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December 2019

  1. Tesfaye Gragn

    In Ethiopia different soil and water conservation technologies with different approaches have been implemented focusing on the highlands of the country where the problem is more threatening. With the aim of decreasing land degradation problems, efforts are underway on the implementation of soil and water conservation (SWC) measures. The purpose of this study is to investigate Effect of Soil and Water conservation measures on Soil property and Wheat productivity at Bore District, Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected from six different measures through Non-conserved land, Vetivary grass hedge row conservation, Graded soil bund (10) conservation, Graded Fanyajuu (10) conservation, Integrated graded soil bund (10) with vetivar grass hedge row conservation, and Integrated graded Fanyajuu (10) with vetivary hedge row grass conservation. Agronomic analysis indicted that SWC measures significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced plant height, tiller formation, spike length and grain yield of wheat. Soil analysis also revealed that integrated soil bund increased soil pH (4.577 to 5.053), organic carbon (5.10 to 6.73%) and available phosphorous (5.77 to 25.18 mg kg−1) by 90.6%, 75.8% and 229% compared to non-conserved cultivated land, respectively. Fanyajuu SWC measure increased cation exchange capacity (CEC) by 79.2% than control. It is concluded that SWC measures have positive impacts on soil and wheat productivity of cultivated lands; however, their effect is more pronounced when physical SWC measures are integrated with biological SWC measures

  2. Rawat Y., Malhotra S. and Duggal N.

    Fungal UTI is one of the important factor in mortality and morbidity in hospitalised patients especially in paediatric population. Our study was aimed to report the prevalence of Candida spp. amongst suspected cases of fungal UTI and determine its antifungal susceptibility profile. A total of 63 (31.5%) Candida spp. were isolated out of 200 urine specimens collected from pediatric patients. In our study, Non-albicans Candida species (57.14%) were the predominant isolates compared to Candida albicans (42.86%). Non-albicans Candida demonstrated high resistance to azoles. Therefore, it can be concluded that non-albicans Candida species has emerged as an important cause of urinary tract infections. Their isolation from clinical specimen can no longer be ignored as a nonpathogenic isolate nor can it be dismissed as a contaminant, since Candiduria may even be a marker of disseminated candidiasis.

  3. Randrianarivo, R., Randriamihangy, N., Raobelle, E., Andriamandrato, H., Bemizaha, R, Rajaonarison, B. and Raharivelo, A.

    Episodic abuse drinking is mainly a current issue of public health with severe consequences including road accidents and the setup of alcohol dependence, causing number of diseases. A problematic alcohol use was identified among young students during their campus life. This study aims to set the following objectives, to determine the prevalence rate of hazardous drinking, alcohol dependence and to identify factors that foster this trend among students at the University of Majunga. A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical survey study was conducted among medical, Biology&Earth Sciences students at the University of Mahajanga, on May 2017. The AUDIT questionnaire was used to assess the alcohol use. Male students in number of 464 were recruited for the study. Eighty point four percent of them had already experienced alcohol drinking. The average AUDIT score was 6,42 ± 6,4. Hazardous drinking was encountered in 16,5% and alcohol dependence in 19,4% of case. Some factors were associated to alcohol uses as the accomodation at the university student residences andparents with alcohol use history. A significant relationship was associated between high AUDIT scores and the following criteria: year of study, paternal alcohol use history, age of early onset of drinking, alcohol drinking and smoking antecedent. This study provided an insight on alcohol consumption among students and established the need of raising awareness.

  4. Olfat A. Salem, Eida Alshammeri, Jamila Alkhaibari, Nawal Abdullah Alharbi and Maram Eid Aldawasari

    Objective: This research aimed to appraise and synthesis existing literature on using the “flipped learning approach in nursing education and its impact on students in the Saudi Arabia context. Design: The systematic review method was finalized from three different databases July 2019: PubMed, Psyc INFO, and Google Scholar, which contribute to the achieving of various objectives. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed with the criteria established by Buckley et al., 2009. Results: The studies reviewed indicate that there is a potential impact of applying a flipped learning approach in nursing education, where it has been shown to achieve several outcomes, in addition to having several psychological effects on students that may sometimes be positive and at other times negative. Conclusion: The study results suggest that the flipped learning approach can improve students' awareness, knowledge, academic achievement, interaction, participation, and collaboration. However, studies also indicate the need to create a stimulating and enjoyable learning environment for students by identifying their preferred learning patterns.

  5. Dr. Pramila Menon, Dr. Payal Bansal, Nirmala Narayan Rege and Dr. Avinash Supe

    Background: Problem-based learning (PBL) is recognized as promoting integration of knowledge and fostering a deeper approach to life-long learning. In order to encourage health professional who joined genetic courses in our institute to integrate their genetics knowledge in a professionally relevant clinical context, we developed a PBL approach in medical genetics. This paper highlights preliminary data regarding student viewpoint about PBL Methods: n=31 Students were divided into groups of PBL groups. The participation was voluntary. PBL group was allocated a specific case with more detailed clinical information in three sessions as progressive disclosure. The students spent 2 -3 hours on weekend for group discussion and weekdays were utilized for self study. Pre validated questionnaire was used to evaluate student perception of PBL format, with each being asked to rate the content, structure, facilitator effectiveness, group dynamics and their personal view of the learning experiences. Results: Two general themes emerged from students were group discussion and self study and active thinking helps to retain knowledge for a longer duration. PBL approach helped in integration of basic and clinical genetics. They felt that the cases effectively illustrated medical concepts and reinforced the students' genetics knowledge. They were motivated their interest in genetics. Peer to peer teaching and interdisciplinary group was a helpful in learning objectives. The course helped the participants to learn to obtain information from a variety of sources .They were comfortable in sharing information with others (100%).They felt that they can apply the general principles they learnt to other genetics problems. They could confess their ignorance on specific issues. But at the same time felt confident to analyze a genetics problem by setting appropriate learning objectives (80.64%). Self assessment of performance was possible in 93.54%.The written problem summary helped the participants to correlate the concepts covered in that problem. They agreed (96.77%) the amount of effort required in the course was greater than usual. Conclusion: PBL methodology, an integrated approach can be used to teach medical genetics to the students PBL promotes active learning, self study and helps in retention of knowledge for long duration.

  6. Sh. Sulaymonov, Sh. Abdullayev, Umaraliev, J. and Sarimsakov, T.

    Plants named Astragalus stenocystis growing in Namangan region of the Republic of Uzbekistan were collected during the flowering period and carried out para-hydrodistillation , then identified the presence of essential oils in the composition by chromata-mass spectrometry analysis.

  7. Dr. Deborah S. Le Blanc

    The United States also has the highest homicide-by-firearm rate among the world’s most developed nations. But many gun rights proponents say these statistics do not indicatea causal relationship. After a decade long decline, gun violence is increasing in many cities in the United States. Much of this increase is being attributed to the revitalization of urban street gangs. Even in Los Angeles, where overall levels of violence continue to fall, gang violence is once again rising. Significant findings emerged from both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies confirmed the correlation between gangs and gun violence. A critical component to public safety -- including the prevention of further crime and violence -- is a successful transition for offenders into effective community-based and after care services; however, this prevention must be been in an effective and humane manner. The author utilized a descriptive research approach of identifying and collecting findings on the examination of the American culture of violence. The author conducted an extensive literature review to ascertain current developments and efforts to curb gun safety laws since 2015 to 2019. As of 2019, there were no federal laws banning semiautomatic assault weapons, military-style .50 caliber rifles, handguns, or large-capacity magazines. Violence is becoming a global problem. The increase in gun/gang violence has not been limited to the US. Like Canada, Britain, especially in South London, has also experienced a spate of firearm homicides that have been attributed to conflicts among gangs and groups of youth involved in the illegal narcotics market. Findings revealed that both the United States and Canada have ‘demonstrated that even after controlling for individual-level attributes gang members are more delinquent and commit more crime than do non-gang members (Esbensen and Huizinga 1993; Thornberry, Krohn, Lizotte, and Chard-Wierschem 1993; Huizinga 1997; Thornberry et al. 2003; Huff 2004; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, and McDuff, 2005)’. The key point was the connectivity between violence and gangs. “The conclusion drawn most frequently from these findings is that the observed positive relationship between gang membership and offending levels cannot be explained through a simple process of self-selection, wherein only highly delinquent youth join gangs. Instead, there are additional influences that gang membership brings to bear in facilitating higher levels of offending among individuals who join.

  8. Gaganpreet Kaur, Dr. Hardeep Kaur and Mandeep Kaur

    A descriptive study was conducted to assess the factors affecting health care utilization and to find association of factors affecting utilization of health care services with treatment seeking behavior among population residing in selected rural community of district Faridkot. Out of 200 adults who were selected through two stage cluster random sampling technique, 127 adults (who had taken treatment for any illness)in previous year were interviewed. Research tools used were Socio-demographic data sheet and Interview schedule to assess factors affecting health care utilization. Treatment seeking behavior included treatment taken or not taken from any public or private health facility. Analysis was done by using the descriptive and inferential statistics using IBM SPSS version 20 statistical package. Results showed that the factors which affected the health care utilization were availability of medical staff, availability of free health care services, availability of services at lower cost, type of sickness, seriousness of illness and influence of health care workers. There was significant association was found between these five factors and treatment seeking behavior.

  9. Tani Sagna, Paul Ouedraogo, Isabelle T. Kiendrebeogo, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Aristide Tapsoba and Jacques Simpore

    Background: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is a public health problem in Burkina Faso. The main objective of this study is to analyze screening test acceptance among pregnant women during their antenatal visit, the first phase of vertical prevention. Methods: The study recruited pregnant women under 32 weeks of amenorrhea who came for their antenatal visit. Results: Of 12467 pregnant women, only 3215 (25.79%) agreed to undergo HIV testing and counselling (HTC). This represents a refusal rate of 74.21% (9252/12467). In this study, we note that there is a significant change in the number of pregnant women consenting to HIV testing during the period under consideration: the acceptance rate has increased from 18.69% in 2009 to 35.46% in 2019 (p<0.0001). We also note that the participation rate was the same at both the pre-test and post-test levels. Women who came to the antenatal consultation for their first, second and third pregnancies represented 35.21%, 24.14% and 17.33% of the 3215 women respectively. And 23.33% of women were at least in their fourth pregnancy. About 12.26% of the women included in the study were HIV positive (394/3215). Among HIV-positive women, 12.69% were women who came to antenatal consultation for their first pregnancy, 25.63% for their second, 28.17% for their third, and 33.50% for those who had four or more pregnancies. Conclusion: This study shows that acceptance of HIV testing and counselling among pregnant women remains low. The highest acceptance rate was among women with their first pregnancy. Therefore, an awareness campaign on HTC would help to improve the participation rate of pregnant women in this program in order to enable efficient case detection and, at the same time, effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

  10. Mr. Thamizhselvan, K. and Mrs. Vembu, K.

    Background: “Emotional Intelligence includes the ability to engage in sophisticated information processing about one’s own and others emotions, the ability to use this information as a guide for thinking and behaviour. That is individuals high in emotional intelligence pay attention to use, understand and manage emotions and these skills serve adaptive functions that potentially benefit themselves and others”. International studies identifies that emotional intelligence influences nurses’ work and relationship with patients. It is associated with comparison and care. Nursing students scored higher on measures of emotional intelligence compared to other students. Emotional intelligence increases with age and tends to be higher in women. The purpose of the study was to assess the level of emotional intelligence among nursing students in College of Nursing, JIPMER, Puducherry. Objectives: a) Primary objective: • To measure the level of emotional intelligence among the nursing students. b) Secondary objective: • To find the association of emotional intelligence with selected socio-demographic variables. Methodology: The study was conducted in JIPMER, Puducherry in College of Nursing. Total of 207 samples who satisfied the inclusive criteria were selected using a non-probability convenient sampling technique. The baseline data was collected using demographic proforma and structured questionnaire was used to assess the level of emotional intelligence among the nursing students. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data collected. Results: In total of 207 students, a majority 130 (62.8%) subjects reported average level of emotional intelligence and a minimal subjects of 77 (37.2%) reported high level of emotional intelligence. The study reported that none of the students reported low level of emotional intelligence. In this study, the findings showed no association between emotional intelligence and sociodemographic variables. Conclusion: The study reveals that the level of emotional intelligence is average 130 (62.8%) among nursing students in College of Nursing, JIPMER and the sociodemographic variables had no association on emotional intelligence.

  11. Dr. Rugma U Menon, Dr. Radhika B., Dr. Amit k Walvekar, Dr. Kith P Jose, Dr Sneha Fal Dessai and Dr. Sujitha Golla

    Forensic odontology is a speciality that relates dental evidence to investigation. The application of forensic techniques in identification, criminal justice and dental liability is being practiced widely worldwide. There has not been substantial literature dedicated towards the upcoming branch in medical sciences that is forensic medicine despite the leaps in modern technology, medical breakthroughs and the geographical changes that the last century has seen. Periodontics is a science which deals with diseases of periodontium. The study of the periodontal structures post mortem can help in the identification, determination of time of death, sex determination along with age estimation of the deceased. This article highlights the importance of Forensic Periodontology and reviews the role of the periodontist in the same. Dentists can assist those involved in criminal investigations by identifying the victims of crime and disaster through dental records, most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. . On the recent scenerio, periodontists have identified the features of ante mortem and postmortem changes in the periodontium. Thus, in the coming era, periodontist could also play an important role in forensic odontology.

  12. Getahun Worku Babolet

    Malaria is worldwide and very common in the developing countries because it spread due to low social and economic conditions. This study was conducted in Kemissie health center, Kemissie town. The objective of the study was identifying the pattern of the prevalence of malaria infection in Kemissie town. Moreover, the study identifies the most appropriate timeseries model and estimate the parameters of the model, and forecast the expected numbers of malaria infected for 24 months Kemissie town. The data used for this study was obtained from Kemissie Health center administrative record office. These data recorded for 72 months of observations collected form reported documents on the prevalence of malaria. In order to analyze the dataset, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics is used. The result of this study shows that relatively large numbers of malaria infected on the month December, January, February, March and April, on the other hand, June, July, and August small numbers of malaria infected seasonal. Furthermore, the appropriate timeseries model for monthly prevalence of malaria in Kemissie town SARIMA (0,1,1)x(1,1,1)[12].

