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December 2017

  1. Keerthana, B. and Dr. Delphine Priscilla Antony

    Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and treatment protocols in micro endodontic surgeries among dental practitioners in Chennai. Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and treatment protocols in micro endodontic surgeries among general practitioners. Background: Endodontic surgery is a procedure of last resort when non-surgical treatments have failed to produce the desired results. With advent of innovative and newer technologies, newer advancements are implemented. Microendodontic surgery is one such advancement that has made surgical procedure easier in endodontics, more accurate, reliable and increased the success rate of the treatment. In microendodontics, microscope and other micro instruments are used. The advantages include the easier detection of root apices and smaller osteotomies. Reason: To assess the knowledge and practice of micro endodontic surgeries among dentists in chennai.

  2. Dr. Mansi Semwal, Dr. Shweta Chaudhary, Dr. Rohan Shah and Dr. Sneha Desai

    Fibre is a bondable, biocompatible, esthetic material. By virtue of its wide spectrum of intended properties, it enjoys various applications in clinical dentistry. Different clinical applications include space maintainers, fixed partial dentures with a natural tooth pontic, endodontic posts and cores and splint materials in children. Fibres can be used as an alternative to conventional treatment in pediatric dentistry.

  3. Lalit Kumar Chandrawanshi and Richa Kapoor

    Background: In developing countries like India, where coverage of health insurance schemes is low, most healthcare costs are meted by out-of-pocket expenditure by people which leads to the vicious cycle of indebtness and impoverishment. The present study was done to identify the various ways of financing illness events and examine their relationship with health insurance and socio-demographic factors of a rural population of Delhi, India. Materials and method: The study was conducted in five randomly selected villages of Najafgarh, Delhi. Probability proportional to size was used to decide the samples to be taken from each of the five villages and systematic random sampling was done for selection of households in each village. The head of household (HoH) of the selected households were included in the study. Data was collected using pretested semi structured questionnaire through personal interview method. Results: A total of 370 HoH were interviewed. Out of these, 25.9% were covered by health insurance schemes. A total of 39.7% study subjects had history of illness in family (chronic disease or hospitalization for any duration / treatment for any illness lasting 1 week and more within the past one year). Only 23.1% of these subjects met the medical expenses by health insurance scheme while the remaining 76.9% made out-of-pocket expenditure (OOP) to meet the medical expenses. OOP was more significantly more common in study subjects who were less educated, employed in unorganised sector and belonged to low socio-economic status. Conclusion: There is need to increase the health insurance/ social security net to the larger section of rural population to decrease out-of-pocket expenditure on health.

  4. Shravani G. Deolia, Saurav Sen, Shraddha Rajoriya, C. Lalruatfeli, Aishwarya Salphale and Nancy Ramdinmawii

    Back ground: Research activities are increasing in all the fields of medicine including dentistry but there is dearth of information about the knowledge, attitude and behavior of dental professionals for ethical principles in research, especially in the developing countries like India. Introduction: Public Health Professionals and doctors play a very significant role in promoting and improving the health of the community. But there are some barriers that hinder them from participating. Aim: The ultimate aim of this study is to acquire knowledge about the barriers that doctors face while participating in Public Health Care. Material and method: A short-span study was conducted in Wardha, Maharashtra. A self-administered based study was done among 500 participants which comprised of 257 females and 243 males of different health professions. The questionnaire consisted of demographic details like age, gender and sex. The questions were close ended and they comprised of various questions. Chi square test was used to perform statistical analysis and level of significance was set at p< 0.05. Result: The main method used was self-administered questionnaires with sample characteristics of 51.4% female and 48.6% male. The age distribution of the participants ranges from 25 years and above with the largest age group being 18-39 years (73.3%), followed by 40-60 years age group (25.3%) and 60 years and above (1.3%). The participants have various qualifications with 30.2% being MDS, 33.2% BDS, 16.2% MBBS, 8.6% MD/MS and 11.8% BAMS. 25-30% of male and female participants and 15-35% of participants from different qualifications stated that they sometimes encountered language problems. . 36-37% of the male and female participants and 27-43% of participants from different qualifications felt that patients follow their instructions and give proper feedback only sometimes. 33-35% of male and female participants and 25-45% of participants from different qualifications finds it difficult to explain the disease or treatment plan to people with prejudiced mind. Also 30-33% of male and female participants and 30-40% of participants from different qualifications find difficulties in working with people of different traditions and cultures which add up to the cultural and traditional barrier. Majority of participants that is 38-40% of male and female participants and 30-60% of participants from different qualifications felt that physically or mentally challenged patients creates barriers to their participation. Conclusion: Result showed that interpersonal barrier and cultural and traditional barriers are the common barrier faced by the health professionals followed by communication barrier. Working with physically and mentally challenged patient also cause barrier in doctors’ participation.

  5. Dr. Nazish Akhtar, Dr. Vijay Raghavan, Dr. Priyanka Narang, Dr. Md. Asad Iqubal, Dr. Vinay Badyal and Dr. Mobeen Khan

    Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the mandible is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition which can lead to massive hemorrhage. The following is a description where a large mandibular AVM presented along with the congenital cardiac disease. An orthopantomogram (OPG) was performed which was suggestive of hemangioma. A computed tomography (CT) angiography revealed a large mandibular AV malformation. It is important for both clinicians and radiologist to be aware of this type of lesion that can have life-threatening complications. It is important to define the anatomical location and the feeder vessels of the entity in detail preoperatively. This communication highlights the common differential and use of multi-detector CT angiography along with other imaging modalities to prevent a fatal hemorrhage and arrive at a correct diagnosis.

  6. Dr. Vikas Jindal, Dr. Kavisha Kapoor, Dr. Chahat Puri, Dr. Amit Goel, Dr. RupinderKaur and Dr. DivyaJaggi

    The periodontal diseases are among the most common of chronic diseases to affect the mankind. Various chemotherapeutic agents are used but due to undesirable effects, the use of natural products has increased recently. Among the various, currently available herbal agents, Aloe Vera is considered to be most promising and high – ranking agent. In the present study the effect of aloe vera on reduction of plaque, gingivitis and periodontitis was evaluated in a randomized, single-blind, split- mouth study. Ten patients with chronic periodontitis having 5mm periodontal pockets bilaterally at least in one site are included. On One side, scaling root planing is done and on the contralateral side along with scaling and root planing, pure aloe vera gel was applied. Probing pocket depth, gingival index and plaque index were noted at baseline and after six weeks. It was found that there was significant improvement in the pocket depth and the gingival index readings after 6 weeks in both the groups. The results presented in the study suggest that Aloe – Vera gel is effective in the treatment of chronic periodontitis when used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing. It can become an important part of the preventive and therapeutic treatments.

  7. Dr. Akshay Minhas, Dr. Abhilash Sood, Dr Mitasha Singh and Dr. Sanjay Kumar

    Background: Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has gained importance all over the world. UHC is not a new concept for India as Bhore Committee in 1946 recommended that Indian health system should be designed to provide health services for everyone who would like to use them and get all services which they need. Estimates for OOP health expenditure between 1995-96 and 2000-01vary from 80 % to about 70 % of total health expenditure. Further, OOP payments constitute 95 % of private health expenditure with a weak insurance system and other community-based financing still only emerging. Methodology: A community based cross- sectional study on 2000, > 18 yrs of age, randomly selected, in two districts of Himachal Pradesh was conducted. Current health status, preference to Govt. and private health institutions, health policy and Out of Pocket expenditure details were recorded. Results: In Kangra district 52 % and in Chamba district 78.3% were male participants and 23.4 % in Kangra, 36.3 % in Chamba rated their current health status very good. Around 30 % in Kangra district preferred Community Health Center, whereas in Chamba 63 % Primary Health Center. Reason for preferring Gov’t health facility in both districts was related to less expenditure in Govt. institutions. 56.5% in Kangra and 69.5% in Chamba district spends < 1000 Rs OOP annually on Health. Conclusion: We observed that in both districts participants use peripheral Health Govt. institutions for basic health services. Majority is heaving govt. sponsored health insurance and majority is heaving Out of Pocket expenditure. Majority of participants wants all drugs and consumables to be provided free of cost in Govt. hospitals.

  8. Kianor Shahmohammadi, Gregori M. Kurtzman, Masih Rezaei and Ilia Deylami

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a polygonal, solid, and one-piece (1P) dental implant based on the concepts of fulcrum-lever force dissipation and circumferential and apical wedging to maximize initial stability for immediate loading. A threadless implant was designed with a Restorative Attachment and a Bone Engagement Zone as one unit and without any screws. Material and Methods: For this in-vitro study, two random human mandibles were chosen. Impact, drill, and hybrid delivery methods were used to insert 30 prototype dental implants in D1 dense bone zone. Placements were recorded and evaluated with pre- and post-operative CBCT studies and digital photographs. All implants were subjected to Finite Element Analysis and periotest before extraction to evaluate the structural fatigue and stress resistance, initial stability, resistance to micromovement, and amount of autogenous bone graft collected during each delivery method of the new design implant. Results: Regardless of the protocol implemented, initial stability and retention of the polygonal concept exceeded all expectations during the periotest evaluation. Macrogeometries on implant bodies were filled with the bone particle and a significant amount of fine bone was harvested during osteotomy. Although fatigue failure was no longer a concern, FEA demonstrated exceptional structural strength due to strategic design features. The structural integrity of both bone and implants were maintained without any observable microfractures around the osteotomy or delivery sites. Conclusion: With advancements in delivery technologies, impact implantology remains a conservative and an effective alternative delivery method. However, more in-vitro and in-vivo studies are needed. The results demonstrated the 1P fulcrum design provided profound initial stability, the most conservative osteotomy, and controlled ridge expansion. The prototype implants exhibited autogenous bone self-harvesting capabilities in all three delivery methods.

  9. Bhavna Nayal, Vidya Monappa, Chandni Gupta and Aruna Chanu Oinam

    Introduction: The term, ‘learning style’ describes an individual’s preferred method of gathering, processing, interpreting, organizing and analyzing the information. Learning style is the way in which students begin to focus on the topic, understand and apply new information in real life. Many students have different preference in learning styles and it is a major factor on their learning process. Researchers have defined four sensory modalities of learning: Visual (V), Aural (A), Reading/Writing(R) and Kinesthetic(K), which is called as VARK. Some learners have a preference for one of these learning modalities, whereas multimodal learners do not have a strong preference for any single method. Based on these facts the study was conducted using Fleming’s VARK questionnaire for students in year 1st, 2nd of MBBS and BDS. Materials and Methods: After we obtained the permission from stakeholder of VARK questionnaire, a VARK questionnaire that was used to assess the preferred study mode of the students was downloaded from website of the developers. The institutional ethical clearance from the university was obtained. This cross sectional study was conducted in Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University. The first, second year MBBS and first year BDS students took part in our study with their consent. The student questionnaires were scored and tabulated to determine the distribution of learning styles. Results: The results of the study showed majority in the groups were single mode learners 54.69%, 51.89% and 68.81% respectively in 1st, 2nd MBBS and BDS students. The analysis of indiviusuals learning styles in groups, we found that auditory and read style learners were statistically significant in BDS students when compared to1st mbbs students. Discussion and Conclusion: The students learn when proper environment is provided to them and it depends on the teacher who inculcates various methods to cater the learning styles of students. In our study we observed that in all groups majority were visual learners followed by bimodal style. This may be attributed to the teaching style in the sessions which will be lectures in traditional curriculum, where lot of emphasis is given on black board teaching and question answering in the class hours. Many studies have shown that students learn better by active learning strategies because active learning strategies help all type of learners. Knowing the learning style will have major impact on the delivery of the course. These studies will identify the learning preference of students and thereby helps teachers to have their proper learning strategiesin terms of teaching the subjects.

  10. Rajathi, G., Johnson, W.M.S., Archana, R. and Rahe, R.

    Introduction: Estimation of an accurate due date is of both social and medical significance. Care providers are dependent on gestational age to schedule maternal and fetal investigations, to gauge parameters of fetal growth and apply interventions timely for the management of prenatal complications. This study was done to develop a linear regression model using ultrasound measurement of fetal parameters to predict the gestational age in pregnancy. Methodology: This study was carried out as a multicentre cross sectional study in one government and one private tertiary care hospitals in Chennai among 145 antenatal women. Gestational age was determined by measuring fetal parameters like Mean sac diameter, Biparietal diameter, Crown rump length, Abdominal circumference, Head circumference, Femur length and Effective fetal weight. Results: The mean age of the participants was 27.5 years. About 57 % of subjects were between 25-30 years and nearly 23 % of the subjects were in the age group 20-25 years. Overall, 55(37.9%) of the participants were in 3rd trimester. There was a statistically significant correlation between the fetal parameters and gestational age in the second trimester (p<0.001). Conclusion: Fetal parameters are key predictors of gestational age. They are useful to detect fetal abnormalities. It is essential to assess the gestational age using multiple parameter. It is likely that the technological development of USG will continue and increases in ultrasound frequency will further improve image resolution of early pregnancies. A 3D and 4D USG will also improve our ability to assess early pregnancy viability and multiple gestations.

  11. Thumula Reshmi, Jyothirmai Koneru, Reddy Sudhakara Reddy, Tatapudi Ramesh, Dabbiru Rupachandini and Vadladhi Mahalakshmi

    Background: Human identification is the mainstay of civilization. Sex determination is the prime step in personal identification, which becomes difficult in mass disasters where corpse is dismembered beyond recognition. Research on sexual dimorphism using dental remains is a mining field, because no two mouths are alike and an individual tooth along with its arch dimensions is resistant to all post mortem insults. Aim: To analyse the maxillary and mandibular dental arches by performing both linear and angular measurements in anterior, middle and posterior portions by using occlusal radiographs for possible gender determination. Materials and methods: Metric analysis of dental arches was done on the maxillary and mandibular occlusal radiographs on a study sample of 30 with equal number of males and females of age above 18 years using software DIGORA. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: Males were found to have greater Maxillary Inter Canine width and Maxillary Inter Molar arch width with p value less than 0.005, Males were also found to have greater maxillary left premolar incisor angle and no statistically significant differences were found among other angular measurements. Conclusion: Maxillo-mandibular osteometrics can be used as a tool for gender determination but it is population specific.

  12. Dr. Sasikumar, K., Dr. Vijaya Narasimhan, V., Dr. Lionel John, J. and Dr. Durga Devi, G.

    Background: Distal tibial fractures are common in the light of increasing incidences of road traffic accidents. The existing treatment option of open reduction and internal fixation results in a delay in wound healing, thereby increasing the need for alternative treatment options. The posterolateral approach with locking compression screw insertion is a technique with potential scope, which was explored. Methods: This study was done as a non randomized interventional trial among 15 patients with open type 1 and type 2 tibia fractures. The surgical technique was followed up by measuring the duration of union and the outcome of the surgery was assessed using Baird and Jackson scoring system. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 45 years and majority of them were males. In 46.7%, the fracture was classified as A1 type, and in 20% of the participants, the outcome of the surgery was excellent. Conclusion: Locking plate compression using posterolateral approach is a positive and a satisfactory alternative in the treatment of tibia fractures.

  13. Dr. K. C. Das, Dr. Saroja, S. and Dr. Seema Mishra

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a rare cause of Acute pancreatitis up to 10% cases. In treatment, pancreatic rest, lifestyle changes, medications (fibrates, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and nicotinic acid) are essential. Many experimental treatment modalities have been reported as insulin and heparin infusion and plasmapheresis. In this study we present the hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute severe pancreatitis with multi-organ dysfunction which had not been reported in the past.

  14. Dr. Richa Mishra, Dr. Sangeeta J Palaskar, Dr. Bindiya Narang and Dr. Aman Raj

    Human papillomavirus infection is the most common sexually transmitted viral infection. Over 120 types of HPV have been identified till date. Some of them cause wart like lesions of the skin, genital and oral mucosa and some are etiologically associated with cervical and anogenital cancer. Recent epidemiological studies are also suggestive of their association with oropharyngeal cancer. In this paper the prevalence and clinical aspect of HPV infections of the oral mucosa are briefly reviewed for the purpose of updating the oral health professionals and raising the awareness of emerging relationships being established between HPVs and some oral diseases including oral cancer, thereby making it easier for dental practitioners to detect all the lesions of oral mucosa caused by HPV.

  15. Dr. Sunitha Priya A.K.

    Background: India being the “diabetes capital of the world” demands a pressing need to keep this diabetic epidemic in control. Poor sleep quality and decreased sleep duration have been linked to being one of the causal factors of diabetes. Thus sleep is not only a process of restoration of bodily function, but plays a major role in metabolic, specifically in glucose homeostasis. Though the link between poor sleep quality and diabetes is well established and proven to be bi-directional, the effect of sleep quality on the offspring of diabetics is not documented. So the objective of our study is to look at the effect of family history of diabetes on subjective sleep quality in I year Medical students. Methods: After obtaining the informed consent, students filled out questionnaire with details of family history of diabetes, based on which they were classified into FH-, FH+1 and FH+2 groups which represents 0 , 1, and 2 diabetics in the family respectively. Sleep quality was assessed by Pittsburgh sleep Quality index (PSQI) Questionnaire which is a subjective assessment of self-reported sleep quality. Results: The global PSQI score was significantly different across the groups with FH+2 having highest (6.86) score. Pearson chi square test showed significant association between poor sleep quality and strong history of diabetes. Conclusions: Strong family history of diabetes is associated with a poor sleep quality. An inheritable, overactive central sympathetic activity could be the possible link between sleep quality and family history of diabetes.

  16. Vishnu Vardhan, D., Venkateshwar Reddy, K. and Srinivas Nayak, A.

    A simple reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the estimation of Nisoldipine in bulk and tablet dosage form. Chromatography was performed by isocratic elution on a Stainless steel Thermo scientific C18 column with dimensions 4.6 x 250mm, packed with octadecylsilane bonded to porous silica (C18) with particle size 5 micron acetonitrile and water in the ratio of 80:20 % v/v is used as mobile phase. The flow rate is 1.0 ml/ min and effluent is monitored at 240 nm. Nisoldipine was eluted at a retention time of 4.4 minutes. The standard curve of Nisoldipine was linear over a working range of 0.3– 8 µg/ml and gave an average correlation coefficient of 0.999. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the drug is 0.1 µg/ ml. Recovery studies were carried out by standard addition method and the recoveries are found satisfactory within the range of 99.24 to 99.6 %.The method is precise with % RSD below 2. The method is validated in terms of robustness and forced degradation studies were carried out.

  17. Mahesh Reddy, R., Priyanka Gupta, Kapil Bhatia, Sourav Sen, Anurag Khera

    Chronic hepatitis B is a condition where various prognostic markers guide in therapy with antiviral agents. In this study we identified all the untreated chronic hepatitis ‘B’ patients, quantified hepatitis B virus DNA in serumand compared these HBV DNA levels with HBeAg AST, and ALT. Serum samples collected from 75 patients were subjected to tests for detection of HBsAgand HBeAg by ELISA, for estimation of AST and ALT levels by fully automated analyser. Quantification of HBV DNA was done using real time PCR. Correlation between HBV DNA levels, liver enzymes and HBeAg was studied and analyzed. We found thatHBeAg positive patients had statistically significant elevated ALT levels as compared to HBeAg negative patients, whereas. there was no significant difference found in the AST levels between these two groups.Significant correlation was found between ALT and HBV DNA levels (p<0.05) in HBeAg positive patients and no significant correlation in AST and HBV DNA level.In a resource poor setting HBeAg and ALT can guide in antiviral therapy. HBV DNA quantitation by real time PCR has a very significant role in determining the activity of HBV infection in addition to the markers such as HBe Ag and AST, ALT.

  18. Dr. Nagarathnamma, B.

    Femoral neck-shaft angle is important to convey the information regarding the race to which they belong. Awareness of normal neck-shaft angle with respect to sex and sides is useful to surgeons to treat the patients in different cases and also to design prosthesis. Hence the present paper was undertaken to determine the neck-shaft angle of femur in humans. Principal objective is to measure the neck-shaft angle, neck length and neck width in cadaveric femora. And also to find out the correlation between neck-shaft angle and neck length, neck width. The neck-shaft angle of cadaveric femora was measured by using Martin’s dioptrograph and goniometer; other parameters by osteometric board, Vernier calipers and scale. There was no significant gender or side difference in neck-shaft angle. The combined mean values of neck-shaft angle, neck length and neck width were comparatively higher in males than in females, both in cadaveric femora and in radiographs. The mean neck-shaft angle positively correlated with neck length but not with neck width, oblique length and trochanteric oblique length in cadaveric femora.

  19. Pallavi Panchu and Biju Bahuleyan

    Background: Real knowledge is to know one’s ignorance. The ability to identify the existence of lacunae in the learning process by a learner is due to metacognitive awareness. Metacognitive awareness (which is the knowledge of one’s own cognitive process) development is imperative to assist a learner perform optimally, particularly in assessments. A medical student, burdened with the pressures of never ending academics would be wise to cultivate metacognitive skills. In order to cultivate these skills, a baseline evaluation of the existing skills is necessary. Aims: To analyse the role of metacognitive awareness on the academic scores in medical students. The effect of gender on metacognitive awareness and academic scores were also analysed. In this cross-sectional study, all first year medical students studying in a medical college in South India were included using the complete sampling method. Methods: Metacognitive awareness inventory, a validated questionnaire, was administered to all the students. The average academic scores for the whole of first year of medicine in all the subjects were calculated. Results: The results were statistically analysed using ANOVA and independent t test and the software used was SPSS version 22. Depending on the metacognitive awareness scores, students were grouped into 3 categories; low (<50%), average (50-80%) and high (>80%). Awareness was compared to the academic scores and the difference in groups was found to be significant (p<0.01). A gender wise significance was also noted in the low (p<0.05) and average (p<0.01) categories. Conclusion: Metacognitive awareness has an important role to play in determining the academic outcome. Hence, incorporation of metacognitive awareness strategies in the medical curriculum is recommended.

  20. Anchalia, P., Yadav, N. and Ahluwalia, S.

    In order to ensure compliance to nutritional screening & its documentation as nutritional assessment form within 24 hours of patient’s admission, a prospective, longitudinal study was conducted wherein medical records of patients completing 24 hours of inpatient stay were audited and compliance rate was calculated. The study was conducted in two phases (Pre & post intervention). During pre intervention phase, existing methodology of conducting nutritional screening was studied i.e. nutritional screening was done by dietitians and documented in patient’s medical records, followed by receiving from assigned nursing staff for the concerned patient. Intervention was introduced in which, in addition to earlier method of nutritional assessment the documents were kept in the box file available at nursing station by the dietitians, instead of filing them in the patient’s medical record and two way receiving was taken (nursing and dietitian both took receiving from each other). In this method the nursing staff were asked to file the nutritional assessment document in patient’s file instead of dietitian. During the pre intervention phase and post intervention phase the compliance rate of filling the form was 75% and 96% respectively. Paired t-test was done and its value rested at 0.03 (p=0.05) and suggested that intervention was highly effective in rendering results during post intervention period.

  21. Dr. Kurdukar, M. D., Dr. Pandit, G. A., Dr. Khiste, J. A., Dr. Wagaonkar, A. R. and Dr. Tugaonkar, T. P.

    Background: Thyroid nodules are common in the general population, with a clinical prevalence between 5.3% to 6.4% for women and between 0.8% to 1.6% for men in normally “iodine countries”. Thyroid FNAC represents a simple, fast, reliable and minimally invasive technique to explore nodules. The Bethesda System for reporting thyroid cytology is standardized, reproducible and clinically significant system. Aim: The present study was aimed at evaluation of FNAC smears of thyroid swelling as per guidelines of ‘The Bethesda System of Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology’, its categorization into six different categories and its correlation with histopathology wherever possible. Methods: The prospective observational study was conducted at tertiary care center in which 120 cases of thyromegaly were subjected to FNAC. Smears were prepared by conventional method and stained with H&E and Giemsa stain. Thorough microscopic examination of all smears was done. Cytological features were evaluated and reporting was done by ‘The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC)’ to categorize the smears into six different categories. The cytohistopathological co-relation was done wherever possible. Result: Present study showed female predominance. The mean age of presentation of thyromegaly was 38.18 years. Out of the 120 FNACs 93.33 % of cases were benign. However 4.16% of cases and 2.5% of cases were Category I (ND/UNS) and Category IV (FN/SFN) respectively. Cytohistological correlation was possible in 20.83% of cases. Conclusion: Reporting by Bethesda System is an accurate and precise tool for the diagnosis of thyroid lesion on cytology, which triages the patients for clinical management. This can be used as a primary modality in the evaluation of thyroid lesions as the accuracy rate is fairly good.

  22. Binu, K. M., Nimmy.N.John, Jilu Varghese, Akshay Kumar, N., Sarfaraz, M. D., Doddayya, H. and Antin, S.

    Aim: Intravenous medication errors are frequent events. They are associated with considerable harm, but little is known about their causes. The objective of the study was to find out the IV medication errors in medical, surgery, pediatric and ICU department of tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: An observational study using disguised observation was carried out for six months. Nurses were accompanied daily during IV drug rounds for 6 months. Details of each IV drug preparation and administration errors identified were recorded on a standard data entry form. Information came from observation and talking informally to the nursing staff. The details obtained were checked and completed for each IV drug within 24 hours of leaving the ward. Results: Each case of IV medication error was analyzed to identify the main active failure, and was recorded in the form. IV drugs prepared and administered for patients were observed during study period. One or more errors were occurred in the preparation of 421 out of 827 drug doses (50.90%). Preparation errors occurred in 110 IV doses (26.44%). Conclusion: The study found a high incidence of medication errors of IV drugs. It is also evident from the study that pharmacist intervention is effective in reducing in the number of IV medication errors.

  23. Dr. Nileena Paul, Dr. Deepa Anirudhan, Dr. Lathika Nayar and Dr. K. K. Purushothaman

    Introduction: Type 1diabetes mellitus is a common chronic endocrine disease with increasing incidence in India. Improved glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus delays the progression of microvascular complications. Aim: To identify the factors and predictors associated with glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Materials and Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted on 40 children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus attending our diabetic clinic. These children were classified as having good glycemic control and poor glycemic control according to the target level of HbA1c <7.5% and >7.5% respectively. Demographic factors and disease-related characteristics were analysed. HbA1C, Serum TSH and lipid profile were done. Results: Among 40 children enrolled in study mean age was 12.52 years with male: female sex ratio as 1:1.67. We had 11 (27.5%) children with good glycemic control and 29 (72.5%) children with poor glycemic control. Younger age of patient at study, younger age at onset of disease, frequent blood glucose monitoring, good dietary control were associated with good glycemic control in children with Type 1 diabetes. Prolonged duration of disease, higher mean cholesterol, higher triglycerides, higher LDL and low HDL were associated with poor glycemic control. Conclusion: Younger age of patient at study, younger age at onset of disease, frequent blood glucose monitoring, good dietary control were associated with good glycemic control in children with T1DM. Prolonged duration of disease, higher mean cholesterol, higher triglycerides, higher LDL and low HDL were associated with poor glycemic control in children with Type1 diabetes.

  24. Roshan P. Verghese, Anjali, P., Manasa D. Hosamane, Jesin Y. Das, Chetan, R. and Satheesha Reddy, B. H.

    Objectives: Radiologists play an important role in evaluation of anatomical landmarks and anomalies associated with the same. In the atlas vertebra one such anomaly seen is the Ponticulus Posticus, which is a bony arch enclosing the foramen through which the vertebral artery passes. Some suggest that this anomaly has a protecting effect on the artery from external injury and few suggest that they cause compression of the artery leading to headache and migraine. Objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Ponticulus Posticus with age and sex distribution and morphological variations among the South Indian population between age groups 15-55 years using Digital cephalometry. Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Oral medicine and radiology, A.E.C.S Maaruti College of Dental Sciences And Research Centre Bangalore. A total of 400 patients in the age group of 15-55years were recruited for the study. Digital lateral cephalograms were taken and examined for the presence of Ponticulus Posticus and further evaluated and recorded for partial or complete forms. Results: Among 400 subjects the study showed a significant prevalence of 34.8%. Females (62.3%) and age group of 15-25 years (46%) showed a higher prevalence of Ponticulus Posticus. 23.8% showed presence of partial ossification and 11% showed complete ossification. Conclusion: Hence we conclude that Ponticulus Posticus is not such a rare anomaly. Lateral cephalogram must be considered as one of the basic screening tools for detection of these kind of anomalies of spine and radiologists should pay attention to the same.

  25. Yasmeen, G. and Prema Latha A. P.

    Background: There are many treatments given for anterior cruciate ligament sprain which includes Anti-inflammatory Drugs, ultra sound therapy, cyrotherapy however, studies involving taping technique for management of anterior cruciate ligament sprain are limited to this date. Objective: To find outeffect of taping technique for anterior cruciate ligament sprain of knee joint. Study design: Quasi experimental study design. Subjects: 30 subjects with anterior cruciate ligament sprain age group 20-40 years of males. Intervention: 15subjects in the Group A received taping technique with conventional therapy pre and post-test and 15 subjects in Group B received Conventional Physical therapy with pre and post-test. Outcome measure: Numeric pain rating scale, Anterior Cruciate Ligament Quality Of Life Questionnaire. Results: Statistical analysis was done by using Paired‘t’ test which showed significant improvement in both group. Conclusion: taping technique with conventional therapy has significant result in the reduction of pain and functional activity in patients with anterior cruciate ligament sprain.

  26. Dr. Mrunalini Mahesh Dadpe, Dr. Sourab Kumar, Dr. Mahesh Dadpe, Dr. Payoshnee Bhalinge Jadhav, Dr. Abhishek Jadhav and Dr. Shilpi Suman

    The word inclusion means incorporation. Inclusion bodies are nuclear or cytoplasmic aggregates of stainable substances which are usually ‘proteins’. They typically represent sites of viral multiplication in bacteria or in a eukaryotic cell and usually consist of viral capsid proteins. Inclusion bodies are typically identified within a cell by their different appearance.

  27. Rosa D. Devera and Jestoni D. Maniago

    This descriptive-survey study aimed to determine the perceptions of nurses on professional practice environment and job satisfaction in select hospitals in Zambales, Philippines. Research tools adopted from Nurses’ Work Index-R (Aiken and Patrician, 2000) and Nurses’ Job Satisfaction Scale (Yang et al., 2014) were utilized to gather data from 180 hospital staff nurses. Results of the pilot study reveals that the internal content validity index was .974 and both professional practice environment (α=.943) and nurses’ job satisfaction (α=.830) yielded reliability coefficients of greater than the 0.70.Ethical clearance was properly secured prior to the distribution of survey-questionnaires. The findings revealed that the respondents agreed to the aspects of professional practice environment (PPE) in their workplace such as supportive management, nurses’ involvement and acknowledgement of professionalism, quality of care and collaboration, and adequate resources. On the other hand, they were satisfied on the aspects of job satisfaction in terms of benefit and promotion, human relationship, work load and job environment. Hospital management should maintain a supportive workplace which encourages nurses to remain in the health workforce and enables them to perform effectively. Moreover, promoting social relationships and interactions among nurses and other hospital personnel will enhance the interpersonal relationships in the workplace. Cohesion, collaboration and good communication with colleagues will assure quality care for patients. Thus, health policy-makers and managers have to focus on promoting a sound professional practice environment.

  28. Dr. Sanjay P. Gadre and Dr. Asif Sayeed

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was: 1. To asses, evaluate and compare the analgesic effect of intrathecal nalbuphine when added to hyperbaric intrathecal bupivacaine and bupivacaine alone. 2. To evaluate the onset, quality and duration of sensory and motor blockade achieved with hyperbaric bupivacaine and nalbuphine combination when administered intrathecally for spinal anesthesia in lower abdominal surgery. 3. To study the effect of intrathecal nalbuphine on vital parameters. 4. To study any side effects and complication. Methodology: 40 ASA I and II patients of age group 50-70 years, scheduled for below umbilicus surgeries were chosen for this study. Patients were randomized in two equal groups of 20 each by lottery method. Group I (Study Group) received 3 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5 % + 0.5 ml inj. nalbuphine (0.5 mg) intrathecally. Group II (Control Group) received 3 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5 % + 0.5 ml of inj. normal saline intrathecally. Assessment of motor and sensory blockade was done by Bromage scale and pin prick method. Pulse rate, BP, respiratory rate and SpO2 were monitored throughout intraoperative period and 24hrs postoperative period. Results: There is no significant difference between 2 groups for onset of motor and sensory blockade but mean time of postoperative analgesia in Study Group was highly significant than Control Group. No patient in our study developed any side effects. Conclusion: Nalbuphine provides better quality of block as compared to bupivacaine alone. It also prolongs postoperative analgesia when used as adjuvant to spinal bupivacaine in elderly patients.

  29. Dr. G. Komali, Dr. Nallan CSK Chaitanya, Dr. Harika Guduru, Dr. Pratima Soni and Dr. Ajaykartik

    Background: Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy have been first-line therapy for many decades in the treatment of stage III head and neck cancer. Management of complications associated with these therapies and the disease itself is a major challenge for healthcare professionals. Literature survey revealed that there is controversy related to administration of antioxidants in chemoradiotherapy. Aims and Objectives: The present study was planned with the objective of knowing knowledge & beliefs of the medical and radiation oncologists towards prescribing antioxidants in head and neck cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 30 medical and radiation oncologists working in Oncology hospitals in Hyderabad utilizing an organized questionnaire embroiling the present utilization of antioxidants and palliative care in cancer therapy. The questions when answered were later retrieved and statistically analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Mann Whitney U test (Z test). Results: 75% of medical oncologists and 67% of radiation oncologists preferred naturally available form of antioxidants during cancer therapy. 60% of Radiation oncologists recommended antioxidants after radiotherapy. 83% of medical oncologists believe that antioxidants can reduce immunological complications associated with cancer chemotherapy while 66% of radiation oncologist opined that they can reduce mucositis. Conclusion: The present study highlighted that the naturally available antioxidants were preferred by medical & radiation oncologists, as the nutrition rich in antioxidants is trivial in cell protection and repair and would support the natural body’s defense mechanism. As the controversy over the concurrent use of antioxidants with chemotherapy or radiotherapy still exists, a demand for randomised controlled studies prevails.

  30. Govindarajan Sumathy, Chandrakala, B., Rajalakshmi, A. and Ramyashree, S.

    Pterion is point formed the summit of frontal, parietal, the greater wing of sphenoid and temporal bones which forms a ‘H’- shaped sutures. The Pterion is identified as the weakest part of the temporal bone skull. The Pterion is the important bony land mark to find out the position of anterior division of middle meningeal artery in the cranium. Our study was focused on the morphometry of various suture patterns in Pterion and its relation to the middle meningeal artery is also revealed. The quantity analysis will provide a clear idea for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and foresenic medicine.

  31. Koner Rao, T., Nagendra Babu, M., Karthik Reddy, R. and Krishna Kumar, V.

    Introduction: Several fixation devices have been developed to overcome the difficulties encountered in the treatment of intertrochanteric femoral fractures. However the management of such fractures still remains a point of discussion. Aim of the Study: This study is undertaken to assess the various modalities of surgical management of intertrochanteric fractures and their clinical, functional and radiological outcomes in our institution. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study from July 2015 to March 2017. The present study consists of 50 adult patients with intertrochanteric fractures of femur who are treated with DHS and PFN, Ender’s nails and Cemented bipolar prosthesis at Department of Orthopaedics, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagunur, Karimnagar, Telangana State, India. All the patients with intertrochanteric fractures were selected among the admissions, operated and results were assessed clinically and radiographically. Clinical evaluation was made using the Modified Harris hip score. Perioperative complications were recorded. The mean follow-up period was 6months. Results: Fracture union was achieved in all cases. Bony consolidation was seen after a mean of 20weeks (range 18 to 22 weeks) and the time until full weight bearing ranged from 10 to 18 weeks. The mean Harris hip score was 85.02 (DHS – 25, PFN-09, CEMENTED BIPOLAR 09, ENDERS NAIL-07). None of the patients had a poor Harris hip score. Superficial wound infection occurred in 3 patients and varus collapse in 4 patients. Conclusion: Due to the quicker union time, earlier postoperative mobilization, shorter operation time and better functional outcome, PFN seems to have distinct advantages over the other implants and is currently the implant of choice in the surgical management of unstable intertrochanteric fractures. However, the DHS, PFN, CEMENTED BIPOLAR & ENDERS NAIL have their own set of advantages and indications and play a role in the management of certain specific fracture.

  32. Singla S., Sharma, M., Anand, H.P. and Mittal, P.

    Objectives: To study Lower Uterine Segment cesarean scar using transabdominal ultrasound and clinical parameters in previous cesarean section antenatally at term. To study the physical nature of scar at repeat section and find the association between preoperative and intraoperative evaluation. Methods: This was a cross sectional observational study undertaken in VMMC & SJH, New Delhi. One twenty six women with previous cesarean section were enrolled in the study to evaluate the correlation between clinical and ultrasonographic parameters determined antenatally with the physical nature of scar intraoperatively. Results and Conclusions: In the study, the women with ICP≤2 years, had significantly weaker scar (grade III/IV=55.56%). In women with post operative wound sepsis in previous LSCS, especially the one’s who underwent healing of wound by secondary intention were found to have a higher incidence of weaker scar (grade III/IV=33.4%). A higher percentage of weaker scar,i.e. 34.7% was found in women with maternal tachycardia >100 per minute and 88.89% in women with scar tenderness in peripartum period. Using the ROC curve a cut off of 2.4mm was derived for LUS USG scar thickness. Association of TAS USG LUS scar thickness and per operative grade of scar was found to be significant (p=0.0003). The study revealed a short ICP≤2 years, healing of previous scar by secondary intention, pulse rate>100, scar tenderness, scar thickness<2.4mm, adversely affect the scar, recommending avoidance of TOLAC in such cases. Scar thickness should be measured routinely using TAS USG.

  33. Gupta Nidhi, Mujib Ahmed, B.R. and Jadhav Kiran

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of AgNORsas quantitative and qualitative criteria in assessing the proliferation potential of Dentigerous cyst, Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor (KCOT), Conventional ameloblastoma and Unicysticameloblastoma. Materials and Methods: Histological sections were stained usingsilver nitrate method and AgNOR dots counted at 100x magnification. Quantitative variations were assessed in terms of numbers and qualitative variations were assessedin terms of size, shape and pattern of distribution of the individual AgNOR dots. Results were expressed as Mean ± Standard Deviation, range values and coefficient of variation. One way ANOVA was applied to attain comparison between groups and within group. Post-Hoc Tukey’s test was used for evaluating honestly significant difference between groups. A p-value of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical significance. Results: Mean number of NORs in each odontogenic lesion indicated a significant difference between the four groups (P<.01) except between keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and Unicysticameloblastoma (P<0.95). In relation to thequalitativeassessmentof AgNORs, dentigerous cysts had a single or few large dots within the nucleus, representing the nucleolus, while Unicystic ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor exhibited discrete small dots within the nucleolus, andconventionalameloblastomasexhibited fine black dots dispersed throughout the nucleoplasm. Conclusion: AgNORshave a direct positive correlation with proliferative potential of odontogenic cyst and tumors.

  34. Monicah Njambi Kibe, Silvenus Konyole, Gordon Nguka, Micky Olutende Oloo, Doreen Kathure and Peter M. Wangari

    Background: Overproduction of oxidants (reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) in human body can cause an imbalance and lead to oxidative damage to large biomolecules such as proteins, lipids and DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) which is responsible for the development of chronic diseases. Metabolic diseases are associated to our daily lifestyle, mostly unbalanced energy-rich diet lacking fiber and bioactive compounds such as micronutrients and phytochemicals. Scavenging of these oxidants is thought to be an effective measure to depress the level of oxidative stress. Adequate dietary intake of fruits and vegetables may have protective effects against a number of diseases due to the biological protective effects of phytochemicals in these foods. Methodology: The reviewed article was obtained by using search tools to search for studies done within the year 2013 to 2017. Key words such as phytochemicals, antioxidants, polyphenols, bioavailability and health were used in the searching. Studies were searched in journals such as PUBMED, Science direct and Mendeley desktop used in the writing and referencing of the article. Results: Antioxidants found in popularly consumed vegetables, including red beans, have been found to prevent diabetic complications. Healthy eating practices that emphasizes consumption of plant based foods plays vital roles in the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer, cataract, heart diseases, age related function decline and stroke. Conclusion: Health practitioners should emphasize consumption of plant based foods as per the recommendations since they play a big role in the prevention and control of chronic diseases that are of high prevalence now and affected people all over the world.

  35. Dr. Maina Gite, Dr. Gita Mandlik, Dr. Charu Girotra, Dr. Swati Gotmare, Dr. Mandavi Waghmare, Dr. Asha Rathod, Dr. Uday Tambe, Dr. Pratibha Kavle, Dr. Sushma Sonawane

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) was first described as a distinct clinico-pathological entity by Ackerman in 1948. The name of this variety of Squamous cell carcinoma makes it distinctive. Although this carcinoma has been reported in extra-oral sites, it is a rare intra-oral entity, commonly found in oral mucosal sites. The common sites of occurrence of VC are buccal mucosa> gingiva> alveolar ridge> palate and floor of mouth and very rarely on tongue. Here we report a rare case of a large Verrucous carcinomatous lesion on left lateral anterior region of tongue in 78 year old female associated with human papilloma virus 16 without any history of tobacco related habits.

  36. Dr. Uzmagulzar and Dr. Rames. I. Talele

    Malignant hyperthermia is rare inherited disorder in our part of the world; there are only few cases reported in literature in India who were suspected of having this condition. The overall incidence of malignant hyperthermia during general anesthesia is estimated to range from 1: 5000 to 1: 50,000–100,000 and mortality rate is estimated to be <5% in the presence of standard care. In India, there is no center where in vitro halothane caffeine contraction test is performed to confirm diagnosis in suspected cases. Second, dantrolene drug of choice for this condition is not freely available in market in India and is stored only in some hospitals in few major cities. Among the cases reported of suspected of malignant hyperthermia in India almost 50% have survived the condition despite nonavailability of dantrolene emphasizing role of early detection and aggressive management in these cases.

  37. Dr. Nalluri Kranthi Koushik, Dr. Gaddam Chandrika, Dr. Bollu Mounica, Dr. Gummalla Pitchaiah and Dr. D. Dhachinamoorthi

    The study was aimed to assess the prevalence of disease states and to find out medication taking behavior of patients in rural area in Guntur. A crossectional study was conducted in the community setting (Rural Areas around the Guntur) for a duration of 6 months period i.e., from January 2016 to June 2016. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria subjects were enrolled and data was collected. Out of 252 subjects enrolled majority of the subjects were within the age group of 30-50 yrs, and were males, employed, had primary education, income level per month was <10,000. Majority of the population surveyed were suffering from both hypertension and diabetes, followed by hypertension, diabetes, asthma alone etc. Most of the people were using medication from at least 2 years and were on 5-10 medications. Majority of patients were using OTC products for minor ailments and was found to be analgesic category. This study concludes that Prevalence of disease states was alarming, and there is a need for clinical pharmacist to recognize and to incorporate the necessary step to reduce the burden of diseases and to promote rational drug use.

  38. Dr. V. A. Kothiwale and Dr. Ravikanth Ramadhenu

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with obesity. The anthropometric measurements are used as the predictors of diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Neck circumference, among the various anthropometric measurements, is a convenient method associated with metabolic syndromes such as diabetes mellitus. Aim: To estimate the subcutaneous fat thickness using various anthropometric measurements and correlate the outcome variables with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A total of 100 patients aged 18 years or more with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric dataincluding body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, neck circumference, interscapular skin thickness and homeostatic model assessment to quantify insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were collected for all patients. Based on the HOMA-IR values, patients were divided into two groups: HOMA-IR<2.41 (n = 44) and HOMA-IR>2.41 (n = 56). The data were analyzed using SPSS 21 and were compared using independent samplet-test. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to find correlation. Results: Increasedwaist-hip ratio and waist circumference were observed in 96% and 97% of the patients, respectively. The mean fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial blood sugar (PPBS), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were 163.67±70.87 mg/dL (range 82–536 mg/dL), 243.16±87.75 mg/dL (range101–625 mg/dL), and 8.72±2.08(range 6.1–15.4), respectively. Reduced (79%) high-density lipoprotein levels (34.09 ± 7.83 mg/dL) and elevated (46%) low-density lipoprotein levels (95.13 ± 39.87 mg/dL) were observed in the patients. Neck circumference, FBS, PPBS and HbA1c were significantly increased in patients with HOMA-IR>2.41 when compared to patients with HOMA-IR<2.41 (p<0.050). Among the anthropometric measures, only neck circumference was used to compare the other clinical characteristics including, blood glucose levels and HOMA-IR.A moderate positive correlation was observed between neck circumference and clinical characteristics including HOMA-IR, FBS, PPBS, and HbA1c(p< 0.050). Conclusion: Anthropometric measures, such as neck circumference, have a high significance in detecting the subcutaneous fat thickness. The ease of application and low cost of neck circumference measurement may allow its use in public health services. Neck circumference can serve as a straightforward and time-saving clinical screening method in determining the risk of insulin resistance.

  39. Dr. Nitu Khadse, Dr. Ajab C Dhabarde, Dr. Atul Gawande, Dr. Pradnya Gawai and Dr. Sahas Bendle

    Background: This study was done to find socio-economic factors influencing the utilization of cataract surgery and to identify reasons for delayed uptake of cataract surgery. Material and Methods: The study was prospective, cross-sectional study over period of December 2012 to October 2014. All the cases of lens induced glaucoma were interviewed and the socio-demographic history was noted in a proforma which included age, gender, rural or urban residence, literacy, occupation and socio-economic status. History of cataract surgery in the other eye was asked. Distance travelled to the hospital and the reasons for delay in presenting was also noted. Results: Majority of the patients were from rural area 84 subjects (73.04%) and (68.7%) in our study were illiterate. The predominant reason for delayed cataract surgery utilization given by patients was lack of money in 43 patients (37.39%).In our study we found that rural background, distance from the hospital, illiteracy, occupational compulsions, socio-economic status and good vision in fellow eye all were influential factors for delayed utilization of services. Conclusion: Lack of awareness and lack of money in rural population is a major factor for delayed uptake of cataract surgery. Spread of awareness regarding cataract and its implications among the rural community in the form of health education, better quality information and communication and also expansion of outreach programs to different communities is needed.

