CD10 with MUM1 p<0.0001 and bcl2 p=0.048 in non GCB group. Statistics: Spearman's analysis was used, p<0.05 was considered significant Conclusion: We confirmed significant correlation for CD10, bcl6, bad and bax in GCB group. There was significantly negative correlation for bid and bclxl, together with revealing of insufficient inhibition of bid towards bclxl in both external and internal signaling pathway in non GCB group.

  269. Engr. Ahmed Abuzinadah, Dr. Abdullah Dobaie, Dr. Khalid Khashoggi, Dr. Mohammed Wazzan, and Dr. Ghader Jamjoum

    This article describes the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems bydesigning and implementation of a modified cooling system for MRI Scanner to enhance Image Quality. The diagnostic MRI scanner based on heat exchanger technology to achieve sharper images by implementing the new cooling system on a 1.5T and 3T diagnostic scanner at our King Abdulaziz University Hospital and investigate the results of MRI scans obtained from fat saturation and gradient echo sequences. Also, demonstration the effectiveness of improvement in cooling water efficiency which is not only important from ecological considerations but also limit the high shield temperature that would affect the magnet cold head of the scanner in turn affecting on image quality.

  270. Márquez Mendoza, O., Fernández-Carrión, M-H., Veyta López, M. and Flores Merino, M.V.

    This research refers to the case study of a patient, a male college student, who was given psychotherapeutic care. Initially, the patient self-referral to the Mental Health area, which is a service permanently offered by the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico, through the Research Center in Medical Sciences (CICMED). The process of the case allowed analyzing the administrative procedure that operates in the CICMED and the process between this and the educational establishment in which the patient studied.

  271. Shailendra Nath Paul, Saket Kumar and Anjana Kumari

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the results of FNAC and CNB in breast masses with HPE in MGM Medical College, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 130 cases having palpable breast lumps collected from our outpatients department during the period september, 2013 to june, 2015. FANC, CNB and surgical biopsies were done by the surgeon and their results were compared. Results: The correct diagnosis in FNAC was 116 (89.23%) cases, while the correct diagnosis in CNB was 118 (90.77%). Conclusion: This study presented almost equal detection rates by FNAC and CNB when comparing with HPE. Both procedures are reliable, simple, easy, safe and cheap. So combined techniques could be used as a reliable alternative to surgical biopsy of breast lumps.

  272. Shalini Barthwal and Mudassir Mohi- Ud- Din

    The present study focuses on the adjustment level of the students of Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University (HNBGU), Srinagar Garhwal. This Indian Central University is located in the hilly region of Garhwal which is a difficult terrain for many plain region students. The study compares adjustment level between two groups of university students. First is the “Non-migrated group” consisting of those students who belong to hilly regions of Garhwal and had done their schooling and graduation from hilly regions of Garhwal only. Other is the “Migrated group” consisting of those students who belong to plain regions and had migrated to hilly areas for higher studies. 100 students studying in Postgraduate courses were assessed on Adjustment Inventory for College Students (AICS; Sinha & Singh, 1995). The results throw light upon the need to assimilate the migrated students with the changed environment so that they can adjust better and work towards a high academic achievement.

  273. Alaa Abdul Hussein Al-Daamy

    The present study aims to determine the optimum extraction conditions for Prunus armeniace seeds and test their effectiveness against a group of pathogenic bacteria. Five solvents used are acetone, ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate and disitilled water to obtain of crude extract of Prunus armeniace seeds, which tested the effectiveness of antibacteria on five types of bacteria are Pseudomonas eroginosa, Pseudomonas oryzihabita, Proteus varaplis, Klebsila pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus to determine the most efficient solvent extraction of them, and then was use of a series of concentrations of the solvent is more efficient 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% to determine the most efficient concentration of solvent optimization, and then was determined minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) of the extract more efficient. The results of the current study showed that the most efficient in the extraction solvent is ethanol that they were the diameters of inhibition zone are 13, 15, 16.66, 16.33 and 19.33 mm for the types of bacteria above, respectively. The results showed that the concentration of ethanol was 100% in the optimal inhibition of bacteria, amounting to diameters of inhibition zone at this concentration of 30, 31.66, 12.16, 24.16 and 30.66 mm for each of the bacterial species above, respectively. The results also found that MIC of Pseudomonas eroginosa, Pseudomonas oryzihabita and Proteus varaplis is 23 mg/ml, but MIC of Klebsila pneumonia is 16 mg/ml, while the MIC of Staphylococcus aureus is 13 mg/ml. The optimal conditions for extracting the most effective composites against pathogenic bacteria from Prunus armeniace seeds are using ethanol solvent with concentration of 100%.

  274. Heethendra, P., Devesh, S., Vivek, S. and Vidushi, S.

    Introduction: Enteric fever is a systemic febrile illness caused by Salmonella species, which includes Salmonella entrica serovar Typhi and Salmonella entrica serovar paratyhi A, B or C respectively. Material and Method: This was a community based, retrospective study, conducted in Department of Microbiology, Jaipur National University Institute for Medical Science and Research centre (JNUIMSRC) from August’ 2015 to July’ 2016. A total of 268 samples were included in this study. The sample size of our study was 268 who were screened for the presence of anti-O, anti-H, anti-AH and anti-BH agglutinins by the Widal tube agglutination test. Results: Eighty three (30.9%) samples were positive (i.e., showed a titre of ≥ 20) whereas 185 (69.1%) samples did not show agglutination. Conclusion: We studied the baseline titres of anti-TO and anti-TH and found to be 40 and those of anti-AH& anti-BH 40. Baseline titres of our study were lower than other part of India.

  275. Dr. Rushi Kumar Patel, Dr. Shivendrasingh, Dr. Thapliyal, G. K., Dr. AtulRai, Dr. Nishant Singhand Dr. Aniket Singh Chauhan

    Ophthalmomyiasis can have variable presentation depending on the type of fly, structures involved, and level of penetration. Here we present a rare case, seen in a 60-year-old male patient with extensive myiasis of the right eye. A lesion of 4×2.5 cm was noted from the medial canthus to lateral canthus, and was infested with maggots. The larvae were removed meticulously and the wound debrided. The larva isolated was that of Musca domestica (housefly). M.R.I was done, hyperintense soft tissues swelling was seen in right orbito-naso frontal region. The wound was dressed regularly and healed by secondary intention. We conclude that ocular myiasis is a rare disease which can lead to many diseases such as intracranial extension which can be life threatening. Prompt management with debridement and radical antibiotic therapy is essential.

  276. Munish Kumar, Amit Kumar and Sushil Kumar

    Status Epilepticus (SE), a common medical emergency with significant mortality and morbidity ranging from 3-50 % in different studies. Seizures lasting for more than 5 minutes should be treated as for convulsive status epilepticus. Pathophysiological mechanisms have revealed that it is a dynamic and evolving process. Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is status epilepticus without obvious tonic–clonic activity. Patients with NCSE have altered mental state. Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is defined as status epilepticus that continues despite treatment with benzodiazepines and one antiepileptic drug. The goals of pharmacological therapy are to terminate seizures early and prevent recurrence. Clinical studies have shown the benefit of early administration of benzodiazepines to control status epilepticus.

  277. Sanjay V. Bhawsar, Priti A. Seluker, Ashlesha S. Marathe, Neha B. Belsare, Prasad S. Kshirsagar and Khyati B. Shukla

    Statement of problem: This study was designed to compare the marginal discrepancy of zirconia copings (Ziecon) with heavy chamfer, shoulder and rounded shoulder finish line, pre and post-cementation to provide clinicians a guideline for tooth preparation and cementation.
    Material and method: Stainless steel die was fabricated for each finish line design and duplicated with addition silicone impression material to obtain dies in Type IV die stone (n=60). The specimens were tested for marginal discrepancies before cementation, post-cementation and after sectioning. Marginal discrepancies were recorded in microns, statistically analyzed, and compared.
    Results: Finish line designs significantly influenced the marginal fit of the zirconia copings (p >0.05) and their mean marginal fit was acceptable for clinical application ( 120 μm). Mean marginal discrepancies post-cementation were larger than respective pre-cementation values. Shoulder specimens exhibited least discrepancy. In sectioned specimens, marginal gaps were lowest and occlusal gaps were highest.