  13. Ouattara Abou

    Political killings, the subject of this study, raises the problem of marginalization, neglect and even trivialization of this social phenomenon. The study examines the fundamental reasons for the marginal or inadequate treatment of political killings. Indeed, why are political killings treated in a lax, even unpunished or unresolved manner? This study in its early response is based on the assumption that the assertion of the separation of judicial and executive powers is betrayed by certain facts, hence the selective or biased treatment of political killings, hence the crisis of confidence Ivorian criminal justice system. The methodology adopted for this study highlights the field of study, the survey population and the survey sample, the techniques of data collection as well as the methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data. The study on criminally unsolved political killings has led to results: violation of legal provisions in relation to the facts, and the crisis of confidence.

  14. Dr. sedra Ahmed Othman, Abeer Mansour Abedl Rasool and Ahmed Shuoab Karmosh

    The aim of research was the evaluation of blood clotting activity and hemostatic effect of Salvia polymers using developed set of laboratory tests and preparation of Salvia polymers with high blood clotting activity. Salvia .polymers have antibacterial effect with rapid coagulation time and local drug applied to site of bleeding to stop bleeding. Material and Method: Salvia officinalis is one of the essential herb .in this study take leaves of plant. extraction alcoholic & water extract and study chemical composition of this extract by UV spectrophotometer and prepare polymer that load the extract of Salvia Officinalis then the use Differential scanning calorimetry for Salvia officinalis In addition, study the new polymer with ant bacterial study with study prothrombin time toxicity level of salvia polymer. Result: results The study of the leaf extract shows the effect of S. aureus through the chemical structure containing T.ammi, the main oil that is a basic component (p-cymene and--terpinene) which corresponds to the previous results and its effect on the bacteria Indicates that it is anti-bacteria with hemostatic effect. New polymer can used in stop bleeding with ant bacterial effect Conclusion: The advantage of this drug is that the few side effect (local drug). In addition to the ease of its position and its control over the place of bleeding, it can easy applied in cases of venous and arterial hemorrhage, as well as the wounds as well as an antibacterial substance. In addition, quick effect rapid period of coagulation and anti-bacterial and thus reduce the mortality caused by blood poisoning and blood loss.

  15. Mahmuda, A. and Usman, M.

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal and haemoparasites of pigs in Zuru, Kebbi State. A total of thirty-three (33) and sixty-eight (68) faecal samples from local breeds of pigs under semi-intensive system of management were collected and processed for GIT helminths and protozoa respectively. Fifty (50) blood samples were collected for haemoparasites. Faecal concentration methods of simple floatation and centrifugal sedimentation methods were used to analyze the faecal samples while Wet mount, Buffy coat and Thin smear techniques were used for the blood samples. In overall, eight (8) samples out of thirty-three (33) were positive for strongyle eggs given a prevalence of 24.25%. Fifteen (15) of the samples (45.45%) were from the male animals, with an observed prevalence of 26.67% while eighteen 18 (54.54%) were from the female animals, having a percentage prevalence of 22.22%. From the 31 samples collected and processed from adult pigs, 8(25.8%) were found positive while from the only 2 samples collected and examined from the young pigs (piglets), none was observed to be positive for any form of the parasites. An overall prevalence rate of 17.65% for only one gastrointestinal protozoan parasite (Eimeria) was encountered. However, the prevalence rate of Eimeria was significantly higher in female pigs (18.92%) compared to the male pigs (16.13%) and prevalence was significantly higher in adult pigs (22.22%) while the young piglets showed no infection. Samples from the blood revealed no haemoparasites in all the samples processed. Based on the present findings, it was concluded that gastrointestinal helminthes, especially strongyle and Eimeria spp. infections occur in pigs in Zuru, Kebbi State. Although, there was no recorded prevalence of haemoparasites in the pigs examined, there could be several other factors that were responsible for the negative results obtained in the present study. It was therefore recommended that further studies should be repeated to ascertain the true picture of the conditions in all the sampled pigs.

  16. Zoila Esther Morales Tabares, Efrén Vázquez Silva and Yailé Caballero Mota

    The constant search for efficiency in the provision of hospital services confronts the health sector with greater challenges in terms of managing the maintenance of medical equipment. Forecasting the demand for spare parts is a complex process due to their intermittent behaviour. As part of this process, the PREDSTOCK algorithm is proposed in this manuscript to predict the stock of spare parts for medical equipment using Multiple Regression as a quantitative estimation technique.

  17. ZONOU Bienvenu BAZONGO Pascal and TRAORE Karim

    Our study aims to characterize the cotton producers of Burkina Faso in order to assure the sustainability of their farming system. For this purpose, we carried out surveys on 90 cotton farmers established in the cotton belt located at the South-sudanian area. The investigations revealed that the access to the farm land for cotton cultivation is by inheritance. The age groups of [20-40] and [41-60] correspond to the majority of cotton producers accounting respectively for 45.83% and 50%. Furthermore, our results showed those farmers organize themselves into producer groups. They have a low educational level while having long experience in the cultivation of cotton produced exclusively during the rainy season. In addition to the cotton farming, their other activities are particularly trade and small-scale breeding. We come to the conclusions that it would be interesting to make the cotton producers benefited of training in sustainable farming system.

  18. Rakesh Kumar Singh and Rajat

    Municipal Solid Waste in the urban bodies of Himalayan states is increasing rapidly. The urban population increase and tourist influx towards hill stations have added pace to the problem of solid waste management. This exposes the eco-sensitive zones of Himalayas towards the harmful impacts of waste mismanagement on the environment. This paper involves the trend of composition and per capita waste generated in the state of Himachal Pradesh. The study of municipal solid waste management trends in Himachal Pradesh was carried out to focus on the factors affecting the solid waste generation trends and present strategies adopted by the government. This study is concluded with the suggestion for the need for additional policies for waste management in Hilly regions in addition to solid waste management rules, 2016. This outcome of this study will help in mitigating the problem of solid waste management in Himachal Pradesh.

  19. Ngor SARR, Mame Faty MBAYE Fall, Moussa DIA, Mamadou Salla GUEYE, Moussa Dia Kader Niakar Diogoul and Ibrahima Ly

    Ensuring the technical and economic consistency of carrying out a project with the contract that binds it to its client, in particular by respecting the deadlines set, the budget set and the technical specifications defined is the main objective of the project manager. However, he is limited in his freedom of choice by a certain number of constraints notably in terms of time, time and resources to carry out his project. The aim of this article is to design an algorithm for planning projects subject to a resource constraint. The methodology used is based on the theoretical and methodological approaches proposed in the field to allow the project manager to achieve its objectives including in particular the critical path and critical chain method, mathematical programming as well as a multitude of heuristics and meta heuristics. We propose a modification to the parallel parallel heuristic method and develop a planning algorithm that we have computerized. The result obtained in this article is the development of a realistic project implementation plan which minimizes its duration of realization in the event of a limitation of the allocated resources. The major innovation of this work is the proposed tools which allow the project manager to be able to simulate the impact on the duration of realization of different scenarios of resource allocation.

  20. Arshadhussain

    The research was conducted in the department of Anatomy Government Medical College Srinagar. The aim of our study was to elucidate the effects of estrogen treatment on the microanatomy of Testis in male Albino rats with reference to the treatment regimen received. For this research we selected sixty male albino rats with an average weight of100gms. The animals were kept in the animal house of Government Medical College Srinagar and divided randomly into three groups. Group A served as control, while Group B and C received daily low and high doses of estrogen benzoate diluted in coconut oil respectively. From each group animals were sacrificed at intervals of one, three, six and twelve weeks. 5-6 micrometer thick histological sections of testis were cut, fixed on glass slides and stained with Haematoxyline & Eosin. Microscopic changes in the testis were recorded. It was observed that estrogen benzoate produces dose and duration dependent histopathological changes in the testis of male albino rats. Our studies revealed that estrogen treatment significantly decreased the diameter of the seminiferous tubules and induced fatty degeneration in the surrounding connective tissue. An increase in collagen fiber synthesis in the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding the seminiferous tubules was also induced. Spermatogenesis was impaired resulting in mainly spermatogonia being present. Both Sertoli and Leydig cells showed morphological alterations and glycoprotein accumulations. These results demonstrate that increased estrogen levels drastically impact the human testis.

  21. Dr. Sarath Sasidharan

    Background & Objectives: The maxillary anterior teeth are the key elements contributing to the esthetic importance of dentofacial beauty. Over the years, guidelines for teeth selection and arrangement have been suggested. However, no universally accepted single parameter currently exists. Methodology: Interpupillary width and intercommissural width of 400 subjects of age ranging from 21-30 years were obtained. Interpupillary width, intercommissural width and combined width of maxillary anterior teeth were measured using digital vernier caliper (Mitutoyo Ltd 505-633-50). The results were statistically analyzed using Pearson correlation test and student t test. Results: A positive correlation was found between intercommissural width and combined width of maxillary anterior teeth and a non-significant correlation was found between interpupillary width and combined width of maxillary anterior teeth. Interpretation & Conclusion: It can be concluded that, • There is correlation between Intercommissural width and combined width of maxillary anterior teeth which can be used as a guide for selection of combined width of maxillary anterior teeth among Dakshina Kannada population. • There is no correlation between Interpupillary width and combined width of maxillary anterior teeth which cannot be used as a guide for selection of combined width of maxillary anterior teeth among Dakshina Kannada population.

  22. Dr. Madivanan M. and Dr. Sandeep Loha

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a restriction of movements caused by intracapsular fibrous adhesions, fibrous ankylosis and osseous ankylosis of TMJ joint. Trauma is the main cause of TMJ ankylosis. The anesthetic management of pediatric patient with TMJ ankylosis is highly difficult task because child will be anxious with limited mouth opening. Fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation is the gold standard method of securing airway but in resource limited setting we have described a retrograde intubation with the help of guide wire and bougie for securing airway after giving sedation with dexemeditomidine, ketamine, superior laryngeal and transtracheal block. Spontaneous ventilation was maintained till securing the airway. The airway was secured without any complications and elective extubation was done as per AIDAA (All India Difficult Airway Associaton) pediatric extubation algorithm.

  23. Ruksana Farooqui, Meena Ajay Aras and Vidya Chitre

    Hollow maxillary obturator prosthesis is an important treatment modality in maxillectomy patients. Reduction in the weight of the obturator is an important factor in improving the retention and stability of the prosthesis. This article describes a simple flasking technique for fabricating a closed hollow bulb obturator that achieves a uniform wall thickness of the hollow bulb.

  24. Dr. Arunima Lahiri

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem, both for the number of patients and cost of treatment involved. Globally, CKD is the 12th cause of death and the 17th cause of disability, respectively. For CKD patients, one of the choices to survive is haemodialysis . End Stage Renal Disease (final stage of CKD) has a significant impact upon the lives of sufferers. The experience of concurrent multiple losses which include kidney function, family role, work role, sexual function, time and mobility, impact significantly on the lives of patients and it often lead to depression. In this study a sample of 100 CKD patients on haemodialysis were taken, of which 50 were male and 50 were female and the level of education was either matriculate or non-matriculate. Using Beck Depression Inventory the level of depression of the CKD patients were estimated and the difference between the groups based on gender and level of education. Conclusion: It was found that the patients of CKD on haemodialysis were suffering from depression at different level and there was a significant difference in the level of depression between the groups based on gender and level of education.

  25. Ahmed Mohamed Elmarakby, Reem Mazen Alfuraih and Jumana Talal Al Thawadi

    Background: Several studies focused on the types of laminate porcelain veneers. This literature also highlighted on the technique of preparation and new strategies related to this subject. Objectives: the purpose of this review is to highlight on the technique of preparation and new strategies related to laminate porcelain veneers. Methodology: data was collected through the related articles published in the last ten years in Pub Med indexed journals. Conclusion: The knowledge and skills of the dentists are critical determinants of the attainment of desired treatment outcomes

  26. Shalini Gupta, Poonam Gupta and Saurabh Gupta

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of eyedrop cyclosporine (CsA) 0.1%, eye ointment tacrolimus (TCA) 0.1% and eyedrop fluorometholone (FML) 0.1% in patients of VKC. Methods: Prospective and Interventional Randomised Comparative Double Blinded Study conducted at Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hospital, New Delhi during August 2017 to December 2018.All 60 patients of 5 to 20 years age with moderate to severe VKC randomly divided into three groups A,B and C of 20 patients each and were treated with cyclosporine 0.1% eyedrops, tacrolimus 0.1% ointment and flurometholone 0.1% eye drops respectively. Patients were followed up after 7,14,30,60 and 90 days. Quantitative variables were compared using ANOVA/Kruskal Wallis Test and paired t test/Wilcoxon. Qualitative variables were correlated using Chi-Square test /Fisher’s exact test. Results: In CsA group symptoms and signs except except foreign body sensation and papillary hypertrophy were decreased earliest at 7 days and these two started improving by 1 month. TCLand FML group showed improvement in all symptoms and signs except papillary hypertrophy after 7 days of treatment. Later started improving by 14 day with FML while it took 60 days with TCA. No changes in fundus and IOP with CsA and TCA was noted whereas, Significant rise in IOP was seen in three patients withFML but no fundus changes. Conclusion: FML has early and maximum effect than others, but considering IOP rise seen with it, TCA and CsA can be safely used as an alternative to topical fluorometholone.

  27. Achala Aggarwal and Hardeep Kaur

    Bronchial foreign body aspiration is a critical condition that jeopardizes the respiratory function of children. Prompt diagnosis and removal of the foreign body can reduce occurrence of foreign body complications and mortality. Aspiration of plastic whistles is rare, and this is difficult to retrieve. Patient concerns: An 8-year-old boy developed fever and intermittent cough after he accidentally inhaled a plastic whistle 5 months ago. Chest computed tomography scan revealed dense material with central lucencyin the right lower lobe. Diagnoses: Foreign body in the right lower lobe. Interventions: Retrieval by Rigid bronchoscopy was undertaken. Outcomes: The plastic whistle was successfully retrieved and the child recovered uneventfully. Lessons: Foreign body aspiration in children constitutes a medical emergency in severe cases. Flexible bronchoscopy and balloon-tipped catheter retrieval can also be used along with Rigid Bronchoscope.