  40. Rapotra, M., Sharma, A. and Sharma, M.

    Multicystic disease of the kidney is a common cause of enlarged abdomen in fetus. It is a congenital mal development, where the renal cortex is replaced by numerous cysts of varying sizes. Current study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh. It is important to know the normal developmental anatomy and histogenesis of urinary system for better understanding of various congenital renal conditions.

  41. Dr. Shailesh Pande, Dr. Vidya Salaskar, Dr. Anurita Pais, Gauri Pradhan, Chaitali Parab, Yamini Jadhav, Smita Patil and Sunmeet Matkar

    Ambiguous Genitalia (AG) is the birth defect where the gender of an individual is ambiguous. The retrospective study aimed at finding the frequency of sex chromosomal abnormalities and its various patterns in the samples with history of Ambiguous Genitalia. This retrospective study was carried out for two years on 487 cases referred in view of clinical suspicion of AG. The samples were received at the department of cytogenetics, Metropolis Healthcare Ltd, Mumbai, India. Peripheral blood (2-3 ml) from all study subjects was collected in sodium heparin green top vacutainer tube. Both, 48 hours and 72 hours’ cultures were set & analysed by GTG–banding at 450-550 band level. Out of 487 study samples, 243 cases and 220 cases were registered as male and female, respectively. For 24 cases, gender was not mentioned or identified. Out of the total 487 cases, 73cases showed cytogenetic abnormality and normal polymorphic variation was seen in 15 cases. Out of 32 abnormal cases registered as male, mosaic pattern for sex chromosome was seen in 11 cases. Out of 41 abnormal cases registered as females, 4 cases showed mosaic pattern. Since Metropolis Healthcare Ltd is a referral laboratory and because of the selection bias, there could be slight variations in percentage of abnormality as compared to the published data in scientific literature. This study concludes that for all cases of genital ambiguity, a cytogenetic investigation as a basic approach could be very informative and should be suggested.

  42. Kotha Pavani, Reddy Sudhakara Reddy, Koneru Jyothirmai, Nallakunta Rajesh, Boddu Naveen Kumar and Kotu Naga Venkata Sai Praveen

    Background: Human identification stays as one of the most outstanding fields of forensic sciences. Finger print analysis, dental comparisons and DNA analysis were most commonly employed personal identification methods. In circumstances like mass disasters, because of scarcity of available soft tissue remains, Forensic maxillofacial radiology plays an important role in personal identification by means of radiographic evaluation of human osteological remains. Frontal sinus and nasal septum, being unique to an individual can be best visualized in Postero anterior skull radiographs and thus can be used for personal identification. Aim and objectives: To evaluate the morphology and effectiveness of frontal sinus and nasal septum using digital Postero anterior skull radiographs as an aid in personal identification. Materials and Methods: 200 subjects were enrolled into present study. Digital Postero anterior skull radiographs were taken using Photo Stimulable Phosphor Sensor and were processed using Digora PCT scanner (Soredex). The obtained digital images were subjected to analysis of frontal sinus and nasal septal patterns using Digora windows software version 2.7 and the obtained information was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Frontal sinus and nasal septum showed high uniqueness and stability with a total of 1868 unique combinations. There were no significant gender variations in the patterns of frontal sinus and nasal septum except for the number of scalloping's and dimensions of frontal sinus. Conclusion: Frontal sinus and nasal septum patterns could be a promising adjunctive tool for personal identification.

  43. Dr. Krishnappa, Dr. Kusuma N. and Vaigundan

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by degeneration of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord leading to progressive symmetrical weakness and atrophy of the proximal muscles. It is classified into three groups according to the age of onset and progression of weakness. SMA I, II, III & IV. Type I being most serious form & type III being the mildest form & Type IV being adult onset disease. Here we present you a case who presented with similar history and examination for which genome analysis was done and confirmed the diagnosis of SMA.

  44. Alaa Alyousef-Roula Albounni

    Background: Majority of patients visiting the Dental clinic have poor knowledge about the use of rubber dam, Also Majority of patients have negative attitude towards treated under rubber dam. Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude and perception of patients towards the use of rubber dam at Riyadh City. Design: Questionnaire survey. Material and Method: Study area: The study will be conducted in Riyadh city, kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Study design the study was a descriptive cross-sectional on Riyadh population. Sample size is of (302) will reached. The study population implicated adult patients aged between 16-50 years of age, This study conducted the time frame of 2 months. Results: A total of 302 questionnaires were distributed, the gender distribution was the 46% patients (n = 163) were male and 54% (n = 139) women. The patients had seen the Rubber Dam before 29.1% (n=88) and 70.9% (n= 214) had never seen the Rubber dam before of the 88 patients who had previous Rubber dam application, had it placed by a dental student 18.9% (n=57) and 6.6% (n=20) by current dentist and 3.6% (n=11) by different dentist. Conclusions: In our study we found the majority of patients have not any knowledge about rubber dam.

  45. Dr. Shreedevi Bobati and Shrikant. Viragi

    Background: Blood transfusion is an essential part of modern health care. Used correctly, it can save life and improve health. However, the detection and transfusion challenges in Bombay phenotype have focused particular attention. Objective: To investigate meticulously the serological characteristics and secretor status of Bombay phenotype and transfusion management in patients. Setting and Design: This was a descriptive study carried outat a tertiary care hospital in Belgavi, Karnataka over a period of 6 years. Methods: A total of 27, 4361 samples including donors and patientswere tested for blood grouping. To confirm the Bombay phenotype, anti-H lectin was used in forward grouping followed by Adsorption Elution Technique. Results: Eleven Bombay phenotypes in 27, 4361 (0.004%) were detected in the entire study, and out of them six were patients who required blood transfusion and remaining five were donors. Conclusion: This study shows the prevalence of Bombay phenotypeassociated with consanguineous marriage, an important risk factor in southern India. The therapeutic challenges arethe arrangement of compatible blood units and management by alternate techniques.

  46. Rajlaxmi Nishant Kurian and Merlin Mary James

    Background: The acquisition of quality clinical experience within a supportive and pedagogically adjusted clinical learning environment is a significant concern for educational institutions. The importance of clinical practice can’t be overemphasizing as it prepares nurses to become competent practitioners. Learning in the clinical practice is an important aspect of nursing education considering the fact that nursing profession is based on practice. Objective: To assess the level of satisfaction of student nurses with their clinical learning environment. Design: Quantitative research approach was used using descriptive survey design. Setting: College of Nursing, New Delhi, India. Participants: The study was carried out in March – April, 2017, on 90 student nurses selected by convenient sampling, studying in a selected college of Nursing, New Delhi, India. Method: Data was collected using a rating scale for assessment of the level of satisfaction of student nurses with their clinical learning environment. Results: The study findings revealed that the most satisfactory area for student nurses was the leadership style (1.44) of their mentors in their clinical learning environment and they were least satisfied by the student-nurse relationship (1.41) and content context balance (1.41) in their clinical learning environment. The study concluded that emphasis must be laid on content context balance, for which the mentors should focus on aligning the content and context.

  47. Dr. Vidushi Sheokand, Dr. Nipun Dhalla, Dr. Pooja Palwankar, Dr. Ashish Verma and Dr. Himanshu Deswal

    Gingival hyperpigmentation due to melanin deposition is seen as a genetic trait in most of the population irrespective of age and gender hence it is termed physiologic or racial gingival pigmentation. Excessive gingival pigmentation is a major esthetic concern for many people visiting the dentist. Though, it is not a medical problem but many people are unhappy with their unaesthetic gingival appearance and find the discoloration to be very unappealing and detracting from their smile and speech. The problem can be treated by number of surgical techniques selection of which might be based on clinical experiences and individual preferences, of the operator. Esthetic periodontal plastic surgery is especially rewarding in such individuals with compromised esthetics. The cases are reported here on the cosmetic correction of “black gums” and “gummy smile.”

  48. Aishiya Ishrat

    Background: Neonatal septicemia still signifies acritical cause of mortality and mortality among infants. Onset of septicemia in neonates within 72 hours of life constitutes EOS. Early onset sepsis is attained during fetal life, caused by organisms prevalent in the maternal genital tract, infecting the neonate transplacentally or during passage through a colonized birth canal at the time of delivery or at the nursery. Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Microbiology of Maharishi Markandeshwar institute of medical science and research, Mullana. Result: A total of 93(84.55%) having EOS were studied. Male: female ratio was 2.03:1. Eleven (12.5%) were home delivery. Low birth weight (69.31%) and pre term (25%) were common risk factors while difficulty feeding (42.04%), febrile (21.59%) and breathing difficulty (20.45%) were common clinical presentations. The common culture isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae (21.59%), Staphylococcus aureus (21.59%) and Acinetobacter sp (19.31%). Conclusions: The low birth weight and pre term neonates were at an escalating risk of developing EOS. Klebsiella and Staphylococcus aureus were common pathogens.

  49. Hassan A. Abdallah

    Background: Symptomatic cholelithiasis is a common gastrointestinal surgical entity having the complication of accumulation of gall stones. For patients with residual stones in the gallbladder after endoscopic stone removal, the subsequent management of the gallbladder has been subject to debate. Many authors have advocated a wait-and-see policy after ES for these patients because only an estimated 10% of them experience recurrent biliary symptoms. It is hypothesized that early planned LC after ES prevents recurrent biliary complications and reduces operative morbidity. Method: This randomized study included 100 patients with choledochocystolithiasis who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiapancreatography (ERCP). After ERCP patients were randomly assigned to laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) within six weeks of ERCP (Group I) or wait-and-see conservative management (W&S) with cholecystectomy performed only if indicated (Group II). The patients were followed for two years to record any biliary-related event. Results: In present study there was 34%of expectantly managed patients developed at least one recurrent biliary event after sphincterotomy during 2 years of follow up, compared with 4% who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In present study there were no cases underwent cholecystectomy on demand in group I (LC) but there was 18.0% in group II (W&S) underwent cholecystectomy on demand. Conclusion: Earlier laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been shown to improve outcomes after endoscopic sphincterotomy for choledochocystolithiasis. A wait-and-see policy after endoscopic sphincterotomy cannot be recommended as standard treatment.

  50. Mousa, M. A., Osman, A. S. and Elkot, W. F.

    In this research, we aimed to study the implications of different carbohydrates sources on dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility and production, 9 lactating-cows (days in milk= 110±30 d; live weight=670 ± 40 kg) were allotted into3 groups (3 cows per each) for one month period. The treatments included different sources of non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC), where its percentages are (44.38, 44.59 and 44.25% DM in basal diet treatment (B), beet pulp diet treatment (BP) and dried distillers’ grains diet treatment (DD), respectively). Cows of group BP had a higher DMI, where DMI and NDF digestibility were improved. Ruminal pH was increased in group cows B and DD (6.63 and 6.64, respectively) compared with those that received BP group (6.26). The propionate percentage was decreased and pH increased in the BP group; whereas, a higher percentage of acetate and ratio of acetate: propionate were noticed with animals allotted to B treatment. Milk improved with BP group. Replacing NFC sources with different digestion coefficient, this change feed intake, ruminal bacterial population, and lactation performance. We could conclude that inclusion of different sources of NFC produce a better performance and productivity.

  51. Anil Kumar Yadav, Iqbal Ali, Deepak Passi, Manish Dubey and Jaya Bharti

    Aims & Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the healing of the facial bone defect with demineralized freeze dried allogenic bone graft (DFDB) individually and with platelet rich fibrinin (PRF). Materials and Methods: The study comprised of a total of 20 subjects with maxillofacial defects divided into two equal groups (A & B) of 10 each. Treated with DFDB and DFDB with PRF respectively. Clinical parameters like Post-operative pain (Visual Analog Scale), swelling, infection, implant rejection, mouth opening were compared for both groups and Radiographic evaluation at 1 week, 6th week, 12 week intervals was done to evaluate the radiodensity of bone formed. Results: Genderwise, Difference in age, Difference in grades of pain (p=0.368), swelling (p=0.531), post-operative infection. Different evidence of calcification at 3 weeks (p=0.136) shows result statistically insignificant while at 6 weeks and 12 weeks it was found to be statistically significant (p<0.001). Evidence of Bone Formation was slight at 3 weeks, moderate at 6 weeks and marked in group B at 12 weeks period with statistically significant. Total bridging of gap by normal bone was statistically insignificant at 3 & 6 weeks and statistically significant at 12 weeks time period. Change in total bridging gap by normal bone was statistically significant in both the groups. Conclusion: DFDB when used with PRF induces early calcification, bone formation and bone bridging. Also handling, placement and retention qualities of DFDB graft is improved with PRF.

  52. Hend ALmalki, Ahmad Alasmari, Abdulrahman Albalaa and Feras AL Sanna

    Bezoar is a foreign body found in the gastrointestinal tract due to ingestion of hair or vegetables. When hair is ingested and formed a mass it is called tichobezoar, this mass get complicated by gastric outlet obstruction or small bowel obstruction or presented simultaneously like in our case report. In this case report we presented our experience with a years old female who came to emergency department with signs of gastrointestinal obstruction .she was taken to operating room for exploration and relieve of mechanical obstruction. Trichobezoar with obstruction considered a surgical emergency and all general surgeons should be familiar with the diagnosis and management of this condition.

  53. Dharmaraya Ingale, Dr. Swaroop S.N. and Dr. Ravikant Soni

    Its well said in medical literature that determining the difference between natural & to unnatural cause is herculean task even for the Forensic Pathologist. Legality involved in deciding cause of death, as unnatural is not only difficult job to Doctor at the same time even to law enforcing agencies. Here is such a case encountered by author where the case was brought with history of Hanging while during autopsy along with signs of Hanging there were morbid autopsy findings of Coronary artery narrowing to the extent of 90-95 %. The paper is intended to create awareness of such cases to medical fraternity & legalities involved in certification as to cause of death & Manner of death.

  54. Dr. Renita Soares and Dr. Ida de Noronha de Ataide

    The reconstruction of structurally compromised posterior teeth is a rather challenging procedure. The tendency of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) to fracture is significantly higher than vital teeth.Fibre reinforced composites (FRC’s), are polymeric materials embedded with short E glass fibres and are designed to replace dentin. This incorporation of short fibres provides fracture toughness greater than dentin and almost double that of conventional composites. The following case report presents a novel technique of rehabilitating an endodontically compromised tooth with associated aesthetic and prosthetic challenges using fibre reinforced composite.

  55. Nazar-ul-Islam and Hajra Haneef

    Vaccines are being used from centuries ago. To manufacture and process vaccines, different types of materials are used as adjuvant in routine. Mostly in tetanus toxoid vaccine, adjuvant is aluminium base. In this study, we check only aluminium content with relation to potency of tetanus toxoid vaccine.

  56. Bulgantsetseg, B. and Odontuya, D.

    We provided the randomized study within 50 patients with non healing wounds hospitalized in Hope, Grace, Green home hospices of Mongolia during January 2015-January 2016. 47 (94%) patients had wound pain, 27 (54 %) patient’s wounds were contaminated with stool and urine within patients, 42 (84%) patients had smell from wounds, 43 (86%) patients had severe secretions from the wounds, 17 (34%) patients had bleeding from the wounds. 32 (64%) patients had anxiety, 45 (90%) had depression, 34 (68 %) had insomnia, 32 (64%) patients felt shame, 32 (64%) patients faced social isolation because of wounds smell, 29 (58%) patients isolated because of wound location, 41 (82%) patients suffer from luck of dressing material, 21 (42 %) patients had no wound caring person, 42 (84%) patients had financial problems to buy the dressing materials. Anxiety had statistically significant correlation with pain (r=-0.405; p=0.004), insomnia (r=0.557; p=0.0001), isolation because of smell of wounds (r=-302; p= 0.033) and with contamination wounds with stool and urine (r=0.450; p=0.001). Depression had statistically significant, direct and moderate correlation with pain (r=-0.299; p=0.035), insomnia (r=0.486; p=0.0001), and isolation because of feeling shame (r=0.444; p=0.001).

  57. Dr. Sharath Kumar Shetty, Dr. Vijayanda Kumar, M., Dr. Ershad Haris and Dr. Mahesh Kumar, M.

    Child with this anomaly not only suffers for poor dental development but also deprived from breast feeding due to improper oral seal1, swallowing and nasal regurgitation, other associated problems are hearing difficulties due to abnormalities in the palatal musculature, and speech difficulties due to nasal escape and articulation problems. The principle objective of presurgical orthodontics is to reduce the severity of the initial cleft deformity easy breast feeding, swallowing and nasal regulation. Despite the differing opinions about the long-term success of NAM, the immediate success of the therapy facilitates cleft surgery immensely. Although lip closure can always be achieved surgically regardless of the cleft width, preoperative narrowing of the lip and alveolar segments, nasal shaping and columella lengthening help to reduce tissue tension and therefore improve surgical outcome by minimizing wound healing disturbances and scarring. For treatment success, a high compliance and active participation of the patient’s parents is however indispensable.

  58. Dr. Neha Goyal, Dr. Shakuntala Goswami, Dr. Juhi Shah, Dr. Chirag Chauhan

    Rheumatic Heart Disease is the commonest cause of mitral stenosis in developing countries. It is anautoimmune reactions to infection with group A Beta hemolytic streptococci which leads to scarring, calcification and thickening of mitral leaflets, commissural fusion causing significant decrease in valve area. Mitral stenosis is characterised by mechanical obstruction to left ventricular diastolic filling secondary to a progressive decrease in the size of mitral valve orifice. This valvular obstruction produces an increase in left atrial volume and pressure. Increases left atrial pressure can be transmitted to pulmonary vasculature leading to pulmonary edema and decreased pulmonary compliance. In mild mitral stenosis, the left ventricular filling and stroke volume are maintained at rest by an increase in left atrial pressure. However, stroke volume will decrease during stress induces tachycardia or when effective atrial contractions are lost as in atrial fibrillation. Such patients pose a challenge to the anaesthesiologists when they present for any non cardiac surgery. Anaesthesia and surgical blood loss, along with major fluid shifts is poorly tolerated by such patients. This can precipitate acute pulmonary edema, significant fall in blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, arrhythmias and thromboembolism. Here we discuss about anaesthetic management in a patient of epidermoid cyst, previously operated for balloon mitral valvuloplasty for mitral stenosis.

  59. Iqtida Ahmed Mirza and Chang-Qing Li

    Background: About 5-10% of patients reporting to the emergency department present with abdominal pain. Some of these patients are discharged without further treatment, while others are admitted to the ward. We carried out this prospective study to test whether the arrival time affects the management plan. Patients and methods: Patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain who visited the emergency department of Shandong University Qilu Hospital between February and May 2016 were evaluated. Demographic data, symptoms, concurrent symptoms, symptom duration, arrival time, and preliminary diagnoses were recorded. Observation endpoints were: discharge without further treatment, admission into wards, death, emergency surgery, admission into the intensive care unit (ICU). Linear regression was performed to evaluate the factors affecting these endpoints. Results: A total of 167 patients were included (73 males and 94 females), with an average age of 45.5 years (range: 14-96 years). Two factors affecting the management plan were preliminary diagnosis and admission month. Patients diagnosed with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract were more likely to be discharged than those diagnosed with hepatic bile and pancreatic diseases (P = 0.024). Patients visiting the emergency department in May were more likely to be discharged (P = 0.003). Age, gender, symptom duration, concurrent symptoms, and arrival time were not correlated with the management plans. Conclusions: This study failed to find a correlation between arrival time and patients' management plans. Besides the comprehensible diagnosis, the admission month was also shown to affect the management plan.

  60. Elcio Magdalena Giovani, Kelly Cristine Tarquinio Marinho, Frederico Buhatem Medeiros, Bruno Vieira Caputo, Rodolfo Georgiovich, Camila Correia dos Santos and Gilberto A. Noro-Filho

    In oral cavity, HPV can induce the formation of squamous cell papilloma, focal epithelial hyperplasia, condyloma acuminatum and verruca vulgaris. Currently, there is no doubt about the sexual transmission of this virus and it is recognized as the most frequent sexual transmitted disease. HPV is transmitted by direct contact from person to person, with incubation periods that goes from 50 to 150 days. We have reported three cases of different types of therapies for human papillomavirus (HPV) and it depends on the location, stage of growth and the possibilities of recurrence. The choice of therapy is based on the number, size, location and morphology of lesions, as well as patient preference, cost, convenience, side effects and clinical experience of the professional.

  61. Vidhya Lakshmi, Kharishma Nair and Karthikeyan Shanmugam

    Objectives: To study the role of Body Mass Index as an independent risk factor and prognostic factor in breast cancer. Methods: A hospital based epidemiological study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in India involving 50 patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer who visited the Medical Oncology outpatient department for a period of 3 months. 50 age matched controls who had no detectable breast cancers were selected as controls. Their body mass index was calculated. Data including stage of breast cancer, lymph node status and presence of metastasis, histological type, grade of the tumour and hormone receptor status. (ER, PR and Her 2 neu) were tabulated. Additional information regarding menstrual, menopausal status, co-morbidities like Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and epilepsy was also gathered. Results: The mean age of patients was 53.8 years and that of controls was 49.08 years. 56 % of cases and 44% of controls were post menopausal. 20 patients and 10 controls were diabetic; 14 patients and 9 controls were hypertensive and 2 patients and 2 controls had hypothyroidism. The odds ratio which quantifies the risk of association of breast cancer and obesity is 0.339 in premenopausal women and 0.045 in post menopausal women. The number of triple negative breast cancers was more in I and II classes of body mass index. Obesity grade 2 and 3 were also associated with advanced disease, including larger tumor size, positive lymph nodes, regional and/or distant stage and deaths after breast cancer. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant association between obesity and breast cancer in post menopausal women but the same is not applicable in pre menopausal women.

  62. Gana Gangamma, Jagadish Pai, Amit Walvekar and Uthappa, M.A.

    Placement of dental implants for replacing missing teeth is a well-established treatment option. There are different approaches for placement of dental implants post extraction. The approaches are immediate implant placement, delayed immediate implant placement, lateimplantation. Immediate implant placement protocol has been challenged the last decades by reducing the time between extraction of a tooth and placing and ⁄ or loading of the implant. Immediate implants can be augmented with barrier membranes to preserve ridge width and height and to decrease treatment time. This present review article discusses immediate implant placements, riskfactors, their advantages and disadvantages.

  63. Dr. Nirapjeet Kaur, Dr. Hemal Patel and Dr. Manpreet Singh

    All children have the right to live in safety and dignity in a protective and nurturing environment, both at home and in the community. Very often crimes against children are either not reported or cognizance is not taken and also that some crimes against children are not covered under existing legislations in developing countries, like India. Strong networking is required among government, civil society, communities and concerned stakeholders to complement each other’s effort to fight against child abuse. This paper highlights the existing legislation in India as well as the non-governmental organisations working towards the fight against child abuse.

  64. Dr. Vineeth, V.T., Dr. Anil Gangadharan, Dr. Satheesh Kumar, B. and Dr. Shifa Mohammed Jabar

    Contemporary dental practice is all about increasing number of adults seeking orthodontic treatment. These patients are deprived of treatment and rehabilitation in an earlier stage of life, thus posse with greater challenges and need extreme skill and knowledge to manage them. Adult orthodontic patients are dealt with in a problem oriented approach, many a times not requiring conventional extensive orthodontic therapy. Most of them seek treatment as a part of other rehabilitative treatment procedures like crown and bridge prosthesis, to improve periodontal status, etc. These patients require adjunctive therapy to aid re-establish their structure, function and in turn aesthetics. One of such problems we come across is missing 1st molars and the adjacent teeth tipped into these spaces presenting with poor periodontal status and unfavourable for rehabilitation procedures. Many methods have been described earlier for uprighting these teeth. Here we are introducing a newer and relatively effective method of uprighting such teeth in a very controlled manner over a short period of time. It was originally developed as a modification of MUST (Molar Uprighting Simple Technique) appliance of ElieCapelluto and Isabelle Lauweryns.

  65. Pallavi Kunjibettu, Preetha Peethambar and Sapna Konde

    Objectives: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) affects people's health and wellbeing .Majority of studies on ACEs are carried out in western part of the world and very few studies have estimated the prevalence of various forms of childhood abuse in India. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences among Adult Population of Bengaluru City. Study Design: A cross sectional descriptive survey using modified version of ACE International Questionnaire (ACE IQ) was carried out to estimate the prevalence of various forms of childhood maltreatment. Methods: Total samples of 2020 adults between 18-35 years of age were interviewed from various zones of Bengaluru City using stratified random sampling technique. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The results highlighted that 41% of the subjects have undergone physical neglect, 84% reported to have experienced emotional and physical abuse and 40% of the subjects had experienced sexual abuse in childhood, which was equally distributed irrespective of gender and socio economic status. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of physical and emotional abuse and neglect was higher in our study followed by child sexual abuse and all forms of ACE showed equal distribution between both the genders and among various socioeconomic groups of the population studied. It indicates that every individual is vulnerable and not all wounds heal with time. Dental Professionals as primary health care providers should step up and help protect our people, whether they’re young or old. Pediatric Dentists can use their position as trusted resources for children to identify children at risk, increasing the chance that these adverse situations might be identified early enough to be remediated.

  66. Deivanayagam, R. and Mohan, P.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential advantage of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) over 3-Dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3-D CRT) techniques for external-beam radiation treatment for cervical cancer. A comparison of two treatment techniques was performed using dose statistics, dose-volume histograms, homogeneity and conformity values. For IMRT plans the conformity value was closely to 1 and homogeneity value closer to 0 better than 3-D CRT. Our study indicates that the bowel volume irradiated to 45 Gy was 52.82 cc and 50 Gy was 13.45 cc for IMRT in comparison with 67.3 cc and 20.18 cc for 3-D CRT. The data shows that IMRT has the potential to greatly reduce small bowel acute toxicities when compared with 3DCRT. In conclusion IMRT has clinical advantages over 3-D CRT with improved PTV coverage and improved sparing of small bowel in the radiotherapy treatment of cervical cancer.

  67. Leneena Gudugunta, Santosh Kumar Vedati, Ravi Babu Yelamanchi, Deepthi Mandava and Varun Reddy Attelli

    A dentigerous (follicular) cyst is a developmental odontogenic cyst, which apparently develops by the accumulation of fluid between the reduced enamel epithelium and the tooth crown of an unerupted tooth. Typically dentigerous cysts are commonly seen in association with impacted third molars and maxillary canines. Only 5–6% of dentigerous cysts are associated with supernumerary teeth. Dentigerous cyst diagnosis in case of presence of full complement of the teeth is rarest of the rare condition. We report a rare case of huge dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted supernumerary tooth which extended throughout the second quadrant of maxilla crossing the midline. The patient was treated in a multidisciplinary way with conservation approach of root canal treatment for affected teeth under local anesthesia followed by enucleation of the cyst and apicectomies of root canal treated teeth under general anesthesia.

  68. Dr. Thomas Mathew, Dr. Suneetha Nithyanandam, Dr. Vikram Kamath, Dr. Sarma, G.R.K., Dr. Roy, A.K., Dr. Mary Joseph and Ms. Manjusha, T.

    We report a case of idiopathic intracranial hypertension, in whom visual deterioration was noticed, after starting treatment with acetazolamide. Initially a possibility of optic nerve decompensation due to papilledema was considered. On subsequent opthalmological evaluation the patient was found to have bilateral myopia, which resolved completely after stopping acetazolamide.

  69. Ashna Aby, Aiswarya Mangalath Sivakumar, Krishnaveni Kandasamy, Shanmugasundaram Rajagopal and Sambathkumar Ramanathan

    Asthma is one among the major health problem affecting a number of individuals. Effectiveness of treatment not only depends on righteousness and efficiency of drug used, but also depends on the patient adherence to the prescribed treatment. Non-adherence to treatment prescribed by a physician is an important cause for asthma. Rates of asthma treatment nonadherence among patients have been shown to be in the range between 30% and 70%. This increase is associated with increased health care costs and poor health care outcomes. Surrogate measures, like prescription counting, are not infallible. Therefore, assessment of adherence is of prime importance for asthma management, for reducing exacerbations and steroid-related adverse effects as well as hospitals and intensive care admissions, health care cost and inappropriate treatment. It is a common scenario which exists depending on the severity of asthma Patient outcomes can be improved by implementing methods to improve knowledge as well as use of preventive medications during the period when they feel better. Also, patients should be informed about the importance of regular intake of medications and also about long term use of inhalers.

  70. Dr. Jothi Kumar Sethuraman and Dr. Aravinth Kumar Ashok

    Introduction: Prediction of outcome following decompressive craniectomy has a huge impact on the productivity of the patient after surgery. The prediction tool should be easily accessible even in rural areas. In this study we analyze the impact of radiological indicators like post operative reduction in mid line shift and post operative opening of basal cisterns in CT brain on the final outcome of the patients. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective analytical study conducted at Institute of Neurosurgery, Madras Medical College. A total of 136 patients who under went decompression craniectomy for moderate and severe brain injury were included in the study. All patients had CT scan with evidence of Acute SDH, unilobar or multilobar contusions with diffuse cerebral edema, midline shift >5mm, and effacement of basal cisterns.CT brain was used to study the postoperative mid line shift and postoperative basal cisterns.The GCS and GOCS (Glasgow outcome score) at discharge were noted and outcomes were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed by using MANOVA test.A statistically significant difference was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05. Results: The patients with Basal cisterns opening post decompressive craniectomy had statistically significant improvement in survival rates. Patients in whom there was reduction in the mid line shift post surgery did not have statistically significant improvement in the survival rates. Conclusion: The opening of the basal cisterns can be considered as a predictor of favorable outcome following decompression craniectomy. Whereas the reduction in midline shift alone cannot be considered as a predictor of favorable post operative outcome. The availability of CT scans even in rural areas makes this an easily accessible prediction tool.

  71. Dr. Subhas Das, Dr. Kiran Chaudhari and Dr. Chirag D Shah

    Background: An exchange transfusion involves replacing patient’s blood with donor blood in order to remove abnormal blood components and circulating toxins while maintaining adequate circulating blood volume. Objective: To observe the incidence, causes of jaundice requiring Exchange and any adverse event of exchange transfusion in newborns with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Method: Prospective study undertaken at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of BJMC, Civil hospital ahmedabad from July 2015 to june 2017.Both mothers and neonates blood group and Rh typing and for all newborns pre and post exchange complete blood count with peripheral smear, serum bilirubin, haemoglobin, calcium, potassium, random blood sugar, C-reactive protein and blood culture and where ever required Direct Coombs test, reticulocyte count, G6PD activity were done. The incidence, indications, positive outcome, complications and mortality were noted. Result: Out of 1970 cases of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia 18(0.913%) required exchange transfusion. Over all male preponderance was noted around55.55%.majority of babies who required ET was full term at birth 77.77%,while only 27.78% babies had low birth weight for their age. The mean age of neonates at presentation was 131 hours (arithmetic mean) Median age of presentation was 144 hours. Maximum no of babies presented to us after 72 hrs of birth is around 66.67%. In 11.11% of cases previous siblings were affected with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia required ET. Rh incompatibility was the major cause 38.89% cases closely followed by ABO incompatibility 33.33% . Prior ET mean bilirubin was 31 mg/dl, who presented with in 24 hrs of birth. For those who admitted between 24 -72 hours mean bilirubin was 36.4 and 38.75 mg/dl for those who presented after 72 hrs. The complications noted were anemia (61.11%), hypocalcaemia (27.5%), sepsis 38.89%, hypoglycaemia (11.11%), seizure (22.22%), hyperkalemia (11.11%), Conclusion: Exchange transfusion is an effective procedure to decrease bilirubin levels but is associated with many complications. Rh incompatibility was one of the commonest cause of jaundice requiring Exchange transfusion.

  72. Dr. Shaista Alvi and Dr. Seema Manak

    Now a days Fatty liver Disease is one of the commonest cause of chronic liver disease. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not a single disesase entity but a group of disorders characterized by fatty acid accumulation within the liver. It is usually associated with metabolic conditions like obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. With increasing prevalence of these diseases prevalence of NAFLD is also increasing. Histologically it is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides within the hepatocytes. It is usually diagnosed coincidentally when ultrasosnography is done for any other purpose, as majority of patients are asymptomatic. Treatment comprise of control of metabolic conditions. If untreated it may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  73. Dr. Bindu R, Dr. Jayakumar K., Dr. Rajeev, Dr. Soumitran C. S., Dr. Sandeep Rajan O. and Dr. Ajith Kumar V.

    Purpose: The Aims and Objectives of this study were to determine the infiltration of mandibular ameloblastoma beyond the radiographic margin and the aggressiveness of any histological varieties. Patients and Methods: A total number of six patients with mandibular ameloblastoma were treated with resection of the mandible in this study. Out of six patients, four were females and the rest males. The resected mandible with at least 1cm clearance was then cut serially in the longitudinal axis with a uniform width of 1mm from the cut margin. The serial sections were decalcified, processed and microscopic examination was done to find out the infiltration. Results: The extent of infiltration in mesial and distal side from the radiographic margin was calculated. The infiltration ameloblastoma beyond the radiographic margin ranges from 0.5mm to 8mm. The average infiltration is 4.63mm. The follicular and plexiform types showed the maximum infiltration whereas the unicystic mural type showed the minimum. This study shows that the multicystic ameloblastomas of the mandible should be treated by resection of the mandible with at least 1cm linear bony margin.

  74. Dr. Thomas Mathew, Dr. Sagar Badachi and Ms. Manjusha, T.

    Elicitation of neck stiffness is one of the most important clinical signs in neurology. It is the inability to flex the neck forward due to rigidity of the neck muscles. It is a sign of irritation of the meninges, such as seen in meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage and various other diseases. Nuchal rigidity occurs in 30 % of meningitis in adults and does not have postural variation and is accompanied by positive Kernig’s sign, positive Brudzinski's sign. Here we report a case of secondary headache due to idiopathic intracranial hypotension with neck stiffness having postural variation(dynamic neck stiffness) which has never been described previously.

  75. Dr. Deepak

    Objectives and Aim: We performed a study on Seroprevalance, risk factors and HBV genotypes among the patients attending a tertiary care hospital in India. Background: Globally, Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases. It is ranked by the WHO as one of the top ten killers. The virus is responsible for approximately 1.5 million deaths worldwide in each year, two thirds of which are attributable to primary Hepatocellular carcinoma following HBV infection. About 360 million people are estimated to be chronically infected with HBV.

  76. Manu Acha Roy, Merlin Suji, M. and Mangesh V. Jabade

    Introduction/Background: Globally, four million newborns die before they reach one month of age. In 2015 approximately 45% of deaths among children under five were newborns.1 The mortality ratio of Infant and under 5 in developing countries have reduced significantly in the past couple of decades, but the neonatal mortality rates have remained static.2 Methods: The study has conducted using cross sectional design. A structured questionnaire and observation checklist was used to collect the data was used to interview the mothers. The survey questionnaire consisted of three sections; Section A was pertaining to socio-demographic information, section B was regarding Antenatal care; Section C was regarding the immediate newborn care including cord care, eye care, bathing of newborn and breastfeeding practices Results: Respondents' mean knowledge was on keeping newborn warm was 40.2%, on newborn care 48.4%, on immunization 71.8%, on danger signs 25.53. Mean knowledge and practice of respondents was on measures to keep warm 8.5 and 17. Although 62 (62%) had knowledge regarding handwash before the breastfeeding, and after diaper care, only 11 (11%) followed it in practice.

  77. Salma Sultana, Shaista Urooj and Anirban Goswami

    Background: At present scenario Hypertension is the principal risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Indeed treatment of high blood pressure is the most common reason to visit a physician. Hence it is of great importance for researchers to find out the risk factors that affect the onset. Aim: The present study aimed to create awareness about lifestyle disorders which are associated with hypertension. Methodology: In this study, the positive diagnosis of hypertension was made by the resting systolic blood pressure ≥140mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg. Data regarding eventual hypertension was collected from patients attended in GOPD at Regional Research Institute of Uanani Medicine, New Delhi, India. Data on Height, Weight, tobacco chewing, smoking, alcoholism and other was collected. Multiple logistic regressions used to determine the association of these lifestyle risk factors of hypertension among in qualitative & quantitative outcome variables. In logistic regression, the Logit link used to determine and find the correlation between the variables. Data were analyzed with 'R' statistical software version 3.4.1 and the significant level of variables is chosen based on the p-value associated to the significant level of model that lies on α= 0.05. Results: As per logit model lifestyle factors such as BMI, tobacco chewing, alcoholism and laziness are determined as highly associated with the probability of having hypertension (p-value <0.05) where as smoking have found non significant (p-value>0.05) result. Conclusion: Based on statistical model, hypertension is associated with BMI, tobacco chewing, alcoholism and laziness. We can conclude that effective lifestyle modifications may lower the chance of a person to develop a disease like hypertension.

  78. Narendra Kumar, Anindya Mukherjee, Gedela L Deepthi, Arun S Oinam, Renu Madan and Santosh Kumar

    Objective: Accuracy of target localization is of paramount importance in dose escalation of prostate cancer radiotherapy by Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. Intraprostatic fiducial implantation is a standard procedure for localization of target volume. However, the possibility of fiducial migration confers uncertainty in radiotherapy planning. In this study, we have tried to evaluate whether there is significant migration of anchor type fiducials one week after their implantation when planning computed tomography (CT) scan is usually acquired. Material and methods: We have analysed fiducial migration (FM) in 8 localized prostate cancer patients treated with IMRT. The median variation of Intermarker distances (IMD) between the apex, left and right fiducials were calculated to assess FM between day of implantation and day of planning CT acquisition. Results: Between February 2015 and December 2016, 10 patients of prostate cancer were treated with IMRT based on fiducial markers. The FM came out to be 0.01, 0.03 and 0.1 cm respectively for apex-right, apex-left and left-right IMD. Conclusions: FM was within 3 mm of our institutional Planning Target Volume (PTV) margins. Anchor type fiducials were found to be quite reliable for target volume localization and radiotherapy planning. Hence, planning CT scan can be taken on the day of fiducial implantation.

  79. Dr. Dhruv Kotecha, Dr. Hetal Pandya, Dr. Jaydutt Patel and Dr. Dipesh Patel

    B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B CLL) is the most common form of leukemia and occurs with a male predomi¬nance. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) infiltrating the skin is uncommon and can present in many different ways. The reported specific skin lesions include nodules, papules, infiltrates, plaques, ulcerations and exfoliative eryth¬roderma. Here we report a case of atopic dermatitis as an usual presentating feature of CLL.

  80. Hemalatha Krishnasamy

    Introduction: Nocturnal Enuresis means wetting the bed. Many people wet the bed at night, although few people talk about it. In fact, one person in every 100 may be affected throughout adult life. Most people think that no one else has this problem. Many people never seek help because they are too embarrassed. Nocturnal enuresis is common in older community dwelling women with urinary incontinence. It may serve as a marker of fall risk even in women who do not seek care for urinary symptoms. Aim of the study: To analyze the causes of adult onset nocturnal enuresis in female inpatients and outpatients and utilize these results, for proper management of nocturnal enuresis at an early stage. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective study conducted from January 2016 to June 2017 in the institute of urology, madras medical college, Chennai. This was a study involving 600 women and the inclusion criterion was women aged ⩾18 years. The data included are patient’s age, ambulatory status, medical and surgical history, classes of taking drugs, and urinary tract infection and menopausal status. The results were analysed statistically using appropriate methods. Observations and results: The mean age of the women was 47.5 years. The prevalence of adult-onset nocturnal enuresis was 60/500 (12%), and this increased significantly with increasing age and history of previous surgery (e.g., hysterectomy). The patients taking cardiac drugs were 15 and diuretics 8. Urinary tract infection was identified in 22 patients. 18 patients were bed ridden. Diabetes mellitus was found in 36 patients. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of adult onset nocturnal enuresis was 12% amongst female inpatients and outpatients in the urology department. Childhood bedwetting is considered an indicator of developmental problems with the bladder itself, whereas bedwetting in adults suggests an underlying medical condition that requires medical evaluation and, potentially, treatment.

  81. Ramesh Chandra, Shailja Singh, Shazia Siddqui and Anubha Saxena

    The major goals of root canal therapy are the complete elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system and the prevention of subsequent reinfection. In clinical practice the dentist is occasionally come across with a problem of infection that occurs after obturation of root canal space. Guttapercha is the most common obturating material. Unlike most instruments used in endodontic treatment, guttapercha cones cannot be sterilized by conventional autoclaving or in a hot-air oven, therefore, they require rapid decontamination before use to maintain the aseptic condition required for successful endodontic therapy. Various chemical agents have been proposed as GP cones disinfectant, including sodium hypochlorite, glutaraldehyde, alcohol, iodine compounds and hydrogen peroxide. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effecicacy of a herbal alternative, Aloe vera and Amla for rapid decontamination of guttapercha cones.

  82. Shabnam, U., Arulmozhi Nandakumar, Nandhini Gunasekaran and Jayant, V.S.

    Oral diseases are an imposing public health issue with a gradient trend of increase in incidence and morbidity rates worldwide. The diagnosis of disease state is challenging owing to the lack of sensitive and characteristic biomarkers in the serum and tissues. Salivary proteomic analysis represents a field for both diagnosis and treatment of various diseases and could be considered a new approach to the prevention of cancer, oral pathological conditions. The protein and nucleic acid molecules derived from oral tissues can be retrieved from the saliva. Thus salivary biomarker analysis provides a non-invasive methodology for early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring treatment outcomes. This review aims to throw light on the characteristics of salivary proteins, methodology of detection and their role in oral diseases.

  83. Dr. Garvit Garg, Dr. Adrojabansi, Dr. Hetal Pandya and Dr. Lakhani, J.D.

    Diabetes Mellitus commonly presents as polyuria, polydipsia, fatigue and polyphagia, though patients presenting with acute complications at the time of diagnosis are not uncommon. Movement disorders like chorea, hemichorea-hemiballismus, choreoathetosis are rarely associated with metabolic derangements. Hyperglycemia-induced involuntary movements (HIIM) are rarer and less well known. In this article, we describe two diabetic patients who developed abnormal movements, one developed hemichorea-hemiballism (HCHB) and the other onedeveloped nonketotic hyperglycemic (NKH) chorea which are unusual and very rare presentations.

  84. Dr. Hesham Mohammad Sha’aban, Ayman Abdou Elhosiny and Prof. Tarek Mahrous Salman

    Background: Recently, The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, sitagliptin contributes to improvement of postprandial hyperglycemia and prevents risk of hypoglycemia through increasing the level of glucagon-like polypeptide (GLP-1) as new therapeutic target and novel pathway for correcting impaired glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aim: This study was conducted to assess the cardioprotective effect of sitagliptin on cardiovascular complications in Egyptian male patients with T2DM. Methods: The study enrolled 12 apparently healthy control subjects, 20 diabetic patients having no cardiovascular complications on 1 gm metformin orally daily for 3 months and 25 diabetic patients having cardiovascular complications on 1 gm metformin orally daily for 3 months then adding 100 mg Sitagliptin orally daily for 3 months. All subjects involved in this study are males having index of central obesity(ICO) < 0.55 The following parameters involved in this study are fasting plasma glucose (FPG), Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin, proinsulin, proinsulin/insulin (PI/IN) ratio, hemostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), risk ratio 1&2 (RR1)(RR2), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), cardiac troponin-I (cTnI), and homocysteine Results: Sitagliptin significantly reduced FPG, HbA1C, insulin, proinsulin, proinsulin/insulin ratio, HOMA-IR index, TC, TG, LDL, VLDL, OX-LDL, RR 1, RR 2, CK-MB, LDH, PAI-1, cTnI AND homocysteine compared to non Sitagliptin group, whereas HDL was significantly increased in sitagliptin group compared to non Sitagliptin group. Conclusion: Sitagliptin is effective not only on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity but, also it ameliorates dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular complications and in T2DM.

  85. Kawa Kamal AZEEZ, Fikret ALTINDAG and Murat Cetin RAGBETLİ

    This investigation has been conducted to study the protective effect of Thymoquinone against Streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. The rats were allocated into four groups each group contain seven animals; Control, Thymoquinone, Streptozotocin, Streptozotocin + thymoquinone. Control group was injecteda single dose by intra-peritoneal injection of saline (0.5ml/kg), Thymoquinone group provided thymoquinone (4mg/kg) with drinking water, Streptozotocin group was injecteda single doseby intra-peritoneal of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) and thymoquinone was provided (4mg/kg) with drinking water three days after streptozotocin was injected a single dose intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg)to the streptozotocin+ thymoquinone group. Three days after the administration of streptozotocin, the development of diabetes in two experimental groups was confirmed by measuring the glucose levels in the blood. Eight days after the beginning of the experiment the rats were anesthetized then right kidney was taken for process was followed for light microscopic research. The kidney volume and glomerular number were calculated for each group using physical disector. A significant increase of the kidney volume in streptozotocin group andstreptozotocin + thymoquinone. A significant decreased glomerular number in streptozotocin group.

  86. Krishna Kumari Samantaray, Rubi Pradhan, Suchismita Pahantasingh and Jhunilata Pradhan

    The foundation of adolescent life begins with the maintenance of personal hygiene, which is important for every adolescent for a healthy adulthood and for the development of positive health. “Hygiene is as important as ABC- Always Be Clean.” While personal appearances is very important & helps to improve your self confidence & self esteem, personal hygiene protect yourself and others by keeping the body clean. The blind persons sometimes needs assistance in their day to day activities of living, personal hygiene practice is a turning point among blind adolescent girls. They need assistance in identification, dressing, washing clothes, disposing menstrual materials or hand washing and disposing waste materials. Hence the present study was conducted to assess the Effect of audio drama on knowledge regarding personal hygiene practices among visually impaired adolescent girls in selected blind school of BBSR, Odisha. Total 40 participants with visually impaired adolescent’s girls were selected by using total enumerative sampling technique. There is statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores of knowledge regarding personal hygiene practices at p value <0.00001.chi-square association showed, knowledge on personal hygiene practices was statistically significant with education and types of family.

