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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





October 2019

  1. Monendra Grover, Dwijesh Chandra Mishra and Ranjeet R. Kumar

    Closer investigation of the spaces within the cell indicates that signal transduction through conformational change may not be a plausible mechanism of information communication. As an alternative to this we have earlier proposed that non-local communication may exist between molecules in the biological cell. Recent experiments indicate that even complex molecules may exhibit quantum properties such as non-local communication thus indicating that non-local communication may not be impossible between complex biomolecules in the cell.

  2. Dr. Surendra Kumar, Dr. Desh Pal Singh, Dr. Atul Kaushik and Dr. Ratan Kumar Choudhry

    Background: The procedure of laryngoscopy and intubation is an integral part of modern day balanced anaesthesia. It is also the most delicate phase in general anaesthesia. It is performed for most major and some minor surgical procedures. The procedure of direct laryngoscopy and intubation is associated with significant haemodynamic changes such as increased heart rate, arterial pressure and dysarrhythmias in most patients (REID LC ct al 1940). Unfortunately these changes are often overlooked during anaesthesia as the anaesthesiologist may be much engaged in the intubation procedure and he has little opportunity to note any abnormal circulatory reactions. There exists an ongoing search for an ideal agents for attenuating cardiovascular responses to laryngoscopy and intubation. The aim of the present study was to see the effect of sublingual Nifedipine to reduce the adverse effects of intubation and laryngoscpy. We did a comparartive study in 40 normal healthy individuals undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia in our hospital. We divided patients in 2 groups (A & B) of 20 each. GROUP A: Patients received premedication only and formed the control group. GROUP B: Patients received 10mg. Nifedipine sublingual 20 minutes before induction. Baseline parameters were recorded in operation room e.g. pulse rate (PR), Blood Pressure – systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP),Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP),SPO2 % and E.C.G. The readings were recorded at the following intervals: -Just before giving drugs (baseline values, B.V) - After giving drugs (before induction, B.I ) - After induction, (A.I) - Just after laryngoscopy and intubation, (L&I) - Post intubation at 1st (I1), 3rd (I3), 5th (I5), 10th (I10), 15th (I15) and 30th (I30) minute’s interval. After completion of the study observations were tabulated, qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using proper statistical methods. Results: Sublingual Nifedipine given 20 minutes before induction effectively attenuated the increases in blood pressure but caused significant tachycardia which was further exaggerated following laryngoscopy and intubation.

  3. Dr.Sandhya Jain and Dr. Teena Maria Wilson

    Torus palatinus and torus mandibularis being non-pathological and inconspicuous most of the time serves minimal attention from patients and clinician. On controversy temporo mandibular diseases (TMD) having a variety of eitiopathology and various grades of manifestations has always been an interesting area for clinicians. Though the prevalence of tori and their correlation with sex and age had studied widely, the reduced number of samples always been a limitation. This study was under taken to find whether a correlation exists between these two entities. We conducted a wide clinical examination and study model analysis on 2478 sample of which 0.44% were presented with torus mandibularis and none with torus palatinus. Almost same frequency of occurrence was observed between males and females. For males, prevalence of tori was maximum at second decade and for females on third decade. Whereas least tori were seen in third decade for males and first decade for females. On comparison of TMD with Torus mandibularis it was found that there was no such correlation since only one case was presented with both conditions. Most of tori were found to be situated on anterior one third region and of mild form so that most of the patients were unaware about the existence.

  4. Vanitha Srinivasan

    The breast milk is very healthy and full of nutrition, it provides the primary source of nutrition fornew-borns before they are able to digest more diverse food. The breast milk also contains balanced nutrients that arerequire for brain development, growth and a healthy immune system that act against viruses, bacteria, and parasites, since an infant’s immune system is not fully developed until the age of 2 yrs.It is required to timely evaluate knowledge and to bring about positive attitude in the staffs regarding the implementation of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative policy. Objective: To assess the knowledge on Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative policy (BFHI) among staff nurses in the MCH unit at MGMCRI&H, Puducherry. Materials and Methods: Quantitative Research Approach, Non-experimental descriptive design. The population for the study consisted of 60 staff nurses from the Maternal and Childcare unit of MGMCRI, Puducherry. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire to assess the knowledge of staff nurses on the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). The data were analyzed both descriptive (mean, Frequency, Percentage and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis). Results: Discussion on the findings were arranged based on the objectives of the study. The present study reveals that, among 60 staff nurses, 48(80%) of them had moderately adequate knowledge, 9(15%) of them had adequate knowledge and 3(5%) of them had inadequate knowledge regarding Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative Policy. Conclusion: The study reveals that most of the Staff Nurses had moderately adequate knowledge of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative Policy.

  5. Dravid, N.V. and Ahirrao, B.M.

    With the advancement in the field of digital imaging, computational technology, artificial intelligence, data mining altogether brings out new era of practice. This evolutionary developments in field of pathology are going to be revolutionary in present and future. Tele-pathology is about the practice of pathology at a distance by pathologists. It includes all histopathology consultation including the generation of a written report, quality control, and quality assurance (QA) of all of the processes of light microscopy, interpretation, consultation with the patient’s physicians. Whole slide imaging (WSI) targets to emulate the techniques of light microscopy, albeit in a computer-created manner. Use of these techniques in practice by Pathologists, scientists, technologists, administrators and industry partners is going to be a major help in healthcare and life scinces. Methods: We are taking a overview of digital pathology and its application for knowledge, awareness and enthusitic use in practice, education and training programmes by a pathologists in near future.

  6. Dagne Shibru and Alemante Amera

    Trend analysis has become the most important aspect of research practice to examine changes in time and space. This research retrospectively looks at the prevalence and magnitude of early marriage and female genital mutation in Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS). The study used mixed (Qualitative and quantitative) approach to collect and analyse data. In-depth interview and group discussions with zone and region level officials as primary data, and statistical reports and publications of government and NGOs, magazines, and research findings of scholars were also used as secondary data sources in the study. The findings of the study show that prevalence and magnitude of early marriage and female genital mutation have been declining from 1998 to 2005, and started to increase since 2007. The reason behind this problem could be, among others, the political instabilities following the 2007 national election that negativelly affected efforts in the fight against early marriage and female genital mutation. These harmful traditional practices hampered women's health, economic benefits and political stability in the region. Devising new efforts to address these harmful traditional practices can bring about substantial changes in women empowerment and gender equality.

  7. Saliev T.M., Fakhradiyev I.R. and Batagoeva Z.Z.

    In this mini-literature review, we raised the question of the evidence-based specific effect of horse placenta extract. Questions on the diversity of both its chemical and biological composition are considered. The need for further study of the obtained extracts of horse placenta should depend on the method of their preparation, as this is the only way to exclude the inclusion of certain components of the horse placenta. That will determine the specific factor that has a positive effect on the body.

  8. Natasha Nargotra, Gazanfer Wani, Ishfaq Kuchay and Rajesh Sharma

    Background and Purpose: Cerebral microbleeds have important clinical implications in Stroke and dementia. We investigated the role of SWI in detection and risk stratification of chronic microbleeds. Materials and Methods: Hospital based , prospective, case-control study was performed in Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging , ASCOMS , Jammu using 1.5 Tesla Siemens Magnetom Essenza. Our study comprised of 30 subjects ( n = 30, M = 21, F=9, mean age 68 y) with an equal number of age and sex matched controls. Cases were divided on basis of number (> or < 5) and size (> or < 5mm) of microbleeds on reverse phase SWI and T2*GRE imaging. Results: The distinct advantage of SWI sequence was noted in detecting and evaluating CMBs compared to the T2*GRE sequence which demonstrated only 70.5% of the microbleeds seen on SWI. Most patients in the present study exhibited multiple CMBs, which were noted simultaneously in various parts of the brain. A substantially higher number of patients had mixed CMBs (n=21, 70%) than in isolated deep or lobar locations. Majority of the subjects (n=21; 70%) had more than 5 CMBs.Larger sized CMBs i.e. CMBs ≥5mm had a strong correlation with both hypertension and diabetes as compared to CMBs < 5mm. There was a higher frequency of patients with lobar CMBs (n=27, 90%) followed by the deep location (n=21, 70.%). In deep grey nuclei, majority of CMBs were seen in thalamic region (n=234; Mean ± SD = 3.49 ± 6.18) and in infratentorial location, more CMBs were seen in cerebellum (n=192; Mean ± SD = 2.87 ± 6.18). Hypertension and diabetes had a moderate correlation with CMBs in the deep grey nuclei location as well as infratentorial location. Conclusion: Due to increased detection of microbleeds we strongly recommend use of SWI as sequence of choice in microbleed detection. SWI offered greater reliability and sensitivity for CMB detection as compared to the T2*GRE sequence and is presently the gold standard modality for quantifying CMBs. CMBs may further indicate inappropriately treated hypertension and diabetes.

  9. Joseph Sawadogo and Jacques Simpore

    Sedation in the terminal phase of disease or outside any progressive pathology leads us today to rethink the paradigm of life, existence and destiny. This paper addresses the philosophical issue of the “desire to live” and the “un-willingness to live”. For any person – sick or not – who has no belief in “another” life, or in a superior being who is the master of their life, is it legitimate to force them to wait for their “death”? Should doctors or their relatives decide on their “life” and “death” by keeping them “alive” for the inevitable outcome? The current debate seems to make doctors and relatives of terminally ill patients feel guilty, accusing them of “deliberate-murder”; the State itself, by refusing to legalize euthanasia through sedation is accused of “moral-torture”. Among practitioners, the debate is no less heated and the arguments put forward on both sides – whether for terminal sedation or for the rejection of a form of “assisted suicide” – are shaking the philosophers in their reflection more than we think. Arguments such as “accomplished life” and “life fatigue” are increasingly raised and could justify the free choice of euthanasia by elderly people, or those tired of living! The aim of this article is threefold to1. lay the foundations of the contemporary debate on the progress of medicine in the management of physical and psychological pain/suffering; 2. help relatives in their duty to assist; and finally, 3. provide practitioners with benchmarks and points of reference, respecting the Hippocratic Oath, and their duties as humanists.

  10. Ouattara L.H., Kabran G.R.M., Konan K.M., Koffi K.L., Koffi K.E. Mamyrbekova-Bekro J.A. and Bekro Y.A.

    The phytochemical composition of the methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata stems harvested in Dabakala (Côte d’Ivoire) was determined by GC-MS. The results revealed the presence of carboxylic acids with an abundance of gallic, vanillic, 2-methyl-2-hydroxypropanoic and palmitic acids. Biological tests have shown that P. pinnata stems not only have significant hemolytic and analgesic activities, but also have relatively low toxicity. Therefore, it can be concluded that the biological potential of P. pinnata stems is related to its phytochemical composition.

  11. Tovo S. Frida, Ouattara Abdoul Karim, Zohoncon M. Theodora, Obiri-Yeboah Dorcas, Yonli A. Theophane, Djigma W. Florencia, Sangaré Lassana and Simpore Jacques

    Background: Vaginal infections remain a major public health problem in Burkina Faso. A retrospective study was conducted at Saint Camille Hospital of Ouagadougou (HOSCO) to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with vaginal infections in women seen at gynecological consultation between 2015 and 2018. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of women seen at gynecological consultation for vaginal infections at HOSCO from June 2015 to June 2018.The antibiogram and antifongigram of microorganisms isolated were determined using standard procedures. Results: The study population consisted of 4168 women aged 10 to 65 years with a mean of 29.0 ± 7.8. The overall prevalence of vaginal infections was 83.2% (3469/4168) in the study population with 517 cases of coinfections. Women from 19 to 45 years accounted for 92.8% of the study population and was the most exposed to C. albicans (p <0.001) and Escherichia coli (p = 0.002). More than 50.0% (1770/3469) of yeast infections with 70.3% (1245/1770) of Candida albicans and 29.7% (525/1770) of Candida spp. were found while Enterococcus spp. was involved in 15.9% of vaginal infections. Antifongigram revealed higher sensitivity for Nystatin, Econazole, Clotrimazole and Miconazole. The highest resistance rates were observed for Fluconazole, Miconazole and Amphotericin B. Conclusion: This study has shown that Candida albicans and Enterococcus spp. are the most common pathogens involved in lower genital tract infections in women in Ouagadougou. We also report increased resistance to Fluconazole, Miconazole and Amphotericin B and suggests surveillance of antimicrobial resistance for better management of patients.

  12. Marika Julina Hutabarat, Rahayu Lubis and Erna Mutiara

    Background: HIV continues to be a major global public health issue, UNAIDS having claimed more than 1,7millions women in Asia living with HIV and 90% being infected from husband or their sexual partner. Huria Batak Kristen Protestan (HKBP) AIDS Ministry as church committe who handled HIV-AIDS cases claimed than 603 people living with HIV and 138 died from HIV related causes and 6,8% cases among Batakness housewives. Being people who living with HIV causes not only dealing with disease conditions but also a very discriminatory social stigma. This stigma and discrimination often causes a decline in the quality of life of housewives. Objects: To determine and explore the quality of life among Batakness housewives with HIV who take antiretroviral therapy in term of physical, social, psychological and environmental aspects. Methods: The research used qualitative method (cases study design), with 7 informants who take ARV therapy ≥ a year in January to May 2019. The data were gathered by conducting in-depth interviews and documentary study and analyzed by using content analysis. Results: The result of the research showed that the QOL in physical aspects was good because the subjects realized the importance of maintaining physical health as PLHAs by taking ARV medicine on time so that there were no opportunistic infections that appeared. Social, psychological and environmental aspects it was low where the results of the study show that housewives with HIV lack social and social relationships and lack social support from their families and surrounding people which illustrates that there is still a lot of stigma and discrimination experienced by housewives. Negative stigma and discrimination were still experienced by Batakness housewives with HIV which had an impact on their low quality of life. Conclusion: It is recommended to increase good communication and community support especially a family to accept them to increase the quality of life among housewives who infected HIV.

  13. Dr. Anandita Sengupta, Dr.Varsha Pandit, Dr. Pooja Gandhe, Dr. Nirmitee Gujrathi, and Dr. Shweta Chaubey

    The use of rubber dam is considered as the standard of care by professional organizations. The role of microorganisms in causing root canal infection is well known and the importance of eliminating them from the root canal system for successful root canal treatment. The use of rubber dam provides absolute dryness of the field, better control of cross-infection, prevents soft tissue contact of chemicals, and improves treatment efficiency. However, recently by the introduction of many newer variations, its use in endodontics has been made easy. The purpose of this paper is to review the advances in rubber dam materials and discuss their possibilities to use in endodontics.

  14. Garba Muhammad, Abubakar Musa and Ibrahim Babagana Shehuri

    The creation of Nigeria-Niger common boundary cannot be treated outside the larger history of colonialism. The intrusion of the colonial powers in to Africa and their desire to achieve the greater possible benefits of the land, labour and capital of foreign land has indeed affected Africa negatively. The resultant effect of this is the division and disruption of lands and tribes of Africa into different socio-economic and political formations, living side by side. It also destroyed the continuity nature of several natural regions of Africa. This paper examines the implications of boundary demarcation between Nigeria and Niger, making of the border, nature and dynamics of economic activities carried out between Nigeria and Niger Republic.

