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May 2017

  1. Debela Tezera

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impediment in implementing multicultural education in case of Wollega Zone in Oromia Ethiopia. Using the survey method, data were collected from5 educational experts, 10 school principals, 51 teachers and 102 students. Students were selected randomly by using simple random sampling techniques and educational experts, school principals and teachers were selected by availability sampling method. Questionnaires, interview, and observation were used. As data collection tools the collected data were analyzed in terms of frequencies, percentages, and interpreted by words. The findings indicated that respondents were highly aware of multicultural education, but they were not implemented into educational practices from multicultural perspective. As the indicated that the lack of skills, Knowledge, attitude, inadequacy of multicultural education materials, and discrimination based on prejudices, ethnocentrism, politics, and religion view were the major impediment hindering implementation of multicultural education. The study also revealed some strategies of implementing multicultural issues in schools. Such issues are, establishing various clubs which used to create awareness and create positive attitude toward diversity issues , create equal opportunity for all students, empowering students in all activities, giving workshop for teachers on services and in-services, reducing discrimination and educating society about issues of multicultural education. In light of these findings, it is recommended that teachers have to encourage students in practicing, respecting, and appreciating diversity. Learning and teaching process has also to incorporate reflective diversity into teaching from multicultural education perspective. Moreover, school principals, Oromia education bureau, and ministry of education should have created different strategies or mechanisms for fostering of multicultural education and create a means in order to minimize discrimination. Finally, ways of improving students and teachers educational practices from multicultural perspectives and organizing panel discussion with regards to diversity issues through media and giving due attention for practical parts were recommended.

  2. Ibrahim O. Barasa and Donald N. Siamba

    It is strongly believed that secondary schools can generate energy from sewage to supplement biomass energy thereby protecting the environment. However, potential beneficiaries are oblivious of the environmental health benefits of utilising sewage for energy generation. This study assessed the potential environmental benefits of anaerobic digestion of sewage for energy production in secondary schools of Kakamega County, Kenya. Sewage influents and effluents samples were analyses in the laboratories for Total Kjeldal Nitrogen (TKN), P2O5, heavy metals, E.coli and faecal coliforms. It was established that there was an increase in the TKN, P2O5, and pH concentrations in the effluent after anaerobic digestion. However, its dry matter content, E.coli and faecal coliforms concentrations reduced as the heavy metals remained unchanged. Thus, anaerobic digestion of sewage for energy generation reduces the E.coli and faecal coli forms concentrations in the effluent to harmless levels in the environment. There was a decrease in the dry matter content and the amount of methane released into the biosphere. The decrease in the dry matter means less storage space for the sewage as the controlled methane emissions implies low greenhouse gas generation. The digestate can be utilised as a bio nutrient. Thus, sewage utilisation for energy production in secondary schools can help to meliorate environmental challenges.

  3. Le Long Hau

    This study is to investigate the impact of working capital management on firm profit for listed firms on Ho chi minh stock exchange, Vietnam. Using the data of 210 listed firms over 2011-2015, the empirical results show that both proxies for working capital management – cash conversion cycle and working capital coverage ratio – are statistically negatively related to firm profits. These findings indicate that working capital management does have an effect on firm profit, where a reduction in cash conversion cycle or in working capital coverage ratio results in an increase in firm profit. Furthermore, components of working capital management comprising of receivables collection period and inventory conversion period show a significantly negative effect on firm profits, while the payables deferral period indicates a negative but not statistically significant impact on firm profit. These findings imply that firm managers should pay more attention to working capital management as a way to increase firm performance.

  4. Abdulmumin Musa Omiya and Abdullahi Jibrin Dan Asabe

    The attempt to educate the nomadic Fulani in Nigeria was initially made a national policy that became popular at a period. With time it became mere political propaganda, the research was conducted to find out the implications of governmental attitudes to the programme using Goru/Kalgo area of Kebbi State. It is discovered that lot of problems like finance, lack infrastructure, etc are a serous threat with the attendants problem of cattle rustling, kidnapping etc. The research recommended amongst other a collaborative efforts by all stake holders to provide not only functional education but one that will incorporate their nomadic features.

  5. Dr. Diptimoni Boruah

    The India’s north-east has witnessed active internal armed conflict for decades and several ‘special security’ laws, particularly the Armed Forces Special Power Act (AFSPA), have breaded into the culture of impunity. Women are often portrayed as passive victims during armed conflict situations. Stereotypical essentializing women as victims and men as perpetrators of violence deny each their agency and voice as actors in the process. Sexual violence in armed conflict situation is mostly unreported though widespread. The culture of impunity and social notion of women as the bearer of the honour of the family and society results in culture of silence over the crimes of sexual violence committed during armed conflict situations. It is seen that in the larger frame work of addressing various issues of the conflict, women’s concern take a backseat. Consequently, their needs and issues get buried within larger scheme of consideration. Conflict situations puts additional strain on women who get twice as marginalized as well as vulnerable to attacks from the aggressive opposition as women are most often symbolize the honour of the family. Legal procedural aspects together with the social notion of ‘honour’ have denied women justice for sexual violence. The paper attempts to explore the various dimensions of violations and discriminations suffered by north-east women in armed conflict situations, by using the growing toolkit of international instruments to protect and advance women’s human rights. The paper also highlights India’s continuing and resounding failure to progressively realize the key women’s human rights and to respect women’s dignity in armed conflict situations.

  6. Sr. Tressie Rodrigues and Gopakumar, V.

    Reading is to the mind, what exercise is to the body. Reading occupies a key role in the life of a person. It opens the doors of treasures of knowledge. The present study, aims to assess the reading habits of the inhabitants of religious houses and their spiritual growth. The study was conducted in the Mysore Diocese. A questionnaire was used for data collection. The present study is based on some observations on the religious houses in the Mysore Diocese. Inhabitants have focused only on religious collection and reading. Libraries should be utilized to have access to information. It is necessary that religious libraries keep themselves abreast with modern development technologies and lack digital information such as websites, mobile apps, YouTube channels, live broadcasts etc.

  7. Hyeong-Seog Kim

    The climatological characteristics of rainfall induced by tropical cyclone over the western North Pacific are examined using the satellite observation. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 provides invaluable rainfall data for tropical cyclone (TC) research since 1998. Based on TRMM 3B42 data, rainfall properties of TCs are statistically quantified for different sea surface temperature (SST) levels and TC intensities. As TCs are stronger, the TC-induce rainfalls increase about 15% per 20 knot of TC’s wind speed. The rainfall induced by TC also increases as the SST warming. The increase rate is about 8-10 % per 1 ℃of SST. The rate is comparable to the idealized environmental water vapor content changes obtained by multiplying the average SST change by 7% per 1 °C. The changes in TC-induced rainfall related to both TC intensity and SST also show consistent results, suggesting that both TC intensity and SST are main factors for the changes in TC-induced rainfall.

  8. Kalpit Mhatre and Alok Gude

    The present paper deals with the study of mangrove associate plant species found in the Ratnagiri District of the Maharashtra State. Present investigation reveals that a total of 21 mangrove associate species are found in the district in a huge population.

  9. Nguyen Hai Quang

    This study aims to determine the elasticity of demand for domestic air transport in Vietnam by air fare and per capita income. From the theoretical base and forming of research model, this study analyzes data of airlines of Vietnam for the period of 10 years from 2007 to 2016. The results show that air fare and per capita income are important factors affecting the demand for domestic air transport in Vietnam. Accordingly, the elasticity of demand for the whole market by air fare is -0.7047 and the per capita income is 2.3112. For the market operated by traditional airlines or full services carrier (FSC), the elasticity coefficients of demand by air fare and per capita income are -1.7095 and 2.0159 respectively. As to the market operated by the low cost carriers (LCC), the elasticity coefficients by air fare and per capita income are -3.5052 and 5.7514 respectively. The results of this study are the basis for helping airlines of Vietnam and Civil Aviation Authority of Vietnam in market forecasting and selection of appropriate pricing policy.

  10. Dereje Negeri Ethicha

    The aim of this study was to assess EFL teachers’ implementation of cooperative language learning method with reference to promoting speaking skill. To this end, three English language teachers of grade ten and fifty-one students of the same grade level were involved in the study. A mixed-method research approach was used to collect the data. Specifically; questionnaires, classroom observations and textbook analysis were employed. The quantitative data were analyzed through frequency and percentages distribution and the qualitative data were analyzed in words. The results of the quantitative data were triangulated with the qualitative data analyzed based on their similarities. The findings of the study revealed that teachers had the conceptual awareness of the advantage of cooperative language learning method in enhancing students’ spoken language proficiency through interaction with each other. However, the responses dealing with the implementation depicted that teachers’ level of awareness could not match to the actual implementation. I.e. there is little made use of the principles/techniques of CL, many of the elements of cooperative learning are not yet practiced. The commonly stated factors for low level of practicing cooperative learning principles were rushing after the contents to cover the portion, teachers’ incompetence in CLL principles, students’ lack of willingness to cooperate with each other due to lack of language proficiency, teachers’ communicative language incompetence and other related factors were mentioned. Thus, English teachers have to facilitate the effective use of English for communicative purpose rather than focusing on language knowledge through cooperative groups. Accordingly, it is suggested that teachers have to work hard to improve their interactive teaching skills and to create greater opportunity for students through pair/group work in line with CLL principles. Therefore, in order to cope up with this teaching methodology, various in-service training programs and continuous professional development should be established for EFL teachers. In doing so, the mismatch between awareness and implementation of cooperative language learning method will be resolved.

  11. Yaw Frimpong OFORI ATTA

    Interesting trends observed in the impact of globalization on certain sectors of an economy have attracted studies on the subject of globalization. This study centred on effects of globalization on the manufacturing sector of Ghana having used FDI as a proxy for globalization. The study employed the simple ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and the empirical analysis was conducted using data between 1985 and 2013. It was found that the independent variable ‘MANGH’ was significant to explain the dependent variable FDI whose influence was negative. This indicated that, there was a negative correlation between FDI and manufacturing in Ghana. The negative effect which emanated from trade, financial sector and exchange rate liberalization, is materialized through stiffer competition, increased cost of production, and loss of confidence by indigenous investors. The study recommended among others that the government of Ghana must revisit policies relating to FDI and trade liberalization in order to salvage the manufacturing sector.

  12. Dr. Geevarghese M. Thomas

    This paper throws light on digital dualism prevailing in Kerala. The analysis is quite significant and relevant in bridging the digital divide between the formal and the informal sector of Kerala economy. The paper has three sections. The first section dwells on digital dualism. The section also examines the concepts of the informal sector and the formal sector. The second section analyses digital dualism in Kerala. The third and final section presents the conclusions of the study.

  13. Neelam Kushwah and Ashad Mehmood

    In India there are so many rivers. Every river has some speciality and historical background. That is why the river can be an attractive place for regeneration and social communication. The Rejuvenation of Khan Riverfront development project has taken to mature the situation along the river bank and to increase the intrinsic beauties of the river as well as the surrounding areas, its existence could encourage the quality of life of a city. The role of river in Indore for communal have been developed throughout times, from transportation provision into public space. This established the importance of river to urban development in Indore. The Khan River Redevelopment Plan is designed to regenerate and to bring the active riverside area. Some portions along the river have been changed to serve as a communal public space. However, the active public space in riverfront could not take place. The unplanned situation of the Khan River-Indore has been reducing the beauty of the river as well as the city. Learning from the several case studies of active riverfront development, this paper efforts to study how to improve and implement the river redevelopment and create energetic and attractive riverfront zone at the bank of the Khan River (Kishanpura Bridge) so that the people of the Indore city can go there and can appreciate the beautiful development of the river.

  14. Neelam Kushwah and Ashad Mehmood

    In India there are so many rivers. Every river has some speciality and historical background. That is why the river can be an attractive place for regeneration and social communication. The Rejuvenation of Khan Riverfront development project has taken to mature the situation along the river bank and to increase the intrinsic beauties of the river as well as the surrounding areas, its existence could encourage the quality of life of a city. The role of river in Indore for communal have been developed throughout times, from transportation provision into public space. This established the importance of river to urban development in Indore. The Khan River Redevelopment Plan is designed to regenerate and to bring the active riverside area. Some portions along the river have been changed to serve as a communal public space. However, the active public space in riverfront could not take place. The unplanned situation of the Khan River-Indore has been reducing the beauty of the river as well as the city. Learning from the several case studies of active riverfront development, this paper efforts to study how to improve and implement the river redevelopment and create energetic and attractive riverfront zone at the bank of the Khan River (Kishanpura Bridge) so that the people of the Indore city can go there and can appreciate the beautiful development of the river.

  15. Dr. Musa Eisa Mohammed and Dr. Abubkr Ahmed Elhadi

    The disclosure of intellectual capitalis important variables in many decisions, for example, administrative decisions (predict the continuity, market value, supporting competitive advantage). The study problem is to know the effect of intellectual capital disclosure on the quality of accounting information in Sudanese food industries. The study results including: the disclosure of intellectual capital contributes to determining the company's future status. Disclosure of intellectual capital contributes to the increase in the number of clients of the company. The disclosure of intellectual capital enhances the quality of financial report.

  16. Mesfin Balgu and Yihunselam Asrat

    The purpose of this study is to explore the roots causes of crime and the roles of community and community organizations in reducing crime or criminal behaviors. Purposively, 36 informants were selected to take part in the study. The result revealed that illiteracy, traditional and backward beliefs, illegal drug intake, dependency on substances, backward living conditions, and unfamiliarity to the law majorly contribute the big share for crime or criminal behaviors. Impulsively, using of local and modern drinks also has leading roles to get in criminal behaviors. Nevertheless, indigenous knowledge’s and experiences with in the community has a countless roles in dwarfing and reducing the act of crime as its grass root level in addition to increasing community awareness and mobilization by using community wings. Thus, taking community and community organizations as main partners in crime reduction process has strong power to discourage the rate of crime involvement.

  17. Gianluca Manna

    The research is focused on the hypogeous architecture in the English Garden of the Royal Palace of Caserta. In 1752 Charles III of Bourbon, King of Naples and Sicily, ordered the building a new capital with a palace suitable for his reign, and he chose Caserta since it was located in the inner part of the reign and therefore harder to be attacked from the sea. Four ranks of soldiers surrounded the area of the palace, King Charles, Queen Amalia of Saxony were at the center together with Vanvitelli, probably where nowadays the octagonal room is located, this was the first ceremony for the inauguration of the building of Caserta Royal Palace. In only 20 years the Palace was built, unthinkable for the time to build such a colossal work in such little time. The research ends with a hypothesis of architectonic modification strictly connected to a hypogeal architecture and its vegetation context. As well known, the representation of a constructed reality allows us to recognize, select and synthesized the primary and secondary elements defining the immutable characteristics of the architectonic and landscape identity.

  18. Nonye Azih and Nwosu, B. O.

    This study was aimed at ascertaining the impact instructional scaffolding will make on the achievement of students in financial accounting in Abakaliki Urban of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A pretest, posttest, control group, non randomized quasi experimental design was used in this study. The population of the study comprised all SS II students in all the secondary schools in Abakaliki Urban offering financial accounting. Out of the fourteen secondary schools in Abakaliki offering financial accounting, four secondary schools were selected. Two schools were assigned to the treatment group while the other two were assigned to the control group. A total number of one hundred and sixty-three students offering financial accounting were used for the study. Instructional packages were developed, one for the treatment group and the other was for the control group. Instructional scaffolding was used for teaching the treatment group while the control group was subjected to the conventional method of teaching financial accounting. The financial accounting achievement test was used for collection of data. The data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation while the analysis of co-variance was used to test the hypothesis. The result showed that instructional scaffolding method was superior to the conventional method in improving the achievement of students in financial accounting. The summary of the result showed that instructional scaffolding when used as a teaching approach will improve on the achievement of students in financial accounting and the researcher recommended that financial accounting lessons should be taught using scaffolding method for effective teaching and learning.

  19. Dr. N. Azih and Ikelegbe Samuel

    The Nigerian economy is mono economy because of its reliance on only oil export. The agricultural sector in the 1960s was a major area of foreign revenue. However, the discovery of oil at a large scale that brought about exploration and exportation of oil in the 70s turned the tide against agricultural sector. The fluctuating price of oil in the oil market as of today has affected the Nigerian economy negatively as it has put pressure on the naira and the rate of unemployment has continued to be on the increase. The consequences of dependency on oil trade therefore necessitated the call to encourage investors to invest in the direction of non oil exports such as manufacturing, agricultural, telecommunication, tourism, real estate, construction etc. Impediments to the growth of non oil sector were identified as weak infrastructure, supply side constraints, low level of human capital development, absence of adequate commitment, weak institutional framework and poor access to finance. It was recommended that the Nigeria government should remove the impediments limiting non-oil export; make the environment friendly to encourage investors and government should re-organize the agricultural sector among others

  20. PutuIndra Christiawan, Gede Astra Wesnawa, I. and PutuAnanda Citra, I.

    Banyuning Sub-district is a suburb of Singaraja City that potentially experiencing the problem of waste. This fact is supported by the existence of settlements, especially the residential as the largest land use in Banyuning Sub-district. As the largest residential, the number of people living in the area is also great. Large population will be the largest waste contributor in Singaraja City. Through analytic survey method with quantitative analysis techniques, it will show the relationship between the social characteristics of the settlers with waste generated. The relationship shows that the number of family members, income and education levels significantly influence waste generation, and the income level is the biggest influence with regression coefficient 0.634. An interesting finding and has novelty in this article are all independent variables value is positive, except for the education level that is negative. The findings were evidenced by the regression coefficient of education level that is (-) 0.279.

  21. Aashish Jain

    Investment means putting your money to work for you. Essentially, it is different way to think about how to make money. Growing up, most of us taught that you can earn your income only by getting job & working. And that’s exactly most of us do. There’s one big problem with this: if you want money, you have to work more hours. However, there is a limit to how many hours a day we can work, not to mention the fact that having a bunch of money is no fun if we don’t have the leisure time to enjoy it. You can’t create duplicate of yourself to increase your working time, so instead, you need to send an extension of yourself - your money- to work. Quite simply, making your money work for you maximizes your earning potential whether or not you receive a raise, decide to work overtime or for looking a higher paying job. There are many different ways we can go about making an investment. This includes putting money into stocks, bonds, mutual funds, real estate & so on. Researchers has studied the different avenues of investments as well as the factors while selecting the investment with a sample size of 50 using a structured questionnaire. Actually the present study identifies the preferred investment avenues among the individual investments using self assessment test. The study is based on primary sources of data which are collected by the distribution of a close ended questionnaire. The data has been analyzed using percentage, chi-square test using statistical software.

  22. Pradosh Kumar Gantayat, Satyabrata Das, Sambit Mohanty and Sudeep Gochhayat

    Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) have the vast potential to connect devices and different area of the world that are instantly under-served by current systems. A fundamental test for Delay Tolerant Network is to decide the routes through the network ever having an end-to-end, or knowing which “routes” will be connected at every instant of time. The issue has an additional requirement of constrained size off buffers at each node. This situation limits the applicability of traditional routing techniques which categorized lack of path as failure of nodes and try to seek for existing end-to-end path. In this paper we attempt to deal with the topology by utilizing k-means algorithm and amplify the message delivery rate without trading off on the request of message dispose of and attempt to route the message starting with one node then onto the next. The amount of message discarded has a direct relation to the bandwidth used and the battery consumed. The more the message discarded more is the bandwidth used and battery consumed by every node in transmitting the message. At the same time, with the increase in the number of messages discarded, the cost for processing every message increases and this adversely affects the nodes. We have also focused on passing the messages to those nodes which is highest trusted node, as the nodes moving away have a greater probability of disseminating the messages throughout the network and hence increases chances of delivering the message to the destination.

  23. Dr. Karunamoorthy, B. and Dhivyaa, D.

    In present and future market conservative motors like induction motor are replaced by permanent magnet motors for various applications like industrial, traction, hybrid electric vehicle, etc. The topical growth in Permanent Magnet machines has provided a result for the variable speed applications, which bid easy design for controller as well as operate at higher efficiency. In this paper, the basic introduction of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is discussed. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is selected due to various advantages like reduced cost, high speed and high power density. In recent days, neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets become commercially available with a reasonable price. Performance comparisons between induction motors and Permanent Magnet motors are presented in this paper. The design parameters are analyzed using Finite Element Method (FEM).

  24. Muradov, M. M., Bakirova. K. A., Ashurova, N. D., Agayev, A. A. and Ashurov, D. A.

    The reaction of low-temperature oxidative chlorohydrination of allyl chloride, 2,3-dichloropropene-1 and 1,3-dichlorobutene-2 with application of the hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide has been studied. The possibility of preparation of glycerine dichlorohydrin, 1,3-dichloroacetone and 1,2-dichlorobutanone with yields 70-75% from theoretical one has been shown. Selectivity – 85-92%.

  25. Mohammad TariqueJamali

    Now a day, the world face a huge problem to dumped the old cars/ auto vehicle when it is not working or damaged. This study shows that how we managed the old cars/ auto vehicle to useful for human beings and also clean the ware houses for another storage work. We do the dis-assemblies of these cars in a predetermine assembly line. and then find out which component is useful and which component are useful after heat treatment or small manufacturing works and which components are totally damaged or not utilized again (we dumped it properly).

  26. Ankit Tiwari, Mohan Gautam, Kuldeep Chauhan, Gopal Fartyal, Sunny Singh and Vivek Kumar Chahar

    Organic Rankine vapour compression (ORVC) refrigeration systems using waste heat are well known in the literature. In last year’s, transcritical organic Rankine vapour compression (TORVC) systems are proposed to increase the system coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents the parametric simulation results and the performance analysis of TORVC refrigeration system utilizing waste heat using R134a as working fluid under different operating conditions such as evaporation/condensation temperature and degree of superheating/sub-cooling. Heat-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency is also taken into account. System COP is defined using not only the heating energy required for the refrigerant but also electrical energy input to the pump. As waste heat one can consider also exhaust heat of the vehicles. Variation of system COP for different evaporation/condensation temperatures and the degree of superheating/sub-cooling are demonstrated. In the calculation refrigerant temperature and pressure at the heat source are taken as 180oC and 8 MPa.

  27. Kashmery Khan, ZubaidaMarufee Islam and Fatima Amin

    To control the infections and microbial food spoilage, the application of synthetic antibiotics can be replaced by antimicrobial agents from natural sources. Therefore, present study was done to explore nontoxic antimicrobial agents from two enormous plants named Carumroxburghianum (radhuni) and Trigonellafoenum-graecum (fenugreek) through antibacterial and phytochemical assays. In the current work, the crude extracts of radhuni andfenugreek were collected using ethanol and methanol. Antibacterial effects of both extracts taken of second, fifth and seventh days were observed against selected eleven bacteria. Extracts of different days had different effects on six bacteria. Radhuni showed positive results against Shigellaflexineri, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Streptococcuspneumonae and fenugreek showed positive results only for Bacillus cereus. The best result was from ethanol extracts of both seeds, whereas Radhuni from the fifth day against Bacillus subtilis and fenugreek from the seventh day against Bacillus cereus. The zone of inhibition was greater for radhuni than fenugreek against Bacillus cereus. The high activity index of ethanol extract at day five against Shigellaflexineri indicated high sensitivity to the extract. Phytochemical assays like tests for alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides were performed on both seed extracts to identify presence of secondary metabolites. The results from this research can be significant in terms of exploring antimicrobial properties of both extracts especially radhuni. This study could be the beginning of discovering such novel and less expensive microbial agents against various bacterial species.

  28. Gaurav Pandey, Prerna Bharti and Dr. Vishnu Sharma

    Now adays, MANETS are widely used due to its mobility and self-configuring network features, in which any centralized or switching center is not required. In MANETS all the nodes are mobile which are dependent on battery. In MANETS each node have to make connection to receiver node in order to send /forward the data packets in network. As in network there are many mobile nodes and nodes are moving, to send these data packets we required routing protocols .There are many routing Protocols which are classified into 3 types. Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid routing protocols. In this paper we make comparison between proactive and reactive routing protocol based on some performance metrics such as propagation delay, node throughput, and average end to end delay, packet jitter. For comparing proactive and reactive routing protocol we use these two routing protocol a proactive routing protocol DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector routing) and reactive improvement of DSDV routing AODV (Ad-hoc on demand vector routing).

  29. Sujit, V. V. N., Mahidhar, P. R. and Rambabu, S.

    Image Interpolation is an oversampling operation used in various applications. Simple interpolation techniques nearest neighbour, bilinear and bicubical produce edge blurring, jagging etc in the interpolated image. To understand the characteristics of image interpolation, study of various techniques is needed. In this paper, the performance of various image interpolation techniques is compared by evaluating the quality metrics like PSNR, MSE and Runtime. This comparison provides the use of different methods and also helpful for implementing the new interpolation methods.

  30. Joshi, P. S., Relekar, A. S. and Sutrave, D. S.

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is a potentiodynamic electrochemical measurement in which working electrode’s potential is ramped in the opposite direction to return to its initial potential. Potentiostat is an electronic hardware that controls the three electrode cell by maintaining the voltage between working electrode and reference electrode constant by adjusting the current at a counter electrode. Though now a day, many manufacturers are developing potentiostats having high accuracy and resolution, but the high cost is the obstruction. We have developed a low cost, portable CV system by designing a low cost and low component count potentiostat. TL054 op-amp and Arduino Mega 2560 microcontroller board is used to build a system. The developed system has been tested and showed the successful working.

  31. Manmay Saraswat, Divit Jain, Kapil Chauhan, Shubhang Dadhich and Mayank Sohani

    Cloud Computing is effectively usable in IT business such as organization, companies or individuals etc. When users have liberty to use a multiplicity of on-line resources, vibrant supply distribution can be used to rise the routine by scheduling mechanism that all resources are resourcefully assigned to fulfill the customer's request. This paper demonstrates that how resource planning and service distribution is done by seeing EST (early start time), LST (latest start time) and also actual for error acceptance which executes resource anticipation. We will be executing the vibrant scheduling procedure and refining the efficacy by using empirical tasks.

  32. Abebe Regassa, Diriba Gemechu and Beza Zeleke

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using the Geometer’s Sketchpad software on the academic achievement of students in mathematics among grade nine students of Bedele Secondary and preparatory school. The study utilized a quasi-experimental design using intact group of students from two classes in the indicated school. Two instruments were used to gather information:- the students’ mathematics achievement and attitudes/ perception of students toward learning Mathematics. A survey questionnaire was used to measure students’ perception on the usage of Geometer’s Sketchpad in the learning of Geometry and some other topics of mathematics. In the study, the experimental groups used Geometer’s Sketchpad-based topics and worksheets and for each student there is an access computer/plasma equipped with the Sketchpad software. The comparison group used only the textbooks and they were learnt by usual learning method. Both groups took the same pre-test and post-test. This study indicates that the result of experimental group had a significant mean difference compared to the comparison group on post-test. The use of Geometer’s Sketchpad in mathematics classroom has positive effect on the students’ mathematics achievement and attitude towards the learning of geometry and some mathematics topics.

  33. Meenakshi Singh and Meenu Agarwal

    Low-cost biosorbents can be made from the by-products of agricultural, household and various industrial processes. It has been proved by several researches that these biosorbents provide a better solution for the removal of contaminants from wastewater. The object of the study is to find a sustainable low cost biosorbent for the removal of Cr (VI) from wastewater. In current review both adsorbent’s characteristics and adsorption capacities of nine biosorbents for the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution were studied. Batch experiments of various adsorbents revealed the optimum conditions required for better removal of this heavy metal. The results showed that maximum adsorption occurs at highly acidic pH. Contact time, initial conc. of adsorbent & adsorbate also affect the heavy metal removal efficiency of biosorbent material. Under optimum conditions, the removal efficiency of adsorbent prepared from mango kernel was found upto 100% out of nine adsorbents studied. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm gave the better explanation for the surface properties of adsorbents. Maximum Cr (VI) uptake per unit mass (Qmax.) values obtained from Langmuir adsorption isotherm for different biosorbents ranged from 6.17mg/g to 151.51mg/g. The adsorption kinetics was explained through pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic model. The results of study suggest that these biosorbents could be a better solution for the removal of Cr (VI) from the wastewater.

  34. Dr. Leo Alexander, T. and Ciril Jenuvariyus, T. C.

    According to the WHO, a baby which weighs less than 1500 gm at birth is termed very low birth weight baby. Birth weight and gestational age is an important parameter that predicts the outcome of the baby. Very low birth weight babies (VLBW) are at increased risk of a number of complications both immediate and late. Worldwide it has been observed that these babies contribute to a significant extent to neonatal mortality and morbidity. The common causes of mortality in these babies include sepsis, RDS and extreme prematurity. The risk of developing complications is inversely related to the gestational age and birth weight. The following paper is done to review our data related to the VLBW babies to identify the morbidity pattern and factors that influence mortality. This may help us to plan strategies to reduce mortality and prevent minimize morbidity in these babies.

  35. Stagiopoulos, P., Kyriafinis, G., Aidona, S., Politis, D. and Constantinidis, I.

    A tremendous breakthrough in the fields of Medicine and Technology, the massive use of Digital Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants, changes drastically the rehabilitation process and the educational experience of hard in hearing and deaf children. As a result, there is a steeply increasing interest, especially from the funding authorities and the scientific community, on how the application of extensive bionic, prosthetic and augmenting methodologies may reshape the filed of special education. This survey focuses on the linguistic development and the speech characteristics of children that use cochlear implants versus those using hearing aids. It also examines on how personal psychokinetic dexterities and social proficiencies enhance individual performance.

  36. Dr. P. Maragathavalli and Saranya. A.

    Software testing has ever remained a brazen out particularly when testing is done with objective in enhancing the reliability. Adaptive Testing (AT) is an online testing strategy, which can be adopted to decrease the variance of software reliability estimator. In order to reduce the computational overhead of decision-making, the implemented AT strategy in practice deviates from its theoretical design that guarantees AT’s local optimality. Adaptive testing is increasing the testing in a predictable way by reducing the number of faults. There is a need to enhance the reliability by conveying probabilistic priorities to testing mechanism, which is done through software under testing with testing profile. AT strategy named Adaptive Testing with Gradient Descent method (AT-GD) is proposed. AT-GD, a locally optimal testing strategy, converges to the globally optimal solution as the assessment process proceeds. Simulation and experiments are set up to validate AT-GD’s effectiveness and efficiency.

  37. Karthick, S., Krithika, S. and Malligaraj, S.

    Our paper deals with a security system that lets the user to see a visitor while main office door is locked. If the user is in the middle of the meeting in a conference room and having a visitor at the door, this system will send a notification to mobile or PC to unlock the front door using a Web browser. If the door bell has intercom facility, the user can talk to the visitor when the bell rings. We have used Raspberry Pi to implement our paper the smart lock system.

  38. Manisha Kulkarni and Bhatlawande, V. S.

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of loss of vision in the world. Currently, there is no effective method for simple, accurate and low cost glaucoma detection or screening. Automatic optic nerve head assessment from 2D retinal fundus images is promising for low cost glaucoma screening. This paper presents efficient method for cup to disc ratio (CDR) assessment using 2D retinal fundus images. The disc segmentation is carried out using active shape model (ASM), elliptical hough transform (EHT) and superpixel segmentation techniques. Among these three methods, one best output depending upon self assessment confidence score is considered for further processing. Cup to disc (CDR) ratio is calculated for the assessment of glaucoma. Based on performance of each method superpixel method performs best and more reliable.

  39. Kumar Harsh

    Today data is everywhere, increasing itself in a very fast pace every second, minute, hour and day. A huge amount of data is generated by social media, broadcasting videos and audios, business transactions, sensor data, digital technologies like internet of things and cloud computing etc. This large amount of data generated is called Big Data and it has become a part of our economy, business, organization and individual. This paper presents the analysis of what the big data actually is and what are the tools to handle the big data. It also focuses on future scope and trends of Big Data.

  40. Shreeram Hudda

    Agile development methodologies become popular approaches in current scenario of organizations. In agile methodologies, developers have an open communication with customers to get requirements, in form of user stories, as soon as possible. Identifying right user stories at right time is most important thing in agile development methodologies. To identify right user stories, the prioritization for user stories takes place. Customers play significant role in prioritization of user stories. The customer-oriented requirement prioritization provides more business value to customers. In this paper, a mechanism is derived to prioritize user stories in agile environment. Further, the feasibility of this mechanism has been validated using a case study.

  41. Aniruddha Singh, Deepak Kumar and Manish Verma

    Numerous secret sharing visual schemes for digital data has been proposed in current years. The first shares are used to generate second share in secret image. These two shares are used to produce the second image which is delivered as an input to the second level. Also, this stepisrecurring for n levels and two shares are sent to communication partners and multiple secret images andalso input reference images can be encrypted/decrypted from share images at different levels.

  42. Dr. Jitendra Awasthi

    In this paper, we introduce and study a subclass of meromorphic univalent functions. We obtain coefficients inequalities, extreme points, distortion and growth bounds, radii of meromorphically starlikeness and meromorphically convexity for this class. Further it is shown that this class is closed under convex linear combination.

  43. Reham M. Nori, Salah A. Jassim and Faliah H. Ali

    The competition of both 1.10-Phenanthroline (1.10-Phen.) and L- proline (Pro.) ligands against three transition metals ions, Zn+2, Cd+2 and Co+3 were studied. 1HNMR, FTIR, atomic absorption and chlorine contents were used to identificatethe complex formation. Both Zn+2 and Cd+2 were complexed with 1.10-Phen. while Ni+2 binds only withPro. Hard soft acid base (HSAB) principle is the main explanation binding mode of metal ions in this work.

  44. Asmaa A. Rashed and Salah A. Jassim

    The competition of both dimethylglyoxime (DMG) andL tryptophan (L tryp.) as ligands against three transition metals ions, Zn+2, Cd+2 and Co+3 were studied. FTIR, 1HNMR, atomic absorption chlorine contents were used to support the final view of complexes formation. Both Zn+2 and Cd+2 were complexed with L tryp. While Co+3 binds only with DMG. Hard soft acid base (HSAB) idea is suggested to explain the difference in binding mode of metal ions.

  45. Vijay Prakash Tiwari, Akshay Bapusaheb Patil, Vikas Tiwari, Dhruvesh Chudasama and Avinash Murlidhar Ingole,

    In this ever-evolving generation, Technological advancements are having exponential growth. People try to learn new thing and technological enthusiastic are always in pursuit to learn about the new technologies. Since Learning and Researching about Technologies is also an ever-going process in an individual life span therefore there comes a time where one might stand in ambiguity and questions what to learn next or what to pursue next. Other person’s recommendations are always has been a prior option but in today world mostly one isn’t available every time to others. To help in such situation we need an AI based Recommendation System that would analyses various parameters of available information and eventually would suggest the best probable technology for the person. Recommendation system would provide the detail information and recommend that software to the user. Analyzing the trends, interests and popularity of the technology in the market combined with the individual’s activities recommendation system should recommend the next software to be learned. This would just not only help in the ever-going learning process but also make people up to date about recent technological trends so the quality of innovation and invention can be improved to greater extent. Such Recommendation System would also allow the various product and service based organization to introduce their innovative product on the platform and can help them to popularize their very potential product in the market among the technological enthusiasts.

  46. Sachin Sonawane and Dr. Nitin S. Choubey

    Development of a machine vision program to classify among damaged, undamaged, discolored, unmatured, fungi/ diseased soybean kernels can play a vital role in the visual inspection process which is generally performed for grading commercially clean Soybean seed samples. The US standard/ Canadian standard or other recognized standards provide necessary parameters to assess Soybean seeds sample and define its quality while trading Soybean in commercial market. Even today, in many industries, the seed grading process is performed manually and the accuracy of a grade for the given sample is highly de-pendent on human visual inspection. Which most tentatively causes the introduction of errors. To minimize such errors, to shorten the time delay, and increase the accuracy while grading Soybean seeds, an automated system is essentially required. However, till today, very less research work has been carried out on the development of such automated systems for Soybean quality assessment. In that aspect, this paper highlights the key parameters considered as a criteria for assessing quality of Soybean and summarizes the utility of various machine vision techniques in the visual inspection and classification of other type of grains. The selection of parameters and optimization of their values may contribute in improvement of accuracy and shortening of time delay for a designed neural network model.

  47. Sivasankaran, P.

    Manufacturing is considered to be a global enterprise started during the late 19th century itself to cater the needs of large scale production. After 19th century manufacturing business have changed drastically through the innovations of technology, processes, materials and transportation. The major challenge of manufacturing is to produce more number of products with less material, less energy and fewer labors. In this paper various types of manufacturing environment is addressed with respect to the difference in production volume and amount of workforce required.

  48. Princy Vijayababu, Gopinath Samykannu and SundaraBaalaji Narayanan

    Salmonella typhi utilize inter and intra species communication via the process of cell-cell communication, which use to regulate population density with small, diffusible signaling molecules as communication intermediary called Autoinducers-2 (AI-2). Lsrk is the kinase phosphorylate AI-2, be capable to simulate the lsr operon. On the other hand, a solved structure of LsrK from Salmonella typhi is not available on Protein Data Bank. For that reason, we modelled and validated LsrK through online servers. Secondary structural insights were discussed. These findings provide new knowledge to molecular understanding of Autoinducer-2 kinase within Salmonella typhi.

  49. Yaouba Aoudou and Essola Etoa Louis Childeric

    Antifungal activity of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus against seed-born fungi, the possible effect on seed germination and seedlings vigour were investigated. Five soybean seeds varieties naturally infected and collected from IRAD of Dschang (MAGBA and TGX-1835-10E), and three from IRAD of Foumbot (TGX-1910-14F, HOULA 1, ENGOPA 316) were used. Soybean seeds were distributed among storage plastic, treated with essential oil and stored for 40 days in storage conditions as defined by IRAD. Seed germination rates, fungal seed infection and seedlings vigour were evaluated each 10 days of storage. About 18 fungal species were isolated on all the seeds varieties by using blotter and agar technique respectively. According to both methods, fungi which were frequently isolated were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum Fusarium moniliforme, F. solani, Cercospora kikuchii. Soybean seed treatment with essential oil of C. citratus significantly reduce seed infection by fungi and also improves soybean seed germination for MAGBA, TGX-1835-10E and TGX-1910-14F varieties. ENGOPA 316 and HOULA 1 varieties treated with essential oil showed a non-significant reduction in germination. Soybean plants obtained from seeds treated with essential oil of C. citratus grow very well than those coming from untreated seeds. Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus for seed treatments may become a bio-fungicide for soybean crop protection.

  50. Tessie A. Guial and Dennis A. Jalbay

    This study was conducted at Engineering Laboratory Building of ESSU-Salcedo Campus, Salcedo, Eastern Samar. Specifically, this study was concerned with the following objectives: (1) To determine the weight of the Concrete Hollow Block (CHB) using river and sea sands, (2) To determine the compressive strength of CHB using river and sea sands, and (3) To determine the significant difference between the compressive strength of CHB using river and sea sands with a varying amount of fine aggregates of 100%, 50%, and 33.33%. The amount of fine aggregate varies in each level of treatment considering the workability of the mixture. Seven (7) levels of treatments were replicated five (5) time. Weighing and Compressive Testing was carried out using thirty-five (35) pieces whole concrete hollow block samples. Result of the study revealed that the initial weight was 10,790 grams and a maximum of 11,645 grams. The initial crushing strength gained 2.4 MPa (384.11 psi) and a maximum of 4.7 MPa (681.71 psi). Thirty four (34) CHBs surpassed the standard individual compressive strength of 350 psi and all treatments surpassed the standard average compressive strength of 300 psi. The compressive values obtained from the specimens were above the standard. It was found out that treatment two (T2) gained the highest compressive strength of 4.20 MPa (609.20 psi) contained with white sea sand inert material.

  51. Engr. Tessie A. Guial, Engr. John Mark W. Gonzales and Engr. Rodrigo P. Quiza

    This study was conducted at ESSU Salcedo Research Area, Salcedo Eastern Samar using fabricated double ring infiltrometers to estimate the range of infiltration rates. Four (4) treatments were replicated three (3) times on a 0.12 hectare located at the southeast part of the Research Area. A total of twelve (12) samples were used. RCBD was used as the experimental design with slope as gradient. Result of the study revealed that the initial infiltration rate values ranges from 128.32 cm/hr to 167.96 cm/hr with a mean of 147.32 cm/hr, while the final rate ranges from 20.78 cm/hr to 28.15 cm/hr with a mean of 23.55 cm/hr. The mean proportionally to factor (β) was -0.036 per minute. The results were based on the initial soil moisture content ranging from 33.99% to 36.70% with a mean of 35%. Using nonlinear regression analysis, it was found out that Horton’s model yielded a coefficient of determination (R2) of about 83.9%. This means that 83.9% were explained by time factor while the remaining 16.1% were explained by other factors not included in the study. It can be implied that Horton’s model was applicable to clay loam soil to predict the initial and final infiltration rate and valid at the given initial moisture content. Thus, it is suggested that further study using other models of infiltration be conducted in summer when the soil is relatively dry. Longer duration of time for infiltration study be used to determine a more accurate prediction of infiltration of water into the soil.

  52. Gaspar Moreira Braga Junior, Brigitte S. Orozco Colonia, Lillian França Borges Chagas, Gessiel Newton Scheidt, Luciane de Oliveira Miller and Aloisio F. Chagas Junior

    The aim of this work was to verify the Bacillus subtilis efficiency in soybean growth promotion, cultivated in soil with and without natural phosphate fertilization under greenhouse conditions. Seven Bacillus subtilis isolates and B. subtilis cocktail were used. The seeds were inoculated by Bacillus subtilis strains at a concentration of 2 x 108 CFU mL-1 using direct application technique of planting on graves. Biomass parameters, relative efficiency (RE), phosphorus content and phosphate utilization efficiency (P-UEF) were evaluated. The treatment with natural phosphate fertilization and B. subtilis UFTBs 06 and B. subtilis cocktail inoculation promoted a significant increase in biomass of 111% and 93% on relative efficiency (RE) in relation to the control, respectively. On the other hand, B. subtilis UFTBs 07 and B. subtilis cocktail were able to promote the biomass increase without natural phosphate fertilization of 85% and 95% on relative efficiency (RE) in relation to control, respectively. Therefore, B. subtilis cocktail without fertilization and B. subtilis UFTBs 07 with phosphate fertilization increased their phosphate utilization efficiency (P-UEF) in 256% and 150% in relation to the control, respectively. The most of isolates provided a higher phosphorus content available in soil and aerial part of soybean plants.

  53. Krishnan Swathi, Savita, A. M., Naik Archana, R., Varghese Ammu and Prerana, G. K.

    Background: The ultimate goal of any periodontal therapy is the regeneration of lost periodontal tissues. Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a regenerative procedure that uses barrier membranes to direct the growth of new bone. The superior mechanical properties of Titanium-mesh make it optimal for successful GBR. However many problems like early exposure and resultant microbial on growth on its surfaces leads to the failure of regenerative therapy. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the bacterial adherence of four strongly adhesive periopathogenic bacteria (Actinomyces viscosus, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans) to Titanium mesh and Type 1collagen membrane. Methods and Materials: Four tubes with each containing the test membrane and 3 ml of appropriate broth medium (inoculated with 0.5 ml bacterial suspension) were incubated for different time inervals (6, 12, 24, 48, 72 hours) and the bacterial adherence on the membrane was counted. Statistical analysis: The results were averaged (mean ± standard deviation) for each continuous parameter. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and unpaired t test analysis were used. Results: The difference between all the bacterium for Titanium mesh and collagen membrane were statistically significant at 48 hours. Porphyromonas gingivalis showed statistically significant bacterial adherence difference at both 48 and 72hours and Actinomyces viscous, at 24 hours to Ti mesh. Conclusions: Oral microorganisms vary in their ability to adhere to biomaterial membranes. In comparison to collagen membrane, Ti mesh has significantly lower Actinomyces viscosus adherence at 24 hours and lower Porphyromonas gingivalis adherence at 48 and 72 hours.

  54. Salemkour, N., Fadlaoui, H., Benchouk-Chalabi, K. and Hamou, K.

    In Algeria, the fight against desertification begins with a restoration of steppic rangelands seriously degraded. In this framework more than two million hectares of pastoral land throughout the steppe have been exempted from agropastoral activities and fencing from grazing using enclosure and pastoral plantation with Atriplex canescens. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the two techniques on the restoration of degraded steppic rangelands. The methodological approach is the comparative analysis (One-way-ANOVA) of vital attributes of the ecosystem. The total plant cover (with a contribution of perennials and annuals species) and soil surface cover (bare ground, litter, stones, bare silty crust and wind veil) and pastoral value has been estimated inside and outside each technique (enclosure and pastoral plantation). The results obtained highlighted significant differences between the inside and outside of the restored rangelands, with an increase within the restored and protected rangelands of the recovery rate of vegetation and litter and pastoral value, and a decrease in bare ground, stones and wind veil, This improvement ensures both more stability to the various disturbances and proper functioning of the steppic ecosystem. However, the results emphasized a negative effect of the long term protection of these restored rangelands, this was observed by the occurrence of the bare silty crust on the soil surface, which has a negative effect on the installation of the vegetation and the emergence of seedlings (young plants) and the infiltration of water, where the importance of considering this parameter as an indicator for the opening of the fencing.

  55. Ashwini, B. N., Sivabalaji, K. and Dr. Sundar Raman

    Ayurveda is a science of life emphasizing the concepts of maintenance of health in healthy and treatment of the diseases. It has 8 branches dealing with various specialties, among which Shalakya Tantra deals with the study of functioning and diseases related to the sense organs. Amongst the senses, eye is given the most importance as once the vision is lost the, one will not be able to differentiate day –night and enjoy the beauty of nature. Around 76 diseases are being explained dealing with eye diseases. The classification of these diseases is based on the site of the disease. The diseases with disturbance in vision in any form falls in the category of drishtigatarogas where the patalas are afflicted by the vitiated doshas. The concept visual perception in physiological and pathological conditions will be discussed further.

  56. Priyanka, K. and Brindha, D.

    The objective of the present study was to synthesis of nanoparticles in plant extract which gained considerable importance when compared to bulk counterparts. Among many nanoparticles, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in drug-delivery system. In present study Celosia argentea L seeds were selected to synthesise zinc oxide nanoparticles and to evaluate its anticancer and antiplatelet activity. From the results it can be concluded that Celosia argentea L seeds extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity and it might be due to various phytoconstituents in it.

  57. Tamene Yohannes

    Biodiversity is one of the key factors which make the planet Earth unique. Unfortunately, there are several threats to these resources. Invasive Alien Species (IAS), next to habitat destruction has been a major cause of extinction of native species. Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC known as Mesquites elsewhere and in Ethiopia it is called ‘Weyane/Dergi-Hara’ and ‘Biscuit’ around Afar and Diredawa respectively. Its first introduction is believed to be in late 1970s at Goro nursery, Dire-Dawa, possibly from India. Even though, the plant has several uses, it becomes out of control and threatens biodiversity of the lowlands of Oromia, Somalia, Tigray, Amhara, Afar and South Nations Nationalities and Peoples (SNNP) Regional States of Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, it has invaded more than 70,000 ha of land. Knowing the physiological background for its hardiness; then by, to find a weak-link in its power of endurance is essential to develop an effective, low cost, environmentally sound and sustainable control measures. Several control measures such as mechanical control, chemical control, prescribed burning and others has been implemented. Considering the potential uses of the plant such as; Medicinal values, charcoal and furniture from its high-quality timber; controlling the plant by its utilization is the best measures and it is better to be conducted in integrated way with the active participation of the local community.

  58. Dhia Essouaid and et Hichem Rejeb

    The city of Sousse, Capital of the region of Sahel, presents the kind of a seaside city in Tunisia, from its location on the Tunisian coastal line and beside its significant history. Indeed, the city of Sousse has seen the advent of several civilizations, which have contributed to its development and its enrichment. The city of Sousse has the advantage of having a temperate Mediterranean climate, an important cultural richness, a balanced economic development and a road and rail infrastructure facilitating access. The city forms an open door to the European markets and many countries in Africa and the Middle East. All these factors are able to contribute to the promotion of tourism.

  59. Levent COŞKUNTUNA and Sevilay GÜL

    Narbon vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.) is an important forage species among vetches of central Europe, the Mediterranean, the Near East, Ethiopia, central Asia and İndia. Vetch was used in this trial as the silage material. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of lactic acid bacteria and inoculants as silage additives on the fermentation and aerobic stability of grass silage. Vicia narbonensis was harvested early in the flowering period (flowering 1/10) and ensiled in silo-type glass containers. Each application consisted of three parallels. Chemical and microbiological analyses were conducted on the silage, which was opened on the 45th day after it was ensiled. According to the analysis, control, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and inoculants (LAB+enzyme) groups of KM 13,16, 12,28, 13,47, pH 4.57, 4.51, 4.41, NH3-N: 87.29, 90.19, 92.86 were found. In conclusion, it was evaluated that chemical, physical and microbiological qualities increase with the addition of LAB and inoculant to the narbon vetch silage. Also, the use of narbon vetch silage material is useful for storage conditions.