  278. Dr. Vijaykumar S. Shabadi and Dr. Venkataramakrishna, T.

    Background: Hemivertebra is a common congenital problem resulting in varied deformities of the spine. Etiopathogenesis of hemivertebra is still not clear. But the spectrum of cases resulting from hemivertebra pose a clinical challenge especially in growing skeleton. The progression of deformity also depends upon part of spine involved. The treatment can be conservative or surgical. Multiple factors are taken into consideration before embarking on any treatment modality. Aims and objective: To evaluate the the role of conservative management and surgical treatment for the management of congenital scoliosis resulting from hemivertebra and draw an inference based on our observations. Material and Methods: We identified 3 cases from our database. One case was a 12 year old child with upper dorsal scoliosis who was managed conservatively. 2nd case was a 23 year patient with l2 hemivartebra who was also managed conservatively. And 3rd case was a 11 yr patient had progressive dorsolumbar kyphoscoliosis who was managed by surgery. Results: In in first 2 cases, bracing and serial follow ups showed progression of not more than 2 degrees per year and resulted in stable spine with no deficits. In the 3rd case, timely surgical intervention with a stable construct resulted in halting of progression of deformity. Conclusion: Regular follow up with imaging plays a vital role in management of these cases. Assessment of progression and choosing appropriate line of management will benefit these cases effectively. A systematic review of literature and understanding the biomechanics and progression of deformity is very essential in deciding the treatment options.

  279. Dr. Sumathi, N., Dr. Nandhini, C.C., Dr. Durga Devi, C., Dr. Sakthi Priya and Dr. Swathika, M.N.

    Antenatal women with ultrasound detected anomalous fetus, attending OP at the Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Govt Rajaji Hospital, Madurai were admitted for evaluation. The purpose of the study is to find out the incidence of congenital anomalies. Among the 3261 antenatal cases, 63 cases of anomalous fetus were detected. The overall incidence of congenital malformation is 1.9%. central nervous system was the most commonly affected system among the lethal anomaly (27%). Isolated renal PCS dilatation was the most common non lethal anomaly. 45% of cases had a history of consanguineous marriage. Male fetus had a higher incidence of anomalies (61.2%). Most of the anomalies were detected during second trimester.

  280. Dr. Saraswathi Gopal, K., Dr. Amala, M. and Dr. Harshavardhan, B. G.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to analyze and compare the long term effect of tobacco on salivary Flowrate and pH among tobacco Chewers, Smokers and Controls. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 60 patients, categorized into three sub groups of 20 non-tobacco users, 20 Tobacco chewers and 20 Tobacco smokers. Salivary flowrate was measured using graduated tubes and pH of salivary flowrate using pH strips. Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA. Probability value .05 is considered as statistically significant. Results: Alterations in salivary flowrates are observed in different form of tobacco users. The mean salivary flowrate and pH were 0.2200 in the smokers group, 0.1500 in chewers (paan masalas) group and 0.4300 in control group was noted,when compared a Significant difference was noted (P=.000). The mean (±SD) salivary pH of whole saliva, was 6.12 (±0.5) in the smokers group, 5.47 (±0.61) in the chewers group and 6.97 (±0.11) in the control group. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that the long-term use of tobacco significantly reduces the Salivary flowrate and salivary pH. Alterations in these parameters could be an early sign of oral mucosal deterioration.

  281. Dillip Kumar Chand and Barsha Tudu

    Patella fractures constitute about 1% of all skeletal injuries and are seen frequently in the age range of 20-50 years. The purpose of our study to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anterior tension band wire technique with two cannulated cancellous screws in patients with transverse patella fractures. This is a prospective study of 18 patients with transverse fracture or transverse fracture with mild communation patella fractures were treated in VSS institute of medical sciences and research from November 2014 to November 2016. There were 12 male (66%) and 6 female (33.3%). The age group ranged from 20-50 years (mean 35 years). All the patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using two paraller cannulated cancellous screw and 18G stainless steel wire as per TBW principle. Mean time to radiological union 11 weeks (9-13 weeks). Mean range of movement at 3 month follow up was 100 and 1 year follow up 135 degree respectively. The clinical and functional outcome of these patients were evaluated by radiograph and IOWA scoring. This technique showed improved fractured reduction and better Iowa score. This should be considered as an alternative method of treatement of transverse patella fracture.

  282. Rohey Jan, Nita George, Mohan Mathew, Waseem Raja, Molly Johny, Vipin Lal and George. P.

    Objective: The emergence of Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in recent times has become a serious threat to public health due to the high mortality, potential dissemination rates and limited availability of effective treatment options. Aims/objective: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of CRE in ICU settings at Lakeshore hospital & research centre Kochi –Kerala. Methods: A Retrospective study was conducted in Critical care department over a period of 1 year from January 2015 – December 2015, following its approval by the institutional ethical committee. A total of 1035 susceptible isolates were retrieved from the electronic medical records (EMR) of the hospital. The study sample includes patients from all ICU, s and specimens tested for culture sensitivity were blood, urine, endotrachial aspirate, sputum, wound pus/abscess and others. Results : The total number of Enterobacteriace isolates were 624 (60.3%), out of which CRE isolates were 50, with CRE Prevelance rate of 8.0 %, (50/624). The most common organisms identified were Klebsella pneumoniae 82% followed by E. Coli 18% & the most common sources of CRE isolates were ET aspirates (22%), followed by urine culture (18%). Majority of the CRE isolates were found in age group of 61-75 years (42%), followed by 46-60 yrs (24%) with male prepondance (2.1:1). CRE isolates were mainly sensitive to Tigecycline (70%), Colistin (50%) and amikacin (40%). Conclusion: This study provides a baseline data of current scenario of CRE in our set up. A strict antibiotic policy should be addressed especially with observed emergence of carbapenem resistance. Continuous review of need to invasive devices and strict compliance with basic infection control measures are mandatory to limit the spread of CRE.

  283. Gurmeet Singh, Alok Srivastava and Sanjeet Singh

    Intrauterine contraceptive device is commonly used method of contraception worldwide. IUCD insertion though a very safe method may be associated with complications. The present case report is about a 42-year-old female with recurrent dysuria. Investigations revealed hydroureteronephrosis with non-functioning kidney due to migrated IUCD in abdominal cavity leading to extramural compression of left ureter. Migration of IUCD is a known complication but migration leading to compression of ureter leading to non-functioning of kidney.

  284. Mohammed SaedAlmalki, Irshad A Subhan, Bafaraj Ahmad, G., Almalki Riyadh, A., AlzaidyNazih, S., Alamri Osama and AlmalkiAshwaq, M.

    Objective: To estimate the incidence and distribution of common acute eye diseases amongst pilgrims during Hajj 2016 in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia by age, nationality and gender. Method: An exploratory descriptive cross-sectional incidence survey was done. We surveyed about156 patients who presented to the ophthalmology clinic at the 3 main hospitals: Al-Noor Hospital, King Faisal Hospital, and King Abdullah Medical City in Makkah city, during the time period of 2/09/2015 to 15/09/2016 (1/12/1437H to 14/12/1437 H). Patients received thorough eye examination and management. The diagnostic data was used to gather information which was analyzed by statistical tools, to estimate the incidence of acute eye conditions among a wide range of age, nationality and gender amongst pilgrims. Results: 156 patients attended the eye clinics in two of the above listed hospital, out of which 102 (65.4%) were males and 54(34.6) were females. Among these patients 124 of them were above the age group of 36 years. 75 of them belong to the Middle East. The commonest diagnosis was Simple Conjunctivitis (26 patients-16.7%). Retinal detachment and Blepharitis was diagnosed in 8 patients (5.1%), followed by ulcerative keratitis and glaucoma in 6 cases (3.8%). Remaining of the patients fell into other non specific category, like dry eyes, pterygium, corneal foreign body and refractive error. Conclusions: Majority of the patients had non-specific infections of the eye. There was no incidence of spurt of contagious eye infections. An extensive study is required including all the primary clinics catering the hajj pilgrims, and the duration of the study must be more than 2 weeks which was in this study.