  87. Sri Harsha Yelchuru, G., Vivek Reddy, Ramyasree, K., Bhagya Lakshmi, K., Chandrika, V. and Lakshmikar Reddy, O.G.

    Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the shape and size of the sella turcica in a fraction of south Indian population with different skeletal types. Methods: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 90 individuals (30 males and 60 females) between the age group 10-30 years were taken and distributed according to skeletal types as class I, II, III based on ANB. Morphology was assessed using silvermans method, and dimensions using Axelssons method. Comparison between older and younger age groups was also done. Student’s t test was used to calculate differences in linear dimensions in age group and ANOVA was performed to study relationship between skeletal type and sella size. Results: It was found that majority of subjects had normal morphology of sella, significant differences were found between older and younger age groups and between skeletal types and sella size. Conclusions: Approximately 66 percent of the subjects had a normal Sella shape. Significant differences in Sella size between the older (15 years or more) and younger (10-14 years) age groups were founded for all three linear dimensions (length, depth, diameter), Sella size in the older age groups were larger. Significant differences in Sella Turcica size in all three dimensions was found for different skeletal classes. Class III subjects had the greatest dimensions while class II subjects had the smallest dimensions.

  88. Dr. Asha Jha and Dr. Srimanti Paul

    Background: Pain is a very common complaint for a medical shop visit worldwide. Prostaglandin, a Cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway intermediate product is involved in the development of inflammation and pain. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent one of the most common classes of medications used with or without prescription. Most of the NSAIDs are liable to cause severe side effects such as gastrointestinal ulceration, perforation, obstruction, and bleeding because of its carboxylic acid moiety. Nowadays, the use of traditional medicine information on plant has got considerable interest. Among many medicinal herbs, Blueberry is very important as it contains antioxidants which neutralize free radicals linked to the development of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other age-related conditions. These berries contain anthocyanins, other polyphenols and various phytochemicals which are very good antioxidants. Blueberry contains polyphenols which attenuate inflammatory responses probably by reducing oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of Crude extract of Blueberry fruits (Vaccinium) on nociception and to get a tasty and safe way to fight with pain. Objectives of this study was to observe the effect of Blueberry on the response time by licking of rat-paw and to compare this effect with that of Aspirin. Result: Blueberry Fruit Extract at the dose of 300mg/kg body weight was found prophylactically efficient on suppressing pain and increasing pain threshold induced temperature in albino rats. Analgesic ability of Blueberry was found significant and comparable to Aspirin at this dose.

  89. Mary Jenifer Amalraj and Vijay Viswanathan

    Background: The initiation of insulin therapy is often one of the most difficult and important choices that individuals with diabetes have to make. Insulin therapy among Type 2 Diabetic patients (T2DM) often becomes necessary when oral hypoglycemic agents are no longer effective. During the initiation of insulin therapy patient experiences various psychological disturbances which leads to fear of self injecting among self testing. Although the number of studies was limited and identified adverse treatment outcomes in diabetes patients with fear of insulin, self injection and self testing no studies have being focused on overcoming fear of self injecting and self testing and evaluating its impact on glycemic level. Thus, the current study aims at evaluating the effect of psychological counseling in overcoming fear of self injecting and self testing among type 2 diabetic patients on first time insulin. Method: The study conducted among 80 patients with uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and who were prescribed with first time insulin injection. These patients were randomly assigned to control arm and study arm. The short Diabetes Fear of Injecting and Self-testing Questionnaire (D-FISQ) composed by two subscales that access fear of self injection (FSI) and fear of self testing (FST) was administered individually to all the patients based on the inclusion criteria. In the control arm patients prescribed with first time insulin was counseled by Diabetes Educators and they were administered with DFISQ Questionnaire at baseline and during the follow up visit to the hospital. For patients in the study group, patients prescribed with first time insulin was counseled by Diabetes Educators in addition to Diabetes Education counseling they were rendered with psychological counseling with regular intervals of follow up and was administered with DFISQ Questionnaire at baseline and during the follow up visit to the hospital. Result: The finding highlights that patients on first time insulin injection rendered with diabetes education and followed by psychological counseling had better psychological outcomes in overcoming fear of self injecting and self testing. Conclusion: Thus psychological counseling has to be included as routine management for the patients prescribed with insulin injection for the first time.

  90. Dr. Ritu Shenoy, Dr. Suyog Dharmadhikari, Dr. Devanand Shetty and Dr. Karishma Rohra

    In this report, we attempt a treatment tomanage and save a manidbular molar with angular defect with an endodontic treatment performed on it nine months prior. Intrabony defects are periodontal defects within the bone surround by one, two or three bony walls or a combination thereof. However, there are multiple treatment protocols available to treat the defect. Herein,the tooth is treated using platelet-derived growth factor and hydroxyapatite crystals as bone graft. It is observed that the induced treatment has a synergistic effect and encourages the regeneration and repair of the molar.

  91. Jnanesha, A. C., Vanitha, T. K., Janardan, G. and Bhaskar, S.

    The field experiment was conducted during summer season in farmer's field at kollybyle village, Mudigere taluk, Chikamagalore district. In hybrid napier grass raw effluent irrigation (10.69 % and 9.86 %) and raw effluent irrigation along with soil inoculation of pleurotus (9.11 % and 9.09%) recorded significantly higher crude protein content as compared to fresh water irrigation (5.57 % and 4.85 %), lower fibre content was recorded in raw effluent (24.7 % and 23.8 %) and fresh water irrigation treatments (29.4 5 and 30.4 %) recorded highest fibre content both in first cut and second cut. Higher chlorophyll content was recorded in fresh water irrigation treatment (2.87 mg g-1 and 2.91 m g g-1) and lowest chlorophyll content was observed in raw effluent irrigation treatment (2.08 mg g-1 and 2.15 mg g-1) both in first cut and second cut.

  92. Dr. Yasir Tajdar, Dr. Md. Abdur Rahman, Dr. Sohail Anwar Azami and Dr. Nadia Hasin

    A 35 year old male presented with complaints of oliguria, on evaluation he had mass per abdomen, left undescended testes and pedal oedema. Renal profile test –raised blood urea and serum creatinine. CECT abdomen revealed 15x 14 cms large soft tissue density mass in pelvis. Testicular tumor marker study revealed raised beta-HCG with normal AFP and raised LDH Patient was diagnosed with seminomatous germ cell tumor arising from left intra abdominal testis. Haemodialysis was done for 3days and RFT improved slightly. Patient was planned for Platin based chemotherapy. Patient received 3 courses of carboplatin for 3weeks.After chemotherapy, blood urea and serum creatinine came within normal limits and urine output improved and regression of tumor mass was seen. After 1 month of CECT abdomen revealed no mass. Post chemotherapy serum tumor markers were decreased. He is being followed up regularly with serum tumor markers. Discussion: Persistently cryptorchid (inguinal and abdominal) testis are at higher risk for seminoma (74%), while corrected cryptorchid or scrotal testicles that undergo malignant transformation are most likely to become nonseminomatous (63%,p<0.0001), presumably because of a decreased risk of seminoma. Conclusion: Seminoma is associated with increased sensitivity to platin based chemotherapy and radiation therapy.Relative to cisplatin , the greatest benefit of carboplatin is its reduced side effects, particularly the nephrotoxic effects.In our case chemotherapeutic agent carboplatin was found to be effective which not only relieved urinary symptoms but also helped reduction in size of malignancy.Initially chemotherapy followed by 1-stage surgical removal of the primary and residual metastasis is a favourable option to improve compliance.

  93. Dr. Urfain Habib and Dr. Omar Habib

    Managing disasters both natural and man-made is oftentimes a crucial job. In western societies disaster management without the intervention of psychologists is indispensable. From disaster preparedness, disaster response to disaster recovery, psychologists are professionally trained to deal with the problems at different levels of emergency. In India psychologists are still to establish their footing in disaster management, for which both education and governance is to be blamed. The present paper highlights the need of psychologists in disaster management within Indian society vis-à-vis the introduction of disaster management course within the realm of psychology, so as to meet the growing demand of cognitive intervention before, during and after any natural and man-made disaster.

  94. Dr. Girish Sadashiv Nazirkar, Dr. Shilpa Shankarlal Gori, Dr. Aishwarya Shyam Tendolkar and Dr. Vidhi Sandeep Shah

    Variation of teeth has been an enduring interest to the clinical practitioner and scientist. One such variation includes amelogenesis imperfecta which is heterogenous inherited disorder that disturbs the developing enamel of both primary and permanent dentition. The result is a dentition which lacks function and esthetics. As Prosthodontists, we aim to change the self-esteem, confidence and possibly the course of life of the patients by functional and esthetic rehabilitation of their dentition. This case report describes a interdisciplinary approach for full mouth rehabilitation of a patient having amelogenesis imperfecta with severe anterior open-bite. This treatment resulted in improved function, esthetics and self-confidence of the patient.

  95. Chein Shee Antoinette Yen, Dr. Roseline Meshramkar, Dr. Lekha, K. and Dr. Ramesh K. Nadiger

    Resin based composite restorations placed instead of amalgam continue to increase owing to their esthetics and good functional properties, in restorations involving both anterior and posterior teeth. A good clinical performance depends on the physical and chemical properties which are directly related to conversion of the monomers into polymers. Compressive strength is important for clinical success since it directly affects the physical properties and longevity of restorations. The degree of monomer conversion of resin composite can be measured using different testing techniques- direct or indirect methods. In the present invitro-study indirect methods such as surface micro-hardness and compressive strength were used Aim: Evaluate and compare - micro hardness and compressive strength of Bulkfill and Nano-hybrid composite cured with QTH (quartz tungsten halogen) and LED (light emitting diode) light curing units. Materials and Methods: 80 specimens of standard dimension (4mm diameter and 1.5mm depth) were obtained from a transparent teflon mould. The specimens were divided into 2 main groups, each specimen then being filled with a light cure composite resin (3M ESPE bulkfill and nano-hybrid) and cured with LED and QTH light curing units for 40 seconds each. Physical properties like the compressive strength and surface micro-hardness was evaluated using Instron machine, Vickers hardness testing machine as specified in the ISO standard for resin based composite, ISO 4049:2000. Result: Statistical analysis was employed using Student t-test. All the tested groups showed a significant difference from each other when the level of significance was set at 0.05. Conclusion: Composites when cured using LED light curing units appear to have better compressive and micro-hardness levels thus validate a greater potential in clinical applications.

  96. Ahmed S. Alzahrani, Abdullah S. Habbad, Khalid S. Alzahrani, Ahmed S. Alghamdi and Abdulaziz S. Alzahrani

    Objective: To evaluate probing depth (PD) measurements, using a conventional probe, before and after calculus removal in individuals attending a dental school in Makkah city. Materials and methods: In total, 82 individuals, aged 17 years and older, non-smokers, with no known history of systemic disease and exhibiting at least 20 remaining teeth, were included. The presence of calculus deposits during the periodontal examination was a prerequisite for enrollment in the study. PD measurements were recorded prior to and immediately after scaling by a single examiner. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD) values of PD prior to and after scaling were 2.19±0.94 mm and 2.78±0.98 mm, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P< 0.001). Only 7% of the examined sites showed PD ≥ 4 mm prior to scaling compared with 18% after scaling, and the difference was statistically significant (P< 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in PD values before and after scaling when the results were stratified by gender. Conclusion: A significant increase in the number of sites with a PD ≥ 4 mm was observed following scaling treatment. Calculus deposits could contribute to reading errors in the assessment of initial probing depth

  97. Vijayalaxmi Mekali and Dr. Girijamma, H.A.

    Cancer is dangerous disease that is result of out-of-control growth of DNA damaged cell. Death rate due to cancer is very high. More than hundred types of cancers are possible among that mortality rate of lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, brain tumor is very high. Early detection of cancer and proper treatment plan improves the survival rate of cancers. In clinical environment medical imaging modalities like Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Positron Emission Tomography, Ultrasound and others play a crucial role in early detection of cancers with use of various image analysis algorithms. Selection of modality and imaging algorithms depends on type and nature of cancer. TNM staging play a vital role in treatment plan. This paper discusses the major types of cancers, their TNM staging and also the type of modalities that are used for early detection of specific type of cancer.

  98. Dr. Ujwal L, Yeole, Raaequa, M. Awati and Dr. Pournima, A. Pawar

    Background: Muscular tightness is frequently postulated as an intrinsic risk factor for the development of a muscle injury. Lack of flexibility has been suggested as a predisposing factor to hamstring strains. Aim and objective: To compare the effect of Muscle Energy Technique and Neural Tissue Mobilization technique for improving hamstring flexibility. Methodology: Total 100 Young Individuals aged 18 to 35 years were evaluated for Hamstring tightness. Amongst these 60 individuals satisfying inclusion criteria were recruited and randomly allotted into two groups Muscle Energy Technique (Group A, n=30, mean age 24.73 ±4.53 yrs) and Neural Tissue Mobilization (Group B, n=30, mean age 24.3±4.21yrs). All participants were assessed for hamstring tightness and pre and post intervention using Active Knee Extension (AKE) test, Straight Leg Raise (SLR) and Finger to Toe Touch (FTT) test. The intervention was carried out for three session/week for four weeks. Results: At the end of four weeks, for Group A, the AKE reduced from 49.3±4.8 to 36.33±6.86, SLR improved from 54.1±15.36 to 73.43±9.30, whereas FTT reduced from 61±2.66 to 6.55±2.26. For Group B the AKE reduced from 42.53±7.77 to 30.93±4.46, SLR improved from 57±12.15 to73.56±5.84, whereas FTT reduced from 7.45±2.75 to 5.6±2.17. Between the groups comparison, Group A showed higher improvements in AKE (P<0.0001), SLR (P<0.0001) and FTT (P=0.0002) as compared Group B. Conclusion: Muscle Energy Technique and Neural Tissue Mobilization techniques showed significant improvement in hamstring flexibility. Muscle Energy Technique is more effective than Neural Tissue Mobilization for improving hamstring flexibility in young adults.

  99. Nawaf RN Amro, Angham Karaja and Elham Jad Allah

    Introduction: Despite reliable evidence that the contraceptive methods are highly effective and useful in family planning when used properly, it remains under used in many countries. The aim of this study was to assess the current knowledge about contraceptive methods included (hormonal and copper IUD) and (monophasic and biphasic pills) among Palestinian midwives who work in private hospitals in the southern West Bank, Palestine. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted at six private hospital in Bethlehem and Hebron of West Bank, Palestine. Convenience (purposive) sampling method was used in sample selection; it included 150 participants who were interviewed and filled a self-administered questionnaire. Results: A total of 150 midwives participated in this study, more two thirds of them were between 20 to 34 years of age, (56 %) were not uses of contraceptive methods, (60.7 %) were married and also closed to half had 1 to 4 years of experience (48 %). The knowledge of contraceptive methods was, (51.8%), (51.5 %), (45.9 %) and (58.6 %) for hormonal IUD, copper IUD, monophasic and biphasic pills; respectively. In addition, there is a relationship between knowledge of contraceptive methods and use of contraceptive methods by midwives at (p = < .011), department of work (p = < .019), average cumulative (p = < 0.00) and place of resident (p = <0.014). Discussion and Conclusions: Although contraceptive methods are available free of charge in our public service, it is not being used. Information about contraceptive methods are available but not utilized by midwives in the private hospitals tested. The data suggests the need to expand education for health service provider in order to improve acceptability of contraceptive methods.

  100. Ismail DENIZ, Fikret alTINDAG and Murat Cetin RAGBETLI

    This investigation has been conducted to study the effect of Curcumin on renal injury induced diethylnitrosamine experimentally in rats. The rats were allocated into four groups each group contain seven animals; Control, Curcumin, Diethylnitrosamine, Curcumin+Diethylnitrosamine. Control group was injected by intra-peritoneal of saline (0.5 ml/kg) for 15 days, curcumin group given by gavage (200 mg/kg/day) for 15 days, diethylnitrosamine group was injected a single dose of diethylnitrosamine at the 5th day (intra-peritoneal, 150 mg/kg), curcumin+ diethylnitrosamine group was given by gavage curcumin (200 mg/kg/day) for 15 days and was injected a single dose of diethylnitrosamine at the 5th day (intra-peritoneal, 150 mg/kg). At end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized then right kidney was taken for process was followed for light microscopic research. The kidney volume and glomerular number were calculated for each group using physical disector. A reduction of the kidney volume in diethylnitrosamine group and a significant decrease in the number of glomeruli has occurred in diethylnitrosamine group.

  101. Mrudul Vaidya, Jyothikiran, H, Raghunath, N. and Pratham Pai

    Introduction & Objectives: The extraction versus non-extraction controversy is the oldest as well as the most enduring controversy and still remains a topic of debate in the field of orthodontics. The “American Board of Orthodontics” (ABO-1998) introduced an index called the Objective Grading System (OGS) which evaluates post treatment dental casts and panoramic radiographs. It assesses the final occlusion in first, second and third orders according to eight different occlusal components. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the treatment outcome of extraction and non-extraction cases in borderline cases by ABO-OGS system. Methodology: 40 borderline orthodontic patients with Angle’s Class I malocclusion with an age group of 13-20 years were selected and equally divided into two groups: 20 patients were treated by extraction of all first premolars and 20 patients with a non-extraction treatment protocol. MBT 0.022” slot prescription was used for all 40 patients. With the aid of an ABO measuring gauge and panoramic radiographs, the total OGS scores between the two groups were calculated and compared using Student t-test. Results: The mean OGS scores were significantly less negative in the extraction group (-22.0± 2.29) as compared to the non–extraction group (-26.80 ± 5.18, p < 0.005). Conclusion: According to this study, in the borderline cases, the final occlusion and radiographical characteristics were more acceptable in the patients treated with extraction than the non-extraction patients.

  102. Mikaly Msangi, P., Kasangye Kangoy, A., Zhang Shuqian, Minja Dickson, A., Lesego Selotlegeng and Liu Xinjie

    Objective: The present study aimed to explore etiology, clinical features and treatment of children with purulent bacterial meningitis. Methodology: Hospital based retrospective cross sectional study, we reviewed cases of purulent bacterial meningitis occurring at Qilu hospital from January 2011 through September 2016. Records of all patients, comprising data on clinical presentations, laboratory findings and treatment were obtained and analyzed. Results: 129 children met criteria and were analyzed. Male to female ratio was 1.8:1, 82(63.6%) males and 47(36.4%) female. Cases were classified into five age groups: 1month-1 year76%, 1-2 years 4.7%, 2-5 years 8.5%, 5-12 years 8.5% and 12-15 years 2.3% (mean age is 2.93 months). Confirmed cases were 48(37%), the main bacteria cultured were Staphylococcal species 21%, Streptococcus pneumoniae 19%, group B Streptococcus (GBS) 15% and Escherichia coli 13%. Less detected bacteria were Enterococcus fecalis, Enterococcus fecium and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Staphylococcal species showed resistance to penicillin G by 100%, Oxacillin 62%, Amoxicillin 50%, Ampicillin sulbactam 38% and Ceftriaxone 38%. Gram positive bacterial were sensitive to vancomycin, chloramphenicol, Meropenem and linezolid whereas Gram negative bacteria were sensitive to Meropenem, amikacin and linezolid. Conclusion: Staphylococcal species, Streptococcal pneumoniae, Group B streptococcal and Escherichia coli were the predominant pathogens responsible for purulent bacterial meningitis over the past 5¾ years. Rate of bacteria detection is still low and emergence of antimicrobial resistance together are of great concern, Therefore more intervention are needed to be address so as to reduce burden of Purulent bacterial meningitis and its neurological sequalae to the survivors.

  103. Howraa Abed, Patrick Ball and Hana Morrissey

    Background: There are various factors which can lead to irreversible, reversible cognitive impairments. The progression of reversible cognitive disorders can be halted by identifying and treating the underlying cause. Aim of the Review: To expand pharmacists’ knowledge on underlying causes of cognitive impairment and investigate the possibility of pharmacist involvement in the identification of and/or protection against cognitive impairment. Method: A search of the literature was conducted through databases to identify studies in the English language of 1975-2016. Peer-reviewed articles and informational websites were included. Results: There are two broad classifications of cognitive impairment, irreversible and reversible cognitive impairment. Pharmacists can play an essential role in early detection of cognitive impairment caused by medications. Conclusion: Pharmacists have the potential to lead early detection of cognitive impairment caused by medications through appropriate management of the underlying problem. This may contribute to patients’ better health outcomes and quality of life.

  104. Dr. Poulomi Bhakta, Prof. (Dr.) Prashant Nahar, Prof. (Dr.) Mohit Pal Singh, Dr. Bhuvaneshwari, S., Dr. Saurabh Goel and Dr. Hemant Mathur

    Introduction: Maxillary molar and their roots are significant due to their close vicinity to the maxillary sinus. Protrusion of the dental root apices into the sinus through the iatrogenic aperture can result in inflammation of the sinus mucosa initiating maxillary sinusitis. Through this study, statistically significant mean distance between maxillary sinus floor and root apices of maxillary molars in the patients of either cephalic indices using panoramic radiograph and intra-oral radiograph by paralleling technique is proposed, which will be helpful for treatment plan of the varied dental procedures done in the proximity of maxillary sinus floor. Aim: To compare the distance between maxillary molar root tips and the maxillary sinus floor using panoramic and intraoral radiographic technique in different cephalic indices subjects. Methods: The panoramic and intraoral radiographs from randomly selected 75 subjects, irrespective of gender from 18 – 47 years were selected, who were divided into three Groups i.e, Group I (18-27years), Group II (28-37years) & Group III (38-47years), each comprising of 25 subjects who were further clinically examined, analyzed &subdivided as Brachycephalic, Mesocephalic & Dolicocephalic in each group based on cephalic indices, were analyzed and the distance was assessed. Results: Distance from the molar root tips to the floor of the maxillary sinus was significantly higher in Brachycephalic subjects than Dolicocephalic & normal populations of Group I (18-27years) and Group III (38-47years). In comparison between IOPAR and OPG among Brachycephalic, Mesocephalic & Dolicocephalic subjects in Group I, Group II & Group III, no statistical significance was found. Conclusion: Higher distances between the molar root tips and the maxillary sinus floor could be expected in the brachycephalic than dolichocephalic & mesocephalic individuals of the age range of 18-27 years & 38-47 years. The Panoramic radiographs were useful in measuring the desired distance by close to IOPAR in patients of age range 18-47 years of either Cephalic indices.

  105. Dr. Poulomi Bhakta, Prof. (Dr.) Prashant Nahar, Prof. (Dr.) Mohit Pal Singh, Dr. Bhuvaneshwari, S., Dr. Saurabh Goel and Dr. Rudra Prasad Chatterjee

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw is a disease of bone where symptomatic exposure of nonhealing areas over jaws are seen. We report our experience in the management of a patient with history of trauma to nose, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus & hypertension, who presented with osteonecrosis of the jaw and was under medications but was unaware of the name of the medications. The patient was found to be of an average built, had normal gait with no physical handicap and was alert, conscious and cooperative and responsive to verbal commands with vital parameters within normal range. Intraoral clinical examination revealed poor oral hygiene with bony exposure & necrotic appearance of the maxillary alveolus in the edentulous 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 & 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 region. To confirm the diagnosis, patient was subjected to radiographic, laboratory and histopathological investigations and was advised to take Clindamycin capsules, supplementation of Antioxidant, Calcium capsules and topical application of Metronidazole gel & oral rinse with Povidone iodine 2% Gargles. Based on this diagnosis, patient underwent surgical debridement and finally resection of bony segment of maxillary alveolus extending from 15 to 25 region in the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. After the surgery, patient had an acceptable maxillary alveolus and was put on periodic recall for six months. But there was recurrence after 19th months.

  106. Dr. Yusra Al Nasiri, Dr. Adhra Al Mawali and Dr. Eufemia Jacob

    Problem: Sickle cell disease is an inherited, chronic hematological disorder, which under certain conditions changes the red blood cells to sickle-shaped cells due to an abnormality in the hemoglobin. It is associated with profound complications that affect different organ systems. Due to the complex nature of this disease, sickle cell disease significantly affects children’s overall health. This, in fact, suggests the need to assess all health domains in order to improve the health related quality of life for children with sickle cell disease. The aim of this review is to identify strategies that help to improve health- related quality of life of children with sickle cell disease. Methodological approach: A literature review was conducted using multimodal search strategy of multiple databases that include CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Psych Info, SCOPUS, and Web of Science. This review covers the period between 1995 and 2015. Finding and Conclusion: Sixteen articles were retrieved. The literature suggested that educational and cognitive behavior therapy interventions improved various aspects of health. This review found that both interventions were helpful in improving the participants’ knowledge about the disease and increasing their ability to manage their disease symptoms, thus improving the physical, mental and cognitive aspects of health.

  107. Nazish Waris, Rana Kausar and Mariam Rafique

    Gout was treated by bottle gourd and Ficus Palmata specie. 24 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, model, bottle gourd treated and Ficus Palmata treated. Gout is induced by direct oral dose of uric acid as 30mg/kg body weight. Bottle gourd and Ficus Palmata extracts were prepared in ethanol separately and given to rats as 80mg/kg body weight. After 6 weeks of treatment behavioral activities were monitored. After decapitation, biochemical tests were determined by calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and serum uric acid. Locomotor and stimulator activities significantly increases in bottle gourd and Ficus Palmata treated group, anxiety decreases while, recognition memory of both groups significantly increases as compare to model but decreases as compare to control. Bottle gourd and Ficus Palmata rats showed good effects to enhance magnesium level in blood, significantly reduces the serum uric acid level and maintained calcium phosphorus balance in blood. P-value <0.05 was statistically significant.

  108. Babangida Hammani, Fatima Algunaid Hassan, Khalid Abdallah Mohammed Hassan and Umar Ibrahim

    The study was conducted in Gombe State, Nigeria. The objective of the study was to determine the concentration and distribution of heavy metals inirrigated soil as it affect Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) production in Gombe state. Three zones that make up the state namely Gombe North, Gombe Central and Gombe South were used for the study. From each zone three locations were selected, plant (Lettuce) samples and soil samples were collected randomly from the locations and air dried in a room, sieved, grinded and digested as describe by USEPA (1996) and analysed in standard laboratory. The result showed that plant (Lettuce) heavy metals concentration were in descending order of Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd>Cr>Ni>As, and ranged as follows (Fe.4.31b – 7.15amgkg-1),(Zn 3.40b – 7.97amgkg-1), (Cu 2.19b – 2.76a), (Pb 0.80b – 2.46a mgkg-1), (Cd 0.22b – 0.45amgkg-1), (Cr 0.17b – 0.30a mgkg-1), (Ni 0.10b – 0.45amgkg-1) and (As0.06b – 0.10amgkg-1) across the zones. All the concentration of heavy metals in lettuce plant was within the permissible limit of food standard committee and WHO. The result from the study suggested that significant difference existed in heavy metal concentration in lettuce plant analysed which might be due, partly, to the geology of the soil and anthropogenic activities of the communities. Though the concentration in the plant (lettuce) was low, there is tendency of accumulation in future. Regular monitoring of heavy metals in plant was suggested to avoid excessive build up in future and further research on other crops grown in the study areas was also recommended.

  109. Mohd. Adnan Siddiqui, Ravi Kant Singh, Ankit Kumar

    Plants are the major sources of new medicines and thus in-vitro antibacterial activity and preliminary phytochemical screening of the weed plant Oxalis corniculata was performed to find out its therapeutic potential. Aqueous, methanol, choloroform and hexane extracts of sample powdered were prepared. These extracts were tested against standard gram positive bacterial strains Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus and standard gram negative bacterial strains Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli. The agar well diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the prepared extracts. The results obtained showed the broad spectrum activity of the aqueous and methanol extracts of Oxalis corniculata and inhibited the growth of both standard gram positive bacterial strains and standard gram negative bacterial strains. The bacterial growth showed dose- dependent inhibition. The diameter of zone of inhibition of aqueous and methanol extracts were similar to that of zone of inhibition of tetracycline disc used against the pathogenic bacterial strains. Chloroform extract of plant showed little antibacterial activity while in case hexane the activity observed is negligible as compared to other. The Preliminary Phytochemical screening was performed on aqueous and methanol extract and the results revealed the presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugar, proteins, sterols, acidic compounds, alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides in both aqueous and methanol extract of the plant. The findings of the present study indicated that the extracts of the leaves of the Oxalis corniculata have several phytochemical constituents who possess the antibacterial activity.

  110. Elavarasi, S., Revathi, G., Saravanan, K., Horne Iona Averal and Pushparani, L.

    In the present study, the mercury removal efficiency of different agricultural waste materials sugar-cane bagasse (Saccharum aruandinaceum), coconut coir (Cocos nuciferus) and saw dust was analyzed under laboratory condition in the water. Three concentrations of mercuric chloride, such as 0.1mg/100ml, 0.2mg/100ml and 0.3mg/100ml under pH 6 are treated with three different types of selected agricultural waste. Generally by comparing these three types of biological materials, there is no significant difference among the concentration to absorb the mercury. Even though, the natural waste under study, absorb the heavy metal in all the concentrations at the pH 6 efficiently.

  111. Dr. Manoj Chandak, Dr. Nikita Oswalm, Dr. Nikhil Mankar, Dr. Rajesh Oswal and Dr. Rakhi Chandak

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of 16% carbamide peroxide on microhardness of nanofilled, nanohybrid and microfilled composite. Materials and Methods: 20 samples of each composite (Nanofilled, Nanohybrid, Microfilled) were prepared in prefabricated silicon moulds and mounted on acrylic blocks. Microhardness testing was done prior to initiation of bleaching. Then the bleaching process was done with 16% carbamide peroxide. The gel was applied for 4 hours daily for 21 days. Microhardness testing was done post bleaching. The pre and post bleaching values were compared using student t test and one way ANOVA with the level of significance p=0.05. The results showed decrease in microhardness after bleaching for all three composites. The least reduction was seen in case of nanofilled composite.

  112. Imane Fadel, Najib Magri, Allal Douira, Nadia Belahbib and Jamila Dahmani

    The Ifrane National Park (INP) is located in the heart of the Middle Atlas in central Morocco. It is characterized by a large biological and ecological diversity. Since bryophyte research is very fragmentary in the region, our study aims to establish an exhaustive list of bryophyte species of INP. The present work begins by establishing a list of epiphyte species. Surveys carried out from 2015 to 2017 showed the presence of 30 species of bryophytes that settled on trunks and branches of the main forest species of the Park: Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica M.), Green Oak (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) and Zeen Oak (Quercus faginea Lam.). The listed species are divided into 10 families and 21 genera. Twenty-nine species were observed on Green oak, 28 on Zeen oak and 24 on Atlas cedar. INP includes the Atlas cedar that is best preserved but shows mostly signs of decline especially in areas with strong anthropozoogenic pressure. This regressive trend has repercussions on the bryological diversity whose expansion is limited in these area.

  113. Dekhane, S. S., Mangave, B. D. and Patel, D. J.

    The study was conducted at Tansa Farm, ASPEE Agricultural Research and Development Foundation, Maharashtra during 2015-16. The four sowing dates viz. 15th December, 30th December, 15th January, 30th January and three hybrid sweet corn varieties viz. Hibrix 39, Madhu 5 and Sugar 75 was studied. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications having net plot size 6.6 m x 4.5 m. Yield components and plant growth parameters such as plant height, cob length, cob weight, seeds per cob, test weight and grain yield of sweet corn varieties were significantly affected by different sowing dates. All quantity traits were promising when the sowing was carried out on 15th December. Further delay of the sowing had negative effects on the performance of quantity of sweet corn varieties. Hybrid sweet corn var. Sugar 75 was recorded promising variety which gave higher grain yield of 2381 kg ha-1.

  114. Sharvari Rohan Desai and Shobha A Udipi

    Introduction: Non- communicable diseases (NCDs) are on rise in developed and developing countries and inflammation is one of the root causes for most of these NCDs. In obesity, diabetes and other diseases with underlying insulin resistance, persistent leucocytosis, reflects underlying inflammation. Therefore, the objective of present study was to study the association between white blood cells (WBC), obesity and inflammation and also study whether WBC is associated with pro-inflammatory markers independent of obesity and body fat distribution. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 200 apparently healthy women aged 21-45 years living in urban slums of Mumbai. They were assessed for complete blood count, lipid profile and inflammatory markers. Weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference and skinfolds were measured and body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), waist to height ratio (WHtR) and percent body fat (PBF) were calculated. Results: A little more than three-fourth of the women (n=170) had WBC<11000 cells/cu mm whereas thirty women had leucocytosis with WBC≥11000 cells/cu mm. Sixty percent of women with leucocytosis were obese with BMI≥25kg/m2. Mean hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in overweight/obese women having leucocytosis (7.7±3.5mg/L) compared to those women who had normal BMI and having leucocytosis (5.0±3.3mg/L) or women with normal BMI and WBC counts both together (3.6±3.3mg/L). Conclusion: Leucocytosis can form a simple marker of underlying inflammation in obesity and obesity- associated NCD’s. It can be used as a simple measure for biochemical investigation in obese individuals to detect and prevent adults who are at risk of developing non-communicable diseases.

  115. Dr. Aditi Gautam, Dr. Sandeep Rajan and Dr. Eena Sharma

    Women play a great role inupbriniging of healthy society. Soherre productive heal this of great concern. Cervical Erosion is one of the most common gynaecological condition seen. The prevalence reported for the Cervical Erosion ranges from 17-50%. There is no direct reference regarding the Cervical Erosion in Ayurvedic classics, but on the basis of pathology and the main symptoms of Cervical Erosion, it resembles with Karnini Yonivyapada. This common ailment may present with symptoms like discharge pervaginum, itching vulva, post coital bleeding, backache. If not treated properly it may lead to worst manifestations like infertilityetc. To minimize these, a herbal preparation ie. Kusthadi Varti was selected. In this present dissertation 16 patients were studied. There was moderate improvement in the signs and symptoms of Cervical Erosion.

  116. Veenakumari, V. Nagaralli, Dr. Kasturiba, B. and Dr. Vijaykumar, A. G.

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the most important grain- legumes crops in the world. Chickpeas are rich sources of nutritional composition and there health benefits of consuming legumes could be effective for the expansion of their food uses. Ten prominent varieties of desi and kabuli chickpea procured from AICRP on voluntary center, Dharwad. And variety BGD-111- 01 was obtained from IARI Regional research center, Dharwad. Among these six varieties are released and while remaining five varieties are elite genotypes which were under advanced trials. Standard methods used to analyze mineral composition and sugars estimation. Calcium content was more in DIBG-201 variety whereas BG-1105 showed least amount of calcium. DIBG-201 had highest iron content, BGD-111-01 variety had higher amount of copper (1.86 mg/100g), and BGD-111-01 variety had higher amount of copper (1.86 mg/100g), zinc (6.67 mg/100g) and manganese (2.24 mg/100g) as compared with other varieties. The total sugar content varied from 11.50mg/100g-4.50mg/100g Variety DIBG-201 (1.58mg/100g) variety had highest reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars are more in MNK-1(10.19 mg/100g).Starch content was ranged from 34.49 to 50.24 g/100g. The results of the present study revealed that elite entries are on par with released varieties with regard to mineral composition, sugars and starch levels.

  117. Rajesh A. and Anupa Athmaram

    Acetylcholinestrase is the primary cholinestrase in the body an enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other cholinesters that function as neurotransmitters. Acetylcholinesterase is involved in the termination of impulse transmission by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in numerous cholinergic pathways in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The enzyme inactivation, induced by various inhibitors, leads to acetylcholine accumulation, hyperstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and disrupted neurotransmission. Hence, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, interacting with the enzyme as their primary target, are applied as relevant drugs and toxins. In this present study was computational analysis of potential drugs by the process of molecular docking with important bioactive phytochemicals of the plant Kalanchoe pinnata dock with target protein Acetylcholinesterase of mosquitoes by using 11 compounds (Alpha amyrin, Beta amyrin, Benzene, Dioctyl phthalate, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl acetate, N-nonadecanol-1, Pentacosane, 1,2,3- propanetriol, Phthalic acid, Stigmast-5-en-3-ol and Vitamin E)were selected from GC-MS analysis.The binding affinity values of the compounds as Beta amyrin -5.51, Alphaamyrin -5.50,N-nonadecanol-1 -5.18, Phthalic acid -4.79, Stigmast-5-en-3-ol -4.37, Vitamin E -2.97, 1,2,3- propanetriol -2.78, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl acetate -2.67 shows towards AChE.

  118. Sabina Eyesmin Sumi, Afrin Akter, Roushan Ali, Rizwoana Sharmin Lia, Faruk Hasan, Asadul Islam and Biswanath Sikdar

    The present inquisition was conveyed to isolation, characterization of Pseodomonas syringae pv. Lachrymans bacterium from angular leaf spot disease of pumpkin and evaluation of its biological control. The isolated bacterium was characterized by different biochemical test. The isolate performed gram negative, rod shaped and pink color in gram staining test. It showed positive result in Catalase, Indole, Simmon’s citrate, MacConkey agar, Potassium hydroxide, Methyl Red test and negative to Motility and Urease test. In Triple Sugar Iron and Kligler Iron Agar test, the bacterium fermented the carbohydrates. Antibiotic and antimicrobial activities were screened by disc diffusion method.The highest 22±0.0mm diameter of zone of inhibition was observed by Cefotaxime in 30µg/disc concentration against the isolated bacterium. Adhatoda vasica showed the highest antimicrobial activity with inhibition zone 12.1±0.2mm that means the plant extract had antimicrobial activity against the isolated bacterium. The present research could be helpful for biological control of this devastating disease.

  119. Vitthalrao B. Khyade, Mansi Avinash Adagale, Apurva Baban Tamhane and Shubhangi Shankar Pawar

    There is cause of severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world by diseases that are transmitted by arthropods. The burden of many of these diseases is borne largely by developing countries. Advances in vector genomics offer new promise for the control of arthropod vectors of disease. Radical changes in vector-biology research are required if scientists are to exploit genomic data and implement changes in public health. Use of chemicals to control vector borne diseases often exert influence associated with environmental toxicity and affects adversely on human health. Moreover, this method leads to potentiate the vector for resistance. The strategy for the control of vector borne diseases should be paratransgenic. Symbiotic or commensal microbial pathogens should transformed to express products of gene that interfere with the transmission of pathogen. That is to say the genetically modified microbes are to be re-introduced back to the insect (vector). This method definitely, decrease the ability of the vector to transmit the pathogen into the human body. The paratransgenic method if utilized efficiently, it may reduce rate of for example Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, the triatomine bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and Leishmania donovani by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. There are many effector biomolecules (example: antimicrobial peptides and specific single chain antibodies), currently being explored for the activities of “anti-parasite” in the systems to control vector borne diseases. This method deserve environmental protection and exert positive influence on the health of human being. However, the field application of laboratory-based evidence of paratransgenesis imposes the use of more realistic confined semi-field environments. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified vector (ex. Mosquitoes) because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated pest management tool for the Control of Vector Borne Diseases.

  120. Oleg Gorgadze, Giorgi Bakhtadze, Manana Kereselidze and Manana Lortkhipanidze

    With the aim ofestablishing the efficacy of entomopathogenic agents experiments were carried outunder laboratory conditions against the third instar nymphae and imagoes. The following entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) were used as agents in the experiments: Steinernema tbilisiensis, S. thesami, S. gurgistana, S. carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and the local strain of the fungus Isaria fumosorosea (Wize). The experiments were carried out in two stages: at the first stage 100 nematodes were used against each insect, while at the second stage – 200 nematodes were applied. In parallel to this the efficacy of two concentrations of the fungus I. fumosorosea- 1.108 conidia/ml and 3.108 conidia/ml- was testedagainst the pest insect. On the second stage of experiment EPN and the fungus were jointly applied against the H. haly as a combination at high doses (200 nematodes + fungus I. fumosorosea - 3.108). The results of experiments have shown that while applying separately EPN and the fungus against nymphae and imagos, S. carpocapsae and the fungus H. bacteriophora turned out tobecomparatively effective: the effect of low dose of S. carpocapsae against nymphae was 77.2% and against imagoesit was equal to 62.2%. The effect of high dose was 82.4% and 65.3% respectively. As a result of application of low doses of H. bacteriophora 79.6% mortality of nymphae and 69.0% mortality of imagoes was achieved. When using high doses of this agent, the 83.3% of nymphae and 73.7% of imagoes were killed. EPN and the fungus were used in experiments in combination as well: the joint effect of S. carpocapsae and the fungus H. bacteriophora was 94.2% mortality of nymphae and 88.5% mortality of imagoes of H. halys. Combination of H. bacteriophora and I. fumosorosea yielded 95.6% and 90.5% mortality rate of nymphae and imagoes respectively. At all stages of the experiment emtomopathogenic agents revealed higher effect against nymphae as compared with imagoes. Our experiments have demonstrated that the combined applicationofEPN and fungus was more effective, that application of the same agents separately. The nematodes S. tbilisiensisandS. thesami, which turned out to be less effective at the first stage of experiment have revealed higher effect against the pest when applied in combination with the fungus.

  121. Sneha, M., Kiran, K. V. N. and Yugandhar, N. M.

    Marine sources are increasingly being investigated as a source of microorganisms with potential to produce novel bioactive compounds and enzymes. Marine ecosystems represent a largely untapped source for isolation of new microorganisms. They are of particular interest, since they are traditionally known for their unparalleled capacity to produce biomolecules with diverse biological activities. Actinomycetes were isolated from marine sediments collected off the coast, Visakhapatnam and, Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh. The antibacterial and Lipase activities of the strain were determined and fermentation conditions viz., incubation time, incubation temperature, inoculum age, initial pH, were optimized for maximizing the antibacterial metabolite and enzyme production by strain L3. Physiological and Biochemical characteristics of the isolate were studied by the conventional method and identified as Streptomyces Yogyakartensis strain L13 by the Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC), Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh. Further the medium composition with respect to carbon and nitrogen sources was also optimized for increasing the antibacterial metabolite and lipase production. With the optimized conditions employed, strain showed antibacterial activity (in terms of inhibition zone diameter) of 38 mm against Enterobacter aerogenes & 39.5mm against Bacillus subtilis and Lipase activity of 41.2 U/ml.

  122. Dr. Patrick Aubin DAKIA, Dr. Marie-Michel Agnan COMBO, Dr. Beda Marcel YAPO, Dr. David Kouakou BROU and Dr. Michel PAQUOT

    The proximate composition and the fibres content of the carob seed hull were analyzed in order to evaluate the effect of carob seed tegument fragments (as contaminants) on locust bean gum (a galactomannan usually used as food additive) composition. The separation of the seed components by boiling water pre-treatment furnished ~30% of brown coat. The seed coat fibres analysis by enzymatic-gravimetric method with phosphate buffer showed that carob hull contain ~75% IDF (insoluble dietary fiber) and ~15% SDF (soluble dietary fiber). In addition, the NDF (neutral-detergent fibre) composition, determined by non-enzymatic-gravimetric method, revealed the presence of ~20% of insoluble hemicelluloses, ~33% of cellulose and ~9% of lignin fractions. These results suggest that this product may be regarded as a potential fibre source for Locust bean gum flour enrichment, and suitable for use as food ingredient.

  123. Nandini, G., Palekar, S. Vaidya, V., Shinde, M.,

    Wagatea spicata (WS), a Leguminous flowering shrub has been known for the medicinal action of its bark against skin diseases and roots against pulmonary disorders in Ethnobotanical references (Surange, 1986). 5-20 meters long plant is characterized by the presence of hard, curved, prickles on the stem (Fig 1.1), bipinnately compound leaves (Fig 1.2) and seasonal, reddish yellow, spiked inflorescence ( In spite of its easy abundance and medicinal significance, phytochemical profile of the plant was not revealed. In the present work an effort was therefore made to elucidate the phytoconstituents of biological significance present in this plant so as to understand their role in the medicinal properties of the same. In the current study, GCMS analysis of carried out to explicate the phytochemical profile of Wagatea spicata. n-Hexadecanoic acid, Octadecanoic acid, Sitosterol, Lupeol were identified by GC-MS in the plant.

  124. Dr. Jyotsnarani Panda

    Aims/purpose: The present study was an attempt to assess their need of knowledge based on counseling among 13 to 17 year old adolescents. Methodology of study: The total sample for the present study included 400 adolescents i e 200 from different girl’s high schools and 200 from women’s colleges which are the most of HIV prevalence blocks of the Ganjam district of Odisha state. By using exploratory and the descriptive study design, the researcher attempts to describe female adolescents’ knowledge and understanding regarding HIV/AIDS, A scheduled questionnaire was used covering all aspects of HIV/ AIDS and observation methods were also used to collect the data from the adolescent girls. To analysis data the researcher used frequency percentages and the t- tests were computed. Findings: The study found out that out of 400, 306 respondents that is (76.5%) received the information about HIV/AIDS from Doctors comparatively very low percent (1.0) received information from their parents and rest of the percentage received from ICTC, teachers, friends and positive networks. From the above table it is inferred that more than half of the respondents (57.3%) have never participated in any of the awareness generation programmes. Conclusion and Recommendations: The present study will help to focuses of adolescent’s level of knowledge on sources of information about HIV/AIDS and en From the above table it is inferred that more than half of the respondents (57.3%) have never participated in any of the awareness generation programmes able to understand it. The respondents get information not only from the availability resources but also from through participation of events conducted by Schools/Colleges on HIV/AIDS awareness camps. Governments have undertaken initiatives to formulate their own nation and states specific polices to address some issues and evidence regarding the disease. People need extra guide line to increase coping skills and need for adequate support system. Right knowledge right action right time can change the life of an individual as well as the society.