  28. Dr. Mayur Sadatiya, Dr. Pragnesh Patel and Dr. Sonagara, M. J.

    Dengue is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical countries where thousands of people get infected by dengue virus. This is an observational study done on 100 dengue patients to study the different clinical symptoms, laboratory investigations and its correlation with the worsening as well as complications.

  29. Sabri Ibrahim

    Introduction: Spinal tumors rarely occur with an incidence of 10 per 100,000 people. Neurinoma (schwannoma) and meningioma are the most common types of intraduralextramedullary tumors (IDEM). In recent years there have been a number of studies investigating the excision of IDEM tumors with hemilaminectomy. Compared with the traditional surgical approach, hemilaminectomy is relatively safer with less trauma, and helps maintain spine stability. In this study, we describe our experience of 8 cases with hemilaminectomy for IDEM tumors, along with a review of the literature. Case Report :We performed eight cases of hemilaminectomy for IDEM tumors from January 2017 to December 2019. In the case of cervical IDEM (Case-1) 60-year-old male with weakness of all four limbs for 1 year, with 3/3 right and 4/4 left motoric strength, pain and numbness on both hands, neck and urination disorders, MRI examination of cervical spine with contrast showed visible extramedularintradural mass as high as C3-C5 in right dorsolateral, histopathological report is meningioma, we performed right-sided hemilaminectomyon the level of C3-C5. Two weeks post operative, normal motor function was achieved and pain disappears, one year follow up after surgery, no signs of spine instability both clinical and imaging.Case of IDEM in the thoracal (Case-2) 53-year-old woman with complaints of weakness on both lower limbs since 6 months, right left motoric power 5/3, history of back pain radiating to both limbs since 1 year ago, dysesthesia on both limbs, MRI examination of thoracal spine contrast showed intraduralextramedullary mass on the right ventrolateral as high as thoracal 8, we performed right hemilaminectomy on Th 8. The histopathological report is schwannoma. Two weeks post operation, normal motor function was achieved and pain disappeared, follow-up 1.5 years postoperatively did shows signs of instability in spine both clinical and imaging.30-year-old woman (Case-3) came with complaints of weakness on both lower limbs for 6 months, motoric strength of 5/2retention of urine was found, a history of back pain radiating to the lower limbs, a thoraco-lumbar MRI was performed, with results of anterior located mass on the Th-9, suspicious of a mengioma which stick to the anterior dura mater. In this case bilateral laminectomy was. After surgery maximum motor function improvement occurs after 8 months and the urinary catheter can be removed after 2 months. Discussion: 90% of complete resection can be performed, with a 10% surgical complication rate and 1.5% surgical fatality rate. Levi et al. also reported similar results for 66 patients with a 9% surgical complication rate and 1.5% mortality rate. Various studies have investigated IDEM tumors excision with hemilaminectomy, which is relatively safe with minimal trauma, and can maintain spinal stability. The advantage of hemilaminectomy is that reducing postoperative pain, prevents instability, avoids the use of postoperative external bracing and allows early mobilization of patients, less blood loss during surgery, better wound healing and reduced postoperative infections and shorter hospital stays than traditional total laminectomy. In our cases of eight operations, no tumor was found extending to the foramen. no unilateral facetectomy was needed. Two years of follow-up no spinal instabilitywas found, all cases have motor improvement postoperative. Only one case was carried out by bilateral laminectomy. Our study group is too small and the follow-up period is too short to make a definite statement with respect to the applicability of the hemilaminectomy approach to intradural-extramedullary spinal cord tumors. Conclusion: Intradural-extramedullary spinal cord tumors that are not extended to the vertebral foramen can be resected safely and completely by hemilaminectomy approach. Hemilaminectomy approach is an optimal approach for providing sufficient exposure of spinal cord tumors. We have demonstrated the possibility of completely resectingintradural-extramedullary spinal cord tumors safely with the reductions of postoperative back pain, instability, degenerative changes and operative blood loss.

  30. Prawira Buntara Putra, Ridha Dharmajaya and Adril Arsyad Hakim

    Introduction: Meningiomas are benign brain tumors in the brain wrapping tissue or meningens. The primary brain tumor most commonly diagnosed is meningioma, which is 33.8% of all primary brain tumors. Total resection of meningioma cases increases life expectancy and improves the prognosis of patients with these cases, in high grade meningioma total resection is not possible and another modality is needed to prevent tumor recurrence, including administering drugs to block the expression of genes that effect tumor growth.Initial studies show enzymes such as cysteine protease, metalloproteinase (MMP) and serine protease are closely related to growth and invasion of tumors. The Ki-67 antigenswere found in each active cell cycle (G1, S, G2 and M) but were not found in resting cells (G0). The expression of the Ki-67 protein is associated with the proliferative activity of the intrinsic cell population in malignant tumors, thus allowing its use as a marker of tumor aggressiveness. Method: This study is a cross sectional analytic observational research study in patients diagnosed as meningiomas in Adam Malik Hospital in the periods of January 2017 - December 2018.Inclusion criteria includes confirmed cases of meningioma by pathological examination and the patient's age is over 17 years. Exclusion criteria are based on medical record data, found other systemic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, atherosclerosis, tubulointestial kidney disease and suffering from other tumors on the body.The sampling technique used is total sampling with a total sample of 33 samples. All meningioma paraffin block specimens that had previously been treated with hematoxylin-eosin base staining and confirmed as a meningioma had MMP-9 and Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining. After staining, overexpression of MMP-9 and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) were calculated. Results: The division of meningioma patient by gender is 23 women (69.7%) and 10 men (30.3%). The highest incidence of meningioma is in the age group of 40 - 49 years and equal to 18 cases (54.5%). While the least frequency of occurrence was found in the age group 60-69 namely 1 case (3%). the highest frequency is grade I meningioma in 24 (84.8%) cases, followed by grade II as many as 4 cases (12.1%) and grade III as much as 1 case (3%). The relationship between SI staining of MMP-9 and LI Ki-67, with Chi square analysis results with p value of 0.393. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between MMP-9 overexpression with LI Ki-67

  31. Dr. Ronak Bhalodia, Dr. Nirmal Chaudhari and Dr. Jyotin Shah

    Malaria being one of the common infections in tropical country like india, this study is based on clinical profie, complications, laboratory investigations as well as prognosis of P. FALCIPARUM malaria.

  32. Dr. Dalia Biswas, Dr. Komal Meshram and Dr. Satish Pawar

    Introduction-Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiologies characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from defective insulin secretion, insulin function or both. Material & Method: This was a intervention, pre and post study. All diabetic patients in the age group of 30-60 years, including both sexes and taking treatment since 5 to 10 years. Discussion: In our study a total of 17 diabetic patients in the age group of 32-60 years were studied. Comparision of fasting blood sugar pre and post intervention yielded significant finding. However, comparision of findings of HBA1C, TC, TG, HDL, LDL AND VLDL pre and post intervention was not significant. Conclusion: Rajyoga as a complementary intervention is effective in improving glycaemic control.

  33. Ssenyange Fred

    Social media platforms have become a source of discussion, idea sharing and connection, fore fronting national issues that were previous undermined. This study was conducted to understand the impact of social media among youth in Uganda, especially the positive impact. Real data was collected through a questionnaire.300 youth actively participated in filling the survey, which adapts the theoretical framework of Uses and Gratification theory. From the observation, there is increasing use of social media, mainly to share information, links and entertainment. The results show that Facebook is the most used social media platform among the youth, then Instagram follows. Different ways of using social media to educate and inform society are highlighted.On the other hand, the increase in the spread of pornography is believed to cause moral decay among the youth and have a negative impact on their education and personal life.

  34. Sunita Girish, Amit Jain, Domkundwar, S., Patil V. and Ramraje, N.

    Renal TB can lead to end-stage renal disease if not diagnosed early and treated correctly. The detection of tuberculosis infection early in life either as primary pulmonary manifestation or as an extra-pulmonary manifestation gives an important clue in a large number of cases and one has to rely on diagnostic approaches like ADA and radiological modalities. The diagnosis in our case was possible because the pleural fluid ADA and radiological injuries were compatible, despite cultures being negative.

  35. Ahmed M M Gomaa

    Introduction: axillary lymph node status is one of the most significant prognostic factors that guide treatment strategy in breast cancer. Patients with advanced tumor or axillary nodal metastasis could benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) resulting in down-staging of the disease. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with axillary nodal disease is debated regarding its identification rate (IR) and false negative rate (FNR). American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) conducted a large trial to assess SLNB in such patients and it showed depressing outcome resulting in proposition of some recommendations and modification in their methodology when SLNB to be carried out. In this study we adopt ACOSOG Z1071 recommendation to assess SLNB in post-NAC node-positive breast cancer patients. Methods: This study included 42 breast cancer patients with pathologically proved nodal metastasis. SLNB carried out in patients who showed clinical negative nodes after NAC. Three or more SLNs was mandatory to continue the assigned management pathway, while less than 3 nodes or failure to identify any SLN shift the patient to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Detailed evaluation of SLNs and nodes yielded from ALND was done and data interpreted to show how far such patient could benefit from such procedure and if any could spared ALND. Results: From 42 patients included in the study clinical conversion rate after NAC to negative axilla was 78.6%. 33 patients underwent SLNB with identification rate of 84.8%. Three or more SLNs were identified in 20 patients. 24% of patients subjected to SLNB were spared axillary dissection. On final evaluation of all retrieved nodes in all limbs of the study we assumed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy resulted in pathological complete response in 35% of our studied group. Conclusions: SLNB following NAC in node-positive patients is feasible and can be a future standard of care with some modification in methodology adopting recommendations released from large concerned trials.

  36. Dr. Gopalakrishnan, S., Manjula, C.B. and Thirupathi, M.

    As the population of a city grows, so does the waste that it generates. Along with the industrial and commercial development of a city, waste management systems have to be revised according to the city's needs. Waste management is an important aspect because if not done right, it could lead to contamination and disease. The urban solid waste consists mainly of household waste and commercial waste in either solid or semi-solid form. Waste generated from households is nowadays dominated by plastic and packaging material. Waste from commercial establishments such as restaurants and cafes mainly consist of food waste. Solid waste management is more essential for urban societies as they generate a lot more garbage; the availability of packaged food and other items leads to the accumulation of more trash. Bangalore city generates about 5000 tons of solid waste every day. The Significance of Solid Waste Management has increased because of the increase in population and per-capita waste generation. Transportation is a major component of the Solid waste management process. In order to handle the challenges of transportation of waste from the origin of waste generation to the processing plant and landfills, the researcher makes an attempt to analyze the requirement of vehicles for the waste collection by the transport employees. Requirements needed for the collection of primary and secondary type wastages was calculated with Secondary data collected from BBMP. The interview schedule was used with structured questions to collect the data from employees to identify the satisfaction level and challenges faced by them in their workplace. Suggestions are given in the results and discussion part of this study for the improvement of the transportation system followed in Bengaluru city. This article is published with sponsorship from ICSSR as part of Major Research Project 2018-19 granted to Dr. S. Gopalakrishnan.

  37. Talapov Bakhriddin Alijanovich

    The research was conducted in the department of Anatomy Government Medical College Srinagar. The aim of our study was to elucidate the effects of estrogen treatment on the microanatomy of Testis in male Albino rats with reference to the treatment regimen received. For this research we selected sixty male albino rats with an average weight of100gms. The animals were kept in the animal house of Government Medical College Srinagar and divided randomly into three groups. Group A served as control, while Group B and C received daily low and high doses of estrogen benzoate diluted in coconut oil respectively. From each group animals were sacrificed at intervals of one, three, six and twelve weeks. 5-6 micrometer thick histological sections of testis were cut, fixed on glass slides and stained with Haematoxyline & Eosin. Microscopic changes in the testis were recorded. It was observed that estrogen benzoate produces dose and duration dependent histopathological changes in the testis of male albino rats. Our studies revealed that estrogen treatment significantly decreased the diameter of the seminiferous tubules and induced fatty degeneration in the surrounding connective tissue. An increase in collagen fiber synthesis in the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding the seminiferous tubules was also induced. Spermatogenesis was impaired resulting in mainly spermatogonia being present. Both Sertoli and Leydig cells showed morphological alterations and glycoprotein accumulations. These results demonstrate that increased estrogen levels drastically impact the human testis.

  38. Fredrick Aloo Ndege and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Studies worldwide have revealed that physical facilities in schools invariably enhance quality education. In Kenya a lot of emphasis has been put on provision of physical facilities mainly by parents to enhance the quality of education offered. Nevertheless, performance by students in these schools has been generally low. Migori County is one of the counties that has been noted to be performing poorly in national examinations particularly at secondary school level. The performance in Migori County between 2011 and 2017 was generally low, thus Migori County was chosen among 5 counties surveyed because it had the lowest average mean score of 4.530 (D+) and between 2011 and 2017 it varied from C- in 2011 to D in 2017 exhibiting poor quality education. The average national Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education mean score from 2011 to 2017 varied from 5.207 (C-) 2011 5.173 (C-) in 2012 and declined to mean score of D+ between 2013 to 2015. The national Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education mean score dropped to a mean score of 3.980 (D) in 2016 and declined to 3.734 in 2017 resulting in an average national mean score of 4.617 (D+) over a seven year period which indicates declining quality education. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the influence of physical facilities on quality of secondary school education in Migori County, Kenya. The study established that physical facilities accounted for 34.9% of students’ academic performance as signified by the Adjusted R square coefficient 0.349. The physical facilities included; dormitories, classrooms, furniture, water supply, electricity supply, dining halls, toilets, playgrounds, staff houses, administration offices, departmental offices and the health bay. Students’ performance in national examinations is considered an ultimate indicator of the quality of education. This therefore means that physical facilities significantly influenced the quality of secondary school education in Kenya.