  285. Erhan Ugurlu, Tarik Sengoz, Ilknur Can, Nese Dursunoglu, Olga Yaylali and Dursun Dursunoglu

    Objective: An acute pulmonary embolism is formed sudden obstructions in some pulmonary arterial and thrombus that cause these obstructions comes mostly from deep leg or pelvis veins. Acute pulmonary embolism with incomplete resolution is observed frequently and chronic thromboembolism can result in pulmonary hypertension. Our purpose in this study is to evaluate the frequency and markers of chronic thromboembolism pulmonary hypertension(CTEPH) and the demographic and clinical features of acute pulmonary embolism patients. Material and Methods: Participants were 127 patients hospitalized due to an acute pulmonary embolism diagnosis between 1 January 2014- 30 April 2015. Patients having any kind deficiency in the D-Dimer blood test, arterial blood gas, computed tomography, lower extremity Doppler ultrasonography, echocardiography, clinical scoring (Wells and revised Geneva) were excluded. 45 patients, whose transcriptions were exact, were included in this study. Results: The p02 value is found to be significantly low in submassive patients in comparison with non-massive patients. Values of Geneva scoring were found to be significantly different not only between submassive and massive patients but also between non-massive and massive. Significant difference between non-massive and massive is deteched in the value of D-Dimer. CTEPH was evolved on 10 subjects. Conclusion: Diagnose acute pulmonary embolism with severe morbidity and mortality, then to start treatment accordingly by determining the severity of the disease are extremely important. Also, physicians need to be aware of CTEPH, which is a preventable complication of acute pulmonary embolism, if they are to predict which patients are likely to develop CTEPH.

  286. Dr. Anand Raj and Dr. Shruthi Raj

    Endodontic success in teeth with the number of canals above that normally found requires a correct diagnosis and careful inspection.The root canal treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and technically challenging. A left mandibular first molar requiring root canal treatment was found to have three separate mesial canals. This case demonstrates an extraordinary anatomical configuration in mandibular first molars.

  287. Rajkiran Lokhande, Swati Pakolu and Amruta Kamble

    Introduction: In the last decade, an increasing number of researches and studies focusing on the impact of oral deformities, malocclusion and illnesses on quality of life and self esteem have been published. Goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of malocclusion (protrusion) on the self esteem in adolescents. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate and compare the effects of malocclusion on self esteem in adolescents. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 60 adolescents, 30 males and 30 females (mean age 18 to 24 years). All the adolescents were evaluated in terms of their degree of protrusion. Two groups were made, normal group and proclination group. Normal group was divided into 15 males and 15 females. Proclination group was divided into 15 males and 15 females. Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale was used to determine self-esteem and to relate between normal and proclination group. Comparison of the normal and proclination group was done. Self esteem index (SI) was calculated. Results: T-test was used to analyze the results. Results indicated that there was significant difference between the proclination group and normal group with low SI in proclination group. There was insignificant difference between proclination males and normal males, with low SI in proclination males. There was significant difference between proclination females and normal females, with low SI in proclination females. Conclusion: Proclination causes low self-esteem in adolescent females. For males, there was no significant difference in self esteem between the proclination and the normal group.

  288. Dr. Shaliki Wadhera, Dr. Shreyas Mohile, Dr. Pushkar P. Waknis, Dr. Prathamesh V. Bhujbal, Dr. AditiSaha and Dr. Sharvika Aher

    The incidence of head and neck cancer in India is variable. One of the major roles of the oral and maxillofacial surgeon is that of diagnostician. Maxillofacial surgeons are called upon to evaluate and diagnose a wide variety of conditions affecting the oral cavity, jaws and head and neck. This case report emphasizes on the need for early diagnosis and role of chemotherapy and radiation therapy on advance lesions.

  289. Sharath Chandra Kaushik

    Background: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for resolution of co-morbidities of obesity as well as weight loss. The concept of banding the neo-stomach in sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and roux-en-y gastric bypass (LRYGB) was proposed to combat insufficient weight loss or weight regain due to pouch dilation. The aim of the study is to know the efficacy of non adjustable gastric band in weight loss outcomes of banded sleeve gastrectomy (BLSG) and banded roux-en-y gastric bypass (BLRYGB) and comparing them to the outcomes of LSG and LRYGB respectively. Materials and methods: This is retrospective analysis of all the patients who underwent bariatric surgery from January 2013 to December 2014 with 1 year follow-up. Data included age, height, weight, body mass index(BMI), gender, presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM), fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c), lipid profile, percentage excess body weight loss (%EBWL) and resolution of DM. Results: A total 230 patients (117females, 53males) were retrospectively analyzed. At one year follow up of LSG, BLSG, LRYGB and BLRYGB groups, %EBWL were 73.43±19.66, 82.41±26.33, 82.72±25.09 and 86.30±19.06 respectively. The BLSG group attained statistical significance (p=0.026) in bariatric success and %EBWL (p=0.021) on comparison to LSG group, but not BLRYGB to LRYGB. There was no statistical significance in DM resolution between banded and non banded procedures. Conclusions: Placement of non adjustable gastric band has significant weight loss outcomes after LSG, but not after LRYGB at 1 year follow up. In DM resolution there is no significance after band placement.

  290. Ugwu Cosmas Uchenna, Ofili Perpetua Chinyere and Ugwueze Blessing Ndidi

    The present study was a surface survey that determined the level of knowledge of risk factors for depression possessed by hospitalized elderly patients with depressive cases in teaching hospitals in Southeast Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. A total of 200 eligible participants were studied. Data was collected through interview method and questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. The study revealed that the level of knowledge of risk factors for depression possessed by hospitalized elderly patients with depressive cases in teaching hospitals in Southeast Nigeria was adequate. The study further showed the socio-demographic differences on the level of knowledge of risk factors for depression among the participants. Statistically, significant difference existed on some socio-demographic variables while no significant difference was indicated on others at 0.05 level of significance. The hospitalized elderly patients with depressive cases in teaching hospitals in Southeast Nigeria possessed adequate knowledge of risk factors for depression. However, their level of knowledge regarding the risk factors for depression differed within variables, thus suggesting the crucial need for optimization and effective education intervention such as public health education regarding risk factors for depression and other chronic diseases particularly in elderly.

  291. Leulalem, S. B., Elias, G., Assefa, G. and Yegelilaw, E.

    Presently the problem of the global warming is becoming the main issue of the world as well as the country which results increase in temperature and decrease in rainfall both in amount and distribution. This unreliable rainfall and desertification in turn reduce the production return from the existing limited natural resource. This problem is becoming the main constraint for development and increasing agricultural production. Besides increase in population is another constraint which needs special mechanism to facilitate food availability for the rapid increasing population. To enhance agricultural production and escape out from the rain feed cultivation, groundwater is paramount important. This groundwater investigation is used different methods such as geological, geomorphological and vertical electrical sounding. When to consider groundwater availability we have to know the geology and topographic setting of the area. Geology of the area is characterized as low laid flat land is covered by unconsolidated sediments; mountains, ridges and domes are covered by ignimbrite, rhyolite and basalts. These rocks covered in upland areas are characterized not as such weathered and there are no penetrative fractures. Most of mountain ridges and domes which composed of ignimbrite and rhyolite are considered as recharge area rather than discharge area. The location of VES points were on unconsolidated sediments covered on the flat land of the study area. A number of VES point indicate that the thickness of unconsolidated sediment is ranges between 40-70m. The main aquifer of the area is below 45m over laid by clay soil. The total thickness of the main aquifer is 200m expected from VES data.