  125. Sathiraju Venkata Satyanarayana, Natiq Joodi, Hatem Yazdi

    In Oman the annual average rain fall is 100mm. Falaj is an open water channel developed some 2000 years back. It originates from a mother well and flows under gravity. Two or more Falaj water streams are called Aflaj. In Oman, more than 3000 falajs water streams are flowing to cater drinking and irrigation need. The aim of this article is to estimate water quality in three falajs water streams in Nizwa area and to calculate water quality index for each stream. Three samples were collected from each falaj and analyzed for total dissolved solids, calcium, total alkalinity, chloride, sulphate, nitrate and total hardness. Water quality index was calculated for each sample and average of three samples taken for assessment. It was observed that the average WQI for Falaj Daris is 57, Falaj Al-Khatmayn is 47 and Falaj Al-Muyassar is 78. It was observed that the water quality for Falaj Al-Khatmayn is excellent and water quality for Falaj Daris and Falaj Al-Muyassar are good and acceptable for drinking purpose after proper disinfection.

  126. Seelamneni Thulasamma, Alokananda Chakraborty, Kaiser Jamil, Lahari Kuna, Shravan Ghali and Kazmi, M.H.

    Background: Diabetes is a very common metabolic disorder among Indian population. This study validates some of the Unani concepts of humors or temperaments (Phenotypes), with regard to Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. We selected Damvi subjects for our study, with an aim to determine its association with the genetic biomarker- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor - Gamma (PPAR-γ) and other biochemical parameters. Methods: The Unani clinicians randomly selected 100 diabetic damvi patients who were attending the Unani hospital for treatment and 100 healthy volunteers belonging to damvi temperament. Institutional Ethics Committee approved the project. Besides looking at temperaments/ humors as susceptibility factors – we included a genetic factor-PPAR-γ to our investigation. We have genotyped the Proline 12 alanine (Pro12Ala C➝G) gene polymorphism by PCR-RFLP. Results: We found more of CC genotypes in both cases and controls and less number of the hetero genotypes CG in cases compared to controls. Interestingly the homo genotypes GG were not found in this group of patients as well as controls. In our study we observed a significant increase (p<0.001) in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and GST levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We also found that plasma glucose levels (fasting and postprandial), total cholesterol, triglycerides, liver function tests and renal function tests were very high using Erba Autoanalyzer. Conclusion: We found that Damvi temperaments (Sanguine- Phenotypes) were more prone to T2DM; hence it is important that damvi phenotypes could be counseled to take preventive measures, also PPAR-γ and antioxidant levels have been identified as biomarkers for T2DM.

  127. Khandu Hotkar

    The present study is undertaken to find out any synergestic effect of mixture of the selected plant extracts in supplying polyphenolic compounds which can be useful as an antioxidants. In the present study, antioxidant activity, reductant activity and content of total flavanoids are estimated in individual selected plant extracts, combination of mixture of two selected plant extracts in the proportion of 1:1 and mixture of all the three plant extracts in the proportion of 1:1:1. The antioxidant activity is measured by β- carotene linoleate model system, reductant activity is measured by the method of Yen and Duh and total flavanols are measured by vanillin method using catechin as a standard. In the present study we observed highest level of antioxidant activity and reducing power are found in a mixture of Vitis vinifera, Camellia sinensis L. and Zinziber officinale in the proportion of 1:1:1

  128. Kalyani, P., Sailaja, B. and Hemalatha, K. P. J.

    Synthetic dyes used in textile industries, if not treated prior to its disposal, can enter our water systems and cause pollution. The present investigation focused on the decolorization of the textile dyes like Congo red, Malchite green. The present Aspergillus fumigatus were isolated from marine soil samples collected from Bay of Bengal, Kakinada, East goghavari district, Andhrapradesh, India. Different parameters such as various carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, pH and salinity concentrations were optimized for decolorization of textile dyes Congo red Malchite green by Aspergillus fumigatus showed maximum dye decolorization of 90% at the end of 5th day under optimum condition and found to be more efficient in dye decolorization. All parameters studied in this paper were found to be effective for all isolates. The results reported here warrant further investigation to establish the usefulness of these isolates for bioremediation and biodegradation application such as waste water treatment.

  129. Poonam Kumari and Prof. Arvind Kumar Nema

    Four different Land uses were sampled in Delhi NCR region of India to evaluate the effects of seasons on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), soil inorganic nitrogen (SIC), Soil pH, Soil EC and soil C/N ratio. A study was carried out in the Protected forest (PF) and Unprotected forest (UPF) of the South Central Ridge of Aravallis (28°32′00″N 77°10′40″E) near Vasant Kunj and Mehrauli in Delhi, as well as in the Organic Farming (OF) and Chemical Farming (CF) fields located in Bulandsahar (Uttar Pradesh state in northern India having coordinates 28026’N 770 50; E), Ghaziabad, UP of India. Soil samples were collected in the summer (March), monsoon (July) and winter (December) seasons of the year 2015 from various depths 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15- 20 & 20-30cm. A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in sampling depth in SOC, TN, pH and EC in the all four selected land use, but only PF has shown significant differences in SIC across the depth and CF in C/N ratio. But no significant differences were observed across the three seasons (summer, monsoon and winter) in the SOC, TN and C/N ratio in all the four selected land use. Statistically significant (P<0.05) were observed across the season in soil pH and soil EC. In all the land use pH was observed highest in monsoon while lowest in summer seasons. Soil EC was observed highest in summer season while almost same in monsoon and winter seasons.

  130. Bandar H. Aloufi

    The lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides) is used as part of a cardiacdisease risk assessment. In this research, we investigate the efficiency of Fishoil to decrease the levels of total cholesterol and proteins in Wister rats (n =60) weighing (225-250 g). Fish oil was fed for seven weeks to Wister rats. Hematological and physiological parameters were examined by automatic analyzer and the results were statistically analyzed by SPSS.12. In comparison to control rats showed highly significant decrease in values of following physiological parameters; triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein. In contrast, marked increasing in the value of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. These findings indicate that diets containing Fish oil significantly improved the physiological parameters of rats. We suggest that Fish oil as part of food might improve blood parameters and increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats. We further suggest that Fish oil supplementation act as antioxidant agents, and an excellent adjuvant therapy for rats.

  131. Neelam Kumari and Dr. Josephine Nirmala Many

    The backbone of Indian economy is the unorganized sector. Predominance of unorganized sector and informal employment has been the central feature of Indian economy, for past several decades. The significance of the unorganized sector in the employment front since early 1980s and even before that more than 90 percent of total workforce has been engaged in the informal economy. Employment of girls in unorganized sector belongs to a greatly disadvantaged working area in the country. They usually come from lower caste, with very little education. The present study was focused on girls working in unorganized sector in different areas of Lucknow district. Objective of the study: Prevalence of girls working in unorganized sector of Lucknow district. Methodology: The cross sectional study was administered in the areas located in Lucknow district. The personal and family socio - economic status of the girls working in unorganized sector were recorded. Questionnaire schedule was used to collect the information. Socio- economic status was assessed in terms of income per month of the respondent, family income, family size, father and mother occupation, etc.; those areas were selected using multistage random sampling techniques. The results revealed that from the selected areas a total number of 1200 working children, were surveyed and found 600 girls were working various unorganized sector namely brick worker, construction worker and chikankari worker. The present study focused on the Girls belonging to the age group of 8 to 14 years who were not attending school and school dropout. On analyzing their socio- economic profile, it was found they were from very low economic strata. Inspite of the Government amending the child labour prohibition bill 2016, the girl child labourers are still existing in Lucknow (U. P).

  132. Singh, P. and Gaur A.

    For every living one, water is an invaluable and treasure but due to its over consummation and pollution necessitate to think carefully about it. When heavy and harmful substances from many sources like factories, industries or the hazardous smoke released by the vehicles, garbage and sewage from houses, agricultural runoff, cattle's bathing, etc. are mixed with water, it cause water pollution. The present study is based on the analysis of some physico-chemical and biological parameters by collecting samples in rainy season (August- September) from 5 different sampling sites of River Ramganga at Bareilly. With the passing of time, river water become more polluted due to excessive growth of algae and bacteria by which BOD and nitrate increase and quality of the river water and aquatic environment including fisheries, flora and fauna and other living and non-living beings related to the river are affected, so it is necessary that this serious issue should be exhibit.

  133. Krithika, B.N. and Ananthanarayana, S. R.

    Brinjal (Eggplant) is one of the important vegetables which contributes 9% of total vegetables in India. It occupies an area of 5.10 lakh hectares with an annual production of 88.00 million tonnes in India. Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the most popular and economically important vegetables among small-scale farmers and low-income consumers of Karnataka. The Brinjal Shoot and Fruit Borer (BSFB), Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee) has been identified as the most destructive pest which causes serious damage during the fruiting stage and it is the primary limiting factor in brinjal production. Yield losses as high as 95% due to BSFB infestation has been reported. By habit, BSFB is an internal borer which damages the tender shoots and fruits. The normal measures like spraying pesticides do not solve the problem. The use of highly systemic chemicals at a high frequency makes the vegetables unfit for human consumption, ecologically unsafe and economically unviable leading to the exploration of physical and botanical methods. A survey was conducted in two major brinjal growing areas of Karnataka, namely, Magadi and Chikkabalapura to assess the available facilities for farming, extent of yield loss caused due to BSFB infestation, to understand the role of abiotic factors and pest management methods in practice and their efficiency. The survey results revealed that the variety Mysore Badane is most resistant to pest infestation. Cropping and irrigation methods can be used as tools to combat spread of pest infestation in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) module. Statistical analysis has strengthened the understanding of the effect of abiotic factors on pest infestation. Ongoing laboratory experiments have shown that phytoextracts of commonly grown plants like Marigold are effective in suppression of the insect pest population and can be used in an IPM module.

  134. Shakeel Ahmed Adhoni, Adiveppa Vantamuri and O Kotresh

    Wastewater is the spent or used water containing dissolved or suspended solids, microbes. Organic and inorganic substances which are released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial activities which leads to organic and inorganic pollution.Dairy industry plays a major role in nation economy with a share of 13.1% total milk produce in the world. About 286 large and several small dairy industries in India are producing large quantities of wastes and polluting the water bodies. The present study focuses on the use of microalgae to remove pollutants and nutrients from the wastewater by phycoremediation.Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmusabundans are the chosen algal species for the study. To observe the efficiency of nutrient uptake by these algal species in sewage water and dairy industrial effluents. To compare the ability of the algal species to reduce the nutrients. To estimate the biochemical constituents of harvested algal biomass for further applications such as bio fuel production.The collected sewage and dairy samples were tested for the following standard physico-chemical parameters as per APHA-1998 and BIS 14543.About 35-90% reduction in different nutrients was noted though out the experiment, further the nutrients were utilised by these to strains to produce sugars 18-30%, protein 12.6-20% and lipids7.5-23.5% of dry cell mass,the gradual reduction in various physical and chemical parameters gives the evidence that Chlorellapyrenoidosa showed best removal capacity when compared to that of Scenedesmus abundans. These experiments confirm that Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus abundans may be considered efficient nutrient removers.

  135. Surbhi Agarwal, Dilip Gena and Jehangeer Rehman Quereishi

    The floristic survey of Nasirabad tehsil resulted in collection of 570 species of flowering plants belonging to 330 genera under 88 families. Besides 3 species of pteridophytes were also collected. A checklist is presented along with a brief account on topography, climate, vegetation and floristic analysis.

  136. Alwyn D’souza and Krishna, M. S.

    Nowadays popularity of using energy drinks is more common but quality used in these energy drinks has either detrimental or benefits on organisms fitness. Present study was carried out D.melanogaster to study effect of synthetic and natural energy drink on longevity. Here the larval feeding rate and adult longevity were studied and it revealed that, flies fed on natural energy drink had consumed greater quantity of food and lived significantly longer compared to flies grown in synthetic energy drink and normal food media. This shows that the nutrients present in the natural energy drink had played a vital role in increasing life span of the fly. Thus these studies suggests that consumption of natural energy drink is more beneficial over synthetic energy drink in D.melanogaster.

  137. Anurag Kulshrestha and Richa

    According to 62.2% of the Field Supervisors of Delhi Waste Management Company, food is always thrown into MCD Bins. 44.4% say both unserved and food leftover in the plates is thrown into the bins. As per the quantum of food found in bins placed near the venue of social gatherings, 44.4% say it is between 20-30% while 11.1% say it is between 30-40%. 50% say that more food wastage is found in bins near Banquet Hall / marriage home and 38.9% say in the bins near hotels/ restaurants and clubs. According to study there is high wastage of boiled vegetables, vegetable and dal. During general seasons the food wastage in bins in normally less than 20% but during the marriage seasons it goes up to as high as 40% of the total waste. This paper attempts to tackle with untouched cooked food waste management in our urban cities. Untouched food waste is an enormous contributor to the municipal waste stream, and its generation has significant immediate and long-term economic as well as environmental consequences that many Indians are oblivious to. Food waste is of particular interest to regulatory bodies because nationally the cost of waste disposal has skyrocketed in recent years and will likely only continue to increase.

  138. Meleki, L. P., Mbwette, T. S. A. and Judicate, N. N.

    The study sought to explore the status of microbial contaminants in street vended food and the incubatory carriers among street food vendors conducted in Mbeya City in 2014. The questionnaires and observation checklists were administered whereas, bacteriological examination of stool specimen and food were collected from 96 street food vendors. The results showed that 21 (27%) out of 78 of food samples collected and five out of 25 stool specimens were found with food borne disease pathogens. Some of the pathogens are not only among the top ten least wanted food borne diseases but also some vendors were convalescent carrier and multidrug resistant. The pathogens include Escherichia coli O157: H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium. The results showed that 70% of respondents had formal primary education, 27% had secondary school education, 1% had university education suggesting that majority of vendors never had basic knowledge on food safety training to better understand the concept of the food safety in relation to microbial contamination in food and human health carriers. The results of microbial quality of the food demonstrated that the food vendors had to offer unsafe food to their clients. The study identified infrastructure, food equipment, casual helpers, presence of pests, holding temperature for food and storage, weak regulatory systems as a gap in Mbeya City Council. The outcome of this study can serve as a baseline data for management and improvement of the street food safety based on study area.

  139. Poornachander Rao, M.

    We conducted pot-culture experiments to study the rhizodegradation of three PAHs compounds namely phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene with blackgram plants. PAHs compounds were accurately weighed then added to experimental soils viz., rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere sets and made the final concentration of PAHs 600ppm. Fresh cultures of PAHs degrading bacteria strain, B. cereus CPOU13 added to the soil and made final concentration of the strain 3.3 × 104 CFU, then the experiment was conducted for 90days. The PAHs compounds were extracted finally from soil samples after the 90days and their concentrations were determined using HPLC methods. High degradation of the PAHs was observed in the rhizosphere soil treatments over the non-rhizosphere soils. The strain from rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil treatments recorded high degradation when compared to natural microflora in non-autoclaved soils. Inrespect to the phenanthrene the strain recorded 83.03% of degradation in autoclaved rhizosphere soils. Anthracene was degraded up to 76.10% in the treatment of autoclaved rhizosphere soil by the strain and it was slightly decreased in non-autoclaved rhizosphere soil. The strain degraded pyrene up to 82.1% in autoclaved rhizosphere soil and its low degradation observed in non-rhizosphere soil treatments. During this 90days of experiment population of the bacteria was enumerated in the treatment soils at regular time intervals viz., 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90days using serial dilution technique. Population of the bacteria was increased more in rhizosphere treatments over the non-rhizosphere treatments and it gradually increased from the 0th day and reached at maximum by 60days. Afterwards, slight decrease was observed in bacterial population. Hence this study determined that the PAHs degradation under rhizodegradation perhaps associated with the increasing population of PAHs degrading strain and its increased biological activities.

  140. Pushpa, K., Madhu, P., Venkatesh Bhat, B. and Balakrishna, D.

    Efficient genetic transformation of sorghum plant requires an effective selection marker system that precisely differentiates transformed cells from non-transformed ones. Hence the present Hygromycin study was undertaken to optimize the selection marker antibiotic Hygromycin to screen transformed cells in sorghum transformation experiments with vectors harbouring hpt gene. Shoot meristem explants of sorghum were grown in somatic embryo induction media containing various concentrations of Hygromycin. At lower concentrations of Hygromycin (0.2 mg/L and less), the growth of shoot apices was unaffected and the survival rates were very high (87.5–100%) during the three sub-culture passages. At a Hygromycin concentration of 0.5 mg/L the percentage of survival decreased gradually with three subcultures - 62.5, 25 and 0% survival respectively, while at concentrations of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L, these were higher mortalities of explants in the first subculture itself (only 31.3-37.5% survival). The least concentration of Hygromycin at which all susceptible explants died was 0.5 mg/L (after three subcultures). Therefore it is suggested that 0.5 mg/L of Hygromycin may be used as the optimum concentration for the selection of sorghum shoot meristem explants transformed with vectors harboring the hpt gene.

  141. Sunil P. Singh

    The optical fiber as the transmission medium for lightwave communication is now well established. Optical fibers provide enormous and unsurpassed transmission bandwidth, and are now the transmission medium of choice for long distance and high data rate transmission. Networks which operate at the 1300 nm window are now in state of art situation. Advanced fiber designs for operation at lowest loss 1550 nm window are reaching to state of art situation for long haul routes. These systems are based on dispersion shifted fibers and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. The erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) provide large and broad band optical gains. Large number of wavelength division multiplexed information channels can be transmitted and simultaneously provided gain by EDFAs. The use of erbium-doped fiber amplifier increases the power confinement inside optical fibers. Therefore in such systems effects of optical nonlinearities may become important. The aim of this paper is to trace the evolutionary trends in fiber optic communications seen since the first low loss fiber. Some nonlinear optical effects that are important for designing of fiber optic communication systems will also be discussed.

  142. Amir Aslani Behnood, Shaiful Farith Bin Ahmad, Muhammad Azizi Bin CheSulaiman and Yusmadi Yah Jusoh

    Project Management is an established discipline that is widely accepted as the guide to be used in team projects. Project Management has become the main support framework for the Malaysian government operations, yet there are some notable issues regarding the Project Management processes applied in software development that is crucial to understand. The lack of study and discussion in this domain necessitates the need for a research to be conducted to improve the processes applied in software development in various government agencies in Malaysia, which will simultaneously improve the quality of the software created. This study was conducted to explore the implementation of the 5 process groups. The 5 process groups are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and control, and closing process. Therefore, the objective of this study is to indicate the implication of the 5 process groups of project management in government agencies. This study is using a structured questionnaire with 21 questions to capture the practitioner of process group in project management applied in Government Agencies of Malaysia and method used in analyzing the data of project management process is to compare using a set of scale namely strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, and strongly disagree. This study has gathered data from various government agencies such as ministry, State Government, Government Link Company (GLC) and higher learning institutions. Based on the results of this study, the participants reacted more positively towards the Project Management 5 Process Groups. Through this study, we can conclude that the project management process groups are one of the contributing factors to the success of software projects.

  143. Saleh, I. M., Abdel-Hay A. S. and Ahmed, M. A.

    The reliability of structure is its ability to achieve its design purpose during a specified time. The reliability index is equivalent to the probability of safety. In this study, the reliability index for the RC slender columns with rectangular cross section is studied. The variable parameters studied include the concrete compressive strength, the reinforcement yield strength, the loads, the reinforcement ratio, the dimensions of concrete cross-section, and the location of steel placement. Risk Analysis program called @Risk (Version 6.0) was used to perform the analytical study. This paper present the effect of the reinforcement ratio and the cross section dimensions on the reliability index of slender reinforced concrete columns. The results of this study indicate that the good quality control has significant effects on decreasing the coefficient of variation for the concrete compressive strength, yield steel strength and the dimension of reinforced concrete sections which in turn improve the performance of slender reinforced columns through increasing the reliability index β.

  144. Sureshkumar Natarajan, Pratiksha Prashant Salvekar, Pratiksha Chetankumar Bambori and Minal Mahesh Shinde

    The wireless communication is always evolving with time, so as of now it has reached to another level of not just communicating but collecting, storing, processing and transmitting data with tremendous speed. Over the years of history India have seen different techniques to improvise the crop yield, to maintain soil health and to keep up the occupational growth [1]. The need for smart agriculture is in demand which will bring revolution. The administration of data series using this prototype will be beneficial for maintaining acres of field in just one go from any corner. The Internet of Things (IoT) platform allows the interconnection and linking of this prototype. In this paper, necessary soil health information such as temperature and humidity is collected by installing the sensor in the field, Arduino Uno is used as the microcontroller, further to justify the demand of data handling and utilizing it is uploaded to ThingSpeak that is the IoT hub. Finally, MATLAB is used to get data from ThingSpeak [2]. The datasheet of the data is formed which will be provided in an app for future enhancement.

  145. Dr. Deepapriya, S. and Ravanan, R.

    An illness death model is a Multi-state model where subjects progress though three different states. An illness death model is a discrete space continuous time stochastic process, for a random process with a finite state space S = {1, 2 ... N}. Here, T = [0, τ], τ < ∞ is a time interval and the value of the process at time t the state occupied at that time. The states are either transient or absorbing. An absorbing state is a state from which further transitions cannot occur while a transient state allows transition to other states. This paper deals with the Non parametric estimation of an illness death model with a recovery state, in which the patients move among disease free  diseased, diseased  disease free, diseased  death and diseased free  death. A longitudinal failure time data is being employed to describe the Non parametric estimators, Nelson Aalen (1972), Aalen Johansen (1978), and Kaplan Meier (1958) to estimate cumulative intensities, transition probabilities, and survival probabilities respectively and to study their statistical properties. The evolution of multi state model, an illness death model with recovery state has achieved by the method of episode spiting.

  146. Yamusa, Rita Irisim and Jibasen, Danjuma

    Capture recapture is a method that involves estimating the number of cases in a defined population by crosslinking registrations of individual records of names. This study seeks to present the capture recapture technique as a more appropriate approach to use in estimating the number of population that are difficult to count. To illustrate the method, secondary data were obtained from three health facilities: Gembu Centre for HIV/AIDS Advocacy in Nigeria (GECHAAN), Mambilla Baptist Hospital (MBH), and General Hospital Gembu (GH) all located in Gembu, Taraba state and was used to estimate the prevalence of HIV in pregnant women from 2013 -2015. Log linear model was used to analyse the capture recapture data. Results show that the estimated completeness of the three sources was 14 % with the total prevalence of HIV in pregnant women estimated at 4372(95% CI [2274 -9767]), thus 3760were not registered by any of the three health facilities, since only 612 patients were identified by the centres. Validity of the results obtained was tested and was found to corroborate with the results obtained from existing alternative models. Result obtained shows that capture recapture technique has the ability to provide comprehensive data with a near accurate estimate.This method is useful for estimating elusive populationsas itis cost effective and an alternative to carrying out population based survey.

  147. Dr. Neeta A. Nagori

    History of denim is as colorful as the fabric that has ruled the fashion chart of the world for the past fifteen decades. Gradually due to technological advancements denim turned as a fashion symbol. In 1800s American gold miners needed clothes that were strong lasted longer and durable and it has good abrasion resistance, means the fabric absorbs a lot of friction before it breaks apart. But in present era, Denim is no more considered as ‘workwear’. Though branded jeans are very expensive wearer get fad up after a long use. So the study focus on “Old Denim New Look” in which old denims was re–use to create a new designer garment. About 100% of respondents like the concept of re–use of old denim and 90% of respondents said that it is the best way of waste management.

  148. Maricel A. Esclamado, Juvert C. De Los Reyes, Kendie D. Cagud, Marileth L. Piquero and Maria Theresa Tulang

    This paper describes the development of a dynamic recommender system which provides clients the recommended services based on their preferences. This system is said to be dynamic since the weight of each criterion is defined by the user. In addition, preferences of other users is also included in ranking the recommended services through the use of collaborative filtering. This provides a specific user an idea of what others preferred and may help the user in finding the best offer. In this paper, a Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) method is used to create a function to calculate the ranking score of each possible service that match the user preferences. The criteria used for the service search includes the primary factors in choosing a service such as cost, location, and rating from other clients. In addition, one of the criteria is the preferences of other users which is processed through collaborative filtering. A web application is developed to provide interface for the clients where they can search services according to their preferences. In this paper, the service search is tested on event services. Usability testing is conducted and results revealed that users strongly agree with the usefulness of the system.

  149. Maulid Taembo, Aron Meko Mbete, Ni Made Dhanawaty and Putu Putra, A. A.

    This study aims at investigating the sound change of Wakatobi Language. Wakatobi is a language used in Wakatobi Regency, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The data collecting was done through interviewing method. Interview was carried out by visiting all of the research locations and did the interview through the question lists provided. The Interview was done by using noting and recording techniques. It was analyzed synchronically using apportioned and interlingua equal methods. There two kinds of phonological processes of Wakatobi language investigated in this paper, namely assimilation and the structure of syllable. The assimilation process of Wakatobi occurs mostly on vowels, particularly for vowel harmony. Besides, it includes progressive and regressive assimilation. Based on structure of syllable, this paper only focuses on addition and lossing of segment. Based on the data, the addition of segment covers 1) addition of vowel, particularly for vowel [a], 2) addition of glottal [ʔ], and 3) addition of semi-vowel [β,y]. Subdialects of Wakatobi language have three kinds of lossing og segment, namely (1) lossing of vowel, (2) lossing of consonant, and (3) lossing of syllable. Lossing of vowel covers lossing of vowels /i, ɛ, a/. Lossing of consonant can be divided into four parts, namely (1) lossing of plossive, (2) losing of trill, (3) lossing of fricative, and (4) lossing of semivowel. Last, lossing of syllable can be occurs in all possition either in the preantepenultimate, antepnultimate, penultimate, or ultimate.

  150. Saurabh Singh, KrishnaYadav, Rishabh singh, Akash Soni, Harjeet Matharuf and Pranay Rao

    This paper proposes and aims at designing a GSM jammer. GSM jammer is a device that transmit signal on the same frequency at which the GSM system operates. The mobile phones in the area where the jammer is located are disabled. This project is mainly intended to prevent the usage of mobile phones in places inside its coverage without interfering with the communication channels outside its range, thus providing a cheap and reliable method for blocking mobile communication in the required restricted areas only. The circuits that use for GSM jammer are Tuning Circuit, Voltage Controlled Oscillator, RF Amplifier and Antenna form the Jammer circuit. All the circuit output are constructed and observed using the Electronic workbench. The simulation result and practical result were studied and they were found to be approbatory equal. The gain of the project is that we are able to block communication coming into and going out from a GSM phone operating on the 890MHz to 960MHz frequency band.

  151. Karastogianni Sophia and Girousi Stella

    This review points out the importance of coupling electrochemical techniques with molecularly imprinted polymers, in order advanced sensing devices to be developed. Recently, the growing interest in molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as recognition elements, which mimic natural receptors, has made the researchers to design novel formats for improvement of MIP electrochemical sensors. Among other possible approaches used in the literature, this review will discuss the electrogeneration of MIPs and on less common hybrid technology (e.g. based on electrochemistry and classical MIPs, or nanotechnology).

  152. Mustafa Emre YETKİN, Ferhan ŞİMŞİR, Kemal ÖZFIRAT, M. and Hayati YENİCE

    Background:In longwall mining, for the purposes production and safety, the roof exposed in the working area of a longwall face must be supported and protected. For this purpose, hydraulic support units, which are called powered roof supports, are used in the production area. Before excavating the coal from underground, excavation area has to be prepared for longwall mining equipments such as powered roof supports, chain conveyor and shearer-loader. These are quite expensive equipments. In this study, importance of powered roof supports is evaluated considering it’s unit cost in total costs. Equipment costs in longwall installation are specified according to equipment type. Total longwall installation cost is calculated and in order to mention importance of roof supports, percental value of powered roof support cost in total installation cost is calculated.

  153. Prathik Gowda, S. and Latha, M. S.

    The cement industry is the India’s second highest payer of Central Excise and Major contributor to GDP. With infrastructure development growing and the housing sector booming, the demand for cement is also bound to increase. However, the cement industry is extremely energy intensive. After aluminium and steel, the manufacturing of Portland cement is the most energy intensive process as it consumes 4GJ per tonne of energy. After thermal power plants and the iron and steel sector, the Indian cement industry is the third largest user of coal in the country. In 2003-04, 11,400 million kWh of power was consumed by the Indian cement industry. The cement industry comprises 130 large cement plants and more than 300 mini cement plants. The industry’s capacity at the beginning of the year 2008-09 was about 198 million tones. The cement demand in India is expected to grow at 10% annually in the medium term buoyed by housing, infrastructure and corporate capital expenditures. Considering an expected production and consumption growth of 9 to 10 percent, the demand-supply position of the cement industry is expected to improve from 2008-09 onwards.

  154. Nagaraj, A., Aparna, M., Ramesh Naik, P., Raghuveer, S. and Nageswara Rao, G.

    A series of new pyrazolyl-dihydropyrimidinones 4(a-g) have been synthesized from 3,5-dimethyl-1-aryl-1H-4-pyrazolecarbaldehyde 3(a-g). The structures of the synthesized compounds have been confirmed via IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS spectral analyses. Further, all the synthesized new compounds 4(a-g) have been assayed for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sphaericus and Staphylococcus aureus, and Gram-negative bacteria viz. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klobsinella aerogenes and Chromobacterium violaceum. The antibacterial screening data reveal that, compounds 4 which contain 3-flourophenyl (4c), 4-chlorophenyl (4d) and benzyl (4g) moieties on pyrazole ring might be the reason for the significant inhibitory activity. Most of these new compounds showed appreciable activity against test bacteria and emerged as potential molecules for further development.

  155. Ankur Gill and Dhiraj Parkash Dhiman

    Casting is a Process by which alloy Composition can be easily made. Due to daily Advancement in technology the material advancement to improve certain mechanical properties have to make new kinds of alloys. The various processes of Casting Aluminium Alloys were studied. In the cast alloys the basic structure consists of cored dendrites of aluminum solid solution, with a variety of constituents at the grain boundaries or inter-dendritic spaces, forming a brittle, more or less continuous network of eutectics. Wrought products consist of a matrix of aluminum solid solution with the other soluble and insoluble constituents dispersed within it. The coarse aluminium copper alloy was produced by sand mould casting method. Chemical Composition testing is also carried out by using chemical Testing method.

  156. Chandani Jaiswal

    To help make cancer a curable disease by identifying the cause of the cancer, discover better therapies and address the major challenges in curing cancer by developing innovative approaches like possibilities of applying Artificial Intelligence to come up with better remedies in tackling the current challenges in treating cancer, minimise the instances of cancer disease and hopefully make cancer curable disease. Thus, making an effective contribution to the society in the field of healthcare services to fight against cancer and save more lives.

  157. Flora Lamcja

    It is usual for the infants 6-12 months to show anxiety when they see that their mothers are temporarily going away. This kind of anxiety has to do with the universal fear that stems from the unaware association of the child of leaving of their “safe protector” and the risk to survive without her help.However, infants grow and their affective bonds with other people are increased, it is expected that their separation anxiety disorder should be reduced. In the preschool years specifically, children although still dependent from their mothers, they tend to direct their attention to the world outside their family and peers (Mental Health Service– USA).Why some preschoolers (and children of primary school refuse constantly to dissociate even for a moment from their mothers and unlike their peers, they tend to weep, to be nervous, to flush or sweat and behave so different when their mother leaves their kindergarten. How harmful is this situation for their health and their future development? There are precisely these questions and others like them that stirred up my mind, so I began to practice in kindergarten. Methodology: In this study were included the preschool children who attend regularly the programs of the kindergartens according to the respective groups. For the data collection there were used questionnaires that brought information about behaviors of the children about their emotional states, by experiencing the situation away from the family members of the data about them.

  158. Gasheja Faustin, Kopparthy Satya Murthy, Makuza Théogène and Mukulira Olive

    Case of Girinka Munyarwanda program in Nyabihu District: 2013-2016” aims to identify the activities implemented in the framework of Girinka Munyarwanda Program in Nyabihu District; To determine the main challenges that face Girinka Munyarwanda program in Nyabihu District; To evaluate the situation of welfare conditions before and after Girinka Munyarwanda program in Nyabihu District; To calculate the correlation between the supports obtained from Girinka Munyarwanda program and the level of welfare conditions of its beneficiaries. The study applied both descriptive and correlation analyses. 2,587 is the population from which the sample was taken. The sample size was derived from 2,587 households to be surveyed using the Yamane’s formula at a confidence interval of 90% and margin of error of 10%. The calculation gave 96 persons as the sample size. After documentation, questionnaires, interviews and analysis of responses from respondents, it was revealed that a great number of cows have been distributed based on the level of poverty of their beneficiaries. The program also provided trainings to its beneficiaries on how to entertain cattle. However, some challenges face that program insufficiency of milk collection centers, in their respective Sectors and shortage of veterinarian services. At the end, it was recommended to the Government to gather other cows to distribute because there are so many other poor families and to set up more milk collection centers in all Sectors in Nyabihu district and hire a great number of veterinarians to make available their services in Nyabihu district. The population should regularly report any problems related to cows from Girinka Munyarwanda Program to nearest authorities and fully participate in designating Girinka beneficiaries in order to fight against corruption. Therefore, the research questions have been answered and the objectives achieved.

  159. Vivek Sharma

    Big data is a term defining collection of large datasets. In this paper, the objective is to discuss the characteristics and challenges of big data in which the process is to extract the information from large sets of big data. Healthcare System is the organization of people, institution and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target population. The digital transformation of healthcare can help to simplify, unify and streamline existing processes across the patient journey from patient admission, in-house care and post discharge management .Now there are many healthcare systems which help in hospitals for patient’s treatment but they cannot provide the interaction between the doctors. If there is a medical emergency due to some reasons like doctors are not available, so the patient moves from one place to another place. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  160. Basazen Fantahun

    As a cereal wheat is also believed to originate from Fertile Crescent. On the other hand Ethiopia is a center of great diversity particularly for the tetraploid wheat. Genomic and taxonomic controversies are of the major points of debate among scientists working on the crop. Since wheat is known to compose A,B and D genomes the controversies stems from the fact that different findings suggested different results with regards to the progenitor specie of these genomes. Compared with B and A genomes the D genome, progenitor is found to be less arguable that it is widely accepted to be Aegilops tauschii. On the contrary the B genome donor has been a point of immense studies but remained controversial. This is attributed to the fact that B genome is relatively diverged from its putative diploid progenitors. Though the progenitors of the A genome are less debatable than the B genome three species were suggested as a probable progenitors of the A genome. These were T. monococcum, T.uratu and T.boeoticum. Taxonomically, different researchers follow either of the two different approaches, the traditional and genetic approaches naming, which are characterized by binomial and trinomial naming respectively. The traditional naming gives more emphasis to the separate habitats of the traditional species. On the other hand in the genetic classification approach the cultivated forms with the same ploidy level were considered as the same species. Despite this controversy it is most recommended to follow either of the naming in a given scientific writing. The emmer wheat found in Ethiopia given different names: T.dicoccum and T.dicoccun appeared to be the other point of debate as far as wheat nomenclature is concerned.

  161. Birgül Çakıroğlu, Ayşe Sağsöz and Reyhan (Gedikli) Akat

    Turkey and in the world of architectural space seen, heard, perceived, measured on factors that can be felt, was studied. However, we cannot identify the effect in the formation, we feel that we can't see, but there are some factors which we estimate to be there. From a religious point of view these factors is the basic purpose of the study is to uncover and interpret. The aim of this study is to determine the affect of fundamental İslamic principals on architecture in other words on architectural formation by considiring religion conceptions’ affects on architecture based on the assunmption that every concept has its own inherent language. In this context, in Turkey from the Ottoman period mosques, madrasahs and tombs were examined for a total of 40 works of religious architecture of the example. Semiotic principal is used to interpriate and explain religional concepts. Semantic and syntactic size analyses of samples conducted and interpreted over the structure of indicators were presented and they made religious concepts in species.

  162. Yusuf, ER and Adem CİVAN

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect on body image of the 8-week training aerobic. 57 women whose mean age is 22,10 ± 3,8 years, mean height 1,67 ± 0,04 m. and an mean weight is 55,88 ± 4,58 kg have participated as experimental group. 45 women whose mean age is years, 20,71 ± 1,52 mean height is 1,65 ± 0,05 m. and an mean weight is 66,57 ± 9,92 kg have participated in the study as a control group. In the experimental group, have the women make aerobic training three days per week for 8 weeks, participants in the control group continued to operate normally. Pretest and posttest questionnaire forms were applied to both groups. The aerobic training consists of a total of 9 moves (back flip, half sit-ups, two foot pulling, leg lifts, buttock lifting, single-leg draw, above the elbow, arm extension, leg extension and back tension) which is consist of formed cushion movement. The study began with a 20 minute warm-up. Movements were performed in 3 sets as 3x10. Each set lasted 30 minutes. 5 minutes active rest has been applied between sets. To determine the levels of body image of the women participating in the study, Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire- MBSRQ) "has been used.Statistically significant difference (P <0,05) between pre-test and post-test score of experimentel group has been determined when it has been compared in terms of training groups of the pretest-posttest scores, appearance evaluation, appearance orientation, evaluation of physical competence, physical competence orientation, health assessment, health orientation and total score. On the other hand, no statistically significant difference (P>0,05) has been determined when satisfaction subscale has been compared in terms of pre-test and post-test scores of experimental group. However, comparison of body image pre-test and post-test scores in terms of control group, appearance evaluation, appearance orientation, evaluation of physical competence, physical competence orientation, health assessment, health orientation, physical space to the satisfaction and total score in terms of the control group pre - test scores and no statistically significant difference between the post-test scores has been found (P> 0,05). As a result, aerobic exercise has been considered to have a positive impact on the body image, the exercise that women made contribute to their physical appearance, health, life satisfaction, physical sense and physical efficacy can be stated.

  163. Yang Tian

    With the continuous expansion of the population of the elderly and the deepening of the population aging, the whole society is paying more and more attention to the aging problem. Through the investigation and study of the landscape design of the urban community for the elderly, this paper digs deeply into the current status quo and summarizes the behavioral psychological habits of the elderly by analyzing the senses of the environment for seniors, therefore, it summarizes the important ways of the landscape design of the elderly community, and provides a feasible method and way to create a safe and comfortable environment for the outdoor environment of the elderly endowment community.

  164. : Rupinder Kaur and Manmohan Rahul

    The Administration refers to the management of an organization and its business. It involves the efficient use of staff, information, and other resources to achieve outputs and objectives. One major challenge in administration is effective communication which is very basic but essential requirement to manage all the day to day operations i.e. to inform, to request, to persuade, to direct, to control, to organize, to take decision, to coordinate to issue orders and to build goodwill. In administrative communication, one must be cautious as to what one writes or says as it can induce action and behaviour in others. The primary function of administration in the management is to facilitate the overall optimal performance of the people and the organization, to achieve the goal of the organization. The article through real life cases will explain how ineffective and careless communication can make simple situations chaotic and affect the organization. Without good communication, the internal and external structure of an organization can face several challenges that can ultimately lead to loss of face especially in an educational setup. The real cases in the article have been taken from an educational institution to draw important role of communication.

  165. Mahkamov, Q.

    During the period of shifting from one model of social progress to another such complex and conflicting events take place in spiritual life of society that at this time social mind encounters sudden transformation. As a result many historical traditions collapse. The better historical mind is formed in a man, the more developed his spiritual feelings (national pride, pride, patriotism) become.

  166. Surender Kumar and Dr. Hariom Duggal

    The present study conducted for study the loan repayment pattern and reasons of madding default in the loan repayment by the marginal farmers and to provide suggestions to overcome the problem of non repayment of loan amount of marginal farmer households. The present study is empirical nature and mainly based on primary data collected by using stratified random sampling and direct interview method and open ended schedule will prepare for data collection. The total sample size is 600 marginal farmer households. The secondary data collected mainly from Haryana statistics abstracts and Sonepat district statistics abstract. The collected data analyzed by using wind range of appropriate statistics techniques such as Percentage, Average, Ratio, Proportions, Range and Chi- Square test etc. The study concludes that the maximum marginal farmers adopt the lump sum method with the 69.88percent, then the installment method with the 29.81percent of loan repayment in the institutional sources and repayment of loan in lump sum create one time burden of repayment, so the study suggest that the institutional loan repayment must be in installments. In the non institutional sources maximum marginal farmers adopt the installment mode of repayment of loan with the 45.55percent. The main reasons of making default in the loan repayment by the marginal farmers found less income and any other with the 62.25percent and 44.58percent respectively and in the any other reason maximum farmers expect that the government will relax their outstanding loan amount, so the study suggests that loan is provided for the more income generated activities and subsidies in the interest should be given to the good debtors by the government.

  167. María Elena de la Llata-López, María Laura Sampedro-Rosas, Elizabeth Olmos-Martínez, José Luis Rosas-Acevedo, Ana Laura Juárez-López and Ramón Bedolla Solano

    The rational use of natural resources and the protection of the environment, means acting with responsibility and opportunity. To generate environmental behaviors in the family, its members must have environmental culture. Therefore, to re-educate parents in this field, the non-formal environmental educational program of the training workshop "Environmental culture for the family", was implemented in three schools. The final group of participants in this study was integrated by 23 volunteer parents: 22 female and 1 male. The outcomes confirmed the usefulness of implementing this type of educational intervention, for it was demonstrated that parents or guardians who participated in it, by increasing or achieving new knowledge, they were enabled to strengthen their decision-making with those alternatives that they could not have had incorporated into the process of training and practice of values and environmental habits in their homes, otherwise.

  168. Dr. B. Ranjanie

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of problem based learning strategy to teach biology for eleventh standard students to enhance the higher order thinking skills. In the present study quantitative data were obtained by adopting quasi single group experimental design via pretest/post test method. The research study was conducted on 106 eleventh standard students studying in Ambattur, Chennai during the year 2013-2014 in three different types of schools namely government school (n=34), government aided school (n=41) and private school (n=31) through the purposive cluster sampling technique. The treatment includes three months, 60 hours in each school to test the strategy excluding pretest, post test and retention test. In the research the measurement used was achievement test. It was constructed based on the cognitive domain of bloom’s taxonomy of behavioral objectives. The Cronbach reliability coefficient of the achievement test was 0.77. Printed module was prepared by the researcher and distributed to the students about the subject matter which was taught in the problem based learning method which includes open-ended questions, problem scenarios, ill structured problems, case studies and self activities, worksheets were dealt for all the eleventh standard students (n=106) studying in different types of schools. Initially Pretest was administered to find the entry level behavior of the students followed which treatment was given for a period of three months, 60 hours in each school and post test was conducted to test the effect of Problem based learning strategy among the students. Delayed post test was conducted after the interval of sixty days to find out the retention level of students. Results revealed that students have acquired higher order thinking skills by adopting the problem based learning strategy and significant difference was found in the post test and retention test at 0.05% level of significance at the analysis and synthesis levels of cognitive domains in the achievement test.

  169. Önder AKKAŞ, Ahmet YILMAZ, Hakan USLU, Abdurrahman EKİCİ

    In this study between March 2015 and May 2015, intestinal parasites were studied in stool samples of a total of 104 students, 40 males and 64 females studying at the Medical Laboratory Program of the School of Health Services, Igdir University. Stool specimens were first examined macroscopically. Subsequently, studies were conducted using native-lugol and modified acid fast staining. Intestinal parasites were found in 52.9% of the total 104 students in whom stool samples were examined. Blastocystis hominis in 32.7%, Giardia intestinalis in 8.7%, Entamoeba coli in 6.7%, Endolimax nana in 3.8%, Dicrocelium dentriticum in 1.9% and Hymenolepis nana in 0.9% were examined by native-lugol method and detected. Of the 55 students who were positive in terms of parasites, both H. nana and G. intestinalis were seen together in 3.6%. In modifiye-acid fast staining method, it was detected that 2.9% of 104 students had Cryptosporidium spp.Dicrocelium dentriticum was found to cause false parasitism in the diet given to patients. As a result of the study, it was concluded that Iğdır University Medical School Medical School Program students have an important intestinal parasitic health problem.

  170. Özdemir ATAR

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate competition performances according to the classification points of the wheelchair basketball national team players who have joined The Rio Olympics. The universe of the study consisted of wheelchair basketball national teams who have joined The 2016 Rio Olympics. The total points of the athletes taking part in the study, the total points they missed, 2-point shots they scored, and 2-point shots they missed were assessed. The obtained data were recorded in the SPSS package program. In the analysis of the data, it was determined that nonparametric distribution was observed according to normal distribution. Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis were used as statistical process. At the end of this study, it was seen that there is a difference between the classification points and competition performances. In conclusion, we think that the significant difference between the classification point and the other parameters is due to the increase in the mobility of the athlete and correspondingly, increase in the contribution of the athlete to the competition as the classification point increases.

  171. Vierly Ananta Upa and Victor Soeindra

    The Government of Indonesia launched its tax reporting policy through e-filing. E-filing is a means of reporting taxes online and real-time using internet media through an application service provider or Application Service Provider. By using e-filing taxpayers are easier in reporting taxes without having to come to the tax office. This has also reaped reactions among the public. The purpose of this study is to analyze whether there are differences in perceptions of individual taxpayers related to perceptions of information technology, ease, risk and service features, and perceptions of interest re-use before and after training in the use of e-filing This research uses questionnaires, interviews and documentation. Data analysis method used in this research is paired sample T-test. Based on the result of paired sample T-test it is known that there is difference of perception of individual taxpayer before and after attending training of E-filing usage. This perception difference is seen from the perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, risk and service features, and interest in reuse.