  15. Jancy Rani, D. and Dr. Vijayanchali, S.S.

    Background: Tomato, Grape fruit, Pink guava and Watermelon as a well known promising source of multiple beneficial nutrients for human beings. Processing of fruits by-products potentially represents a rich source of phenolic compounds. Fruit seeds which are generally discarded as waste in the environment, can act as potential nutraceutical resources. Due to their low cost and easy availability such wastes are capable of offering significant low-cost nutritional dietary supplements. The utilization of these bioactive rich fruit seeds can provide an efficient, inexpensive, and environment friendly platform for the production of novel nutraceuticals or for the improvement of older ones. This study summarized the potential components present in fruit seeds, which generally discarded as waste. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to carry out the drying process in seed (Tomato, Grapes, Watermelon and Pink Guava); to determine the nutrient composition of fruit seed powder: to analyze the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis: and to find out the antioxidant activity of the seed powder. Materials and Methods: Seeds were separated and placed in trays and kept in cabinet dryer and the temperature was maintained at 600 for 7 hours. After the heat treatment ground in to a coarse powder and stored in a well closed container free from environmental climatic changes till usage. Nutrient Composition of the seed powder was analyzed by standard procedures. Phytochemical such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenol, saponin, tannin, terpenoids, quinons, phlobatannins and steroids were analysed. Quantitative phytochemical test such as Alkaloids, Flavonoids and Total Phenol were done. UV spectrometry was used to do Lycopene analysis. DPPH method was used to find the antioxidant activity. Results and Discussion: Watermelon seed (68.57) and Grape seed (68.57) having high flavanoid. When compared with other fruit seed powder watermelon seed powder contains the high nutrient composition (Moisture 3.56 %, Ash 6.0 g, Protein 35.27g, Fat 23.89 g, Vitamin- A 85.0 mg, Vitamin- C 8.80 mg, Iron 5.04 mg , Calcium 57.0 mg) except carbohydrate (46.59 g) and Crude Fibre (10.1 g).

  16. Raffaele Perez and Pedro García Martinez

    The testimony of Comendadoras Monastery of Madrid restorer, Emanuela Gambini, makes us reflect on the importance of the study and knowledge of the historical Memory that lies behind the heritage. His continuous search to understand the reasons that have conceived the historical heritage object of its restoration makes us witness the rich cultural background that the architect possesses, loving for his own saying of the old stones. In this article, we will understand how an architect who loves history uses it as an itinerary for the reconstruction of the renovated work in its strength and beauty, but that still keeps the spirit of the one who built it, restoring the heritage and its history.

  17. Dinku Gebeyehu and Workaferhaw Geleta

    This study addresses the issues of strategies related challenges of vocabulary teaching and learning in the context of CLTA. To this end, identifying strategies related challenges of vocabulary teaching and learning was taken as a general objective of the study. To achieve it, identifying students’ vocabulary learning strategies, disclosing students’ vocabulary learning strategies related challenges, revealing teachers’ vocabulary teaching strategies and pinpointing their vocabulary teaching strategies related challenges were designed as specific objectives. The study was conducted at Seka Secondary School by taking 221 students and seven teachers. In collecting data, questionnaire, interview and class room observation were used as instruments. The instruments’ validity and reliability were proved by pilot study. The data gathered via the aforementioned instruments were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. At the end of the analysis, students were found work individually, in small and large group as well, request their teacher, use an English-L1 dictionary, ask their classmates, use the new words in conversation and the new words according to their part of speech. Regarding vocabulary learning strategies related challenges, difficulty in finding the meaning of unfamiliar words from the context, discouragement’s when they don’t immediately understand what word means, words that they would normally understand in writing, but when they heard them in a stream of speech, they found it difficult to tell when one words finishes and other begins, difficult to recognize vocabulary the words they know because of the way they are pronounced and unfamiliar words like jargon, idioms difficult to be inferred were identified . Consequently, teachers are recommended to use various vocabulary teaching strategies while they are teaching new words to make the students effective in their vocabulary learning.

  18. Yann Christie S. Adjovi, Raoul Koulony, Ingrid Sonya M. Adjovi, Bidossessi Gildas Bokonon-Ganta M. and Ambaliou Sanni

    Food contaminants have many origins including soil, water and air. The latter environment may contain biological or non-biological particles that cause chronic respiratory disease and contaminate food exposed to it. Respiratory diseases rank fourth after cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases worldwide in the list of priority non-communicable diseases that are the leading cause of death in the world. Among the most frequent microbiological pollutants, some moulds are responsible for respiratory diseases. Thus, man is exposed to this danger both in homes and in some of his activities. Some trades are the most exposed and also constitute cross-contamination frameworks for food. This is the case for millers and grain mills. The work presented here focused on particulate and fungal contamination of the atmosphere of cereal mills in the city of Cotonou. The fungal flora contaminating the atmosphere of the mills was assessed on direct samples by gravitational thrust and the particle size was estimated by suction on a pump equipped with a filter. The identification of fungal species is carried out morphologically and their metabolites by TLC. At the end of the work, after isolation of the different strains, the fungal flora of these mills was mainly composed of fungal particles (spores and fragments) of moulds of the genus Rhizopus nigricans, Mucor spp., Alternaria sp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus section Flavi. The isolated particulate air contaminants were of different sizes but mostly ultra fine. With an inspired average load of 1.15 to 47.55 mg/min. The working conditions of millers could favour the development of chronic respiratory diseases and even certain types of cancers for sensitive subjects. The investigation of the toxinogenic nature of the Aspergillus of the Flavi section in the mill atmosphere identified 10 aflatoxin type B and 19 aflatoxin type B and 19 aflatoxin B and G producing strains and only one non-aflatoxinogen. This high fungal load could also be the basis for contamination of the cereals that are deposited in its mills.

  19. Sani Dantani MANGA, Ph.D

    This study assessed the causes and consequences of violation of child rights of pupils in primary school in KebbiState. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. Head masters and Primary School Teachers and Pupils in five education zones of Kebbi state in North Western Nigeria participated in the study. Primary school pupils who are central to this study were sampled because of their experience as victims of violation of child rights. To this end 500 participants made up of 50 out of 230 schools were Head masters deliberately selected 200 primary school teachers out of 1670 and 250 pupils out of 26800 were selected by stratification, cluster and simple random sampling technism for the study. The participants cut across urban and rural schools, private and public schools. An equal number of 10 schools were purposely selected from each of the five Education Zones to get 50 schools out of 230 schools self-designed structured questionnaire titled “Causes and Consequences of Child’s Right Violation Questionnaire” (CCCRVQ) was used for data collection. The instrument had three sections that captured the causes, consequence and management intervention strategies to be applied to uphold child right. Internal consistency of items was analysed using Crombach alpha coefficient which yield 0.78. A total of 250 copies of the instrument were administered to participants on the sport collection of completed questionnaire was used to obtain 100% return rate. The items were scored on four point Likert scale. Weighed means were used and a cut off mean of 2.50 and above was used for acceptance while mean below 2.50 indicated rejection. A Grand Mean was also calculated for overall accept are or rejection. Interview format was developed from the items on the questionnaire to elicit pupils responses. The pupils were interviewed by trained research assistants with the help of guidance counselors in each school. Findings of the study show that child right violation is caused by social economic, political and cultural factors. Violation of child right have negative consequence both on the individual and society at large. School managements must apply various intervention strategies to promptly address violation of child right in their domains.

  20. Sani Dantani MANGA, Ph.D

    Insecurity in schools is an international problem that is affecting all parts of the world and Nigeria in particular. To get the right antidote, the causes and forms of insecurity affecting schools must be correctly diagnosed. This paper therefore, assessed the causes and forms of insecurity in educational institutions in Kebbi State, Nigeria. In conducting this study a simple descriptive survey was adopted. Deliberate sampling was used to select 100 school administrators out of 460 comprising of headmasters, principals, provosts, rectors, and university administrators. The study also purposely selected 100 parents out of 1,870 represented by Chairmen of Parent Teachers Association (PTA) and School Based Management Committee (SBMC). Cluster and stratified random sampling techniques where used to select 300 out of 1,950 teachers cutting across the 50 schools which were selected from all the five Education Zones in Kebbi State to get a total sample of 500 participants. A researcher designed instrument titled Causes and Forms of Insecurity in Schools Questionnaire (CFISQ) was validated by experts in school security management. The instrument was pilot tested by test re-test method and reliability index of 0.71 was obtained using Crombatch Alpha Co-efficient at 0.05 level of significance. The instrument was based on an adopted four point Likert scale by which the Mean of 2.50 and above was used for acceptance, while below 2.50 was used for rejection. The findings of the study indicated that the cause of insecurity in schools included non-chalant attitude of some school administrators towards security matters, lack of a comprehensive and well disseminated school security policy, lack of execution of security duties by school security guards among others. It was also found the forms of insecurity prevalent in schools include physical attacks, abduction and rape among others. It was therefore recommended that school administrators should make school security their priority. They should identify peculiar forms of insecurity in their schools and devices preventive measures to protect the lives and properties of staff and students in their schools.

  21. Biljana Ilkovska, Bisera Kotevska Trifunova, Aleksandar Dimovski, Sandra Hristovska and Marina Ivanovska

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which has an estimated worldwide prevalence in adults of 0.8% and more frequently affects females, is characterized by joint inflammation and destruction and gives rise to functional limitations, working disability, and a poor quality of life. The etiology of this disease is unknown; however interaction between both genetic and environmental factors is thought to contribute to its occurrence. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examinate correlation between RF, CRP, Uric acid and Anti CCP in patients with join pain. Materials and Methods: This study was carried at the Department of medical biochemistry and Department of reumatologu of Public Health Organization Clinical hospital d-r Trifun Panovski in Bitola. Written informed consent was taken from all the subjects before undergoing any investigation. The research protocol was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration. Results: A total of 50 patients were available for this study and were included in the analysis. From 50 patients, 33 patients (66%) were female and 17 males (34%). The mean age of the cohort was 54 years old ranging from 28 to 84 years old. Serum concentration of anti CCP in all participants was in range <0,5 U/ml to 641 U/ml, mean 23,9 U/ml. Males serum concentration of Anti CCP was in range <0.5 U/ml to 189 U/ml, mean 14,78 U/ml. Females serum concentration of Anti CCP was in range <0.5 U/ml to 641 U/ml, mean 28.7 U/ml. A significant association of RF and anti-CCP antibody co-occurrence was observed: Positive for both RF and anti-CCP antibody were 7 patients (5 female and 2 males). RF-positive/anti-CCP antibody-negative were 12 patients (9 female and 2 males). RF-negative/anti-CCP antibody-positive were 2 female patients. Discussion: We found a significant association of RF and Anti CCP in 36 of 50 patients with arthralgia, which is in a correlation with previous studies. We found that female patients safer frequent from arthralgia compare to males which is in a correlation with previous studies. Conclusion: The usage of anti-CCP antibody is useful in the detection of early disease as evidenced by significant association between anti-CCP antibody and RF.

  22. Nisha Chauhan, Arpita Suri, Nitu Choudhary, Sanjiv Kumar Bansal, Ashok Kumar Shah and Busi Karunanand

    Background & Objectives: Chronic alcohol consumption has long been associated with progressive liver disease from steatosis to inflammation, development of hepatic cirrhosis, and the subsequent increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study focusses on alcohol induced oxidative stress associated with imbalance between oxidants and anti-oxidant defense system leading to molecular damage. Materials & Methods: In this case-control study, clinically diagnosed patients of Alcoholic liver disease (n=50) and age matched healthy controls (n=50) were enrolled.The levels of AST, ALT, AST/ALT ratio, ALP, serum protein, Malondialdehyde, Superoxide dismutase and Glutathione Peroxidase were estimated in both the groups and compared using Independent student’s t-test. Results: The levels of AST, ALT, AST/ALT ratio, ALP, Malondialdehyde, Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione Peroxidase were significantly higher in cases as compared to controls whereas the levels of serum total proteins were significantly lower in cases as compared to controls. Interpretation & Conclusion: The study suggests that oxidative stress may be one of the contributing factor in the pathogenesis of ALD as indicated by increase in level of oxidants and decrease in level of antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, antioxidant supplement should be a part of the management of ALD as it would help in lowering the oxidative stress and the resulting peroxidation.

  23. Sadykov, R.A., Ismailov, B.A. and Marufkhonov, O.N.

    The study determined the hemostatic activity of import-substituting hemostatic material of local action, obtained as a result of oxidation of unregenerated cellulose, in models of laboratory animals (outbred dogs).It was established that the studied sample of oxidized cellulose has hemostatic and aerostatic activity, which in its indicators is comparable to that for the well-known material “Heprocel”:its use after applying a model of cut wound to the right lungs of dogs led to a decrease in the intensity of blood loss by 25% of the severity of spontaneously stopping bleeding, and the time to stop bleeding was 330 ± 35 s

  24. Mazurkin, P.M. and Kudryashova, A.I.

    Of the many meteorological parameters of the site weather station identified 27 quantitative factors from 01/05/2018 (bud break) to 20/08/2018 (the moment of maximum growth at the best registered birch leaves). The coefficient of correlation variation, that is, the measure of the functional relationship between weather parameters is 0.2754. As the influencing variable in the first place «Dew point temperature», in the second –«Maximum gust of wind». The same parameters were leading in the rating indicators. Only six strong patterns turned out between nine meteorological parameters with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.7. Two more formulas with an average adequacy between air temperature and dew point temperature. Of greatest significance are the maximum gust of wind and wind speed at 0.9339 and 0.9321. The coefficient of correlative variation increased instead of 0.2754 for trends to 0.3135 with wavelet dynamics. The azimuth in the dynamics does not move at all, which indicates the independence of the geographical factor, measured by points, from the meteorological parameters. The remaining parameters of wind and wind gusts require a reduction in measurement error. When modeling with trends and wavelets, relative humidity was the first among influencing variables, and dew point temperature was second. In third place was the pressure tendency of atmospheric pressure. Among the indicators in the first place remained the temperature of the dew point, the second - the relative humidity of the air, the third - the maximum gust of wind. For the growth stage of birch leaves, the most important meteorological parameters are air humidity and dew point temperature.

  25. Dr. Krishna Kumar, Dr. Ashwini Desai, Dr. Vinod VC, Dr. Jyotsna Patel, Dr. Nikhil Diwan and Dr. Rashmi Sapkal

    Background: Soft tissues calcifications and ossifications are incidental findings seen in the digital panoramic radiographs. These are usually asymptomatic but can be a diagnostic aid for some calcifications which are life threatening and the underlying cause requires treatment. Aim of the study to estimate prevalence of soft tissue calcifications and ossifications in digital panoramic radiographs (OPGs) Objectives: 1.To estimate the prevalence of soft tissue calcifications seen on digital OPGs. 2. To evaluate incidence of calcifications like phleboliths, antroliths, carotid artery calcifications ,stylohyoid ligament ossifications etc. on digital OPGs. 3. To estimate and compare the prevalence of calcifications in males and females. Materials and Method: 1750 random digital panoramic radiographs of the individuals aged between 35 to 80 years of region Western Maharashtra who visited dental institution were evaluated retrospectively and were scrutinized for calcifications according to gender, age and site. Results: Out of 1750 radiographs the number of radiographs with evidence of calcification was 210 out of which 131 were of females and 79 were males. It was a double blind study. Two maxillofacial radiologists cross checked the radiographs. In this study stylohyoid ligament calcifications was found more in number among which 74 were females & 27 males average of 9.9% followed by 7.6% of atherosclerotic plaque, 0.9% of antroliths and lymph node calcifications, 0.7% of rhinoliths and tonsilloliths and 0.1% of phleboliths. Since the site selected in the study was predetermined, the calcifications are recorded accordingly. Statistical analysis: Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software) (v 22.0, IBM). The estimation of presence of calcification with comparison of findings between males and females was analyzed using Chi-square test(p value = 0.01) and considered to be statistically significant. Mean age of participants with calcification was 49.01. Conclusion: Stylohyoid ligament calcifications were found highest in number in this study followed by carotid artery calcification. Some of these calcifications may indicate presence of some systemic diseases. This makes the OPG an instrumental tool in saving a patient's life.