  292. Rajni Dhingra, Kirti Singh Chauhan and Kanika Gupta

    According to Self-determination theory, satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness promotes well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2002).The present research was done to study the need satisfaction of adolescent girls in relation to perceived parental characteristics. Asample of 16-18 years old adolescent girls (n=100) randomly selected from private schools of Kathua district, Jammu & Kashmir, India was included in the sample. The sample was divided into two groups i.e. highly satisfied adolescent girls (25) and less satisfied adolescent girls (25), based on the Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS) administered in Phase – I. In Phase – II the relationship between parental characteristics and need satisfaction of adolescent girls was studied through Perception of Parents Scale (POPS). The results revealed that the adolescent girls derive more satisfaction of their needs related to autonomy, competence and relatedness from relationship. For POPS, except for the dimension of autonomy support, there were no significant differences between the perceptions of maternal characteristics of both groups. Overall need satisfaction among adolescent girls was found to be positively correlated, and for highly satisfied girls need satisfaction scores and POPS scores were significantly related on many dimensions.

  293. Sanjoy Deka and Rita Mahanta

    Fishes are very sensitive to the changes in their aquatic environment. For this reason, they are known as the bio-indicator species to monitor the water pollution. Organophosphate pesticides are widely used amidst various group of pesticide in intensive agricultural practices to protect the crops from various pest and diseases owing to their high insecticidal property, low mammalian toxicity, low persistence and rapid biodegradability in the ecosystem. Pesticide exposure may also fatal to many non-target organisms like fish where it hampers its health through impairment of metabolism, occasionally leading to the death of the fish. Malathion (C10H19O6PS2), one of the earliest organophosphate insecticides is being extensively used as dust, emulsion, and vapour to control wide variety of insect pests under different conditions. Malathion, one of the most extensively studied pesticides, may induce many significant changes in fish. Present study is aimed to review the toxicological effects on haematological parameters, physical parameters, biochemical parameters, behavioural changes, neurotoxic, histopathological alterations, respiratory responses, bioaccumulation and chromosomal changesin fishes exposed to the organophosphate pesticide Malathion.

  294. Bozhkov, A.I., Linkevych, O.S., Ivanov, E.G., Klimova, O.M. and Mohammad A. Y. AlBegai

    It has been study the effect of low molecular weight components of colostrum (LMCC) on some parameters of immune system and prooxidant-antioxidant system on the model of Cu-induced liver fibrosis. For the induction of liver fibrosis in rats were injected copper sulphate intraperitoneally three times successively at a dose 33% of lethal in rats. It is shown that the most marked changes in the initial stages of development of fibrosis manifested at the level of pro-antioxidant system, which is correlated with a change in the pattern of immunological parameters. These changes are manifested in the inhibition the growth of animals and decreasing their body temperature.Administration LMCC animals with liver fibrosis was accompanied by "removing" oxidative stress, activating of cellular immunity and restoring the growth rate and body temperature of the experimental animals.

  295. Nikhil Solanke, Vishnu Somani and Ram Gadhave

    Changes in brown rice and milled rice based snacks product at ambient condition for three months storage where, high density polyethylene (HDPE) pouches were used for packaging of brown rice and milled rice snacks. Storage period had significant effect on the moisture content on brown rice snacks was high as compared with milled rice snacks. Free fatty acid content of brown rice snacks was remained in acceptable range. While milled rice snack showed low values for free fatty acids whereas brown rice extruded snack had higher values of free fatty acids. Hardness shows a non significant effect on brown rice and milled rice snacks. Maximum hardness was observed in brown rice extruded snack and minimum hardness shown by milled rice extrudates. Overall acceptability was reduced in both milled and brown rice snacks were observed upto 3 months of storage.

  296. Hasan Akyurek and Zeynep Colak Orhan

    This study was carried out to the effects of supplementation of phytase enzyme to free-range layer diets on performance and egg quality traits. In the trial, at 48 wk old 152 Lohman Brown layers were divided into 3 dietary treatments with 2 replicates. Diets were fed 8 wk periods. Basal diets with 16, 75% crude protein and 2795 kcal/kg metabolisable energy were used. Three dietary treatments were formed as followed; (1) control group diet had 0 FTU/kg with phytase (T1), (2) T2 group diet had 250 FTU/kg phytase and (3) T3 group diet had 500 FTU/kg phytase. Feed and water were supplied for ad-libitum. Light was provided 16 hours daily. The results were indicated that egg production, feed intake and egg weight were significantly (P<0,01) increased by phytase addition. The treatments did not affect egg shape index, haugh unit and specific gravity. On the other hands, phytase supplementation was increased egg weight, albumen and yolk weight, egg shell weight and shell thickness. An according to result of the experiment that phytase supplementation of free-range layer diets had significant positive effects on performance and egg quality traits.

  297. Israa H. Al-Zubaidy, Saife D. Al-Ahmer and Ali A. Al-Ghanimi

    Background: Urinary tract infections are the most common infections after upper respiratory tract infections E. coli caused 20% of urinary tract infection and it was responsible for 1/3 of the infections. Nanoparticles (NPs) in general have many properties that are different from those of traditionally used materials. They have dimensions typically below 100 nm, which allows them to reach specific sites inside the body and even to be permeable to tissues and cells. Therefore, they can deliver the drugs in active forms at sites that conventional drugs may not reach by themselves and thus minimize the undesirable side effects. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as one of the inorganic delivery nanoparticles have recently been receiving considerable attentions. Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone class. It is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and it is recognized as one of the most effective antibiotics of the quinolone drug class and has been used for the treatment of urinary tract infections. Aims and objectives: The aims of present study were to prepare hybrid nanoan-ciprofloxacin and characterize by spectroscopic methods, and determine its inhibitory activity against the E. coli isolates caused the urinary tract infection in this study. Materials and Methods: In this study urine samples from 75 patients clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection were collected into sterile screw capped container and used for culture, Gram staining, API E20, antibiotic sensitivity test and singleplex PCR methods. PCR was performed with primer pair targeted to the PhoA gene of E. coli. Hybrid nano-antibiotic represented by the Mg/Al-Ciprofloxacin-LDH was prepared by using the direct ion exchange method between the free ciprofloxacin antibiotic and Mg/Al-LDH carrier, and then the hybrid nano-ciprofloxacin was characterized by spectroscopic methods include FTIR, XRD and AFM. Results: Out of 75 samples, 27(36%) samples have been detected for E. coli depending on the morphologic and biochemical characteristics of this bacterium on the nutrient agar, MacConky agar, blood base agar and EMB agar, as well as Gram stain and API E20. The antibiotic sensitivity test was showed different sensitivity patterns of E. coli isolates against the different types of antibiotics varied from marked sensitive pattern against imipenem and meropenem, to moderate sensitive pattern against ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and amikacin, in addition, to the marked resistance pattern toward ampicillin, ticarcillin, amoxicillin-clavanic acid and piperacillin. The singlplex PCR positive samples were identified by presence of ~903bp amplicon of the PhoA gene. The results of FTIR, XRD and AFM methods of nano-ciprofloxacin characterization indicted that this prepared nano-antibiotic was hybrid nano-ciprofloxacin (Mg/Al-Ciprofloxacin-LDH). The results of inhibition activity of both free ciprofloxacin and hybrid nano-ciprofloxacin showed that these two forms of ciprofloxacin revealed highest inhibition activity against two E. coli isolates (IS8 and IS10) with diameter of inhibition zone 40 and 42 mm, respectively. Whereas the E. coli isolates IS1and IS2 were the least affected isolates by the inhibition activity of these two forms of cirofloxacin with diameter of inhibition zone 38 and 35 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Using of hybrid nano-antibiotics resulting from loaded of different antibiotics on LDHs carrier could be represented a promising future tool to treat and control urinary tract infection and other different bacterial infections.

  298. Siddeswara, N.C., Guruprasad, R., Y.B. Rajeshwari, Shivakumar, R., Abdul Mateen, K.W., Uday Kumar and J. Shilpa Shree

    Numbers of population studies have linked elevated concentration of Total Cholesterol or Low density lipid (LDL) cholesterol in plasma with increased incidence of atherosclerotic events. In India, for instance the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam are claimed to posses’ cholesterol-reducing effect and are used to treat patients with heart disease and obesity. In this direction, leaves of Moringa oleifera, a leguminous forage tree can be a good unconventional feed supplement for animals and its effect on blood parameters was studied in this experiment. The mean serum total cholesterol (mg/dl) values during feeding trial ranged between 84.253.17 (T3) and 117.301.55 (T2). This shows that inclusion of M.oleifera leaves have hypolipidaemic effect. The blood glucose concentration in rabbits was significantly depressed at 10% level of Moringa incorporation because Moringa is known to posses’ anti-hyperglycemic effect or hypoglycemic effect. The hypoglycemic effect and hypolipidaemic effect was noticed in the groups fed with Moringa oleifera leaves, thus we may recommend the inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaves in the diet of human beings those suffering with high blood sugar level and higher blood cholesterol / lipid levels. And also further studies are desirable to know the maximum level of inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaves in broiler rabbits diet.