  172. Anjay Kumar Mishra and Ar. Sunita Rai

    Environment needs protection against ill effects of rapid construction. the performance assessment of existing eco- friendly buildings inside Kathmandu Valley by taking both eco- friendly and conventional buildings for case study and by comparing the obtained performance data of both type of buildings. This study is also an initial attempt to find out the new technologies and to observe the building materials that are being used in the existing eco- friendly buildings. Some new techniques and materials were also found to be used during the case study of Hama Steel complex. In unit area, embodied energy produced by Paudel residence was found to be 21.85% more than the embodied energy produced by Mato Ghar. Also, Paudel residence produced 11% of Carbon more than that of Mato Ghar. The calculation of U-Value of surfaces of eco- friendly buildings were found to be noticeably lesser than that of conventional buildings which means eco- friendly buildings have better thermal insulation than conventional ones. Also, 10%-15% additional building costs was found in both eco- friendly buildings whereas the operation and maintenance costs of those buildings were nearly 50% lesser than the conventional buildings. In terms of various parameters, the results show that the performance of existing Eco- friendly buildings of Kathmandu Valley is better in comparison to the conventional buildings. More eco- friendly building materials are introduced in such buildings producing less harm to environment.

  173. Dr. Jyoti Syal

    R.K.Narayan is the greatest of Indo- Anglian novelists. He is undoubtedly India's most famous author and is most accomplished. R. K. Narayan has deservedly come to be regarded as a pioneer of the Indian novel in English. He has endeared himself to millions of readers throughout the world, because of his impassioned blend of profound and comic vision. He has an uncanny capacity for empathizing with the common masses in a realistic manner. His art of storytelling enabled him to carry the tradition of great writers to new heights. His complete objectivity as a creative writer made it vitally important for him to infuse life into the inhabitants of his fictional world. His characters with their oddities and eccentricities do not strike as figures from morality plays or humours. They preserve a basic quality of individuality despite their allegorical and representative characters in some cases. Raju, Sampath and Nataraj are among the most illustrative of his characters in this regard. The exotic and bizarre in Narayan's comic art gets its most striking manifestation in The Man- Eater of Malgudi (1961). The most striking feature of this character is the element of the fantastic, fabulous and allegorical in him. Narayan portrays his characters and their feelings, emotions and actions for an exploration of hidden human conflicts, which are live pictures of South India. So his Indian spirit successfully forms an organic whole in The Man - Eater of Malgudi. The characters are thoroughly realistic in The Man-Eater of Malgudi. The present study is an attempt to analyse the characters of Narayan in his novel The Man Eater of Malgudi.

  174. Ritu Sharma, Sheetal Pahwa, Balwant Singh and Singh, H.P.

    Introduction: Hypoalbuminemia and hyperphosphatemia are associated with increased morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. Albumin behaves as an antioxidant molecule whereas increased serum phosphorus levels are linked with vascular calcification. Method: Present study is a case-control study. Hundred CAD patients were recruited adopting an inclusion and exclusion criteria. 100 age and sex matched healthy subjects were taken as controls. CAD patients were segregated into two Groups on the basis of their albumin cut off value of 4.0g/dl. All the subjects were screened for serum albumin, A/G ratio, quantitative CRP and serum phosphorus levels. Data was stastically analysed. Results: CAD patients had significantly low (p<0.05) serum albumin, A/G ratio and high CRP and serum phosphorus levels as compared to healthy controls. On further segregation, Group 1 CAD patients having albumin levels less than 4.0g/dl were observed to have significantly raised (p<0.05) serum CRP and phosphorus levels together with markedly low A/G ratio as compared to Group 2 CAD patients. Conclusion: hypoalbuminemia and hyperphosphatemia further aggravates the oxidative stress present in CAD patients. It is advocated that changes in serum albumin and phosphorus should be monitored in CAD patients during diagnosis as well as during prognosis.

  175. Dr. Neeta Gupta

    The present study has tried to make a comparison between perceived Mood-States of Adolescents possessing A+, B+, AB+ and O+ Blood Group. For this data was collected on 200 respondents: 100 boys and 100 Girls equally divided into four categories on the basis of their Blood- Group (Boys=100, A+=25. B+=25, AB+=25 and O+=25, Girls=100, A+=25. B+=25, AB+=25 and O+=25). 8SQ constructed by Cattle and Currans (1989) was utilized to measure the perceived Mood-State of the respondents. The present study have revealed that 1. Anxiety and Guilt were reported more by the Adolescents who possessed A+ type of blood-group while Depression and Fatigue were found to report more among Type O+ respondents. 2. Boys were found to report more Anxiety, Fatigue and Arousal while girls were found to report more Guilt as compared to boys. No other significant results were found on other dimensions of Mood-States.

  176. Hawar Ahmed MHAMED AMIN, Fikret ALTINDAG, Nese COLCIMEN and Murat Cetin RAGBETLI

    This investigation has been conducted to study the protective effect of Thymoquinone against Diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury in rats. Twenty-eight of male Wistar albino rats (180-220g) were divided into four groups. The control group received intraperitoneal injection of saline (0.5 ml/kg) for seven days, Thymoquinone group was given thymoquinone (4mg/kg/day) for seven days by drinking water, diethylnitrosamine group was injected a single dose of diethylnitrosamine at the 5th day (intra-peritoneal, 100 mg/kg) thymoquinone+diethylnitrosamine group was given thymoquinone (4mg/kg/day) for seven days by drinking water and was injected a single dose of diethylnitrosamine at the 5th day (intra-peritoneal 100 mg/kg). The rats were anesthetized then livers were taken for process was followed for light microscopic research. The photo was taken by using light microscopy. The hepatocyte number were calculated using physical fractionator method. It was observed a significant decrease of the hepatocyte number in diethylnitrosamine group and thymoquinone+diethylnitrosamine group. In conclusion, diethylnitrosamine can cause liver damage and thymoquinone do not changed that diethylnitrosamine damage in liver.

  177. Padmanaban, P. and Dr. F. Carter Premraj

    There is no good outcome without good process. The ten core life skills given by World Health Organization, plays an important role in the lives of the adolescents. The application of suitable interventional techniques is vital for the various issues encountered among individuals and group. This paper will bring out the role played by the qualified professional social workers who work as life skill trainers in a school. This paper will also address and highlight the importance of various interventional techniques used by the trainers to address the issues found among the students. The name of the school is kept confidential.
    Methodology: The researcher adopted qualitative approach. The researcher has used In-depth interviews to collect data from the life skill trainers and the data are presented in the form of case study. Each case study will have the brief description of the problem, interventional technique applied and the outcome. The cases are analysed in detail, followed by suggestions in the full paper.

  178. Bagalkar, N. W. and Dr. Deshmukh, S. S.

    A present study was conducted to isolate, identify and characterize the phosphate solubilizing bacteria from salinity affected area of Amravati district (Daryapur, Bhatkuli, and Anjangaon). In these study was observed (Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp.and trichoderma spp.) have the more solubilizing ability of inorganic insoluble phosphate than bacteria, i.e., B.cereus, B.megaterium, B.polymyxa,, two pseudomonas spp, Enterobacter spp., the application of biofertilizer prepared by above mentioned fungi should be helpful to increase the crop yield in salinity affected soil by solubilizing large concentration of inorganic insoluble phosphate., Application of all isolated culture with lignite showed plant growth promoting activity.

  179. Mehwish Farooq Ahmed, Zaffar Ahmed Shaikh and Sumaira Javed Malik

    Customer churn prediction is one of the most important requirements in customer relationship management. It aims to retain valuable customers in order to maximize the profit of a company. In this paper, we propose an autonomous toolkit to forecast customers churn (ATFC) — an autonomous customer churn toolkit which predicts churning behavior of customers in the telecom industry. ATFC gives a customer churn prediction model which can fit generally in similar kinds of problems and datasets. It predicts which customers are at the risk of leaving the company. It is important for managers of the telecom industry to retain their loyal customers for the growth of their company and for improving their customer relationship management factor. ATFC accomplishes this task with the help of the most popular machine learning algorithms which were applied to the challenging problem of the customer churn in the telecom industry. We have used telecom company based dataset of BigML repository. Therefore, popular machine learning algorithms such as Decision Trees, Logistic Regression, Random Forest and Gradient Boosting were used to develop a model that can predict telecom customer churn efficiently and effectively.The results revealed that Random Forest outperforms by exhibiting low churn rate. The analysis of the algorithm was carried out based on ROC curve Precision-Recall and F-measure.The churn dataset analysis revealed that there are 10 features which causecustomer to churn. This prediction informs companies which features and services they need to target and improve.

  180. Udhayakumar, R., Dr. Jayakumar, A., Dr. Sudarsanam, D., Balaji, R., Rebecca Vinolia and Dr. Praveena, P.

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells are mostly multipotent stem cells and are capable of self-renewal throughout the entire organism’s life. The adult stem cells differentiate into other mature cell types. The adult stem cells are already committed and other cells, which are normally intermediate cells with increased commitment, are called primordial cells. It has many sources from human and the major source of mesenchymal stem cells by umbilical cord blood and wharton’s jelly. This study has been completely used by wharton’s jelly of human.

  181. Qurratul Aini

    The lack of managers who have been trained on management management results in less effective management systems. In general, management capacity has been classified as weaknesses in various areas of health managers' expertise. The success and future of an organization depends on the performance generated by the leadership of the hospital manager. As a complex organization, RS has interaction among various professions, so the conflict is not an abnormality that occurs in hospital is a characteristic of a hospital. Health services in hospitals is a comprehensive health service (comprehensive and holistic) which includes promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative. Hospital Health Promotion is an important part of health programs designed to bring improvement in the community as well as in the organization and environment as a process to improve the community's ability to maintain and improve their health. The purpose of this research are analyze the factors that affect the performance of managerin PKU Muhammadiyah Delanggu Hospital, Central Java, Indonesia.The analysis in this study using SEM analysis to test the performance model of hospital managers and hypothetical relationships that exist in the model. The findings in this study show the performance of hospital managers, from the five factors that predict, influenced by motivation, commitment and leadership. Two other predictors were found to have no significant effect, ie job satisfaction and organizational culture. Motivation becomes the factor with the strongest influence on performance. The strong influence after motivation is commitment and then leadership.

  182. Rehab Abdallah A Alanazi, Dina Anwar Aljaber, Reham Muqbil S Alanazi, Afaf Shuaib B Albaqawi, Kawthar Saeed A Alsultan, Malak Ibrahim A Alanazi, Manal Mutaib N Alanazi, Jawaher Ali M Alharbi and Waad Hameed T Altarfawi

    The aim of this review study was to discuss and highlight the most important risk factors and causes of Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), through reviewing the relevant evidence. We searched following electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) to May 2017. Search strategy targeted relevant studies to our main topic which is Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), using Mesh terms through PubMed as following; “IBD” OR “Crohn's disease (CD)” OR “ulcerative colitis (UC)” combined with “Etiology” AND “Risk factors” AND “Epidemiology” AND “Pathogenesis”. IBD is a growing disease that is pricey to the individual and culture. The underlying property of the hygiene hypothesis is that lowered microbial direct exposure in youth could cause the succeeding advancement of IBD appears to be possible. However, the evidence supporting that genetic, environmental factors and life style, as well as H pylori exposure, are the most factors contributing in causing of IBD.

  183. Jothimani, R. and Dr. Vidya, S.

    Nanotechnology is a fast growing area of research in various discipline carbon nitride vanadium oxide (C3N4 –V2O5) nanoparticles were synthesized by simple thermal decomposition method. Ultraviolet – Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT - IR), Raman spectroscopy x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterized the structure, light absorption capacity of the synthesized sample. The photocatalytic activity of C3N4– V2O5 nanoparticles was examined by using degradation of methylene blue (MB) as the model organic pollutant. The visible light irradiation of aqueous dye solution in presence of C3N4–V2O5 nanoparticles showed decrease in absorption maximum with shift in absorption maximum λ = 663nm. Further, absorbance of C3N4 – V2O5 Showed a maximum value of 0.37 before irradiation and decreased to a value of 0.05 after 120 min. It can seen that the C3N4 – V2O5 nanocomposite exhibits maximum efficiency towards the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. The electrochemical sensing properties of were studied using hydroquinone.

  184. Shalini Gupta, Neeraj Kumar, Saurabh Sharma and Ruchi Mishra

    A few complexes of copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II), Zinc(II), tin(IV) and cadmium(II) with two newly synthesized organometallic compounds, 1Formylferrocene phenylNthiosemicarbazone (HFfptsc) and 1acetyl ferrocene phenyl Nthiosemicarbazone (HAfptsc) have been isolated. The interaction of (HFfptsc) with Me2SnCl2 and MeSnCl3. Yield a series of organotin (IV) compounds. The reactivity of MeSn(Ffptsc)2Cl towards MeSH, Me2N SiMe3, Me2NsiMe3, SiMe3N3, and Me3SiCCPh are also described. These complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molecular weights, molar conductances, magnetic moments and spectroscopic (IR, 1HNMR, UVvis) data.

  185. Draiss, G., Razzouki, K., Arrab, R. and Oulad Saiad

    Ascariasis is the largest and most prevalent human helminthes. It’is more frequent in underdeveloped countries because of poor hygiene and low socio economic conditions. Ascaris can lead to hepatic, pancreatic and intestinal complications. Intestinal obstruction is more frequent in children. We report two cases of ascariasis infestation presented with bowel obstruction. Both patients were from rural area. Because of the volvulus with necrosis of ileal loop, the first patient underwent an intestinal resection with end to end anastomosis. The second patient was diagnosed first as an appendicular peritonitis; it’s during surgery that we discover the presence of an intestinal blockage with parasite. His management was more conservative: jejunum enterotomy was performed and the worms were removed. Both patients receive albendazole in the post operative course, with satisfaisant clinical evolution. Pediatrician should be aware of the abdominal complications; an early recognition of this condition can prevent serious complications, morbidity and mortality.

  186. Anupriya Saxena and Shikha Chahar

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has proven to be a major advance in the treatment of patients with symptomatic gallbladder disease. In general, laparoscopic procedures have a lower risk of morbidity and mortality compared to conventional technique but various ventilatory and hemodynamic complications are associated with it which can result in fatal consequences intraoperatively and become very distressing for the anesthesiologist. We are reporting a case of bradycardia, asystole and interfasicular ventricular tachycardia occurring intaoperatively during laproscopic cholecystectomy after creation of pneumoperitoneum in an otherwise healthy patient having no comorbidity. Increased awareness, knowledge and experience of the anesthesiologist is required for the diagnosis and management of various ECG abnormality occurring during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which is the most frequent laparoscopic surgical procedure.

  187. Dr. Bhavesh B. Airao, Dr. Mehul V. Pawar, Dr. Ranjeet Chaudhary and Dr. Bipin R. Shah

    Introduction: In a pregnant woman maternal height and antenatally measured expected birth weight can influence mode of delivery at term. Mode of delivery can be either normal vaginal delivery orcesarean section. Aims and objective of my study is to find out the association between maternal height and antenatally measured birth weight in outcome of pregnancy at term. Method: 200 full term primiAnd multigravida women without any obstetric and medical complications who were admitted in C.U.Shah medical college and hospital for delivery were randomly selected for study. After delivery 26 women who underwent caesarean delivery and 21 women underwent instrumental delivery formed the study group and 153 women who underwent vaginal delivery formed control group. These two groups were compared for their maternal heights and antenatal estimated foetal weight (by Johnson’s formula). Result: In present study Out of 43 short statured women (height ≤138 cm) 27(62.8%) had caesarean section or instrumental delivery and 16(37.2%) women were delivered vaginally. Out of 8 women with high expected birth weight >3.5kg), 7 women (87.5%) delivered by either caesarian section or instrumental delivery and only one (12.5%) women delivered by normal vaginal delivery.

  188. Jyoti Chauhan and Jain, D. K.

    Heavy metals are the major pollutants of marine, ground, industrial and treated waste waters. Heavy metals have lethal effect on human health and aquatic life. Due to their non-biodegradable nature, they enter into the food chain through the disposal of waste in water bodies. Biosorption is an alternative technique to conventional treatment method for the removal of metal ions from waste waters. Various biological materials have been used as biosorbent for the uptake of metal ions from aqueous solutions. The present Investigation was carried out to explore the possibilities of utilization of Parthenium leaves for use in the biosorption of Copper, Iron and Lead. An attempt was also made to find out the effect of fungal colonization on the biosorption of metals by leaves of Parthenium hysterophorus. The result indicated that Parthenium leaf biomass is quite effective material for the biosorption of all the three metals studied. Inoculation with Aspergillus niger led to substantial decrease in the capacity of the Parthenium leaf biomass to adsorb Copper Iron and Lead.

  189. Dr. Mansi Semwal, Dr. Shweta Chaudhary, Dr. Alok Patel, Dr. Preetam Shah, Dr. Rahul Lodaya, and Dr. Chetan Bhat

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of bleaching in deciduous teeth with Diode Laser and LED Irradiation. Forty extracted caries free central incisors were used for the study (there Ciel*a*b* values were recorded). All the forty teeth were first discolored in the solution made of coco cola and tea (Ciel*a*b* values were recorded) and were then divided into 2 groups A (Laser) & B (LED). Discolored Samples in Group A were treated with the bleaching agent assisted by Laser and then there Ciel*a*b* values were recorded. Discolored Samples in Group A were treated with the bleaching agent assisted by LED and then there Ciel*a*b* values were recorded.

  190. Hema Nagpal

    Introduction: Profunda femoris is the largest branch of femoral artery. It gives branches including lateral circumflex artery, medial circum¬flex artery and three perforator branches and subsequently continues as fourth perforating artery.
    Objective: To study the location of origin of profunda femoris artery and correlate it clinically.
    Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 40 embalmed limbs (20 cadavers – 12 males and 8 females) for identifications of the origins of profunda femoris artery.
    Results: In the present study posterolateral and posterior side of origin was established as most common site of origin of profunda femoris artery. High level of origin of profunda femoris artery was found to be quite recurrently. Double lateral circumflex artery was also discovered in one lower limb with high origin of profunda femoris artery. Such variation is very rare.
    Conclusion: Current study will help the clinicians to avoid iatrogenic complications during surgery and also help them in various clinical procedures for interventional radiology in this region.

  191. Dadarao Dhone

    Light photons are considered mass-less. The gravity bends light due to its relativistic mass. But this innovative paper and the author's previous papers referred in this article, reveal that, the light photons have rest-mass: Its rest-mass remains as it is at its speed c. How it happens is also explained w.r.t. Author's previous paper given in below description (The Light Photon, Black Matter...). All experiments performed give speed of light w.r.t. its source and not w.r.t. the observer. Not any experiment give speed of light w.r.t. observer. The speed of light w.r.t. observer decreases as the relative speed between the observer and the source of light increases. If the relative speed is v then the speed of light w.r.t. observer is (c2-v2)1/2. It is proved here. Experiments are also performed to verify the speed of communication radio waves; and it is declared that, the radio waves also travel at speed of light. But actually deep perusal of those experiments will reveal that, all those experiments give the speed of light of the source electrons which are free in conduction band of either field-radiating conductors or field-signal-receiving conductors. But, as verified by the author, in the experiment described in this article; the speed of radio waves up to Microsoft frequencies is infinity in free space. But, from infra-red above frequency radiations they travel at light speed in free space. These radiations consist of discrete, ultimate, eternal Dark Energy Particles in periodical bunches called photons known as Bosons. These photons are released from excited orbital electrons of an atom electro-magnetically. And hence, take it granted for that, Light is not electromagnetic radiation but, it is emitted electro-magnetically. There is a lot of difference in these two nomenclatures of the light on the basis of generation of the light. Lastly, there are two modes of transmission of energy by electromagnetic phenomena; the Field-Mode and the Photon-Mode, quite different from each-other.

  192. Dr. Anek R. Sankhyan

    For the first time reported here are the Lower Palaeolithic Acheulian cultural findings discovered recently from Ghumarwin area of district Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh. The area is popular for the fossil remains of the earliest ape-men to which the author has contributed considerably, besides reporting for the first time the Soanian pebble industries of the Lower Stone Age from this area over three decades ago. Present findings of the Acheulian industry under reporting are the first of the kind discovered by him from the area since last a few years, which would have important implications in understanding the social, cultural and behavioural interactions between the two kinds of prehistoric people.

  193. Dr. Ajayi Adeyinka Theresa, Ajibade Samuel Idowu and Oladiti Abiodun Akeem

    This paper evaluated Africa’s socio-economic development in the era of mobile technology. The postcolonial socio economic structure of Africa in general took a dramatic turn consequent upon the advent of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). The GSM featured for the first time in sub-Saharan Africa in 1993 in Cape Town, South Africa; almost a decade later, it had diffused to other parts of Africa with conspicuous effects on the continent in general. The study is localised to Nigeria being the most populous country and largest economy in Africa. Apart from the fact that it broke the monopoly of the erstwhile Nigerian Telecommunications Limited (NITEL), the introduction of GSM has over the years provided a means of livelihood to millions of Nigerians. In this paper, attempts are made to examine the factors and circumstances leading to the adoption of the GSM in Africa. The paper concludes that the ‘new’ telecommunication industry in Africa in general and Nigeria in particular has actually led to employment generation and wealth creation with attendant implications for poverty diminution. Similarly, the GSM economy opened a new frontier of revenue generation for African governments as it became second to crude oil, and with respect for globalisation, the continent of Africa has become effectively integrated in the 21st century globalisation.

  194. Dr. Balaji, P., Dr. Rajkumar Rathinasamy and Dr. Rangarajan

    Background: Small bowel perforation is still a major health problem in the developing world with its attendant high morbidity and mortality. Till date Small bowel perforation has been treated by conventional laparotomy. Early surgery has become the accepted mode of treatment and this has improved survival in the patients. Reports are now available for the feasibility of laparoscopic repair of Small bowel perforation. Laparoscopy provides diagnostic as well as therapeutic capabilities with diagnostic accuracy reaching 100%. The objective of the study was to study the benefit of laparoscopic approach for small bowel perforation. Methods: 5 patients who presented with the small bowel perforation from January 2017 to December 2017 were involved in the study. All patients were haemodynamically stable and were diagnosed within 48 hours of presentation and treated by Laparoscopic approach. Results were analyzed in terms of wound infection, hospital stay, return to work, and mortality. Results: There was no conversion. 3 patients had Duodenal perforation and 2 had Illeal perforation. Perforations treated with intracorporeal suturing in all 5 patients. Laparoscopy reduces postoperative pain, wound infections, hospitalization, and early recovery. There was no chest infection, post-operative intra-abdominal collection and mortality. Conclusions: Laparoscopy is an effective tool in avoiding negative and non-therapeutic laparotomy and offered profound therapeutic potential laparoscopic approach is safe, reliable and feasible, required shorter operative time, lesser analgesia, fewer complications, shorter hospital stay and early recovery.

  195. Dr. Krishna Prasad, G. V. and Dr. Sankaranand, P.

    Introduction: Comparative study of recovery after sevoflurane versus desflurane anaesthesia in adult patients during the surgery and side effects observed during and after anaesthesia. Materials and Methods: Patients in the age group of 20-55 years, having ASA 1 and ASA 2, scheduled for elective surgery were included &randomly divided into two groups’ i.e Group I-Sevoflurane receiving group and Group II-Desflurane receiving group and patients with clinically significant cardiovascular & a history of allergic reactions to drugs were excluded. Observations and Results: At induction, a sudden rise observed in mean heart rate of patients in Group I showing a significant intergroup difference (p<0.001). It was observed that at induction mean heart rate of Group II was significantly lower as compared to that of Group I (p<0.001) whereas at 70 min, 80 min, 90 min and 100 min time intervals respectively mean heart rate in Group II was significantly higher as compared to that of Group I (p<0.05). After induction, a significant fall in both mean SBP and DBP were observed in both the groups but the fall was higher in Group II as compared to Group I thus leading to a significant difference between two groups (p<0.001). Nausea & vomiting was the most common side effect while sore throat and headache were some of the less common side effects. No significant difference was observed between two groups for any of the side effects. Conclusion: It can be concluded that both drugs provided similar intraoperative condition during maintenance period but early recovery was more rapid with Desflurane compared to Sevoflurane.

  196. Surega, R. and Baskaran, R.

    Organic farming is a production system that avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetically produce agricultural inputs like fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, live stock feed additives etc. Besides, the economic value of rice is largely determined by the milling quality of the rice varieties. Increasingly, consumers are also interested to get rice which possesses good cooking and eating qualities. In view of the health benefits of organic crops and the quality demands of the consumers, the present study was under. The results of this study highlighted that Neelam samba, karudan samba, kullagkar, mapilai samba, sigappukavuni, thuyamalli, milagu samba, seeraga samba, had acceptable physical, nutritional, cooking, and milling qualities. It was also observed that parboiled milling procedure yields better quality rice than raw milled rice.

  197. Dr. Vaishali Gautam, Dr. Neel Desai, Dr. Chetna Umrigar and Dr. Khushbu Dhameliya

    Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) consisting of Micrognathia, Retrognathia, Glossoptosis and cleft palate present with airway obstruction and feeding difficulties with or without other congenital anomalies. These patients come into category of difficult ventilation and difficult intubation. We present a case report of a 10 days old female child, weighing 2.5kg, suffering from PRS with cleft palate, Micrognathia, Retrognathia, Glossoptosis, airway obstruction, feeding and breathing difficulty posted for tongue lip adhesion. Thorough preoperative airway assessment was done. Use of transparent round mask and two hand jaw thrust were beneficial for ventilation of the child with receding chin. Inhalational induction was performed with Sevoflurane in oxygen. The child was ventilated with facemask. PRS patients are at risk of postoperative airway obstruction and chronic hypoxia. Use of long acting opioids was avoided and patient was kept under observation in NICU.

  198. Dr. Sai Kalyan, S., Dr. R. B. Vora, Dr. Chandki Rita and Dr. Basawaraj Channabasappa Biradar

    Background: Disinfection of root canal system is paramount in endodontic success. Recently, nanoparticles of various metals have been employed to reach and combat resistant bacteria in intricacies of root canal system. Aim: This study aimed at synthesis of silver nanoparticles bychemical reduction method and their characterisation them using spectrophotometry and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Methodology: Silver nanoparticles were synthesised by reducing a solution of silver nitrate with Gallic acid. Characterisation was done by two methods: spectrophotometer and nanoparticle tracking analysis Results: The silver particles synthesized by the aforementioned method had spherical morphology and an average size of 32 nm and showed absorption peak at 425 nm. Conclusion: Chemical synthesis of Silver nanoparticles is a simple and inexpensive process and the silver nanoparticles so produced can be used as endodontic irrigant for enhanced endodontic success rates.

  199. Sukruth M, Mallikarjun, Chethan, K. S. and Dr. Kiran Aithal, S.

    Functionally graded materials play a majors important role in engineering and other applications. One of the fabrication methods for functionally graded materials (FGMs) is centrifuge casting technique. This study represents a new concept of refining and enhancing properties of cast, aluminum alloys by adding nano-particles using centrifuge technique. In this work, the effect of adding alumina (Al2O3) to Al as a base metal was investigated. Alumina nano-powders were stirred in the Al matrix with different weight percentage ratios from 1g to 3g and keeping constant stirring speed as 1500rpm at 850°C and constant stirring time of one minute thirty seconds. The cast microstructure exhibits change of grains from dendritic to spherical shape. The fracture surface showed the presence of nano-particles at the interdendritic space which is confirmed by EDAX analysis. The results of this study shows the mechanical properties of the casting were improved compared to that of the materials without nano-particles.

  200. Deepak Passi, Deepika Singhal, Geeta Singh, Vikram Ahuja, Shivani Bhardwaj, Aanchal Sahni, Prachi Garhia and Jaya Bharti

    Teledentistry is the use of telemedicine in dentistry it is use of information technology and telecommunications for dental care, consultation with referral, education, and patient education. Telemedicine has been used as an effective method to improve the quality of care and reduce the cost of health care. Teledentistry is beginning of new era in the field of dentistry that unites telecommunication, digital imaging, and the Internet to join health professionals in rural and distant areas. New information technology not only improve the quality of management of dental patients, but also makes possible their partial or complete management at distances of thousands of kilometres away from health care centres or qualified dentists. The article highlights history, methods, types, uses of teledentistry along with future perspectives.

  201. Sudheer Kanchodu and Manjusha Madhusudan Litake

    Although uncommon, most common site for adenocarcinoma of small bowel is duodenum. In duodenum, it is found most commonly in second part secondary to a villous adenoma in periampullary region. Carcinoma of third and fourth part is extremely rare. We had 60 year old lady presented with history of vomiting following food intake for 15 days and generalised weakness and loss of weight since 6 months. Patient was diagnosed adenocarcinoma duodenum in third and fourth part with regional lymph node metastasis via CT scan, OGD scopy and biopsy. Patient underwent a curative resection by Whipple’s procedure with lymph node excision.

  202. Ömer AKGÜL, Loğman ARSLAN, Yakup AKGÜL and Pınar TANRITANIR EKİCİ

    C. pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-positive, pleomorphic, intracellular, immobile, and facultative anaerobic bacterium which may cause various infections mainly in sheeps and goats, and at a lesser degree in humans, horses, camels, pigs, and buffalos. In this study, 15 sick cattle, raised in a farm within the Van province, were included. Clinical assessments of the cattle showed various pyogranulomatous skin lesions along with inflammation in the udders and joints. C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated and identified from the samples obtained from the milk and abscess content. Antibiogram test showed that the isolated pathogens were sensitive to penicillin G (100%, n=15), erythromycin (100%, n=15), ampicillin (100%, n=15), tetracycline (66.7%, n=10) , and clindamycin (60%, n=9); while they were resistant to cefazolin (100%, n=15) and cefoxitin (100%, n=15). Thus, this study was the first which determined C. pseudotuberculosis infection, a rare entity in cattle, in dairy cattle raised in the Van province.

  203. Dr. Vinayak Kumar Mantu and Dr. Ruchi Mitra

    Aim: To study and determine the prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis and to evaluate its association with habitual Gutkha chewing, areca nut, betel nut and betel leaf and other associated adverse habits. Material and Methods: The Oral submucous fibrosis patients in the outpatient Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Noble Medical College and Hospital, were examined. The study design was a cross sectional study. A total of 589 OSMF patients were screened out of a total of 1200 patients. Complete clinical history, including demographic details, various oral habits – the frequency (number of times per day), duration (years of consumption) and type (Areca nut, Pan, Gutkha) were recorded in case record forms. Result: A majority of patients belonged to Stage II with a mean + SD of 147.25.Many patients were males of age group 36-40 yrs and females in the age group 31-35 yrs. Conclusion: The present study reveals that OSMF is closely associated with the use of chewing tobacco like gutkha , pan and areca nut. Special efforts are needed to educate the public about the adverse effects of tobacco chewing

  204. Raghavendra Rao, M. V., Sireesha Bala, A., Sateesh Babu, Arja, Samir Fatteh

    Experimental research with animals is usually conducted in universities, medical schools, pharmaceutical companies. Animals and human get many of the same illnesses. Animal research usually describes research involving vertebrates, such as cats, mice, frogs, pigs, and primates. All medical research is carefully planned, and this includes medical research with animals. Under federal law, all animals must be treated humanely and undergo the least distress possible. Medical research with animals saves Lives. Dog-discovery of insulin, monkey--polio vaccine, mouse--rabies vaccine, pig---skin grafts for burn victims and computer-assisted tomography (CAT) scans, rabbit-- corneal transplants, rat--carcinogen screening.(National institute of health) (NIH). But by doing experiments on animals, knowingly or unknowingly, willingly or unwillingly we are, Poisoning, shocking, burning, and killing animals is all in a day's work for vivisection. If these atrocious acts were committed outside laboratories, they would be felonies. But animals suffer and die every day in laboratories with little or no protection from cruelty. This is the debate of the article, Is it sin or boon to conduct toxicological tests on animals ?

  205. Walaa K. Hafez, Essam A. Al-Moraissi and Maha M. Hakam

    The aim of the current review was to answer this research question: Does the posterior iliac crest (PIC) harvesting technique has lower rate of postoperative complications than the anterior iliac crest (AIC) one. Online electronic databases were searched to detect articles published in English language from 2000 to 2016. Clinical human studies, comprising randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, case series or retrospective studies whose purpose was comparing postoperative complications between AIC and PIC bone graft harvesting was selected. Results: 16 articles were included in this systematic review from1358 relevant articles. A total of 1262 patients have undergone 1297 bone grafting procedure, with AIC (n=944) compared to PIC (n=353). Because of variations in the data presentation, meta-analysis could not be performed. PIC harvestinghas revealed to have lower postoperative complications (pain, gait disturbance, iliac crest fractures and sensory disturbance) than the AIC. However, no definitive conclusions can be drawn, asmost of the included studies were retrospective in nature. Thus, a prospective randomized clinical trial is requiredto substantially answer this significant research question.

  206. Shaukat Jeelani, Umer Mushtaq, Ishfaq Ahmad Gilkar, Javid Ahmad Peerzada and Varun Dogra

    Background: The main categories of reconstruction following total gastrectomy are restoration of intestinal continuity without preservation of the duodenal food passage (Roux-en-Y oesophagojujunostomy) and restoration of intestinal continuity with preservation of the duodenal passage. Operations in either category may be combined with the construction of an enteric pouch or gastric reservoir to simulate the reservoir function of the normal, intact stomach. Methodology: The study included 20 patients, who underwent total gastrectomy with Hunt-Lawrence J–pouch reconstruction. In each patient postprandial symptoms, food intake in single meal (intake capacity),body weight, serum nutritional parameters viz. Serum total protein, serum albumin, serum cholesterol were evaluated. The follow up period was for 6 months and the patients were interviewed, examined periodically viz after 1 week of discharge from hospital, at the end of 1 month and at the end of 6 months. Results: The mean age of patients included in our study was 63 years. Postoperative follow up presented an improving trend in the mean haemoglobin values, 9.93±0.633 g/dl, 10.655±0.75 g/dl, 10.63±0.91 g/dl at the end of first week, first month and 6 months respectively. Preoperative mean serum albumin was 2.96±0.415 g/dl and post-operative mean serum albumin values were 2.51±0.566 g/dl, 2.835±0.752 g/dl, 3.24±0.392 g/dl at the end of first week, first month and 6 months respectively. The mean body weight preoperatively was 62.4±9.213 kilograms and the mean body weight ratio calculated on the follow up was 93.37±0.0388 %, 95.80±0.0313%, 97.95±0.0487% respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that Hunt Lawrence reconstruction offers cancer patients an acceptable reconstructional method after total gastrectomy. The advantages of the pouch reconstruction: diminishing of postoperative symptoms, improvement in eating capacity, decreased postoperative weight loss and better postoperative nutrition.

  207. Dr. Ratheesh Punnath Thadathil and Dr. Priyatha Ponnappan

    Establishment of identity remains the key aims in a medico legal autopsy. Identity of a person can be made from his race, stature, age, sex etc. for living persons the establishing of identity is not a difficult task but not so in cases of dead persons. The problem is more challenging if the skeletal remains only was available for medico legal examination. Determination of age was carried out from various changes in bones and cartilages including fusion of epiphyses, ossification changes, regression changes etc. Thyroid cartilage being the largest cartilage of the laryngeal complex was studied by various researchers for its relationship with age and ossification. However studies on thyroid cartilages for age determination was lacking in North Kerala population. In this study thyroid cartilages from 203 males and 200 females were collected during autopsy conducted in dept of Forensic medicine and was subjected to radiological examination so as to find out its relationship with age. The observations were analyzed with SPSS software. A linear relationship with ossification changes in thyroid cartilage with age was established both in males and females. Characteristic pattern of ossification was derived in both sexes and distinct stages were identified which were different from previous studies.

  208. Dr. Triveni Kale, Dr. Varsha Ranmare, Dr. Govind Bhartiya, Dr. Mitali Thamke and Dr. Rutuja Sankhe

    Background: Regeneration of the destroyed periodontal tissues is the ultimate goal of periodontal therapy. The factors that affect fibrin formation and structure may be: Genetic factors, acquired factors and other parameters including the age and gender of the patient. The patterns and arrangement of fibrin networks within the PRF clot, their capacity to entrap platelets and wbcs and the impact of age and gender of the patient on fibrin network patterns and arrangement have not been highlighted till date. Aims: The study is to evaluate the variations in the fibrin network patterns of the PRF clot, isolated from individuals of different age groups and gender. Materials and method: Ninety patients were divided in three age groups with equal gender distribution. PRF was prepared from blood samples of all patients and were subjected to cell block cytology method of histological analysis and slides will be prepared to histologically assess the age and gender related changes in (i) Fibrin network patterns in terms of density and (ii) Entrapment of platelets and white blood cells (wbcs) within fibrin meshwork. Result: In males and younger individuals more dense pattern seen compared to females and old age. Furthermore, variation in a number of platelets and wbcs entrapped within fibrin network in relation to age was noticed. Conclusion: So the age and gender can be one of the important factor on quality of PRF in terms of fibrin network pattern and hence, platelet and WBC’s entrapment within these fibrin network.

  209. Manal Ali Abdulsahib Al-Rubaye and Abeer Anwer Ahmed

    Introduction: Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including Polycythemia Vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders which originate from a single stem cell. Usually one cell line predominates in a given disorder. Over the last 12 years, several somatic mutations have been described in MPN classification like: JAK2, CALR and MPL, but JAK2 is the most frequent, with frequencies of approximately 98% in PV, 50% to 60% in ET, and 55% to 65% in PMF. It is believed that cytokines participate in the activation of JAK2V617F, one of them IL-23 that acts as a pro-inflammatory mediator and can induce chronic inflammation and its plasma level increased in MPN patients. High serum cobalamin is frequently observed in malignant blood diseases and MPDs. An elevated level of plasma cobalamin is found in 30 to 50% of patients with Polycythemia Vera (PV). Objectives: the study aimed to: 1. Estimate JAK2 V617F mutation gene PV in Iraqi patients. 2. Measure the levels of IL-23 and B12 in the PV cases with JAK2V617F +ve mutation. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients were diagnosed as polycythaemia according to their clinical and laboratory findings like: CBC, and bone marrow biopsy (for some patients), liver and renal function test, abdominal U/S some with CT abdomen and JAK2 V617F mutation. Then levels of B12 and IL-23 were measured and correlated with CBC results. Results and Discussion: The mean age of PV patients was (52.0  12.5) with a range of (22-71 yrs), there was a PV case in a 22 years old male which was considered as a rare condition also male to female ratio of (1:1) is unusual. Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly present in 36.7% and 13.3% of PV patients respectively. The mean Hb was (17.2 1.7 g/dl), while the mean WBC count was (12.3±3.9 x109/L) and the platelet count was (446.0±285.2). Plasma levels of IL-23 were significantly increased in all patients with JAK2 V617F +ve mutation PV with mean (70.00±72.18 pg/mL) and range (8.5-259.0) and there was a significant positive correlation between IL-23 level and the total WBC count. B12 serum level was high in 16 of total 30 cases, with mean serum level (766.54±583.95pg/mL) .There was no Correlation between B12 level and Hb level, Platelet count and WBC count. Also there was no correlation between IL-23 and B12. Conclusions: 1. Study of JAK2V617F mutation is an important test in MPN patients, particularly in those who suspected to have PV. 2. The diagnosis of PV was based on clinical, haematological and genetic tests. While B.M. biopsy was not performed for the studied cases, it is recommended by WHO as a major criterion to establish a diagnosis of PV. (WHO criteria for PV diagnosis, 2016) 3. High levels of IL-23 in the sera of all PV patients that positively correlate with WBC count. 4. Cobalamin levels was elevated in 53.3% of PV.

  210. Kongkona Bharadwaj, Basavaraj S. Salagundi and Regish, K. M.

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment. In addition to their biologic and biomechanical requirements, interim restorations provide the clinician with valuable diagnostic information. They act as functional and esthetic try-in and serve as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. Thus for a successful provisional restoration fabrication the clinician must have a thorough knowledge of the properties of the interim restoration material selected and the technique used. This review article intends to describe in brief the different materials used for making a provisional restoration or crown/FPD and the technique used.

  211. Dr. R. Jain Raj and Shiny Mol, V.

    Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent and far common debilitating form of Arthritis which can be defined as a degenerative condition affecting Synovial joint. Revulsive compress is a hydrotherapy technique traditionally which is used for reducing pain and other associated symptoms of knee Osteoarthritis. This study was carried out to determine the effect of Revulsive compress on knee osteoarthritis associated problems. Methodology: The study was carried out in Sree Ramakrishna medical college hospital for Naturopathy and Yoga, kulasekharam, India. A convenient sample of 15 adult patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis was selected for the study after obtaining written consent. All the samples underwent Revulsive compress for continuous 14 days. Three tools were utilized to collect the data on pre and post intervention which includes 0-10 Numeric pain rating scale, 0-4 edema scale and Goniometry for assessing range of motion. Results: The study shows that knee osteoarthritis symptoms were significantly reduced in the numeric pain scale score (t 13.163, sig 2 tailed .000) to 46.5%, edema scale score (t 4.583, sig 2 tailed .000) to 62.5% and the range of motion significantly get increased (t -4.660, sig 2 tailed .000) to 18% after the application of revulsive compress. The Revulsive compress had significant effect in reducing the knee osteoarthritis symptoms and pain. Conclusion: The method of Revulsive compress is the safe appropriate protocol of treatment to relieve symptoms and pain associated with knee osteoarthritis. This study needs to be support with long term effect of Revulsive compress with large sample size.

  212. Jinu Merlin Koshy, Archana, R., Bini Markose, Johnson, W. M. S., Sankar Narayanan and Sathya Priya, B.

    Aim & Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the unpredictable working postures of dentists using the postural analysis tool, Rapid entire body assessment (REBA) and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on one hundred and seventy five dentists working in different clinics having an experience of 3 to 20 years with age ranging from 25 – 50 years. Posture was assessed using the posture analysis tools like Rapid entire body assessment (REBA) and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA). Data are collected about the body posture, forces used, type of movement or action, repetition, and coupling. After the data for each region is collected and scored, tables on the form are then used to compile the risk factor variables, generating a single score that represents the level of MSD risk. Results: The REBA score for 85% of the subjects were 7 and above which indicates the risk level is medium to high. The RULA Score for most of the subjects (54%) were left 3 and right 5. This score indicates investigation and changes may be required in their posture. 47% of subjects were having a left score 4 and right score 5&6

  213. Azharbaig F. Mirza

    Colotropis gigantean is a natural product it is used in treatment of jaundice. The Colotropis gigantean, its properties, mechanism of action and clinical uses are briefly reviewed in this article.

  214. Dr. Muniba Ansari, Dr. Nihal Devkar, Dr. Akshay Vibhute, Dr. Vineet Vinay and Dr. Vikram Garcha

    Aim: The present study was conducted with the aim to assess the prevalence of the periodontal status of the patients reporting to the Out Patients Department of a dental college in Pune. Objectives: Find the prevalence, extent and severity of the periodontal status and to associate it with the age, gender, socioeconomic status, systemic conditions, smoking etc. Chart out an appropriate periodontal health care program protocol for the patients visiting the college with periodontal problems. Methodology: Cross sectional study consisting of 700 patients reporting to OPD of dental college were included in study. Self designed structured proforma was used to record demographic details. Community periodontal index along with loss of attachment and gingival recession were recorded accordingly. Results: A total of 700 patients were included in the study. The gender distribution showed that there were 433 (62.2%) males and 267(37.8%) females. Males exhibited a higher percentage of clinical attachment loss of greaterthan 5mm ascompared to the females. Calculus was seen in 525 (74.4%) subjects and was seen maximum in the age group of 21-30 years and also a total of 3.28 sextants affected in the study population. Loss of attachment was seen in about 20.7% of the study subjects. Conclusion: Dental calculus was the most frequently reported condition in the population followed by shallow pockets. Periodontal health status of the individuals was significantly associated with age, sex (male), socioeconomic status (upper lower). Loss of attachment was strongly associated with age and socioeconomic status (upper lower) of the individual.

  215. Bendle, S. S. and Goyal, R. C.

    Introduction: Close contacts of MDR-TB patients are expected to be at increased risk of developing TB. Therefore, when patients are diagnosed with MDR tuberculosis, early initiation of treatment is a particularly important element of prevention for developing new cases of active tuberculosis in the community. Methodology: We conducted domiciliary visits to interview in dex cases as well as their household contacts. This study was a community based cross sectional study conducted in between June 2012 to December 2012 for all those house hold contacts in all 08 blocks of Wardha District, Maharashtra, India. Result: Out of 259 close contacts of 84 index MDR-TB patients, 06 (2.31%) had active tuberculosis. 66.68% cases found sputum positive chest symptomatic household contact when duration of delay was 16 to 30 days for starting treatment after diagnosis of MDR-TB in index case followed by 16.66% each when delay was more than 30 days. Conclusion: An early identification and early initiation of treatment in potential cases will eventually translate into reduced morbidity, mortality and transmission of infection in the community.

  216. Thangalakshmi Sivathapandi, Shelley Simon and Indirani Elangovan

    Objective: Our study was focused on patients with various types of malignancies undergoing follow up 18F FDG PET-CT imaging after definitive cancer treatment to assess the ability of F-18 FDG PET CT to differentiate benign and malignant metabolically active peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) with histopathological (HP) correlation. Methods: Follow up of 115 treated cancer patients with 18F FDG PET-CT imaging who had metabolically active peripheral LNs were included in this prospective study which consist 60 males and 55 females (15-75 years). Various indices like retention index (RI), delayed tumor to non tumor ratio (De T: NT), difference in SUV max (D SUV) were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman’s rank correlation was performed. The results of 18 F FDG PET- CT were correlated to the final HP results. Results: The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 18F FDG PET-CT to detect metastases in peripheral LNs in post therapy cancer patients were 96%, 75%, 89% and 90% respectively. 18F FDG PET-CT in post treatment setting had the maximum sensitivity (100%), NPV (100%) and PPV (89.65%) for supraclavicular nodes and maximum specificity (80%) for axillary nodes. The D-SUVmax, De T: NT ratio and RI of malignant LNs were significantly higher than benign LNs. Conclusion: 18F FDG PET-CT has high sensitivity and high NPV which helps to exclude metastasis and guides for metabolic biopsy and paves an important way in the follow up management of treated cancer patients.