  39. Fredrick Aloo Ndege and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Studies worldwide have revealed that teaching and learning resources invested in the school system do enhance quality of education. In Kenya quality of education is measured by students’ performance in education, availability, adequacy and utilization of resources. The extent to which teaching and learning resources influence performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education is at variance. Thus in Kenya there are differences in the quality of education as some students perform better than the others. This study was based in Migori County, Kenya. Migori County was chosen among 5 counties surveyed because it had the lowest average mean score of 4.530 (D+) and between 2011and 2017 it varied from C- in 2011 to D in 2017 exhibiting poor quality education. The average national Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education examinations mean score from 2011 to 2017 varied from 5.207 (C-) in 2011 to 5.173 (C-) in 2012 and declined to mean score of D+ between 2013 to 2015. The national Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education mean score dropped to a mean score of 3.980 (D) in 2016 and declined to 3.734 in 2017 resulting in an average national mean score of 4.617 (D+) over a seven year period which indicated declining quality education. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of teaching /learning resources on quality of secondary school education in Migori County, Kenya. The study was anchored on Psacharopolous production function theory in education which relates inputs in education like teaching /learning resources to outputs in form of achievement measured by student performance. The study established that teaching/learning resources contributed 61.8% to quality of secondary school education as signified by the Adjusted R square coeficient 0.618. This means that teaching /learning resources played a significant role in the enhancement of quality secondary education.

  40. Enose M.W. Simatwa and Fredrick Aloo Ndege

    The government of Kenya encourages Income Generating Activities in educational institutions to generate income for enhancement of the quality of education. Whereas, principals of secondary schools have embraced this approach, little was known on the actual influence of Income generating Activities on quality of secondary school education. To establish the influence of Income generating Activities on the quality of secondary school education in Kenya, Migori County was chosen as the site for the study. Migori County was chosen among 5 counties surveyed because it had the lowest average mean score of 4.530 (D+) and between 2011 and 2017 it varied from C- in 2011 to D in 2017 exhibiting poor quality education. The average national Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education mean score from 2011 to 2017 varied from 5.207 (C-) in 2011 to 5.173 (C-) in 2012 and declined to mean score of D+ between 2013 and 2015. The national Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education mean score dropped to a mean score of 3.980 (D) in 2016 and declined to 3.734 in 2017 resulting in an average national mean score of 4.617 (D+) over a seven year period which indicated declining quality education. The objective of this study was therefore to establish the influence of income generating activities on quality of secondary school education in Migori County, Kenya. The study established that Income Generating Activities accounted for 50.7% of the variation in the quality of secondary school education. This implies that income generating activities can be relied upon in improving the quality of secondary school education. Thus the income generated is used to promote institutional inputs, for instance provision of teaching /learning resources, physical facilities and human resource.

  41. Dr. Ghada Taha Abdulhafiz, Dr. Ahlam Hussein Al-Sadiq and Dr. Ghada taha Mohammad Osman

    The study aimed at discussing the relation between psychological burnout and some demographic variables among employees in the Sudanese university libraries in Khartoum state, the sample study was selected in a stratified random sampling composed of 150 (90 males,60 females) whom are employees in university libraries in Khartoum state. The Maslach scale for psychological burnout has been used, The study concluded that the dimensions of psychological burnout among workers (males) in university libraries in Khartoum state are morally different from females, In addition, the dimensions of psychological burnout among workers (married) in university libraries in Khartoum state are not morally different from the single ones, there is also a moral difference in the average sample answers (the dimensions of psychological burnout among employees in university libraries in Khartoum state according to their scientific qualifications, In addition, the dimensions of psychological burnout among university libraries workers in Khartoum state do not differ morally according to their years of experience.

  42. Vinodkumar, K.

    Present era is the era of leadership of women and almost all countries in the globe started women empowerment and fostering the women leadership in political, social, economic and cultural sectors of the country. UAE is also not different from other global countries, UAE is also started movement for women empowerment by providing priory and equality in many areas like education, legislation, workforce, social, political and diplomatic sectors. The research entitled "Role of Women in leadership of UAE" is study based on the secondary sources of data only. The researcher collected data from various published sources and processed and discussed the leadership of the women category in various areas like education, political, legislative, workforce and diplomatic sectors. The researcher found that the government and rulers of United Arab Emirates are very much conscious and concerned about the women empowerment and brought them in to the leadership at the strategic and all other areas of the economy including the workforce in government as well as private sector.

  43. Junry A. Eñego, Bella Verda M. Oliveros, Alvin S. Loremia, Ricardo S. Aballe, Joanne E. Berongan and Marilyn M. Miranda

    The Educational Standards of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are one of the most important factors to consider in transforming individuals since it tackles the empowerment of each country. In the 2018 educational ranking, only five (5) out of eleven (11) countries in the ASEAN made to top one hundred (100) these are Singapore who made to rank 1, Malaysia who made to rank 19, Indonesia who made to rank 57, the Philippines who made to rank 75, and Brunei who made to rank 100. On the other hand, in the Philippines educational ranking, the University of the Philippines is rank 1, Ateneo de Manila University rank 2, De La Salle University rank 3, and University of Santo Tomas rank 4. The schools in the Philippines are striving for excellence so that Filipinos can compete easily with other educational standards of ASEAN nations.

  44. Dr. Aman Abrol, Dr. NehaAbrol, Dr. Priyadarshini Seal and Dr. Mallika

    Background: In an effort to combine the favorable physical and mechanical properties of conventional composites with the smooth surface typical of the microfilled composites, the hybrid composites were developed. Marginal adaptation of a restoration can be assessed by measuring the amount of microleakage at the interface area, after it has undergone contraction during polymerization. Objective: The aim of the present in-vitro study was to compare and evaluate the compressive strength and microleakage in class I cavity restored with hybrid composite. Method: Thirty freshly extracted human premolars were used. Standardized Class I cavity was prepared and randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 teeth in each group. The teeth in Group A was restored using Spectrum (Dentsply), Group B-Charisma (Kulzer) and Group C- Hybrid, LOT-FDH07U (Unicorn Den Mart) and then subjected to thermo cycling; immersion in 1% methylene blue dye for 24 hours; sectioning longitudionally; evaluation of micro leakage under a stereomicroscope and scoring on an ordinal scale (0-4). Compressive strength was measured after loading the specimen in resin blocks and subjecting them to compressive tests using universal testing machine. The results were tabulated and subjected to Kruskal- Wallis and Mann- Whitney test for statistical analysis.

  45. Asep Suheri, Cecep Kusmana, M Y J Purwanto,and Yudi Setiawan

    Runoff is an important element in the water cycle. The process and the amount of runoff that occurs and the factors that influence it are very necessary as a reference to determine the potential for water availability, water management, land stewardship, and runoff water utilization policies. Smart tanks are facilities that function as rainwater reservoirs for collection and utilization, infiltration, and detention of rainwater. The Sentul City (SC) area is in the Bekasi Hulu watershed, the land area is 2905.33 ha, with planned use for built land 83.62%, green open space 14.37%, and blue open space 2.00% (1). The research objective was to determine the amount of peak runoff, and efforts to reduce it by harvesting rainwater using "smart tanks" in the urban area of Sentul City. Runoff analysis with the rational method. Calculation of parameter runoff uses spatial analysis for land use, drainage boundary, DEM analysis, and rainfall intensity distribution. The dual benefits of implementing smart tanks, apart from being a source of clean water supply and also reducing peak runoff in SC and Bekasi Hulu.

  46. Biswarup Haldar and Bibekananda Mukherjee

    In ancient India Education is based on Gurukul System. There learners have to perform different creative and productive work. In Buddhist era creative and productive works are also practiced along with education. After independence the education system was reconstructed. The total structure of education should be changed. For more development in education some commission was created. Their main aim is learning through doing. Based on this concept the work education has been stated. But according to many persons art education is the substitute of work education. No subject can be substituted to any subject. Work Education and art education have the same objectives. Now days we all want all round development of learners in school. So art Education helps our total development. Through Art education learners get proper body development, increase thinking power grow creativity etc. For the welfare of the country not only politicians, scientists but also art and artist are also required. So proper art and artistic minded student making is the main aim of art education. Art Education equips learners with these skills, enabling them to express themselves, critically evaluate the world around them and activity engage in various aspects o human existence. In most Indian if (West Bengal) schools some aspects of ‘the arts’ have been established within the co-curriculum. While the degree to which the arts are included in national curriculum varies. It could be argued that most policies for the state school – as an institution-encourage people to take part in the social, economic and cultural life. There are two major contribution that the arts might make to schools attractiveness. Firstly specific learning in the arts might increase cultural understanding, enjoyment and achievement and identity amongst other attributes. Some abilities can be particularly effectively learnt in the arts, such as exploring, imagining and reflecting. While learning through arts might involve artistic and creative methods in making a range of other subject are as more attractive. School can be attractive in many different ways. The present paper is an attempt to highlight art education enhancing school attractiveness.

  47. Ahmed M M Gomaa and Rasha Elsayed Khamees

    Background: Despite advances in medical and surgical management of ovarian cancer, recurrence is still significant issue with secondary cytoreductive surgery (SCS) being considered as treatment option for carefully selected patients. Objective: To assess short term and follow up outcomes of secondary cytoreductive surgery among recurrent ovarian cancer patients. Patients and Method: After approval of ethics committee, this study included forty four female patients who were diagnosed with recurrent ovarian cancer between 2014 and 2019. They were treated at Surgery Department, Kuwait Cancer Control Center, Kuwait and both Surgery and Gynecology Departments, Suez Canal University Hospitals, Ismailia, Egypt. All patients had undergone secondary cytoreductive surgery and were followed up for 4-40 months. Results: The most common site of recurrence at presentation was local pelvic recurrence (52.27%) with peritoneal disease reported among 34.09%. Ascites was found among 18.18% of patients. The most commonly reported complications included ileus (13.64%), DVT (9.09) and wound infection (9.09%). Local recurrence after SCS was reported among 34.09% of patients. Mean disease free survival (DFS) was 24.8 months. Conclusion: secondary cytoreductive surgery for recurrent ovarian cancer is feasible when patient selection is appropriate and it can offer the patient with a better outcome regarding the DFS.

  48. Rishikesh Panthi

    The study investigates the impact of employee Motivation on organizational performance in Nepal Airlines Corporation in Nepal.75 out of 1200 respondents selected from NAC as a sample population. Mixed methods was used in this research. Data collected through the structured questionnaire and some keys personnel of the NAC were interviewed. The study used descriptive statistics tools for used to data analysis. In this context, this article explores the level of employee motivation in NAC, and discusses its impact on organizational performance. The theoretical foundation of research based on A.H. Maslow hierarchy Need theory assumptions, The findings show that there is still moderate level of motivational situation in NAC employees and its has significant impact on organizational performance. Both monetary and non-monetary incentives affected on employee motivation. These important factors are; salary and remuneration, job security, welfare facilities, leave and holidays, working environment and organization culture, carrier development, job placement system, organizational leadership, communication channels, relationship between supervisor, subordinate, management and employee, etc.

  49. Benali Saad, Ait Al Fadl Fatima Zohra, Jaouad Kouach and Driss Moussaoui Rahali

    Normally, the blood vessels of the baby run from the middle of the placenta via the umbilical cord to the baby. Velamentous insertion means that the blood vessels, unprotected by Wharton's jelly, traverse the membranes before they come together into the umbilical cord. The most significant clinical problem arising from a velamentous insertion of the umbilical cord is vasa previa, a dangerous condition in which the velamentous umbilical vessels traverse the fetal membranes in the lower uterine segment below the presenting part. In 6% of singleton pregnancies with a velamentous insertion, vasa previa is a coexisting condition. These unprotected vessels may rupture at any time during pregnancy, causing fetal exsanguination and death. Although spontaneous rupture has been reported before labor and with or without intact membranes, this accident occurs most often during amniotomy. In our manuscript, we will present a case of vasa previa and wil dicuss different aspects of this pathology.

  50. Profs Obi Desmond Obioma and Chris Ukachukwu Manus

    One of the most desirable and honorable values of Igbo marriage system is life, “ndu” and child “nwa”. There is no doubt that marriage has a very significant place in human society. It not only brings two different individuals together in a union of love and companionship, it also brings two families and the extended family members together. Marriage ensures continuation of the human race by way of procreation. This paper ex-rays, among other things, one of the most remarkable values in contemporary African family; namely the gift of children: as the Igbo express in their language: that Nwaka-ego – a child is valued more than money or that Nwadi-uto- a child gives joy and happiness; etc. Sociological and phenomenological methods are adopted to show to what extent the problem of childlessness has affected the African family; especially that among the Igbo of southeast Nigeria. After discussing the concept of marriage in the African society through these tools of research, the paper questions the reason why some African couples could not be blessed with a child-bearing is since it is accepted as blessing from God. After exposing the causes of childlessness the paper goes on to discuss some challenges of childlessness in African contemporary family situation. The paper goes on to draw attention of the readers some ways and means of meeting some of these challenges; namely through new scientific developments, adoption, pastoral counseling and others. Our paper also reveals, among other things, that childlessness remains the prime cause of crisis and instability in many marriages in contemporary African society. It points out that childlessness on many occasions affects the love and happiness which couples ordinarily should enjoy in their union of matrimony.

  51. Gitanjali Devi

    White grub cause extensive damage to many agricultural and horticultural crops as well as turf grass. The pests are difficult to control due to the cryptic habit of the larvae in the soil. Cultural, mechanical and chemical methods of control are recommended for the management of these pests. The application and/or management of pathogenic microorganisms have been advocated as an ecofriendly control strategy for insect pests. One of the promising biological control agents is the entomopathogenic nematodes for the management of white grub populations. Entomopathogenic nematodes offer an environmentally safe and IPM compatible alternative to chemical insecticides for the control of white grubs.