  26. Zeeshan A Wani, Shaheen N Lone and Muzzafer Mir, M.

    Background: The Hyperplastic polyps (HPP) where the most common histopathological type of gastric polyps all over world. This was attributed to its association to the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) globally. Patients with HPP have low but definite chances of future malignancies in polyps and background gastric mucosa. The present study was intended to evaluate the associations and determine the patterns of HPP in our population in Kashmir. Methods: The medical record of all patients who had gastric polyps on esophagogastroduodenoscopy in 3 centers in Kashmir from 2011-2018 were reviewed. The data of all patient diagnosed to have HPP on histopathology of gastric polyps were compiled. Their demographic particulars, comprising age, gender, weight, presenting complaints, smoking habit, the anatomic site of polyp and size, Helicobacter pylori infection and the histopathology of the background mucosa were examined and analyzed. Results: Of the 757 patients studied, 480 (63.4%) were male and 277 (36.6%) were female. Mean age was 50 ±14.67 years with the range of 13 to 89 years. Most of the patients where over-weight with mean weight of 68.32±13.474and 25.36% were smokers. Dyspepsia was the most frequent presenting complaint in 468(61.8%) patients. Antrum was commonest anatomic site of HPP (n= 390, 51.5 %) and 549(72.5%) polyps were of size less than 1cm. H. Pylori gastritis was most common type of gastritis in background mucosa (45.7%, n = 346).Apart from HP gastritis, 108(14.2%) had chronic inactive gastropathy (CIG); 40 (5.28%) had reactive gastritis (RG); 37 (4.8%) had intestinal metaplasia (IM); 2 (0.26%) had Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHTG). Conclusions.HPP was more common in males and was associated with smoking in one quarter of patients. Most of the polyps were of size less than 1cm and located in antrum. HP gastritis was most common type of gastritis in HPP.

  27. Muhammad Ishtiaq, Umar and Muhammad Ali and Ihsan Ullah

    Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) provides live TV channels to users over IP in the form of streaming. Since each channel is transmitted on request, there is always the problem of delay between channel changes. The channel switching delay is familiar problem in digital television and widely researched in the context of IPTV systems. Several solutions have been proposed to reduce this delay. A few popular solutions suggest transmitting more than one channel to users at the same time. However, choosing these channels is not trivial as the next channel a user will switch to is not known. In this paper, we analyze machine learning approaches to predict the next channel of the user. Such a prediction can be useful in design of frameworks for reducing the channel switching delay. We have performed our experiments on dataset collected from an operational system on which the Multilayer Perceptron(MLP) model produces better accuracy.

  28. Inocencia M. Cañon and Michael Malachy Dagami

    In this paper, the researchers used the Complex Adaptive System (CAS) to identify the complex adaptive behavior that is found between the human development index and internet users. Specifically, the study determined the emergence of the self-regulation of the internet usage by the human development index. It is also conceptualized in terms of the stabilizing factors of the human development index on internet usage and self-regulated control of the use of the internet. To get the synergy of interacting agents, the synergy calculator was used. A histogram of the frequencies versus the number of connections was drawn using the statistical software and finally identified the three clusters with equal frequency. The results show that a country’s regulatory approach to the Internet can have a massive impact on its ubiquitousness throughout the country. It merely indicates the fact that for a quick-moving industry like the internet, it depends on the human development level of agents. The increasing internet use affects the HDI. The findings reveal that internet users with high self - regulation would provide less time to social network sites. Self – regulated internet users will control accessing for internet usage when they know that they could not get any benefit from using it. However, it additionally shows that the majority of internet users were ambivalent towards regulating the extent of internet usage and because of this ambivalence to self-regulate there is a likelihood to the internet users to the urge to access connections of internet.

  29. Nagwaya Annet

    In recent years, the world has faced significant failures of many giant firms and with major scandals pointing to inadequate corporate governance (Ali, 2016). The Banking sector was also a victim of such shortcomings. In the current time, the financial crisis in the banking sector is a common issue around the world (Ataur & Jahurul 2018). However, investigation of the root cause of these failures has revealed that among other factors, these scandals are primarily attributed to inadequate corporate governance practices as Ataur and Jahurul (2018) affirm. Accordingly, issues relating to Corporate governance have received heightened attention in empirical studies and scholarly works. This paper examined the impact of corporate governance (CG) of commercial banks in Uganda from the case of DFCU Bank LTD. The main objectives were: 1.To establish the effect of corporate transparency on the performance of DFCU bank LTD. 2. To examine the effect of commitment to corporate governance on the performance of DFCU bank LTD. Since the study was dealing with perceptions, data collection was done using a closed-ended questionnaire for the aspects of corporate governance considered in this study and items relating to bank performance. From the regression and correlation, analysis, there is a positive relationship between transparency in financial management and Overall performance of DFCU.This implies that employees whose perceptions of Transparency in financial management were positive were also likely to report higher levels of bank performance. There is also a positive relationship between Commitment to Corporate Governance and Overall performance of DFCU. This implies that bank performance is high where Corporate Governance are discussed in the Annual report, CG policy or manual is readily available to the staff, core values of the bank are communicated in writing to employees and so on.

  30. Vladimir Radevski, Biljana Ilkovska, Ana Marija Radevska, Bisera Kotevska Trifunova, Aleksandar Dimovski, Sandra Hristovska and Marina Ivanovska

    Introduction: Hepatitis B infection is a common cause of chronic liver disease. The World Health Organization estimates that 257 million people are living with hepatitis B. In 2015, over 800,000 deaths worldwide were attributed to complications of hepatitis B infection. Hepatitis C virus is a globally prevalent pathogen and a leading cause of death and morbidity, is a major cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The most recent estimates of disease burden show an increase in seroprevalence over the last 15 years to 2.8%, equating to >185 million infections worldwide. Materials and Methods: This study was carried at the Department of medical biochemistry in Public Health Organization Clinical hospital d-r Trifun Panovski in Bitola. The serum was separated and HCV and HBs Ag were measured using Abbot Architect CI 4100 analyzer. Results: A total of 661 patients were examineated. The mean age of the cohort was 41 years old, ranging from 0 to 90 years old. Analysis of the results showed that 129 patients were reactive of the virus: 43 patients are HBsAg reactive (22 males and 21 females), 81 patients are anti-HCV reactive (65 males and 16 females), 4 patients are HBsAg + anti-HCV reactive (male). Discusion: In our country the rate of HCV and HBV cases is constantly increasing. This is evidenced by data from our research showing a 1% increase in cases compared to 2016. Seriously worrying is the fact that in 2018 there are 30 more patients, newly infected with hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis B virus has been proven to have several subtypes, but unfortunately it has not yet been detected in our country. Conclusion: Hepatitis B and C infections are a serious health and social problem. They affect the quality of life of the whole family, not just the person who carries the disease. It is necessary to educate the population at an early age on how to transmit and direct young people to healthy lifestyles, sports and contraceptive use.

  31. Dr. Sumathy Muniamuthu and Ramsun Vinoth, R.

    There is a significant importance to improve the productivity and tool life as preferred by the manufacturers. The most emerging needs of modern metal cutting operations are to increase the Material Removal Rate with surface finish and high accuracy. These objectives can be achieved by reducing the tool wear rate, this rate of tool wear can be reduced by the reduction of heat generated during the metal removal process. This reduction of heat generated can be done by use of coolant for more effective cooling a special sub cooling process known as cryogenic cooling is used while machining.

  32. Dr. Amod Hansdak, Dr. Bhuvaneswary, Mr.Vincent, Dr. Newtonraj, Dr. Manikandan, Dr. Joy Bazroy and Dr. Anil J Purty

    Background of the study: An estimated 253 million people live with vision impairment: 36 million are blind and 217 million have moderate to severe vision impairment in the World. (1) Around 81% of people who are blind or have moderate or severe vision impairment are aged 50 years and above. Methodology: The survey was conducted in rural villages of Kanchipuram district in the service areas of Chunampet Rural health training centre .Post-cataract surgery operated individuals were interviewed to assess the functional ability in performing the common daily-activities. Results: A total of 100 post-cataract surgery operated individuals were interviewed of which 59% were females and 41% were males . Most of the study participants were farmers by occupation. Unilateral cataract is the most common cause of visual impairment among the study participants. The majority of the study participants were able to perform their common daily activities by themselves without any hindrance. Conclusion: The burden of performing cataract surgery in rural areas and unreached, remote communities still remains a challenge for health planning and health service providers. Health manpower development and services to meet these growing needs remains a future necessity.

  33. Dr. Debkamal Kar and Dr.Sohini Banerjee

    Lichen planus is chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease usually affecting older individuals but may also affect the children in rare instances. Although,the incidences of the lichen planus in children are a few and mostly reported in Asian countries. This case would highlight about the occurrence of lichen planus in a nine year old girl child with its clinical and histopathological characteristics.

  34. Susy Arissani, Yulastri Arif and Eka Roza Wijaya

    The phenomenon is Burnout found in almost all health professions, including nursing. The phenomenon of Burnout has affected the performance of nurses in both public and private hospitals. This study aims to analyze and compare Burnout in nursing managers in state and private hospitals in Batam City. The type of research uses quantitative research with a comparative study approach. The total sample of 91 people consisted of 55 nursing managers at the State Hospital and 36 people at the Private Hospital. Univariate data analysis, in addition to demographic variables using the median value, is further categorized. Bivariate analysis using chi-square test and multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regressions. Results of research Variables relating to Burnout in nursing managers in state hospitals are the age variable (value p = 0.007), gender (value p = 0.042), marital status (value p = 0.042) and character of work (value p = 0.040) <α = 0.05. Variables related to Burnout in nursing managers in the private sector are age (value p = 0.017), gender (value p = 0.045), marital status (value p = 0.021) and organizational character (value p = 0.041) <α = 0, 05. Age factor is the most influential factor in burnout nursingmanagers in both public and private hospitals. Suggestions for Service Institutions are expected to create a good and conducive organizational climate so that Burnout in nursing managers can be reduced.

  35. Abraham Belay, Shanjun Mao and Mei Li

    Today, morethan one million people worldwide use GIS for thousands of different purposes, while the use of modern geospatial information for our daily use is still in its infant stage in Ethiopia. By combining geographic information with descriptive information you will be able to view the business information from a completely new perspective. The Geospatial Platform can effectively support problem solving and policy formulation for the complex issues facing our Nation. Issues and events that affect the economy, employment, the environment, public health and welfare, security, and quality of life will benefit from the decision support tools, shared applications, visualization, and trusted geospatial data made available through the Geospatial Platform.Whether one country is implementing geospatial information system for the first time or not it is very important to define its national geospatial governance and architecture for its national geospatial platform. Defining business and technological architectures for the national geospatial platform will enable participatory information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design, and collaboration. Therefore, defining appropriate business architecture for national geospatial platform for Ethiopia has never been more important than now, as government agencies start to invest significant resources in geospatial data, services, technology, and expertiseto support their daily business operations. This study paper offers business architecture for the national geospatial platform of Ethiopia based on the definedgeospatial enterprise architectural principles and national governance stratures.

  36. Moses B. Mochiah, Kofi Frimpong-Anin, Ibrahim Adama and Augustine A. Darkwah

    Background: This trial evaluated efficacy and effective dosage of Sauveur 62 EC (Acetamiprid 32g/L + lambda-cyhalothrin 30g/L) insecticide for management of fall armyworm (FAW) Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on maize crop. Methods: The trial was conducted in two ecological zones: forest (Kwadaso) and forest-savanna transitional (Ejura). Three rates of the insecticide were tested, comprising manufacturer’s recommended dose (60ml/15L of water), and 10% increment (66ml/ 15L of water) and decrement (54ml/15L of water). Bypel at rate 15g/15L of water was used as standard insecticide. Larval fall armyworm (FAW) population, leaf damage, plant height and phytotoxicity were assessed. Maize yield was determined by assessing kernel rows/cob, number of kernels/row, yield/plant and yield/ha. Results: Larval mortality on three Sauveur 62 EC rates and Bypel were significantly higher than untreated plots, with high and medium rates recording 100% within 2 days after treatment. Phytotoxicity was strong, medium and slight for Sauveur 62 EC at rate 66ml, 60ml and 54ml per 15L of water. Bypel and control showed no phytotoxicity. Similar number of kernel rows/cob and number of kernels per row were recorded on both treated and control plots. Yield/plant and yield/ha were however higher on treated plots with 60ml/15L rates of the test insecticide giving the best results, although this was significantly lower than Bypel. Conclusion: Sauveur 60 EC at rate of 60ml/15L of water is effective in managing fall armyworm.

  37. Namirimu Beatrice Doreen and Tao Xi

    This is a conceptual paper and its primary goal is to assess the role of corporate branding in the promotion of sustainable business in Uganda. The new challenges of doing business in the 21st century coupled with the increasing demand of various stakeholders for firms and companies to consider the social and environmental problems associated with company’s activities have made the concept of sustainable business a favored option. This study holds that corporate branding can be a prudent resource and process to arrive at a viable industry in Uganda, and it draws on key literature relating to corporate branding, sustainability and sustainable marketing. It develops a framework that explains and aligns the drivers of corporate brand and reputation. Practical implications- companies will be able to use the structure to help them utilize the corporate brand as a resource for sustainable business, including creating a competitive advantage that ensures the company’s longevity.

  38. Onwunyi, Ugochukwu Mmaduabuchi and Ezeifegbu, Vitus Ugochukwu

    This study examines the effects of identity politics on nation building in Nigeria with specific reference to Goodluck Jonathan Administration between 2010 and 2015. The pluralistic nature and character of the Nigerian state has led to several agitations; politically, socio-culturally and economically. The Goodluck Jonathan administration witnessed such agitations which are believed in one way or the other negatively shaped his very government and administration. This study is qualitative as well as descriptive in nature as data was collected through the secondary sources such as textbooks, journals, newspapers, periodicals and the internet. Utilizing the group theory as an analytic framework, the study interrogates the effects of ethnicity and religion on the nation building efforts of Goodluck Jonathan administration. Findings from the study revealed that, identity politics which are evident in religious alignment, ethnic sentiments as well as cultural differentiations have continually frustrated any nation building agenda in Nigeria. It was discovered that identity politics actually accounted for the ethnic based voting in Nigeria under Goodluck Jonathan. This study equally revealed that identity politics in no small measure heightened Boko Haram insurgency under Goodluck Jonathan. This study therefore recommends that the National Assembly should empower the election management body through the creation of a legal framework for the disqualification of any presidential candidate who or whose party engages in any form of propaganda that promotes one ethnic or religious group over the other. Finally, Nigerians must come to the realization that using violence to resolve whatever grievances they may have against the state and other persons or groups will only make her worse off as lives that were wasted cannot be recovered and property destroyed would take a long time to rebuild.

  39. Narimon Dekhkonov

    In the article, the author explains that the process of modernization of the political system of society in Uzbekistan is an intensive continuation and mechanical use of the experience of state power in our country is not appropriate - historical traditions, psychics, mentalities and differences in living standards are also relevant. Therefore, some aspects of the issue, national originality must be taken into account. Western and Eastern ethics are also associated with cultural differences in attitude to government. The social stability in our country, the respect between the public and the government, the Sharka violence, the seriousness and the respect for adults inherent in our people are in harmony with ancient values such as preventing situations that occur in the West. After all, modern democracy is connected with the system of legal state and institutions of self-government, which state power can be established through the establishment and strengthening of democracy (state power) in all social spheres.

  40. Sunanda Deb, Puja Bansal and Deepak Bharagava

    Osteomas are benign osteogenic lesions with very slow growth, which may arise from proliferation of either cancellous or compact bone. In the jaw, these are uncommon lesions. Osteoma usually asymptomatic and it is often detected incidentally on routine radiographic examination or until it causes facial asymmetry or dysfunction. The objective of this article is to present the radiographic features and histological features of one case of osteoma in the buccal and lingual site of the mandibular angle. We report a case of osteoma originating from the buccal and lingual surface of the mandible in a 26 -year-old woman along with a brief review of the literature.