  217. Tawani Gopal, S., Hegde Shubha, G., Warhadpande, M. M., Dr. Nikhil Mankar, Dr. Sneha Kela and Dr. Abhilasha Dass

    Purpose: This investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of glass and polyethylene fiber inserts on the micro leakage of Class II composite restorations with gingival margins on root surfaces. Materials and method: Standard MO or DO cavities were prepared in 60 extracted premolars. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n=20). Control group Group 1: Filtek P 60 composite resin - Incremental technique with No fiber inserts; Group 2: Ribbond Triaxial Polyethylene fibers + Filtek P 60 composite resin - Incremental technique; Group 3: EverStick Ortho Glass fibers+ Filtek P 60 composite resin - Incremental technique. All the teeth were thermo cycled for 500cycles (5°C and 55°C) and then immersed in methylene blue solution for 24 hours. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally and observed under a stereomicroscope. Micro leakage at gingival margin was recorded according to dye penetration scores. Statistical analysis was performed by using one-way ANOVA and Mann Whitney U tests (p<0.05). Results and conclusion: Samples with fiber inserts showed significantly less micro leakage compared to the control. Also, glass fibers were superior to polyethylene fibers, though the difference was non-significant None of the samples showed complete elimination of microleakage.

  218. Ijeoma O. Ehiemere, IjeomaJ.Ilo, Uchenna A. Umeh, Ijeoma O. Maduakolam and Rita N. Ezeugwu

    Background: Maternal mortality is a global health problem with a ratio of 525/100,000 live births annually, which is still unacceptably high. A disproportionately high burden of these maternal deaths is borne in developing countries including Nigeria. Among the many strategies initiated for the reduction of maternal mortality such as making pregnancy safer and lifesaving skills; this study focuses on birth preparedness and complication readiness. Birth preparedness and complication readiness involves planning with key stakeholders, the health care providers, pregnant women, relations and the community for positive pregnancy outcome. It helps women to reach skilled birth attendants when labour begins thereby reducing delays that occur when mothers in labourexperience obstetric complications. This strategy contributes to the reduction of maternal and newborn mortality through making appropriate birth plan. Objectives: The aims of the study were to determine knowledge of birth preparedness and complication readiness in the study population, determine the couple’s practice, identify factors that hinder couples practice and establish relationship between couple’s socio-economic status and their practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness. Methods and Materials: A cross-sectional descriptive survey design was used for the study. Snowball non- probability sampling technique was used to select subjects for the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data at 0.05 level of significance. Results: Major findings of the study revealed that 307(78.7%) couples had good knowledge while 25(6.4%) showed poor knowledge. The danger signs during pregnancy were well understood by more than 60% of the study population which includes prolonged labour (63%) and heavy vaginal bleeding (70.3%). Only 76 respondents (19.4%) of the study population engaged in good birth preparedness and complication readiness practices. Antenatal care attendance was poor with only 104 (26.7%) attending. Twenty three percent (88) of the couples made plans to deliver at a specific health facility while 274(70%) arranged for a birth companion. Major factors that hindered practice were financial constraint, lack of transport at night and premature delivery. Conclusion: Although most of the couples had good knowledge but this did not translate into practice. There is need to address these limiting factors, especially transportation for better pregnancy outcome in emergencies. The study recommends a slight shift of focus by government from hospital based to community based in maternal and child health projects for better rural coverage.

  219. Dr. Md. Asjad Karim Bakhteyar, Dr. Binod Kumar, Dr. Pranay Kumar, Dr. Sushil Kumar, Dr. Shakil Jawed, Dr. Habibullah Ansari and Dr. Kumar Abhishek Ranjan

    Background: Cholecystitis is one the most common disease encountered to general surgeons or G I surgeons in Bihar. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard treatment of choice in cases of acute/chronic cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, empyema, pyocele, gall bladder polyp etc. Cholecystectomy used to be done early in Bihar region because of high risk of carcinomatous transformation. As the time passes scar less surgery is getting more and more acceptance among surgeons and patients both. Advancement in laparoscopic surgery is very fast in recent years. 1st laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed on September 12, 1985. Then advances to Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) and Natural orifice trans-luminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES).With conventional multiport laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MPLC) most of the surgeons feel comfortable as compared to SILC. Our study was conducted on various complications of umbilical camera port incision in laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but main concern was cosmetic out come. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 92 patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy by a single surgeon ranging from age group 14-70 years. Study was conducted between July 2016 to February 2017. All the patients were prior informed about the study and written consent were taken. All patients underwent multiport laparoscopic cholecystectomy and camera port was created through umbilicus (intra-umbilical camera port incision). Patients were followed for 6 months for complications in camera port like, port site hernia, port site infection scar and intra-operative port site bleed. Results: Out of 92 patients studied male were 21.7% and rest were females. Youngest patient was a 14 year female and oldest one was also a female of 70 years. Most common age group affected were in between 20-40 years, 65.2% patients lies in this group. All patients underwent conventional four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy with umbilical camera port incision. Some of the complications of umbilical port were studied, finding about visible scar, port site incisional hernia and intra-operative port site bleed were good. Visible scar and hernia were in 0% patient, intra-operative bleed were seen in 3.3% patients. Port site infections were observed in 5.4% patients. Conclusion: In umbilical port incision scar were not visible, neither port site hernia is seen. Port site infection is not too much (5.4%) and intra-operative bleed is also very less (3.3%), in near future umbilical port is going to replace peri-umbilical port incision mainly because of its cosmetic outcome.

  220. Arpandeep Kaur Tuli, Lipika Singhal, Varsha Gupta and Jagdish Chander

    Neonatal sepsis is a common but dreadful problem faced by neonatologists and is responsible for approximately 25% of all neonatal deaths in the world. Neonates are at increased risk of contracting infections due to immature immune system. It is difficult to clinically diagnose sepsis in these babies because the clinical features of sepsis are subtle in these neonates. Culture and sensitivity remains the gold standard test to diagnose and treat neonates in this situation. Moreover knowledge of prevalent bacterial flora and its susceptibility patterns in a particular neonatal intensive care unit is essential for empirical antibiotic therapy because the treatment of sepsis needs to be immediately started and any delay in starting appropriate antibiotic therapy can prove fatal. For this reason it is important to determine bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of blood isolates from every neonatal intensive care unit. We conducted this cross sectional study to determine bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility pattern from blood cultures collected from neonatal intensive care units of our institute. Aims and Objective: To determine bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of blood isolates from neonatal intensive care unit. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out in microbiology department. The blood samples were processed by conventional blood culture and identification of the organism was done by standard bacteriological techniques. Antibiotic sensitivity was performed by Kirby Bauer disc-diffusion method in accordance to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2016 guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 1521 blood samples were received from NICU. Of these, bacteraemia could be confirmed by culture in 12.3% (187/1521) cases. In the present study, Gram-negative organisms predominated being responsible for 76% (142/187) of cases of septicaemia followed by the gram positive organisms in 24% (45/187) cases. Conclusion: Establishing bacteriological profile and susceptibility patterns of isolates from a particular neonatal intensive care unit is a critical step in managing neonatal sepsis. Such knowledge is critical in deciding empirical antibiotic therapy by treating neonatologist. Our study identified the prevalent organisms and provided with sensitivity patterns of the organisms prevalent in neonatal intensive care unit.

  221. Dr.Thomas Mathew, Dr. Vikram Kamath, Dr.Sarma, G.R.K., Dr. AK Roy and Ms. Manjusha, T.

    We report a case of young adult male who presented with two episodes of shoulder dislocation during sleep. After the second episode the possibility of nocturnal seizure was considered. On evaluation he was found to have a lateral tongue bite and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a right frontal cysticercal granuloma.

  222. Gana Gangamma, Jagadish Pai, Anish Varkey, Uthappa, M. A. and Princy Anna Mathew

    Host Modulation Therapy (HMT) is a treatment concept that reduces tissue destruction and stabilizes or even regenerates inflammatory tissue by modifying host response factors. It has been used for treating osteoporosis and arthritis for several decades. However, its use in dentistry has also been reported. The objective of this article is to present a review of the various literatures available on HMT and also its role as adjunct therapy in periodontics.

  223. Seema Qayoom, Majid Jehangir and Rahil Yousuf

    Introduction: Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, is associated with many co-morbidities including metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the hepatic manifestations of metabolic syndrome. A few recent studies have shown that NAFLD is also frequent in psoriatic patients. Aim: The aimof the study was to analyze the prevalence of NAFLD among adult psoriatic patients. Material & Methods: 250 adult psoriatic patients who presented to Department of Dermatology were enrolled in the study. All the patients underwent a dedicated skin examination, abdominal sonography and fasting blood workup. Results: The overall prevalence of NAFLD among adult psoriatic patients was 46.8% in our study, while as the overall prevalence of NAFLD in India is between 9 and 19% in adult population. Thus, the prevalence of NAFLD in psoriatic patients is more than 2.5 fold higher. Also psoriatic patients with NAFLD had more severe disease as per psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) scores. Conclusion: Our findings suggests that NAFLD is more frequent in psoriatic patients and is also associated with severity of disease as per PASI score.

  224. Shailja Singh, Ramesh Chandra, SupratimTripathi, Faisal Naseem and Ijaj M Tamboli, P.

    Herbal products have been used since ancient times in folk medicine, involving both eastern and western medicinal traditions. Many plants with biological and antimicrbiological properties have been studied since there has been a relevant increase in the incidence of antibiotic overuse and misuse. In dentistry Phytomedicines has been used as anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic andsedative agents. In endodontics because of the cytotoxic reactions of the most of the commercial intracanal medicaments used and their inability to eliminate bacteria from dentinal tubules, trend of recent medicine attends to use biologic medication extracted from natural plants.The aim of this studyto compare the antimicrobial activity of this cumin essential oil with conventional antimicrobial agents which use in dentistry as intracanal medicament.

  225. Dr. Biswajit Das, Dr. Debasree Guha and Dr. Paramita Mukhopadhyay

    Background: Perinatal asphyxia leading to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is still leading cause of infant and under-five mortality and significant morbidity in developing countries. Cranial USG is a sensitive, cheap and non invasive tool for early diagnosis of HIE and persistence of these lesion on serial USG can be correlated with subsequent neuro-developmental outcome. Method: This prospective observational study was conducted in SNCU and NICU of a tertiary care hospital of India on term neonates with perinatal asphyxia. Results: 72% babies on day 3, 60% of babies on day 7 and 44% babies on 6 weeks of life had some changes in USG Brain. Most of the babies with definite USG changes had stage 3 (Sarnat & Sarnat) stage of HIE. Among 72% , having early abnormal USG findings, 64% were found to have abnormal neurological findings in Amiel-Tison scale and 56% in TDSC developmental scale on follow up at 6 weeks. Conclusion: Cranial Ultrasonography specially in early stage have role in detecting lesions and correlating with subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome which will help in early diagnosis and early intervention in neurologically cripple child.

  226. Dr. Harshad Bhagwat, Dr. Zubair Ahmed, Dr. Ashvini Kishor Vadane and Dr. Ashish Rajput

    Impacted tooth is one that fails to erupt and will not attain it’s anatomical position beyond chronological date of eruption. This article reports a case of surgical extraction of mandibular left impacted canine which was managed successfully.

  227. Diya AL-Ramamneh

    The aim of this investigation to verify the effect of providing either cold or warm water on feed intake, physiological parameters, and behavioral responses in sheep under heat stress condition. Twelve Awassi sheep were randomly allocated to two treatment groups with three hours drinking interval and ad libitumfeeding. The first group (N=6) animals were watered warm water coming from water tanks exposed to sun and the second group watered with cold water with a temperature less than 10o C. Individual feed and water intake were measured daily, respiratory rate was measured three times a day, while rectal temperature and body weight were measured once a weekFurthermore, animal behavior by using scan sampling were noticed three times a week. Results showed that water and feed intake per metabolic body weight showed significant differences in both groups, with a higher amount of warm water intake and lower amount of feed intake in the same group. Respiratory rate and rectal temperature were significantly higher in a warm water group. Furthermore, animal behavior confirmed these differences. However, these results suggest that providing of cold water to sheep under heat stresswould dissipate heat better and promote greater animal comfortably.

  228. Yogitha, C. and Abhinaya Varidi Reddy

    Background: Incidence and prevalence of stroke has risen exponentially worldwide in last few decades and incidence of stroke is also rising among Indians. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) is a non-invasive test for assessment of atherosclerosis in different arteries. There is a direct correlation with incidence of stroke. Systemic inflammation is now thought to be a part of the process for accelerated atherosclerosis. Measurements of the marker of systemic inflammation, i.e. hsCRP, may provide a good indication of the risk to develop stroke. Objectives: To measure the hsCRP and carotid intima media thickness in patients with ischemic stroke and to establish the correlation of hsCRP to carotid intima media thickness in patients with ischemic stroke. Methods: An observational study done at Kempegowda institute of medical sciences, Bangalore over a period of 18 months that included established cases of ischemic stroke diagnosed on the basis of clinical history, examination and neuroimaging. 60 cases of ischemic stroke aged 45 yrs or more were taken, hsCRP and Carotid intima media thickness were measured. Data were collected through a proforma specially designed for this study where patients detailed history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations were collected. Individuals with acute ischemic stroke over 45years of age, confirmed by CT scan or MRI scan were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were for the patients with hemorrhagic stroke, cerebral emboli of cardiac origin diagnosed clinically and by ECG and echo, patients on statins, patients with meningitis, brain abscess and other intracranial infections or other space occupying lesions. Patients with head injury, post operative patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, chronic infection and inflammatory conditions. Results: Out of 60 patients, 63.3% were hypertensive and 50% were smokers. 72% of our patients had high Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). CIMT was significantly related to hsCRP, LDL, HDL levels and age of the patient. Conclusion: This study has shown a significant association between CIMT and the atherogenic variables like age, hsCRP, HDL and LDL.This may indicate the need to screen patients for these risk factors. Also, in places where CIMT measurement is not available, these blood tests can be used as surrogate markers to define the patient population at risk of ischemic stroke. Conversely, in patients with ischemic stroke, these markers can be used to monitor and prevent further events by appropriate interventions.

  229. Dr. Roopav Nargotra, Dr. Satvinder Singh, Dr. Ritesh Gupta and Dr. Shivangi Nargotra

    Introduction: The present study was done to evaluate the effectiveness of distraction osteogenesis as a treatment modality in case of midfacial deformity associated with cleft lip and palate patients and to suggest a modified protocol for distraction osteogenesis for midface and dentoalveolar segments in cleft lip and palate patients. nd application of Rigid external distractor (RED). The distraction was carried out over a period of 6-13 days at a rate of 4.0 mm per day. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with cleft lip and palate having midfacial deficiency and falling in ASA grade 1 and ASA grade 2 categories were selected and taken up for the necessary treatment with the use of a Le Fort 1 osteotomy a Results: Advancement of the segment achieved at the end of one month fell in the range of 16 mm – 24 mm and 7 mm - 18 mm at the end of six months. Conclusion: Distraction osteogenesis proved to be an effective treatment modality in case of craniofacial deformity associated with cleft lip and palate patients. We have also suggested a modified protocol for distraction osteogenesis for midface and dentoalveolar segments in such patients.

  230. Laigy Ann George

    Hypertension is a major risk factor to many diseases like myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, renal failure, and retinopathy which is a leading cause of death. This study aims to provide patient counseling regarding risk factors, life style modifications and pharmacological therapy by orally and through patient information leaflet which will improves knowledge, attitude, practice(KAP) and Health related quality of life in hypertension. At baseline there was no significant difference between the mean blood pressure, HRQoL score and KAP of the test and control groups At final follow up test group patients had significantly (p=0.021) higher QoL scores than at baseline. Patient in the test group had very significant improvement in the KAP score. At the end of the study the patients in the test group had better blood pressure control values and better scores in all six subscales of the SF-36v health survey questionnaire. These patients also showed improved KAP scores at the final follow up. Our study concludes that clinical pharmacist can play an important role in improving the treatment outcomes and quality of life of patients with hypertension. Only two-thirds of patients with hypertension are aware of their status, which means that a large segment of the population has hypertension that is unrecognized and untreated. Regarding risk factors, life style modifications, pharmacological therapy & medication adherence in hypertension which in turn improves HRQoL. The pharmacist is in an ideal position to assist with patient education and monitoring to improve medication and life style adherence. Poor medication adherence and lack of knowledge and awareness on hypertension are the major reasons for poor BP control which is largely related to deterioration in a patient's quality of life. Patient counseling is an essential component of clinical pharmacy practice in hospitals and in community pharmacy settings. Counselling enhances the patient understanding of their illness and its treatment, and may improve adherence and therapeutic outcome. It allows pharmacists to gain firsthand knowledge of medication use from patient's perspective. The treatment of hypertension is usually long term, and its success will depend on the effects of the drug regimen on the patient's quality of life.

  231. Gonap, Elisha Gobin, Dante, Anyu Budi, Chuma, Vivian and Gontul, Timothy Kitwuna

    SWOT Analysis is the most renowned tool for auditing and analyzing the overall strategic position of a tourist destination. SWOT analysis is a structured planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a destination. It involves identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to a destination. Plateau State, with her diversified social structure and complex business environment, poses many merits and demerits for clients, both of which affect the destination locally, nationally or intentionally. Thus, a SWOT analysis becomes an indispensable exercise to be undertaken for the destination. This would allow achievable goals or objectives to be set for the destination afterward. The generic SWOT is common to almost all destinations while the specific SWOT usually applies to individual destinations based on the peculiarities and the intrinsic characteristics of each destination. In the wake of series/cycles of violent/bloody ethno-religious conflicts, bombings, terrorism and insurgencies it became critically indispensable. It was therefore critically important to categorically analyze the generic and specific SWOT analyses of Plateau State as a tourist destination. Tourism experts/practitioners/professionals and tourists were purposely identified and selected to attend interactive sessions to analyze the SWOTs of Plateau State. The results of the interactions established that Plateau state is indeed a land of beautiful sceneries, rich cultural and historical heritage and excellent/clement weather/climate. The people of the state are very hospitable and accommodating. These attributes explain some strengths of Plateau State but it was however, quickly noted that Plateau State has experienced series/cycles of violent/bloody ethno-religious conflicts, bombings, terrorism and insurgencies which are all weaknesses and threats befalling Plateau State. The state is the hub of the scenic zone in Nigeria and nicknamed as ‘home of peace and tourism,’ but has in coincidentally become the epicenter of communal conflicts in Nigeria. After her SWOT analyses, it is expected that Plateau State should come up with her tourism development policy and goals in order to sustainably develop, manage and promote her tourism industry to increase her tourism revenue as well as to impact on the state economy to alleviate poverty and diversify the economy of the state and the nation at large.

  232. Sud, R., Gogi, A. and Raina, U. K.

    Purpose: Trabeculectomy with or without various modifications forms the surgical mainstay of glaucoma treatment.The impact of the procedure on the visual prognosis on the glaucoma patient must be carefully evaluated. Our purpose is to study the stabilization and alterations in the refractive status following trabeculectomy using conventional interrupted sutures and releasable sutures. Methods: This was a prospective comparative study. A total of 40 eyes of 37 patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: Group A with 20 eyes undergoing trabculectomy with conventional sutures and Group B with 20 eyes undergoing trabeculectomy with releasable sutures. The visual acuity, simulated keratometry and astigmatism was measured on day1, day 7, day 30 and day 90. Results: The change in the mean visual acuity in group A at day 90 was -0.0140 whereas in group b it was -0.0350. The difference was not found to be statistically significant (p=0.603). The astigmatism on day 90 in group a was found to be 1.28=/- 0.69 whereas in group b was found to be 1.52+/-1.49. The difference was not found to be statistically significant (p=0.511). Conclusion: Trabeculectomy using releasable sutures has all its advantages of minimizing shallow anterior chamber and hypotony in the early postop period as well as ensuring a good long term bleb function,along with no statistically significant difference in postoperative asigmatism as compared to trabeculectomy with conventional sutures.

  233. Indumathi, M. and Mythili, M.

    Background: Plasma fibrinogen is a major determinant of platelet aggregation and blood viscosity. It has been demonstrated that smoking increases the plasma fibrinogen level, which is an independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to investigate the extent to which cigarette smokers in comparison with non-smokers have their plasma fibrinogen level. Methodology: A total of 60 Males in the age group of 25 to 50 years with BMI <24.9Kg/m2 and without Obesity, any acute infection, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, history of vascular disorders, Consumption of aspirin, lipid-lowering or Fibrinolytic drugs, Overt liver, kidney or thyroid dysfunction were selected and divided into study group with 35 males smoking >5 cigarettes /day for at least 5 years and control group with 25 males .General clinical examination of the subject was done. Two ml of blood was collected and plasma fibrinogen level was estimated by Von Clauss method using a kit named Fibroquant. Statistical analysis was done with student-t-test. Result: The Mean + SD of plasma fibrinogen among smokers (427.83 + 57.78) were increased compared to that of the non-smokers (314 + 53.08). Results analyzed using student‘t’ test, revealed a statistically very significant ‘P’ value ( P <0.001). Conclusion: In the present study mean plasma fibrinogen concentration of smokers showed a sharp increase compared to that of the non-smokers. We recommend plasma fibrinogen concentration should be included during the routine assessment of cardiovascular risk in case of smokers.

  234. Sagar Pamu, Lakshmi Thakkalapally, Ramakrishna Badikela, Jalandhar Donapati and Rajesh Veera Bomma

    Life and death are set before us, and we are at liberty to choose which we will. There are many reasons, and much good sound logic that could be produced. In India average life time of humans has been increased upto 10 years compared to before 25 years. In the year 1990 average human life time in India was approximately upto 58 years, now in 2016 it was increased upto 69 years. As according to WHO World health statistics 2016 lifetime expectancy is 3 years more in females than in males. Most of the deaths were decreased due to HIV and during pregnancy, but it was not able to control the deaths due to tuberculosis, cardiovascular problems like stroke & heart attack, and pollution. It was also reported that deaths are mostly happening in the age group between 30 and 70 years due to different causative factors. In most of the countries alcohol consumption was slightly decreased but in India alcool consumption was increased.

  235. Monerah Al Hemedy, Majid Alghamdi and Farzana Rizwan Arain

    Despite the popularity of contraceptives, their use and choice may vary depending on social, cultural and personal beliefs. This cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence and analyzed the determinants of contraception use among women attending antenatal care clinic in primary healthcare centers in two cities of Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of contraceptive use was 84.2% (95%CI= 80.5%; 87.5%). Oral contraceptive pills were the most frequently used (68.2%), followed by Intrauterine devices (17.6%) and male condom (7.1%). Non-use of contraceptives was predicted by belief that contraception constitute a religious transgression, lack of woman’s decision autonomy and husband’s refusal. Results from this study suggest that a high proportion of contraceptive use is beyond medical supervision, which exposes to misuse and serious side effects.

  236. Isabel Regina Prazeres de Souza, Beatriz de Almeida Barros, André da Silva Xavier, Samanta Gabriela Medeiros Carvalho, Elizabeth de Oliveira Sabato, Isabella Aparecida Maia Gonçalves, Roberto Willians Noda and José Avelino Santos Rodrigues

    Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is cultivated in several tropical and subtropical regions in the world. Among the diseases, the mosaic caused by potyvirus is an important constraint for the agricultural production causing reduction in grain and forage sorghum production.In Brazil, only Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) had previously been reported as the potyvirus species causing mosaic in sorghum and maize. A survey was carried out in sorghum plantations of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during the 2014/2015 crop season for monitoring mosaic disease. Samples of sorghum plants expressing virus disease symptoms were collected for molecular analyzes. Molecular characterization of coat protein (CP) of the potyviruses naturally infecting sorghum, allowed us to identify the Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV) as a new causal agent of mosaicdisease in sorghum in Brazil. The sequences of the Brazilian JGMV sorghum-infecting (JGMV-Sr) isolates were deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KY952241, KY952242, and KY952243. Comparisons of the CP gene sequences of these Brazilian JGMV-Srisolates revealed high nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequence identities, ranging from 97.93 to 98.23%, and 99.12 to 99.20%, respectively, with the U07218.1 (JGMV-MDKS1) isolate. The Brazilian JGMV-Sr isolates were distinct from the Brazilian forage grasses-infecting (JGMV-Fg) isolates (KT833782 and KT289893).Transmission evaluations showed susceptibility of the teosinte, Sorghum verticilliflorum and Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, except line QL3.Maize and sugarcane genotypes were not infected by the Brazilian JGMV-Sr isolate. However, it is important to test more genotypes. This is the first report showing the identification and molecular characterization of the JGMV species naturally infecting sorghum at field conditions, expanding the knowledge about the dynamic and range of the mosaic causal agent for this crop in Brazil.

  237. Harshvardhan Bharadwaj, Vinay Ramesh Dhakate and Agrawal, NK

    Background and Aims: Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is widely used for airway management in paediatric anaesthesia. However, differences in paediatric airway anatomy compared to adults can make the correct placement of LMA difficult in paediatric patients. We conducted the study to compare the Standard Brain technique and Lateral approach with 90⁰ rotation with partially inflated cuff for LMA insertion in paediatric patients. Methods: 100 ASA I children aged between 2 to 12 years scheduled for short elective surgical procedures lasting for less than 60 minutes were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated into one of the two groups, i.e group-S (Standard technique) or group- L (Lateral technique). The success rate at first attempt, overall success rate, time taken for LMA insertion and complications were assessed. Unpaired t-test and fisher’s exact test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Successful insertion at the first attempt was significantly higher in group-S (96 %) compared with group-L (90 %). Overall success rate was 100 % for group-S and 96 % for group-L (P= 0.593). Time for successful insertion was significantly lower in group- L (12.22 ± 3.16 s) compared to group-S (16.9 ± 5.99 s) (P< 0.001). The incidence of complications was lower in group-L. Conclusion: Although, the standard technique with fully deflated cuff is associated with higher success rate of insertion, the lateral technique with partially inflated cuff has shorter insertion time and fewer complications.

  238. Prudhivi Sumana, Sunita Toleti and Ramesh Babu Myneni

    Background: Aerobic non-fermenting gram negative bacilli [NFGNB] once considered as contaminants now associated with life threatening infections and emerging as multidrug resistant [MDR] nosocomial pathogens. AIM: Isolation and identification of NFGNB in various clinical samples and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted in the microbiology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital from July 2015 to December 2016. NFGNB were isolated from various clinical specimens on MacConkey agar. Further identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing [AST] was done by subjecting them to VITEK -2 system. Results: Among 7654 clinical specimens, 325 yielded NFGNB accounting for an isolation rate of 4.24%. Blood was the most common specimen [34.77%] followed by tracheal aspirate [29.57%]. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most common isolate (98.6%) followed by Pseudomonas aeroginosa (78.1%). A high level of antibiotic resistance was recorded for most of the first and second line drugs. Thus confirming multidrug resistance. Colistin and tigecycline showed maximum activity with an overall susceptibility of (74.46%) and (57.85%) respectively. High carbapenem resistance in this study is of major concern which can cause outbreaks and limit therapeutic options due to MDR. Conclusion: Identification of NFGNB and monitoring their susceptibility patterns will aid in proper management of infections caused by them. Improved antibiotic stewardship and infection control measures are needed to prevent emergence ad spread of MDR NFGNB in the healthcare settings.

  239. Dr. Ravindra Kumar Vishnoi, Dr. Vasant Wagh, Dr. Mahesh Kumar Jain, Dr. Mohite, P. M., Dr. Abhay Gaidhane, Dr. Shravani Deolia and Dr. Sangita Totade

    Background: Every year thousands of people go missing and reports are filed in police records. Thousands of unidentified dead bodies recovered, where inquest is carried out throughout India. This is an issue which is of global concern. In the year 2015 only, 34592 unknown dead bodies were recovered all over India, where Maharashtra was the leading state. Identification of unidentified dead victims using a current methods is not sufficient in existing system, hence burden has been assessed and an algorithm has been prepared for easy, early and correct identification of the dead bodies. Methodology: Analysis of existing system of identification adopted by the investigating authorities and compendium reports of government authority from 2010 to 2015 for assessing the burden of unidentified death victims. Results and Observations: Thousands of people were declared as unidentified dead. In India the range of dead remain unidentified was 570 to 650 per lac registered deaths and in Maharashtra state from 730-1150. Discussion and Conclusion: More than 100 dead’s per day in India was declared as unidentified, of which 17 per day in Maharashtra alone.

  240. Umayal Swaminathan and Dr. Santhosh Kumar, M. P.

    Anticoagulant drugs are commonly prescribed to patients with atrial fibrillation, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, venous thromboembolism, congestive heart failure, stroke, myocardial infarction, genetic or acquired hypercoagulability, prosthetic heart valves and cardiac stents placement. On the other hand, this may increase the risk of bleeding during invasive dental surgical procedures. This article briefly reviews on perioperative guidelines and management of dental patients receiving oral anticoagulant drugs.

  241. Dr. Manoj Kumar, A. D., Dr. Manikantan, N. S., Dr. Brijesh Shetty, Dr. Dhanya Balakrishnan, Dr. Shino P Mathew and Dr. Sreeprabha G Mohan

    Background & Objectives: The strength greatly influences the selection of core material because core must withstand forces due to mastication and para-function for many years. This study was conducted to evaluate certain mechanical properties of commonly used materials for direct core build-up, including visible light cured composite, polyacid modified composite, resin modified glass ionomer, high copper amalgam, and silver cermet cement. Methods: All the materials were manipulated according to manufacturer’s recommendations and Standard test specimens were prepared. A Universal testing machine at different cross -head speed was used to determine all the four mechanical properties. Mean compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, and elastic modulus with standard deviations were calculated. Multiple comparisons of the materials were also done. Results: Considerable differences in compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and flexural strength were observed. Visible light cured composite showed relatively high compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and flexural strength compared to the other tested materials. Amalgam showed highest value for elastic modulus. Silver cermet showed less value for all the properties except for elastic modulus. Conclusion: Strength is one of the most important criterions for selection of a core material. Stronger materials better resist deformation and fracture provide more equitable stress distribution, greater stability and greater probability of clinical success.

  242. Dr. Lakshmanaraj, C., Dr. Kanagavalli, K., Dr. Rajammadevi Sorubarani, K., Dr. Karolin Daicy Rani, R. and Dr. Sankaranarayanan, S.

    A simple and effective RP-HPLC method The study was considered to assess the hepatoprotective activity of pre-treatment with aqueous extract of Ven sivathaiverchoornam (O. turpethum) against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rat model. Liver damage was induced in experimental animals by administering CCl4. The aqueous extract of O. turpethum (60 and 100 mg/kg, po) was given for five days. Silymarin (100 mg/kg, po) was specified as the reference drug. Hepatoprotective result was recorded by assaying the activities of serum marker enzymes like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and bilirubin and cholesterol. The actions of all the marker enzymes recorded a significant elevation in CCl4 treated rats, which were significantly recovered towards an almost normal level in animals administered with aqueous extract of O. turpethumroot at a dose of 60 and 100 mg/kg. Aqueous extract of O. turpethum root not permitted decrease in the excretion of ascorbic acid in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The results indicate that aqueous extract of O. turpethum possess hepatoprotective property. This property may be attributed to the related flavonoids, terpenoid and phenolic compounds present in the root of O. turpethum.

  243. Dr. Prashanth Sadashiva Murthy, Dr. Naseemoon Shaik, Dr. Seema Deshmukh and Dr. Srilatha K Thotappa

    Mandibular fractures in children are rare and their treatment remains controversial. Most of the fractures are greenstick type, so conservative approach is preferred as the fracture heals rapidly as the child grows normally. Treatment of mandibular fracture differ from that of adults due to concerns regarding development of dentition and mandibular growth. This article reports a case of Mandibular Dentoalveolar fracture in a 10 years boy and its conservative management.

  244. HoonHur, Yoon Jung Choi, Min SeokCheon and Yu Ri Kim

    Partial unilateral lentiginosis (PUL) is a rare pigmentary skin disease characterized by numerous smallagminatedbrown macules on an area of normal skinconfined to only one side of the face or body andalmost always starts in childhood, rarely at birth.Treatment of PUL isnecessary for cosmetically disfiguring feature. Howevertreating the PUL with outside effects such as purpura, crust, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, mottled hypopigmentation, scarring and recurrences is extremely difficult. Therefore, the authors introduce a newtreatment of PUL using Dr. HoonHur's Golden Parameter Therapy (GPT) with a high fluence 1064nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (QSNL) without any side effects and recurrences.In this paper, Dr. HoonHur'sGPT with a high fluence 1064nm QSNL proved to be a safe and effective treatment for PUL. We propose that Dr. HoonHur'sGPTwith a high fluence 1064nm QSNL is a new and good option for treating PUL.

  245. Balaji, P., Rajkumar, R., Balasubramanian, A. and Prabu, K.T.

    Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) are rare neoplasms accounting for only 0.1 to 3 % of Gastrointestinal Malignancies but they account for 80% of Gastrointestinal Mesenchymal Neoplasms. The only principle and curative treatment available for GISTs is Surgical R0 Clearance.Laparoscopic Resection of GIST is routinely advocated only for tumours at favourable locations and smaller sizes(Less than 5 cm). But the Gastro-Esophageal (GE)Junctional tumours poses a special risk of involving the Lower Esophageal sphincter while resection, thereby causing Reflux or late Stenosis. These tumours had been traditionally dealt with more morbid Total Esophagectomy and Gastrectomy procedures. But with advent of newer refined techniques of Laparoscopy and its instrumentation, these tumours can be handled with minimally invasive approaches without compromising the oncological and functional perspectives. We here discuss two of such innovative approaches to deal with the GE Junctional GISTs in our experience, namely the Trans-gastrotomy stapled Resection and Endoscopy assisted Laparoscopic Wedge Resection.

  246. Dr. Rafi Shaik, Dr. Dandu Sivasai Prasad Reddy, Dr. Nagavenkata Sai Praveen, K. Dr. Sarah Emerald SheelaNemalladinne, Dr. SharathPocha Reddy and Dr. Samellua Shaik

    Introduction: The dental post graduate students are under continuous stress to achieve the impeccable standards expected by the trainers. Lack of time management can lead to procrastination of academic and clinical tasks that ultimately could impact their academic performance. The aim this study to assess the level of procrastination among dental post graduate students in Andhra Pradesh, India. Material and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 2 months from August to September 2013 among dental post graduate students of nine different specialities in Andhra Pradesh, India.Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Finally data was collected to assess the participant’s academic performance by collecting their under graduate academic grades. Results: There was higher representation of dental post graduate students from department of oral pathology in higher procrastinators category (28.57%) and most of the subjects from department of orthodontics were in lower procrastinators category (31.3%).As the age increased the level of procrastination decreased. Majority of the subjects aged ≥28 years were identified as low procrastinators (33.3%). Overall 15.94% of dental post-graduates who were considered high procrastinators had below average under graduate academic grades. 17.64%of dental post-graduates who were considered low procrastinators had above average under graduate academic grades. Conclusion: There was an inverse relation between the level of procrastination and academic performance indicating that dental post graduates who were considered high procrastinators had below average under graduate academic grades.

  247. Vadivelan, K. and Rajeshwari Hariharan

    Objective: The combined intervention stratergies of electrical stimulation along with splinting to decrease neural and non-neural components of hypertonicity on hand functions in spastic cerebral palsy can be appropriated. Methodology: STUDY DESIGN- Quasi-experimental, pre-test and post-test design, STUDY SETTING- Physiotherapy department in hospitals, clinics, special schools and subjects residences, SAMPLESIZE- 20 subjects, STUDYDURATION- 3months, STUDY POPULATION- Spastic Hemiplegic children, SAMPLING METHOD- Simple Random Sampling. Procedure: The subjects with spasticity hand is graded by passive movements using modified ashworth scale. The ranges of motion both active and passive are noted down. The level of hand functions using jebsen taylor hand functions test is also noted. Conclusion: The combined effect of ES and splinting showed more beneficial improvement than ES alone on hand functions in Spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy children.

  248. Vadivelan, K. Aparna, A. and Sivakumar, V.P.R.

    Objective: To find out the mobility limitations in children with cerebral palsy. Design: The study design is non-experimental, observational type. Settings: This study was conducted at Paediatric clinics in and around Chennai. Procedure: The subjects were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and informed consent was taken from their parents. MOBQUES28 questionnaire was measured for mobility limitations in daily life of the child. Results: According to the MOBQUES 28 questionnaire the mobility limitations of each child has been assessed and dependency rate for the different age group was found. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a significant mobility limitations among the children with Spastic Diplegic cerebral palsy and the dependency level is also significantly high in and around environmental activities among cerebral palsy children.

  249. Crispin Gency, A., Vadivelan, K. and Sivakumar, V.P.R.

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of additional sensorimotor stimulation on the motor and functional recovery of hemiplegic arm in acute stroke. Design: Experimental design, randomized controlled design Settings: The study was conducted at St. Thomas Hospital K.P Hospital. Procedure: 30 Subjects diagnosed with acute stroke having recovery hemiplegic arm were taken into the study and divided into two groups, one group is controlled where as other was an experimental group. Results: The significant difference between the pre-test and post-test control group and experimental group in Fugl Meyer was P<0.05. The significant difference between the Post-test of both the control and experimental group of Fugl Meyer was P<0.05. The significant difference between the pre-test and post-test control as well as in Action Research Arm Test was P<0.05. Conclusion: The study concludes that there was significant improvement of motor activity in both groups between pre and post sessions. The results of the subjects who participated in experimental group have shown good motor recovery than control groups.

  250. Dr. Mayur Das, Vadivelan, K. and Sivakumar, V. P. R.

    Objectives: To compare the effect of subscapularis soft tissue mobilization and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on glenohumeral external rotation in periarthritis shoulder. Design: Comparitive study of quasi experimental design Settings: The study was conducted in SRM Medical Hospital& Research Center, Kattankulathur. Procedure: Subjects diagnosed with periarthritis shoulder are divided into two groups, the treatment for one group was given with subscapular soft tissue mobilization and other with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on glenohumeral external rotation. Results: There was significant difference in subscapular soft tissue mobilization and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on glenohumeral external rotation on periarthritis shoulder between the groups P<0.000. Conclusion: The study concluded that there was a significant reduction of pain and improvement of glenohumeral external rotation range of motion of both groups.

  251. Suresh Jothi, Vadivelan, K. Nageswara Rao, K. and Sivakumar, V.P.R.

    Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a progressive and disabling condition defined by chronic airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. Urinary incontinence is a common health problem in general population. Dysponea is a common feature that has been described in association with impaired sphincter control in some patients. Chronic cough is another symptom that places increased stress on the pelvic floor and may affect urinary incontinence. Objective: To identify urinary incontinence in male with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and men without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Design: Case Control study. Setting: SRM Medical College Hospital and Research centre. Paricipants: Men with COPD (n=50) and men without COPD (n=50). Interventions: Validated Questionnaire to identify the prevalence of Urinary Incontinence. Main Outcome Measures: Prevalence of urinary incontinence using a Questionnaire - International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ UI SF). Results: Comparing the age criteria 50-60years and 60-70years there is no much significant difference between men with COPD and men without COPD. According to ICIQ-SF questionnaire the prevalence of urinary incontinence is more in men with COPD (28/50, 56.0%) compared with men without COPD (9/50, 18.0%). Conclusion: Urinary incontinence is more prevalent in men with COPD than in men without COPD.

  252. Vadivelan, K., Venkatachalapathy, S. and Sivakumar, V.P.R.

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of various relaxation intervals of the modified contract-relax technique on passive knee extension range of motion in healthy adults. Design: Quasi-experimental and Pre & Post-test type. Setting: The study was conducted at SRM Medical Hospital & Research Center, Kattankulathur. Procedure: 30 Subjects of healthy college students are divided into three groups and given with various relaxation intervals of the modified contract-relax technique on passive knee extension range of motion. Results: There was significant difference between the groups of range of motion on passive knee extension and the value of P<0.001. Conclusion: The duration of the relaxation interval affects gains in ROM when applying modified contract-relax technique. Subjects using a 4 second relaxation interval achieved greater gains in passive knee extension ROM than those using either 0 or 8 second relaxation interval.

  253. Dr. Neha Liya Bipinchandra, Dr. Satyaprakash Shah, Dr. C. Sabarigirinathan, Dr. A. Minakshi and Dr. C. Selvamani

    Velopharyngeal inadequacies present since birth are typically associated with hypernasality in the speech, which can be dramatically affect the psychosocial life of the child. The constant connection between the oral and nasal cavities affects speech interpretation, produces hypernasality due to nasal air emission. The contact between the extended palate and tongue produces compensatory articulation. In such cases palatal lift prosthesis is recommended. This prosthesis is simple and efficient in controlling the nasal air leak. Concomitant speech therapy is necessary for patients receiving palatal lift. This paper presents a case of a child having palatal incompetency managed with the provisional palatal lift prosthesis (since there is only primary dentition for the support) and simultaneous speech therapy.

  254. Sud, R. and Sharma, V.

    Purpose: Despite many advancements in the management of glaucoma, trabeculectomy remains the mainstay of surgical management. Since ocular hyoptony and shallow anterior chamber in the early postoperative period and their resulting complications are found to be the main cause for reduction in visual acuity following trabeculectomy, our study was designed to compare the IOP reduction and anterior chamber depth along with bleb scores in patients undergoing trabeculectomy with conventional interrupted sutures vs releasable sutures. Methods: The prospective randomized study was conducted in 40 eyes of 37 patients with the diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma or primary angle closure glaucoma. The age of the patients in the study ranged from 40-69 years with a mean of 52.77+/-7.05 years. There were 14 males and 23 females in the study. A total of 40 eyes of 37 patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: Group A: 20 eyes undergoing trabeculectomy with conventional 10-0 nylon sutures and Group B: 20 eyes undergoing trabeculectomy with releasable 10-0 nylon sutures. All patients were kept on a regular follow up for a minimum period of3 months and postoperative assessment was done on day1, day 7, day 30 and day 90. Results: The mean IOP in the two groups was comparable at all postoperative visits (p>0.05). The mean percentage fall from preoperative IOP was comparable on follow up visits between the two groups. Bleb score was the lowest on first postoperative day in both the groups, progressively increasing over the period of follow up. There was no significant difference in the bleb score amongst the two groups in the initial postoperative period. Subsequently, by day 30, when the sutures had been released, Group B eyes had significantly better bleb scores than Group a (p=0.00). The mean central anterior chamber depth was lowest on the first postoperative day in both the groups, with significantly low CACD in group A(p=0.042). Subsequently, the mean CACD increased progressively in both the groups. Conclusion: Releasable suture technique is a simple and effective technique and should be considered as a safe and effective way to improve trabeculectomy outcomes.

  255. Ngegba, P. M., Enikuomehin, O. A., Afolabi, C. G., Akintokun, A. K., Egbontan, A. O. and Kanneh, S. K.

    Cercospora leaf spot diseases of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum is an important disease that has the potential to significantly reduce the economic value of the crop. A research was conducted to determine the incidence and severity of the disease in four groundnut accessions: ICIAR-19BT, NGB01293, NGB00157 and NGB01294 grown in Abeokuta. Field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extracts of these plants on incidence and severity of Cercospora leaf spot disease in split-plot fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance and means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at 5% level of probability. The results showed that groundnut accessions were infected by Cercospora leaf spot disease. Range of disease incidence was between 45.6% (NGB01293) and 63.4% (ICIAR-19BT) at 8 Weeks After Planting (WAP). Disease was “very severe” (rating 5.0 on a scale of 1-5) in NGB00157 relative to 4.67 (ICIAR-19B) and 4.0 (NGB01294) at 11 WAP. All tested aqueous extracts significantly (p ˂ 0.05) reduced the incidence and severity of Cercospora leaf spot disease on the field. Extract of C. odorata enhanced the lowest disease incidence (ranging from 15.0 to 10.0%) in the four accessions at 8 WAP while T. procumbens induced the lowest severity rating of 1.0 (on a scale of 1-5) in four accessions at 11 WAP. The study concluded that plant extracts can effectively control Cercospora leaf spot disease of groundnut and its causative organisms. However, T. diversifolia C. odorata and T. procumbens, should be used as a potential biocide in plant disease management, as they showed fungicidal and fungitoxic ability.

  256. Miguel, L. M., Mokondjimobe, E., Okiemy-Andissa, N., Diatewa, M., Moukassa, D., Longo-Mbenza, B. and Abena, A. A.

    Medicinal plants are an important source in the development of therapeutic strategies. Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) HJ. Lam (Burseraceae), a plant used for its alicamentary, medicinal properties and potential food, is one of this therapeutic arsenal. Phytochemical studies have revealed the presence of various chemical components that justify the diversity of medicinal indications attributed to this plant. The fruits of D.edulis are rich in fats, vitamins, protein and antioxidants. D.edulis present also antimicrobial, larvicidal, immunostimulating, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hypoglycemic potentiality. Psychopharmacological studies have demonstrated a psychotropic profile of antidepressants and anxiolytics of essential oil of the pulp of the fruit. This review providesdetails on chemical profile, medicinal potentials and pharmacological activities of this plant, that constitute a support for the development of new drugs.