  52. Roshan Kumar Yadav, Subrata Mukhopadhyay and Jagatpati Tah

    White Sandal (Santalum album L), an indigenous best White sandal producing species, grown in Nepal in three different locations for exploring its edaphic factors as well as soil environmental factors through exercising different metrical characters. Indeed this S. album species is the most productive and high yielding species in regard to qualitative and quantitative aspects. It’s a high adaptive plant species which grows in a broad range of environmental as well as metrological conditions. These saplings of the plant were procured from India for taking up a trial programme as a case study first in 2012. Observing the plant survibility in the garden in Nepal, after a year once again they took initiative to have mega project programme and planted white sandal in three gardens in three different locations considering five thousand plant population in each garden. Twenty soil samples were collected from each garden before planting saplings in the field. The main aims and objective of this experiment were to study the growth behavior and adaptive index in each location in Nepal.

  53. Sanjay Prasad Gupta, Atul Kumar Srivastava, Iliyas Ahmed and Devendra Kumar Richhariya

    Cultural heritage assets are exposed to weather and submitted to the influence of environmental parameters. Physicals, chemicals and biological factors interact with constitutive materials. The air contains a large amount of biological and biotic components such as pollen grains, fungal spores, insects, mites, fibers and dust particles but their number and concentration depend upon the geographical location, types of vegetation and meteorological parameters. Stone objects may support novel communities of microorganisms that are active in the bio-deterioration process. Bio-film on the sandstone monuments contains a complex of consortia of Bryophyta and Fungi. The Bryophyta make up the photosynthetic part of the bio-film while hyphae, filaments and spores take part as fungal components. These structures make a dense layer by intertwining over the surface of sandstone monuments. In the present investigation, 5 (five) samples were collected from different sites of Sher Shah Tomb, Sasaram of Bihar State. The 6 (six) fungal species were isolated which dominate sandstone structures of the monuments. During the investigation, it was observed that Aspergillus fumigates was found most dominant followed by Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Rhizopus spp. The identified micro fungi cause discoloration as well as mechanical exfoliation of building stone material that was analyzed through mechanical hyphae penetration and production of dark pigments and organic acids. These organic acids are responsible for the bio-deterioration of various cultural objects. Additionally, stone objects may support the communities of microorganisms that are active in the bio-deterioration process. Therefore, the aim of this study is the microbial survey of the tomb of Sher Shah and summarizes data on the fungal impact on bio-deterioration processes.

  54. Gitanjali Devi

    Termites cause economic losses by directly destroying both living and dead vegetation. Use of chemicals is a common mean to control termite which cause danger to humans and the environment. Therefore, there has been great interest in finding other methods, especially biological control, of controlling termites and reducing the use of chemicals. Many organisms have been identified as being able to kill termites. This review outlines the potentials of entomopathogenic nematodes in termite management.

  55. Mamadou SIDYBE, Mame Samba MBAYE, Sokhna MBOUP, Seyni SANE, Rahimi Mballo Samba laha KA, Cesar BASSENE, Birane DIENG and Kandioura NOBA

    The management of weeds in food crops in African countries particularly in Senegal represents a time-consuming and labor-intensive activity. The permanent presence of weeds in crops is damaging in many ways. However, in tropical areas, plant species synthesize molecules capable of inhibiting the germination and growth of volunteerplants. This phenomenon called allelopathy offers promising prospects for weed management. Therefore, our investigation aim to test the allopathic effect of Prosopis julifloraon seed germination of the major weeds on pearl millet cropin the groundnut basin of Senegal. Three extracts of different concentrations (2.5%, 5% and 10%) were prepared from the leaves of the woody species. These extracts were tested on nine species of weeds and pearl millet at room temperature. The results showed that germination rates were greater than 60% regardless of the concentration of extracts for Pennisetum glaucum, Indigofera hirsuta, Senna obtusifolia, Sesbania pachycarpa and Indigofera astragalina.ForHibiscus asper, Mariscus squarrosus, Spermacoce chaetocephala, Eragrostis tremula, Digitariq ciliaris, the germination rates decrease in each increase of concentration. Based on this study, it can be concluded that the leaves of Prosopis juliforacould be used as bio-herbicides despite investigations should be pursued to put in evidence the molecule responsible of inhibition of weeds germination.

  56. Mohd Firdaus Halmi bin Jamil, Kamarul Azman bin Khamis and Mohd Ikhmal bin Fadzil

    Bank Simpanan Nasional (BSN) was launched on December 5, 1974 without lines five key goals that are relevant and key principles existence to this day is to promote and extend savings, especially from depositors small storage, inculcate good saving habits and save money, provide a channel for the general public to save money, the usage of the Bank's funds for investment, including financing the development the country's economy and to protect the interests of investors and other customers. In response to the Government's call to improve the quality and quality of life rural communities and provide banking access to those who need, BSN continues to grow and strengthen its banking network of agents (EB). At the end of 2014, BSN had 5,700 trained agents for serving the local community. BSN has also appointed agents in the area city / suburbs as another alternative channel for those who doing banking after office hours. This conceptual paper would like to identify the most effective roles of Bank Simpanan Nasional (BSN) to the socio-economic development in Perlis.

  57. Dr. Ramesh Rathod

    The present communication deals with the review of Armed, Income and Management administration. Armed administration identifies equally the technique and systems use by armed department, agencies, and armed involved in the management of the armed forces. It describes the process that take position inside armed organizations exterior of combat, mainly in organization armed personnel, their training, and services they are provided with as part of their armed service. Income Administration. The task of reforming the civil administration was a prolonged one, and in due course the systems adopted by the presidency as a whole came to apply to the Poona district as well. In a few respects, however, the problems of Poona administration were solved in a manner which indicated the lines of organization for the rest of the presidency. In the matter of land reform it is needless to say that the system of income-farming which had raised its head again during the closing years of the Peshwa rule was finally superseded. Management or Administration. As with income so with justice, a new body of judges having their seats of office in comparatively bigger centres of population was set up. In the initial stages, pending the development of a common civil and criminal law by the British power as a whole, these judges of the Company were assisted by local custom and the authority of Hindu law in regulating the method and measure of justice suitable to each case It is only recently that steps are being taken to rejuvenate what, in Indian conditions, was at once a more democratic, surer and cheaper way of ensuring justice in the common disputes of the village people than the more elaborate and rigid system of modern courts.

  58. Dereje Haile Mamo

    This study analyzed Omotic proverbs to examine whether any gender biases exist in the way women’s sexuality is portrayed. Primary and secondary data were used for the study. The proverbs were collected with an interview with ten informants from Omotic languages speaking areas and from two published sources on Omotic proverbs. Then the collected proverbs were analyzed qualitatively. The theoretical apparatus for the study has been drawn from a combination of approaches including patriarchy, hegemonic masculinity, and feminism. The selected proverbs were grouped based on their themes. The study revealed that in the selected Omotic proverbs, women’s sexuality was portrayed inappropriately. Even though there is changing images of women’s sexuality in the Omotic languages speaking family, it is wise to note that these changes are sometimes hampered by entrenched male centered societal views about women. Therefore, to bring radical change on the Omotic languages speaking people an extensive training and education about women’s sexuality must be implemented by all concerned bodies.

  59. Dereje Haile Mamo

    The purpose of this study The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare proverbs that represent women in a typical way among the Arsi Oromo and the Wolaita people. The proverbs used for the study were 60 theme-relevant proverbs collected by focus group discussion, interviewing systematically selected elders and by analyzing documents from each areas of the study. Qualitative research design was used to conduct this study. Women were negatively represented in the proverbs as powerless, sources of danger and problems. They were also represented positively as mothers and sometimes as good wives. Based on these findings, awareness creation trainings should be given to demotivate the use of proverbs having negative impact towards women. Arsi Oromo and Wolaita families have to encourage their children to use proverbs that reflect gender equality, and both societies should totally avoid the use of proverbs that reflect outdated negative perception of women in their society.

  60. Abdulsalami, Lucky T. PhD. and Esievo, Lovet Ovigue Phd

    The research “Reference and Information Services Delivery in Academic Libraries in Nasarawa State” is anchored towards a representation of Academic library. The statement of problem is geared on lack of recognizing the vital role of reference and information services, as users of these libraries do not use reference resources for their academic nourishment or pursuit rather they patronize other sources, hence the thrust of the study. The research is justified in that it adopts varied ideas and concepts by scholars, who have explored and contributed in the same direction with this study. The aim of the study is to examine the reference and information services of selected Academic libraries in Nasarawa state i.e. Federal University Library Lafia. The main research technique employed in this study is the quantitative research with emphasis on descriptive survey research. The study finally resulted to new discoveries in Reference and Information services. Hence, the study recommends that more study should be executed on the evaluation of reference sources and services in academic libraries generally.

  61. Yohana F. Cahya Palupi Meilani, Rinto Rain Barry, Pantja Djati, S. and Ahmad Hidayat Sutawidjaya

    This study intended to determine antesendents and consequences of private university lecturers’s job satisfaction. Through the positive effect of the work environment, jobs, compensation, coworkers to job satisfaction and the positive effect of job satisfaction to work commitment. The background because as an organization, private university needs to have a competitive advantage. To achieving competitive advantage by qualified lecturers as human resources. Lecturers who have organizational commitment are expected show the best performance. The study was conducted with quantitative methods using questionnaires as a data collection tools using 5 likert scale. The questionnaires were distributed to200 lecturers from three private university with more than 10.000 students in Kopertis Region 3 Jakarta, Indonesia who had worked for at least five years and had a minimum Academic Assistant Expert and Lecturer Certification from the Government. Using convenience random sampling. Then, response rateare193 questionnaires that can be processed. Data processing using SEM-PLS. The results show that jobs, compensation, coworkers, work positively effected on job satisfaction. While work environment has not positively affect job satisfaction. Further, job satisfaction positively effected on work commitment. The research contribution is expected to provide input for university managers to manage organization commitment through lecturer job satisfaction.

  62. Ssenyange Fred and Dr. Hua Hui

    The purpose of the study is to inspect social media use on the political empowerment of women in Uganda. The ability of social media and its influence on the current generation is explored. Social media use is disintegrated based on access and participation in discussions related to politics. The theoretical framework of Cognitive Engagement Theory (CET) is adapted and extended. Realistic data was collected through a questioner answered by 133 Ugandan social media users. It is observed that perceived usefulness, policy satisfaction and political knowledge as advanced by CET were found to be a statistically significant predictor of social media use for the political empowerment of women. The study outcome also pointed out that political interest and access to information were not statistically significant on the political empowerment of women. The study also steers a negative result on privacy protection, as it yielded a negative effect on social media use for political empowerment of women.

  63. Nguyen Thi Phuong Dung

    In Pali literature, Pethavatthu in Khuddhaka Nikaya recorded story about venerable Sariputta and his mother in previous life. A story entitles Sariputta thera Matu Petivatthu Vannanna which notes the existence of Ghost realm with many suffer, pain and distress. One time Buddha was staying at Bamboo garden who retold this story. Sariputta was dwelling in the forest not far from Rajagaha. At that time a Peti as female ghost arised who wanted to meet venerable Sariputta. But Deva heaven rejected her to reach his abode. She begged them and spoke that she was his mother in the fifth past life. Final Sariputta saw her through out of loving meditation state. She was suffering with hungry, thirsty, no cloth, no home and expected his saving. Sariputta and Mahamoggallana (Sanskrit: Mahamaudgalyayana) went to the residence of king Bimbisara asked king for supporting. King Bimbisara built huts, water, food, fruit and all life necessary things to Sariputta. Afterthat he offered them to monks in four direction and transfer great credit to his mother. She received it and reborn in heaven as Devi. This story roots in India which inspires for establishment a nice tradition as known as Ullambana festival which appreciates about the filial piety conduct. It is the foundation duty of human being for parents. Ullambana ceremony is observed in many Buddhist countries as China, Japan, Korea, Viet Nam. In this article explains, analyses, discusses in limited area for Ullambana ceremony according to Vietnamese Buddhist tradition which will have some characteristics different with another Buddhist countries

  64. Lawrence Santiago

    Advertising in India has assumed an essential part in the improvement procedure by generating an interest for customer products and increasing the livelihood comforts of millions. The aim of the study was to identify the consumers’ preferences about advertising among general public in Tamilnadu. For this study, the non-probability random sampling technique was used. A total of 820 respondents have been participated in this study. The questionnaire contains the general opinion about media advertisement. According to the results, majority of the respondents were using Television as their main source for information for products and services. In addition, most of the respondents were influenced by illustration and graphic image appeal of the advertisements.

  65. Dr. K.C. Das, Dr. Rajat Khandelwal, Dr. Rashmi Ranjan Pradhan and Dr. Pepse Pradhan

    Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening complication of rheumatic disease that, for unknown reasons, occurs much more frequently in individuals with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) and in those with adult-onset Still disease. Macrophage activation syndrome is characterized by pancytopenia, liver insufficiency, coagulopathy, and neurologic symptoms and is thought to be caused by the activation and uncontrolled proliferation of T lymphocytes and well-differentiated macrophages, leading to widespread hemophagocytosis and cytokine overproduction. We treated a young man who had severe form of Macrophage activation syndrome which was associated with acute HAV infection .This kind of severe complication in acute HAV infection has not yet been reported in the literature.

  66. Kifle Lentiro Lamade, Teklemichael Gebru Tesfaye, Membere Wtsadik and Admas Berhanu

    Background: The risky behaviors of youngsters or youths may further be worsened by the logic that university students are too many in number, lack facilities for sexual and reproductive health services and live away from their parents and free from parental control. To tackle the issue, evidence based intervention like improved access for youth’s friendly reproductive health services is crucial. In Ethiopia, despite the fact that much has been said about sexual and related issues of higher institution students, the assessment of the problem is not widely covered and search for solutions is mostly after the problem become deep-rooted. So, the purpose of this study was to assess the level of risky sexual behaviors among Wolkite University (one of the public higher institute) students in Ethiopia so as to respond for the problem. Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was employed using Cluster sampling to identify 1,123students’ from each college, departments & sections of the colleges in the University, list of clusters (groups) was established with area of study and year of study. To select these clusters, list of cumulative frequencies of number of students was calculated. Then the total number of students were divided by the clusters to get the sampling interval. The first cluster was selected randomly. The total sample size was divided proportionately to the selected clusters and to both sexes (male and female). Accordingly, males and females were selected based on percentages calculated. Finally, a systematic sampling method was applied to select males and females from the cluster selected for the study after dividing the cluster in to male and female groups. Result: In this emerging university ever use of substance reportedly was somewhat higher than a quarter, 28.7% (322) from a total of 1123 students. Among students reported ever use of substances, alcohol consumption was the predominant one, 157(14.0%), followed by khat, 57 (5.1%). Conclusion and Recommendation: The institute needs substantial progress in availing youth friendly reproductive health services as huge number of the youngsters, 225(20%) had risky sexual behavior and currently 7(1.5%) were HIV positive. Moreover, services for youths should be friendly and available with skillful professionals. This can be realized through the effort of tremendous stakeholders in the compound and elsewhere in the country like ministry of education/health or non-governmental organizations.