  41. Rajesh Kumar Yadav, Shweta Singh, Priya Chaurasiya, Kavita, Sadhana and Neda Fatima

    Cardiovascular disease is a medical condition which are blocking the blood vessels can cause the heart attack, angina pectoris, heart stroke, myocardial infraction and arrhythmia. Many times people are reckless in nature and taken huge amount of smoking, does not pay attention on its own obesity and there is following factors which enhancing the rate of cardiovascular disease. Heart attack are widely occur in human populations and they are following category of heart attack such as heart failure, atrial fabrillation etc. They have following stages and following agents are taken to prevent from this disease. Angioplasty is technique it is mainly used in valvular disease by which help to open the blood vessels that supply blood to your muscles of heart. Heart attack patients are suffer from various difficulties such as chest pain, sweating, nausea, vomiting, weakness, dizziness, anxiety and shortness of breath and most of the common symptom are irregular heart beat. A thin soft tubes called catheter are used in this technique. This technique help to relive from angina and other cardiovascular disease. Angioplasty and related technique are also knowns as percutaneous ( transdermal , transdermic, transcutaneous, coronary intravention.Angioplasty is a process in which a constrict of the coronary artery become wider angioplasty is involving minimally invasive and has a few recover time than by surgery. Then increase blood flow in the heart muscles but need for the chest surgery.

  42. Dr. Aman Abrol, Dr. Neha Abrol, Dr. Neera Ohri, Dr. Sukhwinder Singh Rana and Dr. Shubrath Sharma

    Aim: To compare the shear bond strength of three different linersto nanocomposite restorative material. Material and method: Twenty sound human posterior teeth extracted for periodontal and orthodontic reasons were selected and sectioned mesiodistally to obtain forty samples. Class V cavities of specified dimensions were prepared on 30 samples using a straight fissure diamond bur with high speed hand piece under air water spray. After cavity preparation specimens were divided into three groups on the basis of liner used to fill the cavities, Group 1- filled with resin-modified glass ionomer, Group 2- filled with SDR liner, Group 3- filled with flowable composite liner.Remaining 10 samples were wet ground with a polishing paper to expose superficial layer of dentin and considered as control group. The prepared samples in each group were then bonded witha cylinder of nanocomposite. Shear bond strength was determined using Instron universal testing machine. The data was analyzed statistically.

  43. Priya singh and Neda fatima

    Due to various reasons like abnormal and unusual food habits, life styles and stress of various nature and origin, hyperlipidemia has become a common feature of the world in general and of developed countries in particular. This problem is affecting the human health and working potential of a large population and also threatening the life of many. Large quantum of work has been carried out worldwide to overcome this problem of the potent hypolipidemic agent screened; many plants are of Indian origin. Hyperlipidemia causes atherosclerosis which is a major cause of death in the world. In India atherosclerosis is also becoming a major disease with changing life styles and increasing stresses. Population studies and clinical trials have shown a strong relation between hyperlipidemia and coronary heart diseases. An increased risk of coronary heart disease is associated with a high serum concentrations of total cholesterol low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides.On the other hand, low serum concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is also responsible for coronary heart diseases.

  44. Amarech Alaye Admasu

    Reading is not only a cognitive, psycholinguistic activity, but also a social activity. Reading is a complex cognitive process requiring visual, auditory and motor skills to enable a child to recognize words and symbols, to associate them with the appropriate sounds and to invest them with meaning derived from previous experience. Reading achievement is related to the skill of the teacher, and that the child taught by untrained, inexperienced and unskilled teachers tend to be especially backward in reading (Reid and Donaldson, 1977).Lovett, Steinbach and Frijters (2000) state that a reading difficulty is an individual’s failure to acquire rapid, context-free word identification skills, whilst for Shaywitz and Shaywitz (2004) it is characterized as an unexpected obstacle in reading for children who possess the intelligence, motivation and education necessary for developing accurate and fluent reading. The term ‘reading difficulties’ is, in most instances, equated or used synonymously with ‘reading problems’, and in the context of this review the former refers to problems associated with reading, whether it be the mechanical skill of the reading process or the comprehension of what is being read. There are many different and usually very complex factors affecting learners’ different reading levels, some of which are beyond the school influence (Geske and Ozola, 2008). Socio-economic factors exacerbating reading difficulties in Ethiopian schools are: family conditions, poverty, instability, resources, teacher competence and attitude towards education (MoE, 1994). Hence, this review helps to fill the gap by reviewing the student’s status of reading proficiency or difficulty in English language among grade six students, which is the transition to the grade level where the medium of instruction is English. Moreover, the possible measures for student reading difficulty problems were explored.

  45. Fitriani, Teungku Nih Farisni, Veni Nella Syahputri, Lily Arsanty Lestari and Siti Helmyati

    Family can provide complimentary food (CF) by using local ingredients with the nutritional standards set by the government which are a minimum of energy of 400 Kcal, protein of 15-22 grams, and 10-15% of fat. The utilization of local food such as rice, catfish and spinach as the main ingredients can increase the nutrient content of children under five. This study aimed to analyse the nutrient content of the CF of beleyam (a mixture of rice, catfish and chicken) and its chemical properties. The method used in this study was experimental method with proximate analysis test of protein, fat, calories, crude fibre, ash and water. The result of the CF of beleyam cereal study showed a fat level of 10.53%, protein of 18.75%, calorie of 400.92, water limit of 3.48, fibre of 1.52, and ash of 1.94. The CF of beleyam cereal has a fairly good nutritional content in fulfilling the nutrition needs of under-five children.

  46. Ayodele A. Otaiku

    Materials science developments are often invisible to users of technology, but they are at the heart of so many important advances. Materials research and development is a global pursuit. It covers a broad set of science and engineering disciplines and engages researchers across academia, industry and government laboratories. Value added materials (VAMs) are products whose worth is based on their performance or functionality, rather than their composition. They can be single entities or formulations/combinations of several materials whose composition sharply influences the performance and processing of the end product. Products and services in the materials industry require intensive knowledge, innovation and commodities due to technological developments. The frontiers of materials research have been taken to the next level by the availability of technologies allowing the tailoring of material structure at the nanoscale and by the development of material systems made up of components with nanoscale dimensions. Materiomics takes a materials science perspective toward complex biological systems, explicitly accounting for feedback loops that link functional requirements (and changes thereof) to altered material components and structure, at different scales in both time and length. Materials research seeks to understand fundamental physical and chemical properties, and then use that understanding to improve the technology base that we count on to meet our needs for energy, national security and defense, information technology and telecommunications, consumer products, health care, and more. This means investing in the leading-edge research and educating the next generations of scientists and engineers needed to secure the VAMs for emerging technologies for 21st century is requirement for modernity and development.

  47. Vladimir M. Zemskov, Alexey V. Chzhao, Konstantin N. Pronko, Dmitry A. Ionkin, Marya N. Kozlova, Alexander A. Barsukov, Valentina S. Demidova, and Andrey M. Zemskov

    The cryosurgery used in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer improved their quality of life, but mainly because of the pain relief. In postoperative patients, multifaceted changes in immunity were found, and the state of the immune system prior surgery often was a decisive factor to indicate whether further disorders in the postoperative period would be developing or by contrast, it would boost its recovery. Some patients receiving cryosurgery showed immune system imbalance and activation, and of antitumor immunity in particular. It has been suggested that advisability of immunotropic therapy for specific treatment algorithm should be predicted or the therapy should be suspended at some pathologic stage, and this has been immunologically confirmed. The cryosurgery should be considered as a reasonable alternative to the existing types of surgery for pancreatic cancer or as an essential component of the multimodal therapy, consisting of topical cryosurgery, chemotherapy, and immunotropic therapy, to boost antitumor immunity and to discontinue cytoreductive therapy due to its toxic effects.

  48. Maria Morena de la Pena

    This paper assumes that the linearity of morphemes and phonemes is revealed in the linguistic structure of the textuality of King Solomon’s Book of Proverbs. This assumption is supported by Corder’s theory of linear grammar, which treats the sentences of a language as a “string” of grammatical categories like beads in a necklace or alternatively as a series of “slots” to be filled by words of category appropriate to each slot. This study utilizes the descriptive method of research which focuses on the morphological and phonological segmentation analysis of textuality. It specifically retrieves every morpheme and phoneme of every verse in the textuality in terms of the free and bound morphemes, as well as the segmental and suprasegmental phonemes. The linear morphologic segmentation of morphemic contents in the six selected verses of King Solomon’s Book of Proverb’s reveal ninety free morphemes (roots) and forty bound morphemes (affixations). Out of the ninety free morphemes, fifty-two are lexical morphemes (content words), and thirty-eight are grammatical morphemes (function words). Of the fifty-two lexical morphemes, twenty are in simple form, four are compound, twenty-seven are complex, and one is a compound complex in linguistic form. Of the thirty-eight grammatical morphemes, thirteen are determiners, six are conjunction, eleven are prepositions, six are pronouns, and two are auxiliary. Of the forty bound morphemes, seventeen are inflectional morphemes (suffixes), and twenty-three are derivational morphemes (affixations). Generally, the textuality reveals eighty-two morphemes: forty-six simple, six compound, twenty-seven complex, and three compound-complex according to linguistic form. As to the linear phonologic segmentation of the phonemic contents of the Proverbs, it reveal a continuous succession of vowels and consonants speech sounds within the suprasegmental prosody of six rising-sustained intonation of the six verses. All these verses, which are compound in form contain a non-final prosody (2-3-2) for the first main clause, and a final prosody (2-3-1) for the second main clause. Therefore, it has been proven that the linearity of morphemes and phonemes is revealed in the linguistic structure of the textuality of King Solomon’s Book of Proverbs. Since we always look at poetry as the epitome of sophistication in writing, these findings call for earnest efforts to consider introducing slight revisions in the curriculum to bring into focus not only the morphologic and phonologic structure prevailing in literary pieces, but the three structures of grammar: syntax, morphology, and phonology.

  49. Dr. Kamble Harshada, Dr. Kowale A.N. and Dr. Shah Swati

    Background: In recent years lifestyle related diseases are increasing globally, one such condition is Metabolic syndrome. Low physical activity levels being one of the major causative factor. Information Technology professionals because of their sedentary job profile and erratic schedule can be considered to be at risk of Metabolic syndrome. Hencethe study was carried out to study the correlation between physical activity levels and Metabolic syndrome components. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted considering 150 males in the age group 25–50 yrs. of Information Technology sector as subjects. Waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose levels, Serum Triglycerides, Serum HDL levels were correlated with leisure time physical activity levels, assessed by a standard self-reported questionnaire, Godin Shephard Leisure-time physical activity questionnaire. Results: We observed that all other components of Metabolic syndrome, except for Serum HDL levels, had a statistically significant negative correlation with physical activity levels. Conclusion: Low physical activity levels have a detrimental effect on Metabolic syndrome components. These results can be of help to create awareness among the population with sedentary job profiles and also the general population. Importance of physical activity and lifestyle modifications for prevention of Metabolic syndrome and its consequences can be explained to I.T. professionals.

  50. Aranda-Ventura José and Tatsumura-Hillyer Kazuko

    Every year, 220,000 new cases of tuberculosis are registered in the Americas, and more than 50,000 die as a result of this disease. It is worth noting that tuberculosis is both preventable and curable, however it still is one of the most important transmitted infections in the world. Multiple factors explain this situation, one of them being the lack of commitment to treatment, due the amount of pills the patient must take and the side effects they may have. This raises the necessity of developing an efficient therapy that decreases negative side effects and permit proper adherence to the treatment. To this day there is no registered use of “Onnetsu” far infrared rays on patients suffering from tuberculosis. Take the case of a 67 year-old woman diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) based on clinical, radiological and bacteriological evidence, for which she was admitted in the National Health Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis (ESNPCT) and was receiving pharmacological treatment for 1 month (Rifampicin 300mg, Ethambutol 400mg, Isoniazid 100mg, Pyrazinamide 500mg), which she abandoned when she began having adverse reactions (nausea, vomiting, lose of appetite, weakness and dyspepsia). Due to this situation she went to the Traditional Medical Institute-IMET ESSALUD, where the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis was confirmed and then signed and informed consent form where she agreed to receive “Onnetsu” far infrared ray treatment, which were applied to the skin, focussing on the thorax, done in one hour sessions, 3 times per week for 18 weeks, during which she received no pharmacological treatment. At the end of the treatment, betterment in both the clinical and radiological pictures and an adequate bacteriological response resulted in her being discharged from ESNPCT. Monitoring was done over the next 6 years y no evidence of active TB was found. This report could be the first step in opening the studies on the use of far infrared rays as a potential treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis.

  51. Naghma Shahrukh, Zehra Mohsin and Dr. Nidasultana

    Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is an extremely rare benign tumor of the ovary that is derived from the sex cord stroma. It affects mostly young females in their second and third decade of life. Sclerosing stromal tumor of ovary most commonly presents as an abdominal mass with menstrual irregularities and pain in abdomen. Preoperative diagnosis of the tumor is difficult as it often mimics a malignant tumor. Oophorectomy is usually performed in many cases of young women, and diagnosis of SST is made based on post-operative pathological examination. Here, we report a case of SST of the ovary in an 23-year-old young female who came to JNMCH for treatment of primary infertility and abnormal uterine bleeding, she was diagnosed on the basis of histopathological report when she underwent cystectomy. Accurate preoperative imaging helped to perform minimally invasive surgery for SST.

  52. Prof. Abhishek Venkteshwar and Prof. Kiran L Maney

    Research in the field of e-commerce have become a dynamic study area over the past few decades and is likely to become even more so as the importance of online trade is rapidly gaining momentum. Therefore understanding e-commerce will be viewed as increasingly important. India has been regarded as the youngest country in the world by the UN as it has the world’s largest youth population where more than 365 billion people are between the age group 10 and 24 years. This clearly indicates that the fate of the country lies in the hands of its Youth. This case aims at examining the business model of Flipkart which has specially been designed keeping the youth in mind.

  53. Glaucy Rodrigues de Araújo, Flávia Dayrell França, Alessandra Vieira and Míriam Martins Chaves

    Amphotericin B (AmB - antifungal) and Cyclosporine A (CsA - immunosuppressant) are commonly used drugs in medical clinics; however, these often present Nephrotoxicity. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate if AmB and CsA nephrotoxicity could be associated to oxidative stress and if the PKA and p38 MAPK are involved in cell death, caused by these drugs, in two different segments of the nephron. For this, we used two different cell lines (LLC-PK1 and MDCK) from different segments of the nephron and treated these cells with AmB and CsA. We evaluated the effect of these treatments on cell death on both cells and the involvement of PKA and p38 MAPK pathways in Amphotericin B and Cyclosporin-induced cell death. Further, we investigated the influence of the treatment with the two drugs in oxidative balance, evaluating ROS production, antioxidant enzymes activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase), as well as gene expression of these enzymes. We also analysed the gene expression of gp91phox, p22phox and p47phox. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison post-Test or Dunn's Multiple Comparison Test to determine the differences among the groups. AmB and CsA caused cell death in both cells lines, however LLC-PK1 presented a higher percentage of cell death caused by AmB and MDCK presented a higher percentage of cell death caused by CsA. ROS production in both cells treated with AmB or CsA have the same profile observed in DNA fragmentation (cell death). The results showed that the treatment with AmB was able to increase the expression of p47phox and gp91phox in both cell lines. The treatment with AmB was able to reduce SOD activity in both cells lines and the treatment with CsA demonstrated that this drug could reduce the activity of SOD and Catalase in LLC-PK1 and MDCK cells. When p38 MAPK and PKA were inhibited in MDCK cells, the percentage of DNA fragmentation decreased, showing that when these cells were treated with AmB or CsA, probably p38 MAPK and PKA were involved in cell death caused by these compounds. This study demonstrated that cells from different regions of the nephron (proximal –LLC-PK1 or distal tubules - MDCK) present different responses to the oxidative stress caused by Amphotericin B (AmB) or Cyclosporine A (CsA), and also showed a differentiated participation of signalling in this process, involving PKA and p38 MAPK pathways.

  54. Dharmender- Singh, Dr. Dharam Pal and Dr. Ram - Chander

    This paper is an attempt to study the use of electronic information resources, the collection of print and electronic journals its awareness among the users, and the places where the users are accessing these resources. A total number of 120 users from the, postgraduate, research scholar and faculty members were selected and their response was obtained with the help of questionnaire. The findings show that users from all these categories were using e-resources; the awareness about e-resources encourages users to use such resources to the maximum; and the users are using computer centre and hostels more for accessing the information. The impact of e-resources was visible from the decrease in number of printed journals in comparison to the increase in number of electronic journals. The use of e-journals has increased manifold. The printed material is being quickly replaced by the electronic resources.