  299. Varsha Kumari

    Malnutrition is a long-term year round phenomenon due to chronic inadequacies in food intake combined with high levels of illness. Malnutrition is the most common health problem affecting both children and adults. Malnutrition is a physical condition or process that results from the interaction of inadequate diet and infection and is most commonly reflected in poor infant growth, reduced cognitive development, anemia, and blindness in those suffering severe micronutrient deficiency, and excess morbidity and mortality in children. Children malnutrition is the single biggest contribution to under five mortality due to greater susceptibility to infection and show recovery from illness. Children who do not reach optimum size as adult may have less physical capacity for works. Micronutrient deficiencies are moderately high by regional standards and still represent a public health problem. Although poverty is an important factor in the poor nutrition situation, nutritional deficiencies are widespread even in households that are economically well off. Inadequate feeding practices for children make it difficult to achieve the needed improvements in children’s nutritional status, and nutrition programmes have been unable to make much headway in dealing with these serious nutritional problems.

  300. Rari John, K. and Kamini, S.

    The study entitled “Constraints of the handloom entrepreneur weavers of Thiruvananthapuram and Kannur district” was undertaken with the objective to identify the constraints of the entrepreneur handloom weavers. Thiruvananthapuram (TVPM) and Kannur (KNR) districts of Kerala were purposively selected for conducting the study. 150 respondents each from Thiruvananthapuram and Kannur districts were selected by stratified random sampling technique. Delphi technique with some modifications was used to identify the constraints. The main constraint felt by the weavers in Thiruvananthapuram district were shifting of handloom to power loom / competition with power loom, delayed payment of money from the buyers, debt, globalization and non-recognition by the government. Non recognition by the government, debt, lack of encouragement from the government, shifting of handloom to power loom /competition with power looms were the main constraints among the entrepreneur weavers in Kannur district. The least felt constraint of the weavers of Thiruvananthapuram district was inadequate supply of raw materials. But marketing was the least felt overall constraint among the weavers in Kannur district.

  301. Dr. Sasirekha, G. and Dr. Vani, K.

    Aim: Nitric oxide, the second messenger is found to be the main factor involved in endothelial dysfunction and its level is found to be altered in hypertensive states. The aim is to elucidate the association between serum NO levels and essential hypertension and to compare with normal individuals. Materials and Methods: The study sample is comprised of 150 unrelated essential hypertensive patients and130 apparently healthy normotensive controls. Plasma glucose, serum urea, serum creatinine, total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and triglyceride concentration (TGL) were determined enzymatically and serum NO index (NOx) estimated by Griess method. Results: Statistically significant low NOx levels, with p value of 0.001 was observed in cases (14.69 + SD 4.45) when compared to controls (18.16 + SD 7.23). Serum NOx level was not influenced by biochemical parameters like plasma glucose and lipid profile. Conclusion: It was found that the low serum NO index is an independent risk indicator in essential hypertension, based on this study.

  302. Basnet, R., Pokhrel, D.N., Pandey, D. and Dangi, S.R.

    Wheat is the third staple food crop of Nepal and it has many constraints for successful production among them time of planting and foliar blight are the major constraints. Previously foliar blight was the problems of only plan region but now days the severity of foliar blight gradually increasing year after year in hills of Nepal also. In order to identify the high yielder, late sown condition foliar blight tolerant wheat genotypes for Terai of Nepal, an experiment was carried out at National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa during 2013-2014. The experiment was designed in Alpha Lattice, composed of thirty wheat genotypes with two replication and six sub plots. Each plot was made eight rows of three meter long. Manually harvested middle six rows leaving one row both side as boarder row. Foliar blight was recording was done three time in seven days interval. Area under disease progress curve was calculated AUDPC). The lowest AUDPC was found Standard check (var. Gautam) with the highest yield 1909 kg-ha followed by 478.6 AUDPC of genotype NL 1202 which gave 1771 kg-ha yield.

  303. Ravinder Singh and Amarjeet Kaur

    The present investigation was carried out in the laboratory of Department of Horticulture Khalsa College, Amritsar during the year 2015-16. The fruits of semi-soft pear(Pyrus communis) cv. Punjab Beauty were harvested from the healthy trees at physiologically mature stage in the last week of July from a well maintained Govt. Orchard and Nursery, Attari Distt, Amritsar and were packed in CFB and wooden boxes and kept under cold storage at 0° to 3.3°C and 90% relative humidity. The fruits from each treatment were analysed for physico-chemical characteristics after 0, 20, 40 and 60 days of cold storage period. The results revealed that the fruits packed in CFB boxes reduced the PLW, spoilage loss and increased firmness upto 60 days of storage with maximum edible quality.TSS and sugars were maximum in fruits packed in wooden boxes.

  304. Gandhi Siddhar Selvam, Saranya Vidyasagar and Dr. Karthikeyan, K.

    Background: Oral administration of peptide hormones like insulin is challenging due to its structural instability, which is often broken by the digestive enzymes and other environmental factors during absorption in the intestine. The present study deals with the protective effect of the herbal drug Desmodium gangeticum on the stability of the peptide hormone, insulin, in oral dosage. Hypothesis: Herbal extract of Desmodium gangeticum increase the oral stability of insulin for Diabetes treatment. Method: Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes was developed in male Wistar rats (170 - 190g) and treated with STZ (65mg/kg) in 0.02M citrate saline buffer. A blood glucose level exceeding 200 was considered diabetic. Rats were then treated orally with insulin in combination with Desmodium gangeticum for 4-5 days. After 12h of fasting, the rats were then decaptivated to obtain blood and tissue homogenates which were used to assess relevant parameters for biochemical assays. Result: Combinatorial therapy of insulin and Desmodium gangeticum on oral dosage produced a significance decrease in blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats, as evident by biochemical analysis. Conclusion: The overall results suggest the aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum is a possible candidate for oral delivery of insulin for Diabetes treatment.

  305. Milvee K. Vyas

    Effects of different concentrations of zinc and arsenic on germination, root and shoot growth, dry weight of root and shoot and changes in content of total chlorophyll, carotenoids, total sugar and protein of Physalis minima L. was studied. The lower concentration of zinc has beneficial effect but application of higher level of zinc has an adverse effect. Arsenic reduced the percentage of germination, root and shoot length and dry weight of root and shoot. Total chlorophyll, carotenoids, sugar and protein were also affected by arsenic and their contents were decreased.

  306. Patel Hardik and Solanki Hitesh

    Problems of Municipal Solid Waste Management are increasing day by day with the increase of population, urbanization and industrialization. Our Indian Prime minister declared the Swachha Bharat Abhiyan to reduce the waste management problems in India. All the states of India are participating it to success it. Patan was also participated in to reduce the problems in Patan but due to some reasons, problems are not reducing. The present study was carried out in Zinipol area of Patan by being a mediator of Patan Nagar Palika and Public. Zinopol is a residential area having more than 120 households. During the study, Specific Municipal Solid Waste Management System from waste generation to disposal of the Zinipol area was developed as per the draft Solid Waste Management Rules, 2015 and implemented successfully with the support of Patan Nagar Palika and Public Participation of Zinipol area. The Swachhata Plan for the area was also developed with this. According to the Specific Municipal Solid Waste Management system and Plan of Zinipol, the entire household was segregating and storing dry waste and wet waste in separate dustbins at their home which was directly transferred to the processing site. At the site, the dry waste and wet waste was weighted and segregated in categories like compostable, recyclable, reusable and landfill. After segregation, compostable materials were used in composting, recyclable send for recycling, reusable given to stakeholders. The waste of Zinipol area was reduced up to 98 % by implementing the plan and system. Only 2 % waste was remain which has no solution with us so it was transferred to the dumping site because of no landfill sites in Patan and in its surrounding area. It was the first system and plan implemented in Patan which reduced the quantity of waste and supported to draft Solid Waste Management Rules, 2015.