  67. Dr. Azhar Hashmi, Dr. Anil Singla, Dr. Vivek Mahajan, Dr. Harupinder Singh Jaj, Dr. Indu Dhiman and Dr. Nitish Abrol

    Introduction: Asymmetry when applied to facial morphology refers to the correspondence difference in the size, shape and location of facial landmarks on opposite sides of the median sagittal plane. Malocclusion cases with their asymmetric occlusal relationships often cause treatment difficulties. The nature of occlusal asymmetry may be due to dentoalveolar or skeletal asymmetries, or due to a combination of both these factors and these underlying factors complicate the attainment of a symmetric occlusion. Objective: The objective of the study was to use lateral cephalometric radiographs to evaluate skeletal and dental asymmetries in Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions. Materials and Method: Seventy -four initial lateral cephalometric radiographs were randomly divided into three groups: Group I (30 Class I lateral cephalometric radiographs), Group II (30 Class II lateral cephalometric radiographs) and Group III (14 Class III lateral cephalometric radiographs). Analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs included angular measurements, horizontal linear measurements and two indexes of asymmetry that were prepared for the study. Result: To test the hypothesis that the mean angular measurements were equivalent for the three groups an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used and statistically significant correlation was found(p<0.05).A chi-square test was used to test the proportion of individuals and dental symmetry was more statistically significant in Group1 and Group2 than in Group 3. Conclusion: Dental and skeletal asymmetry was found to be greater in Skeletal Class III and Skeletal Class II malocclusion than Skeletal class I malocclusion.

  68. Amita Bhargava, Subhakaran khichar, Pankaj Awasthi, Arvind Kumar Lakesar

    Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an acute polyradiculoneuropathy which is frequently severe in course and assumed autoimmune disease pathogenically. Infection is most common assumed trigger, either respiratory or gastrointestinal. Although rare, there are case reports published worldwide that pregnancy and postpartum period are high risk condition for GBS. It is associated and reported in all trimester. GBS worsen in postpartum periods and had a bad prognosis. Recurrence also been reported in subsequent pregnancies. Here we report a case of GBS in first trimester, post dilatation and curettage procedure done after spontaneous abortion. Early diagnosis with high index of suspicion with early and aggressive management can reduce morbidity and mortality in this group of patients.

  69. Kanishk Utkarsh Kaushik

    Background: Indiscriminate use of corticosteroids, widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, increase in the pool of immunocompromised patients and development of drug resistance has made treatment of superficial fungal infections challenging with increased rates of recurrence. There is an utmost need for novel drug combinations and improved treatment strategies to tackle this complex situation. Objective: To compare the efficacy of oral isotretinoin (20mg/day) and itraconazole (200mg/day)combination with salicylic acid 30% chemical peel for Tinea corporis and Tinea cruris. Methods: A non-randomized comparative trial was done. Adult patients between the age of 20-40 years. The diagnosis of Tinea corporis and Tinea cruris was confirmed by performing a KOH preparation. Patients with history of liver or kidney disease, diabetes, hypertension, those on corticosteroids or immunosuppressive therapy, pregnant and lactating women were excluded from the study. Outcome measure was change from baseline inerythema, scaling, pruritus and vesicles at one month. Skin scrapings for potassium hydroxide preparation (KOH) were obtained at baseline and at end of intervention (1 month). Clinical cure was defined as an absence of classical signs and a negative KOH preparation at one month. Difference in means between the two groups were compared with paired t-tests. Chi-square tests were used for proportions. Comparisons of the mean change in continuous measures between trial groups and associated 95% confidence intervals were based on linear regression with a robust variance estimator. Results: Within each group, there was a significant improvement (P<0.001) in erythema, scaling, pruritus and vesicles within after one month of intervention. Between the groups, there was a significantly greater improvement in erythema in Group 2 by a factor of 0.457(95% CI, 0.088-0.825, P=0.017). Improvement in scaling was more in Group 2 by a factor of 0.17, but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (Paired t-test, P=0.381). The improvement in vesicles was not statistically significant between the two groups (Paired t-test, P=0.571). At study endpoint, 32(91%) patients in Group 1 and 26(74%) patients in Group 2 had a negative KOH preparation. Liver functions were not deranged in any patient on itraconazole therapy at 2weeks. Conclusion: Oral combination of itraconazole and isotretinoin was more effective in achieving microbiological eradication than salicylic acid 30% chemical peel for Tinea corporis and cruris.

  70. Dr. Priyanka Arora, Dr. Nymphea Pandit, Dr. Deepika Bali, Dr. Shalini Gugnani and Dr. Neetika Bagga

    Background: In the modern era, missing interdental papilla is a cause of major concern to most of the patients. Compromised esthetics frequently results from deficient interdental papilla and the reconstruction of the lost interdental papilla remains a challenge for the periodontist. Materials & Methods:In the present study, two techniques: Modified Beagle’s Technique and the Azzi’s technique have been employed for reconstructing& obliteration of black triangles.Results:A total of 30 sites were surgically treatedusing these techniques. The mean Plaque index, gingival index,mean mesial and distal probing depths & clinical attachment levels along with the contour of interdental tissues had non-significant differences when compared at baseline, 3 months & 6 months.Conclusion:Contour of interdental tissues improved from baseline to 6 months. The surgical techniques used were fairly successful and the improvement wascomparable between the two techniques.

  71. Neethu Mary George, Amruthavalli Potlapati and Narendra Gangaiah

    Introduction: Endocrine conditions form a major bulk of those visiting physicians and most of the conditions warrant immediate and long term treatment which otherwise can indirectly affect all the organ systems and adversely affect the ‘health’ of a person. Thyroid diseases are one of the most common endocrinological conditions with varying skin and appandageal manifestations. Skin is an organ that is visible to naked eyes and can at times show certain manifestations which point to an underlying disease. Unless the clinician has high index of suspicion, such conditions can go undetected. Hence it becomes imperative for clinicians and Dermatologists to have an idea about the cutaneous manifestations of endocrinological conditions and hence the study assess the skin manifestations in recently detected hyper and hypothyroid patients. Objectives: To evaluate the cutaneous, hair and nail findings and associated conditions in acquired thyroid disorders. Methodology: A cross sectional, descriptive study where 50 patients with recently detected thyroid disease were analysed for skin, hair and nail manifestations and associated diseases, after obtaining written informed consent. Results: The most common dermatological manifestation in hypothyroid patients were nail changes (88%) followed by dry rough skin(86%) and acanthosis (69%). In hyperthyroid patients, the most common manifestation was warm soft skin (50%) and nail changes(62.5%). The most common comorbid condition in hypothyroid was diabetes mellitus and that in hyperthyroid was chronic urticaria. Conclusion: By identifying the skin manifestations, it helps the clinicians to diagnose underlying endocrinopathy and hence helps the patient in receiving corrective rather than symptomatic treatment.

  72. Nasarkhan, T., Das I and Shastry, V. G. R.

    Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic and has serotonergic and noradrenergic action. The metabolite of Tramadol is O-desmethyltramadol and acts on the µ-opioid receptor. It is 10 times less potent then morphine. Tramadol is used to treat both acute and chronic pain of moderate intensity. Tramadol is considered to be a relatively safe analgesic. Commonadverse effects of tramadol are nausea, dizziness, and vomiting, particularly at the start of the therapy. At therapeutic doses, tramadol does not cause respiratory depression, however, in patients with diminished respiratory function and who are taking additional Benzodiazipine drugs it may cause respiratory depression and hence not advisable. Orally administered tramadol can produce opioid-like effects (both mentally and physically but these effects are mild and not produced following parenteral administration. Fatal intoxications are rare and appear to be associated with large overdoses of tramadol and co-ingestion of other drugs (including alcohol). Tramadol is used worldwide and is listed as a step-2 analgesic in the WHO guidelines for cancer pain relief. Tramadol is also listed on several national essential medicines lists. Tramadol was first synthesized in 1962 by Grünenthal GmbH in Germany by coupling of the corresponding cyclohexanon with 3-methoxyphenylmagnesium bromide in a Grignard reaction.(1:2) Tramadol shows structural resemblance with codeine and both have a 3-methoxy group on the phenyl ring. Tramadol hydrochloride is readily soluble in water and methanol. Mechanism of Action The (+)-enantiomer of tramadol contributes to analgesia by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, the (-)-enantiomer by inhibiting the reuptake of noradrenaline, and the O-desmethyl metabolite by binding with relative high affinity to the µ-opioid receptor (4). Tramadol binds with low affinity to the human µ-opioid receptor. This affinity is approximately 4000-fold less than that of morphine (3:4) There are less chances of anaphylaxis to Tramadol. The Allergy Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Anna Meyer Children's University Hospital, Florence, Italy reported a case of Anaphylaxis to Tramadol in a child in 2015.No more cases of Anaphylaxis reaction to Tramadol are found in the literature We are reporting here a case of anaphylactic shock after intravenous injection of tramadol hydrochloride in emergency department.

  73. Daniel Antonio Muñoz González

    Introduction: Psychogerontological care is a current challenge in international health systems. This is due to the fact that affective and cognitive disorders are the most common conditions that older people have; being potential risk factors for health and quality of life. Objective: The objective of this article is to design a clinical care protocol for the psychogerontological approach of cognitive and psycho-affective alterations in older people who attend a mental health care center at the first level of care. Material and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 18 elderly people attended twice a week in the psychogerontology consultation, in the period from August 2018 to November 2019. To do this, the initial interview and the application of the Yes avage Test of Geriatric depression, the Folstein Minimental Test and MOCA test to identify behavioral, psycho-affective and cognitive alterations. Subsequently, the results of both standardized instruments for geriatric population were interpreted. Thus, it allows to know the needs of psychogerontological care for the research and design of care models. Results: 93% of the elderly are female, with an average age of 75 years. 100% of older people had mild stage depression and 46.6% mild cognitive impairment. Discussion: Given the results identified, a protocol of psychogerontological care is proposed that comprehensively addresses older people, through cognitive psycho stimulation techniques, problem-solving therapy and the integration of mutual help therapeutic groups. Conclusions: Psychogerontological care is an effective strategy that will improve the quality of life of older people with depression and cognitive disorders. Consequently, it will provide specialized guidance for the proper approach by family members, caregivers and health professionals.

  74. Rasha Afifi and Eman Alaa

    Background: Clinically appearing early caries are referred to as white spot lesions (WSLs). These lesions compromise esthetics and precede cavitation; therefore they must be halted by effective materials. Aim: To evaluate and compare microhardness of artificial white spot lesions treated with icon infiltrant, single bond universal adhesive and green tea. Materials and methods: Forty extracted human premolars were selected for this study. The teeth were debrided and stored in deionized water at room temperature from the day of extraction until used. All premolars were coated with a nail varnish, leaving a 4 mm × 4 mm window on the middle of buccal surface covered by label stickers. Then all premolars were demineralized with phosphoric etching acid material with 1 minute phosphoric acid H3PO4 37% to create artificial white spot lesions on the buccal surface. 10 of the demineralized teeth were kept as control group, 10 teeth we retreated with low viscosity resin (Icon Infiltrant, DMG, Hamburg, Germany), 10 single bond universal adhesive (3M EspeTM) and 10 with green tea (Ahmed Tea London). Enamel surfaces were treated with these three materials approaching three different techniques then microhardness of specimens were measured and compared. Statistical analysis: One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test were used to compare between more than two groups in non-related samples. Results: It showed that; there was a statistically significant difference between all the groups where (p<0.001). A statistically significant difference was found between (Icon) and each of (Control), (Adhesive) and (Green tea) groups where (p<0.001), (p=0.001) and (p=0.002) respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between (Control) and each of (Adhesive) and (Green tea) groups where (p=0.118) and (p=0.059) respectively. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study; resin infiltration technique is a promising micro invasive approach for management of noncavitated lesions and is expected to increase the span of micro invasive dentistry.

  75. Latha, B., Chitra, M., Ravishankar, J.

    Background: Two types of platelet concentrates (PC) are available, Random donor platelets (RDP) which is collected as a co-product of whole blood donation while Single donor platelets (SDP or Apheresis-PC) is collected from voluntary donors with the help of automated cell separator. RDPs can be separated by two methods, Platelet rich plasma method (PRP-PC) and Buffy coat poor method (BC-PC) .In our hospital, Platelet concentrates were usually prepared by PRP method and recently Buffy coat method has been introduced. This study focuses on in-vitro quality assessment between PRP-PCs and BC-PCs so that if BC-PCs are superior, the Buffy coat method can be fully implemented for the benefit of patients. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study done from March 2016 to August 2016 at Government Kilpauk Medical College Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 48 platelet concentrates (24 units of PRP-PC and 24 units of BC-PC) were selected randomly and tested for quality at the end of expiry. 2-3 mL of samples were collected from the selected platelet bags in plain test tubes using aseptic precautions and tested for the following parameters: 1. Volume of PC. 2. Swirling. 3. Platelet count per bag. 4. Leukocyte count per bag. 5. pH changes. Results: A total of 48 platelet concentrates (24 of PRP-PC, 24 of BC-PC) were enrolled inthis study. The mean volume of PRP-PC and BC-PC was 65.1±3.0 ml and 79.5±5.3 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC and BC-PC was 5.5 x 1010±0.2 and 8.2x 1010 ±0.7 respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC and BC-PC was 14.7x 107 ± 12.6 and 0.7 x 107± 0.1 respectively. All units were analyzed for pH changes. The mean pH was 6.9 ± 0.1(PRP-PC) and 6.5± 0.1(BC-PC). Conclusion: Our study, in concordance with similar studies, proved that even though BC-PC and PRP-PC fulfilled the desired quality control parameters, Buffy coat platelets were superior to PRP platelets in terms of increased platelet count, PC volume and decreased leukocyte count. There was reduced production related damage and improved platelet quality during storage, with BC-PC. It would be prudent to shift from PRP-PC to BC-PC method in whole blood component separation as the benefits like increased platelet yield, better quality platelets, reduced bacterial contamination and cost-effectiveness overweigh the reduction in packed red cell volume.