  257. Dr. Sumedh Wasnik, Dr. Anita Ghodake and Dr. Tanuja Naik

    India has a rich heritage of its own culture since ancient time. It has given many invaluable things to the world. Ayurveda is one of the best gifts given by India. It is life as well as medical science being accepted globally. A chakra in Sanskrit means spinning wheel which symbolizes motion. The Sapta[seven] Chakras are explained in very different ways with respect to a grown up human body in yogic, tantric and psychic systems. A common system of chakras outline that there are 7 main energy vortices. A chakra is the place where nadis cross each other and create an energy spiral. The system of chakras have been associated with color, sounds, Elements, Orientation to Self, Consciousness, emotions, mind/body/spirits, Prana/Life force, Human characteristics, Spirituality, Herbs, Gemstones, planets and even deities. Hence Sapta chakras assume a mystic definition, interpreted differently and are in the domain of spiritualists mostly. Many scholars and researchers try to explain the system of chakras in many different ways ranging from religious to rational. Seven Stages of Growth (movement) of Child in Mother's womb which depict the stages of evolution of Universe, Sapta chakras depicts the stages of growth of a child in a mother's womb. Sapta Chakras/seven wheels/seven movements, actually depict the movement or growth of child in a mother's womb. The child moves from one stage to another and also moves physically inside the mother's womb. In fact it rotates inside the mother's womb. Hence the movement of child and the growth of the child can be denoted in a larger view as a chakra, symbolizing motion.

  258. Evaluation of nutrient status and development of fertilizer requirements for khasi mandarin (citrus reticulata blanco) grown in tamenglong district of manipur

    Extensive surveys were carried out covering as many as 40 orchards of Khasi mandarin in Thangal village of the sub-division Nungba under Tamenglong district in the year 2010-2011. Nutrient constraints in the form of N, P, Ca, Mg, Cu, and Zn were identified using these diagnostics which must find a due place in a fertilizer program of mandarin orchards of the region to obtain sustainable optimum fruit yield. The values of available nutrients viz., N, P, and K across 40 orchards varied from 92.2 to 348.2 mg/kg, 5.0 to 9.4 mg/kg, 110.0 to 440.1 mg/kg, respectively, with corresponding coefficient of variation (%) of 11.8, 9.2, and 16.4 respectively. Soil micronutrients showed a large variation of 11.2- 48.1 mg/kg Fe (CV 16.2%), 11.4-44.0 mg/kg Mn (CV 11.2%), 0.80-2.5 mg/kg Cu (CV 6.9%) and 0.50-2.8 mg/kg Zn (CV 7.4%). Leaf nutrient concentration like soil fertility showed a wide variation from 1.62-2.62 % N, 0.04-0.12% P, 0.72-1.89% K, 0.90-2.24% Ca and 0.28-0.61% Mg. Similarly, the micronutrients, namely Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn expressed in ppm, varied from 118.4-282.3, 32.3-92.4, 1.0-3.8 and 14.6-28.4. It was observed that maximum nutrients are removed (in mg/tree) in the proportion of 171.90 N, 17.19 P, 34.38 K, 68.76 Ca, 17.19 Mg, 0.34 Zn and 0.20 Cu in relation to an average mean fruit yield of 34.38 (kg/tree) by Khasi mandarin i.e. orchard no. 1. Minimum nutrients are removed (in mg/tree) in the proportion of : 113.75 N, 11.37 P, 22.75 K, 45.50 Ca, 11.37 Mg, 0.22 Zn and 0.13 Cu in relation to an average mean fruit yield of 22.75 (kg/tree) by Khasi mandarin i.e. orchard no. 9. These observations give an insight about the order in which, different nutrients are preferred by specific citrus cultivar, and the ratio in which different nutrients are removed. Such nutrient removal patterns are to be meted out in order to maintain the sustained supply of the nutrients through soil.

  259. Ndong Atome Guy Roger, Ngoua Meye Misso Rick-Leonid, Sima Obiang Cédric, Onanga Richard and Nkogue Mba Dieudonné

    Many studies showed that the presence of the germs, not diagnosed earlier were responsible for urogenital pathologies. This study was carried out in order to determine the frequency of certain germs of the urogenital tract of women. Several germs were identified as Klebsiella spp (17%), Pseudomonas (6%), Escherichia coli which is the majority germ 77% in the urine, fungi of the genus Candida especially Candida albicans (94%), Mycoplasma analysis has revealed the following rates; Mycoplasma hominis (36%), Ureaplasma urealyticum (44%) and also cases of co-infection Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. The overall prevalence of urogenital infections was 32.31% with predominance almost -égale between urinary tract infection (47.67%) and vaginitis (46%). Among the series of tests performed urinary infections detected by urine culture was the most frequent to 48.57% in the age group of 26 to 34 years. Analysis of microbial infections by age showed that Mycoplasma gradually increased from age 15 and beyond 36 years from 77% to 79.06%. Other minor infections were detected such as pseudomonas in 5.71 cases, and Chlamidia trachomatis 0.38%. The increasing resistance occurs against the usual antibiotics. Durable solutions need to be found to fight against all these germs implied in sexually transmissible diseases.

  260. Sangeeta Huidrom, Akshay karn and Narotam Sharma

    Human gut is home to trillions of microbes termed as gut microbiota which play a vital role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Evidences suggest that dysbiosis of gut microbiota is associated with pathogenesis of lifestyle diseases such as obesity and diabetes. During the last few decades the cases of type 2 diabetes is spreading worldwide affecting the health of an individual. Search for the novel therapeutic approached which is inexpensive and does not have side effects for the management of type 2 diabetes is required. The word “probiotic” comes from Greek language “pro bios” which means “for life” opposed to “antibiotics” and defined as those microbes which when ingested in certain amount gives beneficial health effect to the host.And the beneficial effects of probiotic on human health have been reported by various researchers. The cause of pathogenesis of diabetes is complex and it is caused by multiple risk factors. In this review the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of diabetes and modulation of gut microbiota by probiotic for the management of type 2 diabetes have been discussed.

  261. Jenny, K. and Pragash Raj, R.

    The present study aimed to analyze the length and weight relationship of Pearl spot Etroplus suratensis in Lower Anicut. The study area of Lower Anicut (110 15 N Latitude and 790 30' E Longitude) is one among the major fishing point in Cauvery river system in Tamil Nadu. The E.suratensis is one of the commercially important fish species of the family Cichlidae (Local name “Papai Meen”). A total of 120 specimens comprising of 60 males and 60 females were collected and analyzed during the period of November 2015 to October 2016. The fishes ranged in length from 84 mm to 212 mm of male and 82 mm to 196 mm of female, weight ranged from 15g to 260g of male, 18 g to 208 g for female. The results of length and weight relationship of 120 specimens of r2 value is 0.752 and 0.926 of male, 0.557 of females respectively. The r 2 values of male are higher than females and it shows allometric growth of both sexes. The slope value was compared here could be very useful for comparison with the freshwater species in other geographical locations.

  262. Andrey M. Zemskov, Veronika A. Zemskova, Vladimir M. Zemskov, Elena V. Enkova, ZoyaA. Vorontsova and Natalia I. Ponomareva

    Was studed and analized the changes in immune reactivity during pregnancy, the mechanisms of fetal rejection inhibition, immune infertility formation, toxicosis, the peculiarities of bacterial, viral, protozoal infections in pregnant women and puerperas and the principles of their treatment

  263. Ramachandra Kumar, M.R., Ravikumar, S. and Janarthanam, B.

    The aim of study was to examine the phytochemical screening, total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity fromseed and callus extracts of Mucuna pruriens. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of active ingredients such as Tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and coumarins in the callus extract of Mucuna pruriens followed by seed extract. Gallic acid (GA), Quercetin (Q) and Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) were taken as standard in case of total phenol and Flavonoid and antioxidant activity respectively. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were quantitatively estimated which recorded maximum in callus extract of Mucuna pruriens17.25±45 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/g and 8.26 ± 0.55 mg and QuercetinEquivalents (QE)//g). The seed and callus extracts were evaluated for antioxidant activities by DPPH (1, 1– Diphenyl -2- picryl - hydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. Among five different extracts used, maximum antioxidant activity was found in the ethanolic callus extract (91.34 ± 1.0%) of Mucuna pruriens followed by seed extract (90.5 ±30%). The powerful antioxidant activity is attributed to the greater amount of total phenols and flavonoids compound in the ethanolic callus extracts of Mucuna pruriens.

  264. Karma Bako Rimamcwe, Chavan, U. D., Dalvi, U. S. and Gaikwad, R. S.

    The Roselle seeds were procured from the local market. The following pre-treatments where adopted for Roselle seeds, Un-sprouted Whole Roselle Seeds Flour (UWRSF); Un-sprouted Decorticated Roselle Seed flour (UDRSF); Sprouted Whole Roselle Seed Flour (SWRSF); Sprouted Decorticated Roselle Seed Flour (SDRSF). These treated Roselle seed flour then used for preparation of cookies. From the preliminary studies 15 % inclusion as the best treatment of Roselle seed flour for cookie production was finalized. The results for cookie nutritional values shows an improvement in proximate composition and reduction in total carbohydrate due to the enhancement in cookie protein value with a health benefit of reducing diabetes due to reduced spike in glucose when cookie is consumed. There was also an improvement in macro minerals magnesium, calcium, potassium and phosphorus critical for the sustenance of body functions and overall health. In addition, there was an improvement in amino and fatty acid profile of the cookie product suggesting it could serve as a health food.

  265. Ravi Guguloth, Balaji Guguloth Ravinder Banoth and Srinu Rathlavath

    Community managed fisheries handovers of the management of fisheries resources to community groups and they will manage the resources sustainably and equitably. Handing over fisheries management to community groups secures access to fisheries resources for those people whose lives depend on them i.e. the poor fishers. Adopting CBFM has more advantages to the fisher communities. Fisheries management strategy varies depending on the factors such as caste specific, gear specific and species specific. This article discusses the comparisons of Padu systems in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Sri Lanka. CBFM is the best way to protect the ecosystem and fish stocks for the future, but the main reason for the community problems is that there is no rules and regulation while going for fishing , because of individuals are going several times for fishing, likewise the communities are not maintain proper rules and regulations. It is leading to favors for few community people, so that we have to aware the community people about the managerial aspects than only we can solve these problems. A brief comparison of the approaches adopted for fisheries management in different parts of the world (presented in the following tabular form) clearly demonstrates the advantages of community managed fisheries approach.

  266. Dr. Kumaresan, M.

    The fastness properties of the flower of Thespesia populnea dyed silk fabric have been studied using different combination (1:3,1:1 and 3:1) of various mordants, such as myrobolan:nickel sulphate, myrobolan: aluminium sulphate, myrobolan: potassium dichromate, myrobolan: ferrous sulphate and myrobolan:stannous chloride. The wash, rub, light and perspiration fastness of the dyed samples have been evaluated. Comparing thefastness properties and colour strength of flower of Thespesia populnea dyed silk by using combination of mordants. In the comparative study of fastness properties and colour strength of the dyed silk samples Thespesia populnea in simultaneous mordanting method with 1 : 3 mordant combination gives better results.

  267. Kaviya, S., Mary Dorothy Anitha Sebastian and D. Sudarsanam

    A preliminary analysis of the proteases from the seeds of Momordica charantia and Vicia faba has been performed. The study has revealed that Momordica charantia and Vicia faba seed extracts show protease activities of 3.9024 and 6.708 U/mg, respectively, and specific activities of 0.1904 and 0.2178. This study showed that protease activity is higher in Vicia faba extract. The protease from Momordica charantia seeds showed maximum activity at a temperature of 40℃ and the protease from Vicia faba seeds showed maximum activity at a temperature of 60℃ when the activities were studied at 20℃, 40℃, 60℃ and 80℃.

  268. Jane Alexander Ruley, Alice Amonding, Tumuhairwe, J. B., Basamba, T. and Oryem-Origa, H.

    Crude oil activities lead to soil contamination with hydrocarbons, this drastically affects normal functioning of the soil and result in nutritional constraints; thus, negatively affect plant growth, and low productivity. These studies were objectively incepted to determine the effects of crude oil on soil properties and spatial distribution of plant species in oil production sites in South-Sudan. Soil samples were taken at two depths of 0-30cm and 30-60cm within 1m2 quadrats located at different distances of 0-1km (drilled-land); 5km (Cultivated land) and 50km (natural-land). The soil samples were analyzed for Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and physicochemical properties; also herbaceous plant species were counted and identified within the same quadrats. Results showed that surface and subsurface soils in the drilled lands were highly contaminated with TPHs. Locations 5Km away from the drilled wells were also contaminated with hydrocarbons when compared to the critical limits of Sudan of 5000mg kg-1 soil and the Canada-Wide Standard of 5600mg kg-1 soil for petroleum hydrocarbons. Similarly, all the soil chemical properties analyzed deteriorated with increasing TPHs concentration. Therefore, land use change from natural to oil exploration without proper management leads to reduction in soil fertility, rendering the soil unsuitable for agricultural productivity purposes. Concentrations of hydrocarbon contaminants call for urgent need for remedial treatments as a strategy to rejuvenate soils of the Sudd region. In drilled lands the dominant plant species were, Sorghum arundinaceum, Oryza longistaminata, Hyparrhenia rufa, Nicotiana tabacum, Gossypium barbadense and Abelmoschus ficulneus. The abundance of such plant species in the crude oil drilled lands support the assertion that, they are tolerant to hydrocarbons. However, these plant species need testing for their ability and efficiency to accelerate hydrocarbon degradation, thereafter be used as phyto-remediators to eliminate the threat to soil fertility and plant diversity in the world's biggest wetlands, the Sudd in South-Sudan.

  269. Dr. Siddhi S. Tendulkar, Anagha S. Kale, Dr. Ujwal L. Yeole and Dr. Rajiv K Singhamoney

    Background: Many people who have had a stroke report an impaired health status because of a reduced level of activity. Components of yoga therapy offer a gentle alternative exercise program that can be easily adapted for people who have had a stroke. Aim and objective: To examine the effect of yoga based exercise program on patients with survived hemi paresis. Methodology: The study was aimed to see the effect of yoga based exercise programme on patients with survived hemi paresis. Both males and females were included between age group of 30 to 65 years. Out of 30 there were 19 males and 11 females. The maximum no. of patients werein the age group of 46-50 years with 33%. Two outcome measures were used to find out improvement in the balance (berg balance scale) and quality of life (stroke impact scale) Results: The pre measures of berg balance scale was 23.36±7.70, post mean was 35.83±7.05 and P value was <0.0001 which was considered extremely significant. The pre measures of stroke impact scale was 169.57±20.67, post mean was 229.57±13.25. And P value was <0.0001 which was considered extremely significant Conclusion: From the above study it is proved that yoga based exercises are helpful in improving balance and quality of life in patients with hemi paresis.

  270. Silvia López Alonso

    Lifestyle accelerates or slows down the involution of physical, physiological and psychological conditions that lead people to old age. In this respect, the search for actions promoting wellbeing in the aging process has led us to promote healthy and healthy life skills that encourage people over 50 years of age (P +50) to have an open and positive mentality favouring self-concept, self-esteem and autonomy; to promote good posture habits acquired from ergonomics for optimal use of resources from one's own body.

  271. Tahira Ashraf, Dr. Suhail Majid Jan and Dr. Roobal Behal

    Introduction: Periodontal disease, a destructive inflammatory disease of supporting tissues of teeth, is caused by plaque bacteria. Periodontal infections manifest not only in periodontium but also cause systemic implications in otherwise healthy individuals as evidenced by raised levels of various serum inflammatory markers. Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare the changes in lipid profile and fasting blood glucose levels of a group of patients with chronic generalized gingivitis, chronic generalized periodontitis following scaling and root planning to a control group with healthy periodontium not receiving periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: 45 subjects were included in the study. Subjects were assigned into three groups :- 15 subjects with healthy periodontium (Group A) in which only oral hygiene instructions were given, 15 Subjects in chronic generalized gingivitis(Group B) and 15 Subjects in chronic generalized periodontitis (Group C) in which scaling and root planing was performed. Data was analysed by Paired t-test. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In Group C a statistically significant decrease in levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and fasting blood glucose levels was seen after treatment. A statistically significant increase in HDL-cholesterol level was seen. No statistically significant changes were seen in Group A and Group B. Conclusions: Chronic generalized periodontitis patients showed improvement in the metabolic parameters after the treatment. Thus chronic periodontitis in otherwise healthy individuals may be considered to increase systemic inflammatory burden thus adversely effecting serum lipid and glucose levels.

  272. Koji Hori, Misa Hosoi, Kimiko Konishi, Michiho Sodenaga, Hiroi Tomioka and Mitsugu Hachisu

    There is no convention or rule to select one of three cholinesterase inhibitors, i.e., donepezil (D), galantamine (G) and rivastigmine (R) for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, in this article we will give our considerations regarding the differentiations of prescription among these three medicines based on the clinical symptoms and biological markers.In clinical points of view, prescription D is good for AD patients at mild cognitive impairment. At mild stage, when prominence of apathy, R should be prescribed and for those showing depression, anxiety, delusion, hallucination and aggressiveness, G should be prescribed. In biological points of view, with plasm brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) contents and plasma cholinesterase (p-ChE) activity, we speculate that there might be critical values in both plasma BDNF contents and p-ChE activity in ADsymptoms. Therefore, we also speculate that G should be prescribedat patients with low plasma BDNF orR with high p-ChE.

  273. Dr. Jyoti N Shinde and Dr. Sonal H. Raut

    Faecal Incontinence is the inability to control bowel movements, causing feces to leak unexpectedly from the rectum. Also called Bowel Incontinence, Faecal Incontinence ranges from an occasional leakage of stool while passing gas to complete loss of bowel control. Most common cause of faecal incontinence is damage to the anal sphincter or their nerves. Normally the rectum stretches to hold stool until one can get to toilet. But after the ano-rectal surgery, there is a scarring that makes the walls of the rectum stiff, fibrous and less elastic. The rectum then can’t stretch as much and can’t hold stool resulting in faecal incontinence. Also injury to the nerves that sense the stool in the rectum or those that has control on the anal sphincters can lead to Faecal Incontinence. Many patients feel embarrassed about bowel incontinence and most of them didn’t tell their problem to the consulting doctor. But incontinence can be treated successfully. Maintaining proper diet with high fibre intake, avoiding meat, alcohol, caffeine, fatty, fried, oily and spicy foods, bowel retaining and pelvic floor exercises including Mool Bandha described in Yoga to make the anal and pelvis muscles stronger and proper treatment can help most patients gain normal control of the bowels If the treatment does not work, surgery may help correct the problem. There are several types of procedures. The choice of surgery is based on the cause of the incontinence and the patient's general health.

  274. Sowmeya, S., Kannan, M. and Ranjana, P.

    Marigold is one of the important crop used as loose flower throughout the country. The area and importance of the marigold is getting increased due to the xanthophyll content which increases the colour of the egg yolk in poultry industry. To enhance the productivity of marigold round the year, a study was initiated. The experiment was conducted to study the role of environmental conditions in flowering of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) under polyhouse condition during three seasons (June- July, September- October and January- February) in three marigold varieties (L3 hybrid V1, Pusa Narangi Gainda V2 and Nilakkottai Local V3). There was a significant increase in plant spread (27.67, 24.36 and 26.84 cm) during September – October in all the three varieties of marigold viz., V1, V2 and V3 respectively. This is due to the favourable microclimate persisting in the polyhouse, especially during winter months. Increased single flower weight (8.24g) and increased yield of flowers (346.08 g) were recorded during September – October under polyhouse in L3 hybrid marigold. Polyhouse showed the highest number of harvests (9.00, 8.66 and 9.00) in all the three varieties of marigold viz., V1, V2 and V3 respectively. This is due to the favourable condition prevailing under polyhouse that accelerates the flower production which is not possible in open conditions during winter. This increase may be due to an increase in the soil temperature, light intensity and humidity under polyhouse that results to increase in leaf area and plant spread which ultimately leads to increased flower production during September- October. Hence off season marigold production is enhanced under polyhouse condition.

  275. Ananth, Thangamathi, Wilson, Lavanya and Gnanasoundari

    Seaweed are marine macroscopic algae which forms an important component of marine living ecosystem. Being a plant of unique structure and biochemical composition, seaweed could be exploited for its multi-functional properties in the form of food, energy, medicine and cosmetics. The review summarizes a literature review on the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical properties of chlorophyta, Ulva fasciata.

  276. Dharmendra Kumar, Vandita Kandpal and Sonu Khanka

    Importance of exogenous application of vitamin E in the acceleration of Cr elemination in the liver function have been discussed in the present investigation. Developing chicks (100±20 gm body weight, 2-3 weeks old) were used as experimental animals. Present investigation revealed that deposition of Cr in all tissues affect the proper function of liver. Liver specific function defence offered by protective influence of vitamin E may be channelized through different mechanism. Vitamin E not only restricted the detoxification but also improved the liver functions. High concentration of Cr was determined in Cr treated chicks. Selective prefrences for chromium was shown by vitamin E for maintaining optimal serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase – SGOT (AST), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase – SGPT (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Vitamin E appreciably improve the detoxication ability of liver. SGOT, SGPT and ALP were significantly increased in chicks treated with chromium compared to normal control group. Chicks treated with vitamin E along with Cr, shows significant decrease in SGOT, SGPT and ALP activity compared to Cr treated chicks where it was high. Hence, elevation in SGOT, SGPT and ALP could be due to biotransformation of heavy metals in liver leading to hepatic injury. This injury may be decreased by the supplimentation of vitamin E in laboratory chicks.

  277. Sanmugapriya, L., Kalpana, R. and Sowmeya, S.

    A field experiment was conducted to find out the effect of spacing and fertilizer doses on HCN content of multi-cut forage sorghum at TNAU, Coimbatore during Kharif, 2016. The experiment was laid out in split plot design replicated thrice using SPV2242 as the test variety. The treatments consisted of four different spacings (30 x 10 cm, 30 x 15 cm, 30 x 20 cm and 30 x 25 cm) along with three fertilizer doses (75% RDF, 100% RDF and 125% RDF). In addition, recommended application of FYM @ 25 t/ha was followed. The lower HCN content was recorded in 30 x 10 cm spacing (83.7, 79.6 and 77.4 ppm at first, second and third cut, respectively). With regard to fertilizers, application of 75% RDF recordedthe lower HCN content (110.8, 100.2 and 91.7 ppm) at first, second and third cut of multicut forage sorghum. The results revealed that increased plant populationwith lowest rate of fertilizer application decreases the HCN content of multicut forage sorghum and it improves the fodder quality.

  278. Christina, K. J., Balwin Nambikkairaj, Umasankar, K. and Ramya, D. R.

    Liver is a solid glandular organ made up of hepatic lobules separated from one another by connective tissue. Each lobe consists of a mass of polyhedral hepatic cells, which are glandular in appearance containing spherical nuclei. A network of blood vessels pierces the lobules. The hepatic cells are arranged in longitudinal cords. It has a gall bladder and secretes bile. Liver is the major metabolic centre and any damage to this organ would subsequently lead to so many physiological disturbances. In the present study antineoplastic effect of Syzygium aromaticum and Rosa damascena essential oils on ethanol induced liver toxicity in male wistar rats were carried out. From the results it is evident that the administration of N-nitrosodiethylamine considerably reduced the protein, non enzyme antioxidants such as glutathione, vitamins C and E, and enzymatic antioxidants such glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. All the values are statistically significant.

  279. Seçil EKER, Gökhan AYDINLI and Sevilhan MENNAN

    The most widely spreading nematode species is rice white tip nematode (Aphelenchoides besseyi) causing economic losses in rice production areas in Turkey. It was aimed to determine the distribution and population density of rice white tip nematode in rice growing areas of Samsun, Sinop, Çorum, and Kastamonu as a first time in this study. For this purpose, in August 2009, rice samples were collected by making systematic sampling from 102 areas where rice production was made in Samsun, Sinop, Çorum and Kastamonu provinces in Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. The Whitehead tray method was used to determine the nematodes in the laboratory samples. As a result of the laboratory studies, 7 of 102 samples were found to be infested with different population levels of rice white nematode. Kastamonu province was the highest infected with 13,3%, while Sinop, Samsun, and Çorum were found as 8,33%, 5,88% and 4,54% infested respectively. When considering the population density of sampling areas where nematode is detected, it is observed that Laçin county (Çorum provinces) was the densest with 18 nematodes and Osmancık (Çorum) with 13 nematodes per 100 g of paddy seed.

  280. Dr. Ruchir Jain, Mr. Arjun Singh Gurjar and Mr. Suresh Bisen

    Self-monitoring of glucose levels with a hand-held glucometer is very popular among the diabetic patients and doctors as it is less traumatic and gives instant results. Capillary blood samples are commonly used for self-monitoring in comparison to venous plasma sample which are used in the diagnostic laboratories. Aims: This study was done to compare the glucose levels of a capillary blood sample determined by a glucometer with the glucose level determined by Glucose Oxidase Peroxidase (GOD-POD) method using a venous plasma sample. Methods and Material: Two hundred patients were randomly selected for the study. Their venous blood samples were collected in a fluoride containing blood collection tube. The plasma obtained was subjected to GOD-POD test. Simultaneously their capillary blood glucose was also determined by a glucometer. Statistical analysis used: The data collected was analyzed using SPSS 17.0 version. Data was expressed as mean ± SD. Significance of mean was analyzed using paired t test. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Result: Glucose levels determined by a glucometer and GOD-POD method showed very good correlation (r=0.928; p<0.001). However, at very high and low glucose levels, the glucometer significantly under estimated (p=0.708 and over-estimated (p<0.001) the glucose levels respectively. Conclusion: Although glucometers are effective for routine monitoring of glucose levels, they should be used cautiously in emergency conditions.

  281. Venkata Naga Baji Tokala and Dr. Pankaj Gupta

    The corrosion inhibition of Neem, Azadirachta indica (AZI) leaves extract as a green inhibitor of zinc corrosion in H2SO4 has been studied using the gravimetric method. The results of the study reveal that the different concentrations of the AZI extract inhibit zinc corrosion and that inhibition efficiency of the extract varies with concentration and temperature.

  282. Rawat, K.S. and Sandeep Chauhan

    Takano [1967] have studied decomposition of curvature tensor in a recurrent space. Sinha and Singh [1970] have been studied and defined decomposition of recurrent curvature tensor field in a Finsler space. Singh and Negi studied decomposition of recurrent curvature tensor field in a Kaehlerian space. Negi and Rawat [1995] have studied decomposition of recurrent curvature tensor field in Kaehlerian space. Rawat and Silswal [2007] studied and defined decomposition of recurrent curvature tensor fields in a Tachibana space. Further, Rawat and Kunwar Singh [2008] studied the decomposition of curvature tensor field in Kaehlerian recurrent space of first order. In the present paper, we have studied the decomposition of curvature tensor fields R_ijk^h in terms of two non-zero vectors and a tensor field in Einstein-Kaehlerian recurrent space of first order and several theorem have been established and proved.

  283. Mohammed Imtiaz Zahid

    Lead Generation, Email Marketing, Data scrapping, Data Mining, Data Integration, Machine Learning, Relational Data Base using Azure and Probability is not single methods but when they are well combination then they can build a serious strong part for a company's revenue and perform to build strongest foundation for next 100 years milestone. Yes I am talking about the revenue since 2011 till 2017 actually in 2013 the revenue was $18.6 bn and now it reached to $45.3 bn in just 3 years. It would be an pleasant surprise for all entrepreneur and Big Data specialist to know about Money making by Big Data that will touch $50.1 bn in the year of 2017 in June to July according to wiki born.

  284. Mayyada AL Hammoshi

    Internet of Things (IoT) became an essential tool nowadays in every practical or scientific field. IoT connects intelligently fixed or mobile devices, moving objects or even animals in one network. These devices may need physical resources or services over the cloud. IoT defined as a network that connects physical objects to interact with each other for to perform information sharingand to take an action. IoT offers services as well. Connected objects over IoT are identified by unique address on the network and supported with the ability to transfer data over a network without human or computer interaction. IoT has wide and growing scope of applications starts from smart home passing all the way to smart city, smart grids, intelligent fire-fighting, government, environment ending with smart farming. In this paper, a comprehensive study is done for resources management process done by researchers with a detailed explanation for IoT top providers like IBM Watson, Google and Amazonplatforms. The study encompasses IoTthings management for these three providers then concluded thatthe three providers have different design principles, algorithm modeling, data location requirements and type of services. However, they have almost the same pricing per service.

  285. Sheikh Abdul Qadir, Atul Singh, Amit Dhaka and Mitali Kandalgaonkar

    This paper proposes the study of a method to implement a new technique regarding using polystyrene in construction of structure wall for housing which includes not only construction of bungalow but also building upto four floors as well as row houses whichever is necessary. This technique comes handy since polystyrene panels which contains two set of galvanizing welded mesh where vertical mesh forming waves result in creating reinforced concrete micropillars once the panel is coated with concrete (this technique has been used successfully to reinforce historic or artistic buildings). It is a system which is used to construct storey upto G+3 with single panel and multiple storey with double panel but it is yet to be tested according to Building Codes.

  286. Osunbor, O. C. and Ezechukwu, O. A.

    This paper presents a simple guide to conducting feasibility study for a proposed electrical power substation. The concept of feasibility study is described, generally. The paper also describes what a substation is. Thereafter, the paper presents a prototype procedure for conducting a substation feasibility study.

  287. Osunbor, O. C. and Ezechukwu, O. A.

    This paper presents a study of transformer monitoring and load tap-changer control. Earlier control schemes were the “paralleling balancer”, the “master/follower” and the “circulating current” schemes. These schemes had their drawbacks. The scheme as presented in this paper is implemented using programmable logic, math functions and IEC 61850 communications over fiber-optic Ethernet. The presented scheme achieves ease and speed of installation, a more integrated system with less field using, minimal control cable runs and terminations and minimal overall installation time. With SCADA control accomplished over a DNP3 loop, need for electromechanical switches is eliminated. The LTC control was field tested on three parallel 230/115KV autotransformers on the Santee Cooper system.

  288. Nafisa A. Elgazali, Mohammad Abdel Karim, Asma H. Mohamed and Abdelmonem M. Abdellah

    In this study the phenolics of two medicinally important plants were investigated. Ethanol. The phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract of the leaves indicated the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and terpenoids. The crude extract was subjected to thin layer chromatography and column chromatography to give compounds I. The structure of compound I was elucidated by a combination of spectral techniques (UV, 1HNMR and MS) and the following tentative structures were proposed:

  289. Raviprakash, S. Chandra, Dhruvi R. Mehta and Maisuria, M. M.

    The complexation reactions between 18-crown-6 (18C6) with La3+, Ce3+, Pr3+ and Nd3+ cations were studied in acetonitrile-water (AN-H2O) binary solvent systems at different temperatures by the conductometric method. In all the cases, 18C6 forms a 1:1 complex with La3+, Ce3+, Pr3+ and Nd3+ cations. The results show that the selectivity order of 18C6 for the metal cations in AN–H2O binary solvent systems at 298.15 K is : La3+>Ce3+> Pr3+ >Nd3+. The values of stability constants of complexes, which were obtained from conductometric data, show that the stability of complexes is affected by the nature and composition of the binary mixed solvents. The corresponding thermodynamic parameters (∆H, ∆S and ∆G) were obtained from the temperature dependence of the stability constants using van’t Hoff plots. The results show that the values and also the sign of these parameters are influenced by the nature and composition of the mixed solvents.

  290. Hina and Nidhi Sharma

    In this paper we have listed the importance of edge computing and what are the challenges to adapt edge computing. Edge Computing is one of the growing technologies these days. Internet of Things is the concept of Edge Computing where we connect daily used devices to the internet so that we can operate these devices from remote locations.

  291. Abid Ali , Rawid Khan, Safeer Ullah Khattak and Syed Hamza Mustafa

    The investigation of the main factors affecting pavement deterioration is of paramount importance as by effectively addressing the causes, remedial measures can be initiated to control the early pavement deterioration in the local road network. It has been found that the major causes of pavement deterioration are structural factors which are interlinked with excessive traffic and loading. Moreover, the sub soil factors and drainage conditions also affect the pavement condition considerably. The concept of Remaining Service Life is used for prediction of the residual time for which a pavement section will remain serviceable. The trends of the distress types propagation, Pavement Condition Index and Remaining Service Life gives prediction about the future state of pavement deterioration. Now a days most of the highway authorities are using Falling Weight Deflectometer for the evaluation of the structural capacity of the pavement sections which can be further used to devise the rehabilitation strategies and ultimately funding requirements for maintaining roads in optimum condition.

  292. Mohan B. S.

    Roles and responsibility of any teaching fraternity is changing from time to time. Change is implemented in delivering a lecture from black board to smart board for students. In this process, a faculty has to prepare and maintain a set of documents which are compiled as course file (CF) or academic file. The important document in any CF are, lesson plan (LP), continuous internal evaluation (CIE), CIE analysis (CIE-A), corrective action and preventive action (CAPA). These documents are essential from students and faculties perspective. The time required for the preparation of documents can be reduced and a faculty can utilize his/her time to enhance their knowledge/skills/address to student's issues.

  293. Rajesh, Anirban Goswami and Ishtiyaque Alam

    Introduction: Shara Muzmin (Chronic Urticaria (CU) is a common skin disorder characterized by the recurrent appearance of wheals and/or angioedema for more than 6 weeks. The Urticaria Activity Score (UAS) score is commonly used to assess the CU disease activity. CU signs & symptoms affect a wide range of daily activities, from personal care to sleep/rest, work performance, and social relationships. The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) assesses QOL parameters across several types of dermatologic conditions. Objective: Aims of this study was to determine the association between UAS and DLQI in different follow-ups of patients and improvement UAS and DLQI. Compare change trajectories across all time points (follow-ups) simultaneously between UAS and DLQI using latent class growth models (LCGM). Methods: In this study 29 patients were registered for protocol and used to calculate UAS and DLQI over the time points. Unani pharmacopoeial formulation Qurs Asfar 775mg was given twice daily with water after meals for the period of two weeks. Simple regression model used to determine the association between UAS and DLQI in different follow-ups of patients and improvement, r2 (Pearson) values used to assess the validity of symptom scores and how strong association of them. Latent Class Growth Model (LCGM) used to find individual trajectories of change, allowing correlation of patterns of changes between multiple outcome measures across multiple time points simultaneously. Result: The UAS values were found to positively associated and significantly with DLQI values (r2 = 0.31, P< 0.01) at before stating of this study. UAS values were found to positively associated and significantly with DLQI values (r2 = 0.33, P< 0.01) at 1st follow-up. UAS values were found to highly positively associated and significantly with DLQI values (r2 = 0.72, P< 0.01) at 2nd follow-up. Percentage improvement in UAS values were found to highly positively associated and significantly with DLQI values (r2 = 0.72, P< 0.01). LCGM for A single quadratic trajectory model was found for UAS over the time points using LCGM and two quadratic trajectory model DLQI. Conclusion: The study conclusion that impact of the disease state on a patient’s life: improvements in signs and symptoms, as measured by the UAS, were reflected in improvements in DLQI. The latent class growth models shows that the daily average urticarial activity over seven days and the DLQI over time points are nearly identical.

  294. Santosh Kumar Nayak

    Here, attempts have been taken to focus on the post-independence political state of Odisha as the milieu-cum-stimulus of the legendry poem Kaalapurusha written by Guruprasad Mohanty. Though he had written this poem under the influence of The Waste Land of T.S. Eliot, the best ever poem of twentieth century still it is true that every writer is present in his every work. With these words of Hugo, we can draw a conclusion that Guruprasad during the translation of The Waste Land has unconsciously or consciously put himself into the beaker with the anabolic reaction for forming the poem and stirred thoroughly to mix well during its genesis. This implies that the poem Kaalapurusha has been manufactured with the blood and flesh of the poet; his time and environment. Again, the most momentous environmental factor of the poem is the socio-political factor for which we see certain active genetic behaviors are there in it. The typical behaviors of the characters may be traced in this light. Being political by nature and since we are born to be political beings the attitude and influence both will be there in a literary creation.

  295. Prathap, I., Vasudeva Reddy, C., Sashidhar, C. and Venkata Ramana, N. p

    This article presents the flexural behaviour of basalt fibre reinforced recycle aggregate concrete. The natural aggregate is replaced by the recycle aggregate in the proportion of 0,25,50,75 and 100%. The basalt fibres used for the concrete with dosage of 4kg/m3. Total ten mixes are taken for experimental work among them, 5 mixes with basalt fibres and other 5 mixes without basalt fibres. In addition to flexure, cube and split tensile strengths are evaluated for concrete mixes. For obtained flexural strength results, regression models are developed to estimate the flexural strength as function of cube compressive strength and % of basalt fibres. The results showed that the flexure strength is increased up to 50% RAC and for later replacements (75 and 100%) the flexural strengths are decreased. By adding the basalt fibres for various mixes, the strengths are increased and more effectiveness observed for 50% RAC.

  296. Luís Henrique Gonçalves de Aguiar and Marcus Vinícius Carvalho Guelpeli

    This paper proposes the use of the Cassipeia model as a new method for evaluating automatic summaries. Summary evaluation is an important task in the field of automatic text summarization, of which the most intuitive approach is conducted by human assessment. However, manual evaluation is both expensive and time consuming, therefore impractical. These difficulties led the researchers to seek automatic methods of evaluation. ROUGE is currently the most commonly used tool in the field, but each evaluated source text requires a human abstract, which also renders evaluation costly and limited. Simulations conducted in this study revealed that the evaluation performed by the Cassiopeia model is similar to the evaluation performed by the ROUGE tool; on the other hand, the use of the Cassiopeia model as an evaluator presented a few advantages, mainly the lack of human-made abstract in the evaluation processand independence from the domain and language.

  297. Nitisha Soni and Latika Pinjarkar

    This paper presents a technique to derive the colors, shapes, textures, or any other information that can be derived from a satellite image Using Texture filters and realizing it with SVM(Support Vector Machine). This image processing technique are been utilized to identify important urban features such as buildings and gardens and rural features such as natural vegetation, water bodies, and fields. Textures are represented by Texel, which are then placed into a number of sets, depending on how many textures are detected in the image.We are using satellite images for get the proper retrieval image by using SVM.

  298. Imdadullah

    In this study, two scenarios of hybrid energy systems are considered each contains a different combination of solar photovoltaic (SPV), wind turbine (WT), diesel generator (DG set), converter system and storage battery in off-grid mode and grid-connected mode. In this study, Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software is used for financial and technical analysis of the system. The optimal size of off-grid and grid-connected hybrid energy system having SPV-wind-diesel-battery has been calculated based on solar radiation, hourly wind data and electricity demand for the site under study. The simulation results shows that in case of off-grid optimal hybrid system having a cost analysis as cost of energy (COE) of $0.320/kWh, net present cost (NPC) of $294028, operating cost of $8014, and initial capital cost of $190430 whereas for grid-connected system cost analysis are COE of $0.108/kWh, NPC of $99746, operating cost of $7001, initial capital cost of $9245. These costs are for energy demand of 195kWh/day and peak load of 28 kW for institutional loads. The results clearly indicate that the grid-connected hybrid system is best from an economic point of view and the off-grid system is suitable from the environmental point of view.

  299. Hepsebah, N.J.R. and Ashok Kumar, A.

    A simple and effective RP-HPLC method had been developed for the estimation of vorinostat in capsule, using Apollo C18 (4.6 x 150mm, 5m), mobile phase 100% methanol, detection wavelength at 247 nm, at flow rate of 1ml/min at retention time 3.3 min for vorinostat. Linearity was obtained in the range of 5µg/ml to 25µg/ml for vorinostat. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.999. The Recovery studies were performed for vorinostat in the range of 50% - 150 %. The % Assay for vorinostat is 99.85 % .Forced Degradation studies were conducted according to the ICH guidelines and the Drug Product was found to be stable in all conditions. Hence, the method could be successfully applied for routine analysis of vorinostat capsules.

  300. Karuna, M. S., Upadhyay, O. P., Dinesh Kumar Saxena, Mahadeva Swamy, M. and Shobhan Majumder

    Ambient air quality monitoring (AAQM) along with assimilative capacity and Air Quality Index (AQI) studies were carried out at Indian Veterinary Research Institute (I.V.R.I), Izatnagar and Petrol Pump, Civil lines, Bareilly, India over a period of 5 years from 2013 to 2017. Maximum temperature and relative humidity was varied from 35°C to 45°C (March to May) and 96 % to 97 % (December) during 2013 to 2017. Maximum wind speeds were varying from 4 to 8 m s-1 during the month of June to September and predominant wind was blowing from W and E followed by NW and WNW directions over the study area. Maximum ventilation coefficient (VC) values were ranging from 9000 m2s-1 to 12000 m2 s-1(from 13:00 h to 16:00 h) and for minimum wind speeds, VC values were ranging from 3000 m2 s-1to 4500 m2 s-1(from 12:00 h to 16:00 h) throughout the year. A maximum negative assimilative potential of 190 to 230 μg m-3 and 150 to 130 μg m-3was observed for RSPM and SPM, which were exceeding the NAAQS of 100 and 300 μg m-3, respectively. SO2 and NOx concentrations were found to be within 90 % of guideline values and assimilative potentials were ranging from 40 – 60 μg m-3at both the locations. AQI was found to be ranging from 350 – 400 during winter season and 300 – 360 during summer and monsoon seasons. The annual average AQI was found to be ranging from 300 – 400, varying from ‘very poor’ to ‘sever’ AQI.

  301. Ajay Kumar

    Social science is a vital subject at upper primary level as it develops among children understanding of human relationships, social values and attitudes. Social science helps young learners to recognize the contemporary problems prevailing in society and prepares them to find out the solutions. Teaching and learning of social science at upper primary level is crucial if we expect our coming generation to become active, responsible citizens for maintaining the democratic values upon which our country was established. Constructivist approach corresponds to learning by doing assuming that the more repeatedly one does something, the more efficient he/she becomes at it. Critical thinking, problem solving approach and analytical skills are assumed to be the essential constructs at upper primary level. Students of upper primary level are very smart and they always crave for some new ways of learning. Traditional methods of teaching social science are monotonous for students. The ways and strategies to be used to teach students at elementary level effectively is the foremost need in present time. Constructivist approach really makes learners active during teaching learning process.By keeping this in view, the present paper reports some essential insights how constructivist approach is a new way of teaching social science at upper primary level.

  302. Anitha, S. and Dr. Nagajothi, V.

    The Banking Industry in India mainly owned by the Government or Private sector or MNC organizations. These banks are known for their Corporate Culture and commitment of the employees. This articles addresses the prevailing and expected corporate culture and the present status of the commitment of the employees serving in the banks with special reference to Thanjavur District. The employees of the Banks are the essential human capital contributes towards the success of the Banks. Similarly the corporate culture prevailing in Indian Banking Industry helps the employees in running the bank branches in a careful way. All these achievements are possible with the help of committed work force. The work force in Indian Banking industry ensures letter work Ethics, professionalism in their approach, managing the branches and serving the customers.

  303. Gurava Reddy, K., Krishna Reddy, K. and Raja Reddy, K.

    Rice is an important crop for billions of people and Asia is the biggest consumer of rice to an extent of 90% of the total world rice production. Most of the irrigated land in the world is under rice crop. On the other hand, water availability is also affected due to the climate change and variability. Rice is also labour-intensive crop and requires about 200 labour days per hectare. Timely availability of labour and water for various activities of rice is becoming a problem. Hence, to overcome labour shortage and sustain rice production with less water, the recent phenomenon observed in Andhra Pradesh state is the Direct Seeded Rice. Field level observations from 2010-14 found that the cost reduction in direct seeded rice mainly comes from skipping the initial activities like puddling, nursery raising, transplantation cost compared to traditional transplantation method. The timely operations and reduced cost of cultivation are driving forces in direct seeded rice adoption. The cost benefit ratio also indicates that Rs 10000-25000 additional returns per hectare in Direct seeded rice is realised compared to transplantation method.

  304. Maruthi Krishna Goud, K., Krishna Priya, G. and Gish Chacko

    It is only in the last 2 decades that people have been able to be provided with safe and effective means of controlling their fertility with the safe guard. There is some physical alteration along with the most vital auditory and vestibular mechanism. Aim: To profile the effect of oral contraceptive on audition and vestibular system. Methodology: The study has been carried out with subjects of 10 healthy Female OCP users since minimum of 6 month period between the age of 25-35 yrs old, with out any significant medical history. A screening questionnaire admistered to rule out the detailed case history. All the subjects were followed an ENT evaluation along Audiological test battery, including PTA, SPEECH AUDIOMETRY and IMPEDANCE AUDIOMETRY. Result: The following study shows that the OCP user represents various pathophysiological alteration in auditory and vestibular sensation, represntings signs of decrease sensitivity of hearing; however the alterations are depends on the prolongations of OCP. TERMINOLOGY- OCP- Oral contraceptive pills

  305. Sandra Jhakeline López Morales, Alondra Odalys Sarmiento Nah y and Dra. Liliana García Reyes

    This research paper analyzes life events leading to stress in young people; focused on second semester students of the Bachelor degree in Psychology from the Humanities Faculty of the Universidad Autónoma de Campeche. The objective of this paper is to identify what life event has a stronger impact in a young person to cause low or high stress levels.Instrument: The Life Events test was used, it measures 7 areas in different contexts (Family, Social, Personal, Behavioral problems, Achievements and failures, School health), this test assesses stress levels in adolescents. It was a non-probabilistic simple, it was formed by 86 people: 68 women (79%) and 18 men (21%), whom belonged to the Faculty of Humanities of the Bachelor degree in Psychology, ages 18 – 20, at the same time constituting two different subsets: ages 18-19, 19-20. The results were obtained by central tendency taking into consideration the mean for the group analysis. The results indicate that woman reported to have experienced more stressful life events, being Family the one that influenced stress formation the most in them and Behavioral problems the one for both genders. Therefore, it is revealed that women show stress in a higher intensity, while men possess the capacity to cope with and face stress-provoking situations. Both genders deal with stress using different means.