  60. Majumder, D.R., Khan, S., Sharif, S. and Shaikh, Z.

    The use of Entomopathogenic fungi (Zygomycetes,Ascomcetes and Basidiomycetes) against mosquito larvae is one of the best environment friendly ways to eradicate Arthropods that cause a menace in the society. While most of us turn to chemical insecticides to destroy mosquitoes, these chemical agents have been known to cause allergic reactions in some and are simply harmful to others. Thus the use of Entomopathogenic fungi as a biological control agent should be brought in to use at a more commercial scale because of its target specific activity and as it is relatively safer than the commercially available synthetic biocontrol agents. This review elaborates on the mosquito larvicide activity of three phyla of fungi namely Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Mosquitoes not only cause irritable bites but are a major cause of spread of lethal diseases like Dengue, Chikungunya, Malaria, Filariasis, etc. In a developing country like India where at certain places there is low sanitation problem mosquito borne diseases are major threats. Almost 40 anopheline species have been reported for the cause of human malarial vector worldwide. (Mouatcho, 2010) The use of entomopathogenic fungi as mosquito larvicide would help prevent the spread at an early stage and would be a cost effective preventive measure too.

  61. Majumder, D.R., Khan, S., Sharif, S. and Shaikh, Z.

    The use of Entomopathogenic fungi (Zygomycetes,Ascomcetes and Basidiomycetes) against mosquito larvae is one of the best environment friendly ways to eradicate Arthropods that cause a menace in the society. While most of us turn to chemical insecticides to destroy mosquitoes, these chemical agents have been known to cause allergic reactions in some and are simply harmful to others. Thus the use of Entomopathogenic fungi as a biological control agent should be brought in to use at a more commercial scale because of its target specific activity and as it is relatively safer than the commercially available synthetic biocontrol agents. This review elaborates on the mosquito larvicide activity of three phyla of fungi namely Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Mosquitoes not only cause irritable bites but are a major cause of spread of lethal diseases like Dengue, Chikungunya, Malaria, Filariasis, etc. In a developing country like India where at certain places there is low sanitation problem mosquito borne diseases are major threats. Almost 40 anopheline species have been reported for the cause of human malarial vector worldwide. (Mouatcho, 2010) The use of entomopathogenic fungi as mosquito larvicide would help prevent the spread at an early stage and would be a cost effective preventive measure too.

  62. Noor El Deen AIE; El –Gohary M.S; Abdou, M.S. and Adel, M. El-Gamal

    The present study was carried out to isolate Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) from cultured Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus) and that identified by both Biochemical tests (API 20 E) and PCR. A total of 2 E. tarda isolates were isolated from 50 cultured O. niloticus fish collected randomly from the ponds of private fish farms at Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. The clinical picture of the collected fish exhibited loss of escape reflex; skin darkness; bilateral exophthalmia with corneal opacity and ulcers varied in their degrees, inflammation, congestion, hemorrhage and enlargement of most internal organs were apparent in postmortem examination. The isolated E. tarda was screened for presence of 3 virulence genes (esrB, gyrB and gadB genes) using multiplex PCR and the results showed the amplification of the concerned gene at molecular size esrB (311 bp), gadB (583) in one strain and gyrB (415) in the other strain. Histopathological examination for haemobiotic organs liver, spleen and kidney as well as gills revealed necrosis of most internal organs, inflammatory reaction, associated with hemosiderosis. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity pattern of E. tarda isolates was conducted by disc diffusion method for five antibiotic discs where, the isolate was found to be sensitive against florfenicol, Ciprofloxacine and sulphadimethexine and resistant to oxytetracycline and ampicillin. Isolated E. tarda was used for experimental infection of healthy fish; typical symptoms in naturally infected fish appear in experimentally infected fish. Treatment trials for experimental infected fish reveal effectiveness of florfenicol, Ciprofloxacine and sulphadimethexine.

  63. Sehgal, P. K.

    Insecta is the largest class of phylum arthropoda and members of this class are characterized by the presence of three pairs of legs; hence, called Hexapoda, Besides, these tracheate organism have usually one or two pairs of wings. Insects always have been associated with mankind in one way or the other as some of them are beneficial other are pests of crops and house hold articles. Chrysocoris stolli Wolf (Heteroptera- Pentatomidae-Scutellerinae) is a phytosuecivorous bug, which infests Cassia occidentalies, Croton sparisiflorum, Pennisetum typhoides, (Bajra) and Litchi chinensis at Saharanpur in good number and by its desapping habit causes considerable loss to these plants of economic value.The incubation period varies according to temperature and humidity of the environment, table-1. It ranges from 7 to 14 days with an average 9 days. During summer months, April to September 7 to 10 days are required for hatching while during winter months, October and November, it takes 12 to 14 days. There is no true operculum and at eclosion, a circular part towards cephalic end off the egg containing micropylar processes ruptures and separates of from the rest of the egg shell and opens just like a lid.

  64. Sundari Devi, N., Kh. Singhajit Singh, J. R. F. and Premila Chanu, O.

    Wetlands with its bio-resources are vital to human life and the service provided by wetlands to human kind is tremendous and non-substitutable. The wetland must be considered as the main source of livelihood of sustainable societies and also wetland plant play a significant role in the socio-economy of the people of Manipur. People have been depending upon wetland for food, fodder, medicine etc. and ecological services that people need for survival since ages. The ethnic communities residing around the Loktak Lake collect large varieties of edible and other useful plants and animal bio-resources. A significant number of families depend on this land for their survival and economy. Generally they go out of their home in the morning for fishing and collecting edible plants and in the evening they sale their collected items in the nearby markets located at the logistic and vicinity of the lake. The maximum supply of edible wetland plants and animal bio resources which are of economic value are coming from the Loktak lake (area=289 sq. km.). Some wetland vegetables which are favourite cuisine of Manipur like Polygonum barbatum (yelang) Ipomea aquatica (Komlamni) Oenanthe javanica (Komprek) Neptunia oleracea (Ekaithabi) Eurgale fero (Thangjing) Hedychium coronarium (Loklei), Alpinia nigra (Pullei), Trapa natans (Heikak) Nelumbo nucifera (Thambal) Nymphaea alba (Tharo) are not only eaten as vegetable but also used in medicinal purpose. In Manipur most of the wetlands are under impacts (Taft & Haig 205). Many of the wetlands are transformed into other land forms such as paddy fields, human settlement, land modification for developmental projects and indirectly by rainfall shift and global climate change. It is very important to study on identification, documentation assessing the use pattern, validating the nutritional quality and studying the trade of the most common edible wetland plants of Manipur which local communities are extremely knowledgeable. Conservation of wetlands is becoming a global burning issue and much discussed topic. To ensure sustainable, self-reliant socio economic development of wetland area, strengthening community linkages, educating them with the environment through various awareness programs and acknowledging the aesthetic beauty of the place through ecotourism etc. would surely help in conserving these valuable treasure in long time perspectives. Sustainable harvesting of wetland biodiversity should be adopted in order to get long time benefits. Systematic and rotational harvesting mechanism may be adopted to sustain the resources. Now a days the wetland plants are reported to have a comprehensive capacity for accumulation of numerous heavy metals. Fluctuations in water level compounding the deposition of nutrient metals and silt by interfering with wetland hydrodynamic and flushing of pollutants.

  65. Leciana de Menezes Sousa Zago, Valéria Rodrigues de Sousa and Samantha Salomão Caramori

    Biochemical indicators have been proposed as a tool to monitor soil quality, but the degree of precision of these indicators is not yet known to identify changes in fertility over time. The present study evaluated the influence of monocultures on the quality of the Brazilian Cerrado soil, using biochemical indicators. Forty-eight samples of native Cerrado soil and soils converted to sugarcane crops were submitted to chemical and enzymatic evaluation. The implantation of monoculture crops promoted a reduction of 60% in the content of organic matter. The 79% reduction in β-glucosidase activity, 84.5% in acid phosphatase activity and 32% in glycine aminopeptidase activity occurred in relation to the activity found in native Cerrado soils. The results indicate that the implantation of sugarcane crops in substitution to the Cerrado can negatively affect the chemical and biochemical properties of the soil, causing degradation and loss of fertility.

  66. Manzar Alam, Mohd Imran and Nilofer Bano

    Now a day, hospital aquatic environment is becoming under pressure due to antibiotics and heavy metal interference which highly affect the microbial diversity. These antibiotics and heavy metal have significantly increased the multi drug resistant microbes present in the aquatic environment which act as reservoirs including, hospital sewage, rivers and ocean water. Antibiotic resistance is commonly encoded on the same mobile genetic elements that carry heavy metal resistance genes. Those genes are certainly selected in presence of heavy metals along with them, antibiotic resistant gene are co-selected. The biological evolution is the marvellous example of bacterial resistance. The eutrophication facilitates of hospital environment is main cause of the growth and survival of microbial pathogens. In India there is no instruction for the use of antibiotics. Therefore, the aim of this review article is to increase the inspection of hospital aquatic environment polluted with various heavy metals and antibiotics and enlargement of hindrance strategies including reduction of excessive use of antibiotics in hospitals, wastewater treatment and suitable disposal of hospital wastes for protection of both environment as well as public health risk.

  67. Dhanya, P.Y. and Dr. Sushama, S.

    The exposure of the fresh water fish, Labeo rohita to lambda cyahalothrin water, for short term (24, 48, 72, 96 hours) and long term duration (10, 20, 30 days) lead to the formation of histopathological lesions of varying intensities on the gill tissues. In the present investigation, the histopathological changes in gill of Labeo rohita in normal condition and exposed to condition for short and long term period of lamda cyahalothrin water at selected periods have been observed

  68. Imrana Khushk, Safia Lashari, Muhammad Aqeel Bhutto, Abdul Nabi Jatt and Abdul Sattar Qureshi

    In this study, several bacterial strains were isolated from soil samples of Jamshoro district and screened for α-amylase production, Bacillus clausii MCC 233-50 was found best amylase producing strain. Fermentation conditions were optimized for amylase production in shake flask using different carbon sources, nitrogen sources, initial pH, and temperature and time period. Amylase production of 593 U/mL was observed after 36 h in mineral medium containing glucose and this increased to 760 U/mL when starch was used as energy source at initial pH 7.0 and 37ºC.Urea was found to be best nitrogen source. Further improvement in final enzyme titer was observed when initial pH and temperature were optimized. Maximal amylase concentration of 1137 U/mL was obtained under optimized cultural conditions. Strain is alkalophilic and thermophilic which makes it suitable for amylase production.

  69. Mandi, S., Reddy, D. Damodar and Sivaraju, K.

    The tobacco cured leaf yield as well as leaf quality are important factor which determined market price and net return. The yield and leaf quality of tobacco influenced by a numbers of factors such as varieties, soil, irrigation water and management practices. The nutrient composition and quality constituents like nicotine and reducing sugars in the leaf are influenced by the availability of nutrients in the soil. The permanent manorial trial has been started in 1961-62 and till now continuing at CTRI Research Station, Dinhata. Database is being maintained for this trial and the data for last 10 years (2004-05 to 2014-15) was collected on first grade leaf yields was collected along with Leaf composition i.e. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Chloride, Nicotine and reducing Sugar contents and soil nutrients data including OC (g kg-1), available P2O5 (kg ha-1), Available K2O (kg ha-1) and Chloride (ppm) content. Relationship among the quality constituents and composition of leaf and soil fertility was developed using regression analysis. Nitrogen fertilization played crucial role for leaf yield, quality and nicotine content in leaf and recorded positive relationship with them. The nicotine and nitrogen content showed significant (P<0.01) positive relationship with linear regression equation was Y=79.041x-1412.2. However, reducing sugar content in leaf showed negative relation with phosphate in leaf with regression equation Y=-2.610x+16.94. The soil content of K2O showed significant positive relationship with leaf Potassium content. The result showed that nitrogen and phosphate fertilization may regulate nicotine and reducing content of leaf.

  70. Tamene Yohannes and Sebsebe Demissew

    Poor data quality in database can result from various causes, such as errors in site descriptions, imprecise coordinates or even mistakes. Hence, exploratory data analysis and cleaning are among several range of approaches and methods of data auditing and cleaning, which have been suggested for maintaining or improving data quality. Since its establishment, 1976 the Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute (EBI) previously known as Plant Genetic Resource Centre of Ethiopia/PGRCE (1976), Institute of Biodiversity Conservation/IBC (1994), has been collecting crop germplasm and associated traditional knowledge with special emphasis on major crop species. In 1999 EBI has established a database and documented several biodiversity related information. As of December 2013, the national collection has reached 73,438 accessions from 423 plant species belonging to 196 genera in 54 families. Coffea arabica L. is among these crop species, which Ethiopia has been regarded as the center of origin and center of genetic diversity. The wild coffee populations of Ethiopia are gene pool for several important traits which has national and international importance. Data quality assessment and spatial analysis were done on 5779 Coffee accessions deposited at the EBI, which were collected all over the coffee growing parts of the country and conserved at two field gene banks. The result has showed that, among the 5779 accessions, 2251 (38 %) were entered into the database. Among these 2251 accessions, 977 (43.40%) were georeferenced. The result of visualization map of the 977 C. arabica accessions and quality control based on the comparison of the country administrative unit data in the passport, with that of the country administrative unit information extracted from thematic layers using DIVA-GIS software has showed that, a number of accessions fall out of the geographical region of Ethiopia. Moreover, there are also 11 % erroneous points, which are 107 out of the 977 accessions. Three groups of causes of errors which could be committed either during field data collecting or while data encoding or at both stages were found. All the 107 erroneous points were corrected using different methods and recommendations were given for future use.

  71. Mansoor Ahmad Bhat and Yogamoorthi, A.

    The effects of different concentrations (control, 10, 20, 40,80 and 100%) of aqueous leaf extract of fresh leaves of Tecomastans (L.) on radical length, shedding of seed coat, germination index, tolerance index, phytotoxic index and biochemical constituents of Viginaradiata (L.) were investigated. Aqueous leaf extract of Tecomastans (L.) affected negatively radical length and delayed shedding of seed coat in green gram. Significant reduction in the amount of total protein activity, amylase activity, invertase activity and protease activity were recorded in response to allelochemical stress. The highest activity of biochemical constituents of green gram was found in control while as lowest activity was found in 100% of extract concentration. The tolerance index was found to be decreased while as phytotoxic index was found to be increased from control to 100% in each day of experiment. The germination was found to be increased in each day of the experiment. The probable biochemical factor responsible for such allelopathy is discussed based on previous reports.

  72. Dr. Vasanthamani, G. and Jenita, L. M. J.

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. There are currently 371 million people living with diabetes and another 280 million are at high risk of developing the disease. The objective is to examine the impact of whole wheat diet on glycemic control of type 2 diabetics. A total number of 30 diabetics were selected by using purposive sampling method from Coimbatore medical college hospital. The experimental group (15) was directed to follow whole wheat diet and control group (15) was advised to follow their regular diabetic diet, for a period of three months. The fasting blood sample was drawn for estimation of blood glucose before and after the experimental study. The results shows that the decrease in the blood glucose levels of the experimental group at fasting, postprandial and HbA1c state were significant at five per cent level (p<0.05).

  73. Konana Cn, Gachene Ckk, David Dm, Mureithi Sm, Gicheru Pt and Khalif Z

    This study investigated the effect of gully erosion on livelihoods in Suswa catchment, Narok County. Data was collected in 4 villages (Eluai, Olepolos, Olesharo and Enkiloriti) using a questionnaire on the effect of the gully on livelihoods (movement, infrastructure, livestock and farming practices). The effect of gully erosion on activities within the four villages was determined using Chi square test. Results showed that the effect of gully erosion on house activities differed significantly between the villages. This could be due to the fact that houses near to the gully where the most affected by runoff. The effect of gully erosion on farming, livestock, level of income, water availability, firewood collection, building materials, health and mosquito breeding did not differ significantly between the villages. This is because the effect on the mentioned livelihood activities was more or less the same in the 4 villages. According to community members the level of damage to farming, livestock, house activities, water pan and road/footpath was severe. Community members were also aware of the risk of erosion and its effects on their livelihoods. The low use of soil conservation measures in the Suswa catchment could have contributed to negative effects on livelihood activities. Community recommendations for the rehabilitation of the gully included the use of soil and water extension services, soil and conservation measures, training, the use of indigenous knowledge and reduction of livestock numbers and financial support.

  74. Dr. Sarmistha Sarkar and Dr. Ajay Meshram

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases which if not controlled can cause serious complications. Aim: Kidney Profile Evaluation In The Hypoglycemic Type II Diabetic Subjects. Methodology: Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum urea, creatinine, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and microalbuminuria levels were evaluated. Total sample size was 60, which was divided into 30 study group with type II DM having hypoglycemia (blood glucose level <70 mg/dl) who attended the Medicine OPD of AVBRH Hospital and 30 age, sex matched healthy controls included in the study. Results: Results of serum urea and creatinine levels were higher in cases as compared to the controls (p<0.0001). Urinary Microalbumin level were 70.71±5.57 which was higher in the cases as compared to controls (p<0.0001). Serum Sodium level in the cases were 128.26 ± 2.46 which was significantly lower in the cases as compared to controls (p<0.0001). Level of serum Potassium level in the cases were 6.09 ± 0.23 which was significantly higher in the cases as compared to controls (p<0.0001). HbA1c has significant negative correlation with Creatinine (p<0.01). Conclusion: Early detection of Kidney Profile abnormalities can minimize the risk for development of Nephrotic complications in the hypoglycemic type II diabetic subjects.

  75. Subhash Kumar Mishra, Ramesh Chandra, Chaturvedi, S. K. and Ravindra Singh

    Weedy rice infestation is a big problem in the rice growing areas. A survey was conducted in July 2016 to understand the knowledge and practices of rice farmers about weedy rice in two nagar panchayat of tribal areas of Shahdol district, Madhya Pradesh. The present study aimed to establish awareness of farmer’s about weedy rice and observe the farmer’s practices in the management of weedy rice. We didn’t observe much difference between farmer’s knowledge about weedy rice and their management in two villages. Results showed that majority of the farmers (70%) responded that awns can be absent in some weedy rice and about 58% of the farmers had no knowledge that weedy rice is a type of weed in rice field. Cutting the weedy rice panicles at the time of harvesting is the best way of reducing weedy rice, and it was practiced by about 60% farmers of the most affected villages. Our study suggests that there is a need to increase awareness about weedy rice among tribal farmers.

  76. Dr. Supriya Shetey, Dr. Sounyala Rayannavar, Dr. Abhijit P. Patil and Dr. Sayed Killedar

    Statement of problem: Recasting procedure could affect the cytotoxicity of dental alloys because remaining alloy from initial castings is reused commonly with addition of new alloy. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of recasting of cobalt chromium alloys on gingival fibroblast cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Disk-shaped specimens (1 × 2 mm, n=40) of cobalt chromium alloys were prepared with 100% new alloy and 50%, 30%, and 15% once recast alloy. 10 specimens from each group were conditioned in 0.5ml of saline (0.9% NaCl) containing 3% bovine serum albumin(BSA). Cytotoxic effects were assessed on human gingival fibroblast with (MTT) colorimetric assay a 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake (NRU) assay test. Collected data was statistically analysed with one way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD multiple comparison test for each group and the effect of repeated casting of base metal alloys on gingival fibroblast cytotoxicity was evaluated. Results: Effects of alloy type on MTT activity and NRU assay depend on the amount of recasted alloy addition (P<.001) indicating amount of recast alloy affected the cellular activity of HGF by 1-way ANOVA. Post hoc multiple comparison tests were performed to determine how casting procedures affect MTT activity NRU assay of HGF cells. Tukey’s HSD test revealed that the mean MTT activity and NRU assay was significantly different for each casting procedure group (P<.001). Post hoc comparisons of the 4 casting procedures also indicated that each increase in surplus alloy amount in the alloy. Conclusions: Recasting of cobalt chromium alloys increased cytotoxicity and decreased cell viability of human gingival fibroblasts.

  77. Syed Kuduruthullah, Jananni, M. and Sivaramakrishnan, M.

    This case report describes a case of amlodipine induced gingival enlargement in a pre existing periodontitis case. The uniqueness in this case is that the patient exhibited severe enlargement in spite of using the drug at lower dosage within short span of time. The gingival enlargement complicates the periodontal maintenance and aggravates other periodontal diseases. Drug induced enlargements pose a greater problem to dentists as they interfere with oral hygiene practices. So both the dentists and the general practitioner should be aware this adverse reaction to Amlodipine for effective case maintenance.

  78. Sai Pavithra, R. and Dr. Uma Maheswari, T.N.

    The Institute of Medicine defines clinical practice guidelines as "Statements that include recommendations, intended to optimize patient care, that are informed by a systematic review of evidence and an assessment of the benefits and harms of alternative care options Guidelines for their use in licensed indications (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease) include recommendations and guidance for patient selection and subsequent monitoring with discussion of potential adverse effects. An under- standing of these is important when managing patients receiving biologic therapy for systemic disease and use in oral medicine. Studies on knowledge and awareness among dental health professionals about Biologics and general guidelines is rarely reported hence the present study is carried out.

  79. Fazeelath Banu, M.A. and Dr. Sivakumar

    The mandible plays a major role in mastication, phonetic function, and supports the teeth. Mandibular discontinuity produces cosmetic and functional deformities. Surgical reconstruction of mandibular bone defects is a routine procedure for rehabilitation of patients with deformities caused by trauma, infection or tumor resection. Bone grafting has been used in the reconstruction of the mandible. The fibula flap is a versatile method used in the reconstruction of the defects in the mandible.

  80. Nithya Karpagam, G., Dr. Dhanraj and 3Dr. Ashish

    Objective: This study was conducted with the aim of demonstrating the level of knowledge and practice amongst general dental practitioners in Chennai city, India in 2016-17, in terms of usage of dental burs. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, the general dental doctors in Chennai provided information on their approach in dealing with the dental burs, via a pretested self administered questionnaire. The first part includes the knowledge and the last part involves dentist’s practice in terms of usage of burs. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results: A total 102 practitioners answered the questions, a response rate of 100%. Among the sample, 47% preferred to use the diamond burs and 33% preferred to use tungsten burs. About 48% would use a bur only once and 39% would use twice and none would never discard a bur. Doctors knew that the burs efficiency decrease with usage. Conclusion: This study revealed a low level of knowledge and practice regarding the uses of burs in tooth preparation among dental practitioners.

  81. Vijayaa Lakshmi, L. G.

    Periodontitis is defined as an disease of supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific microorganisms or groups of specific microorganisms, resulting in progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with pocket formation, gingival recession or both. The etiology of periodontitis is gram negative anaerobes but multifactorial factors may play a role in etiopathogenesis of periodontal destruction. Among various risk factors, genetic factors play a major role. In regulating the different signalling protein involved in periodontal tissue homeostatis. The most important protein molecules involved in periodontal tissue homeostasis are cytokines. Cytokines are small molecular protein, signalling molecules involved in regulation of various cell membranes. So among cytokines the proinflammatory cytokines like IL-alpha, IL-beta, TNF-alpha plays a major role in periodontal destruction. So the genes regulating the synthesis and secretion of these cytokines might determine the progression of the periodontal disease.

  82. Sowndarya, B. and Dr. P. Gopinath

    One of the most common infectious diseases of humans is urinary tract infections (UTIs), caused by Escherichia coli, which responsible for more than 80% of cases worldwide. Eucalyptus species are well known as medicinal plants due to their biological and pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activity of eucalyptus oil against clinical isolates of E. coli. The MIC of eucalyptus oil was appeared to be 0.125% for E. coli. Eucalyptus oil is found to have antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of E. coli. However, the studies on toxic and irritant properties of essential oils are imperative, especially when considering any new products for human administration.

  83. Sowndarya, B. and Dr. P. Gopinath

    One of the most common infectious diseases of humans is urinary tract infections (UTIs), caused by Escherichia coli, which responsible for more than 80% of cases worldwide. Eucalyptus species are well known as medicinal plants due to their biological and pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activity of eucalyptus oil against clinical isolates of E. coli. The MIC of eucalyptus oil was appeared to be 0.125% for E. coli. Eucalyptus oil is found to have antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of E. coli. However, the studies on toxic and irritant properties of essential oils are imperative, especially when considering any new products for human administration.

  84. Shreya Svitlana, A. and Dr. Dhanaraj

    Aim: to study the knowledge and attitude of dental students towards HIV/AIDS patients. Background: In the present generation, due to the development of various successful Anti-retroviral therapies, the life span of the infected individuals has increased. Hence these patients will require increasingly competent and compassionate health care services, including oral health care. Materials and Methods: This survey was conducted on 100 dental students in the 3rd, 4th and 5th year students of a private dental college. The students completed a predesigned self-administered questionnaire comprising 20 questions assessing the knowledge, attitude and willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patients. Result: The survey was completed by 100% of the students. The analysed results proved that more than half of the population in the study exhibited good knowledge and a few proclaimed to have excellent knowledge. The mean knowledge score is 73.67%, among all the considered years of study. Despite their good level of knowledge, only 58% of the study population displayed a positive attitude (non professional attitude) toward HIV/AIDS, whereas the remaining 42% of the population were negative or neutral towards the treatment of HIV.

  85. Dr. Masood Bamedi

    Nowadays, biomaterials applications could be established as a good medium/ vehicle for periodontal research and practice. Such materials based biotechnology routinely used in periodontal applications and is being continued as a very impressive tool to improve related disorders specifically in all dental research including periodontology. In this review biomaterials applications in periodontology will be elaborately discussed in detail including all applied agents.

  86. Dr. Deepali R Gaikwad

    Objective: To evaluate treatment outcome of tuberculous (TB) lymphadenitis at Bhausaheb Sardesai Talegaon Rural Hospital (BSTRH), Attached with M.I.M.E.R. Medical college, Talegaon Dabhade, Maharashtra. Results: Of total 757 tuberculosis cases and 202 extrapulmonary amongst them, 70 (9.24%) patients had TB lymphadenitis.The mean age was 28.8±12years. Commonly affected site observed cervical group 40 (57.1%) with single node involvement seen in 54 (77.1%) cases. Sputum AFB positive in 1 patient (1.4%), HIV association seen in 3 (4.3%) cases. Fever and anorexia were most frequently reported sympoms. Fine needle aspiration showed positive results in majority of cases 61 ( n=70, 87.1%). One (1.4%) patient diagnosed multiple drug resistance. Paradoxical reaction was observed in 5 (7.2%) patients. All patients were treated with Directly Observed Therapy. Fifty nine (84.3%) patients were treated successfully, 4 (5.7%) patients required extension of treatment. five (7.2%) patients exhibited paradoxical reaction, one (1.4%) patient showed relapse. One( 1.4%) patient diagnosed multiple drug resistance and required 2nd line of antitubercular treatment. Conclusion: Lymphnode is commonly affected organ by tuberculosis (9.24%). Lymphnode tuberculosis is most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (34.6%). Incidence was slightly higher in female than male gender. FNA is most reliable diagnostic test. TB lymphadenitis cases showing paradoxical reaction and or relapse should be subjected for drug susceptibility testing to rule out drug resistant tuberculosis.

  87. Dr. Nandini Manjunath, Dr. Sahana Purushotham, Dr. Jenny Susan Roy and Dr. Rosh Shalom Raphy

    Background: Oral health is of paramount importance for the physical, social and psychological well-being of an individual. Poor oral health negatively affects an individuals productively. Lack of awareness is one of the major factor leading to oral diseases. Objective: The study was carried out to assess the oral hygiene awareness and practices amongst patients visiting the OPD of A.J Dental College, Mangalore. Materials and Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among the patients attending the outpatient department of periodontology, A.J Institute of dental science, Mangalore. A self constructed questionnaire was distributed to 1000 patients. The questionnaire consisted of questions that was categorized to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices of subjects related to oral health. After the completion of the questionnaire, they were analyzed statistically to obtain the results. Results: The result of this study shows an lack of oral hygiene awareness and limited knowledge of oral hygiene practices. Conclusion: Most of the dental problems can be prevented by educating the population thereby enhancing their levels of awareness. Hence, there is a need to educate the individuals about correct oral hygiene practices and methods for the prevention of dental diseases. Professional dental care and regular follow up along with the patients oral hygiene practices can minimize the level of oral diseases.

  88. Kunal Pilare

    The present Exodontia is a procedure that all dentists are taught to perform in dental school and used by most general clinicians in their practice. With the growth of implant dentistry because of its high success rate and predictability, more questionable teeth that in the past may have been salvaged through extreme endodontic or periodontic procedures are now extracted for implant placement. A good skill set in basic and complex exodontia is therefore essential for well-trained general dentists who wish to be clinically involved in this facet of their practice. The purpose of this article is to review the biomechanics of a newly developed extraction forceps and to provide the literature supporting its advantages over the other commercially available forceps, elevators or periotome.

  89. Zarir Ruttonji, Chandan Dhongde, Manisha Herekar, Viraj N Patil and Shruti Gundewar

    In fast paced and upwardly mobile society, patients will mainly see a dentist for two reasons; discomfort or esthetics. Attachments provide a very important psychological union in treating patient as a whole and not merely as a disease. Attachment dentistry provides superior cosmetic and functional alternatives to the standard cast partial denture with clasps. They can offer advantages in advanced restorative procedures because of their adaptability. Attachments are stress redirectors and absorbers. Their function is to preserve soft tissue and bone as well as provide retention. The correct use of attachments may overcome both physical and psychological problems associated with conventional RPD designs. It is important to realize no attachment is perfect for every application. So the main purpose of this article is to provide an overview and a simplified approach to this treatment modality by way of a case report.

  90. Mbayo Lukasu, Kakoma Kambola, Kasamba Ilunga, Manda Mukendi, Kalumba Kambote Mudingwe Kasongo, Tshikamba Muamba, Tshikala Nday, Kandja Luamba and Mulumba Kadiebwe

    Background: The inadequacy, lack of suitable equipment in our specialty infrastructure and lack of monthly deaths in people living with human immunodeficiency virus increase the number of deaths and undetermined diagnosis in the internal medicine department of Sendwe referral hospital. The purpose of this study was to determine the biographical characteristics, proportional mortality from infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and the map of the morbidity and mortality of diseases related to this infection. Methods: This is a retrospective cross sectional study running the period from January 1, 2012 to Jun 15, 2016 concerned hospitalized adults HIV-infected in internal medicine at Jason Sendwe referral hospital. Interpretation of the results was performed by frequencies, central tendency and dispersion parameters. Proportional mortality was calculated to divide the number of death from HIV-infected on global mortality-years. The global mortality was calculated to divide the number of death on study population-years Results: The median age was 41 years and male was predominant (57%). Proportional mortality was 65%.The frequencies causes were: Tuberculosis (29%), cryptococcal meningitis (26%) and pneumopathy (12%). The diabetes comorbidity was found in 3%. The associated conditions of death were dominated by respiratory distress (21%), and anemia (14%). Patients (92%) were accessing care clinical stage 3and 4 of the WHO2006. The undetermined diagnosis was 30%. Conclusion: Proportional mortality is interpellator and suggests strengthening technical platform and regular audit of deaths to improve medical practices and reverse trends in mortality. The main challenge would be to establish the share of comorbidities in the occurrence of death in persons living with HIV from under equipped country.

  91. Ashok K. Chauhan, Yashpal Verma, Sukhbir Singh Sangwan, Dinesh Kumar and Paramjit Kaur

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of external beam radiotherapy for the management of refractory plantar fasciitis and to assess radiation induced side effects, including malignancy. Material and Method: The study was carried out in Department of Radiotherapy, PGIMS, Rohtak (India), on 36 diagnosed cases (56 heels) of plantar fasciitis. These diagnosed patients of plantar fasciitis having pain, refractory to medical treatment, were accrued for and given external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) during 2005-08. The dose of EBRT was 6 Gy in 6 fractions over 2 weeks (1Gy per fraction, 3 fractions per week), given on Telecobalt. Assessment was made for response – at completion of radiotherapy, after six months and one year following radiotherapy. Response was evaluated using Objective (Calcaneodynia) pain score and Subjective (von Pennewitz) pain score. Acute skin reactions were noted at completion of radiotherapy. Late event as radiation induced malignancy was noted after at least 6 years following treatment. Results: Six months following EBRT, complete/ excellent response (CR) was observed in 62.5% heels, both by objective and subjective scores. Partial/ good response (PR) was 16.1% on objective score and 23.3% on subjective score, minor/ fair response (MR) was 12.5% & 7.1% and no/poor response (NR) was 8.9% and 7.1% respectively. One year after radiotherapy, Calcaneodynia objective score revealed CR, PR, MR and NR respectively were 80.4%, 7.1%, 8.9% and 3.6%. No progressive disease was found in any of the heels treated with radiotherapy during treatment or follow-up. No significant acute skin reaction was observed. None of the patients has reported with radiation induced or second malignancy so far. Conclusion: External beam radiotherapy offers very good treatment option for management of plantar fasciitis pain refractory to medical treatment. EBRT may be offered to patients, particularly older, without the historical fear of radiation induced malignancy. Though, equally effective in young patients, conclusive words regarding risk of long term side effects still need longer follow up.

  92. Miss Yashashree Kantak, Dr. Vidya Kadashetti, Dr. K. M. Shivakumar, Dr. Rajendra Baad, Dr. Nupura Vibhute, Dr. Uzma Belgaumi, Dr. Sushma Bommanavar, Wasim Kamate, Miss. Akshata Pawaskar and Mr. Nakul Malgundkar

    Background: Saliva is the first biological fluid that is exposed to arecanut/tobacco and is responsible for its changes especially the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to observe the effects of areca nut and various other products of areca nut on salivary flow rate and pH of saliva. Materials and Methods: A total of 74 Subjects were divided into arecanut/tobacco chewers i.e. study group (group A) and non areca nut/tobacco chewers i.e. control group (group B). Saliva of each subject was collected under resting condition and salivary flow rate was expressed in ml/min for 10 min. Salivary pH was determined using digital pH meter. Results: The difference between the mean SFR for chewers and non-chewers is statistically insignificant.(p=0.5) The difference between the mean salivary pH for chewers and non-chewers is statistically significant.(p=0.05) Conclusion: Salivary flow rate is altered in a lesser extent in Areca Nut chewers and salivary pH is altered to a greater extent in Areca Nut chewers. Thus determining oral mucosa to be vulnerable to the toxic effects of Areca Nut chewing.

  93. Dr. Romshi Raina, Dr. Abhishek Khajuria, Dr. Aakriti and Dr. Sneh Kalgotra

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the psychosocial impact that maloccluiosn ahs on an individual self designed Questionnaire and co-relating the effects and malooclusion. Material & Methods: A specially designed questionnaire was filled by 120 subjecsts seeking Orthodontic treatment, the questions aimed at finding out the effect malocclusion had on psychology of the patient and the social impact. Results: The sample consisted of 120 adults with mean age of 20 years (SD±2.4), and largely female comprising 140 (88%) and males were 19 (12%). The study group consisted of patients that reported to Maharaja Ganga Singh Dental College & Research Centre, Sri Ganga Nagar, Rajasthan, India. Of the total sample, 120. 85.5 % agreed that healthy and well arranged teeth are important for appearance wherein 95% female subjects and 56.6% male subjects agreed to the same. A total of 90% subjects believed they needed orthodontic treatment and 87.5% believed that straight beautiful teeth can promote their career (91.5% female subjects and 73.3 5 male subjects), further 86.6% believed having a straight beautiful smile can promote social success. Conclusion: Malocclusion has a direct co-relation with the psycho-social effect it has on an individual and psychology of an individual improves at the mere thought of initiating Orthodontic treatment.

  94. Dr. Divya Malik, Dr. Viram Upadhyaya, Dr. Aman Arora and Dr. Kushaldeep

    The management of tooth wear is complex and challenging. Moreover, aesthetic and functional restoration in such patients entails the performance of all procedures necessary to produce healthy, aesthetics, well functioning and self maintaining masticatory mechanism. The following case report provides a description of a patients’ oral rehabilitation with metal ceramic restorations to increase vertical dimension. Patient not only had satisfactory functional and aesthetic results but also showed positive psychological impact and hence improved the quality of life.

  95. Dr. Viram Upadhyaya, Dr. Divya Malik, Dr. Manish Vishen and Dr. Kushaldeep

    Fully edentulous patients face several problems such as residual ridge resorption, excess salivary flow, muscle tone reduction and other factors that affect the retention quality of conventional dentures. Such patients require greater retention for chewing and psychological reasons. Implant supported prosthesis increase satisfaction and quality of life in these patients. This article presents a case report where prosthetic rehabilitation of the patient was done with implant supported over denture in maxillary and mandibular arches using different attachment systems.

  96. Dr. Avinash Kumar and Dr. Deviprasad Nooji

    The eye is a vital organ and an essential component of facial expression. Ocular defects might result from tumor, congenital anomaly and external injury requiring surgical intervention. Loss of an eye has a crippling effect on the psychology of the patient. Enucleation of the eye is therefore normally followed by fabrication of an ocular prosthesis to improve esthetics. A custom ocular prosthesis is a good option when reconstruction by plastic surgery or the use of osseo-integrated implants is neither possible nor desirable. There are different materials and techniques used for the fabrication of the same. Resin is proved to be the better among the available materials for fabrication of ocular prostheses. Through our clinical report, we have fabricated a semi-customized scleral prosthesis with stock iris and customized sclera. This prosthesis had the advantages of both stock and custom ocular prosthesis providing functionally and esthetically satisfactory result.

  97. Nasreen Ali, Sunil Kumar Agarwalla, Niranjan Mohanty and Debasis Patro

    Spinal muscular atrophy is the second most common autosomal recessive disorder after cystic fibrosis (D'Amico et al., 2011). Because of its high frequency, it should be considered first in a case of floppy infant. Here we are reporting a case of 18month female baby who was admitted with complaints of not able to walk for last 5 months.

  98. Sangita Vasava, Pawan N. Jarwal, Ganvit, S.S., Kinjal Desai, Preeti and Pandya, N.N.

    Background: This hospital based study to comparative evaluations of two different types of pterygium surgeries and to know efficacy, safety and complication in method of autologous insitu blood versus suture for fixation of conjunctival autograft in pterygium excision surgery. Materials and Method: A Prospective randomised clinical trial. The study included 50 eyes of 50 patients with primary pterygium. Simple excision under local anaesthesia was performed by closure of bare sclera by suture less and glue free conjunctival autograft in 25 eyes of 25 patients (Group A) versus conventional method of a sutured conjunctival autograft in25 eyes of 25 patients (Group B). Results: Thepost-operative pain, itching, watering, inflammation, subconjunctival haemorrhage was significantly less in group Aas compared to group B inpost-operativefollow up days. Graft stability and recurrence was found to be similar in both groups, which were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Suture less and gluefree conjunctival autograft technique is easy,safe, effective, prevent adverse reactions and discomfort encountered with use of sutures.

  99. Hajar Salaf Almutiriy, Amal Ahmed Ismail and Niveen Ghazali

    Background: Evidence on the safety of herbal products use is still inadequate to substantiate their safety among pregnant women. Herbal usage is differing according to geographical availability, experience and believes. Saudi Arabian community is one of those old communities that encouraged herbal medicines and trusting the safety of plants available in the area even during pregnancy. The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of Saudi women toward herbal usage in pregnancy and to identify the commonest herbs used during pregnancy. Methodology: A questionnaire based cross sectional study conducted in January -march 2017). A total of 577 Saudi women responded to questions regarding demographic data, educational level, gynecological history, believes on herbal Safety during pregnancy and their source of information with listing of abortifacient herbs they knew. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 24. Results: 67.6 % were in the range between (20-40) years. 76.6% were of high educational level and34.3% had completed three to five successful pregnancies, 97% are not agree with using herbs in pregnancy. The majority mentioned Ginger, Annise, Cumin, fenugreek as their commonly used herbs in pregnancy.62% based their information on family and friend’s recommendations. Conclusion: The study emphasized that although high education level effect is reflected on the believes regarding safety ,still usage of herbs during pregnancy is depending on family and friend’s experiences and no obvious information provided by expertise in clinics or media to regulate usage and avoid unsafe during pregnancy or even home induced abortion.

  100. Dr. Tanya Sethi, Dr. Vijayendra Kumar, Dr. Shreya Gour and Dr. Devika Gupta

    Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic, debilitating disease of the oral cavity characterized by inflammation and progressive fibrosis of the submucosal tissues resulting in trismus. There is no definite treatment for this condition. Many medical and surgical modalities have been tried. Various flaps have been used to reconstruct surgical defects following excision of fibrous bands. The buccal fat pad flap is most simple and reliable method because of its rich blood supply and location which is close to the location of various intraoral defects. This article reviews the Buccal pad flap and its associated anatomical structures, clinical applications and surgical technique in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis.

  101. Dr. Lekha, K., Dr. Chithra L Melavanki, Dr. Roseline Meshramkar and Dr. Ramesh K. Nadiger

    Background: Establishment of occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) is one of the important tasks for successful prosthodontic therapy for function, esthetics and comfort to the edentulous patients. Though various methods are advocated, each has its own limitations and no single method has been formulated. In the present anthropometric study the correlation between vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) and distance between tip of thumb to tip of index finger has been evaluated in edentulous patients. The results of this study can be useful in determining OVD in edentulous patients. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare and correlate between the vertical dimension of occlusion by Conventional method and Anthropometric method. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 edentulous volunteers comprising of 20 males and 20 females were selected. The distance from tip of thumb to tip of index finger of the right hand and vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) was measured with a digital vernier calliper. This Anthropometric method is then compared and correlated with Conventional method of vertical dimension of occlusion. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was determined to evaluate the correlation in the studied parameters. The level of significance was kept as ≤0.05 at 95% confidence interval. Results: Statistically significant correlation was seen with all the parameters studied. Pearson correlation of VDO and distance between tip of thumb to tip of index finger was 0.993, where p value= 0.157 for males and Pearson correlation of VDO and distance between tip of thumb to tip of index finger was 0.999, where p value= 0.530 for females which was highly significant. Combined male and females Pearson correlation of VDO and distance between tip of thumb to tip of index finger 0.996, where p value = 0.001 level. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that VDO between conventional method and anthropometric method both in edentulous male and female patients were highly correlated.

  102. Biju Baby Joseph and Shiny George

    Fibrous dysplasia is a fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw bone. It occurs in maxilla and mandible with a more predilection to maxilla. It starts in childhood and progress slowly and mostly ceases after the onset of puberty. However it can affect any bones in the skeletal frame work, including the craniofacial system. Though exact etiology unknown, gene mutation is likely to be the cause .The bone formation is accelerated due to this mutation but the new bone layed down is poorly calcified and immatured. Aesthetic compromise or functional disturbance is less likely, however these cannot be ruled out. This case is unique in its presentation with little or no much esthetic compromise, so we tried to bring out the significance of an intervention in such caes.

  103. Lavakumar S. and Arivazhagan N.

    Background: Antibiotics are main stay of treatment in Intensive care unit in a hospital. Rationale and proper usage of antibiotics can prevent drug resistance. Drug utilization study is a component of medical audit that does monitoring and evaluation of the drug prescribing patterns and suggests necessary modifications in prescribing practices to achieve rational therapeutic practice as well as cost of effective health care. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the current drug utilization pattern of antibiotic agents in the Medical Intensive Care Unit of Shri Satya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Nellikuppam, Kancheepuram Dt, Tamilnadu. To study the resistance pattern of culture isolates. Materials and Methods: Inpatient records of patients who were admitted and treated in the Medical ICU (MICU) during the study period were included. Demographic data of the patient noted. Prescription was reviewed and audit was done. Results: The use of parenteral third generation cephalosporins accounted to about 40%. Cefotaxime/Ceftriaxone was the most commonly used AMA, followed by piperacillin and tazobactum by 20% patients and ampicillin/gentamicin by 13-14% patients. Klebsiella and pseudomonas were the culture isolates obtained Conclusion: Most common indication for the antimicrobial therapy was infection. In our study there was a considerable use of combination of piperacillin plus tazobactum antibiotics. Beta lactam antibiotics formed the main stay of group of drugs.

  104. Dr. Ali Al Mashani, Dr. Neeraj Salhotra, Dr. Azmat Ali, Dr. Munther Al Zabin, Dr. Mohammad Hadad, Dr. Mohammad Hashim and Dr. Ahmed Al Risi

    PLIF or posterior lumbar interpedicular screw fixation in cases of spondylolisthesis is a routine procedure performed by the orthopedic and neurosurgeons. Use of X-ray, CT scan or Navigation system is employed commonly to achieve the goal with minimal neurodeficits. X-ray is the most common and benefit is the minimal radiation in the operating room. CT scan gives a detailed information of the anatomical features but simultaneously involves huge amount of radiations making operating staff vulnerable to radiation health hazards .Our analysis is of patients who underwent use of navigation, CT scan or only plain X-ray during the surgery. Results however did not find any promising results with use of high radiation in surgery outcomes.

  105. Dr. Deepmala Maurya, Dr. Priyanka Aggerwal and Dr. Shweta Bali

    Pyogenic granuloma is non neoplastic proliferation of gingival connective tissue, commonly occur in females in their second decade of life due to hormonal imbalance. Extra gingival sites are buccal mucosa, palate and tongue. It can also occur in males in response to minor trauma, chronic irritants which provides the pathway to non specific microorganism but histopathologicaly it does not show any microorganism, so its etiology is still not clear. Clinicaly it is a non tender swelling which sometimes look like a hemangioma or a vascular malformation which bleed profusely on provocation. In this case series we are reporting two case reports of pyogenic granuloma in two females of different age groups with different sites and discussing the clinical, histological features along with its various treatment modalities.

  106. BADIANE S. Moussa, SOBILO Julien, RAES Florian, LERONDEL Stéphanie, N’DOYE Oumar, DIAGNE Ibrahima and LE PAPE Alain

    The concept of sentinel lymph nodes in oncological surgery is based on the fact that the spread of solid tumors in an orderly manner passes first through the lymphatic system. Thus, the sentinel lymph node, meaning the first lymph node encountered by lymphatic drainage from the site of the tumor, is likely to be the first one affected by metastasis. Therefore, a negative sentinel lymph node makes it very unlikely that other lymph nodes along the same lymphatic pathway will be affected. Our interest in the development of an alternative molecular imaging technique for the localization and the detection of the sentinel lymph node micro-invasion is highly triggered by the limits of the current techniques. In this context, RGD mimetic molecular probes are prime targets for fluorescence invivo imaging. The work we report here consist in validating the detection of a fluorochrome paired with a mime RGD from the lymph nodes collected ex vivo. In a translational research approach, we have chosen as animal model some healthy sheep lymph nodes. For the various intra-ganglionic fluorochromes tested, AF750-RGD could be used to give good fluorescence signal from the 1/100 dilution, i.e. 10 nmol, and this fluorescence increases with the concentration of AF750-RGD. For the Cy5.5 the net fluorescence signal appears only from the dilution 1/20 i.e. 5nmol and intensifies with dilution 1/10. Finally, for the ICG (Indo Cyanine Green), a good fluorescence signal is obtained with respect to the sample at the dilution 1/500, i.e. 7.75 mmol. However the unmixing spectral, better than the subtraction of background noise, improves the contrast. Validation of these detection thresholds from these lymph nodes directs us on the choice of fluorochromes and their concentration in a targeting strategy of integrins by fluorescence imaging.

  107. Dr. Mitra, J. K., Dr. Ruchi Mitra and Dr. Sujit Marandi

    Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder presenting with hyperglycemia. Worldwide, the prevalence is increasing drastically. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional case-control study. The sample size: 150 cases with age and sex matched .controls meeting inclusion criteria of this study from outpatients and inpatients of RIMS, Ranchi. Results: The overall presence of abnormal serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TGs), very LDL (VLDL), TG/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, and LDL/HDL ratio with statistical significance is tabulated in tables. Conclusion: TC, LDL, TG, and VLDL were significantly raised in prediabetics as compared to normal healthy subjects whereas HDL was significantly lower in prediabetics as compared to normal healthy subjects.

  108. Dr. Chandramani B. More, Dr. Ruchita Peter and Dr. Pranay T. Patel

    Background: Age estimation is an important aid for personal identification in both, living and dead. Radiography has a vital role in forensic odontology and is widely used as a non- invasive method for age estimation, which is carried out through tooth developmental stages in children and from secondary dentin deposition in adults. Objectives: To assess the chronological age from the morphological parameters of all the permanent canines using digital panoramic radiographs and to evaluate the applicability of Kvaal’s method in local Gujarati population. Material and method: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 300 digital panoramic radiographs wherein the images of all the four permanent canines were analyzed by the investigators jointly, using Adobe Acrobat professional 8.0 and Adobe Photoshop 7.0.1 software. The measurements of each canine was estimated by using Kvaal’s method, and were subjected to statistical analysis, using pearson’s correlation and linear regression model. Results and Observations: The age of participants ranged from 18 to 64 years, with mean of 28.54 ± 8.39 years. The difference in morphological variables between males and females was not significant. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient in maxillary canine sshowed that except variable ‘A’, all the other variables had correlation with age. Similarly, in mandibular canines the variables ‘T’, ‘B’ and ‘W-L’ correlated significantly with age. The stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to correlate the variables with chronological age and a linear regression formula was obtained for Maxillary and Mandibular canine. The regression equation with the variable in Maxillary canine explained 3.5% of total variance (R2 = 0.035) with the standard error of estimate of 8.63 years and median of residuals of 2.36 years. The regression equation with the variable in Mandibular canine explained 1.9 % of total variance (R2 = 0.019) with the standard error of estimate of 8.7 years and median of residuals of 1.8 years. The p value <0.05 is for both, constant and W-L, which signifies, significant relationship between the parameter and age. Conclusion: The morphological parameters used in estimating age from Maxillary and Mandibular canines, are not good predictors of age in our study. Thus, Kvaal’s method is not a reliable method for predicting age from permanent canines.

  109. Dr. Ananya Pal, Dr. Shabnam Zahir, Dr. Gautam Kumar Kundu and Dr. Parvin Sultana

    Fracture of anterior teeth specially maxillary incisors is relatively common occurrence in children & adolescences. There are various treatment modalities of management of fractured anterior teeth. Factors determining the treatment plan and prognosis for teeth fractures include the extent of fracture, endodontic involvement, periodontal status, maturity of root, presence or absence of fractured tooth fragment, occlusion, finances etc. One of the excellent mode of treatment of crown fracture is biological restoration .When the fractured fragment of patient’s own tooth is reattached called autogenous bonding but when the fracture fragment of patient’s tooth is not available, segment of an extracted tooth from tooth bank can be used, it refers to homogenous tooth bonding. The present case report describes the successful management of fractured upper anterior teeth using both homogenous tooth bonding (in case of Ellis class II fracture in 11) & autogenous tooth fracture reattachment with the help of fiber post after completion of endodontic treatment (in case of Ellis class III fracture in 21). At 3 months follow up, the restoration revealed good aesthetic, functional & psychosocial results.

  110. Dr. Ravichandra Ravi, Dr. Charishma Chowdary Ponugubati, Dr. Sirisha and Dr. Pramod

    Tooth avulsion is defined as the complete displacement of the tooth out of its alveolar socket. Management of tooth avulsion in the permanent dentition often presents a challenge. Replantation of avulsed teeth is the most accepted treatment approach considering esthetic and functionality. The aim of this case report is to present the multidisciplinary treatment approach with avulsed maxillary anterior teeth.

  111. Mai Ahmed Banakhar and Naif Ahmed Banakhar

    Sacral neuromodulation is a new minimal invasive therapy. It is FDA approved for refractory overactive bladder, frequency urgency syndrome and non-obstructive retention. Here we review this therapy indications, outcome, surgical procedure and complications.

  112. Dr. Maya S. Indurkar and Dr. Manjiree S. Awad

    Background: In recent years, esthetic demand in dentistry have increased rapidly, driven by an enhanced awareness of beauty and esthetics. Loss of the interproximal dental papilla may cause formation of black triangle and in maxillary anterior region cause functional, phonetic and esthetic impairment. There are number of factors affecting the papilla fill in embrasure space, they are periodontitis, abnormal tooth shape, history of orthodontic treatment etc. Black triangle may be present when distance from contact point to alveolar crest is more than 5mm. It is important to know the cause of black triangle so that appropriate treatment can be planned. Aim: To determine factors causing the black triangle. Amount of papilla fill in embrasure space. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 sites were examined for amount of papilla fill & the presence of black triangle in 6 maxillary anterior teeth. The distance from contact point to alveolar crest was evaluated using Cone Beam Computed Tomography(CBCT) Clinically, the plaque index was recorded. Individuals were divided into 2 groups: Group A - Patients having 100% papilla fill and Group B - Patients having black triangle. Results: The most common factor causing black triangle is poor oral hygiene. Patients with poor oral hygiene 73.5% of total sites had black triangle whereas in the patients maintaining good oral hygiene, only 2.5% of total sites had black triangle then followed by patients with thin gingival biotype and triangular tooth morphology showed the occurrence of black triangle with 67.5% and 57.5% of total sites respectively. There was no significant difference found in gender for presence of black triangle. 100% papilla fill is present when the distance from CP - AC was ≤ 5mm. Conclusion: The most common factor causing black triangles is poor oral hygiene followed by thin gingival biotype, and triangular tooth morphology. It is commonly seen in older age i.e. 35 -50 yr. In the present study, it was also found that when the distance from CP - AC was ≤ 5mm, a complete papilla fill was present.

  113. Shivani Sharma, Yashoda Devi, Sujatha, S., Rakesh, N., Shwetha, V. and Pawan, T.

    Candidiasis, a common opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity is caused by Candida species. There are many risk factors involved including the use of prosthetic dentures with poor denture hygiene. We hereby present a case of an elderly female wearing maxillary and mandibular complete dentures for 20 years with poor denture hygiene. She complained of burning sensation in the mouth for 1 week. After complete examination, a provisional diagnosis of Pseudo membranous candidiasis w.r.t mandibular ridge and Atrophic candidiasis w.r.t maxillary ridge and the hard palate was made. The lesions healed completely in 5 days after the application of candid mouth paint and maintenance of oral and denture hygiene.

  114. Dr. Sandeep Kaur, Dr. Kirandeep Kaur, Dr. Tahir Ahmed and Dr. Sonam Mahajan

    Herpes Zoster also known as Shingles is an acute viral infection which is an extremely painful and incapacitating ailment. It results from the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. The triggering factors for the onset of an attack of Herpes Zoster include some form of immuno suppression. The diagnosis of Herpes Zoster can be made on proper medical history and a thorough clinical examination. During the prodromal stage, the only presenting symptom may be odontalgia, which may prove to be a diagnostic challenge for the dentist. Dentist must be familiar with the presenting signs and symptoms of patients experiencing the prodromal manifestations of herpes zoster of the trigeminal nerve. Here is the case report of a female patient affected by Herpes Zoster infection which followed after extraction of a lower first molar.

  115. B. Sudha and Dr. V. Selvanayaki

    Introduction: It has also been noted that one-third of all neonatal deaths occur on the first day of life, almost half within 3days & nearly three-quarters within the first week of life. In developing countries, about 34 of every 1000 live births result in neonatal death. The primary cause of neonatal deaths are sepsis(52%) which includes pneumonia, meningitis, neonatal tetanus, diarrhoea), birth asphyxia (20%)and others(13%). Lack of specificity of the clinical manifestation of various neonatal condition has been noted, resulting in difficulty in making a definitive diagnosis, delay in seeking health care and resultant high mortality. It is necessary for the caregivers & health-care providers to recognize the danger signs in a sick neonate and thereafter seek the appropriate level of health care, which in turn would reduce mortality. Methodology: Quantitative research approach with pre and post control group design was chosen for the study. Non probability purposive sampling technique was used for selecting the sample size of 40.structured knowledge questionnaire was used for assessing the knowledge and checklist was used practice. Pretest was done with the tool and on the same day VATM was administered. After 7 days and one month of pre test, post-test was done with the same tool. Results: The post- test mean knowledge score (31.80) was higher than the pre test mean score (18.30). The post- test mean practice score (12.20) was higher than the pre test mean score (6.75). Association was found with age of the mother, educational status and order of the child.

  116. Dr. Saroj Mandal, Dr. Gouranga Sarkar and Mazumdar, B.

    Background: Coronary artery disease is sometimes associated with chronic conduction block. Our aim is to correlate between chronic conduction block and coronary artery disease. We performed ECG and coronary angiography of all patients who were admitted for permanent pacemaker implantation to find correlation between them. Methods: Coronary angiography was performed in all 160 patients of chronic conduction block during twenty four months of study period who were admitted for pacemaker implantation. We compared the coronary artery disease in different types of conduction block. Results: Among the study population 35(22%) patients are of single vessel coronary artery disease (CAD),13 (8%) patients had double vessel coronary artery disease, 6 (4%) patients had triple vessel coronary artery disease, 2 (1%) patients had left main disease and 104 (65%) patients had normal or insignificant coronary anatomy. Conclusion: Coronary artery disease is quite common in chronic conduction disorder. So there must be a correlation between coronary artery disease and chronic conduction block.

  117. Dr. Raghavendraswamy, K. R., Dr. Dhakshani, M. R., Dr. Pudi Sriharsha, Dr. Venkatesh Bejagam and Dr. Anil Kumar Gujjari

    Saliva is a most valuable oral fluid that is often taken for granted. It is critical to the preservation and maintenance of oral health, yet it receives little attention until quantity or quality is diminished. The quantity of the saliva affects its ability to carry out the functions in the oral cavity including retention of the denture. Usually mouthwashes are an antiseptic solutions intended to reduce the microbial load in the oral cavity, although mouthwashes might be given for other reasons such as for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory or anti-fungal action. Most of the denture wearers are elderly patients who are on polypharmacy which can affect quality and quantity of saliva. Aim of the study: To evaluate and compare the salivary volume in patients taking Polypharmacy before and after using Herbal and commercially available mouthwash. Methodology: For the study a total of 10 patients taking Polypharmacy were selected based on inclusion criteria and were divided into two groups. In one group Saliva was collected by using a test tube with measurements and the final volume was noted before and after using herbal mouthwash. In another group Saliva was collected by using a test tube with measurements and the final volume was noted before and after using commercially available mouthwash. Results: Mouthwashes may disturb the healthy balance of the biofilm moisturizing the oral mucosa. Statistically significant reduction in salivary volume was found in using commercially available mouthwash (p>.025) than herbal mouthwash (p>.038). Thus this paper discusses about a study to evaluate and compare the salivary volume in patients taking polypharmacy before and after using herbal and commercially available mouthwash.

  118. Dr. Krishna Arpita Sahoo and Dr. Salam Mallik

    Osteoma of paranasal sinuses is a rare benign tumour arising from the proliferation of compact or cancellous bone. They are more common in frontoethmoidal region where as osteomas of sphenoid or maxillary region are rare. These tumors may be incidentally detected on radiographs, or may grow to produce symptoms if extends into orbit or skull base. We present here a rare case of large osteoma of the maxillary antrum and ethmoidal sinus in a 60-year-old man which was removed using combined endoscopic and external approach.

  119. Raisa Priyadarshini

    Background: Epistaxis is a common innocuous event in childhood.(1) Methods: It is a prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Paediatric patients (under the age of 12) presenting to the outpatient department with complains of epistaxis were observed, treated and the follow-up data was analysed. Results: Out of the total number (230) children males out-numbered the females. The total number of children were grouped into 2 based on the investigation and etiology. With associated cause (n=172), with no associated cause (n=58). The first group was treated in the ways befitting the disease. The other group was treated with topical saline drops, topical xylometazoline drops, oral antihistaminics and the patients were followed up. 97.6% of the patients belonging to the non-causal group did not need any other intervention and did well on follow up.

  120. Srikanth, I. and Prameela Rani, A.

    The validated protein precipitation method was applied for estimation of AT in human plasma with ATD8 as an internal standard (ISTD) by using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The chromatographic separation was achieved with 0.1% formic acid in combination with methanol (25:75 v/v) using the C18 column Ascentis Express (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.7 µm). The total analysis time was 3 min and flow rate was set to 0.6 ml/min. The mass transitions of AT, ATD8 obtained were m/z 482.6396.0 and 490.6®396.0. The standard curve shows correlation coefficient (r2) greater than 0.9983 with a range of 5.00-10000.00 pg/ml using the linear regression model.

  121. Mukta Agarwal, Nutan Raj, Sinha, H. H., Poonam Bhadani and Shashikant Kumar

    Background: Malignant mixed Mullerian tumors of the cervix (Carcinosarcomas or MMMTs) are rare and aggressive malignancies consisting of an epithelial (carcinoma) and a mesenchymal (sarcoma) tumor component. Objective: To report a rare case of cervical malignant mixed Mulleriantumour. Case: Here, we present a case of old postmenopausal woman with complaints of bleeding per vaginum, underwent endocervical curettage and endometrial biopsy suspicious of malignancy. So, radical hysterectomy with infracolic omentectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed and was later, diagnosed as malignant mixed Mulleriantumour arising from the cervix. Conclusion: Because of the rarity of MMMT, there are no consensus guidelines regarding treatment. While hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy remains the mainstay of treatment, high rates of recurrence, and metastasis suggests a need for lymphadenectomy and post operative adjuvant treatment

  122. Hua Sun, Wenjing Bao, Yan Xua, Chaozai Zhang, Peng Yu, Ziwei Huang, Guanlin Yang and Jing An

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a critical role in cancer development and progression. Our extensive efforts have identified and developed novel small molecule inhibitors that can fight colon cancers caused by aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling. A series of naphthoquinone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated using a combination of comprehensive biological and quantitative structure-activity-relationship (QSAR) analysis approaches, which revealed a new class of inhibitors of Wnt/β-catenin/Tcf signaling. In this class, compound 27 (named BC27) was the lead compound. At nanomolar to low micromolar concentrations, BC27 strongly inhibited the colony-forming activity of the β-catenin-overexpressing colon cancer carcinomacells caused by gene mutations of β-catenin and APC and reduced TOP-luciferase activity. This paper presents the chemical synthesis, biological activity and a comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) of this new class of compounds to introduce their preliminary structure−activity relationships (SARs).

  123. Elharam Ibrahim Abd allah, Khallafalla Ali khallafalla, Amr Galal Balla, Galia Zakaria Abdalnabi and Abdel Rahim Mahmoud Muddathir

    Back ground: Interaction of environmental and genetic elements plays important role in the pathogenesis of CML and other types of cancer. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is adetoxifying enzyme. Absence or low levels of this enzyme may genetically predispose individuals to CML. The aim of the present study was to determine GSTT1 Polymorphism among Sudanese patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) attending Radiation and Isotope Center-Khartoum. Materials and methods: Cross sectional case control study was conducted between January 2016 and August 2016 , on 50 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia among both genders at different ages admitted to Radiation and Isotope Center-Khartoum and 50 apparently healthy control subjects. The GSTT1 genotype was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method Result: The percentage of GSTT1 null genotype in CML patients was significantly higher than control (OR = 4.00, 95% CI: 1.62 –9.82; p =0.001).while GSTT1 polymorphism shows no statistically significance with the CML phases and hematological parameters except with the TWBCs. Conclusion: GSTT1 may be a protective factor for CML, while the null genotype shows association with the developing of chronic myeloid leukemia.

  124. Satoshi Furukawa

    Omarigliptin is a new once-weekly DPP-4 inhibitor developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Once-weekly oral administration of omarigliptin reduces dosing frequencies and improves treatment adherence, and potentially contributes to achieving optimal glycemic control compared with once-daily DPP-4 inhibitors. We investigated the effect of omarigliptin on blood glucose fluctuation compared with once-weekly injection dulaglutide in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fast blood glucose profiles in self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) were 116.5±10.7 (omarigliptin), and 158.2±43.0 (dulaglutide), respectively. Omarigliptin was initiated with the dose of 25 mg weekly. Blood glucose fluctuation was significantly improved after switching from dulaglutide to omarigliptin.

  125. Background: Vision is one of the main special senses of human being. In the visual system eye and its adnexal tissue are affected by variety of lesions. Orbito-ocular malignancies may contribute to visual disturbances, rarely visual loss may take place. The spectrum of malignant tumors of eye and ocular adnexa that can originate, grow, invade and lodge in the relatively small orbital cavity is amazing. Malignant tumors of eyelid, conjunctiva, retina and orbit in both adults and children have been reported. There exists differences in their pattern and frequency on the basis of geographical locations. Aim: To study the frequency and histopathology of various malignant tumors of eye and ocular adnexa and to correlate pathological findings with clinical data, age and sex distribution in various malignant tumors. Results: Orbito-ocular malignancies accounted for 1% of malignancies of all organs. Out of 90 tumors of the eye and ocular adnexa 41% were malignant tumors. Malignant tumors are common in males and show bimodal distribution with a peak in first decade and then a plateau in 4th,5th and 6th decade. The most commonly affected age group was 31-40years. Eyelid was commonly involved site (45.94%). The most frequently occurring malignant neoplasm was basal cell carcinoma (21.62%). Most of the patients (87.78%) presented with mass in ocular region followed by symptoms like discharge, ulcer, pain, foreign body sensation, loss of eyelashes. Conclusion: Most of the tumors presented as a mass from eyelid or ocular globe, histopathologically showed malignant ocular or adnexal tumor. Histopathologically negative surgical margins ensure complete removal of the tumor. Tumors of peri-ocular or ocular region, small or large in size should be thoroughly examined by ophthalmologist and pathologist to protect and preserve vision.

  126. Dhananjayan Kannan, Santhi Thoppappatty Sengottaiyan and Palani Kannan

    Background: Diabetes mellitus, a silent epidemic with micro and macroangiopthic complications and also has less recognized rheumatic syndromes which are debilitating. Objective of the study: To study the prevalence of rheumatological manifestations uniquely associated with type 2 diabetes and to analyse the risk factors associated with these manifestations in them. Methods: It is a cross sectional descriptive study done with a sample size of 200 persons having established type 2 diabetes mellitus at our institution. They are subjected to detailed history, clinical examination with special emphasis on the rheumatological problem. Investigations like CBC, diabetic profile, X ray spine and joints are also done. Clinical/criteria based assessment of rheumatological manifestations towards LJM, AC, CTS, DC, TF, DISH and charcot Joint are done. The data is analysed using SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive statistics such as mean, range and standard deviation are used to present continuous variables, and frequency (percentage) is used to present categorical variables. Analysis done with binary logistic regression method. Results: The prevalence of rheumatological problem in type 2 diabetes is very common (36%). LJM(19%), AC(11%) were the commonest manifestation. Significant p value <0.01 were seen for the following factors: BMI, duration of diabetes, HbA1c level, dyslipidemia, retinopathy and nephropathy. Conclusion: The rheumatological problem in type 2 diabetes had strong correlation with BMI, duration of diabetes, dyslipidemia, HbA1c, retinopathy and neuropathy. Hence lifestyle modification, effective glycemic control, addressing dyslipidemia, detecting and treating the rheumatological manifestation early may improve the quality of life.

  127. Narinder Sharma, Mohinder Singh Chib and Anita Sharma

    Posterior hip dislocation is the most common type of hip dislocation and occurs in about 90% of all hip dislocations. Several methods are there for the reduction of hip dislocations. These are Bigelow, Stimson and Allis manoeuvres. These methods allow reduction without disturbing the anatomy or the neurovascular status of limb. The East Baltimore lift is another method of reducing a posterior hip dislocation. For this method (after considering sedation or analgesia) the patient is placed supine. The affected leg is flexed at right angles at both the hip and the knee. The doctor and assistant stand on opposite sides of the patient (pelvis level) and each places an arm under the patient's calf, cradling the leg and resting their hand on the shoulder of the person opposite. Traction is applied by anterior lift whilst the leg is stabilised by the doctor maintaining knee's right angle. A third person is required to stabilise the pelvis. Bigelow has high complication rate and that manoeuvre was not used in this study.

  128. Sravanthi Uppala, Sai Soujanya Thangellapally and Mahender Vatipelli

    Background: Health Related Quality of Life is a multidimensional construct that consists of at least three broad domains − physical, psychological, and social functioning − that are affected by one's disease and/or treatment. HRQoL is usually measured in chronic conditions and is frequently impaired to a great extent. Associations with socioeconomic status (SES) and HRQoL seem to be vital criteria. Objectives: To evaluate individual patient's health status and to monitor and compare disease burden. Study Design: This is a prospective observational study conducted for 6 months in Multicenter, Hanamkonda, Telangana. Methodology: The patients included in this study were Cerebrovascular accident, Cardiovascular disorders, Diabetes Mellitus, Thyroid disorders, Chronic kidney disease, Osteoarthritis. Patients >65yrs were excluded in this study. Results: By comparison of HRQoL in included chronic diseases, it was much decreased in OA (52.16%) followed by CVA (54.50%). HRQoL according to SES was evaluated and found that the upper status people (64.145%) were showing good QoL and patients with low SES showing decreased medication adherence which results in poor QoL (54.369%). Conclusion: The HRQoL was very poor in OA followed by CVA. According to SES the upper status people showing good HRQoL than low SES patients. The lower status people showing decreased medication adherence which results in poor HRQoL. The emotional health was highly impaired in all included chronic diseases except in Thyroid patients.

  129. Dr. N. S. Venkatesh Babu and Dr. A. Ayisha Moureen

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of breast feeding and bottle feeding on primary molar relation in 3-6 year old children attending different schools of south Bangalore city. The association between infant feeding duration and primary molar relation were evaluated in 400 children at the stage of complete primary dentition. The information regarding their feeding practices was recorded based on the questionnaires filled out by parents/guardians. The clinical examination was done to record the primary molar relation. The positive association between the age of cessation of breast feeding and presence of distal step was observed. The shorter the child was breast fed, higher chances of child to be bottle fed which showed a greater prevalence of distal step. Breast feeding duration is one of the important factors that have great influence in the development of distal step, which in turn will influence the permanent molar relation.

  130. Dr. Christia M. Aoun, Pr. Walid B. Nehme, Pr. Alfred S. Naaman and Pr. Issam T. Khalil

    Objectives: The article presents an updated literature review on NiTi endodontic instruments in order to explain and analyze the influence of heat treatment process on mechanical properties of Niti shape memory alloys. The reader should understand the clinical implications of thermal heating of endodontic intruments such as enhanced flexibility and safety. Methods: The literature concerning the influence of heat treatment on mechanical properties of NiTi alloy has been analyzed using selected criteria. A closer look at multiple patents was important to understand the effects of heating on crystalline microstructure and phase transformation properties. Results: The main advantage gained by heat treatment process is the increase of Af (Austenite finish) temperature of the alloy. If "Af" is superior to body temperature, the file will be in a mixed martensitic, R-phase and austenitic structure in intracanal temperature. Therefore, heat treated instruments showed a significant increase in flexibility and flexural fatigue resistance. Only few reports describe the mechanical behavior under torsional loads. Interestingly, modifications in crystalline structure seem to have an influence on angle of deflection and torque load, which are two determinant parameters of torsional fracture. Conclusion: An analysis of the different effects of heat treatment on Niti instruments is presented, thus enabling an easier understanding of mechanical properties of new thermomecanically treated alloys. Clinical relevance: The theme is relevant for clinical Endodontics since the variety of instruments is great and clinicians need a better understanding of the different ways of their manufacturing for a better use during endodontic treatment.

  131. Shahida Riyaz, Naresh N. Rai, Priyanka Patangia and Sudha P. Meena

    Introduction: Skin Adnexal tumors are rare tumors. They are categorized into sweat gland tumors (eccrine and apocrine), hair follicle tumors and sebaceous gland tumors based on line of differentiation. Benign tumors are more prevalent than the malignant tumors. Aim: To study the spectrum of skin adnexal tumors with respect to age, sex, site and histopathological pattern. Methodology: Retrospective study of 60 histopathologically confirmed cases of skin adnexal tumors in a tertiary hospital over a period of three years (Jan 2014- Dec 2016). All the specimen of tumors received during this period were analysed and lesions were categorized according to WHO classification system for Skin Adnexal Tumors. Result: In the present study 95% of the tumors were benign with majority of cases in 21-30 years age group. M:F ratio was 1.07:1. Head and neck was the commonly affected site and Follicular tumors comprised the majority of tumors (51.7%) and Pilomatrixoma was the commonest tumor encountered. Conclusion: Histopathological examination proves to be the gold standard in the diagnosis of cutaneous adnexal tumors due to their wide spectrum and frequency of differentiation along two different lines within the same lesion.

  132. Dr. Sanchari Das and Dr. Silpi Basak

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important cause of Healthcare associated infections. Carbapenems are often used as a last resort for treating serious infections caused by multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Carbapenamases are β-lactamases which cause carbapenem hydrolysis. Aim: The present study was undertaken to detect the incidence of Carbapenemase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical isolates. Material and Methods: 150 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied for antibiotic susceptibility profile by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines, 2016. All Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were screened for Carbapenemase activity by Classical Hodge test. Metallobetalactamases (MBL) production was detected and confirmed by Disc potentiation (DP) test using Imipenem and Imipenem plus EDTA and by E-test. Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemases (KPC) production was detected by combine disc method using Imipenem and imipenem plus Phenyl boronic acid (PBA). Both MBL and KPC producing strains were detected by Imipenem disc and disc containing Imipenem plus PBA plus EDTA. Class D carbapenemase i.e, OXA β– lactamases were not included in our study. Results: The highest sensitivity was observed to Colistin 149(99.3 %), followed by Imipenem 107(71.3%). 43(28.7%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were Classical Hodge test positive, 6(4%) were positive for MBL only by DP test. 15(10 %) were positive for KPC only and 34 (22.6 %) were positive for both MBL and KPC. These 40 MBL producing strains were positive by MBL E test. Conclusion: All Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains must be screened for carbapenamase production in Cinical Microbiology laboratory.

  133. Farzaneh Bozorg-Ghalati, Mehdi Hedayati and Mehdi Dianat pour

    A rare malignant cells population exists in the tumor cells, with exclusive self-renewal ability and capable of differentiate into various cell lineages, determined as cancer stem cells (CSCs). They can produce cancer cells in tumors and perform a crucial function in the initiation and maintenance of a tumor. Beyond the scope of this review manuscript, related articles about the detection history, structure and functions of CD133 as a surface marker for CSCs, its role in thyroid neoplasia especially anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), were found by search in PubMed, Scopus, Springer, and Science direct. It was concluded that the positive CD133 cells as undifferentiated cells have a crucial role in the flunk of radio-iodine cure. The CD133interacts with various signaling pathways such as: PI3K/AKT, Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, NF-κB and causes expression of stemness markers, cancer cell differentiation suppressor, apoptosis inhibitor, and generate a cancer cell with self-renewal ability, tumorigenic potential, and multi drug resistant. Hence, targeting the positive CD133 cellsis a good choice to eradicate the advanced tumors as well as ATC. The target therapyapproach couldruin them by several strategies likeusing certain antibodies, lentivirus vector application, RNA interference applying, activating the γδ T cells, and aptamers.

  134. Gowri Katekar, Dr. K. A. Kamala, Sankethguddad, S., Dr. Ajay Nayak, Dr. Abhijeeth Sanadi and Dr. Ashwini Rani S. R.

    Objectives: To evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices of undergraduate dental students and also to correlate the difference between the students of clinical and preclinical courses. Methods: The study was conducted among 203 dental students, using English version of Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) questionnaire consisted of 30 questions with multiple choice regarding oral health attitude, knowledge practices. Results: Among 203 participants, 100 participants (49.3%) belong to preclinical year of study and 103 (50.7%) from clinical year of study. Mean per question was higher in clinical year students when compared to preclinical year students, indicating the improvement in the attitude with the progress in the academic years which was statistically highly significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: The overall knowledge and behaviors of oral health among dental students was found to be satisfactory and it found to increase with increasing level of education. This may be due to the year wise education of the clinical knowledge among dental students. Hence, there is a need for implementation of more preventive programs immediately on oral health promotion which can further help in increasing the knowledge, attitude and practices of the students.

  135. Abeergatea and Muna R. Hassan

    Objectives: To study the prevalence of threaten abortion in 1st trimester among pregnant women and to find out any association which has been found between the socio demographic characteristic and obstetrical outcomes. Methodology: A Prospective cross sectional study has been conducted in Fatima Al-Zahra hospital in Baghdad among 409 pregnant women attending to emergency and outpatient clinics during the period from first April 2015 to twenty third February 2016. Data collection was by using a previously designed questionnaire history. A blood sample has been obtained to estimate the complete blood cell count, Rh identification, and quantitative bhCG. Results: Most cases still in the age group 21-30 years was 202 (49.4%). Preterm delivery 113(27.6%), 50.6% of hematoma with the size less than 4cm2. only 0.5% of case had history of therapeutic abortion. 11.5% of cases had smoker. All pregnant women was suffering from diabetes mellitus, hypertension, epilepsy, anemia, psychological, hormonal imbalance, 27.1%, 19.1%, 1.7%, 82.9%,3.2%, 30.1% respectively. Significant associations have been found between the age groups, occupation, family history and obstetrical outcomes (P<0.0001). Conclusions: Threatened abortion occurs often and is a serious emotional burden for women. Bleeding in the first half of the pregnancy with or without presence of hematoma may be associated with poor pregnancy outcome. Bed rest, uterine sedatives and hormonal treatment given can bring better prognostic outcome. Investigations that determine the diagnostic and prognostic parameters are of value. Recommendation: Further large prospective studies are needed to find the best predictors for the better outcome.

  136. Arthi Lakshmi, Vishnu Rekha, Ditto Sharmin, Sankar Annamalai and Parisa Norouzi Baghkomeh

    An attractive smile is the one that has both harmonious correlations between the shape and colors of the teeth and a good proportion between lip and gingival. When it comes to children, it becomes more important because now a day’s children are more aware of their surroundings and are very conscious about their appearance and smile. Children and adolescents are subject to a wide variety of gingival infections.In 1996, Albandar et al. assessed the prevalence of gingivitis among large group of adolescents in the United States and found that 82.1% of the participating subjects were having gingivitis. Similar findings of high prevalence of gingivitis among children and adolescents were reported by other studies worldwide. In another study, he assessed the prevalence of early-onset forms of periodontitis among group of US adolescents and reported that 0.6% of the subjects were having juvenile periodontitis at the age of 13–15 years, and 2.75% of the subjects were having chronic periodontitis at the age of 16-17years.

  137. Onkar Jabade, Dr. Dilip Kakade, Dr. Nayana Anasane and Dr. Riddhi Kulkarni

    Background: Change is inevitable. Considering the technological advancements taking place in dentistry, sticking to age old concept of conventional complete denture is regressive, which deprives patients of better prosthetic options. The transition from natural teeth to prosthesis is most comfortable to patient if replaced by full fixed implant prosthesis. However, such a prosthesis is not feasible in all cases due to anatomical, financial or other restrictions. In such cases, giving a 2 implant supported mandibular overdenture gives multifold advantages over the conventional complete dentures and strikes a golden balance with respect to patient compliance and cost factor. Aim: To compare compliance and cost factor in patients using two implant supported mandibular overdentures and conventional mandibular complete dentures Study design and Method: The following criteria were used to select the studies on the patient compliance in patients using mandibular 2 implant supported overdentures and conventional mandibular complete dentures. The inclusion criteria were articles in English or those having detailed summary in English, studies that provide randomized controlled trials and articles on cost comparison between the two modalities. Studies that were published between 1st January 1995 to 31st December 2015 were included. Results: Various electronic databases were searched using different search strategies from the above mentioned key words and the combinations. The number of articles identified through the database searching were 330 in all. After thorough reading of titles the number of titles found relevant were 200. Further these records were assessed for any duplicates and100 duplicate articles were removed while including 30 articles. Full text thorough reading of these articles was done and were assessed for eligibility. Only ten articles were qualified and other articles were excluded. Conclusions: The evidence currently available suggests that the restoration of the edentulous mandible, with a conventional denture is no longer the most appropriate first choice Prosthodontic treatment. There is now overwhelming evidence that a mandibular 2 implant supported overdenture should become the first choice of treatment for the edentulous mandible. Clinical implication: In the world of evidence based dentistry we are armed with lot of scientific backing for the above statement. Suggesting and convincing a patient for this modality should be top priority for Prosthodontist. Due to overwhelming evidence on mandibular 2 implant supported overdenture in the literature over conventional mandibular complete denture in respect to patient compliance and cost factors it should be made the first choice of treatment for completely edentulous patients.

  138. Dr. D. Takur Naik, Dr. N. V. V. Satya Bhushan, Dr. U. Siva Kalyan, Dr. K. C. Chiang, Dr. M. Bharat Prakash, Dr. Srinivas Saketh G. and Dr. K. Bramara Kumari

    Condylar region accounts for 17.5% to 52% of all mandibular fractures. Despite being very common, their treatment remains controversial. Closed reduction as a treatment option for sub condylar fractures has been followed. The study was seen in formalin fixed human cadaveric mandibles. Osteotomised at the subcondylar region the fifteen formalin fixed cadaveric human mandibles have been divided into three groups- Group-A, Group- B, Group-C. Eight formalin fixed cadaver mandibles which were sectioned as hemi-mandibles were used for this study. Comparison of mean forces among the three groups for 1.75mm displacement of segments was done. Results showed P value > 0.05 indicating the test is not significant. This infers that all the three groups have similar clinical stability when tested for clinical end point.

  139. Tülay Diken Allahverdi and Ertuğrul Allahverdi

    Aim: We aimed to review and present our data on gunshot injury cases that presented to the Kars State Hospital and Kafkas University Hospital emergency department in this study. Material and Method: Gunshot injury cases that presented to the emergency service between January 2012 and December 2016 and were admitted to various clinics for surgical treatment were included in the study. The demographic characteristics, type of firearm, location of gunshot injuries, duration until presentation to the hospital, injured organs, the treatments used, post-treatment complications and mortality rates were evaluated together with the rate of gun licensing per year. The patients who presented to the emergency service were treated according to the physical examination, laboratory tests and imaging results at presentation. Results: The 71 gunshot injury cases that presented to the emergency service consisted of 9 females (12.7%) and 62 males (87.3%). The mean age was 39 years for the males and 24 years for the females. There were 53 cases from the villages (75%), 13 from the district centers (18%), and 5 (7%) from the province center. We also observed an increase in applications to obtain a gun license to both hospitals in Kars center from 2012 to 2016. The duration of presentation to the hospital after the injury was most commonly 2-4 hours (23 patients, 32%). The most commonly injured organs were the extremities, followed by the abdominal region and cranial region. Open fracture injury patients underwent appropriate debridement, external fixator, and plaque screw, intramedullary nail osteosynthesis; soft tissue injury patients received debridement; and abdominal injury patients underwent laparotomy and appropriate treatment according to the injured organ. Patients who presented with cranial hemorrhage and 4 patients with massive abdominal hemorrhage died. The complications were injury site infection in 5 (5.63%) patients, shortness of extremity in 3 (4.22%) patients and eventration in 2 (2.81%) patients. Conclusion: Gunshot injuries have become more common in rural areas and regions with a lower socioeconomic level in our country together with an increase in the rate of acquiring gun licenses. Gunshot injuries require a long hospitalization duration and can result in high mortality and morbidity rates if prompt intervention is not possible.

  140. Seyed Mansour Alamshah and Mozhgan Sametzadeh

    Introduction: Since a decade ago, M shape hem dialysis access had been created in our department for patients with native short length arms. Short arm obese and very obese patients also are the rare main targets for its application. Method: This is a case control series study of9obese patients, 2 males and 7 females (BMI≥40, mean=44.80) (6 cases obese class III, 3 cases class II, mean weight=105.55 Kg)who were referred for hem dialysis access. They had short length arm and were selected during 32months. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylen was used for M shape Brachial-Axillary access under regionalor local anesthesia. Primary and secondary patency (3,6, 12 months) was followed and patients were compared to the other non-obese control group for patency, effective length and graft outgoing flow. One-year follow up has been considered. Results: Of nine patients, 6female patients were diabetics. Mean effective length of arms was 16.21Cm, (P=0.001). Patients have effective hem dialysis during primary and secondary follow up. In comparison with straight grafts, color Doppler was shown no considerable velocity difference due to the spiral status (P= 0.877 arterial outflow, P=0.625 venous outflow). Primary patency was 100%, secondary patency in 3, 6, 12 months were 88%, 55.56% and 44% respectively. Conclusion: M shape arterio-venous graft access was shown efficient for obese and very obese withnative bi-articularshort length arms with or without diabetes that conventional access techniques are not feasible. Dialysis ought to perform by educated familiarized staff.

  141. Feleke Eriso

    Background and Study aim: Schistosoma mansoni is one of the three major species which cause schistosomiasis in humans. Female worms of S. mansoni deposit 190 to 300 eggs daily. Each egg of S. mansoni bears a prominent lateral spine. The key objective of this study was to identify and confirm which species of genus Schistosoma is causing schistosomiasis in student children of Walame Don Bosco elementary school including in those of kindergarten within the same school compound. Patients and Methods: Fresh stool samples of 500 student children were examined under a compound light microscope for the suspected parasitic species of genus Schistosoma. Fresh stool samples of 10 students were examined daily from Monday through Friday. Result: Out of 500 student children examined 102 were found positive for S. mansoni. Conclusion: The possibility that all the hazards mentioned above and the undesirable immunologic reactions against the antigens released from the eggs, of S. mansoni, trapped in tissues of different types & locations of the patient’s body are the potential risks, i.e., morbidity/complications imposed to happen later in life, on the becoming adult stage population of today’s student children infected with S. mansoni in Walame region. Therefore, publically coordinated strong preventive measures must be devised to eradicate S. mansoni infection from the study area.

  142. Dr. Rashmi Gupta, Dr. Gopal Das Gupta, Dr. Santosh Kumar and Dr. Lakshman Singh

    The Cholecystectomy for Cholecystitis and cholelithiasis is immerging one of the commonest general surgical procedure performed in India as well as world. The India is a developing country & has a high growth rate of population accordingly the gall bladder stones and also have high incidence particularly northern part e.g. U.P., Bihar, Delhi and West Bengal etc. As per its etiology, it commonly occurs in case of faulty diet and activity as Fatty, Fertile, Female, and Forty. A high risk of GBD was observed in older, multiparous women and men with diabetes, intake of chickpeas, unsafe water and villages with heavy metal water pollution (12).No curative & safe medical management has been accepted for chronic Cholecystitis & cholelithiasis as per modern medicine. Althoughsome drugs are available e.g. Ursodiol & Chenodiol but both drugs are toxic, very costly and limited only to cholesterol stone. This study was done with 75 patients. Evaluation has been made on the basis of clinical and biochemical findings. In Ayurvedic classics various herbal, mineral and metallic element are mentioned on the basis of clinical use of thousands year of clinical experience. Out of these compounds one of the important compounds (e.g. Rohitkadhya capsule and Phaltrikadi kwath) has been found very much useful in the same clinical manifestation. The effect of Rohitakadhya and Phaltrikadi decoction was explained in Bhaisajyaratnavali. After complete study, it was found that the treated groups have got earlier improvement than control group. The improvement in symptoms and biochemical changes was reported more when both trial drugs used together (Group C in Patients). It was found that anti lithogenic effect of Ayurvedic formulation.

  143. Victor G. Aeby, EdD, Tracy Carpenter-Aeby, Maykin Boyd, Candice Givens, Leticia Lawrence and Lori Leggett

    The prevalence of hate crimes against homosexuals is an issue deserving of societal and legislative analysis. Hate crime refers to criminal conduct that is motivated by bias or prejudice and impacts the well being of the victim. Health educators, social workers, teachers, and helping professionals can attest that those who identify themselves as homosexual or bisexual are often subjected to victimization. Research regarding the prevalence of hate crimes against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered (LGBT) individuals is at best, limited. Studies have demonstrated that a correlation exists between the prevalence of victimization of individuals that report as LGBT and other variables within their environment. The purpose of the study is to identify the number of articles, explore, and analyze the professional literature relating to the prevalence of hate crimes against homosexuals to improve practices and change policy to afford healthy living practices for schools. Causal factors of victimization, such as gender deviance (non-conformity) are reported in the findings. Additionally, disparity regarding the mental function of LGBT individuals that are victims of hate crimes and the subsequent effect of those crimes were reported in the findings. Further exploration and research is essential to make implications that are applicable to the majority of the victimized LGBT population.

  144. Victor G. Aeby, EdD, Tracy Carpenter-Aeby, Danielle Frisoli, Morgan Phoebus and Tyisha Teel

    Due to the events of 9/11 and subsequent conflicts centered on countries of the Middle East, stigmatism and discrimination based on one’s religious beliefs and supposed Muslim heritage have become prevalent occurrences across the globe. This research looks at the health perceptions of Islamophobia in the West, and its effects on Muslim individuals, their families and the surrounding communities. The following systematic literature review (SLR)was conducted by inputting the keywords, Islamophobia and Perceptions into the databases of Social Work Abstracts, ERIC, PsychINFO, PsychARTICLES, Academic Search Complete, and Social Work Index. The hope of this research is to build a greater knowledge of the effects of Islamophobia on the health and well being of Muslim immigrants and those of Middle Eastern descent in communities of the West.

  145. Sudeep Upadhyay, Suresh Kumar, M., Konda Amarnath and Visalakhshi, G.

    Oro-antral communications may develop as a complication of dental extractions, but may also result from accidental or iatrogenic trauma, neoplasm or infection. The use of buccal fat pad as a graft for intraoral defects is an uncommonly reported procedure but, it has been frequently used for closure of oro-antral and oro-nasal communications. This paper demonstrates the use buccal pad of fat and buccal advancement flap for the closure of oro antral fistula.

  146. Dr. V. Nandhini, Dr. S. Gayathri, Dr. Sumathi and Dr. M. G. Krishnababa

    Erosive gingival lesions associated with vesiculobullous disease such as Lichen Planus, Cicatrical pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris have been collectively referred to as “Desquamative Gingivitis”. This article reports the management of 3 cases diagnosed as Mucous membrane pemphigoid” based on clinical and histopathologic finding. All the three cases have no extra oral involvement.

  147. Krunal, R., Nimish, S. and Digant, P.

    Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor (IMT), previously called inflammatory pseudotumor and plasma cell granuloma, belongs to a class of rare spindle cell lesions showing a rather unpredictable biological behavior with occasional tendency toward invasion to the surrounding tissue and Local recurrence. The lesion, as primarily described by Bahadori and Liebow in 1973, is a reactive/inflammatory process in the pulmonary system mostly occurring in children and young adults. Since then, many cases have been reported in older patients in addition to extra-pulmonary sites. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) emerges as a pseudotumor with malignant manifestation (1). This inflammatory tumor is usually seen in children and adolescents. It can affect all the body organs (2). The most common localization of this tumor is in the lungs, Mesentery comes in the second place (3). The pathogenesis of this inflammatory tumor cannot be accurately recognized (4). The manifestation of disease is variable with respect to the Involved organ, and the compressive effects of tumor are generally important (5). The definitive diagnosis of this tumor is possible through surgery and pathology, and the removal of symptoms usually requires there section of the mass (6).

  148. Subhasri Raman

    Residing at the interface of the body, the lung is a uniquely vulnerable organ optimized for gas exchange, having a very thin, delicate epithelium, abundant blood flow, and a vast surface area. Lung surfactant is a surface active material composed of both lipids and proteins that is produced by alveolar type II pneumocytes that provides a stable, low surface tension for the lung, thereby preventing alveolar collapse at low transpulmonary pressure. Surfactant is a secretory product, composed of lipids and proteins. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol are the major lipid constituents and SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D are four types of surfactant associated proteins. The lipid and protein components are synthesized separately and are packaged into the lamellar bodies in the AT-II cells. Lamellar bodies are the main organelle for the synthesis and metabolism of surfactants. The synthesis, secretion and recycling of the surfactant lipids and proteins is regulated by complex genetic and metabolic mechanisms. Alterations in surfactant homeostasis or biophysical properties can result in surfactant insufficiency which may be responsible for diseases like respiratory distress syndrome, lung proteinosis, interstitial lung diseases and chronic lung disease.

  149. Rajkumar, T., Siva Sanker Reddy, L. Shah Faisal, S. and Anwar Hussain, S.

    Chalcones belongs to natural and synthetic origin has various biological activities like anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-parasite, and anti-tumor activities. The aim of this study is to perform insilico design, docking by Hex 8.0 and synthesis, characterization and to investigation of anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. Novel Chalcones are prepared from 2-acetyl-1-naphthol and substituted aromatic aldehydes. All the synthesized compounds were characterized and evaluated for anti inflammatory and anti microbial studies.

  150. Dr. Shobhana Shrivastava

    Technically a person with mental retardation scores below 70 on an intelligence test and, as such has limited mental abilities. As we have become much more politically correct, this term is used less frequently and has been somewhat replaced by the term “mentally challenged. However, mental retardation is still the clinical term for someone who scores lower than 70 cm intelligence tests, has limited mental capabilities, and difficulty dealing with day-day-day aspects of living. There is a range of mental retardation from mild to profound. These children need extra care. Parental support is a vital need to ensure that infant stimulation programmes. Descriptive survey method of research was employed in the present study to see the parents perception about mentally retarded children. 100 parents of children with mental Retardation were taken for the study. Parents perception checklist was prepared to collect necessary data of parents perception about the problem and needs of children with M.R. Perception of parents did not significantly differ with regard to gender of their children with MR, different age group of their children, their different age group.

  151. Subhasri Raman

    Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to access the dimensional changes of heat cure acrylic resin when immersed in alcohol and chlorhexidine. Materials and Method: This study included 12 specimens. Twelve heat cure acrylic resin cubes similar sizes were fabricated. The present study was undertaken to determine the dimensional change in heat cure acrylic resin cubes on immersing them in alcohol and chlorhexidine for 12 hours. Six cubes were immersed in 250 ml of each of the solutions. Before immersing, linear dimension of the cubes were measured using a digital vernier calliper. After removing the cubes from the respective solutions, cubes were again measured. The values were tabulated and compared. Result: The heat cure acrylic cubes showed linear dimensional changes. The average change observed in those cubes immersed in alcohol was 0.004% expansion and those immersed in chlorhexidine was 0.021% Shrinkage.

  152. Subhasri

    Inflammasomes play a major role in the activation of interleukin 1. Interleukin-1 is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine, which induces systemic and local responses to infection. In this Monograph we have focused on the cascade which leads to the activation of Interleukin 1.

  153. Surendra K Chaudhary, Yu Bin, Pan Fumin, Wang Shanjin and Wu Desheng

    Background: Postoperative dysphagia is a common occurrence for the patients undergoing anterior cervical spine surgery. Although multiple risk factors for developing dysphagia have been reported in the literature, but the controversy still exists among different studies. This study mainly focuses on the recent literature review and summarizes the general overview on the incidence, risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical signs and symptoms, assessment, treatment, and prevention of postoperative dysphagia. Methods: A computerized review of literature concerning with the dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery was searched on Pubmed. The literature search was confined to the published articles from 2005 to 2016. Results: Patients presenting with postoperative dysphagia after anterior cervical surgery have a range of clinical symptoms from the difficulty initiating a swallow, chewing problem to nasal regurgitation, choking, coughing etc. Patient medical history, detailed physical examination, lateral X-ray radiographs, laryngoscopy and video fluoroscopic swallow evaluation (VSE) are the primary assessment tools for examining dysphagia. Universally validated objective method for measuring dysphagia is still lacking. The most commonly applied assessment tool is the Bazaz Dysphagia Scoring system. Dysphagia is purely the subjective sensation of discomfort, patient self-reported symptoms are more reliable and effective in recognizing swallowing disorders. The etiology of postoperative dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery remain multifactorial which include surrounding mucosal structures, muscular and, neuronal components. Most of the dysphagic problems are usually transient, which begins within one week of postoperative period but in some cases may last longer after surgery. The reported incidence of dysphagia has been observed upto 80% within one week following ACSS among different studies. The big variation in incidence rate can be related to different surgical techniques, duration of surgery, size and material of the implant used, variations in different measurement tools and definition of dysphagia, follow-up time intervals, and comparatively small sample studies. The most common contributing factors causing postoperative dysphagia are multilevel procedures, female gender, longer operative time, and advanced age (>60 years), use of rhBMP-2. Rehabilitation including dietary modification and training in swallowing techniques and maneuvers are the treatment strategies for the dysphagia by maintaining the patients’ adequate nutritional intake and maximizing airway protection. Certain preoperative maneuver likes tracheal traction exercise, intraoperative (use of steroids) and postoperative techniques could help in decreasing the incidence of postoperative dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery. Conclusions: Well designed, multicenter prospective studies of large sample size are necessary to conclude the incidence, exact etiology, risk factors, pathomechanisms and long-term follow-up for the development of postoperative dysphagia after ACSS, and also to discover preventative measures. Also the specific measurement; that is universally valid and reliable, is needed, which would include global, functional, physical, and psychosocial parameters to provide comparisons among different variables. The results of these large prospective studies can be employed to upgrade in surgical techniques and perioperative management, which may decrease the incidence of dysphagia after ACSS.

  154. Subhasri.Raman and Dr. C. S. Chandana

    Aim: The aim of this survey is to assess the knowledge on root canal anatomy amongst dental students. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a survey amongst dental students of a private dental school about the variations of root canal morphologies and the methods of detecting them. Background: A clear understanding of the root canal anatomy of the human dentition is a prerequisite for successful endodontic treatment. The past decade has seen a varied use of methods for detecting the canal configuration. Hence, the student’s knowledge about these was questioned in this survey. Reason: This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge of the students and to make them understand about the importance of root canal anatomy and its variations. This helps them in achieving a successful endodontic treatment.

  155. Dr. Fazal Ameen, Dr. Maria Ahmad, Dr. Khurshid Samo, Dr. Sumayya Saeed and Dr. Amjed Siraj Memon

    Desmoid tumors are non metastatic, rare tumors with a tendency of local invasion and recurrence. These lesions are associated with female gender in their fertile age typically appearing during or after pregnancy. The case of a desmoid tumor of anterior abdominal wall in a 22 year old lady is reported, that presented during pregnancy, describing its CT and MRI appearance. The lesion was treated surgically, reconstructing the defect with polypropylene mesh and was referred to oncology department for further management. The goal of treatment for these lesions is complete surgical excision, and in case where negative margins are not achieved, radiotherapy is the next modality.

  156. Raghavendra Rao, M. V., Yogesh Acharya, Jithender Naik, Sireesha Bala, Simi Paramban, Krishna Teja, C. H., Raghu, H. N. and Anusha, C.

    Heavy metal exposure in animals can lead to profound effect on growth, development and biochemical constituents. It is necessary that the heavy metal toxicity be well documented and adequate precaution should be taken in mother and fetus to decrease its detrimental effects. An experimental study was performed with viviparous animal Heterometrous fulvipes to access the cumulative effect of chronic heavy metals exposure. Chronic heavy metal exposure resulted in decrease in biochemical constituents of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. There was also significant decrease in hepato-pancreatic weight, hepato -somatic index and embryonic length and weight in these animals.

  157. Tamizh Paavai. Tha and Dr. Asha Ramesh

    Obesity and periodontal disease are multifactorial and develop from an interaction between chronic conditions originating in early life. various epidemiological studies state that obesity is a proven risk factor for adult periodontitis. So the need of the hour is to investigate this relationship in school going children where there is a death in evidence.

  158. Dr. Jahnvi Shah, Dr. Asha M. Rathod, Dr. Gaurang Mistry and Dr. Jil Rathod

    Restoration of the edentulous flabby ridges often requires special considerations in impression making. The use of conventional impression techniques on flabby ridges can lead to an unstable and unsatisfactory denture. Modified impression techniques when used in this condition can record the flabby tissues in an undistorted form and thus help to fabricate a stable and functionally satisfying denture. The various impression techniques which could be used for flabby ridges are reviewed here.

  159. Sonya Khosravi, Zeinab Mehrabanifar and Pouran Reisy

    Background: Patients are constantly seeking to increase the quality of health care. One of the important factor of improving the quality of clinical services is the relationship between doctors-nurses in hospitals. The barriers of relationship between doctor and nurse will be reduce the quality of nursing services. This study was performed to evaluate the effect education of removing barriers in relationship doctors-nurses in increasing the quality of services provided in hospitals and clinics of the city of Marivan city. Methods: This study was an experimental study that communication barriers (negative attitudes of doctors with nurses) between nurse-physician were evaluated before and after training. The statistical population included all the doctors, nurses and patients in Fajr and Buali hospitals of Marivan city. Thirty doctors were chosen for each experimental and control group. The estimated sample size of patients were 322 persons, with randomly selection. Sample size of nurses were 200 persons which selected by enumeration methods. Data of this study were collected by questionnaire Morinaga and Choi questionnaires. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation and T-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean negative behaviors after the intervention in the experimental group had significance difference with negative behavior mean before the intervention in the experimental group and the control group (P <0.01). Negative behaviors mean after intervention in the experimental group was lower than in the other groups. Services quality had significance difference after the intervention with before intervention (p<0.05) on the base of patients’ viewpoint. Mean of services quality after intervention was higher than before intervention. Conclusion: The results showed that training was effective on the elimination of barriers of nurse-physician relationship, which increases the quality of services provided to patients. Therefore providing the necessary training in order to reduce barriers to physician-nurse and providing mechanisms necessary will be provided the quality of health services.

  160. Gamil M Abdullah, Nahla E Nagy, Hesham M Gad and Hamdy A Mourad

    Background: Addiction is a complex disease, with physical, mental, social, and environmental factors. To be successful, treatment plans must address all these components. In some cases, hospitalization may be required.

  161. Dr. Satyam Martha, Dr. Salavadhi Shyam Sunder and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Introduction: Pain control is an important part of dentistry, particularly in the management of children. Behavior guidance, and dose and technique of administration of the local anesthetic are important considerations in the successful treatment of a pediatric patient. The purpose of the present text is to compare the current methods available in the administration of local anesthesia used for pediatric dental patients and to discuss the relevant data on topics involved. Aim: to evaluate and compared the pain perception, behavioral response, physiological parameters, and the role of topical anesthetic administration during local anesthetic administration with cartridge syringe and computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system (CCLAD). Results: Injections with CCLAD produced significantly lesser pain response, disruptive behavior (P < 0.001), and pulse rate (P < 0.05) when compared to cartridge syringe injections. Conclusion: Usage of techniques which enhance behavioral response in children like injections with CCLAD can be considered as a possible step toward achieving a pain-free pediatric dental practice.

  162. Ankita Taltia

    Background and Objectives: Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent diseases affecting the oral cavity and is one of the principal causes of tooth loss now. It also has a strong relationship with various systemic diseases such as diabetes, cardiac diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes, HIV, chronic lung diseases.Sufficient knowledge of oral health care behaviour and understanding of scientific reason for its improvement is an important precondition to improve oral-health. Educational level is one of the factors that could determine the oral health status of the individuals. Hence this study was conducted to obtain baseline data about the knowledge levels of periodontal disease among various educational groups to determine areas of oral health education that needs to be improved for the vulnerable population. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on out patients that reported to Saveetha dental college and hospitals, Chennai, India. 470 patients (Males = 260 Females = 210) were included in this study. A 15-item questionnaire was designed for the study, which contained questions about knowledge of the patients about periodontal disease and oral-systemic diseases link along with their demographic details. Patients from both genders, with any educational (illiterates, primary, medium, high school, college and post graduates) level were included in the study. Results: According to 40.2% patients gum disease is hypersensitivity of teeth and for 20.63% patients it is bleeding from gums. The highest reported predisposing factor that causes gum disease was dental plaque and calculus (35.1%) and pan chewing (34.74%). Of the total population, 67.23% patients were aware about the relationship ship between diabetes and oral health status. 24.46% believed that oral problems can affect heartand about 69% of the patients were unaware of the relationship of HIV, pregnancy and chronic lung disease with oral health status. Conclusion: There seemed to be much room for improvement of oral hygiene and self-care among the patients. This can be done not only by increasing the accessibility to the oral health services in the country but to a greater extent by improving the knowledge and awarness about dental problems, their link with other systems of the body and by attempting to change their attitude towards oral health.

  163. Reshma Thirunavakarasu, Dr. Dhanraj, M. and Dr. Preetham Prasad Nittla

    Aim: To evaluate the knowledge, awareness and practice of tray selection for alginate impression among dental practitioners Objective: To assess the extent of knowledge among dental practitioners regarding tray selection for alginate impression Materials & Method: The survey was cross-sectional in design. 100 questionnaires were distributed to the dental practitioners in Chennai. The questionnaire consisted of 10 multiple-choice questions. Results: The 100 questionnaires which was obtained was then evaluated and tabulated. It is clearly evident that the level of awareness among the dental practitioners regarding tray selection for alginate impression is high. The level of awareness regarding the perforated trays is 89% which is satisfactory. When asked about the frequency of changing of trays were 59% of them have said that after 15 impression they will change the trays, 27% said less than 15 impression and 14% said less than 5 impressions Conclusion: The results obtained from this survey shows that dental practitioners have good knowledge and awareness on tray selection for alginate impression. Proper measures can be taken to improve the level of knowledge among dental practitioners.

  164. Shristi Nadar, K. R. and Don

    Metastasis is a complex biological course that begins with detachment of tumour cells from the primary tumour, spreading into distant tissues invading through the lymphovascular structures followed by their survival in the circulation. The prime reason for morbidity and mortality in any type of cancer is due to metastasis that occurs as a result of adaptation of genetically unstable cancer cells. Metastasis is very uncommon to the jaw bones and oral cavity. The reason for this review is to through light on awareness of the clinical presentation of metastatic tumours which are variable which may lead to erroneous diagnosis or may create diagnostic dilemma.

  165. Shristi Nadar

    Background: Labial frenum is a dynamic structure and is subject to variation in size, shape and position. The purpose of this cross sectional study is to examine the prevalence of various types of maxillary frenal attachments and its morphology in children. It can be gingival type, mucosal type, papillary type and papillary penetrating type. Materials and methods: A study involving 150 children between 0 to 12 years of age visiting a private hospital in Chennai were clinically examined for maxillary labial frenum attachment under direct visual method. Parents were provided with an informed consent. Demographic details including age and sex were recorded. Results: Total number of children who were examined were 150. The most prevalent frenal attachment among all is mucosal type followed by gingival type of attachment . 52.8% was mucosal type, 34.7% were gingival type, 9.8% was papillary type and 1.7% was papillary penetrating type. The prevalence type had no gender difference but the age had significant difference but the age had significant association. The occurrence of papillary penetrating type decreases with age. Conclusion: The prevalent type among children in Chennai is mucosal type. The papillary penetrating type decreases with age. The dentists should correlate the age of the child and type of frenal attachment during their clinical diagnosis to avoid misjudgement.

  166. Pamella Sylvia Ann

    AIM : The aim for this study is to determine the effectiveness of Berry’s Biometric Index (BBI) to measure the size of anterior teeth in South Indian population. BACKGROUND: BBI is one of the method to measure the size of anterior tooth. It is measured by measuring the bi-zygomatic width of patient which is divided by 16. It can also be measured by measuring the length of the face divided with 20. REASON: The best method to measure the size of anterior teeth is remain unknown. Hence, the best method to determine the size of anterior teeth need to be explore for future use.

  167. Sahil Choudhari, Dr. Dhanraj. M. and Dr. V. Rakshagan

    Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice among dentists, considering the need and methods of disinfection of dental impressions. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through questionnaire composed of multiple choice questions. The study included 150 students and a questionnaire consisting of 15 questions was provided to each student. Results: Out of the 150 students who took up this survey, 60% were BDS students and 40% were MDS students. Only 26% of the students believed that disinfecting dental impressions leads to change in dimensional accuracy. Streptococcus is the most commonly present bacteria in dental impressions. Spraying of disinfectant is the routine method followed by dentists to disinfect dental impressions. 2% glutaraldehyde and sodium hypochlorite are the most effective and commonly used disinfectants. Cidex is the most commonly used disinfectant brand. Conclusion: Most dentists prefer using 2% glutaraldehyde for disinfection. Both sterilization and disinfection help in the prevention of infection to dentists, patients and dental technicians. It is very important to create a protocol on how to disinfect to make it clearer and accessible to students.

  168. Miloni Suresh Shah, Dr. Dhanraj and Dr. Rakshagan

    Background: Relining is the resurfacing the fitting surface of a denture with a new material. Rebasing technique is the same as for reline except in the laboratory the palate is removed and a new one waxed in before processing. Cold cured acrylic or tissue conditioner are used. The flanges are trimmed (to reduce danger of over extension) and the undercuts removed. The new relining is then mixed and applied to the fitting surface. The denture is inserted and the patient asked to bite gently on the denture to ensure that the occlusion is not altered by the procedure. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the purpose of rebasing in complete denture Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze the uses of rebasing and the ways by which the denture is able to withstand within the oral cavity. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among the dental practitioners in Chennai. The study was conducted in the month of December, 2016. This study involved a sample of 100 practitioners. They were asked to fill an online survey consisting of 11 questions regarding knowledge, attitude and practice among dental practitioners regarding rebasing in complete dentures. The results were further evaluated. Result: From the survey conducted, it can be observed that 88% of the practisers are aware of the rebasing in complete dentures. Heat cure acrylic is commonly preferred by the dental practitioners for rebasing the dentures. Conclusion: The the above study concludes that dentists evaluate their expectations and satisfaction differently regarding the same denture therapy.

  169. Mohamad Haikal Bin Zakaria and Dr. Gheena, S.

    Aim: The survey is conducted to create awareness and knowledge on risk factors of hypertension among undergraduate students in Chennai, India. Objective: The aim of the current study was to use representative survey data to examine socio-demographic inequalities in the prevalence, awareness and management of hypertension students in Chennai. Background: Hypertension is the major driver of the cardiovascular epidemic facing India in the 21st century. Understanding the causes, risk factors and effects associated with hypertension is essential for designing effective intervention strategies especially for young generation. Reason: There are only few studies being done in awareness and control of hypertension especially among undergraduates in Chennai, India. Hypertension can cause the students have trouble in studying. Thus, a proper study and survey must be done in order to create the awareness in controlling hypertension.

  170. Pamella Sylvia Ann Kelasi

    The aim of this review is to find out in detail about adverse effect of psychoactive drugs. A drug is any substance other than food, that when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body. However, it can cause adverse effect to the human body. Example for psychoactive drugs are cocaine, heroin, marijuana and etc. Psychoactive drugs can be classified into three types which are depressants, stimulants and also hallucinogens. These drugs can be administered through oral route as well as IV route.Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. The uses of cocaine in the medical field is not practically used anymore. Nicotine is an example of stimulant psychoactive drug that increase the dopamine levels in the brain. Marijuana is an hallucinogenic psychoactive drug that induces in its users a surge of spontaneous unrelated ideas. These drug had been abused by some individual due to the adverse effect that is produced by the drugs.

  171. Dr. Vijay Apparaju, Dr. VaibhaviJoshipura, Dr. Sarita Joshi Narayan, Dr. Sheetal S., Dr.Yashica Reddy Mopala and Dr. Lakshmi Navyatha Sajja

    Background: Aerosols, produced during ultrasonic instrumentation during a dental procedure are contaminative and should be assessed and controlled qualitatively and quantitatively. It is well known that pre-procedural 0.2% chlorhexidine rinse will reduce microbial count in an aerosol. But very little is known about maintaining the safest distance between two dental chairs, the efficacy of tempered (45ºC) chlorhexidine, and the combined effect of these two protocols in effective reduction of aerosols spread in a dental operating room. Aims: To investigate the individual and combined effect of tempered chlorhexidine (45 ºC) as a pre-procedural mouth rinse and maintaining the safest distance between two consecutive dental chairs for reducing aerosol contamination produced by an ultrasonic scalar. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients were randomly divided into 3 groups (Test I, Test II, and placebo) of 10 patients each to be administered with tempered chlorhexidine, non-tempered chlorhexidine, sterile water respectively, as a pre-procedural mouth rinse for 60 seconds. In all groups the aerosol contamination by the ultrasonic scalar was collected at 2 feet, 4 feet and 6 feet positions at 3’O clock positions on blood agar plates incubated 37ºC for 48 hours. Colony forming units (CFUs) were counted. Standardization of microbial load was done by checking pre-procedural operating room and salivary sample CFUs. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test for mean CFUs comparisons within groups and one-way ANOVA with Post-hoc Turkey HSD test for comparing mean differences among groups. p value ≤0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Mean CFUs in Test 1 group and Test II group were significantly reduced when compared to placebo group at all distances. Also, CFU in Test 1 group was significantly reduced when compared to Test II group (P<0.001). Blood agar plates at 6 feet distance shown significantly less mean CFUs compared to 4 feet and 2 feet distance in all three groups. CFUs reduction below suggested levels was also found at 4 feet distance with tempered chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Safest distance between two consecutive dental chairs is 6 feet for minimal cross infection. Still, this distance can be reduced to 4 feet if tempered Chlorhexidine is used as the pre-procedural mouth rinse. Tempered chlorhexidine is effective compared to its non-tempered counterpart. Synergistic effect of tempered chlorhexidine and maintaining safe chair distance effectively controlled aerosol qualitatively and quantitatively.

  172. Mohamad Haikal Bin Zakaria, Dr. Dhanraj, M. and Dr. Sangeetha

    The survey is conducted to assess the knowledge, awareness and practice of alginate storage among the dental practitioners. The aim of the current study was to use representative survey data to examine in the knowledge, awareness and practice of alginate storage among dental practitioners which have different major. The study is a cross-sectional survey. A self-structured, pre-tested questionnaire was used for this survey. Total samples of 50 subjects were included in this study. The result of this study showed that the knowledge, awareness and practice of alginate storage among dental practitioners are quite high.(80%) Generally we can assume that most of the dental practitioners with prosthodontics background have greater awareness and knowledge on hypertension compared to other dental practitioners with different background studies. Moreover, still there is a few numbers of subjects that still do not aware on the proper condition and environment in storing the alginate. Therefore dental practitioners have to work on together in providing a good knowledge, awareness and practice of alginate storage that cannot be looked down. From the result collected, generally we can see that most of dental practitioners have great knowledge and awareness as they know the complications and significances of providing proper condition for alginate storage. Conclusion: Looking at current study results, they showed a large number of potent and incredible dental practitioners which are aware and have a good knowledge on alginate storage.

  173. Aun Ali, Summaya Saeed and Mehroze Zamir

    Morel-Lavallée Lesion (MLL) is a soft tissue injury that results in separation of skin and subcutaneous fat from underlying fascia and collection of fluid in between them. It is a rare entity thathas been reported in past and needs urgent detection and management. A high suspicion index is required to diagnose these injuries as they can often go undetected and lead to long term complications. We here in report a case of adult female presented with extensive injury where clinical history and examination lead to diagnosis of MLL.

  174. Pritam Nagane

    Silicone is the most common material used to fabricate maxillofacial prosthesis but silicone suffers from a rapid deterioration. Regular cleansing of facial prostheses cans causesilicone damage. Hard and rough silicone material may cause irritation to surrounding soft tissue and may look unnatural over a period of time due to aging of the material. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hardness and surface roughness of two maxillofacial silicones under the influence of chemical disinfection and storage. Materials and methodology: Total 32 specimens were obtained, 16 of Technovent M511 silicone and 16 of Factor II A2186 silicone. The specimens were divided into 3 groups. Both materials were disinfected with fittydent tablet 3 times in a week for half an hour and with neutral soap daily for 60 days. Samples were stored in plastic recipient without covering. The hardness and surface roughness of the material was tested, before disinfection and 2 months after the disinfection of the specimens. Results: Shore a hardness and surface roughness of Factor II is more than Techno vent maxillofacial silicone. The storage time factor statistically influenced the materials' properties. Regarding disinfection with fittydent there was no significant difference in any of the materials tested.

  175. Dr. Sharfi Ahmed, Dr. Yousif.O.Yousif and Dr. Manahil Abuzeid

    Benign and malignant tumors are rare conditions; it was not uncommonly occurs in salivary glands and usually presented as a painless mass. The presence of pain and facial nerve palsy may indicate malignant transformation. Diagnosis is made by imaging and biopsies. Objectives: This study aims to know the pattern of Benign and malignant tumors in salivary glands among Sudanese patients in Khartoum state according to many categories age, gender, clinical presentation and diagnosis. Methods: This is retrospective, cross- sectional, analytic and hospital based study from January 2014 to May 2016. Conducted in Otorhinolaryngological, Head and neck and Oromaxillofacial hospitals in Khartoum state in Sudan. Results: The highest percentage of neoplasm is benign more commonly as pleomorphic adenoma in minor glands. Malignant tumor is commonly affected the parotid glands of predominance in adenoid cystic carcinoma followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusion: Benign and malignant tumors which occur in salivary glands were commonly pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma respectively.

  176. Dr. Sonalee Shah

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) represent the most frequent of all oral neoplasms & in India, OSCC is the leading cancer in men and fifth common cancer in women. The five year survival rate of 60-80% for OSCC has not improved in the last 3 decades inspite of improvements in therapy strategies. Research on cancer tissues has revealed that there may be a link between molecular level and tissue level changes that drive malignant changes in the tissue and play a pivotal role in disease progression. Therefore, the somatic mutations can be used as biomarkers to diagnose oral or other tumours. Research indicates that, for high accuracy in identifying early disease onset in saliva, multiple biomarker candidates are needed. Biomarkers are objective indicators which play an important role in distinguishing between the presence or absence of disease by genomic, proteomic, or metabolomic expressions. Biomarkers include nucleic acids, proteins, peptides, enzymatic changes, antibodies, metabolites, lipids, and carbohydrates derived from body fluids. Biomarkers can be used for: patient risk determination, patient assessment, recurrence detection. They are classified according to various ways. It has been estimated that over 30% of protein-coding genes are regulated by miRNAs either by complementary binding of target mRNA or binding to imperfect complementary sites in the 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTR), leading to control of expression of these genes at the level of translation. MicroRNAs are important in tumourigenesis due to their proximity to chromosomal breakpoints and their dysregulated expression levels in many malignancies. The identification of aberrantly expressed miRNAs which disrupt the normal regulatory mechanisms in cancer cells is an important first step towards elucidating the details of miRNA-mediated oncogenic pathways, which are essential to know to significantly improve diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of the disease.

  177. Dr. Meenakshi Jadhav, Dr. Anita Kulloli, Dr. Sharath Shetty, Dr. Santosh Martande, Dr. Anisha Yadav and Dr. Shruti Ligade

    Immediate implantation is a growing trend in modern implant dentistry. Immediate implant placement of dental implants into infected sockets has been shown to be a predictable and successful procedure when proper protocols are followed. Various studies have suggested that immediate placement of an implant into an infected site is contraindicated, as sites exhibiting pathology have been thought to compromise osseointegration. When placed with appropriate protocol, immediate placement appears to be a valid technique for preserving bone at the site of implantation with infection allowing to maximize the bone available for osseointegration and to develop the restoration supported by osseointegrated implants from the functional and esthetic standpoint. This review discusses the current scenario of immediate implant placement in infected sockets.

  178. Sadaf Alipour, Maryam Zare Jeddi, Majorie B.M. van Duursen, Shahrzad Jafari Adli, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Hadith Rastad, Reza Ahmadkhaniha, Mehrdad Karimi, Azin Saberi, Masud Yunesian, Delaram Feizizadeh, Ladan Hosseini and Noushin Rastkari

    The estrogen-mimic bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic phenolic compound which people are exposed to frequently via different exposure routes. In this study association between urinary BPA concentration and breast cancer was investigated. This case-control study included patients with malignant breast mass, benign breast mass and women with normal breast. The effect of urinary concentration of BPA on breast cancer was tested using multinomial logistic regression models. Overall, results have shown a strong positive association between urinary concentration of BPA and both benign and malignant breast masses (OR= 2.14 [CI: 1.04 to 4.42] and OR= 2.27 [CI: 1.09 to 4.72] respectively), although other included covariates were only significantly associated with increased risk of benign breast mass. BPA exposure was associated with breast cancer but, given inconsistencies with previous findings for other study populations, results should be interpreted with caution. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm or disprove this finding.

  179. Nadhirah Faiz, Dr. Marian Anand Bennis and Dr. Dhanraj

    Aim & Objective: To assess the preparedness amongst the dental students of Saveetha Dental College in performing clinical procedures after a preclinical fixed prosthodontics course. Background: During the undergraduate course of 5 years in dentistry, the students spend 3 years of their education getting trained in the clinic working with patients. But to be able to work in clinic with patients, there has to be a certain level of preparedness in the student. For this purpose, the students have preclinical courses in all the fields which they'll have to perform. Reason for the project: Each college has a different protocol maintained and different amounts of information is dispensed to the student. This project is to see from the view of the students if they believe they have been given the correct amounts of exposure and practice before they can start working in clinic. Result : The preparedness of the Saveetha Dental College students in treating a patient after a preclinical fixed prosthodontics course is assessed.

  180. Bharathkumar, G., Kanagavalli, K., Bama, P., Sankaranarayanan, S. and Pitchiah Kumar, M.

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Karisalai Karpam. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous decoctionof Karisalai Karpam was studied using in vitro and in vivo models, phytochemical screening result revealed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, flavonoid, anthocyanin, terpenoid and absence of glycosides. The Karisalai Karpam exhibited strong free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by the highest activity values in ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (74.23%), lipid peroxidation (81%), superoxide anion (79.5%), Metal chelating activity (84.05%), and nitric oxide scavenging activity (81.45) methods. Hepatoprotective activity of Karisalai Karpam was determined by the alcohol induced oxidative tissue injury in rat liver, the aqueous decoctionshowed significant hepatoprotective activity that was evident by enzymatic examination and histopathological study. This study provides a scientific basis for the ethnomedical claims that Karisalai Karpam is effective against ageing related diseases and liver injury.

  181. Shashank Nayak N. and Srinivasa U.

    Eye drops are the most conventional ophthalmic drug delivery system available in the market with various patient compliance problems. In this current work pH triggered in situ ophthalmic gel of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride and Ketorolac tromethamine combination are prepared by using carbopol 934 as gelling agent and carboxy methyl tamarind kernel powder and Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K15M as viscosity enhancing agent and rate controlling polymer, Benzalkonium chloride was used as preservative in the above formulation. The formulations were sterilized by autoclaving at 1210 C at 15 PSI at 20 min. The formulations were evaluated for various parameters like visual appearance, clarity, pH, gelling capacity, drug content and in vitro diffusion studies, antimicrobial study, stability study. The drug release pattern was analysed by derivative spectroscopy using derivative spectroscopy. The release pattern of the best formulation indicated that both the drug showed zero order release pattern for a period of 12 hours thus increasing the contact time of drug with ocular tissues and reducing the nasolacrimal drainage. The drug-drug and drug excipient compatibility study was done by FTIR. From this current work it can be concluded that In situ ophthalmic gel is an alternative to convention drug delivery system.

  182. Gayathri R Menon, Geetha, R.V. and Dr. Shuba

    Aim: To determine the microbial content present in the hand wash soap bottles used in dental clinics. Materials and method: Swabs were collected from 10 different clinics from the hand wash soap bottles used in dental clinics. They were then cultured in agar medium and the microbes were identified by its morphology and gram staining. Background: Hand Washing continues to be the single most important step in the prevention of the spread of infection in hospitals. There is a wealth of information on the antimicrobial properties of soaps, detergents, and disinfectants and their efficacy for the removal of microorganisms from skin. There have also been reports of contamination of disinfectants and cleaning solutions in hospitals, leading to out breaks of infection. Result: The hand wash soap bottles used in dental clinics are contaminated with various microorganisms such as enter ococcus, micrococcus, streptococcus viridans etc.

  183. Anil K.Yadav, Ruqsana Khatoon and Chandana V. Rao

    Peptic ulcer is a most common ulcer of an area of the gastrointestinal tract that is usually acidic and thus extremely painful. This pathological condition is caused by chronic inflammation due to Helicobacter pylori, excessive use of NSAIDs like aspirin and smoking. This disorder also results in release of massive amount of toxic free radicals which results in oxidative stress. Ethnobotanically, the flower of Andrographis paniculata has been reported to be used in the treatment of various disorders including stomach and skin diseases. Antiulcer activity of the 50% ethanolic extracts in order to validate ethnobotanical claims regarding the plant, used in the above disorders. Four groups of six albino rats in each group were used. They were pretreated with (0.25% w/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (negative control, 10 ml/kg), 50 mg/kg ranitidine (positive control), Andrographis paniculata flower extract (200 and 400 mg/kg/body weight) and their effect was studied on aspirin induced ulcer, cold-resistant stress-induced ulcers, pylorus ligation and ethanol-induced ulcers. The results of the present study showed that the flower extract of Andrographis paniculata possessed gastroprotective activity as evidenced by its significant inhibition in the formation of ulcers induced by physical and chemical agents with a maximum of 87.15 % therapeutic efficiency (400 mg/kg b.w.) in cold resistant stress-induced ulcers. The present study was also aimed to investigate the effect of this extract on oxidative stress by measuring the level of various oxidative markers. The result of enzyme assay and lipid peroxidation clearly indicates the andrographis paniculata flower extract have significant antioxidant effect on ulcer pathology. Flower extract have decreased LPO (p< 0.001) and SOD (p<0.01) with concomitant increase in catalyse activity in cold resistant stress-induced ulcers.

  184. Aroonika S. Bedre and Don, K. R.

    Background: Histological grading is an important diagnostic tool to predict the clinical and biological behaviour of cancer. Cervical lymph node metastasis indicate poor prognosis of oral cancer. Oral squamous cell carcinoma has a great predisposition to produce metastasis in lymph nodes. An analysis of the prognostic factors is important for predicting prognosis and reducing the mortality in these patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to do a comparative study of different grading systems in oral squamous cell carcinoma and assess their relationship to Lymph node metastasis. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of 20 excisional biopsy cases of OSCC with neck dissections retrieved from the archives of Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha dental college, Chennai, India. The examiner was blinded to the clinical details and LN status of the patients. The slides were graded using 3 grading systems, namely, Broder's, Anneroth's and Bryne's invasive front grading. Chi - square test was applied to compare the proportion between grades and lymph node status trend. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to estimate the odds of grades with respect to positivity of lymph nodes. Results: Bryne’s grading system showed significant relation with lymph node metastasis, when compared with Broder’s and Anneroth’s. Chi - square results comparing the 3 grading systems, showed that whenever there is increase in grading from grade I to III, there is increase in positivity of lymph node metastasis. But statistically significant results were seen only in Bryne’s. (P=.009) On comparing the 3 grading systems, the Odds ratio of all 3 showed an increase (>1), but it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, we believe that Bryne’s grading of the invasive parts of oral SCC could be taken as a valuable predictive factor in lymph node metastasis. The clinical value of this system can be increased if more number of samples were taken for the study.

  185. Dr. Dheeraj Singha, Dr. Priyanka Sood, Dr. Aman Thakur and Dr. Sudarshan Kumar

    In developing countries people are more worried about infectious risks of blood transfusion but various reports show that antigen-antibody reactions are responsible for vast majority of transfusion related complications, most common and serious being intravascular haemolytic transfusion reactions because of ABO incompatability caused by giving wrong blood to the patient. We report a case of 24 year old female patient who underwent emergency caesarean section for foetal bradycardia and was accidently given mismatched blood transfusion in preoperative period. This patient was managed subsequently after the emergency surgery in the Intensive care unit.

  186. Noor Ul Huda and Don, K. R.

    Background: Dental identification is an important identification tool in Forensic odontology. There is a difference of opinion regarding whether ethnicity influences dental morphology or not. Few studies have shown the associations between these dental features and crown traits in humans. The present study is an attempt to find correlation of occlusal morphology of permanent mandibular third molars with forensic Odontology. Objective: To determine the prevalence of different occlusal morphological patterns of permanent mandibular third molars. Methodology: The patients fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study which gave a sample size of 64. Direct oral examination was done, and pictures were taken of the permanent mandibular third molars to record the number of cusps and groove patterns of the mandibular third molars. Result: The general distribution of cusps showed that the most predominant number of cusps was 4 cusps, which was seen in 61(63%) of the study population and “+” groove pattern was the most common which was seen in 55(57%) of the study population. The occlusal morphology with “+4” pattern (47%) were predominant among the study population. On analyzing the gender, the 4 cusps form and the “+” pattern was predominant in males, while the 4 cusps form and the “y” pattern was predominant in females.

  187. Dr. Ashvini Kishor Vadane, Dr. Amit Sangle, Dr. Ashish Rajput and Dr. Zubair Ahmed

    Trigeminal neuralgia is the painful entity affecting oral and facial structures. In this disease, patient experiences severe burning, throbbing, intermittent pain. “Fothergill’s disease” and “Suicide disease” are other rarely used nomenclature options for “Trigeminal neuralgia”. “Tic douloureux” is the medical term for “trigeminal neuralgia”. Trigeminal neuralgia often compromises the life quality of the patient. Severe, intermittent, electric shock like pain on the face is caused due to “Trigeminal Neuralgia”. In 1773, John Fothergill described the typical features of the trigeminal neuralgia, like paroxysms of unilateral facial pain, evoked by eating or speaking or touch, starting & ending abruptly and associated with anxiety. A wide range of treatments are available, such as neurosurgical treatments, neuroablative procedures, radiosurgery, pharmacotherapy, LASER. The present paper sheds light on various medical and surgical treatment modalities for the treatment of this therapeutically challenged disease.

  188. Dr. Shakuntala Bethur Siddaiah, Dr. Veena Arali, Dr. Stiya Ann Varghese and Dr. Prasanna kumar Bhat

    Context: Developmental dental anomalies are routinely encountered by paediatric dental professionals at an early age. Their early detection, appropriate and timely management may help in an aesthetic and functional oral cavity. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various developmental dental anomalies like cusp of carabelli, microdontia, macrodontia, hypodontia, fusion, gemination, talon cusp, supernumerary and dens in dente in school going children in South Bangalore. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 1500 children in the age group 6-14 years in South Bangalore. The children were examined and clinical data were collected by single dentist and tabulated accordingly. The Statistical data were collected tabulated accordingly by a single investigator and descriptive statistical methods were used using SPSS. Result: The distribution of developmental dental anomalies was 36.84 % of the total population in the age group 6 -14 years residing in south Bangalore. The most prevalent anomaly was found to be cusp of carabelli 33.66%. Conclusion: The prevalence of other anomalies seen were talon cusp, microdontia, macrodontia, hypodontia, supernumerary, fusion which was 0.93%, 0.73%, 0.66%, 0.4.5, 0.26%, 0.2% respectively. A knowledge of dental anomalies in each geographical area will point out towards the problems that could be faced by the respective population and thus interject their propagation to irreversible level.

  189. Dr. Ravi Rakesh Dev. J., Dr. Phani Krishna, G., Dr. Sri Harsha. S. and Dr. Aiswarya Suggala

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of gingival retraction systems on thin gingival biotype. Objectives: • To compare and analyse the effect of gingival retraction on bleeding on probing using impregnated cord and retraction paste systems. • To compare and analyse the effect of gingival retraction on clinical attachment level using impregnated cord and retraction paste systems. Materials and Methodology: The study was conducted on unprepared mandibular first molars in 30 selected human participants. They were divided into two groups and gingival retraction was done using impregnated retraction cord in one group and retraction paste system was used in another group. Periodontal indices were recorded prior to retraction procedure and a follow up for 15 days was done and the readings were compared and analysed statistically. Results: The Mann-Whitney U test showed that there is no significant increase in the bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinical attachment level (CAL) of post gingival retraction visits compared with baseline. Significant increase in BOP was seen at day 1 following gingival retraction in the retraction cord group when compared to retraction paste system group. Conclusion: The injury associated with the use of gingival retraction cords to the periodontium is only temporary and usually heals within a weeks’ time. The use of paste system is more advocated in gingival retraction procedure as it has added advantages over the regular gingival retraction cord system.

  190. Dr. Rahul S. Thalanany, Dr. H. L. Uma and Dr. Nausheer Ahmed

    Background: Apical root resorption is an unwanted effect associated with orthodontic tooth movement especially intrusion. Immuno analysis of Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) has identified Dentin Sialo phospho protein (DSPP) to be present during root resorption. This study is aimed to identify and quantify DSPP, released into GCF during orthodontic intrusion using Ricketts’ simultaneous intrusion and retraction utility arch and to investigate the potential of DSPP in GCF as a biomarker for root resorption. Methods: GCF was taken from central and lateral incisors of 10 subjects(experimental group) undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment before intrusion and after 2 months of intrusion and 10 subjects with no history of orthodontic treatment (control group) using micro capillary tubes. These samples were analyzed and quantified for DSPP using ELISA. To determine differences between the means of the various experimental and control groups, data obtained were statistically analyzed using parametric t-test. Results: DSPP in GCF was detected in both control and experimental subjects. There was a significant increase in DSPP levels in GCF, 2 months after intrusion. Significant differences were not found in DSPP levels between central and lateral incisors. Conclusion: The results of the study confirm the presence of significant levels of DSPP in GCF during orthodontic intrusion. DSPP in GCF can be considered as a biomarker to monitor root resorption during orthodontic intrusion. Light continuous forces are recommended during intrusion mechanics. Early detection of DSPP in GCF in highly susceptible individuals for root resorption is beneficial so as to alter the treatment mechanics as needed.

  191. Ms. Prerna Uttam Barge, Dr. Nupura A. Vibhute, Dr. Rajendra Baad, Dr. Uzma Belgaumi, Dr. Vidya Kadashetti, Dr. Sushma, B. and Dr. Wasim Kamate

    Introduction: Today, Indians and especially the youth are increasingly using the mobile as a means of communication with their near and dear ones as well as with their professional contacts. However, concerns continue to be raised about the widespread potential adverse health impacts associated with their use. Material and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted amongst medical and paramedical students of a Health institute to study mobile phone dependence among the study subjects. Results: 159 out of 270 were aware of the documented increased risk of cancer with high mobile usage. Out of the 270 responders, 143 had experienced eye strain and headache was noted by 122. It was significant that 33% of the responders perceived themselves as nomophobic. Conclusion: The results from our study are indicative that nomophobia is an emerging problem of the modern era. It is necessary to raise awareness about nomophobia by informing students, parents, teachers and psychological counsellors.

  192. Rasika Avinash Kulkarni, Dr. Nupura A. Vibhute, Dr. Rajendra Baad, Dr. Uzma Belgaumi, Dr. Vidya Kadashetti, Dr. Sushma B. and Dr. Wasim Kamate

    Introduction: Musculoskeletal disorder is disorder of the muscles, tendons, peripheral nerves or vascular system not directly resulting from acute trauma or instantaneous events. Dental work often involves time spent in static, uncomfortable positions, which can lead to musculoskeletal symptoms. The aim of this study was to find the characteristics of musculoskeletal disorders amongst the dental students from a health university. Material and methods: A pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was administered to 150 dental students of Health University in Western Maharashtra after explaining the purpose and need for study. Results: Out of the 150 respondents, 22 had experienced pain in neck or back at least once a week. This figure increased to 67 when pain in last one month was considered. In our study, neck and lower back were the commonest affected sites in females while in males it was neck and upper back. Conclusion: Findings of this study can help in building awareness of the musculoskeletal symptoms and can help the future dental professional to take measures to avoid the potential causes like the incorrect postures; enable early diagnosis due to early identification of the signs and symptoms and benefit from timely treatment measures like physiotherapy modalities.

  193. Arti Bakhshi and Dharvinder Singh

    Aim of the present study was to examine the gender differences in home environment and self-esteem of adolescents residing in urban and rural areas. A sample of 228 adolescents (Male=120, Female=108) with age ranging from (13 to 16 years) participated in the study. Home environment inventory by Mishra (1989) and Self-Esteem scale by Rosenberg (1969) were used to measure the variables (home environment and self-esteem). Results showed significant gender differences in protectiveness, punishment, social isolation, reward, deprivation of privileges, nurturance and rejection dimensions of home environment. Significant gender differences were found in self-esteem of adolescents. Significant urban and rural differences were found in only one dimension (nurturance) of home environment and significant urban and rural differences were found in self-esteem.

  194. Dr. Senthilkumar Palanichamy, Dr. Shrihas Rao and Dr. Pradeep

    Buccal fat pad (BFP) has been used clinically for various applications as pedicled graft including closure of oronasal and/or oroantral communication and for malar augmentation in Down’s syndrome (Jacobson and Sheer, 1972). Histologically, buccal fat is similar to orbital fat and helps in motion of the masticatory muscles and maintaining the shape of the face. The size of the buccal fat pad is usually constant regardless of the size of individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity, usually affecting individuals over 50 years of age. It rarely occurs in patients who are less than 40 years old (1 to 6%).We describe a case of squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa surgically excised and defect closed with buccal pad of fat, with excellent post operative results.

  195. Homood A. Alharbi, Adel F. Almutairi, Eyad M. Alhilah and Abdulrahman S. Alshehri

    Background: Academic learning environment impacts learning outcomes. Thus, educators outlined the importance of examining the academic learning environment in each college. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study to explore the academic learning environment in the nursing college at KSU was done. A convenient sample of undergraduate nursing students gave their perceptions about the academic environment in the college. Results: Findings indicated that the overall mean score of the participants’ perception of their learning environment was 136/ 200, which signposts a more positive learning environment. The findings displayed a high positive result in all the items with high overall score compares to the previous national studies. Conclusions: The study findings highlight the need of continued education for the faculty in order to eliminate ridiculing the students.

  196. Dr. Mayuri Naik, Dr. Ida de Noronha de Ataide, Dr. Marina Fernandes and Dr. Rajan Lambor

    Root-canal treatment is a therapeutic procedure performed to treat and prevent apical periodontitis when pulpal disease is considered too advanced to be managed by vital pulp therapy. A thorough conceptualization of the complex interplay between infection, inflammation and healthy tissue can help to increase the visualization of how treatment procedures might influence biological events and help in periapical disease prevention. This article highlights all the factors that can influence the final outcome of root canal treatment and the overall prognosis of the tooth following root canal treatment. Following the mechanical and biological principles along with the judicious use of inventory and continuous monitoring of practices along with skillful and meticulous planning will enable to reduce the flaws and thus increasing the chances of success root canal treatment.

  197. Elsadig H. Kh. Adam and Abdalfatah M.Bashir

    The aim of the present work was aimed to carry out comparative study between method (1) [official method (BP, 2017)] and method (2) [developed validated analytical method (Adam et al., 2012)] for the separation of cefixime trihydrate and its degraded products by using two different mobile phases, keeping the other parameters such as stationary phase, column condition, wavelength, and device constant. Mobile phase for method (1) consist of a solution of 0.03 M Tetra butyl ammonium hydroxide (pH 6.5) and acetonitrile with a ratio of 3:1respectively while Mobile phase for method (2) consist of a mixture of 0.1M sodium dihydrogen phosphate monohydrate solution (pH 2.5) and methanol with a ratio 3:1 respectively. To study the degraded products sample was subjected to Sun light, UV light, and thermal effects. From data obtained proved the method (2) gave less retention time for the separation of drug with a larger number of decomposed products being detected compared by method (1).

  198. Pınar K. Sütüven, Burçin Karataşlı, Değer Öngül, Bilge Gökçen-Röhlig and Bülent Şermet

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different types of cements on fracture resistance of full zirconia and zirconia-based ceramic single crowns. Maxillary premolar crowns in 2 mm thickness were fabricated on metal dies in 3 groups: Group MO: 24 monolithic zirconia crowns; Group ZL: 24 zirconia frameworks veneered with feldspathic by the layering technique; Group ZP: 24 zirconia frameworks veneered by the heat-pressed technique. Then groups seperated in two subgroups and half of them were cemented with glass-ionomer cement and the other half were cemented adhesive resin cement. All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 ºC for 24 hours and then underwent thermal cycling. Single load to fracture test was performed in universal testing machine until failure. The mean fracture values were compared by an one-way ANOVA and a multiple comparison post-hoc Tukey HSD test (p<0.05). Scanning electron microscope was used to evaluate cracks and/or bulk fracture. Results: Group MO cemented with adesive cement showed the highest mean fracture strength ( 2,703.07± 308,98 N).There was no significant difference in the mean fracture resistance of Group ZP and ZL. Monolithic zirconia full crowns had the highest fracture strength values and these single crown restorations did not effected by cementation.

  199. Dr. Thaer Hameed Mohsin, Dr. Mahdi Abdulkarim Abdulhussain and Dr. Ali Abduljabbar Mohammed

    Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of four modality of treatments for myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS). The MPDS represents one of the most important pain in the face. It is important to identify the most effective therapeutic modality in the management of hypersensitive points in the masseter muscle and lesser extend temporalis muscle known as “trigger points”(TrPs) to ablating muscle spasms and restoring normal muscle length of the masticatory muscle and alleviating pain and improving mouth range of motion in patients with myofascial pain dysfunction syndrom. Material and Methods: The present randomized comparative study was on 97 patients, assigned as four groups to four treatment modalities as follow : Group I: patients treated with pharmacological treatment including Non steroidal anti inflammatory (NSAID), myoreaxent and antidepressant or and anticonvulsant drugs. Group 2: patients treated by wearing occlusal splint (night guard) with olive oil local massage. Group 3: treated by physiotherapy with US and transcutenous nerve stimulation (TENS). Group 4: treated with trigger point dry needling All the patients were further evaluated for maximum inter incisor subjective evaluation regarding muscle pain. Results: All the four treatment modalities will alleviate the MFPD in different percentage with different local and systemic side effects. Conclusion: The findings suggest that occlusal splint with olive oil and US therapy with TENS is the most suitable treatment for alleviating pain and improving mouth range of motion with satisfaction of the patient and change the patients mode in addition to the less side effect.

  200. Dr. Eish Sethi, Dr. Manmeet singh, Dr. Amit Kumar and Dr. Anupama

    Dentigerous cysts are one of the common cysts of the jaws, usually associated with crowns of permanent teeth. Multiple dentigerous cysts are rare and are associated with certain syndromes. Non-syndromic multiple dentigerous cysts are very rare. Here we report a case of multiple dentigerous cysts in a non-syndromic patient.

  201. Dr. Nillan K Shetty, Dr. Subin Samson, Dr. Chaithra Laxmi, B. and Dr. Anitha Alageshan

    Introduction: To evaluate and compare the labial and lingual cortical bone thickness in maxillary anterior segments during en masse retraction using skeletal anchorage aided by micro implants. Methods: The study was done in-vivo on 10 subjects, with angle’s class i bi-maxillary protrusion and/or angle’s class ii div 1 protrusion patients between the age group of 18-30 years in the permanent dentition.pre-treatment and post treatment CBCT’s were taken for all the patients. titanium small head micro implants, were used as anchor units for en-masse retraction. changes in cortical bone thickness were measured at cervical(s1),middle(s2)and apical(s3)regions. Results:One-way Anova test and Paired t test were performed on the given data which stated that statistically significant increase in cortical bone thickness was seen in at s2&s3 on the buccal aspect with a p value of <0.001,whereas on the palatal aspect there was significant decrease in s1 s2 and s3 after retraction. Conclusion-This current study concluded that orthodontic retraction force causes significant change in the thickness of cortical plates ie: reduction in thickness along the direction of force and differential remodelling at s1,s2 &s3.Increase in labial cortical plate thickness was seen after correction of inclination and retraction of maxillary anterior segment.

  202. Dr. Tapaswini Bag

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common, chronic inflammatory condition and presumably autoimmune disease, which frequently present with burning sensation. Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease that occurs in about 0.02 to 4% of general population affecting skin and mucosa. The lesion has a chronic clinical course with periods of exacerbation and remission with reports of lesions for up to 20 years. Although various etiological agents are proposed, the exact etiology & treatment is unknown. Only symptomatic OLP requires treatment and efforts were made in a continued searching for novel therapies for symptomatic OLP.A wide range of treatment modalities from allopathic to ayurvedic have been proposed for OLP but none have proved curative or permanent reduction of the disease. Current article reviews about the various recent trends in the management of OLP.

  203. Dr.Vaishakhi Baisane, Dr.Girish Bhutada, Dr. Somya Maheshwari, Dr. Akhilesh Shewale and Dr. Geetika Soni

    Periodontal disease is a chronic infection affecting the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, primarily caused by the bacteria of dental plaque. It begins as gingivitis, an inflammation of the soft tissues, and can progress to periodontitis, where destruction of connective tissue attachment and alveolar bone can eventually lead to tooth loss. Periodontitis is associated with cardiovascular disease and, also with measures of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction. Anticardiolipin may explain some of the observed associations between periodontitis and systemic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  204. Dr.Hemal K Shah, Dr. Rashmi R Shah, Dr. Omkar Shetty and Dr. Gaurang Mistry

    65 yrs old male patient presented with a fractured upper left central incisor. Intraoral examination and cbct reviled, thin gingival biotype and thin buccal bone plate respectively. Immediately following extraction, implant was place and loaded immediately using buccal shell technique; guided bone regeneration and connective tissue grafting were done simultaneously. After 4 months of healing the screw retained provisional helped us achieve a emergence profile similar to as that of the adjacent teeth. Impression were made to replicate the emergence profile and transfer to a customized abutment which was screw retained onto the implant. Final cemented prosthesis was a zirconium crown layer with lithium disilicate. PES/WES score of the case was recorded at the time of delivery of the final prosthesis and again recorded at 1 year follow up. Mild improvement in the score was recorded.

  205. Parneet Kaur Bedi and Narkeesh Arumugam

    Background & Purpose: Neuro-rehabilitative and restorative therapies have emerged as a promising tool in recovery of spinal cord injuries. Comprehensive program can modulate the spinal excitability and help in yielding desired results. A handful of studies on humans has surged the interest in this field. Other than the expensive tools available for tapping plasticity changes in CNS some other tools like evoked potential have been found to be equally satisfactory. Evoked potentials could be useful prognostic, longitudinal monitoring and CNS remodelling tools. Case description: This case study is an attempt to determine the progression of sensory evoked potential in traumatic SCI patient. Intervention: Patient underwent a specifically designed protocol of 24 weeks (Activity Based Therapy & Surface Spinal Stimulation) for enhancing function and locomotion in patient with incomplete SCI. Outcome measures: ASIA motor scores for lower extremity, light touch and pin prick as neurological, SSEP as tool for CNS plasticity changes and SCI-FAI as a tool for functional outcome measure were used. Discussion: During the 24 weeks neuro-rehabilitative program the scores of ASIA, WISCI-II and SCI-FAI changed along with changes in t SSEP.

  206. Dr. Cherry Chamria, Dr. Roshani Thakur and Dr. Devanand Shetty

    Introduction: Deep intraosseous defects represent a major challenge for the clinician. Sites with intraosseous lesions have been shown to be at higher risk of disease progression in subjects who had not received periodontal therapy. Treatments of intrabony defects include scaling and root planing with surgical access flap. Additional osseous resective therapy and ⁄ or reconstructive therapy by means of the application of membranes, biological agents or grafting biomaterials can be used to correct the bone deformities induced by destructive periodontal disease and achieve regeneration. Host modulation is a promising new adjunctive therapeutic option for the management of periodontal diseases. The purpose of host modulation therapy is to restore the balance of proinflammatory or destructive mediators and anti-inflammatory or protective mediators to that seen in healthy individuals. Bisphosphonates are bone seeking agents that inhibit bone resorption by disrupting osteoclast activity. They interfere with osteoblast metabolism and secretion of lysosomal enzymes. More recent evidence has suggested that bisphosphonates also possess anticollagenase properties. In human studies, these agents resulted in enhanced alveolar bone status and density. (El-Shinnawi et al-2003) Alendronate was approved by the FDA in the USA in 1995 and studies have reported the effectiveness of ALN in preventing alveolar bone destruction associated with periodontal disease when administered systemically or locally to the target site. It is with this background and since limited studies have been conducted using alendronate as a graft material, this study was undertaken. Aim: To evaluate & compare the efficacy of Open flap debridement, Open flap debridement with Autogenous bone and Open flap debridement with Autogenous bone and Alendronate for the treatment of 2 walled and 3 walled intraosseous defects. Materials & Methods: 30 Subjects in the age range of 30 – 60 years were selected with chronic (clinical attachment loss > 5mm) periodontitis and probing depth ≥ 6mm were selected. Mandibular molars, with 2 or 3 walled intrabony defects were included in the study, with no history of metabolic disorders involving bone resorption. Radiographic evidence of bone defects were evident. Results: Mean measurements in the Group C for CAL gain (2.90 ±0.73), PD reduction (3.10 ±0.73) and RBH (2.40 ±0.96) were significantly greater with a p-value <0.05 compared to the mean measurements of CAL gain (3.80 ±0.78), PD reduction (4.40 ±1.17) and RBH (3.50 ±0.84) of Group A. Conclusion: Use of Alendronate- bisphosphonate as an additive material to autogenous bone grafts demonstrated improved results at 6 months and 9 months as compared to baseline.

  207. Dr. Arshed Ali, Dr. Asif Mahajan and Dr. Hanan Saif

    Peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is one of the most commonly encountered abscess in the Head and neck region. Peritonsillar abscess also called as Quinsy is commonest infection in head and neck region. It is collection of pus within the peritonsillar space as a result of acute tonsillitis and subsequent Peritonsillar cellulites. The aim of our study is to compare the efficacy of Medical and Surgical treatment surgical modalities available are- incision & drainage, needle aspiration. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, SMHS Hospital Srinagar (GMC Srinagar) for 15 months, from Nov 2015 to Jan. 2017. Adult patients (>20 years) of both sexes with unilateral peritonsillar abscess were included sequentially. Children, patients with acute follicular tonsillitis or peritonsillitis and those who refused incision and drainage under LA were excluded. All patients received the same antibiotic Amoxicillin/Clavunate and underwent needle aspiration and I&D procedure under LA. Results: 56 patients were included in the study, 25 males and 31females. Out of 56 patients, Peritonsillar abscess recurrence was 3 patients (16.6%) in Group1, 2 Patients (12.5%) in 2A and 2 patients (9.09%) in Group 2B. History of recurrent tonsillitis was noted in 12 Patients (66.6%) in Group1, 10 Patients (62.5%) in Group 2A and 13 Patients (59.09%) in Group 2B. Conclusion: Incision and drainage and needle aspiration are better treatment. But Needle aspiration can be utilized as first step of management of peritonsillar abscess as it is simple, cheap, effective and less traumatic to the patients. Medical Management can be considered in patients with less advanced symptoms or smaller abscess size. It has been observed that Medical Treatment has less complications but more recurrence compared to surgical treatment.

  208. Nutan Kumari, Rashmi Panchal and Uma Deaver

    Objective: The objectives of the study were to assess and evaluate the knowledge before and after administration of client volunteer teaching and find out the association of knowledge of tuberculosis patient with selected variable. Methodology: Quasi-experimental research approach with one group pre-test and post test design was used and 100 respondents were selected by purposive sampling technique in selected DOTS centre of Ambala, Haryana. The content reliability for structured knowledge questionnaire was formulated by Kuder- Richardon 20(Kr -20) i.e 0.83. Result: The mean of structured knowledge questionnaire before and after administration of client volunteer teaching was 13 and 16.23 respectively. where as In the area wise were knowledge score: the highest of pre-test score was in the area of concept of tuberculosis, risk factors and causes (51.37%) and post test score in the area of Investigation, treatment and prevention (45%). Further the finding shows Knowledge with residence (2. 710), ventilation (3.76) and lightening (3.39) and age (3.15), Type of house (2.103), BCG (2.406), were found statistically significant at 0.05 level of significance respectively. Discussion: In the present study, mean post test knowledge score (16.23±3.73) was higher than mean pre test knowledge scores (13.00 ± 4.00). Nearly similar types of finding were reported by Raman lal patidar that the total mean pre –test score 52.73% and post –test score 81.05% which shows the increase in post test knowledge. Conclusion: The study concluded that the client volunteer teaching was effective in improving the knowledge of the tuberculosis patient.

  209. Dr. Riddhi V. Kulkarni, Dr. Dilip M. Kakade, Dr. Nayana S. Anasane and Dr. Onkar J. Jabade

    Aim: To compare the changing trends between implant supported prosthesis and cast partial dentures for patients with hemimandibulectomy Study design & methods: MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane, EbscoHost and Google Scholar were searched from January 1985 to December 2015. Appropriate case reports, case series or clinical reports which indicated the cause for resection were included. The data was compared only between implant supported prosthesis and removable cast partial denture. Masticatory efficiency, esthetics and functional ability were selected as outcome variables. Results: Independent screening of the titles and abstracts of 73 MEDLINE-PubMed articles and 34 articles from Google Scholar resulted in 37 publications that met the eligibility criteria. From the year 1985 to 1995 (first decade), implant supported prosthesis was used widely. In the second decade of the study (1996 to 2005), implant supported prosthesis proved to be useful in such patients. In the third decade (2006 to 2015), the trends changed. Removable cast partial denture was considered to be favourable. Conclusion: Cast partial dentures were introduced earlier to prosthodontics than implant supported prosthesis. Inspite of this, implant supported prosthesis has been used since decades to treat patients with hemi mandibulectomy. However, many drawbacks were observed with this treatment and later cast partial denture was chosen as a better treatment modality which proved advantageous to their dental health.

  210. Tülay Diken Allahverdi

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy results in patients who presented with abdominal pain and received a diagnosis of nonspecific abdominal pain following the examination and tests. Material and Method: We included a total of 52 patients who presented at the emergency service between 01.01.2011 and 01.01.2012 with symptoms of abdominal pain and received a diagnosis of nonspecific abdominal pain following normal examination, routine blood and urine tests and ultrasound analysis. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy on the same day. The results were evaluated and diagnoses made according to the endoscopy and pathology findings. Results: There were 23 (44.2%) males and 29 (55.8%) females. The mean age was 54.5 ± 15.3 (23-86) years. A pathology was present on upper endoscopy in 47 (90.4%) patients and lower endoscopy in 27 (51.9%) patients. Comparison of the pathology rates for upper endoscopy and colonoscopy showed a significantly higher rate for upper endoscopy. The most common findings were chronic gastritis with upper endoscopy (13 males, 221 females) and hemorrhoids with colonoscopy (7 males, 12 females). A pathology was present on both examinations in 25patients. Cancer was found in 7 (13.5%) patients (6 gastric, 1 colon cancer). Helicobacter pylori was (+) in 53.8% of the cases. Discussion and Conclusion: Same day upper and lower endoscopy in patients with nonspecific abdominal pain provided important results. However, we feel upper endoscopy should have priority when it is not possible to perform both investigations.

  211. Marlon D. Brown and Fabian Pitkin, I.

    Background: There is a paucity of significant data with regards to the high prevalence of breast cancer and its risk factors within the parish of Manchester. Atypical hyperplasia with a relative risk of 4-5% 5 has been demonstrated to have a positive association with the development of breast cancer. The objective the study is to clearly and concisely assess the association between atypical hyperplasia and breast cancer from convenient data obtain at a central Jamaica hospital over a five-year period. Method: This study is essentially an analytical cross-sectional study in which the risk factor(s), atypical hyperplasia and associated outcome(s), and breast cancer are analysed within the same time frame. The data for all breast related surgical procedures during 2007 until 2012 were collated and the subset of patients who had atypical hyperplasia and breast cancer were selected for analysis. The descriptive statistics were conducted to included estimates of central tendencies and dispersion for quantity of procedures done, types of pathologies observed, age and gender of the patients. Additional evaluation included Pearson’s correlation and linear regression. The cohort of patients with atypical hyperplasia and non-benign lesions were further selected for risk factor analysis and predictive risk assessment for breast cancer. Results: The quantity of procedure done during the study period was 551 however, this did not reflect the quantity of complete histopathology reports due to that fact that there were missing data. The total sample size of persons was 147 which was predominantly females (142) and with a total of 210 breast pathologies of which 158 were benign breast disease (BBD), 4 were atypical hyperplasia (AH) and 48 were non-benign lesions. The linear regression analysis done demonstrated this equation; non-benign lesion = (2.7)*(atypical hyperplasia) + 6.2 where 2.7 is the gradient and 6.2 the intercept. The Pearson’s correlation analysis demonstrated a weak association with a p-value .213. The risk factors of; age at menarche (14 years), number of first degree relatives with breast cancer (1.3persons), age at current biopsy (57 years), age at first live birth (20 years), were the most salient among the cohort of atypical hyperplasia and non-benign lesion. Conclusion: There was a positive weak association between atypical hyperplasia and non-benign lesions which were not statistically significant, which could be attributed to the missing data which made the study under powered.

  212. Abd-El-Aal A. Saleem and Emad F. Kholef

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of procalcitonin for early detection of intestinal ischemia and necrosis in patients suffering from acute intestinal obstruction on presentation at emergency department before urgent operation. METHODS PATIENTS AND: This was a prospective study of 80 patients who suffering from acute intestinal obstruction and underwent urgent operation in emergency department of Aswan University Hospital. This 80 patients were divided into two groups. Group A (non-ischemia group, n=28). Group B (ischemia group, n=52), this group was divided into two subgroups (B1and B2). B1 (32 patients) was considered as reversible ischemia group and B2 (20 patients) was considered as irreversible ischemia group. Group A and subgroup B1 (60 patients) was considered as non-necrosis group but subgroup B2 (20 patients) was considered as necrosis group. Group C (20 patients) was considered as control group. The important analyzed data included age, sex, special habits, the time between symptom onset and arrival at the emergency department, vital signs, symptoms, clinical findings, white blood cells count, base deficit, metabolic acidosis, serum procalcitonin levels on presentation at emergency department, the time between arrival and operation, operative findings and what’s done, post-operative complications and outcome. RESULTS: Serum Procalcitonin level shows insignificant deference between control and non-ischemia groups 0.33 vs 0.47 ng/ml (P= 0.15). But there was significant increase in the serum procalcitonin levels in ischemia than non-ischemia groups 4.40 vs 0.47 ng/ml (P = <0.0001) and in necrosis than non-necrosis groups 9.46 vs 0.88 ng/ml (P = <0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified serum procalcitonin as an independent predictor of intestinal ischemia in acute intestinal obstruction (P = 0.001, odds ratio 7.17, 95%. confidence interval 2.31-22.21) and necrosis (P = 0.002, odds ratio 1.71, confidence interval 1.21- 2.42). Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) of serum procalcitonin for intestinal ischemia and necrosis was 0.85 and 0.81 respectively. A high negative predictive value (NPV) for intestinal ischemia and necrosis of serum procalcitonin levels at <0.36 ng/ml (cut off point) was 80% and 90% respectively. Also a positive predictive value (PPV) for intestinal ischemia and necrosis of serum procalcitonin at >1.77ng/ml were 92% and 70% respectively. CONCLUSION: Serum procalcitonin levels on presentation at emergency department were an independent predictor of intestinal ischemia and necrosis. Thus procalcitonin may be useful for early detection or exclusion of intestinal ischemia and necrosis in acute intestinal obstruction and can be used as an additional diagnostic tool to improve clinical decision-making.

  213. Beena J.P., Ashwitha C Belludi and Sapna Konde

    Objectives: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a mineral- rich medicinal herb is a powerhouse of calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, sodium and antioxidants (vitamin A, B, C, D, E, K). All these attributes appear to maintain a big potential for investigation of re-mineralization properties of this medicinal herb. The objective of this in-vitro study is to investigate the efficacy of Alfalfa plant extract in remineralizing artificially induced carious lesion and to compare it with other commercially available re-mineralization products such as the CPP-ACP and fluoride varnish using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Materials and method: Eighty demineralized sample were divided into four test groups, each containing twenty teeth. Group A –aqueous alfalfa plant extract, Group B - CPP-ACP (Tooth mousse), Group C – fluoride varnish, Group D - control. After 30days period, the entire test groups were evaluated with HRSEM and EDAX. The obtained data were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA, Post hoc analysis. Result: Statistical analysis demonstrated that group A and group B received a significantly higher amount of remineralization followed by group C. Conclusions: Alfalfa, CPP-ACP showed marginally more remineralization than fluoride varnish. Thus, alfalfa can be considered as a substitute for CPP-ACP as a remineralizing agent.

  214. Priya Santharam, Appalaraju, B. and Vignesh Kanna, B.

    Background & Objectives: Tuberculosis in India is one of the largest public health problems of immense consequence, with an estimate one death per minute. It is caused by bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lung is most commonly affecting site, hence we aimed to isolate, and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis from respiratory specimens by conventional methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 117 respiratory samples were included in the study. These specimens were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining, culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, LJ with PNB and biochemical tests of Niacin, Nitrate reduction and heat stable catalase tests were performed. Results: Out of 117 samples, 104 (88%) was smear positive, on LJ medium 104 showed growth and 3 was resistant to PNB, Niacin test was positive in 71(71%) isolates, Nitrate reduction in 79(75%) and catalase was negative in 100 (100%) of isolates. Conclusion: The identification of Mycobacterium to the species level plays an important role in providing adequate patient management. Classical culture and biochemical tests when properly applied, detects M.tuberculosis in clinical samples with reasonable sensitivity.

  215. Kaushal Rai and Dr. Manjusha Madhusudan Litake

    Primitive Neuro ectodermal tumors (PNET) are predominantly a childhood tumor of ewing's sarcoma family with very aggressive nature. Most common site of involvement includes CNS and skeleton system. Renal PNET is a rare, extra-cranial entity. Characteristic histological features of these tumors are small, uniform round, blue cells. Differential diagnosis of PNET of kidney includes lymphoma, monophasic Wilm's tumor, carcinoid, clear cell sarcoma. Here presenting a rare case of primitive neuro ectodermal tumor of kidney in a 12 year old female.

  216. Dr. Rohit Lokhande, Dr. Gunja Dwivedi and Dr. Sagar Satpute

    Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM), a rare soft tissue benign neoplasm mesenchymal in origin, predominantly occurs in the female pelvic peritoneum and perineum region during reproductive age. It is slow growing, locally infiltrative, and has a high risk of local recurrence and the neoplastic character of blood vessels. We here present two unusual cases of angiomyxoma presenting as huge abdominal lump. Magnetic Reasonance Imaging (MRI) & Computed Tomography (CT) depicted findings of AAM which were confirmed on histopathologic evaluation.

  217. Trivedi Vinita, Chauhan Richa, Rani Rita, Singh Usha and Ghosh Manashi

    Cervical cancer has a major impact on the lives of Indian women with an estimated 132,000 new cases and 67,000 deaths reported worldwide in 2012. Locally advanced cervical cancer is commonly seen in Bihar because of the high prevalence of associated risk factors like low socioeconomic status, poor access to health care, high parity, early age of marriage and first pregnancy, smoking, persistence of genital infection specially HPV, low immune status, poor genital hygiene and nutritional status. Besides, there is lack of organized screening programme and treatment facilities for these patients in Bihar. With this background, this review was done to evaluate data from National census and Health survey in context to the above known risk factors for cervical cancer and methods for improving prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in the state of Bihar. Data from National census of India, 2011 and health survey 2011-12 was evaluated for the prevalence of risk factors in the state of Bihar. Further availability of cancer treatment facilities in the state was also evaluated in terms of requirement as per given standard recommendations. Conclusion: Increasing awareness about early signs and symptoms especially among the rural population, widespread use of HPV vaccination and simple screening techniques like visual inspection with use of acetic acid is urgently required to control the rising number of cervical cancer cases in the state of Bihar. A tremendous boost is also required in the availability of radiotherapy units, other infrastructure and trained personnel in the field of oncology.

  218. Dr. Ramesh Kumar Koothati, Dr. Apoorva Gaddipati, Dr. Kavitha Ginjupalli, Dr. Harish Kumar Desu, Dr. Amol Jayawant Jadhav and Dr. Kalyani Prapurna Sistla

    Background: Smoking habit acts as the risk factor for Periodontal disease and Adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mild maternal smoking might also cause whopping adverse pregnancy outcomes. Lack of awareness in pregnant woman regarding the adverse outcome of pregnancy with maternal smoking is very common in developing countries like India. The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge and awareness of south Indian pregnant female about maternal smoking and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: Multiple optioned 21 questionnaires was prepared with four categories i.e about smoking habit, stress levels, smoking effects on pregnancy outcomes, and discontinuing the habit. Maternal smoking also related with stress levels. Questionnaire forms were distributed to 440 pregnant patients who visited primary health centers in primary health care centers in several parts of south India. Answers were evaluated based on the current evidence available. Results: Most of the pregnant patients 88% (387 patients) who participated in the study were unaware of the relation of smoking with adverse pregnant outcomes. Though, some patients 12 % (53 patients) know the relation, they were not sure about the exact relation. Among the people who aware about the relation, 92% (48 patients) were believing in the severity of adverse pregnancy outcomes depends upon the number of cigarettes that are smoked per day. Conclusion: With this current study we would like to conclude that, there is apparent need of educating female pregnant patients and even women before pregnancy regarding smoking and its adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Maternal and children health by educating and preventing adverse habits should be set as public health goals in developing countries like India.

  219. Dr. Ruchi Mitra and Dr. Mitra, J. K.

    Chronic liver diseases remains as one of the most serious health problems worldwide. Chronic liver disease involves a wide range of liver pathologies that include fatty liver, hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis,and hepatocellular carcinoma. Since ancient times herbal medicines have been used for various diseases. In the recent decades an increasing number of herbal products, including medicinal herbs and phytochemicals, have been used for treating a variety of diseases worldwide. Thereby, numerous medicinal herbs and phytochemicals have been used as complementary and alternative treatments for chronic liver diseases. Thus, the present review explores the current knowledge of the herbal medicine silymarin in treating chronic liver diseases and on its flaws which need to be overcome in future studies.

  220. Dr. Neha Bansal and Dr. Richa Bansal

    With the increasing work load in our daily lives and the urgent and fast need to accomplish our goals, a lot of stress has seeped into our lives. Stress is defined as a physical, mental or emotional response to events that causes bodily or mental tension. Every part of the body is affected due to stress; be it minds body and even our oral cavity. It can either be direct expression of emotions or conflicts, or can be indirect result of emotional problem. The oral mucosa is highly reactive to psychological influences. Mouth is directly or symbolically related to major human instincts and passions. Various systemic manifestations of stress are headache, hypertension, gastric ulcer and diabetes mellitus etc. However aim of this article is to highlight various stress related oral problems which includes dental caries/erosion, gingivitis/periodontitits, Bruxism/Clenching of jaw, Myofacial pain Dysfunction syndrome, Apthous ulcers, Oral lichen planus and Burning mouth syndrome etc.

  221. Dr. Jarina Begum, Dr. Syed Irfan Ali and Dr. R. M. Tripathy

    Introduction: According to figures from August 2011, neonatal period, and accounts for 41% of all child deaths before the age of five. That share grew from 37% over the last decade, and is likely to increase further. New-born deaths dropped from 4.6 million in 1990 to 3.3 million in 2009, but fell only slightly during the last decade. The present study attempt to highlight the factors affecting neonatal mortality for better understanding of causes in order to decrease the NMR. Objective: 1. To study the effect of neonatal factors on their survival. 2. To give evidence based recommendations. Methodology-All of the patients registered at SNCU of MKCG Medical College& Hospital during the study duration constituted the sample size. The information on the study subjects was obtained by making regular visits to the SNCU, like-wise the outcome the cases were collected by follow ups. Results: A total of 412 cases died of different causes, in which HIE (40.54%) contributes to majority of the deaths followed by prematurity (24.28%) and infection (15.3%). About 26.7% of the cases died within 24 hours/1day. Majority (60.8%) of the sick neonatal deaths were within 1 week. Out of 1366 males, 304 (22.25%) died and 676 females, 108 (15.98%) died. Deaths were more in preterm (46%) and low birth weight (21.7%) babies compared to term (12.72%) and normal birth weight babies (18.13%). Conclusion: HIE and prematurity are the priority causes of neonatal mortality and neonates of male sex, LBW, preterm and less than 7 days old are more prone for death & faulty feeding practices is one the contributing factor for the neonatal mortality.

  222. Dr. RamLal Sharma, Dr. Prem Machhan and Dr. Kalpana Sharma

    Purpose: Visual restoration bypenetrating keratoplasty in a visually disabled case of xeroderma pigmentosa. Case: A teenaged girl with XP having diffuse corneal opacity due to the disease process was operated by keratoplasty regained satisfactory workable vision to make her independent to move around despite high risk factors for failure. The associated cutaneous ailments and malignancies were also managed effectively. Conclusion: The patients of XP suffering from corneal morbidities can be given some relief by performing PKP although the improvement may not be permanent.

  223. Dr Babita Niranjan, Dr Ashutosh Dubey, Dr Chandresh Shukla and Dr Shikha Mali

    Dermatoglyphic is a science that deals with study of epidermal ridge patterns of sole, palm, and fingertips. These dermatoglyphs are unique for each person, by which number of parameters can be determined. Recently unusual and atypical dermatographs have been found to be associated with mental disorders such as autism. So these parameters could help to diagnose as well as help in treatment planning of individuals. Autism is a complex developmental disorder that usually appears during the first three years of life. The present case report describes a 7-year-old male child with dermatoglyphic patterns that aids for diagnosis and treatment.

  224. Prasad B. Chinchole, Deepali, V. Giri, Pranati R. Chavan, Rajani B. Mali, Sandeep G. Uppod, and Patil, P. R.

    Background: Snake bites are the common cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical countries. Snake bite is a serious problem in many sectors, especially in south Asian countries. Snake-bite has become an occupational disease. The main objective is to study the demographics and ASV use, assess whether ASV has been given or not for patients who had been treated in hospitals in the management of poisonous snake bites in the scenario of global ASV scarcity. Methods: Patients of snake bites with signs of envenomation were included in this observational, prospective study. Non-envenomation and died patient were excluded. Immediately, low dose (30 to 50 ml) of ASV was started and patients were kept under intensive observation with supportive care & titrated up to 500 ml. Results: Among the 156 patients, there were 74 males and 82 females. 91 patients had vasculotoxic, 43 patients had neurotoxic and 20 patients had mixed type of envenomation. In study, Average dose of ASV given was 48.11 ml. Conclusions: The epidemiological study shows the epidemics of the ASV use, those who came earlier to hospital required a low dose of ASV to save lives of victims of poisonous snake bites with good supportive management.

  225. Hem Raj Vashist, Kavya, M. C., Diksha Sharma, Priyanka Kapila, Vivek Sharma and Neeraj Upmanyu

    Background: Adhatoda vasica Nees (Family - Acanthaceae), commonly known as Vasaka, Adosa Arusha is found indigenously in India. Vasica is most well-known for its effectiveness in treating respiratory conditions. Yogischews fresh leaves of the plant with ginger because of their stimulant effect on the respiratory system. Vasica is an antispasmodic and expectorant, and has been used for centuries with much success to treat asthma, chronic bronchitis, and other respiratory conditions. Material and Method: The plant is rich source of polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids which are reported to be responsible for strong anti-oxidant properties. Several researchers has reported several constituents by using different methods. Here 20 gram fresh dried leaves were extracted in ethanol for two days at 50oc.further study include physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation. Result: From the preliminary study steroid, saponin alkaloids and steroids were confirmed. Conclusion: study may be valuable as a useful measure in standardization of the plant material, for isolation of valuable phytoconstituents, pharmacological investigations and to ensure its value.

  226. Dr. Rubeena. A. Azeem and Dr. Nivedhitha Malli Sureshbabu

    Aim: The aim of this clinical practice guideline is to help dental practitioners make decisions regarding appropriate materials and techniques for onlay restorations. Background: Onlay restorations are an excellent choice for the clinicians to restore structurally compromised posterior teeth. These restorations are bonded directly to the tooth using resin cement and can actually increase the strength of a tooth by up to 75%. Many techniques have been suggested for the preparation of onlays. Advances in adhesive system and esthetic dental materials such as composite resins and ceramics have enabled clinicians to use conservative preparations to place restorations that also reinforce the remaining tooth structures. In addition, these restorations satisfy the increasing patient expectations for a natural or enhanced appearance. More technologically developed systems with fiber - reinforced materials which can be placed in a single - visit provides optimism for the future application of these restorations to the daily clinical practice.

  227. Dr. Deviprasad Nooji and Dr. Mayank R Lunia

    Aim: The aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the available information concerned to the tooth-implant supported fixed partial denture and to critically analyse the technical complications, the biological impact of tooth-implant supported prostheses and the guidelines that may be helpful in preventing long term complications. Background: Implant-supported prostheses (ISP) has substantial biological and biomechanical advantages. Encountering this situation of obligatory connection between tooth and implant is becoming seldom rare due to the extensive use of implants to support prostheses in partially edentulous patients. However, because of biomechanical differences between tooth and implant, long-term prognosis of this treatment modality is of special debate in dental literature. Materials and Methods: Literature published over the past 25 years were searched which included review articles, research articles and case reports. The search was carried out in PubMed database, Ebscohost, Google scholar, Medline and Science Direct along with manual search of peer reviewed literature using relevant key words. The most valuable and relevant articles were selected and analysed. Discussion: Literature search revealed studies involving rationale, cause of problems, benefits, complications, risks and guidelines of tooth-implant supported prosthesis (TISP). Conclusion: The tooth-implant supported prosthesis has its own benefits, risks and complications. Its application is justified by the risk-benefit evaluation with a special attention on patient requirements. Thus, multiple longitudinal studies are to be conducted before this method is declared as the treatment of choice.

  228. Dr. Sandeep Kumar Pandey, Dr. Shefali Gautam, Prof. Rajni Kapoor, Dr. Vinod Kumar Srivastava, Prof. Jyotsna Agarwal, Prof. Anita Malik and Prof. Shobhna Jafa

    Central neuraxial blockade in the form of epidural is very popular for lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries as these techniques avoids the disadvantage associated with general anaesthesia. We have conducted such study to find out and compare appropriate concentration of ropivacaine with clonidine for lower limb surgeries in epidural anaesthesia. We have compared the efficacy of 0.5% ropivacaine+clonidine combination against 0.75% ropivacaine+clonidine combination during epidural anaesthesia in 60 healthy patient of ASA grade one or two scheduled for elective lower limb surgeries. Result shows that onset of action and duration of analgesia is longer with Ropivacaine 0.75% but haemodynamic stability is more with 0.5% Ropivacaine. So it was concluded that Ropivacaine 0.5% concentration provides better haemodynamic stability with shorter duration of motor block for day care surgeries but for longer procedures, 0.75% ropivacaine will be preferred because of intense motor blockade, higher level of analgesia and prolonged sensory block.

  229. Ramakrishna Janapati, Shanti Sneha Golla, Naval Chandra and Raju, Y. S.

    Background: Highly sensitive C-reactive protein as a marker of systemic inflammation and the contribution of individual components of metabolic syndrome to elevated C- reactive protein was studied in the present study. Objectives: To study the prevalence of various components of Metabolic Syndrome in elderly patients. Association of individual components of metabolic Syndrome with highly sensitive C-reactive protein. Methods: Elderly subjects who were aged 60 years or more attending the hospital and satisfying at least 3 of the 5 components of metabolic syndrome according to the revised NCEP ATP III criteria of metabolic syndrome were included in the study. All the patients underwent detailed history and physical examination. Anthropometric data like height, weight, waist circumference were collected, BMI calculated with Quetelet index formula. The quantitative determination of hs CRP was done by immunoturbidometric assay by MODULAR P automated analyzers (Roche). Results: Among 100 elderly patients Hypertension was prevalent in 93% , elevated Waist circumference 84% ,Diabetes Mellitus 81%, low HDL cholesterol or using lipid lowering drugs in 81% and elevated triglycerides or h/o using lipid lowering drugs in 75% of the study group. Highly Sensitive C- reactive protein was elevated in 60% of the study group. Hs CRP was more elevated in those patients with Hypertension and elevated Waist circumference than the other components of metabolic syndrome. Higher the number of the risk factors in a individual patient higher the elevation of hs-CRP. Conclusions: Our study concluded that among all components of Metabolic syndrome, Hypertension and visceral adiposity were observed more frequently than the occurrence of other components in this elderly cohort of South India. Elevated waist circumference and hypertension were most commonly associated with systemic inflammation as measured by elevated hs CRP.

  230. Dr. Raghavendraswamy K. N., Dr. Supriya Chauhan, Dr. Dhakshani M. R. and Dr. Anil Kumar Gujjari

    Aim: This article describes the noninvasive treatment alternative to enhance the appearance by detachable cheek plumpers used with the conventional complete dentures, using different attachments (push buttons and double die pins). Background: In the era of increasing demand for esthetics, the role of complete denture is not limited to the functional efficacy. So much attention is given to the lip fullness for the complete denture patients. Similarly slumped tissues in the cheeks should also be an area of concern and be included in the treatment planning. Case Description: Two patients with slumped cheeks seeked a denture with esthetic rehabilitation. For first patient, cheek plumper was attached to denture with a push button and for the other, die pin attachments were used. Conclusion: In some cases teeth and the denture base satisfactorily restores the anatomical contour of the soft tissues but in severely slumped cheeks some additional bulk on the denture is necessary. Clinical Significance: Sunken cheeks can add years to the person’s age. Sag or collapse of the patient’s features can negatively impact the self-confidence, social interactions and personal relationships of the patient. Surgical corrections for this disfigurement are not readily acceptable to all the patients because of the cost, discomfort, and certain systemic limitations.

  231. Srikanth, I., Neeraja Kamakshi, U., Niveditha, R. and Ratna Kumari, P.

    A simple, sensitive and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the estimation of Sulbactum sodium (SBS) and Ceftriaxone sodium (CTS) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The RP-HPLC, separation was carried out by using Agilent XDB, C18 (150 x 4.6 mm, 5m) analytical column and detection was carried out at 218nm by using variable wavelength detector. The mobile phase consists of buffer (0.02 M Sodium Dihydrogen phosphate, pH-3 was adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid): Acetonitrile in the ratio of 82:18 % v/v delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 ml / min and wavelength of detection at 218nm. The retention times of SBS and CTS were found to be 2.375 and 2.989 min respectively. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The results indicates that the method was found to be simple, rapid, precise and accurate and can be adopted to routine methods of analysis of SBS and CTS in Pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  232. Dr. Richa Bansal, Dr. Neha Bansal, Dr. Rahul Bansal and Dr. Tamanna Sharma

    With the upcoming advanced technologies in the world one of the latest and innovative technology is the use of various applications of smart phones. One of the latest software application used is the Whats App. This is a highly debatable topic as to whether it is a boon or a curse! This article reviews on use of smart phone app “Whats app” in dentistry with its various advantages.

  233. Saina Elahi, Salika Sheikh, Sharadha Gupta, Sangeeta Muglikar, Dr. Ganesh Ranganath Jadhav and Dr. Shibli Syed

    Aims: To assess the level of knowledge and attitude of dental students and their siblings towards oral health; their oral hygiene and periodontal status; and also to evaluate the effect of dental education on the same. Materials and Methods: 80 participants were selected and divided into 4 groups as follows- Group A - 1st year BDS students, Group B - Siblings of group A participants, Group C - Final year BDS students, Group D - Siblings of group C participants. Each participant's oral hygiene and periodontal status was assessed using the Oral Hygiene Index-simplified (OHI-S; Greene and Vermilion 1964) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI; WHO); and their oral hygiene practices and attitudes were assessed using a questionnaire with close end questions. The collected data was subjected to statistical evaluation to assess the impact of dental education on their oral hygiene practices and periodontal health. Results: There were significant differences between OHI-S & CPI scores, knowledge & attitude of final year dental students as compared to other groups; but no significant differences were observed amongst the first year students and siblings of both the groups. Conclusion: This study showed that dental education did have an impact on the level of individual knowledge and attitude but this was not passed on to the siblings.

  234. Pratik Kotadia, Sania Singh and Srinidhi Surya Raghavendra

    Introduction: Calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic paste are both popular medicaments in endodontic therapy. Recently chitosan has been suggested as a carrier for these medicaments. This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating and comparing the contact angle, and thereby the wetting ability, of these 2 medicaments when used with chitosan against the surface of radicular dentin. Materials and Methods: 40 dentin blocks of thickness 2 mm were prepared and divided into 2 groups of 20 each. Controlled volume (0.1 ml) droplets of calcium hydroxide + 2% chitosan were placed onto the blocks in group I, and triple antibiotic paste + 2% chitosan in group II. The contact angle in each case was measured using Dataphysics OCA Easydrop software on a dynamic contact angle analyzer for 10 mins. Results were analyzed using unpaired t test. Results: Group I showed a mean contact angle of 64.55° and group II showed a mean contact angle of 54.9°. The mean difference between the 2 groups was found to be 9.65° which had high statistical significance (p<0.001). Conclusion: Triple antibiotic paste + 2% chitosan produced significantly better and faster wetting of radicular dentin as compared to calcium hydroxide + 2% chitosan.

  235. Dr. Vidhi Shah, Dr. Bhumika Tahiliani, Shikha Punjabi and Poojit Rasalkar

    Preserving natural roots for overdenture treatment is basically to improve support, rentention and stability of the prosthesis. This article gives an overview about tooth supported overdenture and implant supported overdenture of overdentures. A brief description has been made of the cases.

  236. Dr. Dhakshaini M.R., Dr. Rohit S Menon and Dr. Kaushlendra Kumar

    The primary consideration for patients seeking prosthodontic treatment is esthetics. The esthetic restoration has an important psychological effect on the edentulous patient. When anterior teeth are selected for completely edentulous subjects, the mesiodistal width of the maxillary central incisors is important because they are the most prominent teeth in the arch when viewed from the frontal aspect. Various modalities have been suggested for selecting the size of the anterior teeth like inter-alar distance, inter-canthal distance, bi-zygomatic width, intercanine width.The anthropometric measurements like finger length can serve as a basic guide in estimating the size of anterior teeth in males and females when no pre-extraction records are available. Methodology: For the study middle aged group (30- 45yrs) participants were selected based on the inclusion criteria. An impression of both the arches were made using irreversible hydrocolloid impression material. The measurements of the index and little finger were recorded. Results: A significant correlation between the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth width with length of index and little finger was found which can be related as (K1 × Index finger length – K2) and (R1×Little finger length – R2). Information regarding average tooth dimensions, when considered with length of index and little fingers, and the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth, may help guide prosthodontists to impart a dental appearance that is harmonious with overall facial esthetics.

  237. Prabhakaran R., Villalan Ramasamy, Chandrabose Ambedkar, Rajendran S. and Naganath Babu O. L.

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by progressive, inflammatory and irreversible fibrosis of the pancreas. Surgical intervention is warranted in a significant number of patients and the surgical options can broadly be classified into drainage, resection and hybrid procedures. Pancreaticojejunostomy anastomosis following these procedures is conventionally done in two layers. In our centre, we routinely perform a single layer anastomosis. This study, which involved 102 patients, shows that single layer modification is as effective as the conventional double layer anastomosis in terms of morbidity, mortality and pain relief.

  238. Dr. Ayesha Nuzhat

    Variation of vasculature in the upper limb has been infrequently reported. In the present case we report the high division of brachial artery above the cubital fossa, superficial course of ulnar artery associated with the origin of common interosseous artery from the radial artery in a male cadaver. Knowledge of anomalous origin is of significant importance to perform invasive surgical procedures and for vascular surgeons.

  239. Dr. M.V. Pratyusha, Dr. Jayalakshmi, K.B., Dr. Prasannalatha Nadig, Dr. Sujatha, I., Dr. Arul Selvan K and Dr. Zaharunnissa

    Background: Successful endodontic treatment depends on effective disinfection and complete sealing of root canal. Various medicaments are advised for disinfecting root canal, such as herbal and non-herbal medicaments. Aim: This in vitro study was done to evaluate the antibacterial effect of ozonated olive oil and cold pressed neem oil against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) (ATCC 29212). Materials and Method: Agar well diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial action of Group 1: Ozonated olive oil, Group 2: cold pressed neem oil, Group 3: 2% Chlorhexidine, Group 4: Calcium hydroxide and Group 5: Normal saline. The petri plates were incubated aerobically at 37o for 48 hours. The inhibition zones against E. faecalis were recorded. The data was statistically analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Post Hoc test (p< 0.05). Results: Ozonated olive oil showed the maximum mean value for the zone of inhibition after 48 hrs followed by 2% CHX and then cold pressed neem oil. Least mean value for the zone of inhibition was obtained for calcium hydroxide. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups. (p<0.001) Conclusion: Ozonatedolive oil was most effective against E.faecalis when compared to other experimental groups and can be used as an alternative intracanal medicament.

  240. Dr. Devendra K Benwal, Dr. Himanshi Gangwal, Dr. Premlata Mital, Dr. Renu Jain, Dr. Suchita Agarwal, Dr. Richa Ainani and Dr. Sunita Singhal

    Breast milk is undoubtedly the best source of nutrients and antibodies. Despite the negative effects of pre lacteal feeds, in India practice of giving pre lacteal feed varies from 10.2% to as high as 90%. Objective: To find various pre lacteal feeding practices and beliefs in women delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur. Material and Methods: It was a hospital based cross sectional study. 350 post partum women who gave written informed consent to participate in the study were included. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect data regarding pre lacteal feeding practices and beliefs associated with it. Data were analyzed statistically Results: 75.7% babies received pre lacteal feed. 79.3% of them received it within 1 to 4 hour. Cow’s milk was the commonest pre lacteal feed (30.2%).Grandmother (40.4%) and grandfather (24.2%) were the most frequent provider of pre lacteal feed. The commonest belief for giving pre lacteal feed was that the child will acquire qualities of pre lacteal feed giver followed by family custom (36.6%) and insufficient milk production (28.7%) in the mother. Pre lacteal feeding differed significantly with literacy status, type of family and mode of delivery. Age of the mother and sex of the child did not affect prelacteal feeding. Conclusion: Pre lacteal feeding practices are still very high in our society because of the family customs and tradition. Repeated counseling of the expecting mothers during ante natal clinics and immediately after giving birth is required to promote exclusive breastfeeding practices and to eradicate pre lacteal feeding behaviors.

  241. Selva Kumar

    Introduction: The Narikuravar are an indigenous group of people, living in Tamil Nadu in South India. The study related to health of the Narikuravar was not obtained over the last hundred years. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the oral health status and awareness about the oral hygiene measures of the jackal people (Narikuravar tribes). Methodology: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among Narikuravar colony, Valliyoor, Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu, India. The total population of the Narikuravar colony is 212 and a universal sampling selection has been done for the study. A close ended, structured questionnaire, WHOperforma 2013 were used for assessing their oral hygiene methods and status and their level of tobacco addiction. Positive mean scores of all the questions were calculated using student’s t and One-way ANOVA test at p value < 0.05. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess the relation of age group and dental visit. Results: Total number of Narikuravar tribes examined were 109 in which males were about 54 and females were 55. About 5 person are affected with nine carious tooth and more than ten carious are affected in 4 males and 9 females. 31 males and 30 females have no missing teeth and 23 males and 25 females had minimum one missing tooth. It is found that 2males and 1female have periodontal pocket depth ≥12mm. Highest of ≥10 carious teeth are found in 11 brushing individuals and 2 individuals who never brush their teeth. Ash and Brick powder was used majorly for tooth cleaning. Conclusion: The study reveals poor knowledge and lack of awareness about the oral health was seen among the Narikuravar tribes. In order to achieve the greatest effectiveness of dental health interventions, dental health educators must carefully choose the target populations with poor preventive dental behaviors.

  242. Jayshree Verma, Mayank, Kusha Thakur aJayshree Verma, Mayank, Kusha Thakur and Saurabh Jainnd Saurabh Jain

    This paper describes why it is important to rehabilitate primary teeth damaged by early childhood caries and presents the step-by-step clinical sequence of restoration using two different approaches. One, using polyethylene fiber post followed by strip crowns after endodontic treatment, and the other, an aesthetic fixed functional space maintainer , whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, anteriorly. Both the techniques offer conservative, aesthetic, non-invasive and affordable treatment options.

  243. Umme Salma Durbar, Dr. Asha Ramesh and Dr. Abhinav

    Background: Dental anxiety and anxiety-related avoidance of dental care create significant problems for patients and the dental profession. Distraction interventions are used in daily dental practice to help patients cope with unpleasant procedures. Patients with dental fear tend only go to the dentist when they experience pain, thereby increasing the chance that their visit to the dentist will involve pain and exacerbating their anxiety. Dentists themselves suffer from heightened discomfort when treating such anxious patients. Materials and Method: 50 patients were recruited from the outpatient department of Saveetha Dental College. They were divided into two groups- group 1 is control group (n=25) and group 2 is study group (n=25). All the study subjectswere asked to fill the dental anxiety questionnaire (5 point Likert scale) and dental concern assessment form. The study group subjects were treated using the virtual reality distraction system. The VAS scale was employed pre and post operatively to assess the patients pain and pulse rate with oxygen saturation was recorded using pulse oximeter. Results: The results showed that majority of the patients were anxious and concerned about a variety of parameters like sound of drill, injection, scraping of teeth while cleaning etc. Data analysis indicated statistically significant difference between control and study group, with regard to the VAS levels, with a p-value of 0.000. Conclusion: The study concludes that use of immersive VR distraction can be an effective method of pain control during ultrasonic scaling procedure.

  244. Nitika Sharma, Neelam Kumar, Anuj Jangra and Srishti Singh

    Globally, two-thirds (38 million) of 56 million annual deaths are still not registered and almost half of the world’s children go unregistered. Various systems for recording and reporting the vital events are well evolved in the industrialized, developed countries while they are still in the primal form in the developing countries. Information on vital statistics directs the policies and programmes of a country. Verbal autopsy (VA), defined as a method of obtaining as much information as possible about a deceased person by asking questions from family and others who can describe the mode of death and circumstances preceding death, may be used a surrogate for death certificates in ascertaining causes of death in countries with inadequate registration. Information on conditions causing death as well as those contributing to death should be collected using standardized VA formats and categorized according to the codes and rules defined within the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th edition (ICD 10).

  245. MSc.Ahmet SEVEN and Dr. Havva SERT

    Objectives: This study was conducted to examine whether the Turkish version of the Palliative Care Knowledge Test (PCKT) was a valid and reliable tool. Methods: Methodological study was conducted with 350 nurses, who agreed to participate in the research, The Public Hospitals Association in Sakarya province center, Turkey. In the study of validity and reliability of PCKT, language equivalence, coverage validity, construct validity, Cronbach alpha, Gutman and Spearman Brown reliability coefficients, item analysis and test retest technique were used. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between PCKT general and all sub-dimensions and the applications of Turkish and English forms (p <0.000). The coverage validity index (CI) score was found to be significant at 0.99 ± 0.022 (CI> 0.80). PCKT internal consistency reliability was calculated as Cronbach Alpha value α = 0.91. The reliability coefficients of the items (Equal-length Spearman-Brown) were Sb = 0.83 and (Guttman split-half) G = 0.86. PCKT item-total, item-remaining and item-discriminating properties were found to be statistically significant at p <0,000 and all items in PCKT subscales at p <0.001. Test retest (n = 30) analysis of PCKT revealed a significant positive correlation between the first and second treatments at 3 week interval (p <0.000). Conclusion: Palliative Care Knowledge Test (PCKT) Turkish form is a valid and reliable tool.

  246. Sahil Goyal and Vijay Kumar

    Background: Vaccination is the most important preventive and cost-effective intervention to decrease morbidity and mortality rates in children. In the past 50 years, vaccination has saved more lives worldwide than any other medical products or procedures. The objectives of the study were to evaluate immunization services at sub-centres and to determine knowledge of Multipurpose Health worker Females (MPHW-Fs) regarding immunization. Material and Methods: Community-based cross sectional study was conducted at all the 21 sub-centres under rural block of Rohtak, Haryana during June 2015-May 2016. Information was collected by carefully observing immunization services through a single visit at all sub-centres during routine immunization sessions and then determining knowledge of MPHW-Fs regarding immunization using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Knowledge and practice regarding four key messages of vaccination to the mothers was found to unsatisfactory- 1st key message was given in around 5% sessions, 2nd key message in 57% sessions, 3rd key message in 90% sessions and 4th key message in 58% sessions. Practice of using hub-cutter for syringe disposal immediately after use (38.09%), Practice of updating counterfoils for tracking drop-outs (19.05%), correct biomedical waste segregation and disposal in color-coded bags (47.62%) and practice of filling and issue of MCP cards to new beneficiaries (38.09%) were observed. Conclusion: The overall quality of immunization services at sub-centres was found to be unsatisfactory particularly in the areas of practice of updating counterfoils for tracking drop-out cases, deficiencies in logistic supply, knowledge and practice regarding 4-key messages by health-workers to the mothers.

  247. Dr. Ritu Meel, Dr. Neetu Meel and Dr. Pratibha Chaudhary

    The present case report discusses diagnosis and treatment of an extraoral cutaneous sinus tract of odontogenic inception in cognation to a mandibular right Central incisor. Patient responded well and the cutaneous lesions rejuvenated uneventfully. In the absence of any clinical symptom complete obturation was done .Patient was kept on customary follow-up.

  248. Dr. Varun Neekhra, Dr. Shweta Rai, Dr. Rika Singh, Dr. Chanchal Gangwar, Dr. Swati Tripathi and Dr. Srinandan Pradhan

    Background: The sense of smell is very influential in the taste of foods. If the smell pleases us, we anticipate the taste of the food with a great deal of relish. If our sense of smell is impaired, so is our taste. The effect of appliance on taste and flavor perceptions has always been a controversial subject. Several investigators have indicated a loss of taste sensation associated with palatal coverage. Others have found that appliances either exerted no effect on taste perception or actually enhanced this perception. Material and methods: 100 selected volunteers for the study were divided into two groups (Groups I and II) of 50 children each as study and control groups, between the age groups of 8- 13 years .All the selected volunteers were given different taste stimuli and were asked to score as per their perception. The verbal score was calculated on the basis of correct and incorrect taste stimuli given to them. Results: For both the groups the results regarding verbal labeling, hedonic estimates and intensity were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The appliance brings about transient change in taste perception, which could be found both in children with or without appliance. Clinical significance: Dentists should educate the patient before delivering the appliance about the transient change in taste perception and encourage full time wear of the appliance, including during meals, without fear of affecting taste sensations.

  249. Neha Goyal, Ashok Vikey, Shradha Jaiswa, Bhupesh Bagulkar and Atul Bhat

    Introduction: The aim of present study is to assess the current clinico-epidemiological trends of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Malwa(M.P) region and to discover out the association among different variables in the study. Material & Methods: Oral squamous cell carcinoma cases were retrieved and analyzed for the retrospective study from the records of 2013 to 2014 for clinical and histological details and the results were expressed to chart the trends in Malwa (M.P) population (India). Results: The study included 300 patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Out of 300 patients, 52% patients belong to the age group of 40-60 yrs. 67% patients were coddled in habit of chewing tobacco. 46.67 % patients had their lesions on buccal mucosa followed by tongue 27.67% and then alveolus 16.67%. The histological grade observed in our study is well differentiated which is 54.33% followed by moderately differentiated 41.67%. In present study, we found a highly significant association between TNM staging and the histopathological grade of the tumor and a significant association between the histopathological grade and the age of the patient. Conclusion: Mainstream of the patients are indulged in habit of chewing tobacco. Buccal mucosa is the commonest site of involvement with well differentiated as the most common histological presentation. The age of the patient and the histopathological grade of the tumor have significant association with the TNM staging of the tumor.

  250. Krunal N Rathod and Nimish J Shah

    Background: The old axiom that a typical gall stone sufferer is a fat, fertile, female of fifty, is only partially true, as the disease is found in women soon after their first delivery and also in underweight and thin people. So while searching for other parameters, iron deficiency was found to be a new parameter of interest in the etiology of gall stones. Aim and Objectives: To study the prevalence (numbers of patients) of iron deficiency in patient with gall stone disease. To study Serum Iron, Serum Cholesterol and Bile Cholesterol in patient with Gallstone Disease. To evaluate correlation between Serum Iron and Bile Cholesterol in patient with Gallstone Disease. Methods: The study was carried out at Sir Sayajirao Gaekwad Hospital from February 2016 to November 2016. Patient with gall stone who meet the inclusion criteria was selected. This was Cross sectional study. Minimum 60 patients were required for the present study based on the results of the review article for this study. Results: Total 67 patients were studied. Out of 67 patients 32 patients were included in Iron Deficiency Group A and 35 patients were included in Non Iron Deficiency Group B. On comparing mean serum cholesterol levels of both groups with independent t-test, p-value was 0.0797 which was >0.05. So there was no significant difference in serum cholesterol of the two groups. On comparing mean bile cholesterol levels of both groups with independent t-test, p-value was <0.0001 which was <0.05. So there was significant difference in bile cholesterol of the two groups. Conclusion: There was significant difference (p<0.0001) in groups A and B. This suggesting that bile cholesterol is one of a significant criterion in the supersaturation of bile with respect to cholesterol. Low serum iron levels lead to bile supersaturation with respect to cholesterol, which leads to gallstone formation.

  251. Punia, R. P. S., Dhingra, H., Baliyan, A., Handa, U., Mohan, H. and Thami, G. P.

    Background: Histoid leprosy (HL) is an uncommon variant of lepromatous leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. Methods: In 10 years (2005-2014), 385 cases of leprosy were diagnosed on histopathology and out of these, 13 cases (3.37%) were of histoid leprosy. Results: The male/female ratio was 2.25:1. 10 cases (76.9%) were in 30-60 year old age group. The commonest skin lesions encountered were nodules over normal looking skin in 10 (76.9%) cases. The most common sites involved were upper and lower limbs in 8 (61.5%) cases. The various clinical differential diagnoses given were leprosy, dermatofibroma, neurofibroma, sarcoidosis, xanthoma, erythema nodosum leprosum and molluscum contagiosum. The main histopathological features were epidermal atrophy and a well-circumscribed dermal area packed with spindle-shaped histiocytes. All the cases were highly positive for acid-fast bacilli. Conclusion: Histoid leprosy usually presents as nodules over a normal looking skin and can have different clinical diagnoses. For confirmation, histopathological correlation is must.

  252. Sundresh, N., Deepa K Gupta, Sunil K Raina and Abhilash Sood

    Introduction: Patient satisfaction is a measurable concept comprising of multidimensional elements such as access to care, quality of the provider patient interpersonal relationship and affordability of care. Identifying and understanding the needs and difficulties of patients helps in improving the services being provided. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the level of the patient satisfaction in a tertiary care hospital in Kangra, Himachal Pradesh. Methodology: A cross sectional study was done in a tertiary level hospital to determine the patient satisfaction of all the admitted patients in medical, surgical, ortho, ENT, Eye wards using PSQ-18 as a tool to assess the satisfaction level of patients. Results: 100 subjects were enrolled in this study. Generally 63% of the patients were satisfied with the hospital care but there were some areas where the patients were fairly or poorly satisfied. Conclusion: Though the majority of patients were satisfied, there is still scope for improvement.

  253. Dr. Jil Rathod, Dr. Asha M. Rathod, Dr. Gaurang Mistry and Dr. Jahnvi Shah

    The goal of this article was to describe the importance of saving the natural remaining teeth and the fabrication of telescopic dentures as an alternative to the conventional removable dentures, to minimize the complete denture problems. Telescopic dentures consist of an inner or primary telescopic coping which is permanently cemented to an abutment and an outer or secondary telescopic coping which is attached to the prosthesis. These copings protect the abutment from dental caries and thermal irritations and also provide retention and stabilization of the secondary coping. The secondary coping engages the primary copings to form a telescopic unit and it provides retention and stability to the prosthesis.

  254. Mr. Ziyad Mudasir and Mr. Ahmed Ibn Edriss, M.

    Introduction: Reliable identification of elastic fibers structures in light microscopy can be altered by several diseases which cause changes in elastic tissues, such diseases are ageing and atrophy caused by arteriosclerotic changes. Numerous empirical methods for elastic fibers displaying were evolved and modified along based on chemical structure of the elastic tissues components A number of techniques can be applied for elastic fibers demonstration these techniques can stain the fibers intensely but sometimes being unrelated. Study design: This is an experimental descriptive study conducted in White Nile State (Sudan), at University of El-Imam El-Mahdi (Kosti) from 27th April 2017 to 14th June 2017. Methodology: Twenty arterial biopsies were taken from a rabbit after anesthesia. All biopsies were 1 × 1× 0.3 cm in dimension. After the specimens were collected, all of them were immediately fixed in a wide suitable container by 10% neutral buffered formalin ten times the size of specimen for 48 h. After fixation of specimens, the cut- up was done, specimens were put in cassettes then bearded the unique cases number. The specimen then passed into a tissue processing machine (Leica, 2000) for further treatment in Table 1. After tissue processing was completed the blocks containing the specimen was thereafter subjected to routine section cutting. 20 blocks were prepared. The blocks were cooled to solidify to turn out their moulds and were then cut by rotary microtome (Diapath Galileo, fully automatic microtome Galileo, 2012). 10 sections of 5 μm thickness were sectioned from each block. 100 tissue section were stained by original Verhoeff's Van Geison method as control and the remaining 100 tissue sections were stained by modified Verhoeff's method. Results: Elastic fibers were stained brown in a yellow background by modified Verhoeff's method. Conclusion: Modified Verhoeff's method is easy to perform in a few steps (no need for removing of iodine pigment). The differentiation step can be carried out even by less experienced person and give good results.

  255. Dr Pronob Kumar Sanyal, Dr. Shivsagar Tewary, Dr. Tushar Shivaji Khandagale and Dr. Karuna Pawashe

    Statement of problem: Direct relining of complete removable dental prosthesis made with hard chairside reline resin is faster than laboratory- processed reline system. However, the decision to use these materials must be made with regard to their efficiency in enhancing retention of complete removable dentures. Materials and Methods: 50 edentulous patients (25 maxillary and 25 mandibular) with chief complaint of ill-fitting dentures with adequate vertical and horizontal relation and teeth arrangement were relined with Hard Permanent Chairside Reline Resin (Ufi Gel hard, VOCO GmbH.) and the retention checked in anterior and posterior region. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi Square Test (p≤ 0.05 as significant value considered). Results: 1.Statistical difference was observed between before relining and after relining for relined dentures in maxillary anterior and posterior and mandibular posterior region 2. No statistical differences were observed post relining in mandibular posterior region Conclusion • Hard permanent chairside reliners are effective alternative to time consuming laboratory processing technique of relining removable dental prosthesis. • Hard permanent chairside reliners significantly enhance the retention in anterior, posterior region of maxilla and posterior region of mandibular edentulous ridges. However, their use is limited when relining of mandibular anterior region is considered.

  256. Dr. Saraswathi Gopal, K., Dr. J. K. Singh Kshatri and Dr. Mahesh Kumar, P.

    The aim of the present study was to assess the presence and length of the anterior loop in the mental foramen region using CBCT. Both the right and left sides were retrospectively studied in 50 patients. Axial, sagittal, cross-sectional and panoramic images were evaluated and three-dimensional images were reconstructed and evaluated as necessary. The morphology, course and length of the anterior loop were measured. An anterior loop was found in about 25% of the scans. The mean anterior loop proximal edge was 3.24 mm.

  257. Hervé Nandkangré, Mahama Ouedraogo, Souleymane Bado, SergeFélicien Zida, AiméSévérin Kima and Mahamadou Sawadogo

    Identification and characterization of germplasm is important for efficient management strategies in conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources. This investigation aimed to assess genetic diversity of 47 ginger landraces from Burkina Faso base on polymorphism of eight SSR primers. Seven of theses primers produced 60 loci out of which 95.3% were found to be polymorphic. The number of loci ranged from two to 15 with an average of 8.571lociperprimer. Values for Nei’s genetic diversity or expected heterozygosity (He) varied from 0.123 to 0.454 with an average of 0.314. Whereas, the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.119 to 0.443 with an average of 0.302. The high polymorphism (95.32%) depicted showed the existence of a genetic variability within the ginger accessions. Dendrogram based on seven SSR markers using Neighbour-Joining method classified all the ginger accessions into three genetic groups with 20, 25 and 2 accessions respectively for groups 1, 2 and 3. The accession gathering in three distinct groups is not according to their origin. This investigation showed the genetic diversity in germplasm of West regions of Burkina Faso. That provides important genetic information for the germplasm conservation and of ginger improvement breeding programs.

  258. Garima Awasthi, Rachna Chaturvedi and Jyoti Prakash

    Heavy metals and other trace elements are important for proper functioning of biological system, but also their deficiency or excess could lead to a number of disorders. Zinc is essential metal for human health and plants growth. But in case of excess amount it can cause toxicity, as they change their form and become hazardous in the nature. In this study, the microbes like bacteria, yeast and fungi were isolated from soil for remediation of metals present in Gomti River. Among these three microbes only single colony of bacteria was observed where as no fungi and yeast growth was reported due to the toxicity of heavy metals. Two set of experiments were planned to check the efficiency of isolated bacterial. In the first set of experiment, zinc present in water collected from three different sources was degraded upto 93.7% by isolated bacteria. In the second set different concentration of zinc solutions (5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 70 mg/L) were prepared. The isolated bacteria was degrading zinc 80.8% of 5mg/l solution and 96.5% of 30mg/l solution after 72 hr incubation, which was showing gradual increase as the zinc concentration was increasing from 5mg/l upto 30 mg/l. The Isolated bacteria were efficiently degrading the zinc metal.

  259. Longe Adeteju Olufunmilayo, Momoh Johnson Oshiobugie and Asoro Iroghama Iyobosa

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to defective insulin secretion, insulin action, or both, resulting to impaired carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. The qualitative analyses of Vernonia amygdalina root extract were carried out using standard methods. Acute toxicity of the extract was determined. Adult male albino rats were induced intraperitoneally with alloxan. The rats were grouped into six groups of five animals per group: Group A rats are not induced with alloxan, Group B animals serve as the negative control, Group C animals serve as positive control and were treated with glibenclaimide, Group D, E and F animals were treated with 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic root extract of V. amygdalina respectively. The extracts were administered to the animals orally for 14 days. The animal’s blood sugar levels were assayed using blood glucose test strips and Accu-chek active glucometer. The lipid profiles and oxidative stress parameters were assayed using standard methods. The phytochemical analysis of Vernonia amygdalina root extract shows the presence of secondary metabolites like saponin, tannin, anthraquinone, reducing sugar, phenol, anthocyanine, steroid and terpenoid. The histopathological studies show that the extract is not toxic and safe for human consumption. The animals administered with 200, 400 and 600 mg/Kg B.W of extract showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in blood sugar level compared to the untreated animals. The decrease in the blood glucose level of the animals following the administration of the plant extract suggested that the plant extract possesses hypoglycemic effects in alloxan- induced diabetic rats. The extract of V. amygdalina produces hypolipidaemic effect and this is evident as there are significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol,triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and an increase in plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the treated groups compared to the untreated group. The extract significantly increases (P<0.005) superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and also reduces malondialdehyde values in the liver homogenate, an indication that the extract possess antioxidant properties.

  260. Dr. Rekha Battalwar, Kilpa Kacheria and Shefali Chakke

    Objective: To assess emotional, psychological and social wellbeing, health status and ability to activities of daily living in elderly males and females living in institutional settings Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted of 100 elderly people aged 61 – 100 years [23 males and 77 females] residing in 3 different old-age homes. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data in quality of life of elderly. Results: A significant association of relation with family and gender was found with higher percentage of females reporting that they were very much satisfied with their relationship with family as compared to males (χ2=9.083, p=0.028). Significant association of social relationship and gender was established with higher percentage of males reported that their family and friends would help them if needed and higher percentage of females reporting that they would like more contact with other people (χ2=15.196, p=0.004). Of the 100 elderly, 88% were ambulatory, 53% had eye problems, 10% had skin problem, 24% had urine problem, 13% did not have sense of smell, 24% had hearing problem and 8% had no taste on tongue. Significantly higher percentage of females were ambulatory (χ2=5.613), had eye problems (χ2=3.980) and hearing problems (χ2=6.325) as compared to males (p<0.05). Of the 100 elderly, 85% could get out of bed, 84% could bath themselves and could brush, 88% could go to toilet on own, 86% could comb hair, 71% could pick up things from floor and 95% could dress themselves. Significantly higher percentage of females could bath themselves (χ2=0.4631), brush teeth (χ2=11.891), go to toilet (χ2=0.018) and dress themselves (χ2=5.581) as compared to males (p<0.05). Conclusion: Female elderly were more satisfied with their relation with family but still longed for more contact with other people; suffered from more health issues as compared to males and yet could perform more activities of daily living as compared to males because of their strong motivation and will power.

  261. Moly, B. and Dr. S. Amina

    A study was conducted on physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of water from the Kayamkulam water. The study was undertaken for a period of twelve mo1nths from august 2014-July 2015.Four sites was selected for this study. The concentration of Heavy metal such as As,Cd,Cu,Pb and Hg levels are determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Heavy metal in water have noted the highest for cadmium and copper and all other metal followed this range Cd>Cu>Pb>As>Hg. Heavy metals in water were found in maximum concentration and showed negative correlation with DO in back water. The water parameters favored the production of brackish water fish. However, it is contaminated and therefore not suitable for human use. The present study was very preliminary for the future study, protection and management of this economically important area in Kerala.

  262. Riya Shrivastava

    This study was undertaken to assess the ambient air quality (seasonal variations of ambient air pollutants SPM, RSPM, SO2 and NOX) and its impact on road side plant species Ficusbenjamina, in Rewa city with special reference to epidermal characteristics of leaves. The monitored average values of RSPM, SO2 and NOX at the sampling sites are well within prescribed limits, whereas average concentrations of SPM in the ambient air of the Rewa city are above the permissible limits as per National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). The light microscopic studies of this plant indicated marked alternation in epidermal traits, with increased number of stomata and epidermal cells per unit area and decreased length and width of stomata guard cells and epidermal cells on both abaxial and adaxial surface of leaf collected from polluted site than those of control ones. These changes in micro-morphological structures could be an indicator of environmental stress caused due to urban air pollution. These characters could be used in the bio monitoring of urban air quality.

  263. Muhannad M. AL-Arekabi, Eman H.AL-Anbari, Iman H. AL-Dulaimi, Hameed A. AL- Ziaidi and Yousif O. AL-Dreesaoy

    The gene of the growth hormone receptor has played a great role in the chicken growing and reproduction. Polymorphisms for this gene were several variations in the animal genome, could be used as genetic marker for growth selection and economic traits. The purpose of this study was to identify polymorphisms in Growth hormone receptor in Iraqi local chicken .we collected 95 blood samples form Iraqi Native chicken (47 samples from the Black feather native fowls and 48 samples from the Nicked neck native fowls) to inspect growth hormone receptor gene polymorphism using PCR-RFLP technique. As stated to the data, HindIII enzyme produced 2 final alleles R and G. the R allele was placed in 290 and 428 bp while G allele placed in 170, 258 and 290 bp. Also, RR genotype stracture was in 290 and 428 bp while GG placed in 170, 258 and 290 bp, respectively. Besides, in this research no heterozygote identified. As it was seated in the data, there was significant difference (P>0.01) among polymorphism in intron 2 gene in growth hormone receptor. The consequences of current study showed that the intron 2of GHR is polymorphic in Iraq native fowls and could be exploited as a genetic marker for selection programs of growth-related traits.

  264. Pavayee, P., Umavathi, S., Thangam, Y., Madhiyazhagan, P., Umamaheshwari, S. Shenkani, K., Sowdeshwari, R., Syed Ali Fathima, K.M. and Sathish, V.

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of food poisoning resulting from the consumption of contaminated food with Staphylococcal enterotoxins. Different food can act as a good medium for S. aureus such as milk and milk products. In the present study differential conventional methods were used to detect the S. aureus isolates from 30 samples of milk were collected from different regions of Tamil Nadu. Among that 23 samples showed positive results and 7 samples showed negative results for S. aureus. The bacterial isolates were tested with gram staining, motility test, indole test, catalase test, oxidase test, methyl red test, Voges-proskauer test, urease test etc. The S. aureus isolates were found different kind of antibiotic resistant against the antibiotics like Clindamicin, Methicillin, Nitrofurantoin, Pencillin and Tobramycin. The S. aureus isolates were analyzed by biofilm formation and coagulase negative test. Among the 23 isolates 52.1% showed positive result on biofilm formation and 39% showed coagulase negative. Based on the biofilm formation, methicillin susceptability, coagulase negative tests the 23 isolated were classified as A, B, C, D, E and F. The highest isolates was observed in biotype A (21.8%), followed by D (17.4%), G (13.04%) B, C, E, F (8.7%) respectively. Among these 13.04% of isolates were not comes under any one of these category. Our study result indicates that samples of examined raw milk contained S. aureus. The presence of S. aureus in milk represents a public health threat. Hence, there is an urgent need for more strict and hygienic preventive measures to reduce the bacterial contamination, so as to increase the wholesomeness and quality of these milk and milk based products for the good health of all consumers. It is essential to prevent risks of contamination of S. aureus from the point of production to the point of consumption of milk.

  265. Deepthi Priya, K., Manish V Petkar and Chowdary, G. V.

    Verbenone is a valuable aromatic chemical used in aromatherapy and as a food flavourant. Gluconobacter japonicus MTCC 12284 isolated from decayed yellow orange citrus fruits is reported for verbenone production from biotransformation of α -(+)- pinene .The present study focuses on increasing the yield of verbenone by permeabilising the cells of Gluconobacter japonicus with various chemical agents. The verbenone production was substantially increased by permeabilising the Gluconobacter cells with toluene, Kpi – n hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide respectively. The optimum working conditions for permeabilisation process to achieve maximum verbenone production was found to be 1% (v/v) of α -(+)- pinene at 33°C temperature and treatment time of 30min with 1% toluene which resulted in the production of 34.4 mg of verbenone (23.45% molar yield) at pH 6 at 275rpm in 30ml of production media in 96 hrs of incubation. Verbenone production was also found to be enhanced by ultrasonicating the bacterial cells using Tris Hcl sonication buffer. The concentration of verbenone produced by ultrasonication method was found to be 31.1mg equivalent to the molar yield of 21.1%.

  266. Dr. Ganapthirao, I., Dr. NaikaDr. Ganapthirao, I., Dr. Naikar Ashok, Dr. Biradar Vijay, Dr. Halli Chandrakanthr Ashok, Dr. Biradar Vijay, Dr. Halli Chandrakanth

    Ayurveda is an ancient science of life since the time of immemorial. In Ayurvedic classics, there is two types of treatment for all diseases, either with use of aushadhi (medicines) or by use of surgery. In Shalya Tanra, there was description of eight types of shastra karmas to perform shalya karma but poorva karma should be done before any surgical procedure and this poorva karma is known as preoperative management in Ayurveda. If poorva karma is performed properly and timely, this results in great success of any surgery and complication free postoperative period. The surgeon does not get defamed even after death of patient during procedure if poorva karma is performed properly with time.

  267. Mariappan Senthilkumar

    In this study, a protocol has been developed for micropropagation of Tectona grandis Linn.f. and studied the response of explants during tissue culture stages. The objective of this study is to understand the morphology, physiology and histology of the glandular trichomes, secretary products and Stomata. Maximum percentage of globular callus formation was observed in B5 medium supplemented with 2,4-D 2.0 mg/l (65.4%) with activated charcoal, minimum percentage was observed in 2,4-D 0.5 mg/l (28.8%). Multiple shoots were induced from seedling node with cotyledon segments through axillary bud proliferation. Maximum percentage of multiple shoot initiation and multiplication (86.4%) was achieved on B5 medium supplemented with BAP 2.0 mg/l and NAA 1.0 mg/l activated charcoal amended. Root induction was successfully achieved (82.4%) in B5 medium supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) 1.0 mg/l, the frequency of rooting of shoots were increased by previously grown on hormone-free medium. In vitro raised plantlets were regenerated on liquid B5 medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l of IAA and acclimatized on vermiculate before transferring them to field. Plantlets were regenerated on half strength medium promotes 93% of survival of in vitro plants. In vitro germinated seedlings were possesses prominent cotyledons and respond abnormally. These cotyledons were used as explants they were cultured on B5 (Gamborg's) medium supplemented with BAP (6-benzyladenine) (3.0 mg/l), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (0.5 mg/l) with 0.3% activated charcoal. They were developed organic, globular and embryogenic calli on the surface of the cotyledons. Glandular trichomes were latter differing both anatomic as well as the composition of secretary products. The stomata present in both surface of the cotyledon and also respond permanently open.

  268. Wasihun Legesse

    Durum wheat is produced time immemorial long ago and its diversity is high in Ethiopia. But due to low quality and amount of wheat production, the Importation of hard wheat for pasta making industries is more than 40,000 tons per year. In the past three years (2014-2016) support to agriculturalresearch development for strategic crops (SARD-SC) project new strategy with the objective of increasing production and productivity of durum wheat in Ethiopia has brought a significant change in many durum wheat growing districts and one of the focus areas of the project was ShebelBerenta district, Eastern Gojam. The new innovation platform of SARD SC brings the involvement of all stakeholders together from seed to pasta in durum wheat production system. Training as a component was given for all stake holders and farmers (both husband and wife together) which was not seen in the past by other projects. One of the other strategies of the project was fast truck variety development where varieties are released in short period by testing in many locations in a year to address the problem of ever increasing climate change. Eighteen durum wheat varieties were tested at Debrezeit and other locations in 2014 cropping season. Varieties showed significant difference (P<0.01) in maturity, plant height, thousand seed weight and grain yield. Utuba was both the highest yielding and early maturing variety (3923 kg/ha) and (107.33days) respectively. The other strategy of the project was undertaking participatory variety selection (PVS) that fits to the changing environment. Twelve improved durum wheat varieties were demonstrated in different kebeles of Shebel Berenta district in 2015 cropping season. The farmer group members of each site involved in identifying their selection criteria such as: early maturity, tillering capacity, spike density and length, grain quality, height, economic yield and disease resistance. Out of these, byusing pair-wise comparison the excessive criteria list was reduced to the major eight characters differently according to village farmers’ environment, traits of interest and preference.Utuba variety which is early maturing and high yielding with high industrial quality standard was farmer’s preference during PVS. As a result of these strategies, the demand of improved durum wheat seed in the district is increased that in turn encourages the seed enterprise to be engaged in the seed production of durum wheat which had no involvement before. Now the agro-industries would have good opportunities to get enough raw materials for their pasta making industries that lead to import substitution. This system in general has got good prospects for the sustainability of durum wheat production in the country and income generations to the poor resource farmers, and to make all stake holders to be benefited as a whole.

  269. Kavitha, G., Kanimozhi, K. and Panneerselvam, A.

    Lycopene is a pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato fruits and products. As a natural source of antioxidants, has attracted attentions due to its biological and physicochemical properties. In this study, tomato paste prepared from tomato cultivated in Dezfoul (Khozestan) was dehydrated with methanol, then lycopene was extracted with methanol-carbon tetrachloride mixture. Pure lycopene was obtained by twice crystallization of crude product from benzene through addition of boiling methanol. Further purification was achieved using column chromatography with alumina as the adsorbent. Effect of antimicrobial activity of lycopene compounds against some pathogens such as S.aureus, E.coli, K.pneumoniae, P.aeruginosa, B.substilis and fungi were analyzed including Malassezia furfur dermits.

  270. Lakhanpal S. Kendre and Prof. Sagar M. Gawande

    The study was aimed to know water quality from analysis of physico-chemical characteristics of Pavana River, Pune from September 2016 to February 2017. Due to the increase in population and industrialization, there shall be a necessity to understand the present status of Pavana River. Many government bodied does that work but there should be requirement of analysis of river with new methods. The experiment was carried out for three season i.e. Monsoon, Post-monsoon and Pre-monsoon. The water sample is collected from river as the depth changes. The physicochemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, DO, COD, BOD, Alkalinity, Total Dissolved solid, Total suspended solids, Total solids, Turbidity has been studied during analysis.

  271. Thiruselvi, M. and Brindha Durairaj

    Artocarpus hetrophyllus has been traditionally used for treatment of diverse diseases and it possesses antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antipyretic properties. Artocarpus hetrophyllus has a potent cytotoxic effect on human cancer cells. In this study, we reveal the cytotoxic effect of hydroethanolic extract on HeLa cell line. The dose-dependent effect of extract was measured by MTT assay and nuclear changes during apoptosis was assessed by Ethidium bromide Staining. Phytochemical screening and individual components present in the extract were also identified by comparison of both mass spectrum and their GC retension data. The IC50 values of hydroethanolic extract was found to be 60.25 µg/ml. Most of the cells were observed for nuclear changes by Ethidium bromide staining.Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of possible role of secondary metabolite. The quantitative data of 25 volatile constituents was obtained by peak area and the retention time were calculated for all the compounds. The major volatile components identified in the extract of Artocarpus hetrophyllus were found to be 1-Dodecene(17.7 %) 1-Tetradecene(17.2%) and Hexadecene (11.2%) respectively. The overall result indicates the promising baseline information for the potential uses of the hydroethanolic extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed spermoderm as an anticancer agent.

  272. Saravanan, R., Kannan, D., Sujana K.A., Dhole, P.A. and Monika Mishra

    Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in Balasore district, Odisha. There are scanty ethnomedicinal works carried in Kuldiha. ‘Santhal’ community is the major tribal population in the area. Gastrointestinal problem is a very common ailment in tribal societies. This gastrointestinal problem includes constipation, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, indigestion, stomach pain, flatulence, intestinal worm and jaundice. A total of 53 species of 47 genera 29 families were identified to be useful in treating gastrointestinal disorders. In majority of the species (27%) the medicines were obtained from the leaf. 61% are obtained from fruits, barks, roots and sometimes the whole plant is uprooted and used in the preparation of the drugs.

  273. Silvana Pasovska and Trajko Miceski

    The application of modern technological achievements and innovations should represent a priority in building the management strategy of enterprises. This implies constant modernization of production, introduction of new and sophisticated technologies, innovation of products, services, and modernizing the overall process of working. In the context of the treated topic, an empirical research was completed, which stated that the surveyed enterprises, the involvement of the new technology and innovations in the management strategies is inadequately perceived by the managers and the employees. That also shows the calculated value of x2-test and the coefficient of contingency, with which the general conclusion is that the surveyed companies do not pay enough attention to the introduction of new technology in the process of production and innovation of the existing product or introducing a new product. In the thesis, a theoretical and empirical research is made, whose results are shown, accrual, tabular and graphical.

  274. Mona S. Zaki, Olfat Fawzy, Sami I. Shalaby, Nagwa S. Rabie and Refat A. Youssef

    Forty Baladi turkey 4 weeks old and 700 - 1000 g average body weight were used. They kept in a balanced diet to study some performance, and clinicopathological changes under E.coli 0157:H7 infection. Ten Baladi turkeys kept as control and 30 were infected with E. coli 015,: H7 by dose 0.05m1 (x 107 CFU) inoculated intramuscularly. Body weight were recorded, blood samples were collected at 7, 15, 30 days post infection, serum was separated for determination of AST, ALT, Total protein. Albumin, urea, creatinine, calcium phosphorous, sodium, potassium and cortisol hormone. The biochemical analysis showed increase in AST and ALT and a significant change in protein. Hypoalbuminemia, was observed, increase of serum urea, creatinine, hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia, and decrease in level of potassium, sodium and cortisol hormone in areas. Blood examination revealed pancytopenia. This indicates that E. coli 0157: H7 causes deleterious effect on the Hematopoietic system

  275. Ilyes Dammak, Sonia Khoufi and Sami Sayadi

    Sequential optimization strategy, based on statistical experimental design, was employed to improve the production of β-glucosidase by Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 using solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. Different nitrogen sources were tested for A. niger culture using wheat bran as solid medium. The highest enzyme production per kg of dry substrate (DS) (1.65×105 U/kg DS) was obtained with soybean peptone. By using fractional factorial design, urea, calcium chloride, soybean peptone concentration and inoculum spore number were selected as parameter with high significant effect on β-glucosidase production. Optimum process conditions were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). In this respect, the Box-Behnken design was employed. The optimum conditions were found to be 0.095 kg/kg DS for urea, 0.025 kg/kg DS of calcium chloride, 0.119 kg/kg DS of soybean peptone and inoculum spore number of 8.5×1011 spore/kg DS to achieve a β-glucosidase production yield of about 2.87×105 U/kg DS after 7 days of SSF at temperature 30°C.

  276. Dr. Bandeppa Sangolgi, Dr. Ganapathi Rao and Dr. Ganesh Charkha

    Ayurveda, the science of life is being practiced by Aryans from Vedic period. Kalpana is the process through which a substance can be transformed in to the form of medicine according to the need. Samskaras are to be done for potentiating the drug or the formulation. Among all these pharmaceutical processes Shodhana is one of them. For a single drug many process of Shodhana have been mentioned. Arsenic compounds are being popularly used in Ayurveda therapeutics since centuries. Manashila being important among them. Manashila is an important Rasayana Dravya and commonly used in treating the diseases like Shwasa-Kasa, Agnimandya, Kshaya, Anaha, Jwara, Krimi, Visharoga, Raktavikara etc. (Sri Vagbhatacharya et al., 1999) Manashila is called as red arsenic with two molecules of Arsenic and two molecules of Sulphur (AS2S2). Manashila consumed without proper Shodhana causes Mandagni, Malabaddata, Ashmari and Mutra Krichra4. Hence Shodhana of Manashila is essential after which it cures all the diseases (Ayurvedic Formulary of India, 2003). Shodhana is the process of removal of physical, chemical impurities and potentiating of the drugs (Sri Sadananda Sharma et al., 1989; Sri Vagbhatacharya et al., 1999). Shuddha Manashila is an important ingredient in most of the popular formulations like Shwasakuthara Rasa, Rasa Raja Rasa, Trailokyachintamani Rasa etc. There are various Shodhana procedures explained for Manashila in Rasa classics like Rasa Ratna Samucchaya7, Ayurveda Prakasha (Sri Sadananda Sharma et al., 1989) and Rasa Tarangini (Ayurvedic Formulary of India, 2003). Some works on Manashila has been carried out like its clinical aspect on Dhooma, Rasayana and Lepa. In these various studies only one Shodhana procedure by Ardraka Swarasa is done (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Ministry of health & family welfare Gov. of India) 1999). There are three types of Manashila like Shyamangi, Kanaveeraka and Khandakya ((The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Ministry of health & family welfare Gov. of India) 1999)), which are superior in increasing order. So Khandakya is superior most and which also yields more Satva (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Ministry of health & family welfare Gov. of India) 1999). For the present study Khandakya type of Manashila is selected. Various textual references of Manashila, will be collected from various classics and will be discussed. Manashila sample that has been selected for the present study will be qualitatively certified as per classical and modern analytical parameters. Various methods of Shodhana for Manashila explained in classics are collected and discussed. The present study includes Shodhana of Khandakhya Manashila as per Classical reference of Rasa Tarangini where Shodana of Khandakhya Manashiala is done by Churnodaka, Bhrungaraja Swarasa and Nimbuka Swarasa. Standard Operative Procedure of the process is done in the pharmaceutical study. The analytical study reveals the standards which can be given for Ashuddha Manashila and Shuddha Manashila of various Samples. The differences in the parameters reveal that there are some changes which give us the idea regarding role of a particular media in purification of a substance, where it adds some properties of the media used.

  277. Deepa Srivastava and Shukla, K.

    Arctigenin is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan which can be obtained from plants. It has shown tremendous potential in neurological diseases and cancers. The literature furnishes numerous data on their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative, hepatoprotective, antitumor, antimicrobial, antifungal, immunomodulatory, anti-aging and hypoglycemic activities. It has been found potent in vitro anti-influenza A virus and neuroprotective against Japanese encephalitis in a mouse model. It has been also reported useful in Alzheimer disease. The aim of this study was to overview the therapeutic effects of arctigenin. Our study suggests that different medicinal properties of Arctigenin require more studies regarding to other unknown useful features of this valuable plant lignan.

  278. Shanmugasundaram, T., Ebanasar, J, Sheeja, B. D. and Sudheer Mohammed, M. M.

    Piper velayudhanii E. S. S. Kumar and S.P. Mathew is an endemic species confined mainly to upper Nilgiris, Tamilnadu, India. The plant has not been find a place either in ethnomedicinal literature or phytochemical research. Hence the present work is aimed at secondary metabolite profiling of leaf and fruit to investigate the scope of bio prospecting one of the more than 2000 species of Piper. The study observed that leaf contains alkaloids, tannins, steroids, triterpenoids¬, saponins and Gum and Mucilages. Notably flavonoids could not make into the list. However, the fuit is demonstrated to contain alkaloids, tannins, triterpenoids¬, saponins, and gum and mucilages and fixed oil including steroids, flavonoids and glycosides. The FT – IR analysis of the leaf as well as the fruit exposed the array of bioactive functional groups associate with the secondary metabolites in Piper velayudhanii making the species worth pursuing pharmacological studies.

  279. Basobi Mukherjee and Uma Maheswari, N.

    Ocimum basilicum commonly known as Basil is one of the promising herb with important multiple medicinal properties. In the present study, Bacillus sp. possessing multiple plant growth promoting activities was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Ocimum basilicum collected from Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, on Luria Bertini media. In Biochemical characterization, Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) – Bacillus sp. was screened for their plant growth promoting activities like phosphate solubilisation, production of indole acetic acid (IAA), ammonia, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), catalase, cellulase, biofilm, siderophore and organic acid. Further, species level identification was done by performing specific tests like Tyrosine agar test and growth on 3%, 5% and 10% Nacl was checked. These isolates also showed heavy metal tolerance. Different Bacillus species like Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and Bacillus sonorensis were identified by doing comparative study using biochemical characterization. From their PGPR activity, it was concluded that Bacillus cereus showed maximum amount of PGPR traits, Bacillus sonorensis showed optimum and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens showed minimum amount of PGPR traits, therefore, Bacillus cereus is the best plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with maximum PGPR traits. In Molecular characterization, 8 Bacillus sp. isolates having multiple plants growth promoting activities was selected and genomic DNA was isolated from bacterial cultures. DNA samples from this different Bacillus species were subjected to RAPD analysis to differentiate them at the species level and the RAPD primer OPG-8 (5/-TCACGTCCAC-3/) was used for amplifications. The expected ladder was not observed in the result, instead single amplicon of each isolate were observed therefore, this primer cannot be used for molecular characterization of different Bacillus species. Further analysis using different RAPD primers should be tested for ladder formation or molecular characterization.

  280. Hussien A.M. Osman, Ahmed E. Noor EL Deen and Mona S. Zaki

    Present study was aimed to investigate and determine the morphological and osteological malformations in ornamental fishes in Egypt. Morphological abnormalities were photographed with a digital camera and X- ray system. In present study, out of 250 ornamental fishes produced only 25 individuals with percent of 10% were found to have different types of abnormality, including; lordosis, scoliosis, absence of eyes, absence of tail, black tail and multiple type deformities. The exact cause of abnormalities could not be definitively determined, the possible etiologies was discussed.

  281. Pavithra H Dave, Dr. Dhanraj M. and Dr. Rakshaghan

    OBJECTIVE: An allergic response is due to the invasion of a foreign substance. In regard to dental prosthesis, a wide array of allergic reactions can be induced thus it isessential to assess the levels of knowledge and attitude among the dental practitioners regarding the management of allergic reactions induced by these prosthesis. MATERIALS AND METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Saveetha Dental College and hospitals, Chennai. The study instrument was a structured, self administrable questionnaire consisting of eleven multiple choice questions (MCQs), encompassing major aspects of allergic responses conducted through an online survey. RESULTS: A total of 100 responses were collected among the dental practitioners with a minimum of 1-5 years of clinical experience. The knowledge regarding the management of allergic reactions and the diagnosis including the tests and aids used was satisfactory. The knowledge on diseases regarding the hypersensitivity reactions were also evaluated. 79% of the respondents opted for more awareness to be created regarding the management of the same. CONCLUSION: Though the knowledge, awareness and practice among the dental practitioners regarding the management of allergic responses is adequate, there is a need for health care seminars to educate them on further management procedures.

  282. Aneesh Nair, Mujeera Fathima and Florida Tilton

    Indian traditional medicine has gained a lot of importance in recent times. Owing to rich herbal flora in India, medicinal plants have become a major source of natural drugs. New molecular approaches towards identifying these medicinal plants is becoming inevitable to avoid confusions in identification. In this regard, DNA bar coding usingrbc Lgene, is suggested as a marker for pteridophyte identification. In this study, molecular characterization of Selaginella sp. was performed using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for rbcL gene. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA5) software for the obtained sequences. The evolutionary divergences between its closely related species were also performed to disclose its amendments that occurred during evolution.

  283. Rajendra Kumar Dash

    The Viva (oral examination of PhD thesis or dissertation) seems to be the Fear No. 1 of not only of PhD researchers in general but even that of scholars of PhD in English in India. When the expectations from the PhD scholars undertaking the Viva are unusually high, the competence of these researchers is pushed to the edge. To their astonishment, the scholar finds that a different or perhaps a better preparation is required. As this new experience may turn out thrilling or chilling depending on the preparedness of the candidate, the scholar must undertake a strategy to face the Viva. This paper explores various challenging aspects of the Viva Voce and offers insights as to how to shine through this most feared academic examination, the ultimate battle.

  284. Karthick, J., Suguna, K. and Raghunath, P. N.

    This paper reviews research works published on the structural performance of concrete beams strengthened using fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets. Furthermore it discusses the effect of various FRP sheets on the structural performance of concrete beams subjected to static loading condition. A total of 35 research papers relating this study have been collected and reviewed. The properties and structural applications of different types of FRP have been presented. Also a gap analysis has been conducted to propose recommendations for future research in this field.

  285. Riboy Cheriyan, Anaswara Sasi, Ashwini Krishna, Chaithra S. and Princy Elsa Philip

    In today’s world the demand for biomedical telemetry is increasing day by day. The idea we are putting forward is an ‘Implantable antenna for biomedical application’. Miniaturization is the major concern for implantable antennas in biomedical application. The major issue with miniaturization is the degradation of various antenna parameters. In order to meet these limitation several techniques were employed to achieve miniaturization in this paper, viz, reducing the antenna dimension, inducing irregularity in the patch, inclusion of wing and circular patch and addition of Rogers RT-Duroid. In the proposed idea we are evaluating the two different cases of the antenna, one without wing and circular patch and the other with wing and circular patch, using the HFSS software .For biomedical applications the United States Federal communication commission has assigned the MICS band whose frequency ranges from 402-405MHZ.We are using the upper C band for the operation of implantable antenna which is higher than the MICS band in order to increase the bit rate. The resultant antenna has a dimension of 14.64×13.06×0.376〖mm〗^3with maximum return loss of -34.1db.

  286. Atul N. Pawar, Yogesh P. Pawar, Abhijeet M. Chougule, Vivek R. Kamble and Anupam M. Mangle

    From many years we are facing problems of intrusion on our nation’s boundary. There is need to improve the security arrangements with help of technology. With our project we will be able to improve the surveillance across the boundary. It will help to detect the intrusion activities and helps the army people to take necessary action. The benefit of this system is to surveillance the people without using close circuit cameras.

  287. Dr. Maysoon Muhi Hilal Sirhan and Soad Asad Hilal Sirhan

    The task of each artist and architect decor privileged lies in arranging and coordinating all the design elements to produce an innovative and integrated design and implementation of this design must organize all the tools available, such as fonts, shape, color, size and quality of the cloth used in this design, these tools help that defines the principles of interior design as the basis of artistic judgment has even lead to the desired results and effects by the receiver output of the design. The current research is trying to single color eating because of its great importance in imparted aesthetic, especially in interior design and special curtains because it occupies a prominent position within the spaces of buildings, especially educational buildings, the research problem in the presence of cognitive deficiencies in the architectural and technical studies of the effect of the color of the curtains in achieving aesthetic inner space, suppose that the search curtain location and size of nets him a direct correlation in the activation and achieve an appropriate atmosphere to increase the beauty of the color of the curtain. This paper deals with his part in the conceptual design elements and rules and how to achieve harmony between the components to achieve unity in the interior design and come up with effective indicators in interior design. To achieve hypothesis questionnaire forms were distributed to a sample of the teaching of Applied Arts Institute and various scientific varying actors indicators include in a single color on the interior design of the space educational impact (sewing workshop) in the mentioned out the findings and recommendations of the Institute.

  288. Vartika Krishna and Abhishek Swaroop

    Cloud computing is storage on internet which is accessible from anywhere. The data can be shared with anyone and cannot be lost. Cloud environment user have to pay for the service they used. Energy efficient cloud computing is the hot research area now a day. Due to unmanaged load, system performance can be slow load. Load balancing stands for distributing a load among various nods. Balancing is ensure that no single node is overloaded. Previous research on load balancing introduced many scheduling algorithm which conclude optimum results. This paper discuss those load balancing algorithm and there result comparison in cloud based environment.

  289. Pallavi Gulati, Ulfat Jan and Dr. Anurag Dixit

    Weather Forecasting is one of the emerging applications for Data mining technology. It is used to predict the atmospheric conditions based on humidity, temperature, rainfall, wind etc. This paper focus on comparing various data mining technique which were used previously for predicting the weather conditions. Predicting the weather is helpful in preparing for the best and the worst condition of the climate. Datamining plays a very important role in determining the conditions relating to the weather. Various technique for predicting weather include Regression, Artificial neural network, frequent pattern growth algorithm, decision tree and back propagation algorithm .The paper provide comparison of various techniques for predicting the weather.

  290. Tabassum Khan, Apurva Sonavane, Sannan Momin and Prof. Mansing Rathod

    The identity of a person is of critical importance in Forensic department and in some cases, the facial reconstruction becomes a critical stage when the face is unrecognizable. Forensic facial reconstruction is the reproduction of the unknown face based upon the soft tissues that overlays the bony structure. In this paper, we plan to propose a methodology that can be carried out to automate the facial reconstruction from skeletal remains. A dataset of CT head scans is used to produce a segmented model and an iso-surface is generated with the help of Marching Cubes algorithm. The algorithm is based on the concept of 3d voxels present in the DICOM images and extracts the iso-surface from the images through linear interpolation. The implementation is carried out in MATLAB which provides an easier interface to deal with images. Variousdatabase was tested with Marching Cubes algorithm as well as with in-built MATLAB function called isosurface and the study shows that Marching Cubes is a better and a faster approach to facial reconstruction.

  291. Shubhalakshmi, B.S., Jagannatha Reddy, H.N. and Arjun, K.

    The experimental work was conducted on slabs to study the effect of BFRP on flexural behavior of the slabs under the static loads, using cross wrapping technique with mechanical anchoring. The BFRP was to be introduced to slabs in the form of cross wrapping at flexural zone by wet lay-up technique then it was anchored with bolts and plates as per the guidelines of the manufacturers. Control slabs were casted and tested after 28 days under uniformly distributed loading case. Strengthened slabs were tested after 6 days of strengthening and once after it were anchored. From the experimental results it was revealed that the initial crack strength and ultimate load strength of retrofitted slabs with mechanical anchoring are found to be increasing by at least 39.585% comparatively and stiffness of wrapped slabs were found to be increased.

  292. Mariangela Soares de Azevedo, ValériaMoreno Martão, Caroline IolandaCorsino do Carmo Sousa, Jussara RojaseSilva Aizzo, Valter Ferreira de Andrade-Neto, Valeska Santana de Sena Pereira, Adaiane Spinelli and Wiss Kraw Bacelar Jr.

    In this work we evaluated the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and fractions from Bertholletia excela, castanha-do-brazil, using the free radical scavenging method of free radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Currently many studies have focused on the inhibition of free radicals, as these are associated with various diseases related to the action of these chemical species. The UV-Visible spectroscopy apparatus was used to read the absorbances. With this data it was possible to obtain the antioxidant activity percentages (AA%) and the free radical inhibition of DPPH (EC50). The extracts and fractions of Bertholletia excelsa bark showed lower DPPH inhibition value or approximate value compared to the Ginkgo biloba positive control. On the other hand, the wood capsule showed no significant value.

  293. Palani, R. and Maragatham, M.

    In this paper, we have developed a deterministic fuzzy inventory model for deteriorating items in which demand rate quadratic and holding cost is linear function of time. During deterioration period, deterioration rate can be controlled using preservation technology (PT). The ordering cost, deterioration cost and purchase cost are assumed as triangular fuzzy number. The purpose of our study is to find an optimal replenishment cycle and order quantity so that the total inventory cost per unit time is minimum. An exponential distribution is used to represent the distribution of time to deterioration. The derived model is illustrated by a numerical example.

  294. Rohini, K. C., 2Selva, R., Dr. V. D. John and Dr. K. P. Subhashchandran

    One of the important factors for a successful solid phase synthesis is the swelling and solvation of peptide bound resin in the reaction medium.Here a novel GDMA-4VP resin support for solid phase synthesis is prepared by suspension polymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine with glycerol dimethacrylate. The hydrophilicity of the cross-linker provides flexibility and polarity to the support. Swelling studies and stability studies were performed. Resin was functionalized and the resin was found to be quite stable even after vigorous conditions of functionalisation. IR spectrum and SEM were used for the characterization of the resin. The efficiency of the peptide was demonstrated by synthesizing biologically active Angiotensin II and Angiotensin IV peptides. Modified Fmoc chemistry is used for the stepwise addition of amino acids in the peptide chain. The procedure of deprotection, coupling, washing is followed. The reagents used were maximum evacuated to reduce the repeated washings. The peptides obtained were with high yield, minimum usage of solvents and almost 99% purity which was checked by HPLC.

  295. Rajat Bhatia, Amrutha, R., Shubham Singh, Shreya Mehta and BhushanInje

    The Information Industry has a huge amount of data available with them. This data needs to be analyzed and converted into useful information. The method used for extracting pattern and getting insight from data is known as data mining. Our Survey is focused on huge amount of data generated by the telecommunication industry. The marketing strategy used in telecommunication industry has various step, the very beginning of step is to segment the customers on the basis of customer’s usage of services and customer billing cycle. For segmenting this data, here we are comparing different clustering algorithms to find out the best fit for our data and perform the further actions.

  296. Anushka Tyagi, Gaurav Kr. Singh and Dr. Vishnu Sharma

    Primary WSN are organism positioned for a widespread range of use. It has significant issue to discover out applied safety protocols for WSN due to restriction of authority, calculation and storing properties. Advantage of symmetric key methods is providing better accuracy due to its energy efficacy. But then the disadvantages of symmetric key methods are obvious in standings of key controlling and safety. The Public key substructure is measured to be not appropriate to give security for WSNs as of difficulty. In this paper, we review on key management, storage requirement and security. The large number of new applications for wireless sensor networks has led to unprecedented growth of wireless sensor networks.

  297. Shraddha Singh

    In today’s era of IT world, Big Data is a new curve and a current buzz word now. Daily tremendous amount of digital data is being produced. It require an advance data management system to handle such a huge flood of data that are obtained due to advancement in tools and technologies being used. This has led human being in big dilemma. The security industry and research institute are paying more attention to the emerging security challenges in big data environment. The current security challenges in big data environment is related to privacy and volume of data. This paper discusses the security issues related to big data due to inadequate research and security solutions also the needs and challenges faced by the big data security, the security framework and proposed approaches.

  298. Sureshkumar Natarajan and Sneha Raju Das

    Amongst the existing techniques of employing digital Watermarking into an image the proposed paper imposes on one of the most efficient methods, called the DWT method which is counted as a vital tool by researchers. The idea of the proposed paper is to hide the actual image beneath a cover image before transmission, to protect the main information from piracy (Md. Maklachur Rahman, 2013). This is achieved by decimating the main image elements by a factor c with respect to the cover image. The true receiver of this encoded information on the other end subjects it to an extraction algorithm to detach the cover image from the main image. The image is first decomposed into sub bands of varying frequencies using the method of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), followed by inducing watermark into the lower frequencies (LL Band) to secure data over the network. This emphasizes on the bandwidth efficiency of the image. The peak signal-to-noise ratio calculated in this paper is a proof of the level of effective reconstruction of the image, as it is the objective of any data transmission and reception.

  299. Abraham Eben Andrews, A. and Selvaganapathy, P.M.

    Engine Pistons are one of the most complex components among all the automotive. In this article 3D model of engine piston is established by means PRO-E software and the finite element model for the same was established by means of the ANSYS software. The cynosure of the project is to rectify the disadvantages found in the existing piston models. The same can be achieved by modeling and analysis of the new piston. The three different piston models of same capacity engines are taken and the respective modeling and analysis are carried out and the results are tabulated. The structural, thermal, thermo- mechanical and dynamic analyses are carried out to determine the results. Using the analysis, stress distribution, temperature distribution, and deformation length are found and tabulated. With aid of the tabulated information, the modeling of new piston is made and the analysis for the respective is carried out. Calculating results indicates that the maximum stress concentration occurs at the upper end of the piston boss inner hole due to peak pressure of fuel.

  300. Barathi, S., Chandra Mohan Kumar, S. and Dr. Rajan, V.R.

    This paper makes an attempt to study the users’ satisfaction in library services in the Engineering Colleges at Coimbatore. The survey was conducted in 32 Engineering College Libraries. The data were collected in the form of questionnaire stating the opinion on access to full text database in library, access to digital repository, issue of books to the users, opinion on gate register, facilities and services offered by the library and library staff supporting for discovering the information. The study reveals all the users need based services, reliability, responsiveness, timeliness, honesty and a caring approach. They want assistance for information access resource materials both in printed and online formats. On review on the user’s satisfaction The library service in the affiliated Engineering colleges of Anna University in Coimbatore have been done. In order to bridge the gap between the services offered by the libraries of these Engineering Colleges and the needs and expectations of various users, the present study has been proposed and conducted.

  301. Shanmugasamy Ponmuthumariammal, Kanagasabai Kanagalakshmi, Shanmugam Muthusubramanian and Arumugasamy Vanangamudi

    The chemical examination of chloroform extract of Pongamia pinnata roots has been carried out. Two new compounds, 3-(4-acetylphenyl)-7-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one 1 and 2-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-6-yl)-7-hydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one 4, in addition to two known compounds 2 (pongachromene) and 3 (demethoxykanugin) were isolated from the roots of Pongamia pinnata. The structures of the compounds 1-4 have been elucidated on the basis of spectral studies.

  302. Sunita Kumari and Sudhir Y Kumar

    This paper is dedicated to the modelling and analysis of seven level inverter based on STATCOM. It presents a comprehensive study of static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) systems utilizing cascaded multilevel inverters. Among flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) controllers, the STATCOM have shown feasibility compared with other shunt controllers in terms of cost effectiveness in a wide range of problem-solving abilities from transmission to distribution levels. In this, we have considered the cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (CHBMLI), Diode-clamped multilevel inverter and Capacitor-clamped multilevel inverter. The Comparison in these inverters is based on the synthesized output voltage and current waveforms, % THD present in the output voltage and each inverter is controlled by pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. To minimize the power demand and scarcity we have to improve the power extracting methods. From solar cells, multilevel inverter is used to extract power and it synthesizes the desired ac output waveform from several dc sources. To control the reactive power instantaneously, this system is modelled using the ABC coordinates which calculates the instantaneous reactive power. And, this paper focuses on improving the efficiency of the multilevel inverter and quality of output voltage waveform before applying the voltage on the load.

  303. Shailendra Prakash and Dr. Vishal Ramola

    All the signals are analog in nature. An analog to digital converter plays an important and essential role for system-on-chip (SOC) applications because it bridges the gap between the analog physical world and the digital logical world. Now a days low power and low voltage requirements becoming more important issues as the channel length of the MOSFET shrinks so below levels. For improvement of power and speed in an analog to digital converter major building block is a comparator. This paper presents a design of 4-bit low power flash ADC for system-on-chip applications using Threshold Inverter Quantization (TIQ) comparators. The technique threshold inverter quantization uses two cascaded CMOS inverters as a comparator, that eliminates the requirement of resister or capacitor ladder circuit. Threshold inverter quantization provides high speed, low power, and smaller area. TIQ also eliminates the requirement of high gain differential input voltage comparator that are inherently more compound and slower than digital inverters. TIQ based flash ADC also eliminates the need of reference voltages, which require a resister ladder circuit. In the TIQ based flash ADC the reference voltage is internally generated by the circuit that is threshold voltage is used as a reference voltage for comparing the input voltage and produce the thermometer code. An efficient thermometer to binary converter has been designed using transmission gate based on 2*1 multiplexer. Power consumption reduced as per accordance to threshold voltage and for high speed transistor size must kept small. The TIQ based flash ADC requires 2n-1 comparators, where n is the number of bits or resolution. To reduce the power consumption of the design, the threshold voltage should not be deviated too much and keep WP/Wn < 1 to reduce power consumption and paracitic capacitance.

  304. Harjinder Kaur and Rakesh K. Shukla

    Shopping on the internet has been developing rapidly, covering most of the important spheres of marketing. Online grocery shopping has been noted of being a relatively young but promising area of electronic commerce. However, only a sparse number of studies have been focusing on consumers’ attitude to purchase grocery products through online. This paper seeks to understand the consumer’s attitude towards online grocery shopping and to identify some factors and technical barriers that may foster or hinder the acceptance of OGS in India. A Questionnaire was developed and distributed to the online shoppers in Delhi city through snowballing techniques and then collected data was analysed by using ANOVA, Mean and Standard Deviation. The results suggest that among demographic variables family income and age is one of the significant factors while understanding behavior dimension related to education level or working members in the family can also help online marketers to develop positive tendency to online grocery shopping. Moreover results indicate that time slot option among product delivery factors and user friendly website among website designing factors are the most important variables for the respondents. However, Consumers are also more concerned about the quality of products among the various fear factors related to online grocery shopping. Social influence factors have least importance, albeit customer review has moderate weightage. Speed of the internet and unfamiliarity of OGS websites are the technical barriers perceived by respondents.

  305. Maria Luisa Garcia Sevillano and Santiago Nieto Martin

    The question of the usefulness of educational research has been of interest and concern in recent years to researchers in the education field. Writings have focused on the usefulness that teachers themselves derive from this research, and the assessments that we make in this work arise from those reflections. We believe that the subject has a greater depth than may at first be apparent, inasmuch as, although education professionals "need" this type of research, we might ask ourselves if universities or society itself could do without this type of research. This article presents a perennially relevant problem, namely the importance attributed by administrators and politicians in the education field to educational research. We present two research alternatives: meta-analysis and evaluative research, which provide greater reliability for education administrators and may affect their decision making.

  306. Egberi A. Kelvin and Egbule A. C. Solomon

    The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between business intelligence and competitive advantage in telecommunication industry in Nigeria. The business environment today complexity and volatile, as a result firms needs to be proactive in relation to decision-making processes so as to stay competitive and remain relevance in the industry. This study adopted a survey research design andsimple random sampling was used as the sampling technique which requires that the sample be taken in such a way that each sample (management staffin the selected telecommunication industry) in the sample frame has an equal probability of being selected. Multiple regression was applied to test the hypotheses. It was discovered that there is significant positive relationship between market orientation and competitive advantage, also significant positive relationship exist between innovation orientation and competitive advantage. It was concluded that market orientation and innovation orientation enhance competitive advantage. Market orientation encourage high-level performances of employees and market orientation is a vital factor which affects competitive advantage. Management actively seek innovative ideas, provide big opportunities in our industry, and coordination mechanism among departments in the process of product innovation results to competitive advantage. The study has expanded the knowledge on business intelligence and competitive advantage pointing out that market orientation goals are oriented towards customer satisfaction and it is a strategy to achieve competitive advantage.

  307. Rafael Walter de Albuquerque, Marcelo Oliveira da Costa, Manuel Eduardo Ferreira, Lúcio André de Castro Jorge, Lucas Henrique Sarracini, Edegar de Oliveira Rosa and Leda Fontelles da Silva Tavares

    Images obtained by sensors installed on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly called drones, can be used for several environmental applications such as monitoring the use of soil, estimating biomass, and determining the carbon stock of native vegetation and forest restoration projects. The increased use of this technology is due to the easy operation, high spatial resolution of the orthorectified and georeferenced mosaics, precision of the cartographic products, and generation of topography information on the study targets. The present study assesses the effectiveness of UAV in generating images of forest restoration areas in two Brazilian biomes: Cerrado and Amazon. The operational aspects and data quality were analyzed using four different aircraft models. Among the tested aircrafts, the rotary wing category (quadcopter) showed the highest effectiveness for monitoring forest restoration projects. Compared with the fixed-wing models, this equipment was characterized by easier field operation and logistics, better resistance to strong winds, versatility in takeoff and landing, with well stabilized images with little or no drag.

  308. Aldo J. Pavon, Ned I. De La Cruz, Jaime Rabago, Jose O. Merino, Carlos.J. Trejo

    The prevalence of the rickettsia bacterium Ehrlichia platys, now called Anaplasma platys, was reviewed and identified in the canine population of Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico. A total of 362 venous blood samples were collected from the EDTA tube for a period of one year (February 2, 2016 to February 2, 2017). These samples were analyzed in the laboratory of clinical analysis of the veterinary hospital for small species of the Autonomous University of Tamaulipas where the technique of direct microscopy of blood smears stained by Diff quick (Romanowsky staining) was used as diagnostic method in Where it was sought to visualize the presence of morulae in platelets parasitized by the bacteria. The observation of the samples revealed the presence of corpuscles in platelets compatible with Anaplasma platys in 65 of the 362 samples analyzed, giving us a prevalence of 17.95%. It is evident that the presence of this bacterium in the canine population of Victoria, Tamaulipas, is high.

  309. Sheela Rani, S., Anil Kumar, K. S., Shivanna, M. and Nalina, C. N.

    The detailed soil survey of Ayyammanahalli village of Doddaballapur Taluk, Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka, falling in Eastern Dry Zone, was undertaken to provide site-specific database in planning for developmental programme. Four soil series, namely Ayyammanahalli 1, Ayyammanahalli 2, Ayyammanahalli 3, Ayammanahalli 4 and Ayyammanahalli 5 were identified. The Soil pH varied from strongly acidic to neutral, low CEC, low soil organic carbon. These soIls are grouped under classes II, III and IV land capability classes, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 land irrigability classes and 32.1 , 26.6, 20.2, 16.9 and 21.1 percent of land is highly suitable for maize, ragi, ground nut, sorghum and eucalyptus cultivation respectively.

  310. Dr. Manmeet Oberoi (Baweja)

    Misconceptions popularly known as students' conceptions, children's science alternative conceptions or alternative frame works, private concepts, naive theories and half truths, naive conceptions or naïve knowledge and as commonsense beliefs interfere with learning when students use them to interpret new experiences. A research was conducted to study the misconceptions among secondary school students with respect to biological concepts in the unit of environment of 9th class text book prescribed by Punjab School Education Board. In the study a three tier test was constructed to identify the misconceptions among students about the seven conceptual areas of “adaptations, habitat, biosphere, ecosystem, food chain and food web, functions of ecosystem, biomass and biodiversity”. On the basis of the responses written by students in the second tier of the test the common misconceptions prevalent among students are discussed in this paper which will help the teachers to organize their class room instructions accordingly because to overcome misconceptions first of all teachers have to identify misconceptions.

  311. Dr. Rajender Kumar and Rajinder Singh

    Every year Govt. of India has initiated to launch the various schemes for the upliftment of the poor community of country. In 2016 our Prime Minister has announced different schemes for the different beneficiaries like start up India, Swatch Bharat Abhiyan, Digital India, Make in India, Pradhan Mantry Jan Dhan Yojna, Skill India, Bharat Vikas Kauchal Yojna etc. These schemes have shown an impressive and significant improvement in the employment generation and other aspect as well. Earlier two basic schemes have started namely NAREGA and MGNREGA. The special attempts have been made to elaborate these aspects of research study.

  312. Hrishikesh Sharma and Dr. Arobindo Debnath

    Global warming resulting from high level of greenhouse gases emitted in atmosphere has reached an alarming situation. The global 2010 emissions are 31% above the 1990 emissions. World leaders at the United Nations discussed the possibility to put a cap of how much carbon can be emitted by each country so that the total combined emission all nations should be under the safe limits of greenhouse gas emission of the earth. It is estimated that under the condition of usual business, the emission levels till 2020 would go up to 58 GtCO2, which is higher by 14 GtCO2 than the targeted level of 44GtCO2. Limiting emission to 44 GtCO2 would hold the increase in global average temperature rise in this century below 2°C as compared to pre-industrial levels, resulting in restricting the global warming and its adverse effects (Jane Ellis, 2004). UNFCCC, a division of the UN at the Kyoto Protocol has proposed a way where both the developed and developing nations can join hands to contribute to reduction of emission of these harmful gases. It proposes that developed countries which already have major industries emitting GHG’s; instead of reducing these activities, can exchange the carbon emission levels with the developing nations. Since developing nations are still in the phase of gearing up their industrialization and hence pollute lesser than developed nations, these countries can pass on the available limit of carbon emission to the developed nations (Yuvika Gupta, 2011). In exchange for this, the developing nation has to support in building up the carbon reduction mechanism in developing country or pay the prevalent market price of the amount of carbon credits. Total emission levels of the atmosphere of the earth remains constant, irrespective of the country from where carbon is emitted. This practice is termed as Carbon trading which enables the developed countries to share their responsibility of lowering carbon emission with the developing countries whose emission levels have not yet reached the near danger levels. In the process, the developing countries get technology benefits in terms of upgrading their infrastructure to match with the developed nations and that too at a lower cost than that of the developed nations due to lower cost of manpower and land. This paper explores the opportunity for a developing country like India to build up renewable energy projects where carbon credits generated can be exchanged with multinational companies who are in need of carbon credits. The prospects of additional revenue generation through carbon trading projects are really lucrative for an economically less privileged state like Assam. This would also give a strong amount of exposure to Assam in worldwide technology up gradation and open new avenues of development of the state. The study conducted in few of the educational institutions would also give an insight as to how these regulatory frameworks could be designed to make it convenient for people to embrace such projects even at a smaller scale.

  313. Shaswati Pan

    In the twenty first century, education is inseparable from technology. The current generation is at ease with rapidly changing technology into technology is all pervasive with smart phones in the pockets of today’s youth. The likelihood of using ICTs to fortify or reconstruct societal bonds accurately, just as peace education is concerned with transformation society and providing the means to avoid and resolve violence and conflict, online communities are viewed as a tool of strengthening acquaintance between populace and consequently provide on additional tool to assist in the transformation and avoidance of conflict. These online communities i.e. Google, Face book, Whatsapp, Twitter and Skype etc. value based education, therefore is a part of the educational programmed which cannot be shelved or done away for values based education. Which is a craze for the young of today, should also be used to present value-based programmers through skits, cartoon scripts and the such other means. Value education inculcated among young generation would remain with them permanently. It may just be that the young boy or girl of today is better informed that what their parents had been at their age. He or she may sound smarter with new knowledge but this is due to the modern techniques to which he she stands exposed and of which he or she has the advantage T.V. interest, computer, etc. these were not available to the parents computer and the information received from them or the data fed by them may become outdated but values once inculcated would remain a permanent acquisition for all life. Proper training of teachers should be arranged, So that the teachers acknowledged of their responsibilities. It is necessary that in the teachers training in programme, value oriented education programme; need to be highlighted so that the teachers are trained up to know their mission and method. Use of various material LCD projectors, Video etc. peace and value education change in human life because with connection in the ICT. ICT has bought about many dramatic changes in how teachers teach and how students learn. Education use ICT to design and assess learning activities, to communicate with students.

  314. Ulfat Jan, Pallavi Gulati and Dr. Anurag Dixit

    In social business intelligence, satisfaction plays an important role. Customer satisfaction is must. Customer should make decisions that improve their business based on the trends perceived from the environment. The huge quality of information, talks, posts and papers available on the web cannot be ignored by companies. Social business intelligence is the discipline of combining corporate data with user generated content to let decision-makers improve their business. The companies cannot ignore the huge quality of information, talks, posts and papers available on the web. It refers to a managing technique that combines with another to form a whole process in order to improve existing project and products. In social business intelligence it invites customer input and feedback at early points in the process rather than after a product is released. Social business intelligence combines social media aspects and analytics to give important business insights and it a convergence of several trends. In other words it is simply business intelligence that incorporates knowledge management, social networking, plus social media monitoring and analytics, all combined into a new interface in the business intelligence environment.

  315. Menderes ÜNAL and Abdullah GÖNÇ

    This study aims to determine the use of reasoning strategy considering different variables which were consisted of students’ problem solving skills and gender, location of schools and parents’ income and education levels. Descriptive survey method was conducted in this research. The sample of the study was composed of eighth grade students from different six schools in both Kırşehir city centre and districts. In sample group, 64 girls (%54,4) and 52 boys (%45,6) were chosen randomly. For the purpose of identifying mathematical reasoning level of students, twenty open-ended questions from Eighth Grade National Curriculum were administered. “Mathematical Communication and Reasoning Scale”, which was developed by Suzuki (1998) and adopted into Turkish by Taşdemir (2008), was conducted in the study. Reliability of the inventory used in the study has been retested and it has been calculated as 0,934. As a conclusion, the overall average of students’ using reasoning strategy was found at intermediate level. In addition, a significant difference was seen in favour of girls in using reasoning strategy considering gender. In addition, there is a significant difference in favour of central districts with respect to towns and villages according to school location. Likewise, higher income levels of families and higher education status of parents were found significantly related to the reasoning levels of students.

  316. Dr. Archana and Dr. Rahul Tripathi

    The role of media in highlighting and raising the issues of social and political interests has increased by the advent of new Technologies. The contribution is not only limited to publication/broadcast of News only but also to create awareness regarding social and political issues as well. Judicial Activism is just a ruling or decision that is guided by the personal interest or personal point of view of the individual judge, which is not based on strict laws. As to its meaning, Judicial Activism is not a distinctly separate concept from usual judicial activities. Somehow, both the activisms are linked i.e when media creates an awareness or highlights a particular incident, Judiciary is directly or indirectly initiated to either take cognizance or take certain steps. The paper intends to throw light on the interlinking of Media and Judiciary and also to study some cases/incidents in which such activism has been reflected.

  317. Dr. Reji D. Nair and Rashid Ashraf

    The paper analyzes the assessment systems practiced in the business studies program in Yanbu Industrial College in Saudi Arabia, based on the fundamental principles of assessment. It is based on a primary survey conducted among all the teaching staff of IMT Department using a structured questionnaire. The study reveals the need for improvement specifically the revitalization of reliability and inclusiveness in assessment along with academic integrity and authenticity. The study also highlights the significance of constructive alignment between learning outcomes, learning activities and assessment.

  318. Himani Maheshwari and Kamal Jain

    In order to address the global challenges of climate change and sustainable development, there is a vital need to accelerate the development of advanced technologies for clean energy. Solar water heating system is a key technology options to realize the shift towards de-carbonize energy supply and is projected to emerge as an attractive alternate electricity source in the future. In this paper the economical analysis of solar water heating system at IIT Roorkee campus is carried out.

  319. Mustafa Kabataş

    Music Education is a difficult concept to define because it is an ongoing phenomenon from the birth of the individual and has political, social, cultural and individual dimensions in the same place. If we remember the most common definitions; It is a training process that encompasses all the social processes that are effective in helping individuals gain the standards, beliefs and ways of living of society. It is all of the processes in which the person has developed the skills, attitudes and other forms of behavior that are of value in society. It is a social process that provides social competence and optimum individual development under the influence of a selected and controlled environment (especially school). Music Education is a planned action sequence that helps people to develop their behavior according to predetermined principles. We can say that music education is the process of bringing change to the behavior of the individual intentionally through his own experience. Music education is defined as a musical behavior development process (1997: 14) by Flying, "basically giving a musical behavior, changing a musical behavior or making a musical behavior change". This work; Our music education, which has come from the past to the present day, changing form, has a history of thousands of years. It has been done in order to determine the point where our music education institutions and music education system are coming from and to carry on to higher levels internationally.

  320. Jappen Oberoi

    An altered and a more plausible reading from the ones proposed before of the badly mutilated and immensely problematic year 86 inscription of the reign of Mahārāja Bhadramagha is attempted in this present paper.

  321. Vidyashri C. Halakerimath and Shivagangamma B. Danappagoudra

    Social Networking sites provide a platform for discussion on burning issues that has been overlooked in today’s scenario and also for discussion on issues that has been unnoticed in today’s world. This study is conducted to check the impact of social networking sites in the education of youth. This is a survey type research and here the data was collected through the questionnaire. The main objectives were to check the effect of social media on youth and to check out the beneficial and favor form of social media for youth to determine the attitude of youth towards social networking sites. Social media promotes unethical pictures, video clips and images among youth, anti-religious post and links create hatred among people of different communities, Negative use of social media is deteriorating the relationship among the countries, social media is playing a key role to create political awareness among youth. The study was conducted in and around Hubli-Dharwad and selection of respondents was through random sampling method. The total sample size was 50. The result indicated general information of the respondents indicated that cent percent of the respondents were belongs to 18 to 20 year age group. Majority (64.00%) of the respondents were male. The overall opinion index of the respondents to the extent of 70.05 percent and course studying is positively significant with opinion of respondents. Overall usefulness index to the extent of 75 percent.

  322. Chiinngaihkim Guite

    The turn-of-the-century brought major changes in the field of technology and natural sciences, economy and industry. The development and growth of metropolitan cities was one of the important phenomenons of this time. Darwin and his theory acquired many admirers. Nietzsche's famous proclamation 'God is dead' (Neitzsche, Freidrich, Die fröhliche Wissenaschaft, Bd. 3, München: Schmitz, 1954, P. 481) and his theory of 'Superman' aroused an extreme excitement at the turn-of-the-century. In the alternating mood of euphoria and apocalypse. Nietzsche declares the end of traditional religion and the belief in God. Religion is displaced from its supreme position and a whole new set of ideas and values emerge in Europe. They lead to a shift in the attitudes towards faith and religiosity. However, religion does not disappear from everyday life or from the art. Poets like Rainer Maria Rilke, Hermann Hesse, Robert Frost, Khalil Gibran, Stefan Georg and thinkers like Rudolf Otto, Emile Durkheim engage with religious themes and motifs. According to the German theologian Friedrich Wilhelm Graf, religion is a central theme of cultural-political discourses and academic debates at the turn-of-the century.

  323. Pankaj Mishra and Prof.(Dr.) Anil Vashisht

    E-shopping or online shopping is a trend that is increasingly catching up among the consumers in India. The increasing trend is fuelled by rise in disposable income of the middle-class, as well as by deep penetration of mobile devices. The e-shopping phenomenon is also challenging the common and established beliefs that customers have to touch and feel the product before they buy it. Though, this rising trend is more commonly visible in advanced and metro cities of country, the tier II and III cities are also putting up a great show, as on an average almost 50 – 55% of e-Commerce business is coming from the tier II and tier III cities. With increasing exposure by television, social media and rising internet penetration and migrant population, the consumers of tier II and tier III cities are increasingly following the lifestyles of their counterparts in metros and tier I cities. This research work attempts to study and analyse the factors that influence the e- shopping behaviour of consumers in the city of Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh.

  324. Rajesh Kumar Thakur, Mamta Singh, Pranav Gupta and Pranav Kumar Thakur

    Introduction: Ankyloglossia, commonly called as “tongue-tie” is a congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenum. This may restrict tongue tip mobility which leads to problems with speech articulation and swallowing. There are different techniques for its management. The present case report highlights the use of a novel surgical technique called as Z- Frenuloplasty for the management of tongue tie of a 9-year old male patient. Method: Z-Frenuloplasty is a technique sensitive surgical procedure and should be done under the expertise of a skilled clinician. An initial vertical incision is given in the centre of the frenum. Incisions are made to raise triangular flaps which are later repositioned in a ‘Z-plasty’ flap closure. Sutures are removed a week later. Result: Z-Frenuloplasty helps to release scar contracture and relieve soft tissue tension. The appearance of a scar is also improved with this technique as it helps to both relax and re – align the tissues. This procedure can also be used to position a short frenulum more apically for better aesthetic and functional results. Conclusion: The use of the Z-Frenuloplasty technique has shown favorable results with improved aesthetic and functional outcomes.

  325. Dr. Sonali Sharma, Dr. Jabreel Muzaffar, Dr. Sudesh Sharma and Dr. Omeshwar Singh

    Introduction: Proximal tibia articular fractures can be caused by motor vehicle accidents or bumper strike injuries ;however, sports injuries, falls, and other less violent trauma frequently produce them, especially in elderly patients. The treatment for these fractures aims to achieve anatomical reduction of the joint surface and stable osteosynthesis in order to enable early mobilization, so as to prevent complications such as joint stiffness and post-traumatic arthrosis. The diagnosis of tibial plateau fractures is typically made on plain radiographs. AP and lateral are standard examinations. Less frequently, oblique views are obtained but are not routine. CT scans have largely supplanted the need for these adjunctive views. CT has been shown to be more reliable in classifying the fracture and hence on deciding a treatment plan. 3D reconstructions have been increasingly used and found to demonstrate spatial relationships of fracture fragments better than plain radiographs. Materials and Methods: Fourty consecutive patients of knee with proximal tibia fractures were taken up for study. All patients were subjected to plain radiography and non-contrast MDCT. The fractures were classified according to schatzkers classification .In all patients surgical plan and sequence of reduction was planned preoperatively using both techniques successively and then correlated with intraoperative findings and postoperative plain film. Results: The fractures were underestimated in 16 (40%) cases with plain films. The surgical plan based on plain film was modified in 12 (30%) cases due to precise preoperative imformation on CT. Conclusion: The use of MDCT is advisable for the accurate classification and management of tibial plateau fractures.

  326. Shristi Nadar and Dr. Manish Ranjan

    Background: Sensitivity is very common in most people and varnish is used to relieve sensitivity and also to prevent dental caries. Three different fluoride releasing agents MI Varnish, VOCO PROFLUORID and 60 second taste. Streptococcus mutans is the bacteria that cause progression of caries and hence it is important to test the inhibitory effect of fluoride releasing agents on streptococcus mutans. Materials and methods: A sample size of 10 culture plates of nutrient agar is used. The three fluoride varnishes are placed on the culture plate that is swabbed with streptococcus mutansand a lawn culture is done. The culture plates are observed after 24 hours and the legth of inhibition is noted. Results: The bacterial inhibition in the culture is measured after 24 hours. It was found that phosphate fluoride gel by pascal company showed the most inhibition of about 26mm, ACP-CPP showed a bacterial inhibition of 12mm, and Sodium fluoride did not show any bacterial inhibition. This shows that phosphate fluoride is the most effective fluoride-releasing agent in inhibiting streptococcus mutans growth in the oral cavity. Conclusion: This research shows that all fluoride varnishes are not effective in inhibiting bacterial growth, and that it depends on the composition. Sodium fluoride is not effective in the reduction of bacterial growth whereas phosphate fluoride varnishes show the best results. Thus it is advisable to use phosphate fluoride varnishes for better results.

  327. Trishala, A., Mrs. Geetha and Dr. V. Vishnu Priya

    Aim and Objective: To check the serum calcium and iron levels in women during the second trimester of pregnancy. Background: The maternal diet must provide sufficient energy and nutrients to meet the mother's usual requirements, as well as the needs of the growing fetus. In the second and third trimester of pregnancy, there are increasing iron demands due to an expanded red cell volume and demands of the developing fetus and placenta. Deficiency of calcium and iron during pregnancy can lead to complications like preeclampsia, preterm labour, increased incidence of cesarean section, intra-uterine growth restriction and even intra-uterine death. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five apparently healthy pregnant women in second trimester and twenty-five apparently healthy non-pregnant women were included in the study. Serum iron and serum calcium estimation were done. Results: Serum iron and serum calcium was found to be significantly decreased in pregnant women in the second trimester. Conclusion: It is necessary that women gets prophylactic calcium and iron supplementation during pregnancy.

  328. Dr. Rosaline Tina Paul, Dr. Ligil, A. R. and Biswas, P. P.

    Background and Objectives: Corticotomy assisted orthodontics is a tissue engineering procedure which causes rapid tooth movement at a ratio of 3-4 times greater than conventional orthodontic movement. Self-ligating techniques shortens treatment time due to reduced friction between the brackets and archwire. The use of closed coil springs to deliver constant retraction force also encourages faster space closure. A combination of corticotomy with Self Ligating Technique along with NiTi Closed Coil springs would further reduce treatment duration. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the treatment time taken and treatment changes in one Group of patients treated with Corticotomy and Self Ligating Brackets and with another Group of patients treated with conventional orthodontics. Both the groups followed the MBT (Mclaughlin Bennet Trevesi) prescription. Material and Method: Five patients each in Group A were treated with corticotomy assisted SLT (Self Ligating Technique) with retraction force from NiTi closed coil springs and five patients of Group B were treated with conventional MBT technique. The patients of both the groups were indicated for first four premolars extraction therapy with Angles Class I molar relationship. For the patients of Group A, a full thickness flap was elevated on the buccal and lingual aspect of the upper and lower arches. Vertical and horizontal cuts were made on the cortical bones with 701 surgical bur with diameter of 2mm upto a depth were medullary bone appeared (indicated by appearance of bleeding spot). Bone grafts were placed on the bone surface, flaps were sutured back in position. The initial aligning wires were placed immediately after surgery and the patients were recalled every 2 weeks whereas the patients treated with conventional orthodontics technique (Group B) were recalled every 6 weeks interval. The time taken for both the groups to complete the treatment was noted and the treatment results (Skeletal, Dental and soft tissue changes) in both the goups were assessed using pre and post treatment cephalograms with the Steiners analysis and the treatment efficiency was compared. Result: Data was coded and entered in an MS Excel format and analysed using appropriate statistical software. The quantitative data was measured using mean, standard deviation and independent t-test. The average number of days for treatment completion for Group A was 310.8000 and for Group B patients was 497.4000 which was statistically significant (p value was 0.013 < 0.05) thus the treatment for the patients of Group A was 62% faster than the patients of group B. When the treatment changes of both the groups were compared, we could conclude that the change in skeletal, dental and soft tissue profile after treatment for the patients of Group A was more than patients of group B, although such a mild difference was statistically insignificant for all the parameters. Interpretation and Conclusion: These results concludes that 1. The treatment time taken for Group A patients was 62% faster than the Group B patients. 2. The treatment results, the skeletal, dental and soft tissue parameters did not show any statiscally significant difference indicating that both the methods had similar treatment results. 3. Group A showed more consistent treatment change skeletally and Group B patients showed more consistent treatment change dentally along with improvement in the soft tissue profile.

  329. Kshama Kedar and Isha Jain

    Introduction: Menstrual disorders are extremely common in puberty & reproductive age group. Menstrual disorders happen to be a common presentation by late adolescence, disorder such as primary dysmenorrhea, or painful menstruation in the absence of pelvic pathology, is a common and often debilitating, gynaecological condition that affects about 45 to 95% of menstruating girl 1. Medical students are a high risk group for developing menstrual irregularities due to lifestyle with less sleep, irregular food and exercise habits. Thus making them prone to3, varying degree of discomfort with Incidence of spasmodic dysmenorrhea of sufficient magnitude with incapacitation, which is about 5-15% 4. Pain is of such a magnitude that it interferes with normal physical activity of the individual and disrupts emotional balance; it is one of the major reasons for absence from school, college and incapacitates a woman from employment, especially from a field like medicine requiring persistent efforts and activity at physical and psychological level. These can be a major matter of concern for the female experiencing them as the lag and stress along with the pressure of career in the present day competitive world where gender equality has seen great uprising, keeping up with opposite gender not experiencing similar conditions can be tough. Through this study we will be trying to explore the problem faced by female medical students during menses and its correlation to biological variables. Objectives: a) To study the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, and to find students affected with abnormal amount of bleeding, abnormal duration of bleeding and abnormal length of cycle b) To find out effect of the above problems on students -college absenteeism, class absenteeism and social withdrawal c) To find out association of menstrual problem like dysmenorrhea with biological variables such as BMI, age and stress. Material & Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study carried out from April to July 2016 conducted in Indira Gandhi government medical college, Nagpur. Medical students who were unmarried and gave consent were included while those who did not give consent and married were excluded from the study. Total 204 students took part in the study out of which 86 students were from 1st year, 27 from 2nd year and 91 from 3rd year. Each of the 204 medical students was given a questionnaire to complete after giving consent. The general data about each student included age education, height, weight, haemoglobin, dietary habits, and bowel habits. Results: In this study 204 participants completed the questionnaire, of these 42.15 % from 1st year, 13.2% in 2nd year, and 44.6% in 3rd year. Out of the total 204 students 55.8% had dysmenorrhea and 46.6% experienced premenstrual syndrome. College absenteeism due to dysmenorrhea 12.3%, Class absenteeism 6.9% & Social withdrawal 73%. No association of dysmenorrhea with BMI and stress was found whereas there is increase in prevalence of dysmenorrhea with age for the age group 18 to 24 years (P value = 0.015, significant). Conclusion: Prevalence of dysmenorrhea among all menstrual problems is high in medical students & the leading cause of college/class absenteeism and social withdrawal. Health education on menstrual problems by health care providers can help prevent the absenteeism & of loss of invaluable college time.

  330. Dr. Jothi Sundaram, Dr. D. S. Kavitha and Dr. Karthika Sankar

    Heart disease complicating pregnancy is considered as a high risk situation. Increased cardiac demands during the course of pregnancy potentially increase morbidity and mortality in women with underlying heart disease. Risk of adverse outcome is more in rural population as compared to its urban counterpart. A prospective clinical study of 170 cases of pregnancy complicated by heart disease, reporting to tertiary care hospital for delivery, was carried out to find out the incidence and maternal and fetal outcome. The incidence of heart disease in pregnancy in the present study was 1.2%. Most of the women (91%) belonged to low socioeconomic class in the rural population. Rheumatic heart disease constituted 39% of the cases. Isolated Mitral regurgitation was the commonest lesion accounting for about 20% of cases. Isolated MS accounted for 9% cases while Mitral stenosis combined with other cardiac lesions constituted 52% .Congenital heart disease constituted 45% of the cases. Among the 124 women who delivered, 25 (20%) women delivered spontaneously vaginally, 39 (31.4%) cases of prophylactic forceps delivery. Cesarean section was performed in 59 cases .There were 3 maternal deaths. Early diagnosis of heart disease, regular antenatal check up, institutional delivery, limiting family size can reduce the maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity associated with heart disease.

  331. Dr. Vijay Suri, Dr. Arnav Kr. Roychoudhury, Dr. Shaffy, Dr.Nidhi Bansal, Dr. Anshul Gupta, Dr. Jasmine, Dr. Navleen and Dr. Manjot Gill

    Introduction: Oral cavity is one of the most commonly accessible sites for tumor and tumour like lesions with more prevalence for benign lesions than malignant with male preponderance. Aim: To study the spectrum of oral cavity lesions in relation to age , sex and site. Results: A total of 473 cases were included in the present study. Out of these, 263(55.6%) were males and 210 (44.39%) were females with Male: Female ratio of 1.5:1. Tongue 177 (37.4%) was the most common site closely followed by tonsils 175(36.9%), Buccal Mucosa 52 (10.9%), Lip 36 (7.6%), Minor salivary glands 14(2.9%) floor of mouth 11 (2.3%), Palate 9 (1.9%) and retro-mandibular/ post ramal (1.4%). Neoplastic lesions accounted for 11.4% cases and non neoplastic lesions for 88.5%. Benign neoplasia accounted for 37% of the total neoplastic lesions and malignant lesions constituted 62.9%. Squamous cell carcinoma being the most common malignant lesion (70.5%). Conclusion: Due to their high malignant potential and overlapping clinical features, histopathological typing of the various lesions is mandatory to confirm the diagnosis.

  332. Juily Pande, Dr. Nupura A. Vibhute, Dr. Rajendra Baad, Dr. Uzma Belgaumi, Dr. Vidya Kadashetti, Dr. Sushma, B. Dr. Sushma B., Dr. Wasim Kamate and Shristi Pandey

    Introduction: As a systemic condition, pregnancy causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity; these changes may favour the emergence of diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate specific salivary parameters and caries incidence in pregnant and non-pregnant women population in western part of Maharashtra, India. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among thirty pregnant and thirty non pregnant women aged between 21-30 years to evaluate specific salivary parameters like salivary flow rate, pH, and its co-relation with cares index. Results: The findings of our study indicate that the there is decrease in salivary flow and pH as well as increase in caries incidence in pregnant women compared to non pregnant women. Conclusion: Thus, the findings of our can be utilised to target preventive measures in this vulnerable population to improve their oral health and consequently their general well being.

  333. Dr. Preeti B Astagi, Dr. Gandage Dhananjay, S., Dr. Praveen P Byakod, Dr. Zarir Ruttonji, Dr. Sushma, K. M. and Dr. Ajaykumar Nayak

    Introduction: Variations may be observed in material selection as well as techniques followed at every step in complete denture fabrication. This survey aims to identify materials and methods used by specialist prosthodontists working in institution based practice and those into exclusive private dental practice. Material and Methods: 25 academicians and 25 private practioners were interviewed based on a structured questionnaire. The responses were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Pearson Chi square test and Fisher’s Exact test. Result: There is variability in the selection of materials and the technique chosen for every step in fabricating complete dentures. However the differences in the choice of materials and techniques followed in institution based practice and those amongst private practioners is not highly significant.

  334. Dr. Shweta Kajjari, Dr. Sruthi Janardhanan, Dr. Sowmya, B., Dr. Nischitha Naik and Dr. Swathi A Shetty

    Objectives: The objective of the survey was to assess Knowledge And Attitude of Emergency Physicians Towards Emergency Management of Avulsed Tooth in Mangalore city, Karnataka, Mangalore. Materials and Methods: This was a time bound study in which approximately 40 emergency physicians had participated 12 questionnaire were distributed to medical hospital emergency physicians in Mangalore (private / public). The questionnaire gathered data on the respondent’s professional profiles, self assessed perceived knowledge and actual knowledge of emergency management of tooth avulsion. The data was stastically analyzed using chi-square test using software program SPSS 17.0. Results: 57.5% of the study group were aware of the meaning of avulsed tooth. 25 % of the physicians had responded to the ideal time for replantation of the avulsed tooth.72.5% had responded rightly to what is the best medium to preserve the tooth. 60% of the physicians had stated that the knowledge regarding emergency management of tooth avulsion was not sufficient 77.5% reported that lack of dental knowledge was the main barrier faced in promoting management of avulsed teeth. Conclusion: In the light of such results an important implication from this study revealed the lack of dental knowledge. Henceforth a Pamphlet was distributed emphasizing the detailed emergency management of avulsion. This was acknowledged positively. It is therefore Dentist responsibility to make the Physicians aware of the importance of first aid for avulsed tooth with appropriate measures.

  335. Dr. Rajesh Kumar, Dr. D. K. Sinha, Dr. Raj Shekhar Sharma, Dr. MD. Habibur Rahman and Dr.MD. Afsar Alam

    PNEUMOPERITONEUM is defined as gas in peritoneal cavity. Most common cause of pneumoperitoneum is laparatomy in post operative patients. Among preoperative patients most common cause is hollow viscus perforation exception is appendicular perforation which generally doesn’t cause pneumoperitoneum. Other causes of pneumoperitoneum are trauma, tumour, burst abdomen etc. The presence of pneumoperitoneum does not always imply hollow viscus perforation in preoperative patients, some non surgical conditions are also associated with pneumoperitoneum. Also in female patients, air from the genital tract may ascend and cause spontaneous pneumoperitoneum. Pneumoperitoneum produced after hollow viscus perforation or after laparotomy generally remains unilateral initially and becomes bilateral due to movement, patients who remain propped up and immobile generally produced unilateral pneumoperitoneum. Certain operative procedures like dividing the falciform ligament also facilitates even distribution of gas under diaphragm. Unilateral air under diaphragm is more likely to lead to certain complications like subphrenic abscess, basal pulmonary collapse, dehiscence of abdominal wound etc. To avoid these complications, measures leading to bilateral distribution of air is to be encouraged and in this respect, free mobility of patients in early post operative period is important. X-Ray erect abdomen is good tool to study pneumoperitoneum and its course overtime along with CECT abdomen, USG abdomen, X-ray left lateral decubitus. CECT is regarded as criterion standard for detection of pneumoperitoneum, but it is expensive in terms of both radiation burden and cost. Due to change in abdominal and thoracic pressure (2:1), air in the peritoneal cavity moves to subphrenic space even in recumbent position. This study shows 62.5% shows resolution of POPP before 48 hours, 85.8% of post laparotomy shows resolution of POPP before 4th post operative day and 96.7%of cases shows resolution of POPP before 7th post operative day. In elective patients without pre-op peritonitis show early resolution of pneumoperitoneum compare to emergency cases who generally present with pre-op peritonitis. Open drain delay resolution of POPP. Increasing amount of POPP shows post operative disruption of continuity of bowel. Prolonged POPP is due to persistence of intraperitoneal infections/collection.

  336. Abdul Khader, K., Vandana, S., Vishwanath Rangdhol and Jeelani, S.

    Pregnancy is accompanied by a variety of physiologic, anatomic and hormonal changes that can affect the oral health. However, these patients are not medically compromised and should not be denied dental treatment simply because they are pregnant. They often pay visits to dentist for pain and infections associated with their teeth. Such patients need dental treatment and in most cases the radiograph of the involved tooth is required. It is repeatedly reported that dentists post-pone dental treatments to the period after delivery because of the insufficient knowledge of the low doses involved in diagnostic dental radiation. The delay in treatment might have adverse effects on the mother and the fetus. It is estimated that there is a one-percent increase in congenital abnormalities subsequent to an exposure of 10 rads (100 mGy) of fetal dose. Since diagnostic doses are less than 10 rads in dentistry, such abnormalities cannot be attributed to dental diagnostic doses. This article justifies with literature evidence that dental x rays are not harmful during pregnancy, provided that the dentist follows all the proper radiologic practices with respective guidelines.

  337. Samir Ahmed, Dinkar Desai, Pramod Redder Chandrappa, Siddarth Pandit, Sharan. Jayram. Shetty and Dr. Suresh, K. V.

    Background: The present study was to compare Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNORs) with Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) expression in Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to assess the proliferating activity in OSCC, also to assess the reliability between PCNA and AgNOR. Methods: Previously confirmed 30 cases of oral squamous cell carcinomas were taken for the study. Histological sections were prepared from paraffin embedded blocks and processed for AgNOR stain and PCNA stain according to super sensitive polymer HRP method. The statistical evaluation by ANOVA test helped us to compare and correlate between the two methods. Results: PCNA expression in Well-differentiated OSCC was 61.6471% followed by moderately differentiated OSCC with 72.4% and poorly differentiated OSCC with 89%. The AgNOR count in the well differentiated OSCC had a mean value of 3.4 followed by moderately differentiated OSCC with 3.9 and poorly differentiated OSCC with 9.4. In the current study, on correlation between PCNA and AgNOR, the pearsons co-relation coefficient value was found to be highly significant. Whereas the relation between PCNA and AgNOR within the grades of OSCC were found to be not correlated. This was statistically not significant. Conclusions: Proliferation activity was more in poorly differentiated OSCC followed by moderately differentiated and well differentiated OSCC. The combination of PCNA immunohistochemistry with AgNOR count appears to be an effective means of identifying the proliferating activity of squamous cell carcinoma, thereby appropriate treatment can be given.

  338. Swati Sharma, Smriti Arora, Urmila Bhardwaj and Jahanara Rahman

    Pediatric Basic life support is a level of medical care which is used for clients with life threatening illness or injury. In pediatric setup there are many pediatric emergencies like accidents, injuries, respiratory failure, sudden cardiac arrest and shock where the emergency professional health care team members performs a number of life saving techniques focused on the emergency care. Among which the Pediatric Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation stands first and foremost in ‘ABC’ of hospital emergency care. Therefore training program on PBLS is required for students, to gain knowledge and improve skill.Quantitative approach was selected with pretest-posttest only design. 24 samples were chosen using total enumerative sampling technique. Data was collected from 24 third year GNM student nurses of Rufaidacollege of nursing, JamiaHamdard, Delhi from 20th September to 12th October, 2016. Training program was given to the study subjects and a structured questionnaire and structured checklist was used to collect data regarding the pediatric basic life support of the subjects before and after the administration.Findings revealed that the mean posttest score of the experimental group was greater than the mean posttest score of control group. Thus it is concluded that the training program on PBLS was effective for teaching and improving teenagers knowledge and skills in basic CPR among third year GNM student nurses.

  339. Dr. Mradul Gupta, Dr. Aparna Barabde, Dr. Ram Thombare, Dr. Ashish Bhagat and Dr. Bhageshree Thombare

    Purpose of study: All graphic tracings are not necessarily accurate due to difference in skill of dentist, cooperation of patient, complexity of device, relative reliability and ease of recording. An indigenous Digitracer which is smaller and lighter, is provided with personal computer and the sensor portion to serve as a miniature lightweight tracing board connected to the digitizer control circuit set in an extraoral location which gives real values in real time. This clinical study was oriented towards comparing different horizontal condylar guidance registration methods, an traditional Extraoral Hight Gothic arch tracer, a Novel Indigenous Intraoral Digitracer and Checkbite in reproducing HCG on semi-adjustable articulator and critically analyse if any discrepancy would occur in the condylar guidance values when compared on standard cephalometric readings. Materials and Methods: In this study 10 subjects were randomly selected in age group 40-60 years with upper and lower well-formed edentulous arches. All the steps for fabrication of denture till jaw relation were carried out. The centric and protrusive plaster check records were obtained with the three methods. For each patient following readings were recorded. • Horizontal Condylar guidance measured on Hanau wide vue articulator. • Cephalometric horizontal condylar guidance. All data was statistically analysed. Results: • No statistical difference between the cephalometric and articulator values in all the three experimental methods. • No significant difference between among all three methods. Conclusion: The Digitracer is as efficient as other methods in determining the horizontal condylar guidance. Horizontal condylar guidance obtained by Digitracer is as accurate as obtained by standard Lateral Cephalogram.

  340. Fozia Nazir, Gh. Mohd. Bhat and Showket Ahmad Khan

    Introduction: Anthropometry refers to the measurement of the human individual or a part there of. Anthropometry measurements are very useful to estimate stature and bone length from the skeletal remains from anthropological remnant skeletons. Considering the fact that human tibia is a complex anatomic unit and its knowledge of the morphometric values is important in Forensic, Anatomic and Archeological cases in order to identify unknown bodies and stature, the present anthropometric study was undertaken. Methodology: In this study, 50 (27 right and 23 left) intact human adult tibia were obtained from the bone bank of Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College Srinagar. In the study, a total of 07 parametric variables were obtained from the shaft of the Tibia according to standard anthropometrical method. Results: The mean of cross sectional index for right tibias was 78.83± 7.35. Similarly mean of cross sectional index for left tibias was 80.01± 8.54. On applying statistical analysis (t test), it came out to be 0.015p (<0.05) which is statistically significant. The mean of Cnemicus Index for Right tibias was 68.16 ± 5.23 and for left side these values came out to be 68.02 ±7.48. These are not statistically significant. The mean of Length - Thickness Index were 31.95 ± 2.12 and 31.34 ± 2.08 for right and left Tibias respectively. This too was not significant statistically.

  341. Kalyani Tibe, Akshata Dabholkar and Deepika Bhandari

    The word “Doping” implies to the use of prohibited substances and practices for improving sporting performance of athletes. It includes the misuse of certain techniques and substances for enhancing the performance and endurance level of the athlete. The desire to win, acclamation and associated benefits; drives the athletes towards doping. Athletes in the present age are abusing new substances and methods of doping that are difficult to detect. Blood Doping and Gene doping are the new found trends that pose analytical challenges. Blood doping or induced erythrocythemia helps increasing ones RBC mass to transport more oxygen to muscles for better performance. Gene Doping method uses genes that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance. Analyses of these methods pose limitations due to which these doping methods are trending. This work aims at understanding some recent trends in doping related to prohibited method ‘M1’ i.e. Manipulation of blood and blood components; and method ‘M3’ i.e. Gene doping, as stated in ‘The 2017 Prohibited List International Standard’ by the World Anti-Doping Code; thereby suggesting the best analytical techniques used for the same.

  342. Siddesh Shenoy, Shraddha Supnekar and Shweta Devi

    Dens invaginatus commonly known as Dens in dente is an invagination of coronary or root surface, bounded by enamel which can simulate appearance of a tooth within a tooth. It commonly affects the maxillary lateral incisors, presence of DI in maxillary canine is very rare. The aim of this case report is to describe the bizarre radiographic findings and aberrant root canal anatomy in the affected tooth which are difficult to describe using conventional radiography and hence use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a invaluable diagnostic tool.

  343. Chowdhary Zoya, Sharma Vandana, Bhardwaj Puneet and Rai Rohit

    Excessive gingival display is a common esthetic hurdle in an individual’s personality, as it may lead to a poor smile which impacts the person’s appearance as well as the confidence. This report describes two case reports where the gummy smile was corrected without orthodontic intervention. The procedures are beneficial to patients desiring less invasive alternative to orthognathic surgery and is safe with minimal risk/ side effects along with minimal treatment time as compared to orthodontic treatment.

  344. Shamit Thaper and Don, K. R.,Shamit Thaper and Don, K. R.,

    Oral Malignant Melanoma is an aggressive rare malignant disorder found mostly in gingiva and hard palate in oral cavity. At present, the clinicopathological classification of oral malignant melanoma is not yet outlined, consequently the skin is often taken as a reference. The lesions are asymmetrical and irregular, a thorough oral examination and a high suspicion is needed for early diagnosis. The Study has been done to understand the malignant melanoma affecting the oral cavity in comparison with the malignant melanoma affecting skin.

  345. Dr. Mohd. Siddique Qureshi, Dr. Nayana Anasane and Dr. Dilip Kakade

    One of the most common problems faced by mandibular complete denture patients is loose and unstable denture because of severely resorbed mandibular edentulous ridge. Prosthodontic rehabilitation of such patients with resorbed edentulous foundation is the most difficult treatment modality for the prosthodontist. To have a favourable prognosis for the complete denture, neutral zone technique is one of the most effective method with favourable prognosis to treat such patients. The neutral zone is defined as the area where the displacing forces of the lips, cheeks and tongue are neutralised. This is the zone where the natural dentition lies and where the artificial teeth should be arranged. This article presents the case of resorbed mandibular edentulous foundation in which neutral zone concept was applied in an effort to achieve a stable mandibular complete denture.

  346. Saket, V., Ravi, K., Priyanka, S. and Anand, K. S.

    Cognitive deficits and elevated cortisol level are considered as the hallmark of depression. Actual causative factor for cognitive changes and depression are not well understood. Various studies summarize one or other factors like cortisol in causation of cognitive changes and depression. However complete model based study is required signifying all the causative factors. Hippocampus in brain is closely related to cognitive functions. As mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors are present majorly in hippocampus through which cortisol exerts its action. So the association of cortisol with depression and cognitive changes is emphasized more till date. In time, depression and cognitive changes development has changed from age related to stress related and later to more complex mechanisms like immune reaction. Stressful life event in various studies had been correlated with increased cortisol level which they considered as the main biological factor. But other factors like immune reaction, IDO pathway, 5-HT precursor tryptophan may equally contribute in development of these changes. Sum up of all factors in an individual is more important in development of cognitive deficits and depression. So a newer approach should be designed considering other factors summarized in this review to develop a model based approach.

  347. Dr. Oommen, N. M. and Dr. Shetty, S.

    Aim: An Anganwadi worker (AWW) can be a vital link in the health care delivery system as she provides a package of services to mothers and children. Oral health knowledge among these workers is an integral component of preventing early childhood caries (ECC). The present study is aimed to assess the existing knowledge of early childhood oral health related factors among anganwadi workers. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based survey was conducted among AWW in Mangalore city, India. The study involved face to face interviews and the response to a pretested 15 item questionnaire was recorded. 100 AWW participated in the study and responded to the questionnaire. Results: Of the100 respondents, 43% knew the right age for the child to visit the dentist while 57% were not aware. 53% of the respondents thought that it was fine to put the baby to sleep with bottle containing fluid. The major drawback was that 89% of the participants didn’t know what was fluoride which is a major constituent in the prevention of dental caries. Conclusion: Our study concluded that AWWs showed some degree of knowledge about certain aspects of ECC. The knowledge however appeared to be inconsistent. We recommend that AWWs need to be educated by conducting periodic oral health education programs, which will increase their awareness about ECC.

  348. Shreya Svitlana A. and Dr. Gopinath, P.

    The rising colonization rates of S. aureus lead to the increasing of infection rates in the community and in hospitals. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent bacterial pathogen in humans. It causes skin infections, osteoarthritis and respiratory tract infections in the community, as well as postoperative and catheter-related infections in hospitals. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial activity of apple cidar vinegar against clinical isolates of S. aureus. It did not show any inhibitory activity against S. aureus isolates. May be increased dilutions are required to standardize the efficacy.

  349. Shafi Bhuiyan and Farah Tahsin

    The strength and resilience of a country’s national health system is intrinsically linked to factors related to maternal and child health (MCH). The centrality of maternal and child health was reflected in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), with two of the eight goals focused on reducing child mortality (goal 4), and improving maternal health (goal 5). While progress towards goals 4 and 5 varied significantly on a global scale, during the Millennium Development period the world saw child mortality rates reduced by more than half, and maternal mortalityratios lowered by nearly half. Bangladesh is one such country that has achieved incredible progress in the reduction of child and maternal mortality (Hossain et al., 2014). The introduction of nation-wide community health care programs and interventions has significantly improved the health and wellbeing of women and children, providing them with accessible health services and support. However, high rates of malnutrition, and the increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases continues to threaten the achievements made. The purpose of this systematic review paper is to examine the trend of improvement in maternal and child health in Bangladesh during the Millennium Development period (1990 to 2015), and to provide highlights and recommendations for further health programming in the country. As the world shifts from the MDGs to the sustainable development goals (SDGs), this is a particularly critical moment for countries like Bangladesh to reflect on the successes and failures that defined the MDG period. Along with sustainability of overall development, equity and universal health coverage, maternal and child health are a major focus of the SDGs. To evaluate whether Bangladesh is capable of meeting its SDG targets related to maternal and child health, this paper will review Bangladesh’s progress in achieving MDGs 4 and 5 during the Millennium Development period. For clarity, maternal and child health sections are divided into three time periods: Phase I from 1990-2000, Phase II from 2001-2010 and Phase III from 2011-present.

  350. Mathias O N Nnadi

    Traumatic brain injury devastates our young adults, leaving on its trail mortalities and morbidities. One of the morbidities, seizure, leaves the patients battling in three fronts: the seizure itself, the antiepileptic drugs, and the societies the patients belong. Patients managed for early and late posttraumatic seizures in our center were compared in age, computerized tomography (CT) features and functional outcome. The study was done over a six year period. Objective: To compare patients with early and late posttraumatic seizures in age, computerized tomography scan features and functional outcome at three months post injury. Methods: It was a prospective, comparative and observational study of patients managed in our center for early and late posttraumatic seizures from traumatic brain injuries from August 2010 to July 2016. Patients were resuscitated in accident and emergency using Advanced Trauma Life Support protocols. Brain computerized tomography (CT) scan and other relevant investigations were done. Patients who had seizures were given Phenytoin for one week. After a week we used Carbamazepine. The functional outcome was assessed at three months post-injury. Data were collected using structured proforma and analyzed with Environmental Performance Index info 7 software. Results: There were 63 patients, 46 early and 17 late posttraumatic seizures. There were 47 males. The mean age was 27.5 years. There were significant difference between early and late posttraumatic seizures in terms of age (P = 0.0289) and CT findings (P = 0.0221). Conclusion: There was significant difference between early and late posttraumatic seizures in age and CT features.

  351. Ansari Manhal, Jacob Anoop, Shetty Kushal and 1Sowmya, B.

    One of the commonest developmental dental anomaly is the presence of supernumerary teeth. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in the jaws varies. Among the supernumerary teeth, 86% of the prevalence for the maxillary anterior region which is the mesiodens (Regula et al., 2010). This tooth can be either impacted or can erupt into the oral cavity. This report presents a case of a 10 year old girl with a palatallyplaced impacted mesiodens in the maxillary anterior region which was surgically removed.

  352. Rajul Shah, Radha Verma, Swarup Anand and Priyesh Naik

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare, catecholamine secreting neuroendocrine tumour of adrenal medulla representing nearly 5% of adrenal incidentalomas. We present a case of an 80 year old male complaining of recurrent urinary tract infection diagnosed as pheochromocytoma on further investigation.

  353. Dr. Prashant A. Karni, Dr. Abhijit P. Patil, Dr. Aditya Acharya, Dr. Swapnil Shankargouda and Dr. Mallikarjun H. Doddamani

    Cloude Levi Strauss and Winfred Phillips said that, “You have to be able to fabricate things, you have to be able to analyze things, and you have to be able to handle things smaller than ever imagined in ways not done before”. Many researchers believed that in future, scientific devices that are dwarfed by dust mites may one day be capable of grand biomedical miracles. The word ‘Nano’ is derived from the Greek word for “dwarf”. Today, the revolutionary development of nanotechnology has become the most highly energized discipline in science and technology. Nanotechnology is extremely diverse and multidisciplinary field, ranging from novel extensions of conventional physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self assembly to developing new materials and machines with nanoscale dimensions. The growing interest in the future of dental application of nanotechnology leads to emergence of “Nanodentistry” which involves the maintenance of oral health by the use of nanomaterials, biotechnology and dental nanorobotics. The recent developments, particularly of nanoparticles and nanotubes, the materials developed from such as the hollow nanospheres, core shell structures, nanocomposites, nanoporous materials, and nanomembranes will play a growing role in materials development for the dental fraternity. This paper is an attempt to give an over view about the nanomaterials and nanotechnology and its applications in the field of Prosthodontics.

  354. Kalyani Borde, Dr. Mythri, Dr. Jyoti S. Kabbin and Dr. Ambica, R.

    Introduction: Hepatitis B is the most common blood borne infection after occupational exposure in India. Awareness towards adult vaccination against hepatitis B is slowly rising amongst healthcare workers. However, it is well demonstrated that vaccine does not offer protection in 100% of recipients. It is important to seek out the vaccine non-responders as the post exposure management depends on the immune status of the vaccine recipient. Objective: To check the immune response after hepatitis B vaccination and identify the non-responders. Method: Healthcare workers were immunized with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (GeneVac) according to the revised rapid schedule of 0-1-2. Antibody titers were checked after 6 weeks in HCWs who completed 3 doses of immunization. Blood samples for testing were collected and serum separated by centrifugation. Serum was stored at 4°C for no longer than 4 days. Anti-HBS quantitative ELISA (MBS, Italy) was used to measure the antibody titers. Serum samples from HCWs showing titers <10mIU/ml were retested after repeat vaccination. Result: A total of 203 HCWs were tested for post-vaccination antibody titers. Of these, 39 samples showed titers below 10mIU/ml (19%). 15 out of 39 had undetectable levels. Repeat testing was done after administration of repeat vaccination in 20 HCWs – 14 of them seroconverted. Conclusion: This study concludes that vaccination is not protective in 100% of recipients. As the HCWs are at an increased risk of exposure, it is advisable to check the immunity against hepatitis B, after finishing complete schedule of vaccination. In this way, non-responders can be identified to be revaccinated or relieved from high-risk areas.

  355. Dr. Aparna M. Kulkarni, Dr. Prashant S. Mane, Dr. Ravindra V. Ramteke and Dr. Meenal V. Jadhav

    Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. In India it is the most common cancer among females. Papanicolaou cytological (Pap) test helps in detecting the early epithelial abnormalities in cervical cells. Material and Methods: Pap smears of 1941 women attending the gynaecology OPD, from January 2012 to December 2015 were evaluated by light microscopy. The 2001 Bethesda system for reporting cervical cytology was used in evaluating the pap smears. Results: The mean age was 41.7. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality was noted in 10.1% of the cases. Of which 16.7% were reported as inadequate, 73.2% as NILM, 3.8% as ASCUS, 4.0% as LSIL, 2.1% as HSIL and 0.2% as SCC. Conclusion: Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening and hence regular counselling and screening should be conducted among vulnerable age groups.

  356. Dr. Umapathy Thimmegowda, Dr. Joseph Thomas, Dr. Navin Hadadi Krishnamurthy, Dr. Surej Unnikrishnan and Dr. Pavana Mysore Parameshwara

    Facial harmony and esthetics of an individual is affected when atypical and supernumerary teeth are present in the oral cavity. Rehabilitation of function and esthetics is a challenging task for a pediatric dentist especially when speech and smile is affected in young individuals. Here we present a case with mesiodens in a 10 year old female child disturbing the occlusion. Mesiodens was extracted and esthetic reconstruction of the patient was done.

  357. Velure Rajarao Mohan Rao, Jayalakshmi Ramasamy, Sangeeth Kumar Krishnamoorthy and Velure Mohan Rao Jyotsnaa Grace

    Objectives: Cerebrovascular accident, which has considerable mortality and morbidity, deserves attention towards its prevention. The first lines of defense in stroke prevention are detecting and adequately treating manageable risk factors, C-Reactive protein, an acute phase reactant is an indicator of underlying systemic inflammation and a novel marker for atherothrombotic disease. Present study is an attempt to study the levels of C-Reactive protein in acute ischemic stroke and to correlate between serum C-Reactive protein levels in acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients with diagnosis of first ever acute ischemic stroke and hundred healthy age and sex matched controls were randomly selected for this case-control cross sectional study conducted from June 2016 to January 2017. Patients were examined, investigated as per proforma. In both cases and controls CRP levels were estimated. Results: There were 66 (66%) cases and 15 (15%) controls who had positive C-Reactive protein levels (0.6 mg/dL). Mean CRP levels among cases was 3.7 mg/dL and controls was 0.5 mg/dL, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: C-Reactive protein appears to be an important risk factor for acute thromboembolic stroke at levels of > 0.6 mg/dl. measures to reduce CRP levels by using statins probably helps in a significant way for primary and secondary prevention of stroke.

  358. Jagtap Vikas K., Bansal Shashank, Nayan Navin and Kalita Apurba K.

    Primary spinal glioblastoma is a rare and aggressive entity with poor prognosis. With less than 200 reported cases the specific guidelines for the treatment of these cases are not yet formulated. Even with different treatments like radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy the survival is poor. We report a case of 10 year old female with spinal Glioblastoma Multiforme (sGBM) with cerebral and spinal deposits treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy at our institute. Since this was a rare presentation we were keen on giving the best possible treatment to the patient. Literature review was done to assess the available treatment options. This review primarily focuses and gives insights in managing this rare entity with scientific approach.

  359. Dr. Sayma Memon and Dr. Khusboo Modi

    Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) may lead to oro-facial injuries like to teeth and other related oral structures. Swelling and cuts on skin gradually heal but traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) like teeth intrusions, avulsion of teeth, displacement of teeth, fracture of teeth or roots need dental intervention and dental planning. Proper diagnosis, treatment planning and follow‐up are important to assure a favorable outcome.

  360. Rayala Reddy, V., Ravinder Reddy, V., Panda, A. K., Chinni Preetam, V. and Baswa Reddy, P.

    A study was to conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) – (Oxytetracycline OTC and Chlortetracycline CTC) and synbiotics on growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune response of broiler chickens. A total of 240 day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments each consisting of eight replicates and each replicate having 5 birds and reared up to 42 days of age. The dietary treatments were (T1) control group with basal diet, (T2) basal diet supplemented with oxytetracycline-OTC (at 100mg/kg), (T3) basal diet supplemented oxytetracycline-OTC (at 200 mg/kg) (T4) basal diet supplemented with chlortetracycline-CTC (at 100 mg/kg), (T5) basal diet supplemented chlortetracycline-CTC (at 200 mg/kg) and (T6) basal diet supplemented with synbiotics(at 250 mg/kg). The birds were provided with ad-libitum feed and drinking water during the entire experimental period. Weekly feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass traits and immune response were recorded. The body weight gain of broilers were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the dietary groups on supplementation of OTC, CTC or synbiotics. Supplementation of AGPs or synbiotics did not have any significant (P>0.05) influence on cumulative feed consumption and feed conversion ratio of broilers during pre-starter and finisher phases and during overall period (0-42 d).There was no significant (P>0.05) influence of AGPs or synbiotics on any of the carcass parameters studied in the present investigation. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in CBH response and log2ND titre valuesamong the treated groups but numerically higher CBH response was noticed in all treatment groups compared to control.The control and synbiotic groups had higher log2 titre than different antibiotic fed groups but present study revealed that synbiotics can also be used as alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in broiler production.

  361. Akintokun, A. K., Adebajo, S. O. and Balogun, S. A.

    Persistence and recalcitrant of materials in the environment for longer period of time that has surfactant which are main ingredients of some products that are our basic needs e.g. detergents, shampoos, toothpaste, soap e.t.c. are of great concern. These surfactants are mainly of chemical origin which gives the scientists keen interest and reason for replacing chemical surfactant found in the products with biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are surface active compounds that have key roles in various field of applications such as bioremediation, biodegradation, enhanced oil recovery, pharmaceutics, food processing among many others. This study aimed at the production of low cost biosurfactant using different solid and liquid wastes as energy sources. Biosurfactant was produced in the fermentation broth at 24hrs to 168hrs using different solid and liquid wastes and was extracted using solvent extraction method (methanol and chloroform) in the ratio of 2:1. The biosurfactant was purified using open column chromatography and characterized using thin layer chromatography. Result showed that potato peel waste produced the highest biosurfactant yield of 21.0mg/L at 168 hrs while groundnut cake had the lowest biosurfactant yield of 0.09 mg/L at 24 hrs. Eluents of molasses as energy source in the fermentation broth from open column chromatography was the only informative one which showed that the biosurfactant present is a glycolipid and thin layer chromatography showed that the sugars present were: arabinose, glucose and ribose sugar. Result showed the potential of Pseudomonas taenensis to successfully producedlow cost biosurfactant that could be used in many industrial sectors.

  362. Talal Saeed Hameed and Barbara Sawicka

    The study carry out in Lublin province. This survey was conducted using a questionnaire, where 128 household heads were sampled and interviewed, Objectives of study was describe the socio-economic characteristic of respondents; identify Production and Marketing Problems of Potato growers in Lublin province. Results show that. The most important production problems were High costs of fertilizers, pesticides and labor. And important Marketing problems were Low price of product, High costs of transportation, Perishability of product and Markets far away from farm. Also Results revealed significant relationship between Problems of Potato growers in and factors age, level of education, family size, and farming experience.

  363. Sinthia Tahmina, Khondoker Moazzem Hossain, Hafizur Rahman, Anwar Hossain, Amal Kumar Saha, Shaima Anjuman and Giasuddin

    Duck plague (DP) is a worldwide acute, lethal, sometimes chronic, contagious virus infection of ducks caused by duck plague virus (DPV), also known as duck enteritis virus (DEV). The control of duck plague is considered as one of the biggest challenges in which vaccination is an efficient way to control DPV. Till now, vaccination is done mainly with chicken embryo adapted live virus that is known to be poorly immunogenic and elicits only partial protection. Further, the presence of other avian pathogens in the embryo propagated vaccine may pose a threat. To overcome these drawbacks, an attempt was undertaken for the first time regarding propagation and adaptation of isolates of DPV in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cell line. In this study, duck embryo fibroblast cell (DEFC) culture method was used to isolate DPV which were then adapted in the BHK-21 cell line. The characteristic cytopathic effects (CPE) of clumping and fusion of BHK-21 cells were observed starting from the 5th passage onwards. The presence of the virus and its multiplication in BHK-21 cell line was confirmed by detection of viral specific DNA by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting DNA polymerase gene (446 bp). The BHK-21 cell culture system is free from other infectious agents by comparing to chicken embryo adapted duck plague vaccine. Therefore, we can consider BHK-21 cell line as a suitable candidate for cultivation and propagation of DPV for vaccine development. The present study provides a scope to undertake further research on duck plague to explore the feasibility of utilizing this BHK-21 cell culture adapted DPV isolates for developing an attenuated vaccine against duck plague.

  364. Kishori Lal, Nafeesh Ahmed and Abhishek Mathur

    The present study was performed in order to investigate the nature and antimicrobial property of the compound isolated from leaves and female cones of Cycas revoluta. The compound was isolated by using preparative TLC and further the compound in the form of single spots was scrapped out for characterization via HPLC and FT-IR. The isolated compound was dissolved in appropriate solvent. 5 µl of sample (chloroformic extracts of leaves and cones) were applied to silica gel plates, Merck (Germany) 20 × 20 cm, 0.25 mm in thickness were used. Plates were developed using the solvent system, Benzene: Chloroform (5:50) and the separated zones were visualized using Iodine chamber. A brown colored spot was observed on TLC plate with a retention factor (Rf) value of 0.82 found similar to that of standard compound (having Rf value 0.84). The pure compound was further subjected to HPLC and FT-IR analysis which confirmed the compound as polycrystalline ferroelectric compound (2, 3-dihydro-4′-O-methyl-amentoflavone).

  365. Padmavathi, A. and Raghu Ram, M.

    The studies on polygalacturonase producing bacteria form fertile soils are very meager. In the present study, bacteria were isolated from different commercial crop field soils of W.G.Dist. A.P. A total number of 12,325 bacterial colonies were isolated from 59 different fields in the cultivation of mango, maize, banana and lemon. A total of 69,371 hectares of land is under cultivation of these crops in the district. Among the isolated bacteria, 5935 were found to be polygalacturonase producers based on plate assay method. Of which1389 are from mango, 1741 are from maize, 1281 are from banana and 1503 are from lemon field soils. They were categorized as potential, good and poor producers of polygalacturonase based on the diameter of zone of clearance. The bacteria isolated from Maize fields were proved to be potential polygalacturonase producers with zone of 5cm.

  366. Sharmila, G. and Brindha Durairaj

    For the past few decades plants have been the basis of treatment for many human diseases. In this study traditional plant Cleome viscosa, annual weed was selected and its free radical scavenging potential, total antioxidant capacity and antithrombotic activity were evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Cleome viscosa leaf extracts revealed the presence of phytochemical constituents (alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols etc.). From the results obtained the hydroethanolic extract exhibited maximum activity when compared with aqueous extract. Hence, an attempt has been made to evaluate the inhibitory effect of hydroethanolic extract on in vitro antithrombotic activity. The results obtained revealed that Cleome viscosa has exhibited considerable antithrombotic activity which may be due to the phytochemical constituents present in it.

  367. Dr. Y. Ratna Priyadarsini and Dr. P. V. N. R. Prasad

    Menopause is but a natural transition in women that occurs at the age of 45-55 years. The menstrual cycle stops and sex hormone levels decrease, including that of estrogen, resulting in the condition called menopause. In Ayurveda, menopause is described as a natural effect of aging and does not reflect any disease. Since menopause is the transition from the Pitta phase of life to the Vata phase, if a woman already has a significant Pitta or Vata imbalance in the years before menopause, things are likely to get worse during menopause, which is a period when hormonal and other natural changes take place in the body. Foods that can easily be digested, creating micronutrients that are then assimilated into the tissues to rebuild their strength, will be recommended. Program to improve digestion is an important prerequisite for overcoming menopausal symptoms.

  368. Hiralal Jana and Debabrata Basu

    Betelvine (Piper betle L.) is a perennial evergreen shade loving creeper to the family Piperaceae. In India, it is commercially cultivated as an important and potential cash crop. Betelvine crop cultivation is a profitable enterprise. Betelvine cultivation is the best example of direct income (in cash) in agriculture. Due to this character, this plant is very loving to farmers. A boroj of 500-600 sq. m. area is sufficient enough to nurture a family of 4-5 members whole round the year. But, all is not well in this enterprise. There are lot of problems in its’ cultivation. Keeping it in mind, a study was conducted with the following objective:- to identify the problems faced by farmers in betelvine cultivation and their suggestions to mitigate those problems. The study was conducted in Midnapur (East) district of the State of West Bengal. Multistage purposive sampling technique was used for selection of the area and respondents. A sample of 100 respondents was randomly selected from the ten selected villages. The study revealed that the betelvine growers had the most important problems of (1) Insect-pests and diseases infestation (100%) (2) Lack of proper price of product (100%) (3) Cultivation cost is high (100%) (4) lack of fund (88%) (5) Flood problem (100%) (6) Problem of high wind blowing (100%) (7) Lack of irrigation water (93%)(8) No insurance in betelvine cultivation (100%)(9) cake price is high (87%)(10) Lack of soil testing facility (100%) (11) Transportation is a problem (87%) and(12) Day by day soil of boroj is becoming polluted (95%). In this respect the important suggestions to mitigate the faced problems were-(1) short-term training on insect-pests and diseases control (100%) (2) Govt. should announce minimum support price for betelvine products (76%)(3) Govt. should provide subsidies for fertilizers, pesticides, cakes etc. (81%) (4) There should have loan provision for all types of betelvine growers at lower interest rate considering their benefit (77%) (5) Canals should be renovated to overcome the flood problem (62%) (6) Iron bars should be used to establish a boroj which will provide better stability against high wind blowing (79%) (7) Govt. should permit to set shallow tube-well (88%) (9) Govt. should introduce insurance policy in betelvine cultivation (100%) (9) Govt.’s initiation and cooperation is very much needed to establish cold storage (69%) (10) Market inspection is needed to check the price of cake (76%) (11) There must have soil testing facility in locality (100%) (12) Roads should be repaired on urgent basis especially in rainy season (80%) (13) Organic manure as well as bio-fertilizers should be applied to maintain the fertility status of the boroj soil (65%) and (14) Govt. should introduce a systematic and efficient export system (58%). Therefore, the extension agencies who are working at base level should take proper measures to promote the betelvine cultivation considering the findings of present investigation.

  369. Binsy M. Kesavan and Amina, S.

    In the present study, the unoccupied dredging vessel HANSITA V docked at Kollam Port broke loose from its mooring, washed up on the Mundakkal beach on Tuesday 21 June 2016 making waves in the city and got media coverage. The vessel showed that heavy fouling on the hull. Analysis of hull inspection on the vessel mainly focused on the characterization and percentage composition of the fouling community. The extend and composition of fouling on the vessel hull was examined through quadrate samples taken from the hull. The invading organisms include both sessile and mobile species. The heavily fouled species recorded from the hull was Balanus sp. and Pinctada sp. Heavy fouling of the biofoulers in the hull results in the corrosion and damage of the vessel. Adhesion of marine biofoulers on ship hulls may cause many problems including fuel consumptions, high maintenance costs, corrosion and damage, introduction of invasive species etc.

  370. Sarda, P., Dr. Prsashar, K., Dr. Gupta, S., Dr. Damle, A., Dr. Gaikwad, A. and Warkhade, B.

    Staphylococcus aureus is a species of bacterium commonly found on the skin and or in the noses of healthy people, although it is usually harmless at these sites, it may occasionally get into the body, through breaks in the skin such as abrasions, cuts, wounds, surgical infections, or indwelling catheters and cause infections. These infections may be mild (pimples or boils) or serious (infection of bloodstream, bones or joints). Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important bacteria as a potential pathogen specifically for nosocomial infections. Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureushas been emerging worldwide as one of the most important hospital and community pathogen. Therefore, new agents are needed to treat MRSA. In the present study, antimicrobial activity of aqueous, ethanol and acetone extracts of Saraca asoca were evaluated against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).The ethanol extract demonstrated a higher antibacterial activity than the acetone and aqueous extract. These extracts were prepared from fresh Saraca asoca leaves. These extracts were evaluated for their part in increasing antibacterial activity of Methicillin against S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and MRSA (ATCC 43300). The antibacterial activity of Methicillin was enhanced against the test organism in the presence of these extracts. Methicillin in combination with these extracts showed maximum inhibition against MSSA and MRSA. Phytochemical analysis gave positive results for steroids, triterpenoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, reducing sugar, carbohydrates, amino acids and proteins. Leaf extract of Saraca asoca contains pharmacologically bioactive constituents that may be responsible for its activity against test organisms.

  371. Shahira Banu, D.A., Dr. Karpagam, S. and Dr. Janarthanam, B.

    The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Salacia chinensis specimen stem extract collected from five different locations. In- vitro antidiabetic activity of aqueous stem extracts of Salacia chinensis of Karikan accession on α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was studied. The stem extracts of Salacia chinensis (Hubili, Karikan, Bandal, Jogimat and Udipi locations from Karnataka) were evaluated for qualitative and quantitative antioxidant activity of aqueous, ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and acetone extracts by using DPPH as free radical. Different concentrations of aqueous stem extract of Salacia chinensis were subjected to α -amylase and α- glucosidase inhibitory assay. The absorbance was measured at 540 and 405 nm using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer and the percentage of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and IC50 values of extract and fractions were calculated. The aqueous stem extract of Salacia chinensis showed significant radical scavenging activity. The aqueous stem extract of Salacia chinensis of Karikan accession exhibit dose –dependent increase in inhibitory effect on α-amylase enzyme(up to 87.30 %) which was comparable with standard drug acarbose (74.03 %) and α-glucosidase enzyme(up to 78.30 %) which was comparable with standard drug acarbose (81.60 %) whereas other concentrations shown lesser activity.

  372. Satyaprakash, M., Nikitha, T., Chaitanya, I. and Reddi, E. U. B.

    Phosphate solubilising rhizobacteria associated with Coffea arabica L. in coffee plantations of North Eastern Ghats, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India, were investigated. The main purpose is to screen for potential microbial biofertilizers by assessing the isolated strains for phosphate solubilization efficiency and initial screening was performed on Pikovskaya’s agar (PA). The present study could therefore be important with respect to screening of Coffea arabica associated rhizobacteria that possess direct plant growth promoting traits for extending the use of indigenous microbes as microbial biofertilizers.

  373. Nagarjuna Sivaraj, Dayanand, C. D. and Sheela, S. R.

    Aim: Our purpose was to know phospholipase A2 activity and its gene PLA2G4α polymorphism was an inflammatory marker in preeclampsia compared with normotensive pregnancies. Efforts were made to determine the association of PLA2 and its gene. Study Design: Longitudinal observational study Methods: 4ml of blood was obtained from preeclampsia (n=51) and normotensive pregnants (n=51). They were maternal age, gestational age, parity matched. Phospholipase A2 activity was determined by colorimetric method and PLA2G4α polymorphism was evaluated by PCR-RFLP techniques. Results: When HW equation is applied to this observation of controls population (p=0.66) and in preeclampsia cases (p=0.76) it states that allele and genotype frequencies of PLA2G4α gene in a population will remain constant. Phospholipase A2 enzyme activity in control population was 1.80units/mg with SD ±0.225, in preeclampsia was 2.47 unit/mg with SD ±0.0112 with significance of P<0.001. Conclusion: Results indicated that there was no polymorphism in the PLA2G4α gene structure, but the difference in gene expression in comparison of two groups was marked in terms of measuring the enzyme activity with p value (p<0.001). PLA¬2 can be used to understand the intensity of inflammation in preeclampsia. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate PLA¬2 activity in each trimester of preeclampsia, eclampsia and placental contribution to any PLA activity.

  374. Siddharth Bhatt and Farhat Fatima

    Humans have developed themselves in every aspect. Right from the discovery of fire to reaching the outer space, they have proved their worth for the mankind. They knew how to reach at every possible place. The discovery of wheels did give them the advantage to transportation of every possible thing, from crops to humans. They came to know the importance of transportation as a feasible way to transport things from one place to another. Gradually and gradually, they started inventing different modes of transport for their betterment since they wanted to reach within less time. Now a new term has been coined for transportation of humans. That is passenger logistics which includes not only the transportation of humans but also how much ease each mode provides for an effective and efficient transportation solutions. This paper studies the concept of passenger logistics with the example of Delhi Metro and its benefits and future aspect of the concept.

  375. Théophile Kamgaing, Cyrille Sonwa Yonta, Jimmy Julio Ngouoko Kouonang, Giscard Doungmo, Francis Merlin Melataguia Tchieno and Joseph Mbadcam Ketcha

    In this study, the fine fraction (< 100 μm) of safou seeds (Dacryodes edulis) was characterized and then applied to the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) form aqueous solution. The techniques used include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which allowed access to the morphology of the material, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which revealed the chemical functions on its surface and BET technique from which its specific surface area was determined. Its behavior towards BPA was studied in batch mode under the effect of the variation of several parameters among which the contact time, the equilibrium pH, the adsorbent dosage and the adsorbate initial concentration. The optimal contact time and BPA adsorption pH were 25 min and pH 3, respectively. The pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Freundlich isotherm better fit the adsorption of BPA on safou seeds. The maximum adsorption capacity was 24.5 mg.g-1 obtained experimentally. The surface molecules of safou seeds, consisting predominantly of antioxidants (phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C) and fatty acids (palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid), effectively contribute to the chemical sorption of BPA by the formation of covalent bonds and hydrogen bonding. With so many functional molecules on its surface, safou seeds could be applied to the treatment of water containing bisphenol A.

  376. Murtaza.S. Kothari, Naveed.S. Tamboli, Veeneet.V. Tekam, Ameya.D. Aiwale and Prof. Hemangi Kute

    In the recent years, preventive security measures at public places has gained lot of importance. Visual Surveillance has now got huge attention to ensure safety in public places. These systems generate huge amount of data on a daily basis. This data has enormous Volume, Velocity, Variety. Hence, this is can be termed as Big Data. Handling Big Data is a challenge and thus, in this proposed system, the processing of the video is done on Hadoop. The existing system takes more time to process these live stream video data which is inversely proportional to what we except. The proposed system processes these data in an efficient and a faster manner in a parallel distributed environment. Nowadays, the pure mass of information that has to be handled by the operators of such systems has over- grown their capabilities. Hence, A System capable of identifying objects that tend be vulnerable to the surrounding environment is addressed in the system. This System also implements Machine Learning to overcome the common technical problems present in the existing system which includes lighting changes, occlusions, cluttered backgrounds.

  377. Erol Türkeş, Serkan Beller, Olcay Ekşi, Sencer Karabeyoğlu and İsmet Tıkız

    Today, common types of industrial robots are used for many different applications and in many different areas. Designing and producing a prototype robotic system requires knowledge of the system requirements and coordinated work. All of these processes can be realised by working in partnership with mechanical, electronic and computer engineers. In this study, a robotic prototype (including software) request was designed with a Cartesian based coordinate structure at very low cost with an initial goal of cleaning a window or any further tasks to be determined by the end user. This robot is designed to be used in daily life, as well as the existing building design based on the required software. Therefore, the robot’s current structure is quite promising.

  378. Dr. Rakesh Kumar Pandey

    An attempt is made to understand the similarities in the origin of the basic laws of physics including the Newton’s laws of motion and the ‘Theory of Karma’. The problem of arbitrariness in time of observing the ‘fruits’ that is observed in the ‘Theory of Karma’ is also discussed using the concept of time that exists currently according to the ‘modern science’. A recently reported scientific result (Physical Review Letters, 2014) (arrived at by simulating the Universe through multimedia technology) suggesting existence of a mirror Universe where ‘arrow of time’ would be negative, has also been discussed in the light of expected violation of the ‘Law of Causality’. More recently a paper by Dmitriy Podolskiy and Robert Lanza (Annalen der physic, 2016; Science alert, 2016) concludes that time is created in observer's mind and therefore demanding a time bound effect for the 'Theory of Karma' is not valid.

  379. Praveenkumar, K., Madhusudhana Rao, D. and Satish, T.

    In this paper, we give some characterizations of quasi-simple ternary Γ-semirings. Mathematics Subject Classification: 20G07, 20M10, 20M12, 20M14, 20N10.

  380. Aleena Sara Mathew, Shilpa, K. S., Jiss Thomas, Boney Thomas and Jyothish Chandran G.

    This is a novel solution for tracking the location of a vehicle and availability of seats in real time (for public transport vehicles) using mobile application which also has a blind assist mode that helps blind people to use the app by voice commands. Two modes of operation are normal mode and blind assist mode which can be launched either by clicking on app icon or by shaking the device when it is in blind mode. The system tracks the location of the vehicle using a GPS and the longitude and latitude addresses are fetched and stored in a web server through a Wi-Fi module from the controller. The seat availability is determined from the output of two IR transmitter-receiver pairs which identifies whether a person is entering or exiting from the vehicle. These obtained information are made available at the user end through a mobile application which runs on android platform. The system is built on Arduino and ESP8266 is used to connect to the remote server. This system can not only be used to track public transport vehicles but can also be made use to find lost vehicles also.

  381. Razia Sultana and Shashidhar Buggi

    The need of study the properties of Particulate matter (PM) and their distribution of particles in different hospital environment and top priority of this study is to control air pollution in hospital environments. PM 2.5 is the mass concentration of fine aerosol with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm whereas, PM10 is the mass concentration with aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm.PM10 and PM2.5 were measured in ambient levels at Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Chest Diseases Hospital Area and compared with Victoria Hospital area PM10 data. Simultaneously, the meteorological parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction) was recorded by the Envirotech WM 271 wind sensors. The average levels PM10 was exceeded the Revised Ambient Air Quality Standards for 123 µg/m3(RGICD) & 149 µg/m3(Victoria) and PM2.5 was in permissible limit 40.37µg/m3. Samples of particulate matter were collected during winter season from the hospital area. Qualitative analyses of particulate matter were performed using scanning electron microscope based on morphology the size and shape of the particles.

  382. Rajeswara Mahidar, P., Sujit, V. V. N. and Rambabu, S.

    Image enhancement is the process of improving the quality of the input image. Underwater images mainly suffer from the problem of poor color contrast and poor visibility. These problems occurred due to the scattering of light and refraction of light while entering from rarer to denser medium. Scattering causes the blurring of light and reduces the color contrast. So many authors proposed different methods on under water images. In the process of enhancement brightness will alter, it is required to preserved. Here proposed a enhancement method for underwater using BPDHE with contrast stretch. Experiments are carried out on different images to evaluate performance of the proposed method, in terms of quality metrics like Mean Square Error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), Absolute Mean Brightness Error (AMBE), Contrast Improvement Index (CI) and image visual quality.

  383. Ankit Srivastava, Dr. Archana Singh and Preeti Singh

    In developing countries, a pressure associated with environmental and economical constraints has forced the power utilities to meet the future demand by completely utilizing the currently present resource of transmission facilities without building new transmission system. Flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS) devices are used to control the phase angle, voltage and impedance of high voltage AC lines. By using FACTS devices maximum benefits of transmission system can be managed i.e. utilization of existing transmission assets; increased transmission system availability and enabling environmental benefits. These FACTS devices have many applications for enhancing and maintaining different parameters such as generation cost, transmission losses, system security and voltage stability in power system. In this paper a brief description about various facts devices is given along with power quality problems and their applications.

  384. Arpit Sharma, Manali Sehrawat, Kamaldeep Singh and Madhur Saraf

    The aim of the research is to identify the material which makes the concrete float and it should also have the strength. Floating concrete is a type of concrete having density less than water and it floats on water. There are many types of lightweight concrete which makes the concrete float either by using lightweight aggregate or by using air entraining agent. The conventional aggregates are replaced by light weight aggregates which makes the concrete lighter than the conventional concrete. Comparison has to be made between plain cement concrete and lightweight concrete having different proportions of aggregates, pumice stone and aluminium content by the weight of cement has been taken into account.

  385. Sambhu, R., Christy Augustine, P. A. and Prema, K. H.

    ZnO nano particles are synthesized using sol-gel method. Crystal structure of the samples prepared at different annealing temperature is analysed using XRD. Natural rubber vulcanisates are prepared using different series of nano ZnO (Z0, Z1, Z2, and Z3) as cure activator. A control compound is also prepared with commercial ZnO at high phr loading. Cure characteristics as well as cure rate kinetic values of NR-nano ZnO vulcanisates are compared with that of the commercial sample. Appreciable reduction in phr of ZnO is possible with the usage of nano ZnO.

  386. Gaurav Kumar Singh, Rishikesh and Dr. Anil Kumar Sagar

    In this survey paper literature review of black hole attack in MANETs has been presented. MANET is a type of network where communicating devices can communicate to each other without any fixed centralized master device. That’s why attack in between the communication of two more devices is not a challenging task. There are several types of attacks in MANET routing protocols such as black, gray, sink and wormhole attack and others also. But we can’t deny the importance and popularity of MANETs in today’s time scenario because such type of networks is very easy to design, implement at any time anywhere. Especially in those geographical locations where to setup the infrastructure based network of communicating devices is very challenging task like at remote locations, disastrous locations. So, it’s a challenging task for researchers to implement better security protocols for mobile ah-hoc networks in order to service a very tight security against the attackers. So, in this area an ample of research and techniques have been proposed for securing routing protocols in MANETs. MANET routing protocol has been categorized under two broad categories that are Proactive and Reactive. Proactive routing protocols are DSDV, WRP, OLSR and others also. Reactive routing protocol i.e. AODV, DSR. There are various MANET routing protocols like AODV, DSDV, DSR and other. But in today’s time the routing protocol which used most frequently are AODV, AOMDV, DSDV.

  387. Md. Shohel Mahmud, Md. Shahjahan Miah and Mst. Nusrat Jahan

    The importance of hygiene practices cannot be denied for a healthy life. Using hygienic latrine, washing hands, drinking safe water, household waste disposal, regular bathing are some of the most important hygiene practices that are needed for a sound life. In many countries around the world, especially undeveloped and developing countries, hygiene practices are not satisfactory. The present paper tries to find out the hygienic practices and their health-related impacts on the tea garden workers. This study focused on the two areas of Moulvibazar District, Alinagar and Madhabpur, two of the most tea gardens brimming areas of Bangladesh. The data were collected from 60 tea garden workers (30 from each area), 30 male and 30 female. The study observes: in both areas, hygienic practices among the tea garden workers are not satisfactory and they are suffering from different diseases due to this. This study also finds that due to unhygienic practices in daily lives, tea garden workers are also suffering from the socioeconomic aspect.

  388. Belayneh Girma

    One of the typical illustrations of Africans involvement in written philosophy is the treatise written by an philosopher Ethiopian Zera Yacob. This 17th century treatise is taken as a landmark in some scholars’ perception of African philosophy in general and Ethiopian philosophy in particular. Zera Yacob is undeniably worth mentioning figure in the history of African Philosophy; however some claims made by some authors about him are misleading. Though there are several mistaken claims about him, this article tries to deal only with the issue of rationality. A number of pieces written about Zera Yacob following Claude Sumner’s publication of the English translation of the treatise affirm that Zera Yacob is a rational philosopher. This article is aimed at illustrating how such an assertion misrepresents Zera Yacob’s philosophy. In order to pursue this objective, the translation published by Sumner that many scholars depend on for their account about Zera Yacob, is weighed against other translations.

  389. Campbell, Omolara A., Olurinola, Isaiah Oluranti, Oluwatobi, Stephen Emiola, Taliat O.

    Membership of cooperatives entitles eligible members access to financial resources for capital accumulation, investment and consumption purposes. However, becoming a member of the cooperative comes with the price tag of consistent savings in the cooperative pool account. It is this that qualifies such committed members access to certain benefits. In Nigeria, available statistics from the World Bank (2015) reports that about 70% of the population still live in abject poverty, 83.9% of the Nigerian population is still living on less than US $2 per day and the inequality of wealth distribution is 42.9%. Based on this background, there is the tendency to question consumer cooperatives welfare promoting impact. We explore the relationship between cooperative societies and employees’ welfare. A survey research design is adopted in which a Likert 5 – point scale, self-constructed questionnaires were administered among the faculty and staff members of the Covenant University Cooperative Society, Ota, Ogun State and Lead City University Cooperative Society Ibadan, Oyo State, as a means of data collection. A sample of faculty and staff members was selected through purposive random sampling. Data collected were analysed using the descriptive and inferential analytical techniques. One of the findings of this study is that membership of cooperative societies cut across people in different age, sex, educational attainment, levels of income and number of households. Majority of the respondents were satisfied with the current models adopted by the cooperative societies in meeting the welfare needs of the members. The administration of loan disbursement by the cooperative societies was also found commendable by members.

  390. Hend Sam'an Ibrahim Al- Smadi

    The present study aimed at identifying the faculty member role in developing political awareness among the students of Qassim University. However, the researcher applied the study tool which consisted of (26) items on a stratified sample involving (375) male and female students. The researcher adopted the analytical descriptive approach for the reason that it is appropriate for the study purposes. The outcomes revealed that the faculty member role in developing students' political awareness was average. The results also showed that there were no statistically significant differences due to the gender variable. Additionally, there were statistically significant difference attributed to the academic year, and in favor of the fourth year. Finally, the researcher recommends that further intensive studies should be conducted on political awareness, taking into account other variables.

  391. Dr. Iheanyi O. Igwe

    In science teaching and learning, the teacher is seen as playing the crucial role of harnessing all resources and evoking students’ activity for classroom success. That is why this study anchored on students’ interest, attitude and achievement as correlates of chemistry teachers’ classroom behaviours in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi state, Nigeria.. A correlation design was used for the study. A total of 410 senior secondary school chemistry SS 2 students constituted the population for the study and also the sample since the number is manageable. Data were collected using Chemistry achievement test (CAT), students’ interest inventory, attitude questionnaire and teachers’ classroom management behavior questionnaire. These instruments were face validated by three experts in psychology, chemistry and measurement and evaluation. The reliability of CAT was determined by Kurder-Richardson-20 and had a reliability coefficient of 0.72. The reliabilities of the students’ interest inventory, attitude questionnaire were determined by Cronbach Alpha statistics after factor analysis to be 0.87 and, 0.77. The reliability of Teacher classroom management behavior questionnaire was 0.79 using the Cronbach alpha also. Three research questions and three hypotheses were used for the study. Data were collected using CAT, students’ interest inventory and attitude questionnaire and Teacher classroom management behavior questionnaire. Correlation coefficient based on Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) was used to answer the research questions while the hypotheses were tested using stepwise regression statistic for the significance at 0.05 level based on ANOVA. The findings showed that students’ interest in chemistry, attitude towards chemistry and achievement in chemistry had high positive relationship with teacher’s classroom management behaviours. Based on the findings, it was recommended that chemistry teachers should make their teaching exciting through appropriate integration of practicals, cordiality and use of instructional materials. Chemistry teachers should exhibit positive attitude towards the teaching of chemistry which will make the students to develop same for better achievement in chemistry.

  392. Mammadov, T. S.

    In this article are given and provided detailed information about using of trees and shrubs for planting in Baku city. The research results are conducted over the 2010-2016 years and used implementation in landscaping architecture. It is completed using in landscape architecture of 87 families, 230 genus, 660 species of trees and shrubs in floristic compositions, living forms, ecological types, grouped by the prospects of economic significance are identified the suggestions for the implementation in greening.

  393. Dr. Alaa Mohammad Alfawaer, Dr. Ibraheimsuleh Alsarairh and Dr. Nassar M.E. Al-Hulalmeh

    Sport announcer (commentator) is a person with extensive media experience and sport knowledge in a particular sport game that allows him to comment on, by describing the matches' events and introduce his technical opinion objectively and honestly. Practically, he is different from the sport analytic or critic with what he hold of moral and legal control, including honesty and truthfulness, away from defamation or abuse, he is also legally liable for whatever misconduct or bad comment or say regarding dignity or honor of any player, club, team, therapist and any person of the audience, therefore he will not legally liable if his commentary was free of any misconduct regarding reputation and honor, and his critics where within the legal framework.

  394. Ar.Meenal Kumar

    Aeon the experience of Indian Shilpis in making of pillars has been profound be it stone, timber or brick. Pillars (Stambha) forms an innate part of the Hindu Temple Architecture, thousand years back when these temples were built there were established design principals, testing methods, though no software, calculators and spreadsheets etc were available, still the end results exhibited by these temples are fabulous and are ‘Structural Engineering Marvels’. These pillars played a very prominent and pleasing part in the temple architecture of the time. Tall, slender, free-standing, beam supporting pillars, and pilasters, but these elements are not well defined as in the western classic architecture, and hence it becomes difficult to classify them as they have multifold relations which they have carried from one period to another transforming into new types with minute changes, this can be seen as a result of craftsmanship prevailing at the time at a particular place also the social needs and ruling power were the factors in evolution of the pillars. They were expressions of strength, support, celestial connection and manifestation of arts prevailing at that era. Although they evolved from Sastraic Mathematical proportions, they displayed greater freedom of design which the Indian wrought in his own imaginative way, these pillars still stand today as a source of inspiration, promoting diverse studies for designing of pillar in contemporary temples. This paper analyses the Pillars (Stambha) as vital element of the Hindu temple and provides more explanation of ancient literature study on pillars, also the rules and regulations which govern the construction of these marvelous element of temple architecture. Further the paper discusses the Yali [Vyala] Pillars with respect to elements of space making in temples of Vijaynagar era, and how these Yali Pillars when treated with extraordinary ornamentations enhanced, beautified and lender unique character to the structure and identified the temples given impression of strength, stability and reliability. The volume of distinct spaces, movements and visual impact created by these pillars in temples gives an idea of the distinct identity of architecture to create a sense of group identities between those who built and those who inhabited or used these structures, such elements embody not just the earth or stone from which they were built, but the people and experiences involved in their construction, holding special place in human memory giving distinct identity to structures of architecture.

  395. Uma Shanker Singh

    The year 2016 was the warmest on record in all major global surface temperature datasets, although, in some, the difference between 2016 and the second warmest year, 2015, was within the margin of uncertainty. In the three dataset used by WMO, 2016 was 0.83 °C +/− 0.1 0°C warmer than the average for the 1961–1990 reference period (0.52 °C above the 1981–2010 average), 0.06 °C above the previous highest value set in 2015. This is also about 1.1 °C above the pre-industrial period. The ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset3 was even warmer, with global mean temperatures 0.62 °C above the 1981–2010 average and 0.18 °C warmer than those of 2015. The concentration of green house gases have also multiplied manifold in the last couple of decades. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 2016 in its Statement on the State of the Global Climate states that the latest analysis of observations from the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch Programme shows that globally averaged surface mole fractions for CO2, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) reached new highs in 2015, with CO2 at 400.0 ± 0.1 ppm, CH4 at 1 845 ± 2 parts per billion (ppb) and N2O at 328.0 ± 0.1 ppb. These values constitute, respectively, 144%, 256% and 121% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels. Comprehensive global greenhouse data for 2016 will not be available until later in 2017. The increase of CO2 from 2014 to 2015 was larger than that observed from 2013 to 2014. The green house gases have direct correlations with the rise in temperature. The temperature is rising to the level where it hurts the ecosystem most. The roof of the world that is what Tibet has long been known as is also heating up. The rain-maker: the Tibetan plateau influences the timing and intensity of monsoons in the region’ particularly India. The plateau’s temperature has increased by 1.3C (34.4F), three times the global average. Arctic and Antarctic regions have been warmed to a point of no return. Temperatures increased on average by almost one and a quarter (1.22) degrees Celsius (C) per decade over sea ice in the Arctic summer. Varied temperatures across different regions within and near the Arctic Circle have been observed. Average temperature trends increased by one-third of 1 degree C per decade over sea ice, and they also rose half a degree C per decade over the lands of Eurasia. Over the past 50 years, the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula has been one of the most rapidly warming parts of the planet. This warming is not only restricted to the land but can also be noted in the Southern Ocean. Upper ocean temperatures to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula have increased over 1°C since 1955. Deforestation is also a serious issue and carbon sink is being lost in the process of development. Over the past 25 years the world’s forest area has declined from 4.1 billion ha to just under 4 billion ha, a decrease of 3.1 percent. The green house gases already present in the atmosphere are good enough to keep earth being warmed for hundred years to come even if their emission is brought to zero level today.

  396. Dr. Rahul Sharma and 2Rupali Soni

    The issue of employee’s performance in furtherance of organization objectives has occupied manager’s attention for long. Difference in levels of performance has been attributed to differences in skills and abilities on the one hand, and to different theories of money on the other. This study examined the issue of performance based pay as a motivational tool for achieving organizational performance, using the situation in public sector organization. The main objectives of the study was to assess the impact of performance related pay on the motivation of employees and, subsequently, on the achievement of organization goals. In all, one hundred respondents took part in the survey. The main research instrument was the questionnaire. The result of the study revealed that the effect of performance based pay on employee’s performance is minimal, and the motivational effect of merit pay is often blunted by biased performance appraisal. The main limitation of the study is that it could not cover all the state bank of India in Raipur within the target population, due to time and financial constraints. In this respect, the interpretation of the results of the study should not be over generalized.

  397. Dr. Suman Paul

    With increased pace of urbanization and economic growth, attraction and dependency between different linking regions has also increased. Transportation have performed very crucial roles from very early, accelerating the sharing of economic and development benefit of connecting spatial regions. Railway has been proved as a potential sector for drawing economic and development benefits for various countries. But less emphasis has been given in improvement of railway sector mainly in railway service in Kolkata compared with road and which cause failed to draw proper economic benefit from the sector. This study has aimed to focus on the railway transportation sector and to develop a model defining the relationship between overall satisfaction and service quality attributes in a selective route from DumDum to New Garia in south-eastern zone of Kolkata so that it can reinforce further improvement process. Findings show that, overall service satisfaction depend on eight distinct service quality attributes. It implies the service with worst situation, overall satisfaction of service and need for priority improvement to support the further orientation, addition and betterment of service to draw maximum economic and development benefit for those linking regions.

  398. Teka Bogale and Aknaw Hailemariam

    This software project will help us, to automate the existing manual system of Jiren senior secondary school. To automate the system of the school we use object oriented software engineering methodologies such as use case model, class diagram and sequence diagrams and Er-diagram. The requirements for automating the system are collected by using techniques like interview, observation and document review. The objective of the project is to automate the manual system of Jiren senior secondary school which is very much useful to provide fast, realiable and quality service to the customers.

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