  55. Nosyba A Ibrahim, Elgasim A Elgasim and Salah AMustafa

    Kawal is an African and Sudanese meat substitute produced traditionally through solid state fermentation of sicklepod (Cassia obtusifolia) fermented leaves. The present study aimed to isolate and identify microorganism involved in kawal fermentation through conventional microbiological analysis and further molecular confirmation. Two samples of kawal were processed in Algeniana and Sinnar cities, Sudan (AK and SK respectively). Isolated bacterial groups were biochemically identified as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus scuiri and Lactobacillus plantarum in AK, while only Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus scuiri appeared in SK. Yeasts, molds, Coliform, E.coli and Beta lactamase producing bacteria were not detected. Results were further confirmed using molecular techniques where DNA of isolate bacteria was amplified by PCR, electrophoresed on agarose gel with reference DNA of proposed bacteria. Results were in agreement with the biochemical identification of both AK and SK. Identified bacterial species can be used for further product development.

  56. Bhuvaneswari, S. and Roseline Jesintha, V

    Background: Visual evoked potential (VEP) is a convenient and non-invasive tool for assessing the functional integrity of visual system. Apart from age and gender visual evoked potential can also be influenced by the varying levels of ovarian hormones in the different phases of menstrual cycle. Aim of the study: To observe the changes of visual evoked potentials in the follicular phase and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in healthy young women. Materials & Methods: Study group of thirty females between the age group of 18 to 22 years having regular menstrual cycle of 28 days were included in the study. The females with irregular menstrual cycles, Polycystic ovarian diseases( PCOD), refractive error and who were on hormonal pills were excluded from the study. Pattern reversal VEP was recorded by using Neuroperfect EMG 2000 system with installed software during follicular and luteal phases of the same menstrual cycle. Peak P100, N75 and N145 latencies were recorded. Results: Statistical analysis was done by using student ‘t’test. In the present study, mean P100 wave latency (95.55 ±7.11) and mean N145 wave latency(137.98 ±11.44) were reduced in follicular phase, whereas mean P100 wave latency (104.42 ± 5.67) and mean N145 wave latency (146.21 ± 9.01) were increased in luteal phase of menstrual cycle and these changes are statistically significant (pvalue <0.001) . Conclusion: From this study it was found that, In females during follicular phase, PRVEP latencies were shortened and VEP latencies were prolonged during luteal phase of menstrual cycle. So in case of females, before going for any diagnostic conclusion of diseases affecting visual system, the normal variations of PRVEP latencies should be considered.

  57. Mohd Ikhmal Bin Fadzil, Kamarul Azman Bin Khamis and Wan Khalik bin Wan Muhammad

    This paper seeks to discuss the need to understand consumer perceptions on the important effect of typography on the Muslim Bumiputra’s entrepreneurs product packaging in order to correctly design product packaging.Packaging is now generally regarded as an essential component of our modern life style and the way business is organized. It is an important part of differentiating Muslim Bumiputra’s entrepreneurs products. It is also an essential stage in developing product with proper use of typography in order to achieve effective product positioning. Packaging is the enclosing of a physical object, typically a product that will be offered for sale. Packaging is an important part of the branding process as it plays a role in communicating the image and identity of a Muslim Bumiputra’s company. A major function of packaging is the communication of the product. A package must communicate what it sells. Muslim Bumiputra’s entrepreneurs are still lacking on the knowledge of an effective packaging for their products. Effective packaging elements enable Muslim Bumiputra’s entrepreneurs products to compete with other products in the market.

  58. Dr. Rajesh Kumar upadhyay and Dr. Bakshi Om Prakash Sinha

    Ramgarh is a beautiful district town of Jharkhand state, about 40 km from Ranchi, situated at N.H.31. Forest, hills and rivers give it an attractive looks .The local population is totally depends on agriculture especially the production of vegetables villege,Chhattarmandu, Gosa, Jara, Kankebar, Koiritola, Murrambari, Murramkala etc. are the main vegetable producing villages. Potato, Brinjal, Tomato,cabbage, cauliflower, Radish, and all types of vegetables of cucurbitacea family are the main crops.The cabbage is one of the important vegetable produced in huge amount in Ramgarh .The nutritional value and liking of taste makes it the most popular vegetable, producing throughout the year as availability of irrigation. The vegetables are get damaged by the vegetable pests,”Crocidolomia binotalis” (Zell) and “Peiris brassicae”, Linn, are the main pests of cabbage . The loss by pest are not merely in terms of quantity but also in quality of vegetables and change the various essential chemical constituents regards the nutritive and lime carbaryl (0.1%), femitrothin (0.05 %) etc, application of pesticide minimize the pest population .

  59. Dr. Jilani Awati, Dr. Nishikant Gujar and Dr. Praveen Kumar S.P.

    Background: Cervical lymphadenopathy is commonly seen in surgical practice, tuberculous lymphadenopathy is most commonest cause of cervical lymphadenopathy ,the aim of study is to know the overall various diseases responsible for cervical lymphadenopathy. Methods: Study was carried out by prospectively collected 420 cases of chronic cervical lymphadenopathy from the Department of General Surgery Al Ameen medical college ,Vijayapura Karnataka. Results: Cervical Lymphadenopathy is more common below 30 years of age with 68.88%. Most of the patients of cervical lymphadenopathy in our study belong to the poor socio-economical class.Cases in this study presented with swelling in the cervical region, 214(51%). Conclusion: Tuberculous adenitis reactive lymphadenitis, Malignancy (primary and metastatic) & drugs were other causes responsible for cervical lymphadenopathy.

  60. Dr. Jilani Awati, Dr. Nishikant Gujar and Dr. Praveen Kumar S.P.

    Background: To study the petterns of benign breast disease. Material and methods: This prospective descriptive study was conducted over 100 females presented as bening breast disease in the Surgery department at Al Ameen medical college bijapur. Results: Highest incidence in age group 21-30(48%), right breast affected in 48%, patients, while the left breast was affected in 40%, Most common presentation was found to be lump in the breast 70%.fibroadenoma was commonly observed followed by fibroadneosis Conclusion: Benign breast disease is a common problem in female, fibroadenoma is the commonest of them.

  61. Ravikant Vishwakarma, Vishal Prajapati, Rajesh Kumar Yadav, Neda Fatima, Vishesh Singh and Manish Kumar Maurya

    In the earth there are near about 350,000 species of plants are found & each plant have a great medicinal value. The plant vinca is also known as catharanthus, Sodafuli, periwinkle & barmasi & which is belong from the family of apocynacae. It produce very preety flower the flower of vinca is blue, purple & also white in colour. It produce late springly to summer & grown any where in the garden.The vinca plant is very useful across the world-wide & it can be cultivated in dry & nutitional condition. The plant is constituent with following chemical contituent but mainly two chemical contituent increase play a vital role in medicinal field vinblastine mainly used to treat Hodgkin lymphomus on the other hand vincristine used to treat childhood leukemices . Many time both chemical contituent cause toxic effect in our body such as bone,Narrow depression, anurexice Muscle weakness etc. The chemical contituent of vinca bind to the tubulin & prevent, the formation of microtubules & block the mithosis in meta phase. The vinca have lots of medicinal value such as Anti cancer drug, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial & anti-dysenteric.Anti cancer drug vinca can be given as targeted therapy & combination therapy & it is a class of cytoxic drug & have ability to inhibit the cancerous cell.

  62. Nganga Ngabou Charles Géraud Fredy, Makita Chantal, Gombe Eyissa2 and Alandzobo Francine

    We present the most common ocular diseases during a free eye care program. Patients and Methods: It is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in the city of Oyo, over two months, from July 1 to August 31, 2018. After registration, patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination. Patients with cataract and pterygium underwent surgery. Parameter analyzed: Age, sex, pathology presented by the patient. The data analysis was carried out with epi-info software 7. Results: 4472 patients were included during the study period, including 1714 men and 2758 women, a sex ratio of 0.62. The age group 60 years and older was the most represented with 29.40% of patients. 20.5% of the patients came from places that are 408km away from the examination site. There were also patients who came from almost 1000km. 51.25% of patients had conjunctivitis and 20.61% had cataracts. Conjunctivitis was predominant in younger subjects, while cataracts and glaucoma were more common in subjects over 60 years of age. Conclusion: These are the most common ocular disease usually encountered in ophthalmic consultation with varying frequencies depending on the study protocols.

  63. Mboup Sokhna, Mbaye Mame. Samba, Sidybé Mamadou and Sylla Samba. Ndao.

    This study was carried out in the Botany and Biodiversity Laboratory in order to evaluate the biocidal effect of Gliricidia sepium leaf extracts on weeds for the improvement of millet production. Chemical pretreatments are performed on weed seeds that are unfit for germination. At the end of these tests, it appears that most weed species do not have problems of true dormancy; they are affected by an integumentary inhibition eliminated by pretreatment with water for 72 hours (Digitaria ciliaris, Eragrostis tremula, Mariscus squarrosus) or with concentrated sulfuric acid (Hibiscus asper, Indigofera astragalina, Indigofera hirsuta, Senna obtusifolia, Sesbania pachycarpa and Spermacoce chaetocephala) at varying lengths. Thus, these weed species (09) are retained for the study of the effect of leaf extracts of G. sepium. Extracts of leaves of G. sepium at different concentrations (2.5%, 5% and 10%) are prepared and tested on nine (09) weed species (Digitaria ciliaris, Eragrostis tremula, Hibiscus asper, Indigofera astragalina, Indigofera hirsuta, Mariscus squarrosus, Senna obtusifolia, Sesbania pachycarpa and Spermacoce chaetocephala) and Millet (Pennisetum glaucum). Treatments with G. sepium leaf extracts inhibit the germination capacity of all weed seeds at all tested concentrations, except for Senna obtusifolia, which has germination rates comparable to those of the control (96.67%). The treatments also delay the germination of the seeds of Eragrostis tremula, Mariscus squarrosus, Senna obtusifolia and Sesbania pachycarpa. The effects of treatments increase with concentration and are more pronounced at 10%. The extract of G. sepium at 10% prevents seed germination of Indigofera hirsuta and Spermacoce chaetocephala (TG = 0%). If the 10% leaf extract prevents seed germination of the weeds studied, it has very little effect on millet with germination rates ranging from 84 to 86.67% and average germination times in the vicinity of the control. (1, 19 days). As a result of these results, it appears that the extract of leaves of G. sepium at 10% could serve as a natural herbicide, effective and adapted to the cultivation of millet.

  64. Faisal Ahmed Alzeer, Ahmed Bahamid, Abdulrhman Ahmed Alzeer, Mohamed Abdullah Almarshed and Bander Ahmed Alzeer

    Introduction: Information provided to the orthodontic patients depends on the method of knowledge provision. Visual, verbal and reading play an important role in serving the purpose. Materials and methods: A pre and post survey design was used to assess the improvement in knowledge retention among 150 orthodontic patients. Results: verbal group of patients retained higher amount of information as compared to visual and reading groups. Conclusion: Information to the patients should be given using verbal mode of communication.

  65. Ahmed A. M. Nasr

    Background: Episiotomy is performed as one of the most common surgeries procedure to facilitate delivery and prevent complications of hard labor in both mother and her neonate. Routine episiotomy is a controversial issue among gynecologists. Objectives: To evaluate the controversial benefit of episiotomy by comparing planned episiotomy vs. planned non-episiotomy as regard to maternal and fetal outcomes during spontaneous vaginal delivery. Patients and methods: 400 pregnant women (primi & second gravidae), full term gestation were recruited from those attending delivery ward of Obstetrics and Gynecology department of Al-Azhar university hospital in Assiut during the period started from January 2018 till August 2018 . Women were classified into 2 groups according to planned episiotomy (Group I =200 woman) or no episiotomy (Group II= 200 woman). Each group was assessed during the early postnatal period for fetal and maternal outcomes and throughout the duration of puerperium for evaluation of maternal morbidities. Results: In term pregnancies with spontaneous vaginal deliveries, the episiotomy group had more risk of physical and psychological morbidities than non-episiotomy group, however fetal outcomes were the same in both groups. Conclusion: Episiotomy is not essential or beneficial in every delivery, so it should not be a routine procedure during delivery and should be individualized according to obstetrician experience and maternal and/or fetal indications.

  66. Reeta Kori, Alok Saxena, Nisha Upadhyay, Prem Kumar Shrivastava, Ankita Kulshreshtha, Saket Mishra, Smriti Sen and Poonam Dubey

    Ground water is one of the major alternative resources of the drinking water in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. For present ground water study, Bhopal city is divided in to four corridors. North west, north east, south east, south west part of Bhopal city considered as corridor I, II, III and IV respectively. Nineteen monitoring locations were selected around at Bhopal city assessed for ground water quality for human consumption. Study of all physico -chemical parameters of ground water was carried out during different four quarters of year 2016 to 2018. All monitoring was done as per standard guidelines followed by Central Pollution Control Board and analyzed by standard methods. It is concluded that high contamination in ground waters observed in Corridor II as compare to three corridors of Bhopal city. Govindpura industrial area, transport, MSW dumping site, dense vehicle zone and anthropogenic activities are main reason of high contamination observed in corridor II of Bhopal city. All activities, which carried out on the ground level have direct or indirect impact on the groundwater whether associated with urban, agricultural activities large scale concentrated source of pollutants such as industrial discharge, chemicals and hazardous are source of ground water pollutants.

  67. Mulugeta Shanka and Ashebir Bezabih

    The purpose of this study was to identify the problems of educational investment in private primary school of Wolaita zone. The methodology used in this study was mixed method. Questionnaire and interview were used to collect data. Two school owners, 10 school principals, 11 town/woreda educational experts, 12-unit leaders and 64 teachers were included in the study. The result of the study indicated that factors that affect educational investment include lack of good governance at government investment offices, low supply of land, low access to credit, low level of supervisory support, and low supply of text-books by the government.. Hence it is recommended that private investors, education offices, investment office experts and financial institutions should work together to improve the currently declining interest of investors in the sub-sector.

  68. Kouadio Kouakou Jean-Marc and Ouattara Abdoulaye

    The need for retail brands to differentiate themselves from their competitors by influencing consumer loyalty has elevated the perceived atmosphere at the point of sale into a strategic variable. Through this research, we try to highlight the preferences of consumers in the maquis(points of sale of beverages to consume on the spot) in Abidjan. The research was conducted using a mixed method: firstly, we conducted a qualitative study through semi-structured interviews in the municipality of Yopougon (Abidjan). Then, we made a quantitative study by questioning through a questionnaire, 800 consumers in the outlets of beverages to consume on the spot in Abidjan (the ten communes of the city) and we ended with in-depth interviews with consumers by compared to the results obtained. The results of this research indicate that consumers who visit Abidjan's beverage outlets are relatively young men from all sectors of activity. They go there more than a day a week, at least four times a month. Regarding the types of outlets, it appears that consumers prefer much more maquis (on the open air maquis) and cellars. As for the types of drinks, the study indicates that the majority of consumers prefer beers and wines in these beverage outlets.

  69. Tsegaye Ebabey Demissie

    The Gedeo, one of the enset-culture peoples of Southern Ethiopia, have their own traditional religious system that has different practices such as culturally enriched annual ceremonies and life time events. This study signals two major practices of the tradition, Fachi'e and Deraro. Filed work, interview and text review were used to collect data which are explained qualitatively. The Gedeo believe in Megeno, One Supreme God. Their religion is traditional in its practice, indigenous in its origin, and strongly linked with the natural environment. It has no written base and known associate founder. Fachi'e and Deraro are the major epitomized cultural festivities of the people. The former is related with a period of atonement that involves praying to Megeno to get protection of the people from epidemic disease and of their properties from natural disaster. Accompanied by the ceremony of purity performed around sacred rivers by the Woyyu, it is a sign of confession and source of ethics for the people and base for the long coexistence among themselves and with their neighbors. Deraro, on the other hand, is a period of happiness and good wish of prosperity and new-year to the people. Following coffee harvesting, various people gather at Michille Grissa to eventfully celebrate it. This thanksgiving festivity is another good platform to excel harmonious relationship among the people. Recognizing such icons of the people has immense contributions such as tourism development, harmonious relationship and environmental protection.