  307. Maiti, A. K.

    Here, inventory model of a deteriorating item during its seasonal time is considered where lifetime of an item has an upper limit. Rate of deterioration increases with time and depends on the duration of lifetime left. It is assumed that duration of the season of the item is imprecise in nature in non-stochastic sense, i.e., fuzzy in nature. Demand of the item is price dependent and unit cost of item is time dependent. Unit cost is a decreasing function at the beginning of the season and an increasing function at the end of the season and is constant during the remaining part of the season. The model is formulated to maximize the total proceeds out of the system from the planning horizon which is fuzzy in nature. As optimization of fuzzy objective is not well defined, using credibility measure of fuzzy event, an approach is proposed for comparison of two fuzzy objectives and using this approach a dominance based Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to find marketing decision for the decision maker (DM). In particular case when planning horizon is crisp, the model is also solved. The models are illustrated with some numerical examples and some sensitivity analyses have been made.

  308. Mammadov Vaif Talıb, Akhmedov Alihikmat Sltanali and Aslanov Jamaladdin Nuraddin

    The aim of the task is to study the stress-strain state cylinders coated bulky devices subjected to the joint action of pressure and temperature changes during operation. The published papers in this problem the combined effect of the external pressure and temperature differential cylinder coated bulky devices are not considered. In this task, the system consists of a cylinder main relatively thick cylinder and a thin inner coating of another material such as a cylinder is subjected to external pressure and asymmetrical temperature field. • Assume that the material of the base layer, the cylinder cover and elastic-plastic, obeys the yield condition, ie, Mises condition. • Also, the temperature is uniformly distributed over the coating thickness, and equal to the temperature inside the main cylinder surface layer. Since the problem relates to the definition of thermal stress field of elastic stresses and displacements of the cylinder defined by the equation of thermoelasticity theory. These equations are written separately to the cylinder and the coating is then co-solution of the equations are carried out in two conditions: - The continuity of the radial displacement of the contact surface; - The balance of power in the main voltage. In conclusion, it can be shown that the effect of the coating is reduced to a certain increase in the area of adaptability. In quantitative terms, this increase depends on the physico-mechanical properties of the material and the nature of the temperature.

  309. Ramender Nautiyal, Prashant Singh and Sanjay Gupta

    The biodegradation process was investigated using an isolated single bacterial culture of P. putida. The P. putida was able to reduced 75-80% pollution load within 48 hrs under aerobic condition as term of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) in River Water containing Phenol (RWP)). Obtained data showed that P. putida was potent bacterial culture for RWP treatment. The influence of three process parameters such as temperature (20-500C), pH (4-9) and agitation speed (30-150 rpm) influenced the rate of biodegradation extent. Central composite design (CCD), an experimental design for response surface methodology (RSM), was used to create a set of 36 experimental runs needed for optimizing operating conditions. The optimal degradation conditions were determined by response surface methodology based on three-variable central composite design to obtain maximum reduction and to determine the significance and interaction effect of the variables on degradation. The optimal conditions of response were found to be 35 0C, pH 8.05 and 120 rpm agitation speed, respectively, giving an experimental degradation value of 80.07%. Very high regression coefficient between the variables and the response (R2 = 0.6447) indicated a good evaluation of experimental data by polynomial regression model.

  310. Sri Teja and Srinivas

    The connecting rod is the most important part of an automotive engine. It is intermediate member between the piston and the crankshaft. Usually connecting rod is made of using steel for production engine, or cast iron for application such as motor scooters. By changing the material we can increase the performance of the engine and reduce the weight of the connecting rod. The present work has been carried out to replace the existing connecting rod made of forged steel with Al2014 with sic material. A parametric model of conrod is designed using CREO software. Analysis is carried out by using ANSYS software. Prototype of connecting rod is manufactured by using die casting. Testing done for chemical compositions, hardness and tensile strength. Compared to the former material the new material found to have less weight and better stiffness. It results in reduction of weight and displacement.

  311. Gulzar, M. H. and Manzoor, A. W.

    In this paper we give bounds for the number of zeros of a polynomial in a disk when the coefficients of the polynomial are restricted to certain conditions. Our results generalize many known results in this direction and many other new results can also be obtained by a suitable choice of the parameters. Mathematics Subject Classification: 30C10, 30C15.

  312. Marcos dos Santos, Luiz Fernando Carneiro de Souza, Isis Coelho Lima, Fabrício da Costa Dias and Ernesto Rademaker Martins

    Due to the globalization in which companies are inserted today, competition is inevitable and a constant threat. In addition, customers are increasingly demanding and resources increasingly scarce. In this context, a competitive advantage is established when meeting the requirements of the clients: speed, punctuality and flexibility. Companies are increasingly attentive to customer needs and have begun investing in production management techniques to ensure the reliability of their products and services. The application of demand forecasting models has the possibility of maintaining a lean stock structure of raw materials of the organization, as well as the possibility to identify a better way to avoid wastes and deviations of the processes through some analytical models of the Operational Research. As most of the company's employees at the operational level do not have the necessary skills to handle these mathematical models, this paper aims to propose the development and implementation of a production management system through the Microsoft Visual Basic® (VBA) interface, in A company of products derived from pigs, with the purpose of reducing waste and assisting in decision making, reducing the levels of stock of raw material.

  313. Reshma, S., Haseeba Yaseen and Dr. Chetana Prakash

    The infotainment system is in the vehicle information system, and provides multiple functions such as navigation and multimedia systems, working in parallel with the moving vehicle. The most important factor to consider while designing such an interface is driver safety, even before improving the systems functionality and the other features. This paper proposes a literature survey on various user interface designs for an infotainment system, by taking the advantages of some existing infotainment systems and proposing the best among them.

  314. Deepak Gupta, Shashi Bala and Pradeep Bishnoi

    This paper provides a simple heuristic algorithm to minimize utilization time for specially structured n-job and 2-machine flow shop scheduling problem with jobs in a string of disjoint job blocks in which the processing times are associated with probabilities including transportation time. Usually in machine scheduling models it is assumed that the jobs are delivered instantaneously from one point to another without taking into account the transportation time involved therein. In this paper we study machine scheduling problems having jobs in a string of disjoint job blocks and by taking into account the explicit transportation considerations. Also, the processing times are not random but bear well defined relationship to one another. In flow shop scheduling the emphasis is on minimization of idle time/elapsed time but minimization of elapsed time may not always lead to minimization of utilization time. Here, the objective is to find an algorithm to minimize the utilization time of machines. The proposed algorithm is validated with the help of a numerical example.

  315. Sudha, G. and Sophia Porchelvi, R.

    In this paper, an algorithm is presented to perform critical path analysis in an intuitionistic fuzzy environment. Here, the arc lengths are assigned triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Ranking procedures are applied on intuitionistic fuzzy numbers to find the critical path and an illustrative example is given to demonstrate the proposed method.

  316. Reuben Marwanga and Pius Walela

    In this age of exponential technology development and relentless globalization, innovation and entrepreneurship have become the prime drivers of economic growth. Thus the role of Technology Business Incubators (TBIs) as part of the system of innovation has become all the more important for the transformation of technological ideas into commercial benefits. More advanced countries have already taken a lead in this direction, developing nations have yet to fully exploit this system particularly to invigorate SMEs which are a crucial part of their economy in terms of employment as well as growth .The research focused on ICT incubation in Kenya targeting start ups and innovators. The key role of the research was to nurture nascent ventures by providing focused guidance and facilitation services together with networking, mentorship and shared facilities. The research incorporated a total of 19 incubatees split into two groups. The research leveraged Strathmore University resources to facilitate the business training and technological support of the participants. The program progressed from pre-incubation, business planning, financing, networking and finally mentorship. The program objectives were fostering innovation and entrepreneurship in Kenya, promotion of job creation, commercialization of technology, and creation of new or better products and services. The outcomes of the program have been two top 100 entrants for the chase business plan competition; Xrystalgenius and HDS logic, winners of the Mobo base pyramid challenge in Finland, Sukuma Africa award and the Kenya ICT board local content development for the private sector.