  76. Hussaini Y. Anka and Shehu Abdullahi

    Breast feeding initiatives programme was examine for the rapid growth and protection of infants against many illness including infectious and non-infectious diseases. Other benefits associated with good health being of infants through breastfeeding were highlighted. Nutritional status of breast milk and its associated impact to the lifestyle of infants was examined by reviewing relevant articles from a global perspective. Other benefits of breast feeding mothers were compared to non-breastfeeding mothers. Health improvement programmes and intervention measures that help to improve the health being of mothers and infants as a result of breast feeding was as well examined. Ethical issues regarding breastfeeding in hospital settings were addressed. Conclusion was made in respect to the breastfeeding mode as a global concern also highlighted.

  77. Dr. Sohini Sengupta, Dr. Babu, G.V. and Dr. Shilpy Dwivedi

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases of early childhood and is considered as a multi-factorial infectious and transmissible disease. Streptococcus mutans is the major etiological agent of early childhood caries in children. The caries forming activity of S. mutans on teeth are carried out through the formation of dental biofilm containing S. mutans and subsequent production of lactic acid. Milk is a significant part of the human diet. For infants, it is the sole source of vital nutrients for the first six months of its life. An extensively used nutritional supplement for feeding babies and children are infant formulas. Objectives: This study investigated the effect of four different types of milk i.e., raw bovine milk, packaged full fat or whole milk, packaged skimmed milk and infant formula on biofilm formation in the presence of Streptococcus mutans. Methods: A 24-hour culture of S. mutans was treated with various concentrations of the milks and infant formula diluted in bacteriological media. The biofilms were washed, fixed, and stained with crystal violet. The absorbance was measured to evaluate biofilm growth and total absorbance. Results: Biofilm formation occurred in all the four experimental groups and was statistically significant when compared with the control group. Between the groups, the highest biofilm formation was observed in packaged skimmed milk and the least in bovine milk at all dilutions. Conclusion: Bovine milk is least cariogenic of all the experimental groups while packaged skimmed milk is the most cariogenic.

  78. Dr. Anirudha Sharma, Dr. Varsha pandit, Dr. Shivani Bhatia, Dr. Esha Kedia and Dr. Sonali Bansod

    Dental caries which is a pandemic disease can be prevented even before its occurrence. There are many ways in which it can be prevented either by removing the etiological factors or bringing the etiological factors under control. Recent findings have indicated that antimicrobials are quite useful in reducing the load of microorganisms which are responsible for caries. Chlorhexidine is one of the commonly used antimicrobial available in the market. However, there is a lack of consensus on evidence-based treatment protocols and controversy regarding the role of chlorhexidine in caries prevention among dental educator. So, this article summarizes about role of chlorhexidine in caries prevention.

  79. Muhammad Ari Irsyad and Ridha Dharmajaya

    Background: Traumatic brain injury is one of the leading causes of death and disability in those of reproductive age, with approximately 0.5-1 million cases occurring per year. During the period of the brain injury, a cascade reaction occurs that causes apoptosis. Curcumin enhances the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) via BDNF coding gene transcription. The different kind of injury creates neurotropic factors and cytokine which protect the existence of excitotoxicity, such as BDNF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of curcumin on pro-BDNF(pBDNF) expression and apoptosis on the traumatic brain cellof Sprague-Dawleyrats. Methods: This study was a laboratory test on experimental animals with post-test only control group design. The sample size was 33 rats divided into 3 groups: the negative control group A (normal rats without curcumin treatment), the positive control group B (trauma model without curcumin treatment), and the trauma model group C (given oral curcumin extract treatment 200 mg per weight (kg) daily for 6 days). Results: There were significant differences in pBDNF expression between the three groups (p=0.000) with ANOVA methods. The positive control group B showed significant differences to the negative control group A and intervention group (p=0.000). Apoptosis showed significant differences between the three groups, which were as high as those for pBDNF expression. However, there were was no difference between the negative control group A and the intervention group. Conclusion: This study proves that curcumin stimulates the decreased of BDNF expression and decreases apoptosis in rat brain cells in traumatic models.

  80. Dr. Pragati Bramhe, Dr. Ajay Bhoosreddy, Dr. Chetan Bhadage, Dr. Prutha Rathod and Dr. Prajakta Chaudhari

    Aim: To compare the effectiveness of Ultrasound therapy and low level laser therapy in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders. Objectives: To compare the pretreatment and post-treatment pain intensity (VAS score); pretreatment and post-treatment mouth opening (measured as interincisal distance) in selected TMD patients treated with therapeutic ultrasound (USG) and Low level laser therapy (LLLT). Materials and Methods: A total 26 patients were selected as per inclusion criteria. Patients were divided into two groups. 13 patients in each group. Group I was treated with USG and Group II were treated with LLLT. Pain intensity was assessed according to VAS in each session. Inter incisal opening were checked by using verniercaliper before and after the treatment. Results: Mean improvement in VAS in group I was 77.85 (SD- 9.272) and in group II was 69.77 (SD- 12.5575) and the difference in both the group was not statistically significant. Mean improvement in interincisal opening1.31 (SD- 1.1091) in group I was and in group II was 2.62 (SD- 0.9592) and the difference in both the group was statistically significant. P< 0.005 was considered as statisticvally significant. Conclusion: Both USG and LLLT found to be beneficial in patients with TMDs and as per mean score LLLT gives better pain relief.

  81. Brian Serrano Ph.D., ATC, CSCS, TSAC-F, CES

    Superior Labrum Anterior to Posterior (SLAP) tears are a common injury seen in the overhead athlete population and are described as injury to the superior portion of the glenoid labrum from 10 o’clock to 2 o’clock when referencing the face of a clock. Erikson et al. (2006) propose two accepted theories of mechanism of injury which include the eccentric load that occurs at the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) during the deceleration phase of throwing as it pulls on the superior portion of the labrum. Since the LHBT originates on the supra-glenoid tubercle (50%) and the superior labrum (50%) itself, there may be a separation of both structures causing a tear. The other proposed mechanism occurs during the late-cocking phase of throwing that causes a torsional force between the LHBT and the superior aspect of the labrum which may also result in a tear as the athlete prepares to enter the acceleration phase (Erikson et al, 2016). It is likely that a combination of eccentric load during the deceleration phase and torsional forces during the late cocking phase result in a SLAP tear. It is important to distinguish between types of SLAP tears. There are 4 recognized types of SLAP tears but as many as 10 sub-types have been identified in the literature (Snyder et al., 1990). Since type two tears are most common in overhead athletes, they will be the focus of this study. We will construct a rehabilitation protocol based on the most current literature; add one range of motion (ROM) modality and one power output modality for a total of two groups (control and experimental) in a between group experimental design. The control group will be progressed through a rehabilitation protocol as deemed standard by the author and orthopedic surgeons. The experimental group will include the addition of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation patterns D1 and D2 starting in week 5 and the addition of the push press week 20 at a rep scheme of 5 sets of 5 repetitions. The purpose of PNF will be to increase ROM and the purpose of the push press will be to increase strength and power output. The working hypothesis of the author is that through the addition of the two modalities the experimental group will have better functional outcomes as measured by the Kerland-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic Shoulder Score (KJOC) and UCLA shoulder score. The subjects were chosen from two universities due to their classification as overhead athletes (convenience sampling). A total of 15 (n=15) subjects were recruited voluntarily from two division 2 baseball programs. Each of the 15 participants had a type 2 SLAP tear repair and was no longer than 2 weeks post-surgery at the time of recruitment. All exercises and progressions were supervised by a certified Athletic Trainer with at least 3 years’ experience in their field.

  82. Aduloju, I. E., Omachi, A. B. and Olagunju, I

    Spices are parts of plants like leaves, puds, stalks or roots that are used for organoleptic purposes, preservative in food, however some of them have therapeutic properties necessary for optimal health of humans, hence, this study investigated the chemical composition of bay leaf (Laurus nobilis), nutmeg (Myristical fragrans) and shepherd’s purse seed (Capsella bursa-pastoris) locally sourced from Offa, Kwara state and Ife-wara, Osun State. The proximate analysis of these species, bay leaf, nutmeg and sheperd purse reveal the presence of protein(2.04% - 4.7%), carbohydrate(4.5% - 32.6%), fiber (2.4% - 69.5%), moisture contents(7.8% - 12.5%), fat(7.5% - 50.5%), and ash(2.0% - 6.5%)respectively in all the spices. Likewise, the fatty acid analysis showed high values of saturated fatty acid such as oleic (5.3%-6.2%), linoleic (1.1% - 10.7%), lauric (0.7% - 36.6%), myristic(1.8% - 71.2), palmitic (14.8% - 21.3%) and stearic acid (1.3% - 3.5%) in bay leaves, nutmeg and Shepherd’s purse seed samples respectively. Also, the phytochemical analysis of bay leaves, nutmeg seed and shepherd purse seed were carried out revealed that among the phytochemicals analysed, quinone was absent in bay leaf and sherperd purse while present in nutmeg. However, the presence of the phytochemical constituents and nutritive properties of these spices shows that they can be used for therapeutic purposes.

  83. Ms. Padmavathi,S. and Dr. Sakthikumaravel

    The purpose of this Sky Yoga is to identify the benefits of physical activity and exercise for both Physical and Mental health for women. Sky yoga is supposed to reduce the risk of several chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, obesity, depression and osteoporosis) and premature death. Reviewed literature explored that youth who participate in physical activity and yoga are more likely to report good general health and more likely to have no feasible serious mental illness. The findings of this Sky yoga revealed that regular physical activity and yoga leads to improve health wellbeing.

  84. Prof. Rumiana Tasheva, Assis. Silvia Sinigerova and Krassimir Kolev, PhD

    The Purpose of The Study: Was to apply algometry to 29 trigger points during a study to prevent back pain in teachers. Materials and Methods: The initial phase of our study involved 91 teachers from three schools in Sofia. In an effort of the assessment of the pain we used an handheld Algometer ALGO-AN in 65 teachers, 58 (89.2%) femaleand 7 (10.8%) male. The average age was 49.91 years (from 24 to 70 years). Results from a total of 58 points on the left and on the right were collected and statistically processed in April - May 2019. Data were descriptively analyzed with SPSS 25 (mean ± standard deviation). Results: Analysis of the average values and variability of points with normal distribution showed that the majority of subjects with a response were at points 21, 22, 23 and 25 (left and right). The point of greatest response was 23. Points where the normal distribution was unilateral were: 4, 8, 25 and 29. We noted that for the points with more pronounced negatively skewed uniform distribution, the values of the median differed significantly from the values of the arithmetic mean (points 7 right, 10, 15, 16, 17, 25 right, 29 right). This confirmed the fact that the accumulation of values has shifted to smaller results and at these points subsjects had a more pronounced sense of pain. Point without reaction was 5. The unilateral response was measured in the following points:1, 6, 20, 26. Discussion: In the prevention of back pain, it is important to identify effective ways of accurate examination in a timely manner before the subjects become patients. In order to improve the diagnostic, we must look beyond the clinical tests to also additional methods and data to manage the prevention of the back pain. In this aspect, we can conclude that algometry is a method that is applicable in outpatient settings and workplaces.Our resultsdemonstrated that the majority of teachers were with a `presence of low back pain with high threshold and moderate levels of intensity, which is indicative of the initial stage. Conclusion: Back pain was a significant complain affecting the teachers. In the preventive study of back pain in teachers algometry has shown its diagnostic effectiveness with respect to intensity and localization of pain.

  85. Akash Nakkiran, Gunuganti Pradeep, Yogasai, M., Kavya Sritha Reddy, P., Harini Sakthi M. and Harishma, P. and Dr. Sujatha, S.

    Human Resource play a vital role in bringing about the process of production/business. Compensation is a major function in Human resource management that helps in maintaining a satisfied workforce. Effective administration of compensation makes the employees feel that they are a valued. This study investigates the effects of compensation and its components such as payment, promotion, recognition, working condition and benefit in motivating the employees. Various articles were taken initially and studied, out of which 30 articles were shortlisted to be reviewed for this study. These 30 articles were reviewed thoroughly to understand the discussions of the various authors about compensation and motivation. The learning of the article review process was used to form implications of the study and later the conclusion which indicates compensation as a crucial aspect of performance as it fuels the motivation of the employees

  86. Dr. Priyatama Vikas Meshram, Dr. Aradhana Kishor Choudhari, Dr. Sanjay Shankar Patil, Dr. Vandana Jaykumar Gade, Dr. Amber Wanam Raut and Dr. Poonam Ashutosh Jaiswal

    Objective: To evaluate microleakage of Alkasite material (Ivoclar vivadent) and Highly filled flowable composite resin (GC corporation Tokyo, Japan) restorations,immersed in tea, fresh fruit juice and carbonated drink. Materials and Methods: Fourty caries free extracted mandibulars molars were used for the study. Class V cavities were prepared and restored with Alkasite material on the buccal surface and highly filled flowable composite resin on the lingual surface. The teeth were thermocycled following the restoration. The experimental groups comprised of 72 cavities (3 groups comprising 24 cavities each for tea, fresh fruit juice and carbonated drinks), while remaining 8 formed the control group. Each of experimental group was further divided into three subgroups (low, medium and high immersion).The teeth were finally immersed in Methylene Blue dye, sectioned and evaluated under stereomicroscope. Results: The teeth showed statistically significant microleakage as the immersion regime increased. Carbonated drink group showed highest microleakage followed by fresh fruit juice and tea. Highly filled flowable composite resin exhibited more microleakage than the alkasite material but the comparison was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The three beverages used in the study affected the microleakage of both restorative materials significantly. The microleakage scores increased as the frequency of the immersions increased. Soft drink caused highest microleakage followed by fresh fruit juice and tea.