  70. Bewketu Belay Hailemariam

    Effective cooperative leaders matters to the overall performance and well-being of cooperatives. Management committees are members elected by the general assembly to supervise and control the overall business and affairs of cooperatives. Thus, success of any cooperative is determined by the functioning of management committees. The major concern of this study is to measure the leadership effectiveness and competencies of management committees of consumer cooperatives in the study area. For this study, primary data has collected from 263 respondents (i.e. 200 members and 63 management committees from selected12-consumer cooperatives. Descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency and percentages were used for analyzing the data. For measuring the leadership effectiveness of management committees, 31 statements classified under four major indicators considered. The Leadership Effectiveness measured based on members’ perception by using five point Likert scale and the mean score was calculated. The results indicate that management committees of cooperatives were not effective in leading others, leading self, strategic leadership and task management of cooperatives. Regarding leadership competencies, only few cooperative leaders have high experience in leadership and high interest in their leadership; most leaders’ lacks knowledge about cooperation and management. In addition, majority of leaders have better human skills, though they lack conceptual skills and technical skills. Therefore, to improve the leadership effectiveness and competencies of cooperative leaders, leadership training and development programs should be arranged by stakeholders.

  71. Paul Lunyilija

    Muslim relation is a paramount aspect in the Republic of Tanzania based on the historical information that identifies the two religions as major. The study has described the debate around the proposed Islamic kadhi courts in the constitution of Tanzania and its impact on Christian- Muslim relations in Mwanza, Tanzania. The Muslim proposal of the inclusion of the Islamic kadhi courts into the Tanzanian constitution would cause a split of the country. The study focused on the following objectives; examined the history of Islamic kadhi courts in mainland Tanzania; second, explored perspectives around the debate on the proposed Islamic kadhi Courts and analyzed the impacts of Islamic kadhi courts in the constitution on Christian-Muslim Relations. The study was largely informed by the following reviewed literature; Chesworth and Kogelmann, eds. 2014, Jeppie, Moosa, and Roberts, 2010 and Naʻīm, ed. 2002 dealing with writings on Christian-Muslim relations from a wider perspective. The study was justified on the following grounds; enlightening readers on the impacts of the proposed of the Islamic kadhi courts in the constitution on Christian- Muslim Relations; exploring the knowledge gap that had been not done by other scholars on the impacts of the proposed Islamic kadhi courts on Christian- Muslim Relations. The research used a descriptive design employing both qualitative and quantitative approach. Data collection process was done using the questionnaire for quantitative data and, the interviews and Focus Group discussion for qualitative data. The findings were based on the objectives as follows; first, Islamic kadhi court was and still an entity considered to be a lawful guiding tool on Muslim social lives that covered the great social concerns on matters of divorce, marriage, inheritance and other day-day occurred disputes. Second, reasons for the inclusion of the kadhi court in the constitution were to uphold the faith and settling matters in the Islamic religion. Reasons against the move included; disunity amongst the citizens after the creation of the superiority and inferiority scene, struggle for power could tear apart the nation. Economically, the stability in the income and expenditure is controlled by power. The powerful religion is likely to obtain and use resources at the expense of others. Socially, the society will be divided on matters of marriage, interaction and general social cohesiveness; same to cultural and others. These and other reasons therefore impede the peaceful co-existence between the Muslims and Christians. In conclusion, there is need for the amicable stand to be reached as far as Muslim-Christian relation is concerned; the treatment offered to religions should be fair and equal without special focus, to avoid solving one problem yet creating another. The study recommended the following; first, the need to revisit the debate on the inclusion of the Islamic kadhi court back in history to understand its emergence and the role intended for. Second, the state should allow existing bodies to have regionally constituted documents to take care of their matters to avoid superiority and inferiority scenes. Finally, when handling religious matters they should not be done unfairly, selectively and under the influence of the political power.

  72. Dereje Haile Mamo

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the representations of women in Oromara proverbs of Ethiopia. The term Oromara is a currently coined concept that shows the sociocultural, political and economic relationship between the Amhara and Oromo society. The proverbs used for the study were 25 theme-relevant proverbs collected by interviewing systematically selected 10 elders, Focus group discussions and by analyzing Documents. Qualitative research design was used to conduct the study. Women were both negatively and positively represented in the Oromara proverbs. Most of the proverbs have similar ideas that show the two people’s cultural similarity in their ideologies in relation to gender representations. Based on these findings, awareness creation trainings should be given to de-motivate the use of proverbs having negative depictions towards women. The Oromara families have to encourage their children to use proverbs that reflect gender equality, and the society, at large, should totally avoid the use of proverbs that reflect outdated negative perception of femininity in their society.

  73. Dr. Varsha Agarawal, Piyush Kumar Tulsyan, Jeenendra Kothari and Bhavik Jain

    Oil is a significant vitality asset. Change in global raw petroleum costs influences all parts of the economy. The conversion standard is one of the significant channels at the global unrefined petroleum cost stun to go to the genuine economy and monetary markets. The effect of universal raw petroleum value change on the swapping scale of oil-bringing in nations has pulled in increasingly more consideration. The US dollar is the primary receipt and settlement cash of the global oil showcase. The difference in the US dollar conversion scale will unavoidably influence the worldwide raw petroleum cost. By brushing the pertinent exemplary writing and ongoing writing, the connection between global unrefined petroleum costs and the swapping scale of oil-bringing in nations is examined.

  74. Luca Izzo

    The object of the research is a study of the short-film of the song Thriller, given the legible effects of global culture about 35 years after its publication. The video clip Thriller, by Michael Jackson, published December 2, 1983, has been awarded, several times, as "Best video clip of history" (from MTV in 1999 and from Imaginaction, the first music video festival in 2018), accompanied by record sales of the album beyond all expectations, such as "The best-selling record in history" (certified by Guinness Book of World Records and Billboard). Even the videocassette of the video clip, containing the short-film plus the backstage of the production, became the most sold videocassette ever, surpassing the records of Star Wars and Gone with the Wind. What were the global cultural dynamics of this immense success is still a great universe to explore, given that the success of Thriller was pervasive in different generations, from teenagers to the elderly, in every country of the world and in different artistic and design fields. Jackson, with this short film: he affirmed forever - and unquestionably - the value of the short-film for the promotion of a product, on the global scene; from that moment on he made the use of the music video clip absolutely indispensable for the promotion of a record product, with effects still on the global scene; recorded a new style in the history of international contemporary dance, which, accompanied by the performances of other songs, remains one of the most famous and beloved choreographic styles in the world.

  75. Tesfaye Mekonnen Sifan

    This study empirically investigated the factors affecting the growth of micro and small enterprises in Dodola town. The types of research that was used under this study were descriptive and explanatory with quantitative and qualitative of research technique. The research design was cross sectional survey. The study used multi-stage sampling.From 169 micro and small enterprises, 119 of them were randomly selected. Primary data, through questionnaires, key-informant interview and focus group discussion, were collected from the sampled 119 micro and small enterprises from Dodola town. Sample was selected based on the list available from micro and small enterprises promotion bureau of the Dodola district. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics with the help of Statistical Packages for Social Science. By using this software, analysis of variance was carried out to examine the variation in the growth of Micro and Small Enterprises related to the variation in each of the independent variables of the study. Pearson chi-square and t-test were used to identify factors that significantly affect the growth of MSEs using change in employment size since startup as a measure of firm growth in which about 90.8 percent of MSEs are found survival and the remaining 9.2 percent are at growing stage. In accordance with this study results, the variation in sex of the owner/manager, the age of the owner/ manager, type of business, form of business ownership, having customer networking, sound business plan, having formal or informal business association, access to market information, and availability of market demand for their products constitute enterprise’s most important assets for attaining Micro and Small Enterprises growthif growth is measured using change in employment size. They are an important factor in the growth of MSEs in the study area. Hence, government and non government organizations that are concerned with policy makers, unemployment reduction and poverty alleviation through the promotion and development of MSEs need to take these factors in to account to accomplish better result and increase the potential contribution of MSEs to the economic growth of the country.

  76. Dr. Abhijit A. Whatkar, Dr. Bhushan H. Mahamulkar and Dr. Krishna Narayan Tiwari

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMFT) is an uncommon mesenchymal solid tumour commonly documented in children and young adults. It is usually located in lungs however; extrapulmonary involvement has also been reported. IMFT of the small bowel is rare and to our knowledge, only 27 cases have been reported to date in the literature under several names worldwide. Here we report a 28th case of IMFT in a 62 year old man presenting as an ileoileal intussusception. Intussusception in adults presents with non-specific symptoms and classical image signs facilitate preoperative diagnosis. IMFT diagnosis is histopathological which usually implies surgical resection. IMFT must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of malignant spindle cell tumours of the small bowel. Immunohistochemical stains are essential for accurate diagnosis. Complete surgical excision, with microscopically clear margins is the mainstay of treatment.

  77. Swathi Selvaraj, Roseline Meshramkar, Lekha K.P. and Ramesh Nadiger

    Background: Impression techniques for complete denture fabrication have evolved considerably over decades. However, it needs to be assessed whether the retention provided by different techniques is adequate enough to establish them as an alternative to conventional techniques. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retention of complete dentures fabricated using two different impression techniques like selective pressure and functional impression techniques both subjectively and objectively. Materials and methods: Maxillary dentures were fabricated for 10 edentulous patients using two different impression techniques. Each patient had two maxillary dentures and its retention was checked both subjectively and objectively. For subjective evaluation, a questionnaire was given and satisfaction level between the two dentures were compared. For objective evaluation, retention was measured using an instrument which uses the principle of class I pulley and a spring balance apparatus. During insertion, a metallic framework was attached at the centre of the denture using autopolymerising acrylic resin keeping it perpendicular to the occlusal plane of edentulous ridge. A small hook was engaged to the metal framework and weights were added on the spring balance. The weight at which both maxillary dentures dislodged was noted. The values were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The statistical analysis shows that the difference between modified functional impression and selective pressure is statistically significant (P< 0.05) in objective evaluation. But there was no significant difference in subjective evaluation of dentures. Conclusion: The two impression techniques yeilded adequately retentive dentures. However, retention of dentures fabricated from modified functional impression technique was better compared to selective pressure technique objectively.

  78. Neetu Bala, Neelam Gupta, Vinay Shankar and Rashi Garg

    Introduction: Hansen’s Disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. It primarily affects peripheral nerves and skin.Hansen’s disease can be diagnosed on the basis of skin lesions and peripheral nerves along with cytological and histopathological examination by demonstration of acid-fast bacilli. Objectives: Concordance between clinical, cytological and histopathological diagnosis in cases of leprosy using Ridley–Jopling scale. Material & Methods: The present prospective study was conducted in the Departments of Pathology and Dermatology. Ten clinically diagnosed cases of leprosy were included in this study. Slit Skin smears and biopsies of all these cases of Hansen's disease were received and the cases were classified according to Ridley–Jopling classification into TT, BT, BB, I, BL, and LL. Cyto -histological correlation was done for all the cases. Results :Obsrevation from this study revealed commonest age group affected by Hansen’ s Disease was 20- 29Years of age. Males are affected predominantly and the commonest clinically diagnosed spectrum was LL (Lepromatous leprosy). It was observed that there was complete concordance between clinical diagnosis, cytological and histopathological diagnosis. Conclusion: For accurate diagnosis correlation of clinical, cytological and histopathological features appears to be more reliable than considering any of the prameters alone.

  79. Dr. Kuldeep Nahar

    17 yr old male having multiple hereditary exostos is was operated for large size tumour in left Calf 2yr back as it was restricting his knee joint mobility. Recently he was operated for massive growth around right hip and right scapula. Biopsy showed benign tumour. No complications regarding surgery and recurrence.

  80. Mohammad Taleb Hossain, Md. Asadujjaman, Md Abdul Matin, Md. Imran Nur Manik, Mohammed Yosuf, Md. Rafiqul Islam Rupam and Md Harun Ar Rashid

    Flavonoids are the natural poly phenolic secondary metabolites of plants widely distributed in plant kingdom, which are responsible for the various colors of bark, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Flavonoids are now considered as an indispensable component in a variety of nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, medicinal and cosmetic preparations. They possess potentially antioxidant property and versatile fields of the health benefits. Moreover flavonoids have sedative, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anticancer, cardioprotective, antihypertensive, antiulcerogenic, antidiabetic and hepatoprotective activities. These pharmacological effects are mainly due to their antioxidant property. Also flavonoids have effect on mammalian enzymes like protein kinases, alpha-glucosidase and aldose reductase, and thereby they regulate multiple cellular signaling pathways that are altered during disease conditions. A number of flavonoids are available in the market as pharmaceutical products because of its potent and extended pharmacological activities, higher safety profile, low toxicity and cost effective bulk production. The present review is focused on the pharmacological and biological effects, and mechanism of action of flavonoid compounds along with slightly lighting other significant properties.

  81. Dr. Venkata Srimanarayana Murthy, J., Dr. Prakash Manne and Dr. Haragopal Surapaneni

    Background: Marginal and internal fit play an important role in determining the longevity of the restoration. Several fabrication techniques have evolved in recent times, but little emphasis was advised to the fit of the restoration. Purpose: The aim of the study is to compare and evaluate the internal and marginal fit of Cobalt-Chromium copings fabricated by computer aided milling/computer aided designing, direct metal laser sintering and conventional casting method. Material and methods: A master metal Die was designed using CAD software and milled using Ni-Cr alloy. 3D printer was used to design a customized special tray for making impressions of master die. A total of 15 working dies were duplicated from the master metal die. The study included three groups of 15 samples in each. Group A copings were fabricated using conventional method, group B copings were fabricated using CAD/CAM procedure and group C included 15 copings fabricated using DMLS procedure. The silicone replica technique was used to measure the marginal and internal fit and these sections were visualized under stereomicroscope. Values were tabulated and statistical analysis was done using R- Software. The Kruskal Walis test was used to compare between groups. Results: Marginal and internal fit of all the groups were within the clinical acceptable range (˂120µm) and DMLS group showed least when compared to other groups. Conclusion: Both DMLS and CAD/CAM procedures resulted in producing lower discrepancies compared to Conventional group, however, further research and refinement in designing aspect is required in order to produce more precise restorations.

  82. Dr. Priyanka Thukral, Dr. Shweta Bali, Dr. Shobhit Arora and Dr. Priyanka Tyagi

    Immediate implant placement and thereby loading the implant also immediately has been a desire to achieve for past few years. The most important aspect in immediate loading implant dentistry is to achieve both primary stability and adequate bone implant interface. The aim of implant dentistry is to provide prosthodontic rehabilitation, function, esthetic and comfort to the patient in limited time span. This article focuses on single piece immediate loading implant in esthetic zone, covering the criteria, advantages and disadvantages over conventional two piece implant placement. Immediate prosthesis of a single piece system enable with a better tissue healing and better adhesion of gingival mucosa to form a collar which is healthy and adherent to the implant, avoiding a second surgical procedure. Immediate implant also simplifies the technique and permits the reduction of the number of implant components and hence lower cost of treatment and at the same time maintaining acceptable aesthetic and functional outcomes. This article is a review of clinical cases successfully completed with the use of single piece dental implant in immediate extraction site in esthetic zone.