  317. Lívia Almagro, Rafael Oliveira Bim, Simone Andreia Gubolin, Leandro Moreira Tempest, TaylaneSoffenerBerlanga de Araújo, Carlos Alberto Costa Neves Buchala, Ana Paula Bernardes da Rosa Maluf Abbu and Idiberto José Zotarelli Filho

    Introduction: In the history of humanity, there has always been a search for measures and enjoyable ways, balanced and beautiful. Therefore, professionals had to adapt to the modern world, thus highlighted the value from the perspective of facial aesthetic treatment plan, said the concept of the modern world values beautiful teeth and a nice smile. Objective: The objective of this study was to present through literature review, the study of the golden ratio or divine proportion applied in dental aesthetics, their versatility and assistance to dentistry. Methods: The model Followed for the review was PRISMA. We used the databases Scielo, Lilacs, Google Scholar, PubMed articles and works of scientific and doctoral theses master. Discussion: A harmonious and pleasant smile is synonymous with balance and proportion. Symbolize beauty in its most primitive level, and whenever possible have defined proportions from favorable aesthetic aspects of each individual. Conclusion: Based on the literature, it was concluded that the golden ratio is one of the real important elements for aesthetic dentistry today, getting up with her favorable and harmonious aesthetic results.

  318. Marcia D. Abrajano and Judith Ty-Pelobello

    The study aimed to determine the financial behaviour, attitude and fitness of the faculty members and Non-teaching personnel of Eastern Samar State University Salcedo Campus during the school year 2015-2016. Descriptive-correlation survey method of research was used in the study to determine the association of financial behaviour, financial attitudes and financial fitness of the employees in ESSU Salcedo Campus. Using descriptive statistics and correlation coefficient set at 0.05 level of significance, the study revealed the following: Majority of the faculty in ESSU Salcedo Campus were married with the age bracket of 40 years old and above (36.7%), with monthly family income of Php 16,000-25,000. Most of them have earned a master’s degree (30%), with academic rank as instructors (50%) and served for 21 years and above in teaching experience (40%). As to the financial behaviour of the faculty in ESSU - Salcedo Campus, it was noted that most of the faculty have moderate financial behaviour comprising of 13 or 43.3%. Likewise, the faculty has moderately favourable financial attitude comprising of 11 or 36.7 percent. In addition, the respondents were considered financially healthy (43.3%). Furthermore, as to life satisfaction, the faculty found to be highly satisfied with their lives with 46.7%. With regards to the relationship between the respondents’ demographic profile in terms of age, sex, marital status, highest educational and educational attainment, academic rank, monthly family income and length of teaching experience, financial literacy to life satisfaction, it was found out that the demographic profile were not significantly correlated to life satisfaction with the indices of 0.390, 0.299, 0.320, 0.394, 0.452, 0.470, 0.441 and with a p- values of 0.570, 0.750, 0.804, 0.543, 0.267,0.150 and 0.275, respectively. As to the relationship between financial literacy and life satisfaction of the faculty in ESSU-Salcedo Campus, it could be noted that financial behaviour, financial attitudes and financial fitness of the faculty were not significantly correlated to life satisfaction. These are shown with indices of correlation of 0.439, 0.390, 0.444 and p-values of 0.283, 0.550 and 0.297, respectively. Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn: Most of the faculty members of ESSU Salcedo Campus were dominated by married female in their middle age with moderately low family income, highly experienced and masters’ degree holder. The demographic profile of the respondents, financial behaviour, financial attitudes and financial fitness do not have significant relationship with life satisfaction. The members of the faculty have moderate behaviour, favourable attitude and financially healthy towards financial aspects. Furthermore, they were considered as highly satisfied with their life situations. Based on the findings and conclusions, the following are recommended: Faculty members have to grab the opportunities in applying for scholarship grants in order to upgrade their academic rank and increase their monthly family income. Financial literacy program or awareness dissemination related to financial literacy should be conducted to the faculty. Further studies should be conducted correlating the demographic profile of the respondents to financial literacy of the faculty. A wide scope of research involving other faculty from the different universities in Region VIII should be conducted to compare with and validate the findings of the study.

  319. Dr. Titus m. Owoh and Ogwa Christopher Eze

    Curriculum innovation is a welcome idea. This is most acceptable since the society which the curriculum content is made to serve is dynamic in nature. The issue of implementing the new ideas brought into the curriculum content is now the bone of contention. The ability of the curriculum implementers to adapt to changes easily will be of help towards achieving this new idea. Teaching and technical personnel are in the forefront in achieving the curriculum objectives. The paper therefore looks at the way the working personnel can be placed in job positions in technology education. It holds the view that when workers are placed appropriately they will be more productive. The paper also suggests refreshed training for the servicing workers at regular intervals. This will help keep them in tune with new innovations.

  320. Dr. Thingnam Nandalal Singh and Harmandeep Kaur

    For the purpose of the study, sixty (N=60) national level male players of contact games (twenty for each game i.e., football, hockey and basketball) and sixty (N=60) national level male players of non-contact games (twenty for each game i.e., volleyball, cricket and baseball) from Chandigarh were selected as subjects of the study by using purposive sampling technique. The age of the subjects ranged between 19-25 years. To assess motor ability status, Barrow General Motor Ability Test (1957) that is consist of three items named zigzag run (agility), standing broad jump (power), medicine ball put (strength) was used. To find out the significance differences ‘t’ test was used with the help of SPSS software. For testing hypothesis, the level of significance was set at 0.05. No significant differences were obtained between contact and non-contact games on zig-zag run and standing broad jump. Significant difference was obtained on medicine ball put between contact and non-contact games. The finding reveals that national level players of non-contact games have performed significantly better than players of contact games on medicine ball put.

  321. David Iheke Okorie

    Assessing the regional economic integration taking as a case study the Economic Community of West African (ECOWAS), we set off to empirically validate its essence in terms of benefits to its member countries in relation to the possible factors that might determine these benefits so as rationalize the decision to belong in an economic integration. Employing the random effect estimation methods on the longitudinal series from inception of the economic integration till 2014, we discovered that the member states benefit from being the economic community and these benefits are unequal as shown by the arrow plot. However, we also found out that these benefits do not depend on the level of openness of each member state. We hereby recommend that the ECOWAS body should take all necessary actions to ensure that all member states benefit positively.

  322. Sabria S. Jawhar and Haifa A. Alnofaie

    Teaching strategies in motivating EFL learners should be seen as an important aspect of teacher classroom practice. There are empirical research findings that identify effective teacher motivational strategies (Dörnyei and Csizér's, 1998; Dörnyei, 2001; Cheng and Dörnyei, 2008; Sugita and Takeuchi, 2010; Ruesh et al., 2012; Wong, 2013). These studies examine the issue of motivational strategies mainly from a quantitative stand point. Qualitative investigations that identify the types of the teacher’s utterances that are used as motivational strategies in classroom discussions are scarce. It is the purpose of this paper to examine how the teacher’s utterances motivate EFL learners to participate in classroom talk. As drawn from the analysis of a classroom discussion in an EFL lesson (50 minutes length),the teacher used effective utterances that could provide learners with opportunities to express themselves (for example, asking referential questions, building on others’ contributions, linking learners’ contributions and inviting evaluation of answers). In addition to the teacher’s effective use of her utterances as motivational strategies, task topic and teacher-learner rapport were identified as other motivational strategies that contribute to learners’ active participation in talk. The observations highlighted in our analysis of teacher-learner interaction contribute to existing literature on teacher motivational strategies by identifying types of teacher motivational utterances. Another contribution of this study is the context. Studies that look at teacher motivational strategies in Saudi Arabia are limited (Alrabai, 2010; Alqahtani, 2016; Alnofaie, 2016). It is hoped that the findings of this study will inform the motivational practices of EFL teachers. More studies, particularly those that employ mixed approach methods, are needed in the field of teacher motivational practices.