  87. Ruth Ruttenberg, Ph.D.

    Thousands of railroad maintenance-of-way (MOW) workers develop lower back problems from their work. This study calculates the social and economic burdens of these problems, borne by thousands of MOW workers. Economic calculations are derived from the literature and also from a survey of 4,800 MOW respondents, 155 in-depth interviews, and two focus groups. This one health problem alone costs at least $717 million to $1.103 billion over the course of lower back cases currently diagnosed among MOW workers. Many individuals work through significant pain or have to leave their profession. Some are crippled for life. When a worker has lower back problems, beyond pain and suffering, there are often financial burdens that affect families, railroad companies, insurers, communities, and taxpayers as well as the injured workers.

  88. Jorge A. Cabezas and María Laura Arias

    The synthesis of the highly active compound N-[3-(3-oxoprop-1-yn-1-yl)phenyl] benzene sulfonamide was performed and its activity against Gram (+), Gram (-), mold and yeast was determined.

  89. Dr. Dushyant Panchotiya, Dr. Brijesh Bavaria and Dr. Gediya, U. S.

    Diabetes is one of the common developing condition in young age now-a-days. This study is done to study the clinical profile, complications, treatment as well as prognosis of diabetes in young age group by taking 100 young diabetics as a study sample.

  90. Simachew Gashaye and Workineh Desalew

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of teaching early grade reading components on first graders’ letter word reading competency. For this study, quasi-experimental research design was employed. Participants of the study were selected using group identification test and simple random sampling technique from the selected primary school. Pretest was administered to 50 students to check whether participants of the study were found at equal performance in letter word reading competency or not. The results of the pre-test revealed that all the participants of the study were found at equal performance. Hence, 25 students were assigned in the experimental group, and the other 25 students were assigned in the control group. Data were collected with pre and posttests, and analyzed using T- test. After the intervention, the independent T- test results from the post-test indicated that the performance of the students in the experimental group was found to be statistically significant in all early grade-reading components. However, the result of paired T- test in the control group indicates that there was no a statistically significant difference between the pre and post test. Therefore, teaching early grade reading components with explicit instruction enable first graders to improve their letter word-reading competency.

  91. Keshav Ram Benipal

    In the modern era fibroid during pregnancy is increased due to increased maternal age and assisted reproductive technique. During caesarean section myomectomy is the most common surgical procedure performed. There is controversy between the obstetricians about myomectomy during cesarean section because of associated complication.

  92. Ms. Ithihasa, M. and Mrs. Naganandini, V.

    Introduction: Renal calculi is one of the most common disorders among urological diseases. Renal stone formation is a multifactorial condition. Objectives: To assess the knowledge on risk factors of renal calculi among female students and to determine the association between level of knowledge on risk factors of renal calculi with selected demographic variables. Methodology: Quantitative cross sectional research design was used and 300 female engineering students were selected by using systematic random sampling technique. Informed consent was taken from all the participants. Data was collected using a self- structured questionnaire. Results: Majority 227 (75.7%) of participants having inadequate knowledge, 39 (13%) of participants having moderate knowledge and only 34 (11.3%) of participants having adequate knowledge on risk factors of renal calculi. The associations of demographic variables with the level of knowledge on prostate cancer were determined by using chi-square test which revealed that, age, education of father, education of mother, occupation of father, occupation of mother, monthly family income, type of residence, type of diet, frequency of intake of non vegetarian diet, family history are statistically significant at p<0.01 level. Conclusion: The study concluded that majority of female engineering students had inadequate knowledge on risk factors of renal calculi. Hence there is a need to improve the knowledge regarding risk factors and preventive measures of renal calculi.

  93. Lazrak, F.Z., Aourarh, S., Jahdaoui, A., Rahali, F.Z., Sayagh, S., Ait Ameur, M. and Chakour, M.

    Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) is one of a group of disorders grouped together as thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and characterized by the association of mechanical haemolytic anemia, peripheral thrombocytopenia, and failure of organs of variable severity (1). Atypical HUS with a different clinical presentation and evolution, the onset may be misleading and as typical HUS manifest as diarrhea. Atypical HUS represents only 10% of HUS cases in children (3). Although some causes can be identified, the etiology of atypical HUS often remains unknown (4). Atypical HUS occurs at all ages. The clinical presentation and evolution are different from those of postdiarrheal HUS. Prodromes such as vomiting, fever, and upper respiratory infection are inconsistent. Atypical HUS often has an insidious onset and evolves by pushing or progressively a single outfit. A neurological impairment can be observed. A high proportion of patients maintain more or less severe renal insufficiency and high blood pressure. Nevertheless, some children have a less severe form and a favorable prognosis (2). We report a rare pediatric case of atypical HUS without schizocytes on a blood smear with a picture of haemophagocytosis associated with an infant aged 23 months.

  94. Nawal Hanim Abdullah, Nurfatin Umira A. Rahim and Hamimah Hassan

    Development is meant to improve human condition, as well as human environment, places to stay & visit; hence, sustainable development should ensure the survival of the system at a higher level, or otherwise it is not worth doing it. The purpose of this study is to assess Sustainable Attraction Management (SAM) dimensions in contributing to tourist satisfaction and intention to revisit at the UNESCO’s world heritage site in Penang, Malaysia. Prior to the data collection, questionnaire were established and self-administered distributed among 180 respondents. Descriptive analysis was used to determine the travel experience characteristics and socio demographic background. Correlation and multiple regression analysis were also utilized to determine relationship between independent and dependent variable. The findings of the study revealed that all the dimensions of SAM are correlated with tourist satisfaction. Hence, authenticity dimension is the best predictor in determining tourist satisfaction and revisit intention for heritage sites. This research contribute to the bigger perspective of developing quality tourist attraction and sites through the sustainability of environmental, social, authenticity and service dimension perspectives. Consequently, heritage site managers, operators and authorities may implement a sustainable tourism practices, thus to sustain the image and value of these UNESCO’s world heritage sites in a long term.

  95. GUEYE Fatou kine, MBAYE Mame Samba, DIENG Birane, NDOUR Sanou, GUEYE Modou Fall, GAYE Alioune and NOBA kandioura

    Senegal, due to its geographical position, has a great diversity of plant species that can contribute to food security. However, they tend to disappear due to changes in diet. As a result, there is an urgent need to know these species and the knowledge associated with them. This study contributes to the knowledge of neglected and underutilized species in Senegal. More specifically, it aims to know the species of the genus Nymphaea used in the low and deltas of the Senegal River and to determine the various uses and uses of the species. This is a survey of 340 people in 17 villages in the delta and lower Senegal River. It allowed to see two species used: Nymphaea lotus and Nymphaea micrantha. The only organs of this species used are the seeds and bulbs. The diversity of uses shows their importance in the region. The Informant Consensus Factor (FCI) greater than 0.90 reveals in the assembly a high-level agreement of our informants on the use of these plants in food and pharmacopoeia. However more and more they are abandoned for reasons related to the insalubrity of the places of harvests and the difficulties met during the harvest and the transformation Faced with this situation, it is important today to continue the investigations in the sense of valorization.

  96. Adewale Francis Adejobi, Olawunmi Adedoyin Fatusi, Edward Oluwole komolafe, Christianah Mopelola Asaleye and Abimbola Samuel Phillips

    Background: The anatomical closeness of the facial bone to the neurocranium increases the risk for concomitant head injuries. Patient’s survival is largely dependent on the severity of the concomitant head injury; and prognosis improves with early intervention. However, detailed account of factors in patients with concomitant maxillofacial and head injuries that can determine the treatment outcomes is lacking. Objective: This observational study seek to assess treatment outcomes in patients with concomitant head and maxillofacial injuries. Methods: This is an observational study of sixty-one patients with concomitant maxillofacial fractures and head injuries in our hospital over a 26-month period. Information obtained included, age, anatomic sites of maxillofacial fractures and skull fracture, type and location of intracranial injuries, maxillofacial fracture treatment outcome and Glasgow outcome scale. Results: Fracture site infection and facial deformity were the only adverse outcome of maxillofacial injuries at 6 weeks. There was no significant association between age and treatment outcome. The GOS showed a steady improvement from good recovery in 37 (60.7%) patients at first week to 53 (86.9%) at sixth months. Patients with mild head injury had a significant better outcome than those with severe head injury. Conclusion: Fracture site infection and facial deformity are the facial adverse outcome seen. Patient’s age have no significant effect on treatment outcome. Treatment outcome was good in most patients (86.9%).There was a statistically significant association between the severity and outcome of head injury in the study.

  97. Hebatallah M. Said Zaghloul PT,PHD, Shahesta A. Osama Ghally, PT, PHD, and Mohamed Y. Abdelhamid Abdelsamee PT, PHD

    Ankle sprains injury or articulatiotalocruralisinjury are the most common musculoskeletal injuries seen by health care providers. The most common mechanism for ankle sprain is excessive inversion and planter flexion of the reafoot on the tibia. Sports rehabilitation is an important part of treating such cases. A rehabilitation program aims to return the injured body part to normal function. Objective: Subject Effect of Friction Massage Versus Balance Exercise on Pain severity, Range Of Motion, Single Leg Balance Test And Muscle Strength Test In Ankle Sprain Grade II. Subjects: Thirty young male athletes with ankle sprain grade II were selected. Methods: Patients were divided randomly into 3 groups: the first group(A) consisted of 10 patients received friction massage, the second group (B)consisted of 10 patients received balance exercise and the third group (C)consisted of 10 patients is a control group they treated with Aircast Sport Stirrup. The massage group received 15 minutes friction and effleurage massages on their affected ankles 3 times per week for 8 weeks. The second group received balance exercise 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Patients were assessed before and after treatment: ankle range of motion testing (ROM), pain severity (visual analogue scale), single leg balance test and muscle strength test.. Results: There was a significant differences found between the three groups (A&B&C) in ankle pain and ankle ROM in favor of group A&B. There was a significant differences between group A and group B in muscle strength and leg balance test. In favor of group A. Conclusion: Balance training and friction massage are an effective training method for rehabilitation of ankle sprain grade II.

  98. Opara, P.I., Alex-Hart B.A. and Nte, A.R.

    Background: Maternal and neonatal tetanus (MNT) are major contributors to morbidity and mortality amongst women and neonates in Nigeria, with neonatal tetanus accounting for 20% of all neonatal deaths. MNT are preventable through immunization and hygienic birth practices. WHO recommends two doses of tetanus toxoid (TT) for pregnant women and three doses for women of child bearing age in high risk areas. Aim: To determine TT coverage rates amongst women using the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital immunization centre. Method: Data in the TT immunization registers of UPTH kept from January 2011 to January 2015 (a period of 5 years) were reviewed. Information obtained included year of registration, vaccination dates, and intervals between consecutive doses. Women were considered eligible for a dose of TT if interval between consecutive doses was at least 4weeks between TT1 and TT2, 6months between TT2 and TT3, and 1 year between TT3 and TT4, and TT4 and TT5 respectively and to have defaulted if they did not receive vaccines for which they were eligible well after the minimum interval. Vaccines were considered invalid if received before the minimum interval between doses. Data were entered using Microsoft Excel spread sheet and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: During the 5year period, the number of women registered ranged from 1158-1625. One thousand, one hundred and fifty eight (71.3%) women received TT2 at the right interval, whereas 308 (19%) defaulted and 15(1.2%) were not eligible.16 (1.6 %,) received invalid doses while 137 (8.4%) had TT2 but were defaulters. Default rates increased with consecutive doses. Only 53 (3.3%) received TT1 – TT5 at appropriate intervals, 1266 (77.9%) defaulted, while 293 (18%) were not eligible for TT2-TT5. Conclusion: Tetanus toxoid coverage rates are low in our environment. The 5 dose tetanus toxoid schedule remain key to preventing maternal and neonatal tetanus. Concerted efforts should be made by all stakeholders to improve TT coverage using this schedule.

  99. Dr. Neerja Puri

    Background: There are many treatment modalities of warts, but most of them are destructive therapies which have propensity to cause scarring. Many antigens especially PPD of tuberculin bacilli are being used for the regression of warts. Objectives: To study the efficacy of twenty five cases of purified protein derivative of tuberculin bacilli for the treatment of warts. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was done in which 25 patients of recalcitrant warts were taken up for the study. In all the patients, 2.5 units of PPD was injected in each wart and upto maximum of 25 units PPD was given and the injections were given every 3 weeks for a total of 3 sessions. Results: Commonest type of wart seen in our study was verruca vulgaris seen in 15(60%) patients, verruca plana seen in 5(20%) patients, palmoplantar warts seen in 3 (12%) patients and genital warts seen in 2 (8%) patients. Regarding the number of warts 15 (60%) patients had more than 20 warts, 5 (20%) patients had number of lesions between 11 – 20 and another 5(20%) patients had lesions between 1 – 10. Complete clearance of lesions after 3 sessions was seen in 18 (72%) patients, partial clearance of lesions was seen in 4 (16%) patients and no response was seen in 3 (12%) patients. Conclusion: Immunotherapy with PPD causes boosting up of the cell mediated immunity of the patients which causes spontaneous regression of the warts.

  100. Pooja Jain, Swalpa Sharma, Narendra Padiyar U., Pragati Kaurani and Devendra Pal Singh

    A 21 year old male patient reported to the department, and complaines of malpositioned teeth even after he has undergone orthodontic treatment and wishes to improve the esthetic of his anterior teeth with prosthetic rehabiliation. Treatment plan for this patient includes CAD- CAM designing followed by zirconia crown on all maxillary anterior teeth

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