  83. Dr. Sandhya Jain, Dr. Arwa Saifee, Dr. Prateek Puniyani and Dr. Neetu Rani Sharma

    Objective: There are several methods to determine anteroposterior dysplasia but the reliability of the landmarks used have always been questioned as misleading factors may provide false results. Thus the objective of this article is to develop a new composite method, using stable landmarks, to assess the antero-posterior sagittal dysplasia. Material and methods: Lateral cephalograms of 1500 patientswere selected for study. Out of these based on exclusion and inclusion criteria,42 patients with class I , 42 patients with class II and 41 patients with class III were selected.10 angles were designed to evaluate the antero-posterior dysplasia and the values for each parameter was measured for each patient. The values were measured independently by two investigators. Cephalometric measurements were done by a trained orthodontist with more than 92% intra-rating agreement. Results: A new JS sagittal dysplasia indicator based on relatively stable landmarks, utilizing the S1-post surface of ramus, S2-mandibular plane angle and MNG angle can be used to evaluate the sagittal dysplasia. Conclusion: Patients with the JS sagittal dysplasia indicator values of 15.59 indicates Class I malocclusion, 7.99 indicates Class II malocclusion and -8.50 indicates Class III malocclusion. This new indicator can be used as an adjunct with various other parameters in evaluating the antero-posterior jaw relationship.

  84. Fotoula Nikolopoulou and Anestis Chrysostomidis

    The objective of this presentation was to demonstrate the significance of the Christensen phenomenon in the construction of the complete denture. Little information was available regarding the influence of the Christensen phenomenon on cusp’s angulation. The space that occurred between the upper and lower posterior teeth is called Christensen phenomenon. In order to avoid this phenomenon the curves Spee and Wilson must be constructed.

  85. Balasooriya NMS., Silva TGS., Shiromani PDI., Godamune GAI., Jayarathna HDM., and Amarasekara AATD.

    Background: Glaucoma is rising as a global health issue. Adherence to recommended medication is a challenge for patients and recognized as an essential component of the management of glaucoma. There are not enough data regarding factors associated with adherence to recommended glaucoma medication among patients with glaucoma in Sri Lanka. Therefore this study was conducted to determine factors associated with adherence to recommended glaucoma medications among patients with glaucoma at National Eye Hospital, Sri Lanka. Method:A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among purposively selected patients (n=300) with glaucoma who admitted to the National Eye Hospital, during the study period. Data were collected using a pre-tested an interviewer-administered glaucoma medication self-efficacy scale questionnaire.Descriptive statistics were used. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Review Committee of KAATSU International University, and further permission was obtained from the National Eye Hospital. Results: Nearly half of the participants (50.7%,152)were Females. Most of them had glaucoma over 1-10 years and belong to ≥60 age group. Most of them(60.3%; 181) were adherent to the recommended medications, and 39.7 % (n=119) were non-adherent.There was a significant association between participants' lifestyle; medications instilled techniques (p <0.05), marital status (socio-demographic factor), and having other non-communicable diseases with adherence to the recommended glaucoma medications. Conclusion: Majority of the participants (94.3%; 283) had good glaucoma outcome expectations such as follow the clinic visits and continues the medications regularly. Participant's lifestyle, medication instilled techniques, socio-demographic factor (marital status) and other non-communicable diseases are associated factors to adherence of glaucoma medications. Appropriate patient education might positively affect the patient’s adherence to recommended glaucoma medications.

  86. Arun B.S., Rekha Krishna Pillai, Priya Thomas and Bindhu, P.R.

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a common neoplasm that can occur in any part of the body, including the orofacial region with controversial origin. The tumor is usually benign, but there are case reports in which the tumor shows a locally aggressive behavior, malignancy and distant metastases. The most widely accepted hypothesis is that granular cell tumor arises from the altered metabolism of Schwann cells. The tumor is typically asymptomatic and appears as a nodule that does not exceed 3cm. This article brings forth a case of GCT occurring in a 42 years old male patient on the lateral border of the tongue.

  87. Dr. Amod Patankar, Dr. Reshmi Sharma, Trainee, Dr. Sudhir Pawar, Dr. Swapna Patankar, Dr. Krishnanunni Nair, Trainee and Dr. Richa Sharma Trainee

    There have been many recent advances in airway management but still dental injuries remains one of the most common anesthesia related adverse events and cause for malpractice litigations against anesthesia providers. The precautions required for prevention of dental injuries are not always effective because these techniques involve contact and pressure exerted against maxillary anterior teeth. We describe a case of intubation using retromolar space in a case of panfacial fracture.

  88. Dr. Shubhangi Mani, Dr. Somit Das, Dr. Toshniwal, N.G., Dr. Vishal Dhanjani and Dr. Nilesh Mote

    Orthodontic anterior intrusion for correcting deep bites often constitutes an integral part of orthodontic treatment in order to improve sagittal and vertical incisor relationships, in cases of pseudo-deep overbite, where the anteriors are supraerrupted true intrusion of the incisors is indicated and also in patients with gummy smiles and periodontal compromised teeth to correct the gingival line and restore the esthetics of smile. Intrusion is mainly achieved by use of various loop mechanics or implant mechanics or differential force concept given by beggs. In this article different mechanics for intrusion in beggs technique and PEA (Pre Adjusted Edgewise) technique are mentioned.

  89. Andrianarison, M., Ranaivo, I.M., Raharolahy, O., Sendrasoa, F.A., Ramarozatovo, L.S. and Rapelanoro Rabenja, F.

    Background: Pediatric hemagioma is a benign vascular tumor and the most common tumor for children under one year. Since 2008, after the publication of C Labrèze and al., beta-blocker has become the reference treatment of all forms of infantil hemangioma. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy and therapeutic tolerance of this beta-blocker in Malagasy children. Methods: We carried out a prospective descriptive study from 2008 till 2016 at the dermatology unit of Joseph Raseta Befelatanana Hospital Antananarivo. Our study considered all children aged less than fifteen years with infantile hemangioma and treated by oral propranolol. Results: In the 55 cases of pediatric hemangioma identified, there was a female predominance. Up to 73.5% of the patients carried a tuberous hemangioma; 70.5% of which with a facial localization. The mean duration of the treatment was 9.18 months with the dose of 2mg/kg/day. After the first month of treatment, a subsidence was observed in 25% of the cases and a paleness of the lesion in 74.28 %. After six months, 82.85% of the patients presented at the same time subsidence and paleness. No child presented serious side effects, demonstrating a good therapeutic tolerance. Conclusion: We can already say that based on its first use, Propranolol appears to be a promising treatment option of infantile hemangioma in Madagascar.

  90. Raghad Alharkan and Dr. Suzan Salem

    Background: Tooth extraction considered one of the most common dental procedures that require the applying of local anesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare the pain during injection and during extraction between two techniques of local anesthesia, intraligamentary injection technique and mental incisive nerve block technique. Materials and Methods: Thirtymandibular premolars \ incisors, which was indicated for extraction, were selected for this study & two different techniques of local anesthesia, intraligamentary and mental incisive nerve block, were compared during injection and during extraction with the use of universal pain assessment tool as parameters. Results: The painat the time of injection was higher for patient having MINB than ILI. However, the pain at the time of extraction was lower for patient having MINB than ILI. Conclusion: ILI appears less painful during injection and provides sufficient pain relief during extraction. On the other hand, MINB can be used as it provides higher extraction¬ pain relief.

  91. Vivek Gaur, Feminath and Anita Gala Doshi

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presents as a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that can often demonstrate multisystem involvement. Since, immune-suppressive drugs are used in the treatment of this disease, it can possess an elevated risk of infection and delay healing. Moreover, damage to the salivary glands in this disease leads to reduced salivation. Together, these complications can be a primary concern in dental treatment procedures owing to inability to maintain oral hygiene and risk of implant failure. This is the first case report in literature to our knowledge and it represents a treatment option and procedure for immediate full mouth rehabilitation after extraction without raising flaps using basal cortical screw implant in a patient who was on corticosteroid for over 20 years as she was diagnosed with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Since there are very few cases of SLE reported in literature with the use of oral implants, treating these patients can often pose a challenge.

  92. Ali S. Alqahtani, Essam Mohamed Ahmed and Osman A.E Elnoubi

    The experiments aimed to describe the Types and the density of bacterial species and fungi on the surface of small sized clinics, clinical laboratories, classrooms and halls. One hundred and sixteen samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs that are soaked in sterile peptone water broth and the swabs were rubbed into a quarter of 20cm2 on the surfaces. After cultivation of the samples on appropriate growth, media a series of steps for purification and identification of microbial species were conducted. The surfaces within the clinics and the laboratories showed high microbial burden. Staphylococcous aureus and the Sphingomonas paucimobilis were the microorganisms most frequently found on the surfaces. Cleaning and sterilization of the surfaces reduce the microbial content largely.

  93. Shefali Singh and Dr. Kavita Koradia

    Exercise is becoming a prescription for mental health issues due to its convenience and the fact that it can be done anywhere. Walking and running/jogging are the most popular exercises these days. But whether one is preferable to the other in terms of improving health has long been debated. Psychological well-being refers to one’s positive sense of subjective well-being. It taps six distinct aspects of human actualization: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. The present study focused upon comparing Psychological Well Being of 200 daily Runners (100) and Walkers (100) of Pune City of age group 25-45 years. The research tool used for the study was “The Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being” developed by Spring in 2005 which measures six areas of psychological well-being. The sample was collected randomly through simple random sampling and data was analyzed using Mean, SD and Z test. One of the major inclusive criteria of the study was minimum 3 months of regular exercise (Walking or Running/jogging). Results revealed that Runners shows higher value of Psychological well being as compared to Walkers. This may be because running sharpens focus and improves mental stamina, by giving circulation a boost up and increasing the flow of blood to the brain. It also increases confidence. Although there is research both for and against the positive influence of exercise generally it has been linked to increases in mood, self esteem, positive body image, positive physical effect and a decrease in depression.

  94. Dr. Annu Yadav, Dr. Dolly Yadav, Dr. Indranil Das and Dr. VGR Shastry

    A 40 year old female presented to the emergency department (ED) with complaints of loose motion, vomiting, spasmodic abdomen pain and rash all over the body after ingestion of 1 tablet of pantaprazole 40 mg, around two and half hours prior to arrival. In the ED, she was diagnosed with anaphylactic shock with gastrointestinal and skin involvement and hemodynamically instability. She was resuscitated with injections epinephrine, pheniramine, ranitidine, and hydrocortisone, along with intravenous fluid and oxygen, for management of anaphylactic shock. Thereafter, patient was shifted to the intensive care unit, and was discharged after uneventful 24 hour observation.

  95. Xiang Gao, Xiaoting Mi, Kuanmei Liu and Pingting Huang

    Housing and job adaptability are two crucial themes for the adaptability of the urban migrant population. The purpose of this paper is to assess the status and influencing factors of the job-housing balance of Muslim migrants in Lanzhou city of China in order to serve as a guide for their management of housing and employment as well as the planning and development of mixed-use neighborhoods that integrate both labor productivity and residential living. Based on 2009 and 2018 surveys as well as the big data statistics of the Lanzhou migrant population, this paper studied the job-housing balance relationship under the influence of commuting and the distribution of mosques through GIS kernel density and spatial analysis, Manhattan Distance and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation. The study found that: 1) Lanzhou Muslim migrants tend to be concentrated in two residential zones (the areas around Xiaoxihu and Miaotanzi), forming a relatively concentrated employment zone at Xiaoxihu-Yiwu Trade Centre and its neighboring areas. There was an increasing trend in the overall job-housing balance from 2009 to 2018, whereby the job-housing balance was rather high at the Xiaoxihu-Xiguanshizi stretch and the Yantan-Dongbushichang stretch in 2009 while the job-housing balance was rather high at the Xiaoxihu-Xiguanshizi stretch in 2018. 2) job-housing balance of Muslim Migrants under regular commuting conditions is met whereby there is a 2 km (or less) job-housing Manhattan Distance or a 20 minute (or less) walking commute from one’s residence to workplace. 3) With regards to the distribution of mosques, job-housing balance is met with any one of the following conditions: The job-housing balance index is between 0.8-1.0 whereby the residence, workplace and mosque are within a 500m distance (or less) from each other; the residence, workplace and mosque are between a 501-5000m distance from each other;the job-housing balance index is both between 0.8-1.0 whereby the residence, workplace and mosque are within a 20 to 30 minute commute from each other.

  96. EJIE, Benedette Onyeka, EJIE, Oscar Chisom, EJIE, Cynthia Nchedochukwu, EJIE, Ann Uchechukwu and EJIE, Brian Ikechukwu

    Smartphone addiction connotes excessive and repetitive use of smartphone on a daily basis. It is a destructive behaviour that has capacity of affecting an individual negatively in his/her physical and mental health, relationships, productivity and academic performance. The organismic variables that could dictate the severity of this addiction include gender, age, school factors, peer influence, parental socio-economic status among othersThis paper therefore, examined effects of Demographic factors on Smartphone addiction of students in a Nigerian University. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the research. The sample consisted of one hundred and ten (110) students randomly selected from Lagos State University (LASU). A 15-item questionnaire titled Smartphone Addiction Scale(SPAS) was designed for data collection. Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient of the instrument stood at 0.82. The study adopted the descriptive survey design to seek information. Data analysis was carried out with the use of t-test and ANOVA. Results showed that there is a significant effect of age on smart phone addiction of students in a Nigerian University. The results also revealed that their smart phone addiction is not gender based, neither does it depended on their type of school. Counsellors, parents and teacher should watch out for various signs of smartphone addiction and properly guide the students on the right path.

  97. Amarech Alaye Admasu

    Assessment is the process of gathering data. The data provide a picture of a range of activities using different forms of assessment such as: pre-tests, observations, and examinations. Once these data are gathered, you can then evaluate the student’s performance. Evaluation, therefore, draws on one’s judgment to determine the overall value of an outcome based on the assessed data. It is in the decision-making process then, where we design ways to improve the recognized weaknesses, gaps, or deficiencies. The importance of documenting and analyzing students’ daily language experiences is not a new concept to teachers. Even as new parents we are constantly evaluating our own children’s language output and comparing what they say and do with language to the week before or the day before; we are continually aware of how much or how little they are learning once they start uttering words. Using formative assessment gives teachers a better understanding of their students’ language and content understanding that is not provided by standardized summative assessments, which typically can’t account for the language proficiency level an English language learner (ELL) has or the quality of his or her content instruction. As part of formative assessment practices, classroom teachers should consider using the following strategies to gauge students’ progress in both content and language: Observations of student language usage in speaking and writing, use of visuals to represent conceptual understanding, questioning: What types of questions do students ask about content and how they use language? observation checklists, student demonstrations and student participation in critical dialogues or conversations.

  98. Amarech Alaye

    The review critically examined the current emphasis on both fluency and accuracy of language use, it seems clear, that integrated language skill teaching and learning as well as integrative instructional models, will need to continue to be refined and developed ( Breen, 1991; Swain, 1991). According to Richards and Rodgers (2001), integrative language skills teaching that engages learners in meaningful communication and enables them to attain their language skill learning objectives can be found in many ways, different teaching materials and techniques. A few examples of such integrated language skill teaching methods are content-based (sometimes also called theme-based), task-based, text-based (also called genre-based), discourse-based, project-based, network-based, technology-based, corpus-based, interaction-based, literature-based, literacy-based, community-based, competency-based, or standards-based. the two common methods of integrated language skills instruction are content-based language instruction and task-based instruction(Oxford,2001) These models emphasis on learning content through language (Oxford, 2001). Both of these benefit a diverse range of materials, textbooks, and technologies for the EFL classroom. Currently, task-based and content based instruction are probably among the most widely adopted integrated models(Hinkel,2006). Thus, an attempt is made to provide brief explanation about the two common methods of integrative language teaching approach in the review.

  99. Simranpal Kaur and Mrs. Bhupinder Kaur

    Introduction: Around the world, women have developed their own personal strategies to cope with menstruation. The issue of menstrual hygiene is inadequately acknowledged and has not received proper attention. Use of sanitary pads is essential practices to keep menstrual hygiene. Government launched ‘Amodini (happy girl child) Menstrual Health and Hygiene Programme’ on May 28, 2016. Under this project sanitary napkin vending machine and incinerator were installed in government schools and colleges. The project aimed at breaking menstrual taboos that jeopardize the health of millions of girls every day. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding use of sanitary napkin vending machine and incinerator among female students of selected govt. schools and colleges of district Faridkot. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study with Non-Experimental research design was conducted. 500 study subjects were chosen by convenience sampling. Structured Questionnaire, 5-point Likert Scale and Self-reported checklist were used to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding sanitary napkin vending machine and incinerator. Results: The results revealed that more than half i.e. 57.6% female students had adequate knowledge. 99.2% of female students had positive attitude and 0.8% had negative attitude. Practice of using sanitary napkin vending machine and incinerator was found to be as low as 2.8%. Majority of the study subjects did not use these machines. Conclusion: Hence it can be concluded that ‘Amodini Project’ did not achieve the desired goals of menstrual hygiene and safe disposal of menstrual waste.

  100. Syed Fazal ur Rahim and Sipper Khan

    Mankind has always been in urge to traverse from one part of the globe to another for exploring new destinations. His apprehensive nature never allowed him to live a serene life; hence he kept on discovering new horizons. From the individual journeys to the industrial scale tourism the travels of mankind are as old as he himself. Tourism when made compliant with religious rulings it becomes a religious code rather than a mere travel. Same is the case with halal tourism which is purely an Islamic phenomenon based upon beliefs and teachings of Islam. It is an emerging market that is expected to rise to US$ 274 billion by 2023. This paper puts forth the latest trends of halal tourism arising from the Islamic and non-Islamic countries and the measures taken by them to attract and facilitate the Muslim travelers. This paper also suggests a code of regulations based upon halal tourism services starting with the halal basic tourism services and gradually reaching the halal ideal tourism services being derived from the Islamic Jurisprudence for the smooth running of halal tourism sector. By presenting the code of regulations the paper aims to facilitate the global halal tourism market. While defining the rules several verses from the holy Quran have also been taken in consideration. These verses have been referenced to their relevant chapter and verse number.

  101. Shamshad Hussain, Dr. Sonu Sharma, Dr. Shrivastav B. and Neha Arora

    Introduction: Absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent ranges. Objective: Recently, studies are undertaken to design newer techniques for particle size enlargement such as spheronization, tumbling melt granulation, fluidized agglomeration, spherical crystallization etc. The basic aim of this project is to study and broaden the applications of spherical crystallization process, which not only enlarges the particle size but also changes the primary particle characteristics such as crystallinity, crystal form etc. Spherical crystallization, a novel particle design technique has been proved to improve the efficiency of the initial steps of the manufacturing operation. It combines the process of crystallization (design of primary particles) and agglomeration (design of secondary particles), and increases the added value of the product by endowing the primary and secondary particles with greater.Literature survey has revealed that, spherical crystallization has been attempted as an alternative to conventional granulation techniques to obtain the spherical agglomerates with improved tabletting properties but mainly for large dose drugs. The technique was also designed to sustain the drug release from the agglomerates (chlorpromazine hydrochloride), enhance process stability and economy (aspirin): In our laboratory, work on spherical crystallization was attempted by solvent change method for trimethoprim. The agglomerates obtained were evaluated for their tabulating properties. Result: Improvement and validation of two visible spectrophotometric methods applying BCG and DNFB as reagents for TMP determination in investigated formulations were successfully carried out. The near 100 % recoveries and low relative standard deviation values obtained, point to the suitability of the both modified and validated methods for determination of TMP in human and veterinary medicine. Discussion: It was concluded that the 1D spectroscopic method could be used for simultaneous determination of trimethoprim immediate-release oral dosage forms. This method could be used for the analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients in dissolution studies and for quality control purposes. The method is rapid, simple, and economic without the need of high cost investment.

  102. Dasiewdorshisha Sancley

    Education gives us knowledge of the world around us and changes it into something better. It develops in us a perspective of looking at life. It helps us build opinions and have points of view on things in life. Education creates awareness within people i.e. discovering themselves and around, acts as the major catalyst and prime factor for bringing out the social change and transformation. Though, a lot of work has been done by different agencies to bring social changes through education for the Bhoi tribe still it seems inadequate in terms of area spread and the quality. The people are mostly The objective of this study is to find out the attitude of the tribal population of Ri-bhoi District towards education and to find out the obstacles which hinder the process of learning, which is the prime enabler for socio-economic, socio-cultural development and overall upliftment and development. The descriptive survey research method was used for this study; the sample consisted of 100 respondents which was selected by using of a simple random sampling technique. The findings of the study revealed that there was a mixed attitude of the respondents towards educating their children and there was no significant correlation between the education level of tribal women with their attitude towards education of their children.

  103. Mersi Ekaputri, Dewi Elizadiani Suza and Yesi Ariani

    Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a progressive chronic disease, so the patients are disturbed burdened. A chronic care model is very needed in the form of educational efforts based on patient's empowerment. Objective: To identify the effect of empowerment-based education on improving the self-care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: the study used quasi-experimental with one group pretest-postest design. Fourty eight respondents were selected using consecutive sampling. COPD self-care questionnaire research instrument (COPDSC-C) has been tested for validity by 3 experts and the reliability of Cronbach Alpha self-care was 0.90. The data analysis were used frequency distribution and Wilcox on Signed Rank Test. Results: The self-care before intervention with adequate value category was 14.60% and with inadequate value category was 85.40%. The self-care after intervention had an adequate value of 95.80% and an inadequate value of 4.20%. There was a value of difference and increase of the patients' self-care between before and after the intervention of empowerment-based education with p value ˂ 0.05. Conclusion: Empowerment-based education intervention has an effect on the increasing self-care of patients with COPD.

  104. Abdirahman Hassen, Mohamed Assen, Mulu Tadese, Aberash Kefyalew, Sisay Gedamu and Abebe Dires

    Background: Heart failure is the inability of the heart to maintain adequate circulation to meet tissue needs for oxygen and nutrient. Heart failure is a public agenda due to increase of its prevalence, significant morbidity, high mortality and rapidly expanding health care cost worldwide. Objective: To assess treatment outcome of heart failure patients admitted in kemissie general hospital from January 1, 2017 to May 28, 2019. Method: Institutional based two years and five months retrospective cross sectional study was conducted from January 1, 2017 to May 28, 2019. All heart failure patients card which had clear outcome were included in the study. The data source was hospital medical records to collect necessary variables. The data was analyzed by using SPSS and described in frequency tables and graphs. Result: 300 heart failure patient cards were retrieved. Among these heart failure patients 33 (11%) were died and 267(89%) of them were improved at discharge. Among died patients 17 (5.7%) of their serum of creatinine level was not documented. From those died 27(9%) were New York heart association class four. Conclusion: High numbers of heart failure patients were died. Therefore health workers should strictly follow their patients and proper documentation also mandatory. In-depth further research also recommended by using primary data.

  105. Dieng Birane, Mbaye Mame Samba, Diouf Macoumba, Gaye Alioune, Noba Kandioura and Sylla Samba Ndao

    L’horticulture urbaine et périurbaine au Sénégal constitue un levier important pour la sécurité alimentaire, la création d’emplois et de revenus, l’amélioration du cadre et de la qualité de vie dans les villes. Dans ce secteur, on note de plus en plus un développement important de la floriculture au Sénégal et en particulier dans la région de Dakar. Toutefois, dans le secteur floral et ornemental, 90% de ce marché évolue dans le secteur informel, ne pouvant pas par conséquent être pris en compte dans des statistiques. En effet, il est noté une importante prolifération des pépinières et jardins d’ornement avec comme seules préoccupations, la qualité ornementale ou la valeur économique des plantes cultivées. Objectif : C’est dans cette optique que cette étude a été entreprise pour caractériser les exploitations florales. Elle se propose d’analyser la liste globale des pépinières, et de déterminer les caractéristiques des exploitations horticoles recensées lors de l’enquête. Méthodologie et résultats : Pour la réalisation de cette étudee, il a été élaboré un questionnaire renseignant sur les caractéristiques de chaque site de production de plantes ornementales. Méthodologie et résultats : Pour la réalisation de cette étudee, il a été élaboré un questionnaire renseignant sur les caractéristiques de chaque site de production de plantes ornementales. Au total, un échantillon 84 producteurs a été enquêté. Les résultats de cette étude ont permis de recenser 516 sites de production horticoles répartis dans 16 communes. La banlieue regroupe 28,10% des sites de production contre 71,9% pour la ville de Dakar. Concernant le statut des exploitations, il apparait que seulement 15,48% des stations ont un statut juridique légalement défini : il s’agit des Associations (10,71%), des GIE (3,57%) et des Entreprises (1,79%). Quant à l’étude de la répartition par sexe, les résultats ont montré que 98,81% des exploitants sont de sexe masculin. Par ailleurs, 82,14% des exploitants enquêtés appartiennent à l’ethnie sérère. Pour la qualification des exploitants, il apparait que seuls 23,81% des enquêtés ont suivi une formation en horticulture. En ce qui concerne l’analyse des sources d’irrigation, il apparait que le robinet demeure pour 35,71% des exploitants enquêtés, la source d’irrigation la plus utilisée contre, 33,33% pour le puits. Quant à la répartition des exploitations selon le mode d’occupation des terres, les résultats ont montré que l’emprunt est le mode d’occupation le plus connu avec 78,57% de citations. L’analyse des intrants a montré que 12 pesticides, appartenant à six (6) familles chimiques ont été recensés. Et que le methomyl est la matière active la plus recherchée avec 32,74% de citations, suivi du diméthoate (19,64%) et du malathion (16,07%).

  106. Ihsane El Otmani, Fatima El Agy, Nada Lahmidani, Dafr Allah Benajah, Mohammed El Abkari, Imane Toughrai, Oussaden Abdelmalek, Ibn Majdoub Hassani Karim, Khalid Mazaz, Ouadii Mouaqit, Bachir Benjelloun, Hicham El Bouhaddouti, Karima El Rhaz, Touria Bouha

    In this study, our aim was to provide a global overview of locally advanced rectal cancer (RC) epidemiology and its clinicopathologic characteristics as well as to identify predictive factors that may influence response to neoadjuvant therapy of a Moroccan population. Enrolled RC patients underwent neoadjuvant therapy, followed by surgery between 2011 and 2018 at the university hospital of Fez, Morocco. 250 patients were included in this observational retro-prospective cross-sectional study. 50.8% were women and 49.2% were men with a female to male ratio of 1.03. The average age at diagnosis was 56 years. Most of patients presented rectal bleeding as a revealing symptom (75.9 %). 84.8% were responders to neoadjuvant therapy and 51.2% were non responders. In univariate analysis, the responders group was found significantly associated with resection status, absence of perineural and vascular invasion, yp TNM, less metastasis, recurrence and long-term survival. In multivariate analysis, circumferential resection margins (HR: 3.154; 95% CI: 1.265-7.861; p=0.014), resection status (HR: 0.190; 95% CI: 0.042-0.849; p=0.030), ratio of positive lymph nodes (HR: 0.030; 95% CI: 0.002-0.391;p=007), and ypUICC stages (II: HR: 0.142; 95% CI: 0.021-0.974;p=0.047, III: HR: 0.050; 95% CI: 0.007-0.329;p=0.002, IV: HR: 0.172; 95% CI: 0.030-0.969; p=0.046) were found to be independent predictors of response to neoadjuvant therapy in RC.

  107. Adama Diouf, Malick Ndiaye, Aboubacry Kane, MameArama Fall-Ndiaye and Tahir Abdoulaye Diop

    The evolution of bacterial population size in the rhizosphere of maize through amendment with different organic materials from gliricidia plants was investigated. Greenhouse experiments were consecutively conducted for gliricidia biomass production and maize growth in Niayes zone soil. The plate count methods allowed estimation of rhizobacterial abundance in soil sampled from maize root systems. The density of two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) groups, mainly phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and fluorescent pseudomonads, was markedly affected by organic amendment. A positive rhizospheric effect of cultivated maize was observed on each rhizobacterial population investigated. Application of organic amendment allowed to get the highest PSB and pseudomonad abundance in maize rhizospheric soil which were estimated at log 5.76 and log 6.08 respectively. However, the nature of plant material used as green manure, did not influence neither abundance of PSB nor fluorescent pseudomonads in the rhizosphrere of maize.

  108. Nurul Ibrahim, Arlina Nurbaity Lubis and Diah Arruum

    Background: Preventing and handling infection are one of the indicators of the International Patients Safety Goals which is required to be practiced by a hospital in order to increase service quality. Structured and scheduled supervision is an IPCN’s routineness in which her responsibility, function, and task are intended to increase performance. Management system has to be able to facilitate prevention and handling program which is relevant to the expected result. Objects: To identify the Influence of Organizational Structure and Supervision of Infection Preventive Control Nurse (IPCN) on the Performance of Infection Preventive Control Link Nurse (IPCLN) in Preventing and Handling Infection at the General Hospitals. Methods: The research used quantitative design. The population was 70 IPCNs and IPCLNs, and all of them were used as the samples. The research instrument was NCAT (Nursing Culture Assessment Tools), while the variables of supervision and performance were adopted from Law No. 27/2017 on the Guidance for Preventing and Handling Infection. Bivariate analysis used Spearman Rho. Results: the result showed that there was significant influence of organizational culture on IPCLN’s performance in preventing and handling infection (r=-0.244, p=0.020), IPCN supervised IPCLN’s performance in preventing and handling infection (r=-0.358, p=0.001). Conclusion: Supervision through formative approach should be done IPCLN’s performance would be better if IPCN monitored regularly. Organizational culture in the hospitals was good and reflected comfortable work atmosphere.

  109. Khoubila, N., Bendari, M., Zaidani, M., Benchekroun, S. and Quessar, A.

    Cerebral venous thromboembolism is a rare cerebrovascular disorder reported in acute promyelocytic leukemia, witch is more known for bleeding complications as the leading cause of early mortality. We report a case of 28 years old Moroccan woman, diagnosed with cerebral venous thrombosis as an initial presentation of acute promyelocytic leukemia. As soon as the diagnostic was made, treatment by all trans retinoic acid combined to conventional chemotherapy concomitant to systemic anticoagulation were started. This combination of treatment was sufficient to obtain complete remission and led to a complete disappearance of the thrombosis as well as the neurological signs without squeal. This case highlights the importance of a rigorous and complete investigation that some thromboembolic events call for.

  110. Ramiz Raja Veesar, Aftab Ali Kubar, Mansoor Ali Sahito, Ghulam Mustafa Kubar, Waqar Ahmed Khuhro, Majeedullah Marri and Abdul Jabbar Mirjat

    The present research was conducted to estimate the association of yield contributing characters with grain yield and the estimation of heritability percentage in broad sense. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications at Latif Experimental Farm Sindh Agriculture University Tando Jam in Rabi season 2013-2014. Three wheat genotypes, i.e. TD-1, Kiran-95 and Sarsabz, were evaluated for seven quantitative traits viz. plant height, number of tillers per plant, spike length, number of spikelets spike-1, number of grains spike-1, seed index and grain yield plant-1. All the traits differed significantly at P < 0.01 level. The variety Kiran-95 showed superiority in plant height (90.35cm), number of tillers (7.37), spikelets spike-1(15.135), grains spike-1(52.90) and grain yield plant-1(22.23g). The results indicated that there was a positive and significant correlation between plant height and spike length, spikelets spike-1and grains spike-1. There was a strong positive association between spikelets spike-1and grain yield plant-1. Path analysis indicated that the direct effect of spike length, spikelets spike-1, grains spike-1, and seed index on grain yield was 0.470, 0.992, -0.677 and -0.026 which makes 111.81, 141.38, -140.3, and -8.36 % respectively of the total phenotypic correlation. Plant height and number of grains spike-1exhibited maximum genetic variances which was associated with highest heritability estimates in broad sense and genetic advance among the traits under the study.

  111. Xu Hui

    This paper takes School of Foreign Studies, Wenzhou University as the research object. Through a questionnaire survey of students who take Japanese as the second foreign language, the existing problems in the Japanese teaching are pointed out from macro perspective, in addition, suggestions and concrete implementation plans are also put forward. It is very important to change the teaching ideas and methods, to improve the scientific research ability of Japanese teachers, to introduce academic leaders and to improve Japanese teaching system and discipline system.





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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
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Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
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