  323. Evans Oteng, Batola David and Addai Kyeremeh Emmanuel

    Interest rate is the closely watched variable in the economy, their movements are reported almost daily by news media because they directly affect our everyday lives and have important consequence for the health of the economy and it is important macroeconomic variables for economic growth, they affect personal decisions such as whether to consume or to save, whether to buy a house and whether to purchase bonds or put funds into a saving account. This paper investigates the effects of real exchange rate on economic growth in Ghana over the period 1975 to 2015 using quarterly time series data. Specifically, it examines the extent to which real exchange rate has on the growth rates of the country reflecting real GDP, inflation rate and interest. The study, therefore, employs the co-integration analysis within the framework of Vector Autoregressive (VAR) to empirically investigate the effects of real exchange rate on real GDP growth in the country. The study found long-run relationships among the variables. The results also indicated that within the past one year and two years, inflation rate and interest rate had negative impacts on the growth of real GDP in Ghana respectively while within the past one year, real exchange rate had a positive effect on the real GDP in Ghana. Further, the study found feedback effects among the variables. Further, the study found feedback effects among the variables. The Granger Causality test also showed unidirectional causality running from inflation rate and interest rate to real GDP and bi-directional causality from both real exchange and money supply and real GDP. This study, therefore, recommends that the Bank of Ghana and government of Ghana put in measures which are geared towards stabilising these policy variables especially real exchange rates as they are capable of influencing the country’s economic performance both in the short and long run.

  324. Hemant Lata Sharma and Dr. Gunjan Nasa

    This study explored the association between Academic Self-efficacy, Academic Help-seeking Behaviour and student Achievement on a sample of 600 secondary school students. Academic Self-efficacy is a person's belief in his/her ability to succeed in an academic situation. Academic help-seeking behaviour is 'seeking others help' at the time when one faces difficulties or uncertainty in the course of his/her education in classroom. Achievement is the accomplishment or acquired proficiency in the performance of an individual with respect to a given knowledge or skill. In the present study, the variables demonstrated the positive and significant relationship between academic self-efficacy, academic help-seeking behaviour and student achievement. The practical implications and future directions of the study are discussed.

  325. Dr. Joyce Otieno, Dr. Omondi Bowa, Dr. Peter Keiyoro, Dr. Angeline Mulwa and Dr. Peter Keiyoro

    The purpose of this research was to determine how print instructional design influences learner participation in distance education programme. Five areas that constitute design were studied. These included: clarity of instructions, interactivity of content, presence of icons, presence of self-assessment exercises and presence statement of objectives. The target population was 554 students in their final year of study in the Bachelor of Education programme by distance learning of University of Nairobi.. Data collected were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and correlation coefficient. Results show that design of print instructional medium has significant influence on learner participation in distance learning since 145(83%) perceived design to be very important for their participation. On clarity of design of print instructional medium, 138(79%) found it useful for participation. With regard to interactivity of language, 132(75.9%) felt the design interactive was beneficial in their participation. A total of 129 (74%) did not find presence of icons useful to their participation in the programme. Respondents perceived self- assessment exercises to be essential since 166((95%) found them necessary while making reference to print instructional medium. Presence of objectives in the print instructional medium was perceived by the respondents to be the most influential in their participation in the programme. Learners perceived the design of study units to have had an influence on participation in distance learning since correlation results reflected F = 10.495.P < 0.05 at 0.002 which was below 0.5 set level of significance. It was concluded therefore that course designers should revisit the use of icons in the study units to improve on them so that they can assist the learners while studying using print medium. They should also include student study guide to enable the learners to recognize how much time they should take reading particular topics.

  326. Gerua Pauli Kist Steffen, Joseila Maldaner, Ricardo Bemfica Steffen, Ricardo Mezzomo, Breno Bevilaqua Heinz, Zaida Inês Antoniolli, Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz and Sabrina de Fátima Barbosa Dahmer

    Trichoderma fungi are the main pathogens of biocontrol agents used in agriculture. The isolation and in vitro selection of these antagonistic fungi are essential steps in establishing biological control programs and the composition of commercial products. This study aimed to identify, evaluate and select Trichoderma spp. for biological control of plant pathogens of agronomic importance. The antagonist potential of eighteen Trichoderma isolates was tested with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternariaalternata, Ceratocystis fimbriata, Fusarium oxysporum and Phoma sp. through direct in vitro confrontation tests. The degree of isolate antagonism was assessed according to the criteria of Bell et al. (1982). All isolate antagonists were effective in competing for space and nutrients, with high or intermediate antagonistic action against different species of plant pathogens confronted. There were differences in the biocontrol potential of the same Trichoderma sp. in relation to different plant pathogens, as well as among isolates belonging to the same species. The Trichoderma sp. isolates tested in this work were effective in the in vitro control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternariaalternata, Ceratocystis fimbriata, Fusarium oxysporum and Phoma sp.

  327. He Xiao

    There is an inseparable relationship between modern educational technology and university teaching management. The management should be supposed to make a difference with the development of the educational technology. Only by applying the modern educational technology to establish a system of university teaching management that is efficient and adapt to the current environment could university ensure the normal conduction of the teaching management.

  328. Seema Devi

    The present study analyzes the role of inflation and money supply in India’s current account deficit and fiscal deficit and assume that fiscal deficit and current account deficit move together. The long run relationship exists between current account deficit and fiscal deficit and money supply & inflation are mediating variables which affect current account balance. The research covers the period from 2000-01 to 2014-15. In order to accomplish the objective of twin deficit relationship, the empirical study starts with checking of normality with the help of unit root test of stationarity. To know the integrity between the variables Johansen cointegration test has been applied. Then vector error estimates test has been used. At last impulse response function test has been applied.

  329. Dr. Saroj Kumar Singh

    Environment pollution is a wide-reaching problem and it is likely to influence the health of human populations is great. This paper provides the insight view about the effects of environment pollution in the perspective of air pollution, water and land/soil waste pollution on human by diseases and problems, animals and trees/plants. Study finds that these kinds of pollutions are not only seriously affecting the human by diseases and problems but also the animals and trees/plants.

  330. Pranali Pramod Sonawane, Savita Madhukar Vaidya and Swati Himanshu Shah

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases globally. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the troublesome complication. But exact pathogenesis is not yet known. Studies showing association between duration of DM with severity of neuropathy are less in number. Hence, present study was aimed to compare conduction velocities and amplitudes of sensory-motor nerves of upper limbs in healthy controls and patients with type 2 DM of varying duration and to correlate these parameters with duration of disease. 60 type 2 DM male patients having controlled glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c), were selected. 30 were having diabetes for 0-5 years (group B) and 30 were having diabetes for 5-10 years (group C). They were compared with 30 healthy controls (group A). Conduction velocity and amplitudes of ulnar motor and ulnar sensory nerves were recorded bilaterally. On analysis, amplitudes and conduction velocities of ulnar sensory nerves were significantly lower in diabetic patients with longer duration of DM. To conclude, DPN worsens with increasing duration of disease. Stringent action has to be taken at an early stage of disease to prevent nerve damage. Early diagnosis of DPN remains the cornerstone of patient follow up.

  331. Dr. Pranuchakravarthy, J. and Dr. Vijayasagar, T.

    Aims: Is to determine whether web-based education in anatomy is a practical, effective and implementable study aid for medical students. Materials and Methods: An interactive website with a built in Learning Management system was designed. All I MBBS students (2015-16batch) of Sri Ramachandra medical college, Porurwere registered as users. A wide bouquet of e –learning content in the form of power point presentations, interactive lessons with audio narrations, videos, multiple choice quizzes, high resolution digital microphotographs, question banks were uploaded to the interactive website. Results: 95% students found the interactive website extremely useful for learning the subject and examination point of view. 98% students rated the academic content as excellent . About 52% of the students accessed the website more than once in a week. 86% students opined that if free internet services are provided within the campus, they would prefer to access the website more frequently. Conclusion: The study concludes that web based academic content will greatly help students in their learning process. The present generation of students are more inclined toward computers and internet based education. With highly affordable access devices and better connectivity and speeds, web based learning along with traditional teaching will add immense value to the learning experience.

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