  306. Arun Kumar Karmaker and Tapan Kumar Roy

    Reproductive health among women of lower economic groups in Bangladesh has significance importance to achieve the targets of SDG goals for the development in Bangladesh. In this study, an attempt has been made is to find out the reproductive health status among women of lower economic groups in Rajshahi, Bangladeshi. This study also identifies the determinants of contraceptive use, awareness, attitudes and knowledge on several reproductive health indicators such as HIV/AIDS among women. It also investigates the determinants of physical violence and determinants of taking drugs among women of lower economic groups in Rajshahi. For this purpose, data were collected from 200 ever married women who worked in students’ mess in Rajshahi City Corporation area through simple random sampling. The results shows that, most of the respondent’s (64.5%) are illiterate and some respondent are literate who attended some classes up to primary and secondary levels and their monthly income is very low. The multivariate logistic regression analysis shows that woman’s age has positive significant effect on contraceptive use and monthly income, CEB and other earning members have negative significant effect on contraceptive use. Education and age at first birth have positive significant effect on physical violence and CEB has negative significant effect on physical violence. Age at first birth has positive significant effect on HIV/AIDS knowledge and education and age at marriage have negative significant effect on HIV/AIDS knowledge. This study may help policy makers to take special consideration on reproductive health among lower class women and to execute appropriate program for the vulnerable women to develop their status.

  307. Rahul Tripathi

    Euthanasia is usually used in the context of 'Terminally-ill' patients. But the word "Terminally-ill" is ambiguous not well-defined anywhere and usually describes patients who are suffering from fatal diseases including those who are in a Permanent Vegetative State (PVS). 'Euthanasia' is the termination of a very sick person's life in order to relieve them of their suffering. In most cases, euthanasia is carried out because the person who dies asks for it, but there are cases called euthanasia where a person can't make such a request. The paper intends to throw light on conditions of Euthanasia in various nations across the world

  308. Gurucharan Singh Bagga

    In this paper we have studies multiple aspects of demonetization and its effect. We have reported and interpreted every change happened during the phases under demonetization. We have also discussed impact and overturns done by demonetization. We have stated many thoughts of famous economists from our country to explore more in the depth of this topic. We have stated all the techniques and ways to tackle demonetization. We had considered long term and short term implications also by comparing it in this paper. Lastly we have given our thoughts about demonetization and its effect.

  309. Dr. Manikantan, N.S. and Dr. Dhanya Balakrishnan

    Dental science has much to offer law enforcement agencies in the detection and solution of crime. Forensic Odontology, which is branch of dentistry, plays a major role in the identification of those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. The teeth may also be used as weapons, and under certain circumstances, may provide information about the identity of the biter. Tooth has been used as the cornerstone in positive identification of living or deceased persons using unique traits and characteristics. Hence dental professionals play a major role in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractices, negligence, and fraud child abuse and also identify an individual. This article analyses the various aspects of forensic odontology and the role of dentists in detail.

  310. Ömer Lütfü Çorbacı and Murat Ertekin

    In terms of the settlement character of Yalova, there are significant population differences between summer and winter due to the intensive use by people from Istanbul and Bursa metropolises, and its population considerably increases during summer. Transportation to these important metropolises in the immediate vicinity is achieved rapidly by sea buses. It is subject to the use of potential population on a daily basis due to transportation facilities and recreational opportunities. By the new zoning plan, no changes were made to the building density, however, decisions are taken about the traffic scheme, parking lots and stop usage, and the area to be used as the city center, which form a basis for the urban design works. The project area includes Yalova province, Yalova square, and its surroundings. The subject of this project, Cumhuriyet Square, was formerly used as a parking lot. With the new coastline landscape planning implemented in Yalova, the need for parking space in Yalova has been partially met. It is decided to re-design this area as a city square, therefore, this project has been prepared and submitted to the executing institution.

  311. Rashmi Gautam

    The current study named “A study of gender differences in the expression of Relational aggression in adolescents” was carried out in Delhi, India. Aims of the study were to measure and compare expression of relational aggression between adolescent boys and girls. 92 adolescents (54 boys, 38 girls; mean age-13 years) participated in the study and fulfilled the relational aggression questionnaire. Results of the study showed that 34% of the adolescents were found to have high level of relational aggression. Boys and girls did not differ significantly in their expression of relational aggression.

  312. Surender Kumar

    In this paper, a modest attempt is made to analyse the Social and emotional adjustment of adolescent destitute children in district Shimla of Himachal Pradesh.For the present study Bal Ashram, Tuti Kandi and Balika Ashram, Mashobra in district Shimla were taken. The total sample compaired of 100 destitute (50 girls and 50 boys) of Bal and Balika Ashram were taken..All subjects belonging to age group of 15 to 18 years and studying in 9th and 10 class.For this purpose Adjustment inventory was use to colled the data from the students. Results revealed the destitute male and female adolescent children have more or less similar kind of social adjustment problems. In both boys and girls have almost same kind of emotional adjustment problems.

  313. Muradi

    The trends that evolved in the prevention and counter terrorism in the last twenty years in the world and including Indonesia positioned the State must be observant in responding to the threat of terrorism. This is an integral part of the growing dynamics of terrorism threats. Choosing whether the threat of terrorism is considered a threat to the sovereignty of the State or the threat of extraordinary crime must be responded in a more specific form, including adjustments to the use of existing laws. The existence of the new Anti-Terror Law makes the Police a main component in the prevention and counter terrorism must also make adjustments in order to remain effective in carrying out its roles and functions. However, this paper argues that the prevention and counter of terrorism by the police can be done by integrating the readiness of human resources as well as changes in the pattern of handling more integrated. Therefore, this paper will also analyze the extent to which the model of prevention and combating terrorism by the Police can be effective in positioning the institution with the new Anti-Terror Law, with a more balanced scheme of role and function between prevention and combating in terrorism.

  314. Tayfun Kara

    Recreation in general;, is defined as activities that will be selected by free choicefor the people who are adversely affected by intense work and environmental influences so that they will be able to recuperate their physical and mental well-being and to be satisfied with their individual needs and expectations in order to enjoy and participate in their spare time. (Hacıoğluvd., 2003: 30). Time remaining outside of the time people use to work, sleep, and meet their basic needs are free time; during this time all the activities that people perfume whether it is cultural activity or voluntary activities aimed at earning money etc. are considered within the scope of recreation concept. (Albayrak, 2012: 44; Sağlıkvd., 2014: 87). In the management stages, the organizations have increasingly grown up, specializing in various fields and within themselves, and increasing the division of labor has led to the formation of complex personal relationships within the organization. Thus, the necessity of communication and group work emerged and managers began to look for new skills (Ergun, 1981, p.1). These values also necessitated the need of leadership. General leadership is important for management. And recreational leadership, which is important in terms of evaluation of leisure time, does not make any difference in terms of the functions expected from the leaders. (Tezcan, 1982, s. 194; Himmetoğlu, 1988, s.40; Güler, 1978, s.82). There is a parallel relationship between points that are important in recreation leadership and points that are considered for general leadership role. It is expected from the management leader and the recreation leader, to live the pleasure of membership to the group members, to help them to satisfy themselves in that group, to direct, guide and influence the members in certain activities.In this sense, while our general leadership concept is a lean leadership and the leadership that can be defined in recreation-specific traits is explained as recreation leadership.

  315. Gwendolyn Barnhart

    This article is a review of the current state of vulnerable prisoners, individuals with intellectual disabilities in the United States. This article discusses various issues as to the causality of their incarceration. It also explores the ethicality surrounding the incarceration of those who may not entirely understand the predicament they are in or how they go there.

  316. Jolly Mark O. Agosto, EdD. and Rebecca S. Sanchez, EdD

    This study determined the level of readiness for internationalization of DepEd schools in the three (3) divisions of the Province of Surigao del Sur using the descriptive-survey method of research. Frequency, mean, Spearman Correlation and linear regression were the statistical tools used in the study. Findings revealed that most respondents were females with the age bracket of 48-60, married and Master’s Degree holders with adequate experience in teaching. As to k to 12 curriculum, all the respondent schools were very much ready for internationalization while on teachers’ qualification and student services, the schools were moderately ready but, less ready for physical plant and facilities. On managerial flexibility, for both investment decisions and marketing strategy, school head respondents were highly flexible in their management of the schools. Likewise, there is significant correlation between the extent managerial flexibility and readiness of schools for internationalization. However, there were internationalization challenges faced by the schools. Among them were the imbalance between the number of teachers, facilities and equipment, supplies, textbooks and the number of pupils, minimal budget for upgrading, or repair of buildings and other school facilities and the purchase of technology or ICT for instructional purposes. Managerial flexibility significantly influences the readiness of schools for internationalization. Thus, the higher the extent of managerial flexibility, the more ready are the schools in facing the challenges of internationalization. The more aware the respondents are the higher is their managerial flexibility. Since internationalization requires a lot of budget and thorough preparation, the more, respondent schools need to strengthen their public, private, academe partnership or linkages and intensify their strategies of earning additional income. A model for quality for internationalization and one-year internationalization plan for DepEd schools are proposed in the study.

  317. Dr. Muzafar Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Mirza Aumir Beg and Dr. ShafiaNisarKakroo

    Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the plaque and gingivitis reducing effect of a dentifrice containing chlorhexidine and compare with control toothpaste during the course of 3 months. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind study looked prospectively at participants over a 3 month period. Plaque score and gingivitis score was assessed in 40 participants, who were divided into two parallel groups. The participants used either chlorhexidine containing toothpaste (test group) or commercially available fluoridated triclosan containing toothpaste (control group). Parameters were assessed at baseline and again after 1and 3 months. Results: After 3 months of product use, both groups had less gingivitis compared with the baseline evaluation (p=0.001). At this time point, the test group showed a statistically significant lower gingival index values compared with the baseline (p=0.001). No statistically significant difference between either of the groups at various time points was detected with regard to plaque index score. Conclusion: Although there was a statistically significant difference at 3 months between test and control groups in reduction of gingival index values, this difference was too small to be considered clinically meaningful.

  318. Dr. Muzafar Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Shafia Nisar Kakroo and Dr. Mirza Aumir Beg

    Background: Today, regenerative attempts for treatment of periodontal disease focus on the introduction of a filler material into the defect inhope of inducing bone regeneration. The purpose of this study was to clinically and radiographically evaluate the use of porous hydroxyapatitebone graft with and without platelet‑rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of intrabony defects. Materials and Methods: The study was carriedout in ten patients between 18 and 60 years. Patients with pocket depth ≥5 mm and radiographic evidence of vertical bone loss in the affectedsite were randomly assigned to treatment with a combination of PRP + Hydroxyapatite (HA) (test sites) or HA alone (control sites). Theparameters were compared at baseline and 6 months postoperatively. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in probing depthand gain in clinical attachment in both the groups individually (more in experimental group); however, on comparing the two groups, the netreduction was not significant. Radiographic assessment showed a decrease in the defect size in both the groups. Conclusion: PRP in additionto a bone graft in the treatment of intrabony defects is safe and shows improved defect fill as compared to the use of bone graft alone.

  319. Simon Peter Taylor

    This article looks at the theories behind how organisations and individuals make decisions which impact on the environment in which they operate. The processes that are involved in making these decisions can be both linear and non-linear. It is argued that these differences need to be taken into accounted in any programme of research that is undertaken that looks at the social world. Traditional views of how a methodological framework for undertaking this type of research have emphasised the importance of standardised approaches which follow a linear format. To include the non-linear way in which individuals and organisations approach decision making a methodological framework needs to be flexible enough to be able to reflect this non-linear pattern. This would require the researcher to embrace a ‘messy’ approach to their programme of research which is more reflective of the social world that they are researching.

  320. Arindam Mohanta and Dr. Pandey, S. N.

    This article evaluates user awareness towards electronic resources by the users of academic libraries of Uttarakhand State with an objective to ascertain as to what extent internet as well as other traditional resources is being used in the Academic environment. A study was conducted in Academic libraries to know the use of different electronic resources by faculties, Research scholars, and students. The data was collected using questionnaires. Internet was found to be first extensively used E-resource to keep them up to date. This study also examines the problem faced by the users in accessing the E-resource and human interest towards the use of internet and Google search engine & finally paves the way for Academic libraries to plan and provide their services in a better way. The paper explains that the most of all respondent use internets for Email and use Google search engine where internet facilities are available. This paper reveals the different solutions and enhancing good efforts for positive direction also.

  321. Manju Suman and Ashok Kumar

    The constraints regarding adoption of fodder production technology were studied in Irrigated zone (U. P.) and rain-fed (Rajasthan). A total of 384 respondents were selected from 4 districts of regions representing both part of state UP and Rajasthan. It was found that most of the farmers (97.9%) of irrigated zone were agreed the livestock rearing is profitable and only (2.1) percent were not agree, while all the farmers of rainfed zone were in favour of this opinion. Regarding green fodder cultivation, (97.9) percent farmers of irrigated zone are in view that growing of green fodder is beneficial to them, while, in rain-fed zone, only (64.6%) were agreed and (27.0%) were disagree. Farmers’ perception about inclusion of green fodder in offering feeds to animals for cost reduction of milk was found positive by (80.0%) farmers and negative only by (5.0%) farmers of irrigated zone, while most of the farmers of rain-fed zone (93.8%) having positive attitude.

  322. Oni Timothy Olukunle

    Food-grains play significant roles in food supply and utilization in the Nigerian economy. The major grains include maize, rice and cowpea. Nigeria is a major producer of the grains but still depends on food imports in order to meet domestic demand for food. In spite of growing food imports a large number of people are undernourished in the country. This is aggravated by postharvest food grains losses attributable to a host of factors. The study therefore investigates factors determining food-grain losses at various nodes of food-grain supply chain using primary data which were collected in a survey by means of well-structured questionnaires. The data included factors affecting post-harvest food-grain losses and extent of the losses. The data were analyzed using regression technique. The results showed length of stay on the field after harvesting significantly and positively affected post- harvest loss for maize. In the case of rice, use of traditional technique of storage positively and significantly affected the loss in rice. For cowpea, the long distance of farm to store positively and significantly affected post- harvest loss at farm-level. At processing level, the scale of operation was a significant factor. At marketing level, the longer the length of storage, the higher the losses incurred. Creating market opportunities for small scale actors and agri-business development is an important strategy for reducing post -harvest losses of food-grains in the country. This can be achieved through investment in rural infrastructure and improved processing technology.

  323. Dr. Rhini Fatmasari, Drs. Untung Laksana Budi, Drs. Ade Mardiana and Dra. Misnawati

    The national education achievement requires the improvement of education system quality. The most influence factor needed for educational quality improvement is teachers. Teacher competeness will also enhance teacher’s achievement motivation. This reaseach using path analysis, indicate that there is positive influence of teacher’s creativity on teaching performance. In fact, there is no impact of competency and achievement motivation on teaching performance. Teacher’s competencies and their achievement motivation influence teaching performance significantly through variable of creativity. The whole research showed that competency and achievement motivation influence the quality of seducation.

  324. Chanongkorn Kuntonbutr, Manfred Kulken and Antonio Nichs

    Currently, Thailand’s business firms in all of the country’s industries are operating in an international business environment. The steel industry is an important one that supports every other economic sector in the country. Moreover, this industry has continually grown in size and scope both domestically and internationally. This study investigates the conceptual framework concerning human resource management. The key factors in this the framework include a blended perspective of employees’ international capability, continuous improvement, and employees’ workplace performance. The subjects of this study work for companies in the Thai steel industry. The results found that employees’ international capability impacted on their continuous improvement, which in turn influenced these employees’ performance. The findings suggest that: firstly, employees’ international capability is critical for firms in the steel industry; and secondly, firms have to be aware of all the processes involved in human resource management.

  325. Dr. N. Surega

    Many people today are apprehensive about sharing their deep feelings with someone and do not find someone to confide their secrets in, here the role of a counselor fulfils such demands. A counselor hears all the problems, thoughts, feelings of his/her subject, finds out his/her solution and do not judge them on any account. This is what makes one feel more comfortable and establishes a relation with the counselor. Guidance and counseling are important for children, and colleges have a huge role in bringing out the best in children. Counseling is a very commonly used term in India. How it is being used and for what, is a matter of discussion. This aspect is extremely important to understand the status of therapeutic / psychological / clinical counseling in India. The major objective of counseling is to help individuals become self sufficient, self dependent, self directed and to adjust themselves efficiently to the demands of a better and meaningful life. Individuals are provided assistance to enhance their personal, social, emotional and intellectual development. Therefore the counselor’s services are preventive, developmental and therapeutic in nature

  326. Ponniah SIVARAJAH

    Coconut products exports have been a traditional foreign exchange earner for Sri Lanka from the agricultural sector. The specific objective of the study was to analyze effect of export ‘cess’ rates on coconut products from Sri Lanka. Secondary data (1960-2010) on the production and exports of coconut products was used in the analysis. The analysis of the effect of export “CESS” changes on commodity supply and input demand by processing industries showed that all the simulations had no significant impact on the supply of all the coconut products exported, and also on the demand for fresh nuts by the processors. The results also indicated that export “CESS” changes, even in the case of complete removal, had no significant effect on the export demand for coconut products. The impact of simulations on the consumption demand for all the coconut products showed no significant changes, ranging from very low values to 0.39 per cent for desiccated coconut. The effect of export “CESS” changes on incomes of producers, processors, exporting firms and government analyzed through simulations indicated that 30 per cent, 50 per cent and 100 per cent reduction in export “CESS” rates caused positive growth rates in the industry income, coconut products suppliers’ income, exporting firms’ income, whereas there was a loss to government tax revenue. The imposing of an export ‘cess’ on coconut products has various implications to all stakeholders. But it is essential to look into the development of the coconut industry in the long-run which urgently needs heavy investment either by the government or the private sector participants. Sri Lanka’s coconut products exports have to be competitive on one side, as well as the industry needs investment to modernize production and increase exports. Complete removal of export ‘CESS’ rates have an impetus for the private sector to invest in the industry development to be competitive globally.

  327. Syarmila Hany Haron

    Territorial functioning represents a collection of behaviors, markers, and attitudes expressed by people in small groups as a way to manage their environments and the spaces they physically occupy. This paper examines attitudes and marking behavior associated with territorial functioning by residents of two housing areas in Malaysia that differed in terms of land uses and in residents’ perceptions of the level of crime in their neighborhoods. In the study, 144 participants participated in a survey. They reported levels of crime similar to the ones reported in a British survey of crime in 2015. The data generated by the survey were then analyzed in SPSS using descriptive and structural equation modeling that combined the three elements of territorial functioning behavior, markers, and attitudes to create an overall measure of territorial function. The results of the analysis indicated that territorial functioning is negatively associated with the number of break-ins of homes in a neighborhood regardless of the type of neighborhood.

  328. Dr. Murugasan, J. and Dr. Ilanthirayan, A.

    In the present day numerous scarcity of water in and around of the world, have been facing due to the lack of pollution activities via man-made and natural hazards. The quantities analysis of morphological characters of any watershed will be adopted various analyses. In addition to this also the Demographic characteristic studies of any lands with system have adopted in the any kind of approaches or characters. Geospatial techniques were given the solution for sustainable development of the Land and water sectors human habitation. In addition.n also the planning scenario too also. The present paper is deal to Demographic characters analysis of the Pulampatti Watershed, Salem district. The study includes census of Tamilnadu 2011 data included for the study and also filed and Lab analysis for manual tracing methods through SOI and also verified through filed also too.

  329. Dr. Murugasan, J. and Dr. Ilanthirayan, A.

    In the present day numerous scarcity of water in and around of the world, have been facing due to the lack of pollution activities via man-made and natural hazards. The quantities analysis of morphological characters of any watershed will be adopted various analyses. In addition to this also the land utilization of any lands with system have adopted in the any kind of approaches or classes. Geospatial techniques were given the solution for sustainable development of the Land and water sectors. In addition also the planning scenario too also.The present paper is deal to morphometric and Dasanapatti sub-watershed of Pulampatti Watershed, Salem district. The study includes filed and Lab analysis for manual tracing methods through SOI and also verified through filed also too.

  330. Shyama Prasad Chattopadhyay and Dr. Dharmendra Kumar Chaudhary

    Economic prosperity is the most important means of raising people’s incomes and reducing poverty in the developing world – it creates jobs and opportunities for poor people to support their families and build more stable futures. The developing countries face challenges that make it difficult for them to stimulate and sustain economic growth. Development activities with its sustainable impact make the life healthy, productive, and meaningful to the community people for longer period. Development activities itself is not sufficient to yield results for a longer period to the community unless the greater participation of the community is ensured into the development process. The sustainable development is in other way to empower the community to own it and make it sustainable for their own benefits. The research study tried to establish the various links which is important to make the development program sustainable, equitable and empowered the community towards self-reliant. The study evaluated development programs andits attributes towards failure and success in the light of management functionsimplemented by govt,development partners etc. The study tried to establish the issues which have both forward and backward impact in sustainability issues for long term development aspects. It is expected that study outcome will be helpful for the developmentpartners and implementing agencies to analyze its alternative course of action to make the program/s a success i.e.reasonable outcome & services,greater acceptability by the community, and its long-term sustainability.

  331. Reza E. Owfi

    This Paulownia tomentosa (Princesstree, Empress tree) is a deciduoustree in the familyPaulowniaceae, native to central and western China. It is an extremely fast-growing tree, and is a persistent exotic invasive in North America.This tree grows 10–25 m tall, with large heart-shaped to five-lobed leaves 15–40 cm across, arranged in opposite pairs on the stem. The very fragrant flowers are produced before the leaves in early spring, on panicles 10–30 cm long, with a tubular purple corolla 4–6 cm long resembling a foxglove flower. The fruit is a dry egg-shaped capsule 3–4 cm long, containing numerous tiny seeds. The seeds are winged and disperse by wind and water. Paulownia tomentosa can survive wildfire because the roots can regenerate new, very fast-growing stems. It is tolerant of pollution and it is not fussy about soil type. For this reason, it functions ecologically as a pioneer plant. Its nitrogen-rich leaves provide good fodder and its roots prevent soil erosion. It is able to grow from small cracks in pavements and walls.Paulownia tomentosa is cultivated as an ornamental tree in parks and gardens and is cultivated in all continents. All in all, this tree has popularity all over the world and needs to more attention. In this research, the ecophysiology of this plant has been studied. In first step, all related data were collected and then, after assessing their validity, the related data were extracted and combined and finally some suggestions are offered to improveand protect of this tree.

  332. Babita Dubey and Ajit Singh Bhatnagar

    This review paper discusses the potential role of the adoption of information, communication, and technology (ICT) and social business tools based digital technologies (DT) in micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs). Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest growing states in India and is amongst the richest states in terms of natural and mineral resources. The State has an excellent educational ecosystem with Indian Institute of Management, Indian Institute of Technology, International Institute of Information Technology, National Institute of Technology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, National Law University successfully operational. Micro, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (MSMEs) form the backbone of the Indian economy making large contributions to important economic indicators as well as household incomes. A literature review pertaining to ICT and DT initiatives that can support MSMEs was conducted and is reported here briefly.

  333. Ranjana Sharma

    There are mixed response, inexplicit, arguments and opinions among the Manufactures, traders and society about the Goods and Services Tax (GST) to be implemented by Government of India from 1st April 2017 this year. Various news organizations from all around the world focused on the bill unifying the country and it being an achievement of the government. As the Goods and Services Tax Bill was passed in the Rajya Sabha, it also brought India at the center of the global economy. With the passing of the bill, many international newspapers published their views on how the GST Bill brings a new wave of economic reform in the country. The paper highlights the background, Prospectus and challenges in Implementation of Goods and services Tax (GST) in India. Finally, the paper examines and draws out a conclusion.

  334. Dr. Rajat R Khajuria, Dr. Mukesh Kumar and Dr. Nauseen Hajira

    Introduction: Poor denture hygiene is a seemingly common problem encountered by dentists in complete denture patients. It may contribute to halitosis, denture stomatitis and angular chelitis as the dentures presents additional sites and environment to support the growth of micro-organisms. One of the chief complaints often noticed in denture patients is loss of luster or loss of color in their dentures. The reason for this is due to poor color stability of acrylic reasons. The loss of color or roughness in denture acts as predisposing factor for growth of microorganisms, discolorations depicting aging and non acceptability of dentures by patient. Materials and Method: 40 discs of heat cured resin were used with beverages: i.e. Tea, Black cold drink, Turmeric milk and distilled water as control group. All the samples were removed and finished to beilby layer. 4 pet jars were taken and 10 acrylic resin discs were immersed in the respective beverage for 30 days. The samples were removed from their respective jars and washed in denture cleanser (sodium perborate) and their optical density was measured using color spectrophotometer. For measuring color in spectrophotometer, 30% H2O2 was applied on the samples one by one and leached out stain is measured out using L*, a*, b* values. Data collected was analyzed statistically. Results: The optical density of all the samples was analyzed and readings were recorded. Group 2 (2.61) recorded maximum optical density change followed by group 1(1.52), group3 (1.24) and least by group 4 (0.3). Results state f value to be 221.60994 which is significant at p<0.01. Also the nbs unit was calculated for all the groups. Group 2 recorded noticible where as group 1 and 3 recorded traces. The control group 4 showed traces in nbs unit. Conclusion: The order of *E values were found to be maximum for turmeric followed by tea, followed by coldrink and least by distilled water group. Turmeric group recorded noticeable where as tea group and cold drink group recorded slight in nbs unit. The distilled water group only showed traces in nbs unit.

  335. Zerihun Yohannes Amare

    Agriculture is the most important economic sector of many developing countries including Ethiopia. Improving agricultural land management is key to combat climate change impacts and increase crop productivity. The adoption of agricultural land management practices has been relatively low globally. Thus, there is considerable interest in understanding better the barriers, and determinants to the adoption of these practices. Stratified and snowball sampling techniques were employed to select a sample of 398 households. The household survey was employed to collect data on current adaptation strategies. Logistic regression was used to analyse the determinants of choice of adaptation strategies. Logistic regression analysis were carried out at p≤0.05. Poor access to water resources, limited knowledge and skills, shortage of farmland, lack of money, and inadequate extension services are some of the barriers to adopting agricultural land management practices. Age, gender, education farmland size, agro-ecology, income, farming experience, and total livestock units were significantly related to the choice of most of the agricultural land management practices. The results suggest that in order to increase the adoption of agricultural land management strategies, the reasons for non adoption must first be defined and addressed. Consequently emphasis needs to be placed on understanding and addressing farmers’ reasons for being unable or unwilling to adopt because in many cases is not the farmers’ failure as it is systems failure. Government policies and aid organizations should strengthen the current adaptation strategies used by rural communities and support less adopted adaptation strategies.

  336. Vinod Kumar, M. and Dr. Prakash Babu

    Men and women employees have been equally contributing to the organizational success. Recently women employees are in a prime focus for the organisations to get retained. Some organisations take this initiative for managing diversity where as some has witnessed the benefits of retaining women employees leading to optimum performance at work. This research paper attempts to study the practice of retention of women employees in Indian context. The various areas covered in this research paper are defining retention; various reasons behind retaining women employees, various methods of retention of women employees followed by best practices in retaining women employees by Indian organisations. The primary method of data collection for this research paper is through various secondary sources such as research papers, websites, blogs, e-magazines etc.

  337. Jisna Jose

    Library automation enhances the speed, accuracy, productivity and efficiency of library staff and services. Adoption and use of open source library management system in libraries leads to tremendous changes in library functions and services. Koha is the first popular free and international open source library management software. This study is relevant in this modern age to motivate the library professionals for migrating to Koha without any misconceptions regarding open source software. It facilitates the wider dissemination of information efficiently and effectively by improving the management and organization of library resources.

  338. Syed Anayat Hussain and Saba Bashir

    Type 2 diabetes, formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), constitutes a major portion (90-95%) of all cases of diabetes worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate and provide evidence on current published literature about diet and lifestyle in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and thereby making disease-specific recommendations. There is a convincing evidence for a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in adults who are physically active and maintain their normal body mass index (BMI). Also an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes is associated with overweight, obesity and physical inactivity.On the basis of available evidence regarding diet and lifestyle in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, it is recommended that a normal weight status in the lower BMI range (BMI 21–23) and regular physical activity be maintained throughout adulthood; abdominal obesity be prevented; and low intake of saturated fats be encouraged.

  339. César Augusto Mazuera Quiceno, Alfonso Céspedes Manrique and Albeiro Antonio Dávila Grisalez

    The high level of sedentarism in the adult-young population that studies undergraduate programs is a public health problem. Therefore, it becomes inevitable to answer the following research question ¿What are the barriers to physical activitypractice in undergraduates atUnidad Central del Valle del Cauca? A quantitative, transectional study with a descriptive scope was carried out during the first half of 2017. A population of 3,958 subjects was included. The sample consisted of 193 undergraduates. This sample was probabilistic stratified by proportional affixation. The age of 67,9% of the sample was in a range of 19 to 28 years. 95,9% did not use tobacco and the usual means of transport of 58,5% was the motorcycle and only 3,6% and 5,7% used the bicycle or walked respectively. 47,7% had a low level of physical activity. Of the women surveyed, 55,3% had a low level of activity and 21,8% had three barriers to physical activity, among them lack of time, lack of will and lack of energy are highlighted. The low level of physical activity found is mainly related to barriers such as lack of time, lack of will and energy to perform some physical activity. As this perception is more accentuated in women given that they have a lower level of physical activity.

  340. Norah Alsayed, Wedad Bardisi, Bander Moabred, Abdu Ibrahim and Ahmed Abdulkader

    Background: In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, road traffic deaths accounts for 4.7% of all mortalities. Several studies have demonstrated that the human factor is the major contributing factor to RTAs, and then vehicle and road factors. Objectives: To determine the overall prevalence of risky driving behaviours, perception toward this behaviour and determine the related factors among male workers in primary healthcare centers in Jeddah. Subjects and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study carried out among a randomly selected sample of currently driving male workers in primary health care centres in Jeddah. Self-administered questionnaire was utilized for collecting the data regarding socio-demographic characteristics, driving history, and engagement in risky driving behaviours as well as their perception regarding these behaviours. Results: The study included 222 male workers aged 20-62 years. Majority of the participants (91.9%) had a driving license. Nearly three-quarters of the participants (75.2%) had history of road traffic accidents. (61.7%) state that they either always/often were using seat belt while driving inside the city whereas (63%) were using it always/often in high ways. Almost one third of Male (32%) was always/often using mobile phones by hands while driving. Overall, the risky driving behaviours score ranged between 32.86% and 84.29% with a mean±SD of 59.80±9.41%. The score was higher among postgraduate (p=0.001), male workers who reside outside Jeddah (p=0.039) and non-smoker Male workers (p<0.001). Therefore, they had less engagement in risky driving behaviours. The most dangerous risky driving behaviours s as perceived by them were putting the children on the driver`s lap while driving (weighted mean on a scale ranged between 1 and 5 was 4.45), exceeding speed limits within residency/school zones (weighted mean=4.41), driving in a speed exceeding speed limit by more than 25 km (weighted mean=4.28), and using cell phones with hands while driving (weighted mean=4.28). General practitioners had the highest percentage of perception of risky driving behaviours score (mean rank =148.02), p=0.019. Conclusion: The male workers in primary healthcare centers in Jeddah reported relative frequent engagement in some risky driving behaviour. There was a correlation between risky driving behaviours and perception regarding them.

  341. Dr. Saraswathi Gopal, K., Dr. Padma, M. and Dr. Harsha Vardhan, B. G.

    Sialolithiasis is one of the most common pathology of salivary gland in middle-aged patients . Sialoliths are localized in submandibular glands in nearly 80% of the reported cases and they are classified as ‘giant’ in case any dimension exceeds 15 mm. Giant sialolith in submandibular gland is a rare disorder with prevalence of 0.1% in population. The aim of this article is to report the case of a patient suffering from sialolithiasis caused by giant salivary calculi in Wharton’s duct and also review of literature on sialolithiasis. The diagnostic approach was done by occlusal radiography, orthopantamography and ultrasonogram and the excision was performed under general anesthesia to remove the atrophied submandibular gland and a giant sialolith of 28mm length localized in the Wharton’s duct.

  342. Dr. Abhinav Gupta, Dr. Gaurav Singh, Dr. Shakeba Quadri and Dr. Bhumika Kapoor

    Prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with completely edentulous arches especially in mandibular arch is challenging. Over denture has been the choice of treatment modality in these patients due to the advantages associated with it mainly in the form of improved proprioception, enhanced retention, support and stability. Apart from better retention, overdenture are also superior in biting force distribution and chewing efficiency than conventional dentures. What makes the overdenture special is the combination of mucosal and periodontal support. Preservation of healthy retained roots in overdentures acting as natural implants improves the quality of life of patients. New innovative techniques in over denture treatment modality incorporates various attachments in abutment tooth to enhance retention with intraoral magnets being one of them. In patients of over denture, removable partial denture, obturators, maxillofacial prosthetics magnets are used as retentive aids as they can be manufactured in small dimensions. Attached magnets to the remaining root structure transfers no detrimental lateral forces to the supporting element as they transfer the occlusal load to the bone through periodontal ligament of the remaining root. In this article fabrication of conventional maxillary denture and magnet retained mandibular overdenture is discussed.

  343. Prof. S. Parimala

    A descriptive cross sectional survey approach study was conducted to Identify the health problems among handloom weavers in ChinnaSeeragapadi, Salem.Data were collected from 30 handloom weavers by purposive sampling technique. It can be concluded that majority of the handloom weavers have the health problems.

  344. Ibrahim Khan, Dr. Swapnil Taur, Dr. Savita Hadakar and Dr. Indraneel Chavan

    Aims: To evaluate and improve the oral health status in visually impaired children with the educational intervention in the form of braille and hands-on demonstration of brushing technique. Materials and Methods: The baseline Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S), Gingival Index(GI) and oral health awareness was recorded. An educational intervention in form of verbal, brailed manuscript and hands on demonstration for brushing was provided with periodically reinforced by the professionals to the blind children. At end of 6 months re-evaluation was done on the same participants. Results: The study revealed highly significant improvement in OHIS and GI post intervention Conclusion: Educational intervention in the form of braille and hands-on demonstration of brushing technique can significantly improve oral hygiene of the visually impaired school children.

  345. Sanjay Sharma and Yadav, S. R.

    Cyber’s terrorism has recently been said to be the biggest threat to our modern society. Every day a new cyber-scare story makes the headlines. The national government recognizes the importance of cyber security, as several officials have made clear in the past few years. Cyber security is among the most serious economic and national security challenges we will face in the 21st Century, we face a long-term challenge in cyberspace from foreign intelligence agencies and militaries, criminals, and others, and, struggle will wreak serious damage on the economic health and national security. For the prevention and detection of cyber terrorism intrusion detection system has been used. Intrusion detection system detects illegal behavior of network over data. In current research trend performance of intrusion detection system is important issue. Now various authors used machine learning and feature optimization technique for intrusion detection system. Machine learning technique is collection of all learning algorithm such as classification, clustering and regression. For the improvement of machine learning technique feature optimization techniques has been used. This paper presents review of intrusion detection techniques using machine learning and feature optimization process.

  346. Sathya, R. and Xavier, A.

    The aim of this research work to built-up a novel transition metal complexes using various transition metals and Schiff base ligand for the antibacterial and anti fungal applications through well-diffusion method. Development of a new chemotherapeutic Schiff bases and their metal complexes are now attracting the attention of medicinal chemists. Complexes are characterized by Elemental analysis, UV- spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy. Elemental analysis of the metal complexes were suggested that the stoichiometry ratio is (metal: ligand) 1:2. The Schiff base complexes have been screened for their invitro antibacterial activity against three bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus species and also studied antifungal activities against Aspergillus Niger and Aspergillus flavus. Nickel -Schiff base complexes exhibited a promising antibacterial activity compared to that of other metal complexes. Vanadium Schiff base complex show higher potential when compared to that of other complexes. Besides, Anti-oxidant properties of metal complexes have been studied.

  347. Mai. I. El-kaliuoby, Ahmed. M. El-Khatib, A. M. Khalil, Mohamed Ahmed Abbas Naim and Malak M. Elmesady

    Recently considerable concerns are increased for the health effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields ELF EMFs, especially power lines frequency of 50-60 Hz. The need for complementary work to assess the health consequences that may be attributed to the exposure to such fields is a must. The present work is aimed to study the effects of 4kV/m -50 Hz electric fields EF on biomechanical and biochemical properties of rats' tibia bones. Similarly to occupational workers the assigned experimental animals were exposed 8 h/day for different exposure regimes of 5,10,15,20 and 30 days.At the end of the exposure periods, thetibia bone samplesare carefully collected, dissected free and cleaned of soft tissues. Effects of exposure on collected tibia samples from each group were obtained and monitored relative to un-exposed ones. Characteristic stress-strain curves were established at rate of 0.5 mm/min and biomechanical parameters were determined for all assigned tibia samples. Furthermore, all tibia samples were put in furnace to obtain bone ash and concentration of calcium, phosphorus and collagen were measured. The results obtained by overall biomechanical and biochemical parameters were significantly decreased and relatively changed by remarkable ratios as compared to unexposed ones. On conclusion, the present findings supporting the hazardous effect of exposure to ELF EFs and its effects are highly correlated to the exposure duration. In addition, bone is substantially sensitive organ for exposure to ELF EFs and may be losing its fine structure and its material form as long as it exposed.

  348. Hla Aye Thar, Dr. Khin Aye Winn and Dr. Soe Win

    The development of green power generation such as solar systems that have become a great interest for several countries especially for Myanmar as it presents a significant solar potential. In this paper, solar thermal has been chosen and designed to be used for rural electrification which is the most suitable technology especially for tropical region of Myanmar. In solar thermal electricity generation, Dish-Stirling solar power generation has emerged as an efficient and reliable source of renewable energy. As the technology moves into commercialization, models become necessary to predict system behavior under various operating conditions. This research is intended to fulfil the electricity requirement in Myanmar to some extent as a several small off-grid power systems with parabolic dish units. In this paper, the thermal, electrical, and control systems of the dish-Stirling system are presented, along with a method for simulation. The modeling and simulation is executed in detailed for the proposed standalone system by using Matlab/Simulink software.

  349. Sunil P. Singh

    As light pulses propagate along the optical fiber, their energy dissipates. Beyond a certain distance the number of photons in pulses becomes too small to be detected. The optical pulses in fibers are energized by utilizing optical fiber amplifiers. The rapid growth of the internet and data traffic in optical fiber communication networks has stimulated the study of wideband optical amplifiers. Widening the bandwidth of fiber amplifiers is the primary issue in enlarging the capacity of wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) transmission systems. This may be achieved by hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. In this paper hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped fiber amplifier is simulated and almost flat gain of 21 dB is obtained for 1530-1565 nm wavelength range.

  350. Grzegorz Wałowski

    The mechanism of gas flow through porous materials and the selected models of the porous structure were analysed. As for the issue of gas flow through porous deposits that is basically discussed in this article, issues of the process were analysed through describing mechanisms of the gas flow in porous structures for the development of a new generation of clean energy sources, especially in the context of the production of biogas or syngas. This study discusses results of experiments on hydrodynamic assessment of gas flow through backbone (skeletal) porous materials with an anisotropic structure. The research was conducted upon materials of diversified petrographic characteristics, both natural origin (rocky) and process materials (char and coke). The study was conducted for a variety of hydrodynamic conditions, using air, as well as for nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The basis for assessing hydrodynamics of gas flow through porous material was a gas stream that results from the pressure forcing such flow. The results of measurements indicate a clear impact of the type of material on the gas permeability, and additionally – as a result of their anisotropic internal structure – to a significant effect of the flow direction on the value of gas stream. The results indicate the compliance of the used calculation method with the result of experiments.

  351. Mohamed M. AbdAlla, Nahed A.K. Rashed and Mohamed Abd Elsalam Yosef

    Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.) is a shrub with great importance because of its fruits and /or aerial parts have a wide use in pharmaceutal, medicinal and industrial healthcare purposes, in-addition to their nutritional value. In the present study, inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism(SRAP) analyses were used to evaluate genetic stability of Rubus fruticosus L.̔̔ Triple Crown̕ micropropagated plantlets and compare or detect possibly existing genetic variation between them and their donor mother plant. Introduced shoot tips of Rubus fruticosus L.̔̔ Triple Crown̕ were micropropagated in North Sinai Research Station, Desert Research Center. Sterilized excised shoot tips of them were cultured on MS basal salt medium supplemented with benzyl adenine 0.5 mg/L. Then developed shoots successfully transferred to multiplication media for several subcultures and subsequently to rooting medium. Genomic DNA of five micropropagated plantlets (samples) that were phenotypically normalregenerates and essentially identical with their mother plant, in-addition to their donor (mother plant) was extracted using modified CTAB method. Ten ISSR primers and twenty three different SRAP primer combinations were used for this study. Comparisons of each ISSRand SRAPbanding patters average ofmean percentage of similarity which calculated by Nei & Li similarity coefficient and dendrogams constructed based on the UPGMA clustering method showed that the micropropagated plantlets (samples) exhibited somaclonal variation and not true-to-type. Also, polymorphic information content and marker index values for the two markers indicated the presence of polymorphism between the studied samples and their mother plant. In-addition, the discriminating capacity and efficiency of ISSR and SRAP markers for genetic analyses were high, but SRAP markers had better capacity for comparative study and quantifying genetic diversity between Rubus fruticosus L. ̔Triple Crown̕ micropropagated plantlets (samples) and their mother plant.

  352. William W. McDaniel

    The circadian cycle of humans and other mammals is close to one hour longer than the 24 hour period from sunrise to sunrise. The meteorite strike(s) that occurred at the end of the Cretaceous era involved at least one very large body that struck our planet obliquely, apparently moving in the direction that it would have to have done to impart momentum to the rotation of Earth and decrease the period of the day. Working from current modelsfor estimating the mass of meteorites from crater dimensions, we found the largest estimate of the Chicxulub impactor to have been still three orders of magnitude too small to account for the difference between the solar day and the circadian cycle. The recently discovered Shiva crater in the floor of the Indian Ocean near Mumbai is much larger at 600km diameter. The orientation of the crater suggests its impact was also oblique, towards the northeast, and possibly as much as one half the mass necessary to have imparted momentum to the rotation of the Earth, and thus reduced the duration of the day by one hour. There were also cosmic impacts that coincided with the end-Permian extinction., and at least one of them was clearly moving eastward

  353. Nutan

    Obesity is the synergistic product of interaction between overeating and easy lifestyle. Naturopathy is the best solution to cure obesity as it is primarily concerned with both the aspects. Keeping this in view 60 patients of 25-40 years who had enrolled in naturopathy centers and to whom were recommended a treatment of one month were selected for the purpose of study. In naturopathy centers subjects were doing yoga (i.e. Exercise and Pranayam) and were drinking amla and lemon water in fasting state, undergoing mud, water and diet therapies. Their food habits and life style information was collected by interview cum questionnaire method before and after naturopathic treatment of each subject. Height, waist, and hip circumference was measured and BMI was calculated. Their lipid profile and blood glucose were determined from blood serum in fasting state. Nutrient intake of each subject was assessed by 24 hour recall method for three consecutive days. After getting treatment in naturopathy center. The male subjects, mean body weight reduced from 90.81 to 79.43 kg (11.40%) and BMI from 31.01 to 27.06.For female subjects, reduction in weight was from 81.53 to 72.23kg (12.52%) and of BMI was from 31.79 to 28.18.Percentage reduction as compare to RDA of carbohydrate, energy, protein and fat intake in male subjects was 36.66, 41.66, 58.41 and 36.89 percent. Corresponding values for female were 47.15, 47.76, 44.92 and 26.10 percent. Contrary to the intake of carbohydrate, energy and fat, Vitamin C intake increased by seven folds, Vitamin A too raised by two folds because of this hemoglobin moved up significantly at both levels in spite of iron intake being below R.D.A. So, naturopathic treatment is a powerful weapon to combat obesity as well as maintaining and improving the nutritional status of the obese patients.

  354. Lumeh. Halimatu Isata, Awonorin, S. O., Kanu, S., Sobukola, O. P., Ngegba, P. M. and Kanneh, S. M.

    Due to high perishability of fresh meat, drying is often employed to reduce the biochemical and microbial degradations that occur after animal slaughter. Spice powder or its derivatives are also added to food particles to enhance flavour and reduce microbial spoilage. This study was conducted at the Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta (FUNAAB), Ogun State, Nigeria, to investigate the effect of spice type (ST), spice powder suspension concentration (SPC) and drying temperature (DT) on the chemical and microbial property of dried beef. About 100 g of fresh beef cut (1×5×10 cm) was soaked in alligator pepper (AP) and ginger (GE) powder suspension at 50 and 70% (w/w) for 30 min while that soaked in distilled water served as control. Total viable microbial count (TVC), Staphylococci spp (SS), Escherichia coli (EC), Streptococcus aureus (SA) and Salmonella spp (SaS) counts were determined in the fresh meat soaked for 0-24 h. The soaked beef cuts were then dried at 65, 75 and 85oC in a locally-fabricated convective dryer for 18 h. Proximate composition (protein, moisture, ash, crude fibre, fat and carbohydrate) of the processed dried meat were determined using standard methods. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and LSD was used to separate significant means. The TVC, SS, EC and SA counts in the soaked meat samples were 4.0-4.6, 0.0-4.3, 0.0-4.39, and 0.0-4.3 cfu/g, respectively. There was significant reduction in the microbial load of the spiced dried meat samples with values ranging from 2.0-2.30 cfu/g for TVC and 0.01-2.0 cfu/g for Staphylococcus. The microbial count of spiced meat reduced significantly (p<0.05) with soaking period whereas it increased in the control sample. However, Salmonella spp was not detected in both the fresh and dried meat samples. The crude protein, fat and crude fibre contents of the dried spiced meat was 78.65-88.89%, 2.85-11.51% and 0.36-0.94%, respectively. The untreated meat had lower protein and crude fibre than any of the spiced meat. The main effect of ST, SPC and DT were significant (p<0.05) on the proximate composition. The PV, FFA and pH values of the dried meat were 1.71-4.12 meq/kg, 1.26-3.27%, and 6.06-6.47, respectively. Dried meat at 75 and 85oC had no viable microbial count. It can be concluded that using 70% GE and drying at 75oC showed greater potential for meat preservation.

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari