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July 2020

  1. Dr. Prashobhith, K.P.

    To achieve the purpose of the study 20 University men football players were selected and their criterion variables namely Speed, Explosive Power, Leg Strength and Heart rate were measured prior and after the game by supplementing glucose and by not supplementing glucose. By using t-ratio pre and post tests were compared and the results showed no significant changes either in the physical or in the physiological variables.

  2. Dr. Aishwarya Sanjay Sidhaye and Dr. Shyam Devidas Ganvir

    Background: About one third of the community dwellers over the age of 65 and persons over the age 80 will fall each year. Fall is an unexplained event that results in a person inadvertently coming to the rest on the floor, ground or lower level. Falls are extremely common among the older adult population, account for the substantial morbidity and mortality. Postural control involves controlling body’s position in space for dual purpose of stability, balance and orientation. Postural stability or balance is the ability to maintain the projected centre of motion within the limit of base of support. Physiological changes of normal aging may increases the risk of falls.eg-with the normal aging there is diminished input from the visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular system which may results in alteration of balance. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find the association of body sway among community dwelling elderly population with and without having history of falls. Subject and method: 12 subjects were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subjects were selected by convenient sampling method. They were divided into 2 groups of fallers and non-fallers. To evaluate body sway among elderly, the body sway meter had been use. The body sway among elderly having history of falls and without falls had been measure, with keeping their eyes open and closed. Result: The body sway was analyzed and compared within community dwelling elderly population which were fallers and non fallers, by unpaired t test (pvalue = <0.0001). Age was compared in between groups and it comes not significant. The BMI in the participant had come significant. When body sway compared in elderly, the sway observed greater among people having previous history of falls. Conclusion: The patients having previous falls history are having more body sway that means they are at high risk of falls; than the elderly without falls history. BMI in the participants with falls history was seen higher than participants without having falls history.

  3. Remuel M. Coles

    This study aimed to ascertain the reading strategies used by and the level of reading comprehension of Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSEd) major in English students at Surigao State College of Technology, Surigao City. It looked into the profile of the participants as to their sex and year level. Moreover, it also probed the various strategies used by the respondents when grouped accordingly and the significant relationship between the reading strategies employed and their comprehension levels. The study made use of a descriptive research design. The data were obtained from the participants using the researcher-made questionnaire. There were 105 participants. In the treatment of the data, frequency count and percentage computation, mean and standard deviation, Scheffe test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were statistical tools employed. It was found out that 80.95% of the participants from first year to fourth year were female and only 19.05%were male. In other words, the female dominated the number of participants. However, the study showed that sex did not affect their reading strategies used and the level of comprehension. On the other hand, it study revealed that Bottom Up, Top Down, Scanning and Skimming Strategies were deemed effective based on their mean and standard deviation. These four (4) reading strategies greatly aided them in the enhancement of their reading comprehension. This further implies that the participants utilize these strategies in extracting and construing the meaning of printed materials.

  4. Meghali Langthasa, Swarga Jyoti Das and Pragun Khandelwal

    Concrescence is a rare developmental dental disorder where the roots of the adjacent teeth are united by cementum. It occurs commonly in maxillary molar region. It may lead to periodontal tissue destruction through the loss of gingival architecture. Unpredicted extraction of an adjacent tooth, fracture of the maxillary tuberosity or floor of the maxillary sinus and oral-antral communication are reported at the time of extraction of concrescent tooth. Therefore, a correct and early diagnosis prior to surgical intervention is important to ensure that patients can make an informed decision about their treatment and to reduce the potential for dento-legal action against the responsible clinician.

  5. Dr. Shakti Kishore, Dr. Priya Ranjan and Dr. Vijay Kumar

    Cubitus varus (gunstock deformity) is the most common complication of supracondylar fracture of the humerus. Several osteotomies and various fixation techniques are described for its correction. The most commonly used is the lateral closing-wedge osteotomy, also known as French osteotomy with variable results. Persistent lateral condyle prominence leads to cosmetically unacceptable appearance and poor patient satisfaction. To avoid this problem, dome osteotomy is performed. We have evaluated results of dome osteotomy in our population. Material and Method: This was a retrospective study carried out in our institute. Ten patients with cubitus varus treated by dome osteotomy were evaluated at 24 months. All patients were operated by triceps-splitting approach. Pre-and postoperative carrying angle of elbow range of motion, and lateral condyle prominence index were compared according to Banerjee criteria.Results: Ten patients with average age of 9.1 years were followed up for 2 years. mean gap between injury and surgery was 15 months. Postoperative improvement in carrying angle and lateral condylar prominence index was significant. One case developed ulnar neuropraxia, which recovered fully within 2 weeks. Pin tract infection was seen in three cases and skin infections in two cases. Conclusion: Dome osteotomy is a technically demanding surgery. The functional and cosmetic correction is better compared to that for French osteotomy.

  6. Dr. Shakti Kishore, Dr. Priya Ranjan and Dr. Vijay Kumar

    Introduction: Chronic painful tendon disorders are common in both sport persons and common individuals. Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is relatively more common among active individuals in the general population. Typical signs and symptoms include pain and tenderness over the lateral epicondyle, exacerbated by resisted wrist extension and passive wrist flexion and impaired grip strength. Aim of the study -To find whether autologous blood provides comparable functional outcome over local steroids and hence whether it can replace steroids in treatment of tennis elbow. Materials and Methods: Patients with nontraumatic elbow pain attending the OrthopaedicsOut patient Department of Patna Medical College Hospital from Sep 2015 to May 2019. The participating subjects were randomly grouped into two groups (steroid (Group A) and autologous blood (Group B)). Pain the subject’s affected elbow was measured using Visual analogue Score (VAS). Results: Initially, both the groups had comparable initial VAS scores. At 1 month follow up, steroid group showed a significantly greater improvements in mean VAS scores when compared to autologous blood group. However, at 6 months follow up, steroid group showed no statistically significant difference in mean VAS scores when comppared to autologous blood group. Conclusion: From the current study, we concluded that both local corticosteroid and autologous blood were equally efficacious in the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylitis of elbow.

  7. Chaudhary Veena

    In this study, the aim was to assess the effect of ABO and Rh incompatibility on anemia and jaundice in neonates born in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India. In our study of 516 neonates, approximately 34.10% of live births were at theoretical risk for immune mediated hemolysis based on ABO and Rh incompatibility, of which 28.29% neonates had mild physiologic jaundice and 0.39% neonates had mild anemia. However, clinical manifestation of pathologic jaundice developed in only 5.81% of at-risk infants with ABO incompatibility, of which 3.68% neonates had TSB between 12mg/dL to 17.99mg/dL and 2.13% neonates had TSB between 18mg/dL to 26mg/dL. All the neonates with TSB more than 18mg/dL were also associated with early onset neonatal sepsis. The incidence of ABO incompatibility with early onset neonatal sepsis with hyperbilirubinemia with severe anemia and severe hemolysis was about 0.2% in our study. Besides, no neonate had hydrops fetalis, kernicterus or cerebral palsy and the neonatal mortality rate was zero, in our study. Thus, in our study, the effect of ABO and Rh incompatibility on anemia and jaundice was mild in most neonates and the effect became severe in presence of risk factors, most commonly neonatal sepsis.

  8. Sonalee Shah

    Dental Anthropology is a scientific discipline, which deals with studies of sexual dimorphism, paleodemography, oral health, lifestyle, evolutionary trends, paleodiet, biodistance and paleopathology through the analysis of the dentition of extinct and modern human populations and hence, is concerned with the study of morphological variation (dental morphological features) and metrics of the dentition of human populations over time (prehistoric and modern) and in space (ie.ethnic influences) and their relation with the processes of adaptation and dietary changes that led to the evolution of the dental system and the human race.(1,3) Keeping in mind the dental evolutionary changes, the subject experts, focus on the use of teeth to resolve anthropological problems. Teeth exhibit a wide array of variables, ranging from those largely controlled by genes to those largely dictated by environment. Dental variables under genetic control include crown and root morphology and size, along with tooth number (i.e., missing and extra teeth, or hypodontia and hyperdontia). Dental variables that reflect environmental factors include tooth crown wear and chipping, caries, abscesses, periodontal disease, calculus, and linear enamel hypoplasia. Anthropological questions focusing on teeth include issues of population origins and relationships (tooth morphology, size, number), diet and behavior (attrition, crown chipping, tooth-tool use), health (caries, abscesses, periodontal disease, calculus), and developmental stress (hypoplasia, asymmetry). Modern Dental Anthropology is the result of systematic efforts carried out by research teams for decades in order to strengthen the scientific nature of the discipline and tried to explain the enormous biological diversity of human populations. Dental anthropology is also applied to living people, using many of the same techniques employed for analyzing ancient remains and, so, it can be viewed as the collaborative effort of various subjects like: anthropology, clinical dentistry, biology, paleontology, and paleopathology. The subject, therefore, involves analysis of tooth metrics, non-metric patterns common to various ethnic groups and tooth wear patterns and food or other habits to identify and compare the period of existence of the creature bearing those teeth.

  9. Dr. Shubh Karmanjit Singh Bawa, Dr. Parul Sharma, Dr. Pankaj Chauhan, Dr. Vikas Jindal, Dr. Divye Malhotra, Dr. Shamsher Sandlas, Dr. Ajitpal Singh Bharaj and Dr. Rohit Saini

    As Mark Twain put it “The trouble with the world is not that people know too little, it's that they know so many things that just aren't so.” Human history experiences a very strange period in which an unseen adversary struggles; the novel Coronavirus disease - 19 (COVID-19). Originally observed in the Wuhan,China and now spreading rapidly all over the world. The Current COVID-19 pandemic threatens the medical community with several theories. Because of its higher rate of transmission, the clinical and epidemiological findings of COVID -19 remain vague. On COVID-19, their understandings are expressed from every corner of the world but the meaning of those understandings is still uncertain. It is therefore crucial to know the truth, and to free the perceptions of human. Hence the review describes the COVID-19 misconceptions and actual facts.

  10. Mohammed Ahmed Hag Ali Alzubair, Motasim Hyder Abd Elwahab and Atiyat Abdalla Fadoul Nuri

    Desertification is a result of complex interactions within coupled social-ecological systems. Thus, the relative contributions of climatic, anthropogenic and other drivers of desertification vary depending on specific socio-economic and ecological contexts. The research aimed in contributing raise awareness, show the current status, future challenges and emphasized on researches that must be done through national strategies starting with determination the top priorities of research. Desertification induced by adverse human activities on agricultural lands creates a real research gap on vegetation degradation, soil erosion, soil crusting and compaction caused by mechanized farming and animals trampling, trends of range land as well as continuous updating of carrying capacity of range lands, depletion of nutrients and organic matter due to excessive land use, accumulation of fertilizers and pesticides that may be toxic to human, plants and animals. Due to limited financial resources for anti-desertification research, there is a gap in combating desertification research generally, and wind erosion particularly such as: Stabilizing soil particles by various natural or synthetic cementing and flocculating materials that increase the non- erodiable soil particles (NEP) on the soil surface; producing a rough and cloddy surface; maintaining sufficient vegetative cover; and establishing barriers or shelter belts barriers to reduce effective field length traveled by the wind. Furthermore there is a lack in studies focused on measuring sand encroaching into the Nile. Still there is urgent need to conduct research on design and implementation of shelter belts and specify type of trees, number of rows, density and distance. The inevitable failure for desertification research that is not integrated with poverty alleviation programs, so there is a critical need to designing ideal planning and sustainable management of natural resources to keep this human mass well and satisfied

  11. Subhashis Das

    Anthropogenic disturbances pose serious threat to mangrove forest in Indian Sundarbans leading to shrinking pressure on halophytic floristic composition in this geographical locale. A vegetation study, during post-monsoon, along the upstream Matla estuarine belt belonging to central sector of Indian Sundarbans revealed a poor combination of four true mangrove species Acanthus ilicifolius L., Avicennia officinalis L., Sonneratia apetala Buch. Ham. and Exoecaria agallocha L. along with two mangrove associates Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka and Suaeda maritima Dumort. The lower inter-tidal region was found to be dominated by Avicennia officinalis and Exoecaria agallocha community which was sequentially replaced by Sonneratia apetala, Acanthus ilicifolius, Porteresia coarctata and Suaeda maritima towards the supralittoral zone. Porteresia coarctata, locally known as dhani ghas, appeared to be the pioneer species of mangrove mudflat in the study zone. During 1998 – 2019 study period, mean surface water salinity in the selected station was highest (25.88 ‰ ± 1.20) during pre-monsoon and lowest (9.96 ‰ ± 0.34) in monsoon months. Quadrate-wise measurements of different vegetative parameters of P. coarctata revealed that total plant height (combination of root and shoot height) was in the range of 13.34 cm – 42.43 cm (30.69 cm ± 8.48). Leaf length varied in the range between 11.03 cm and 26.5 cm. Average number of leaves was in the range of 6 – 12 per plant. Although root length and shoot length appeared to be positively correlated (r = 0.63; significant at 5% level), shoot or stem length did not appear to influence number of leaves to a significant extent (r = 0.34). The present ecological study demands for stringent monitoring along the entire stretch of the selected study area of Indian Sundarban to assess the role of anthropogenic stress on halophytic species composition and their ecological health.

  12. Degu Paulos

    COVID -19 has caused multi-faceted impact globally. Ethiopia’s vulnerability to the consequences of the pandemic is more severe compared to developed countries because of problems of responsiveness as the country is poor. This study examined the impact of COVID-19 and resilience strategies used based on information gathered from media outlets and literature. According to the findings,COVID-19 caused economic, social and political impacts in Ethiopia. And resilience mechanisms such as fund raising, declaration of state of emergency, engaging religious leaders in the fight against the pandemic and pardoning prisoners were used.

  13. Dishantsonawane, Jitesh swami and Satya Sandeep Chaganti

    While traveling in space one of the hardest thing to do is stop or change directions without anything to push against or friction to slow things down spacecraft need to do all this hardwork by changing speed or path,. So they do this with the help of Pulsed plasma thrusters. The PPTs (Pulsed Plasma Thrusters) use Teflon, the same stuff that’s on the frying pan to make spacecraft move around in the universe. And this method is being used since the 1960s. The chemical propulsion is the best and only option for takeoff from the ground and leavesthe atmosphere but in space not very useful. In space Electro-Magnetic propulsion (EM propulsion) becomes available, they are not strong enough to take rockets off the ground but are great once the earth's atmosphere is passed. PPTs are high-specific impulse thrusters, accelerating charged particles or ions are thrown out with Electric or Magnetic fields. Today we have all kinds of EM thrusters but the pulsed plasma thrusters or PPTs were the first ones ever flown in space. They were used in 1964 by the soviet ZOND 2 mission to Mars. In this paper, we briefly describe the development of plasma-based propulsion systems and are classically grouped according to the thrust generation process: electrothermal, electrostatic, and electromagnetic devices and further the concept of various electric thrustersare introduced.

  14. Sidra Anwar, Naeem Ahmed Syed, Dur-e-samin, Mirza Naseer Ahmad and Sajid Rashid Ahmad

    Sargodha city has a weather of utmost temperature in the summers and calm cold in the winters. Comparative study of Sargodha ground temperature which is the part M. Phil research was initiated by using thermal infrared (TIR), near infrared (VNIR), and detectable bands of Landsat metaphors with ground based instruments being measured by Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) to ascertain the variation of results. The validation of remote sensing data was found with in ±5oC.The study was conducted to contribute to enhance the scientific evidence about rising of global temperature and increase of deforestation by materialistic inspection. The Landsat data for the month of October of years 2000, 2005, 2011 and 2015 was used and compared with ground station data. The results of the study show that the temperature of the land surface increased gradually from30°C in 2000, to 33°C in 2005 and34°C in 2011, but there was irregular decrease of temperature found in 2015 for the reasons required to be further investigated. The increase of temperature is attributed to the reduction of agricultural land and increase of developed area in Sargodha that lead to disturb the energy balance.

  15. Stephanie Azofeifa-Salas, Mauricio Redondo-Solano, Gustavo A. Gutiérrez-Espeleta and María Laura Arias-Echandi

    Background: Ready to eat meat represents an important diet component worldwide and Costa Rica does not escape this trend. Generally, these products are made from poultry, beef and pork meat; however, the fraudulent replacement for horsemeat has been reported. Objective: The aim of this work was to determine the potential contamination with potential foodborne pathogens and the adulteration with undeclared horse meat of 120 mortadella and 120 sausage samples acquired in the four provinces that conform the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Methods: Bacteriological analysis included the Most Probable Number (MPN) of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, presence of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp, and Clostridium perfringens. Presence of horse’s DNA was determined in 73 sausage and 42 mordatella samples using real time PCR methodology. Results: Results obtained show the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and horsemeat in the samples analyzed. A total of 47 (21,4%) isolates of E. coli, 59 (26,8%) of Staphylococcus aureus and 16 (7,3%) of Listeria monocytogenes were obtained from the 240 samples analyzed. No isolates of Salmonella spp and Clostridium perfringens were obtained. An overall positivity of 48,7% was determined for horsemeat, including a 54,7% positivity for mortadella samples and 45,2% for sausage. Conclusions: Data obtained shows that there is an important fraud in ready to eat meat products, and also that the contamination or mishandling of these products may represent a risk for public health.

  16. Elmira Zhanysbekova

    The article discusses the main elements of myth and poetics in Kazakhstani prose. In Kazakhstani literature, the main postulate is still in demand that the only right way to revive the spiritual essence of Kazakh is in returning to one’s national origins, history, ethnos, connection with nature, in returning to national moral values, that is, to myth, folklore, to its deepest sacred meaning. The reference in literature and culture to national roots, mythology and folklore as sources and patterns of national identity actualized in Kazakhstani reality of independence period (the 1990s – 2016). Mythological genetic (totem consciousness, zoomorphic and chthonic mythology, archetypes and ritual thinking) are in the focus of Kazakhstani literary new myth.

  17. Dieng Birane, Mbaye Mame Samba, Diouf Ndongo, Diouf Jules, Diouf Macoumba and Noba Kandioura

    Au Sénégal, les plantes ornementales ont fait l’objet de peu d’investigations scientifiques alors que, la flore ornementale est considérée comme un des principaux vecteurs d’introduction de plantes invasives à travers le monde. En effet, l’invasion des communautés végétales par les plantes introduites est considérée comme une des plus sérieuses menaces par la biodiversité. Il est donc important aujourd’hui d’améliorer les connaissances scientifiques concernant ces plantes afin de limiter les risques d’envahissement. Ainsi, ce travail a été entrepris dans le but de caractériser la flore ornementale envahissante de Dakar. Elle se propose de recenser les espèces ornementales envahissantes cultivées à Dakar ; de déterminer la richesse spécifique par famille et d’élaborer les spectres biologique et chorologique des espèces recensées. Méthodologie et résultats : Une recherche bibliographique approfondie a été effectuée afin de lister les espèces ornementales invasives recensées dans le monde puis affecté du code 1 ou 0 signifiant respectivement leur présence où non dans la flore ornementale du Sénégal. Par la suite la richesse spécifique par famille a été calculée et les spectres biologique et chorologique élaborés. Les résultats ont montré que 58 espèces appartenant à 51 genres et réunies dans 29 familles ont été recensées. Les familles les plus diversifiées sont les Apocynaceae (10,34%), Araceae (10,34%), Fabaceae (10,34%), et Euphorbiaceae (8,62%). Par ailleurs, cette flore est principalement constituée d’espèces pérennes qui regroupent 94,83%. Quant à la répartition des espèces selon leurs affinités biogéographiques, il apparait que les espèces pantropicales et afro-américaines sont les plus représentées et regroupent respectivement 41,38% et 18,97% de la flore, soit 60,35% de la totalité des espèces rencontrées

  18. Mansour Farhan, Ismaiel Sharhan and Mohammed Kasim Gasim

    Objective: This paper developed the mathematical model applied the artificial intelligence techniques of to simulated a wind turbine control system utilization PID,ANFIS and NARMA controllers . Wind power plays an important function in production of electric power and effected voltage and frequency stability. Rotary of wind turbines transmit vary types of loads and pneumatic loads, which cause rotor blades to deteriorate to the turbine Methods/Statistical Analysis: using MATLAB / Simulink to control of pitch angle to maintain turbine blades. Finding: The result of artificial intelligence techniques show response of time and time stability of three methods showed that the ANFIS controller is the best compared to other methods. The PID produces a lower time response, but it has oscillations with peak exceeding (0.08) and rise time (5 seconds).When you apply NARMA Controller, the result is less rise time (0 seconds), The stability time exceeds (6 seconds) and exceeds the maximum results using ANFIS whose design is able to effectively stop the steady-state error to zero and the rapid rise time systems (0), and the time stabilizes (5.8 seconds) from the analysis., Application/Improvement: it is concluded that the ANFIS control gives a relatively quick response to the input. This method to control of pitch angle is a better technique of the system control.

  19. Theogene Niyonzima

    Current socio-economic and infrastructures development efforts are sustained by the use of environmental resources. This, sometimes, may leave environmental deleterious effects if the principles of sustainable development are not well integrated into development planning. It is against this background that sustainable cities, green building or sustainable construction as well as green economy are all embraced by sustainable development principles as the drivers of human welfare which support the theory of environmental sustainability and sustainable utilization of natural resources. The purpose of this article was to analyse urbanization trends and green development policies globally, with a particular focus on Rwanda, looking at green cities and green buildings. The findings from the study revealed that the world’s areas are urbanizing with an increase in more urban residents in different countries because the United Nations’ projections show that percent of urban will move from 29.6% in the year 1950 to 66.4% in the year 2050. The same trend in urban residents was projected in Rwanda where the Government of Rwanda identified an urbanization target rate of 35% by 2020 whereas UNPD projected 33.5% urban growth for Rwanda by 2020.The projections show that with the current ongoing development, this trend will continue in six secondary cities of Rwanda. Rubavu and Musanze cities followed by Nyagatare city are expected to have an increasing number of urban population. But, urban households are projected to increase in Rubavu city (36.7%); Nyagatare city (20%) and Musanze city (17.7%) in the year 2020. As the result, Rwanda has developed Green Growth and Climate Resilience “National Strategy for Climate Change and Low Carbon Development”, the National Roadmap for Green Secondary City Development, introduction of Rwanda Building Code and the National Housing Policy together with the creation of Rwanda Green Building Organization (RWAGBO), the Rwanda Green Building Minimum Compliance System, etc. led this green transformation for cities in Rwanda. Now Rwanda is one of the leading countries for green growth in Africa and a member country of Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI). Enhancing the role of policy and green development strategies with sound liabilities rules will drive the green growth vision in order to sustain green economy with sustainable cities.

  20. SANOGO Souleymane, COMPAORE Inoussa, GOUBA Birdabouré, SAVADOGO Dramane Cheick and KABRE T. André

    The practice of activities on the shores of the Ziga dam lake involves the use of products that may affect the quality of its water. The objective of this study is to assess the anthropic activities that may impact the quality of the water of the Ziga dam. In order to do so, surveys were conducted among market gardeners and breeders in order to know their working methods and their behaviour towards the resource. The results of the surveys showed that more than half of these two groups of users (78% of market gardeners and 54% of herders) have not attended school. With plots of land less than 50 m from the dam lake for 50% of the market gardeners, most of them (60%) use chemical fertilizers (NPK). Usually using moderately dangerous pesticides, 36% of them bury the leftovers in holes and 28% abandon them in the fields. As for packaging, 64% bury them in holes and 11% abandon them in the fields. The survey also revealed that 9% of market gardeners wash the application equipment at the dam and 30% wash it in the fields. As for livestock farmers, it was found that only 10% had received training in rangeland management methods. 90% of them have a mixed herd, while 10% have a herd consisting solely of cattle and 78% have livestock not exceeding 50 head. The survey notes that 42% of the farmers send their herds to the dam and 57% of them do so twice a day. It is concluded from this study that the activities of these two user groups are potential factors that could harm the biological health of this water body or even have consequences on human health. Consequently, the study recommends a physico-chemical diagnosis of this water body and the launching of an awareness campaign among these stakeholders.

  21. Pitchaipandi, P. and Dr. Baskaran, C.

    This study investigation of Exploring Impact and Usage of Electronic Mail by the Students and Research Scholars at Alagappa University, Karaikudi. The Electronic Mail (E-mail) has become one of the most important platforms in modern Information Communication Technology and education industries. I will definitely become an essential mechanism to communicate, connect and collaborate among the scholarly community. In this paper, we provide investigations of E-mail such as G-mail, Yahoo! Mail, Mozilla Thunderbird, Yandex Mail in etc., to identify the features of Email account discuss the using e-mail, Preference of Search engine, Experience of using e-mail, Purpose, and E-mail Facing Problems. Electronic communications difference between the opportunities why academicians use of email. The researcher has selected sample size of 173 students and Research Scholars by the purposive sampling method. The data required for them the study was collected altogether a questionnaire. The findings of the study: (58.4%) of their contributions are male, (50.3%) age group of 20-25 years respectively. (28.9%) respondents are stream of Arts along with (34.7%) of their contributions is Ph.D Scholars. (84.4%) participants provide e-mail account on G-mail with (27.7%) experience of e-mail account on 1-2 years of the respondent Contributions of this study.

  22. Dieng Birane, Mbaye Mame Samba, Diouf Ndongo, Diouf Jules, Diouf Macoumba and Noba Kandioura

    Au Sénégal, les palmiers ornementaux ont fait l’objet de peu d’études scientifiques. Or, la famille des palmacées est considérée comme l’une des familles les plus diversifiée de la flore ornementale du Sénégal. Il est donc important d’étudier les caractères distinctifs de ces espèces en vue d’une meilleure identification. Ainsi, la présente étude porte sur l’identification des palmiers ornementaux cultivés au Sénégal. Elle se propose d’élaborer une clé dichotomique en vue de faciliter leur l’identification. Les caractères les plus stables de chaque espèce sont consignés dans un tableau brut qui est par la suite transformé en tableau de synthèse où les critères sont codés par des signes + ou – signifiant respectivement la présence ou l’absence du critère. A partir de ce tableau de synthèse, une clé dichotomique a été réalisée. La clé de détermination est une clé dichotomique de 19 espèces ornementales recensées à Dakar. Les caractères les plus pertinents et facilement observables sont classés de sorte à identifier facilement les espèces.

  23. Opik Irawan and Charles Bohlen Purba

    The purpose of this study is to determine and analyze the influence of leadership, career development and compensation to the employee engagement of PT. Garuda Maintenance Facility Aeroasia Tbk which has an Aircraft Maintenance Engineer License. Source of data comes from primary and secondary data. Primary data is taken from the distribution of questionnaires, while secondary data from journals, company annual reports and books. Data distributed to 327 employees. The sampling technique uses simple random sampling. Data analysis used causal studies with multiple linear regression analysis, validity and reliability tests. The results of multiple regression analysis, partially and simultaneously on employee engagement variables. Of all the variables studied, compensation was the variable that had the most dominant influence on employee engagement. The researcher suggests that there is a review and adjustment between the compensation given and the risk and workload of employees who have an Aircraft Maintenance Engineer License. With the compatibility between compensation and risk and workload, employees will feel fairness which results in peace of work and increased employee engagement. The results of multiple linear regression analysis, the results of the t test and f test show that leadership, career development and compensation have positive and significant effects both partially and simultaneously on the engagement of employees who have an Aircraft Maintenance Engineer License at PT. Garuda Maintenance Facility Aeroasia Tbk.

  24. Rakesh Kumar Roshan, Vijaykant Pandey and Poonam Wankhede

    Helically coiled heat exchangers are globally used in various industrial applications for their high heat transfer performance and compact size. Nanofluids can provide the excellent thermal performance in helical coil heat exchangers. Research studies on heat transfer enhancement have gained serious momentum during recent years and have been proposed many techniques by different research groups. A fluid with higher thermal conductivity has been developed to increase the efficiency of heat exchangers. The dispersion of 1-100nm sized solid nanoparticles in the traditional heat transfer fluids, termed as nanofluids, exhibit substantial higher convective heat transfer than that of traditional heat transfer fluids. Nanofluid is a heat transfer fluid which is the combination of nanoparticles and base fluid that can improve the performance of heat exchanger systems. In this present paper the efforts are made to understand that how to compare the heat transfer rate in helically coiled tube heat exchangers and tapered helical coil heat exchanger using Zinc Oxide nanofluid by studying research papers of various authors.

  25. Takele Wogari Irge

    The study examined the impact of inflation on unemployment Ethiopia; for the period 1991-2018. Cointegration test, Error Correction Model (ECM) technique and Granger causality test were employed in the analysis. The variables utilized in the investigation include inflation rate, external debt and unemployment rate. Stationarity test was conducted and the results indicated that all the variables except Inflation were stationary at first difference; however, inflation became stationary at level. The cointegration test result revealed that long run relationship exists among the variables under study. More so, ECM result showed that inflation has negative and significant impact on unemployment. Finally, the Granger causality results indicated unidirectional relationship between unemployment and inflation with causality running from inflation to Unemployment. Using this approach, the researcher find evidence of a long-run relationship between unemployment rate and inflation. Based on the findings above, the study therefore, recommends the need for the government to put in place policies that control inflation toward sunemploymentreduction.

  26. Dr. Richards U. Ekeh, LL.B, BL, LL.M, Ph.D. and Okoro Jude Henry Ekwoma

    The Lawyer as a Bar Advocate proudly proclaims himself as a member of the honourable legal profession, which indeed he is. But there has been an enormous public prejudice against lawyers as defenders of criminals. The irreconcilable difference in the minds of the uninformed public is how could one who proclaims itself as a member of the honourable profession represent and defend the case of someone to whom the society had adjudged a criminal and societal misfit. This has been the bone of contention. Though paradoxical, a great deal of misconception and the uninformed public prejudice has grown around the lawyers’ roles over the years. This article attempts to resolve this by way of examining what lawyers do as Bar Advocates. The paper employs the doctrinal method of research using the primary and secondary sources to highlight the true position of affairs surrounding public prejudice and misconceptions about lawyers. It submits that lawyers are within the elite circle of professionals who do not only command respect but enjoy a unique professional status all over the world.

  27. Shaxida Davurova

    The development of domestic and external trade relations of the Emirate of Bukhara in 1756-1868, the growth of the number of cities as major trade and economic centers opened ample opportunities for the production of qualitative and various products for domestic and external markets. The study shows that there could be met all strata’s representatives of society in the Emirate, in particular the Emir, various categories of officials, the militants, big landowners, religious people, artisans, local and foreign traders who were engaged in domestic and foreign trade and poor peasants in the territory of the Emirate. They formed the main part of the urban and rural population due to their place in the socio-economic system of the emirate, their financial opportunities and the types of their business.

  28. Komang Pradnyana Sudibya and I Nyoman Suyatna

    The matters on authority regulated underthe Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 23 of 2014 on Regional Government and the distribution of regional taxes and levies under the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 28 of 2009 on Regional Taxes and Regional Leviesare the right of the Regency/City Government. It leads to a strong gap in the Original Regional Revenue (”ORR”) which causes inequality of development between regions and distribution of public welfare. This research aims to find out the amount ofthe balanced finance of central-regional governments and ORR as well as which of those has the bigger amount in terms of financing the regional government implementation in the Regencies/City in Bali Province. This research employs normative legal research by using primary, secondary, and tertiary legal materials which are analyzed by usingthe qualitatively normative tool with statutory and conceptual approaches. The results show that, in terms of revenue inequality, the central government has an instrument through the balanced finance of the central-regional governments whichaims in overcoming both the vertical and horizontal gaps. From the revenue structure, it is noted that the revenue of the balanced finance of the central-regional governments is bigger than the ORR. This indicates that the regions still depend on the central and the balance fund formula is a hope for the Regencies/City in Bali.

  29. Dr. Dakshita Joy Sinha, Dr. Gaurav Rawat, Dr. Akshita Chaudhary, Dr. Udai Pratap Singh, Dr. Shivika goel and Dr. Natasha Jaiswal

    Aim: To compare the canal transportation using three different rotary and reciprocating single file systems. Subjects and methods: Sixty mesiobuccal roots of human permanent maxillary molars free of caries, cracks and restoration were taken. Pre and post instrumentation CBCT scans of all the roots were taken. Instrumentation was performed with the help of Hyflex EDM, Neolix Neoniti and S-One endodontic files. All the roots were examined at 3, 5 and 7mm from the radiographic apex. Results: At the coronal 7mm from the apex there was no significant difference between the files. At the middle 5mm S-One performed better than both the rotary file system, while at the apical 3mm all three file systems showed significant results as S-one performed better than Hyflex EDM followed by Neolix Neoniti. Conclusion: S-One single reciprocating file preserved better canal anatomy than both the other rotary file systems.

  30. Syafed Rianda, Erjan Fikri and Zulfikar Lubis

    Introduction: Intussuseptionisan emergency pediatric surgical cases that are common encountered. The most common complications are necrosis and perforation on Intussuseption. Intussuseption that occurs in premature infants often leads to misdiagnosed with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), that results in incorrect or delayed surgical intervention. We tried to replaced CRP parameters with NLR, take the consideration that NLR is sensitive to inflammation or infection, and many reports a positive correlation was found between CRP and NLR. This is the basis of our research to replace the C-Reactive Protein test with the routine Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between modified-LRINEC (Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis) score with intestinal viability in Intussuseptioncases in H. Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan. Method: This research is an analytic observational study with cross sectional design, which was carried out in the Pediatric Surgery Division of the Department of Surgery at the Haji Adam Malik General Hospital Medan, by collecting samples from the medical records of Intussuseption patients starting from January 2016 to December 2018 that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data processing was carried out using statistical tools of the SPSS program followed by the Komogorov-smirnov test. Descriptive analysis was performed to see the mean values and standard deviations of several parameters with numeric scales and percentages for categorical scale data. Results: Our research showed the relationship between the modified-LRINEC score in the viable intestine group there were 9 patients in a viable intestine, while the modified-LRINEC score 6-7 there were 2 patients with viable intestine and 5 patients with non viableAnd in the modified-LRINEC score ≥8 there were 8 patients were nonviable intestine. This data obtained statistically significant results, with p value <0.005. Hypothesis 0 was rejected in this study. Conclusions: There was a correlation between LRINEC score modification and intestinal viability in Intussuseption patients at H. Adam Malik General Hospital Medan.

  31. Dr. BhushanJawale, Dr. Lishoy Rodrigues, Dr. Sameer Patil, Dr. Keluskar, K.M. Dr. AnupBelludi and Dr. BijuKalarickal

    Twin block appliance from its inception and evolution itself has been widely accepted as a more competent Class II corrector compared to earlier bulky monoblock appliances. Functional appliances can be used successfully in growing patients with certain skeletal Class II patients. Twin block appliance is very effective in a growing patient. The successful use of this appliance in the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion is based upon factors such as; age of patient, compliance of the patient and other case selection criteria. This appliance is very successful in a patient with a retrognathic mandible and well aligned arches with a positive VTO. This efficiently enables the mandibular forward positioning and improves the profile. This case report is of a 13-year-old growing male patient with a Skeletal Class II Pattern and a recessive lower jaw who was treated with Twin block appliance. The profile changes and treatment results were demonstrated. In permanent dentition, twin block appliance produces a similar effect as in mixed dentition phase. With proper case selection and good patient cooperation, we can obtain a significant result with twin block appliance.

  32. Dr. Savitha, P.N. Dr. Malathi Dayalan, Dr. Padmaja, S. and Dr. Karishma Jagadeesh

    Restoration of mutilated dentition is always a challenging task. Each case is unique by itself and involves meticulous planning of an appropriate occlusal scheme to reconstruct the debilitated dentition. There are many philosophies indicated for an occlusal rehabilitation. Pankey Mann Schuyler philosophy is a simple, organized technique in managing full mouth rehabilitation cases. This article describes modified Pankey Mann Schuyler philosophy by customising the anterior the guide table in accordance to the provisional restoration in a cardiac patient.

  33. Dr. Pravat Kumar Jena

    The impact of pandemic COVID-19 is observed in every sector around the world. The education sectors of India as well as world are badly affected by this. It has enforced the world wide lock down creating very bad effect on the students’ life. Around 32 crore learners stopped to move schools/colleges and all educational activities halted in India. The outbreak of COVID-19 has taught us that change is inevitable. It has worked as a catalyst for the educational institutions to grow and opt for platforms with technologies, which have not been used before. The education sector has been fighting to survive the crises with a different approach and digitising the challenges to wash away the threat of the pandemic. This paper highlights some measures taken by Govt. of India to provide seamless education in the country. Both the positive and negative impacts of COVID-19 on education are discussed and some fruitful suggestions are also pointed to carry out educational activities during the pandemic situation.

  34. Dr. Upadhyay Aditya Chandradhar, Dr. Darshan R.S., Dr. Hemant Mahur, Dr. D.P. Singh and Dr. Shreya Binayakiya

    Introduction: COPD is defined as a disease state characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation that is not fully reversible and associated with multiple episodes of exacerbations. Thyroid dysfunction can be one such cause of acute worsening. Any thyroidal illness if present and leading to increased complication/exacerbation will go unnoticed and result in increased morbidity and mortality. Aims and Objectives: To determine thyroid function in COPD patients, to see if there is difference in thyroid function in COPD patients with different mMRC, Spirometry and GOLD stages. Methodology: Thyroid function tests and spirometry were conducted on 174 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and compared with mMRC score, GOLD category and Spirometry stages. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Version 15.0 statistical Analysis Software. Appropriate tests were applied. Results: The most common thyroid disorder found in the study was hypothyroidism (16.1%) and subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in 15(8.6%) patients. No cases of overt hyperthyroidism or non-thyroidal illness were seen. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. Prevalence of thyroid disease increased as the severity of COPD increased. It is also seen that the prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with high risk of exacerbation is 20.8% as hypothyroidism and 12.3% as subclinical hypothyroidism which is significantly higher (p value = 0.006) to 8.8% and 3.3% in low risk group respectively. Conclusion: Thyroid dysfunction can be one of the major reasons for morbidity in COPD patients. The study shows a high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in COPD patients especially the ones with more severe disease. Hence routine application of thyroid function test in COPD patients must be done.

  35. Dr. Rudalee Nitin Husale and Dr. Shyam Devidas Ganvir

    Introduction: Present study shows the changes in anthropometric measurements after post menopause. The aim of this study is to determine the anthropometric measurements in postmenopausal women it is a cross sectional study. Method: the sampling method is purposive sampling method the sample size was n=15 postmenopausal women .age between 45to65 first BMI was taken according to quatlet index formula, all anthropometric measurements was taken in standard method with the help of measuring tape, waist circumference, thigh , hip, arm, forearm, calf circumference was taken Result: demographic data was taken age, BMI, socioeconomic status was taken the according to student t test the result was taken mean was taken of all anthropometric measurements was taken in standard method with the help of measuring tape, waist circumference, thigh , hip, arm, forearm, calf circumference was taken the mean was taken in that mean values of all anthropometric measurements get increased in postmenopausal women. Conclusion: The values for all the anthropometric measurements were more in post menopausal women but their values started decreasing with age.

  36. Maneesha, T., Rebia, V., 1Soniya, T.V., Dr. Ramya Das, N.K.

    Cryoglobulinemia refers to the serum presence of cryoglobulins, which are immunoglobulins that reversibly precipitate and form a gel when the temperature is <37 degree Celsius and re-dissolve if the temperature rises to >37degree Celsius. The disease mainly involves small to medium sized blood vessels and mainly causes vasculitis due to cryoglobulin containing immune complexes. The cryoglobulins maybe composed only of a monoclonal Ig (type 1), of a monoclonal Ig bound to the constant domain of polyclonal Ig heavy chains( type 2) or only of polyclonal Ig (type 3).The prevalence of cryoglobulinemia remains unknown.5.About 10-30% of the cases of mixed cryoglobulinemia are not related to HCV. The many causes include other infections, autoimmune diseases and b-cell lymphoid malignancies. The development of vasculitis with cutaneous and peripheral nervous system involvement should prompt an evaluation for lymphoma.For most patients cryoglobulinemia disease is diagnosed by the presence of typical organ involvement (mainly skin, kidney or peripheral nerve) and circulating cryoglobulins.The directed therapy for different types of cryoglobulinemia is based on expert opinion due to disease rarity.Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis unrelated to HCV: Infection should be managed with appropriate anti-infectious agents. Rituximab combined with glucocorticoid therapy is the first line treatment in the event of the autoimmune diseases.Conventional therapy is of high-dose corticosteroids, intravenous cyclophosphamide, rituximab, bortezomib, and plasma exchange. Prognosis in patients with grave manifestations is often poor. Plasma exchange therapy may deserve consideration in patients at the severe end of clinical spectrum.

  37. Visalakshi. H. Subramanian and Shweta. S. Ingale

    Background: Sonographers while carrying out a scan involve a series of awkward movements such as twisting the body, stretching and a combination of downward pressure, twisting and rotating the wrist of the hand operating the scan Objective: The objective of the study was to find out the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in sonographers. Method: 30 radiologists in the age group of 30-60 years with minimum 3 years of practice were included in the study. Subjects were assessed based on case record form and questionnaire. Pain was assessed using Numeric pain rating scale. Results: Out of 30 subjects, 17 had wrist pain, 16 had hand pain, 13 had lumbar pain, 11 had cervical pain, 09 had shoulder pain & 03 had elbow pain. Conclusion: In this study, it was found that radiologists had wrist pain, hand pain, lumbar pain, cervical pain, shoulder and elbow pain.

  38. Samiullah Soomro and Riffat Sultana

    We present diversity and habitat of various species of family Pyrgomorphidae eg: Chrotogonus (Chrotogonus) trachypterus trachypterus (Blanchard, 1836), Tenuitarsus orientalis Kevan, 1959, Poekilocerus pictus (Fabricius, 1775), Pyrgomorpha (Pyrgomorpha) bispinosa deserti Bey-Bienko & Mistshenko, 1951, and Atractomorpha acutipennis (Guerin-Meneville, 1844). The majority of the species were registered for the first time for the locality and the presence of Pyrgomorpha (Pyrgomorpha) bispinosa deserti is confirmed. This study is intended to provide data for future conservation planning, to expand knowledge about dominant/ rare species and to point to the high natural value of the Khairpur Mir’s.

  39. BAYALA Alfred, TUBREOUMYA G. Christian, BORO Drissa, IMBIDA B. Kossi, BADO Nebon, ZEGHMATI Belkasem, KIENO P. Florent and BATHIEBO Joseph

    A numerical study of heat and mass transfers in a large water reservoir is presented. This water reservoir is being considered as a parallelepiped tank which vertical and lower walls are adiabatic and impermeable. The equations that govern the natural convection in water are solved using the finite volume method and Thomas algorithm. The adequacy between the speed and pressure fields is ensured by the SIMPLE algorithm. We analyze the influence of water depth, the density of the solar flux captured by the free water surface, the ambient conditions (temperature and relative humidity of the ambient air, wind speed) on the spatio-temporal distributions of temperature and the speed in the water reservoir as well as the evaporated water mass flow. This modeling is completed by a simulation, using meteorological data from Burkina Faso and the concept of a standard day for the evaporation of this reservoir. The results obtained show that the evaporated water flow rate increases under a high solar flux rate and decreases in case of high relative humidity rate. The months of September and August have a lower evaporation rate according to the typical day used compared to the other months represented and the fluxes of the various heats have significant impacts on the evaporation rate.

  40. Maty Gueye NDAW, *Ndongo DIOUF, Mame Samba MBAYE, Jules DIOUF, Birane DIENG, Abdou Salam Ali MOUHAMED, Djibril DIOP, Mamadou SIDYBE, Sanou NDOUR et Kandioura NOBA

    Au Sénégal, l’oignon est essentiellement cultivé sous régime irrigué dans la zone des Niayes. La baisse de production est liée à de multiples contraintes telles que la péjoration pédo climatique, les nématodes et les adventices. Cette étude a été menée en 2018 pour déterminer l’effet de densité de Cyperus rotundus sur le développement de l’oignon et d’apprécier le stock semencier du Cyperus rotundus dans les parcelles d’expérimentation du département de Biologie Végétale de l’Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar. Elle a porté sur 6 modalités d’enherbement dans un dispositif en blocs de Fisher avec trois répétitions. Des prélèvements de sol ont été effectués pour déterminer le stock semencier. Les résultats ont montré que les densités testées n’ont pas d’effets significatifs sur les paramètres de croissance et de rendement de l’oignon. Les résultats sur la détermination du stock semencier montrent une bonne représentativité des organes reproducteurs du Cyperus rotundus dans la banque de semences des sols du champ école avec 85 et 65,3% concentrés dans les 15 premiers centimètres du sol respectivement pour les graines et tubercules. Ces résultats sont fortement recommandés dans les futures stratégies de gestion de Cyperus rotundus dans la zone des Niayes au Sénégal.

  41. Suneeth Kuriakose and Edwin George

    Background: In immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) there is premature destruction of platelets in the reticuloendothelial system. Splenectomy is a treatment of choice in chronic ITP refractory to medical management. Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the response to splenectomy, venous thrombotic episodes associated with splenectomy. Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study where the data Sentence Reconstruction for ITP in appostrophe Medical college Banglore was analyzed for side effects of treatment presplenectomy; response and thrombotic episodes post splenectomy. Results: There was significant improvement in platelet count post splenectomy (p value 0.00). 36.6% patients had complete response and required no treatment after splenectomy; rest of the patient’s required medical management to maintain hemostasis. Even though venous thrombosis was high in the laparoscopic and HALS group, it was statistically insignificant (p value 0.08). Conclusion: There was significant clinical response to splenectomy in ITP patients either completely or partially. Preoperative vaccinations and proper surgical methods results in lesser infections post procedure, with statistically insignificant thrombotic episodes making splenectomy a safer treatment option.

  42. Ibtisam Alanazi and Dr. Wadi B. Alonazi

    This study examined teaching strategies and instructor characteristics perceived by students to be effective in teaching accounting. A descriptive survey design was employed and the sample consisted of accounting students in Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The average mean score and multiple regression were used for data analysis. The findings showed that student-centered learning, professional knowledge, technical skills, and attitude were perceived to be effective in accounting teaching. These were significantly and positively correlated with effective teaching. This study contributes to the understanding of students’ perceptions of effective teaching methods and instructor characteristics for accounting learning.

  43. Dr. Ram Gopal Saini, Dr. Anoop kumar and Dr. Ajay Mathur

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as a major health burden in developing countries. atherosclerotic disease of the coronary arteries is the most common cause of luminal narrowing there are multiple non atherosclerotic causes to it and the subsequent clinical coronary events. ECG is used to diagnose and predict the culprit artery and also level of occlusion in the culprit artery in patients with myocardial infarction. . We evaluated the set of criteria described by Fiol et al and another set of criteria described by Engelen et al as to how well they predict the level of occlusion in the culprit artery. Aim and Objective To assess the pattern of ECG finding among CAD patient with different severity detected by coronary angiography. Material and methods: This is a hospital based prospective study conducted in SMS hospital, Jaipur with patient of acute coronary syndrome (STEMI) from April 2014 to April 2015. Total number of cases was 100. Patients satisfying inclusion criteria underwent coronary angiogram. Data of patients underwent coronary angiogram were co-related with ECG changes. Correlation of CAG finding and ECG changes was done. Qualitative and quantitative morphologic analysis done and results were interpreted accordingly. Results: Majority of the patients were above the age of 50 years (35%). There were 87% males and 13% females. 34% of the patients had hypertension, 29 % were diabetics, 32% were smokers, 41% were dyslipidemic and 48% of patients of age 55 or above. 74 patients of anterior wall MI had LAD as culprit artery, with 11 patients had additional lesion in the left circumflex and 8 patients in right coronary artery i.e 15% patients had LCx & 11% had RCA. Of 14 patients had two vessels disease and 5 patients had triple vessels disease. 26 patients of inferior wall MI, of 22 patients having right coronary artery as the culprit artery, 3 patients had additional lesion in left anterior descending artery and 2 patients in posterior descending artery. Conclusion: ECG have excellent sensitivity, specificity and exhibits good correlation and agreement with CAG to predict the culprit artery.

  44. Giulio Tarro, MD, PhD

    Betacoronaviruses cell immunity is taken on consideration as well as aerosol transmission and asymptomatic infectivity of COVID-19 carriers. The hydroxychloroquine and serotherapy are studied after identification and spreading of the virus. Its cell epitopes play a role on viral pathogenesis that influences morbility and mortality according to interstitial pneumonia, lymphokinestorms and thromboembolic happenings. Kawasaki syndrome and kidney involvement are discussed with other main pathologies before its prospectives from oral poliovaccine to more proper and specific vaccines.

  45. Khadija Benazzi and Mustapha Razzouki

    For several decades Moroccan agricultural cooperatives have been faced with a radical change in their environment, as well as changes in agricultural policy. The aim of this article is to explore the explanatory factors for the sustainability of dairy agricultural cooperatives in an imprecise environment. To do this, an approach based on the exploratory study of four dairy cooperatives is mobilized. The data were collected by semi-structured interviews with cooperative managers and stakeholders from the four dairy cooperatives, observations during field visits, and collection of archive data. The results show that the financial situation, resilience, and dynamic capacities of a cooperative are necessary conditions for its sustainability. These conditions can help support the cooperative society in another sector of agriculture in Morocco, such as, honey and citrus. Therefore, action is needed to strengthen sustainable agricultural cooperatives in all sectors in Morocco. This work contributes to research on sustainability by extending it to a particular form of organization, namely dairy cooperatives, which are different from companies belonging to traditional or entrepreneurial investors.

  46. Ernie C. Cerado, Mary Jean S. Falsario, Jocelyn C. Estrellan, and Allan Rey M. Paculanan

    A graduate survey is a critical tool to track the employment condition of the alumni in any academic program. Remarkably, the employability of the graduates serves as a significant index of program effectiveness of higher education institutions (HEIs). This study described the demographic and employment characteristics of the graduates of Sultan Kudarat State University in the different baccalaureate programs among nine (9) campuses from 2016 to 2018. A descriptive type of research was employed in the study which involved a sample of 1,115 graduates. Results showed that the graduates are highly employable as evidenced by a 90.67 percent employment rate. The majority of them are on casual or temporary status and now working as professionals within the region that are related to their college degrees. They found their first job in at most two (2) years by responding largely to advertisements. Salary and benefits are the main reasons for accepting, staying on, and even in changing their first jobs. Communication and human relation skills emerged as the top competencies learned in college that are regarded as very useful to their job.

  47. Karthik, A., Hemamalini, M.,Leela K V., Roshlin Susan Mathew and Manjula, S.R.

    Intestinal parasitic infection are one the neglected tropical diseases listed by (WHO). They play a major role among all reasons to cause significant iron deficiency anemia and malnutrition especially among school going children located in rural areas. Our study mainly conducted to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and iron deficiency anemia among school going children. The main aim is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and also to correlate their comorbidities among school going children. A cross sectional study for one year was conducted at a tertiary care hospital which included school going children. In this study, 120 school going children was screened for intestinal parasitic infection and anemia. The stool examination was done by wet mount to detect the presence of ova/cyst and Hb% estimation by using XT 1000i. This 120 study participants with 56.6% boys and 43.3% girls were enrolled. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is 7.5%. Entamoebahistolytica is the predominant protozoal parasite (33.3%) followed by hookworm (44.4%) and Hymenolepis nana (22.2%). Presence of anemia in present study population was 94.16%. To conclude, since intestinal parasitic infection can be controlled by following a few healthy hygienic practices like regular deworming, awareness on handwashing technique, intake of iron and folic acid supplement irrespective of the nutritional status, usage of proper toilets can reduce the incidence of iron deficiency anemia caused by intestinal parasitic infection in school going children.

  48. Parnaz Shams, Zahra Mirkoo

    As the name implies, windcatcher is a part of the building’s framework of the hot and dry or wet and dry climates of Iran, in which by directing the windflaw and enjoying the clean energy of the nature has a particular rule in coordinating the residential space to a comfort temperature for human being. In this study Semnan has been selected as a case study of warm and dry area. The method of study is descriptive- analytical and the reason for choosing the samples is their proximity to each other and their differences in the size and other key features of the wind catchers. Typology has been done by analyzing the common features and patterns of the wind catchers, for this reason the through research on the windcatchers of the Yazd houses written by dr. Mahnaz Mahmoudi has been used. Also, in the study architectural proportions of the wind catchers has been examine and finally the differences between all these windcatchers and finding the best form from the thermal function perspective has been reported. The results of this study would be applied for the development of this element in in today’s modern architecture.

  49. Beatrice Anyango Oguta and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Studies have revealed that parents world over influence talent development of their children through guidance and counseling, payment of required levies, acting as role models and sponsorship. From the year 2011 to 2013 in Kisumu East and Central Sub-Counties, the girl child’s talent development was low compared to their counter parts in the neighboring sub-counties namely Kisumu West, Muhoroni, Nyando, Nyakach and Seme. In drama, music, sports and athletics, Kisumu East and Central sub-counties received 9.3% and 12.3% lower than the neighbouring sub counties of Kisumu West, Muhoroni, Nyando, Nyakach and Seme which received 18.5%, 17.3%, 14.8%, 14.8% and 13% respectively for the same period. In Kenya Certificate of Secondary education examinations, performance of girls in the sub counties was as follows; Kisumu East 8.7%, Kisumu Central 20.1%, C+ and above scores for university entry while Kisumu West, Muhoroni, Nyando, Nyakach and Seme recorded 13.1%, 16.2%, 10.1%, 24.2% and 7.6% respectively over the same period. The objective of this study was to establish the contribution of parents to girl child talent development in public secondary schools in Kisumu East and Central Sub counties. A conceptual framework showing parents’ contribution to girl child talent development was adopted for this study. The study established that the contribution of parents to girl child talent development was moderate with mean ratings of 3.14. The contributions of parents were as such partial fulfillment of the girl child requirements and were in form of money, materials and guidance and counseling among others. The other contribution was by the government and other stakeholders. The study concluded that parents’ contributions were moderate to talent development of the girl child. The study recommended that parents be encouraged to contribute more to their girl child by creating adequate time to advise them to listen to their teachers; parents be enlightened on the significance of their contribution and positive attitude towards co-curricular activities; parents be encouraged to fully support the learning process of the girl child. The findings of this study are important to education stakeholders in informing them on the way forward on parents’ contribution to the girl child’s talent development.

  50. Beatrice Anyango Oguta and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Studies have revealed that parents world over influence discipline of their children through guidance and counseling, payment of required levies, acting as role models and sponsorship. From the year 2011 to 2013 in Kisumu East and Central Sub-Counties, the girl child’s level of discipline was low compared to their counter parts in the neighboring sub-counties namely Kisumu West, Muhoroni, Nyando, Nyakach and Seme. Kisumu East and Central sub counties registered 15.9% and 18.4% cases of indiscipline respectively, higher than the neighbouring sub-counties namely; Kisumu West, Muhoroni, Nyando, Nyakach and Seme which registered 13.9%, 12.0%, 14.3%, 14.1% and 11.4% respectively for the same period. The objective of this study was to establish the contribution of parents to girl child physical discipline in public secondary schools in Kisumu East and Central Sub counties. The study established that the contribution of parents to girl child physical discipline was moderate with the mean rating of 2.60. The contribution of parents were as such partial fulfillment of the girl child requirements and were in form of money, materials and guidance and counseling among others. The other contribution was by the government and other stakeholders. The study concluded that parents’ contributions to girl child physical discipline was moderate. The study recommended that: parents be encouraged to contribute more to their girl child by creating adequate time to advise them to listen to their teachers; besides provision of personal effects timely. The findings of the study are important to education stakeholders in informing them on the way forward on parents’ contribution to the girl child’s discipline.

  51. Joash Mark Asitiba Olenja, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Maurice A. Ndolo

    Globally countries have invested huge amounts of money in education. In Kenya Free Secondary Education (FSE) policy was introduced in 2008 to improve retention rates. In Emuhaya and Vihiga sub counties retention rates from 2008 to 2012 were 53.1%, 55.8%, 53%, 56% and 55.4% respectively for Emuhaya sub county; and 54.6%, 58.3%, 56.5%, 57% and 55% for Vihiga sub county which were lower than national retention rates of 84.1%, 86.2%, 87.4%, 88% and 88.3% for the same period. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of Free Secondary Education policy on retention rates in Emuhaya and Vihiga sub counties. A conceptual framework based on investment choices by Psacharopoulos and Woodhall (1985) was adopted with FSE policy being the independent variable and retention rates as the dependent variable. The study revealed that there was a moderate and positive relationship between Free Secondary Education policy and retention rates with coefficient of 0.613 which was significant at a p-value of 0.05. It accounted for 37.3% of the variation in retention rates. The study concluded that Free Secondary Education policy enhanced retention rates and improved internal efficiency of public secondary schools in Emuhaya and Vihiga Sub Counties. The study recommended that FSE funds be reviewed further upwards and be disbursed on time to schools in order to increase retention rates. The findings of this study are useful to stakeholders in education as it informs them on the need to review further upwards the policy so as to achieve its objectives fully.

  52. Joash Mark Asitiba Olenja, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Maurice A. Ndolo

    Worldwide, studies have revealed that countries have invested huge amounts of money in education. In Kenya, Free Secondary Education (FSE) policy was introduced in 2008 to improve retention rates, completion rates, transition rates and student academic performance. Emuhaya and Vihiga sub counties completion rates were 51.1%, 52.8%, 53.2%, 51.7% and 54.7% for Emuhaya, 47.6%, 48.6%, 51.5%, 50% and 52% for Vihiga which were lower than national completion rates of 86%, 88.8%, 87.1%, 89.1% and 89.6% for the period 2008 to 2012. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of Free Secondary Education policy on completion rates in Emuhaya and Vihiga sub counties. A conceptual framework of investment choices by Psacharopoulos and Woodhall (1985) was adopted with Free Secondary Education policy being the independent variable and completion rates as the dependent variable. The study revealed that there was a moderate and positive relationship between Free Secondary Education policy completion rates with a coefficient of 0.664 at a significant level of 0.05. Free Secondary Education policy accounted for 43.0% of the variation in completion rate. The coefficient of efficiency was 86.77%, 87.85% and 91.87% respectively for 2013, 2014 and 2015 cohorts. The study concluded that Free Secondary Education policy enhanced completion rates and improved internal efficiency of public secondary schools in Emuhaya and Vihiga Sub Counties. The study recommended that Free Secondary Education funds be reviewed further upwards and be disbursed on time to schools in order to enhance completion rates. The findings of this study are useful to stakeholders in education as they inform them on the need to review Free Secondary Education policy upwards so as to achieve its objectives fully.

  53. Bayan A. Ghabashi

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) strongly recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months of the infant's life to achieve optimal growth, development, and health. This study aimsto estimate the prevalence of EBF up to the age of six months and to identify the factors associated with EBF among mothers that attended the Well-Baby Clinic,Al-Nawariyah Primary Health Care (PHC)Center, Makkah, Saudi Arabia in 2018. Methodology: A cross-sectional study of125 mother swho attended the Well-Baby Clinic, Al-Nawariyah PHC Center, Makkah, Saudi Arabiain January 2018,using a validated self-administered questionnaire in the Arabic language. Result: A sample of 125 mothers, 52.4% of which used mixed feeding, 25.4% used artificial feeding, 16.6% used breastfeeding with water and other supplements, and 5.6% used EBF during the first six months after birth. Mothers who were properly educated on EBF were more likely to practice it compared to those who received improper or no education about EBF (16%, 0%, and 7.1% respectively; p=0.006). The top three barriers to EBF were insufficient breast milk (37.6%), the belief that breast milk alone is not enough for growth (24.8%), and the lackof awareness about the importance of EBF (20.8%). There is no significant relation between EBF and any of the following: mother’s age, mother’s education level, employment status, and family income. Conclusion: The current study results conclude that EBF rate is significantly low (5.6%). The present study showsa significant relation between EBF and proper health education regarding EBF.

  54. Dr. Sanjeev Krishan, Dr. Shruti Anand and Dr. Nishant vardhan

    India is land of diverse cultures and festivals. In these gay festivities the lighting of crackers play an integral role. Not only in festivals but in marriages and various functions of the family, the fire crackers play an integral role. This holds especially true in Indian sub continent. Every year hundreds of individuals, from children to adults report to various hospitals for treatment due to various injuries resulting from fire crackers. This varies from mild corneal abrasions to frank perforations.

  55. Dr. Urfi Jawed, Ritika Yadav, Ramniwas M. Kumawat, Dr. Virendra Singh and Priyanka S. Kadoo

    Dental diseases are the most prevalent diseases in human being. However, the dentist to population ratio is ill-assorted in India especially in the rural area. Paucity of dental clinics in rural areas and high cost of any dental treatment has lead to increase in the number of charlatan i.e. “quack” who provide immediate services to the patient which are unhygienic, non-scientific and done in an unconventional manner under the guise of being their benefactor. Here we are presenting a case in which teeth were extracted and the extraction socket was filled with plaster of Paris by a quack, leading to severe pain, trismus and complete restriction of mouth opening.

  56. Dr. Shatha Adnan Ahmed, Dr. Zahra Adnan Ahmed and Dr. Asmaa Yahya Shafeeq

    Introduction: Hepatobiliary (HB) scintigraphy is a radionuclide scintigraphic method frequently used in evaluation of various liver and biliary tracts disorders. Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of this method in diagnosis of various HB disorder; to clarify the scintigraphic patterns of each disorder, to establish the final diagnosis using this technique; to find out the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of this technique. Patients and Method: 71 cases with different HB diseases who had a conventional radionuclide HB imaging in Teaching hospital nuclear medicine unit in Baghdad were reviewed retrospectively. Results: 33 patients were females, 38 patients were males. Their ages ranged between (1 month - 70 yr). The study showed that only two peaks of age groups:(1 month,- 6 month) (39.4 %) and 41 - 65 yr. (38%). The final scintigraphic diagnosis demonstrated that 27 cases (38 %) had biliary atresia: 7 cases (9.85 %) had acute cholecystitis; 3 cases (4.2 % had chronic cholecystitis; 8 cases (11.26%) had partial biliary obstruction: 7 cases (9.85) had complete biliary obstruction and 6 cases (8.45 %) had parenchymal liver disease. While the rest of our series showed normal scintigraphic studies (18.3%). Conclusion: Biliary atresia was the most common disease found in our series. This, statistically, doesn't reflect the prevalence of all HB disorders because of the limited number of patients. The overall sensitivity and specificity and accuracy for various HD disorders can be calculated. Thus, this study revealed that this technique had statistically high sensitivity 95%; excellent specificity 100 % and very high accuracy 97 %. Therefore we recommend the clinical application of HB scintigraphic technique in assessment of patients with suspected liver and biliary system disorders and we emphasize that HB scintigraphy is mandatory in urgent cases such as biliary atresia and acute cholecystitis.

  57. Hoon Gi Kim, Jinuk Kim, Gyuseo Jung, and Young Zoon Kim

    Objective: To analyze the pathological and clinical features of silent pituitary adenoma (SPA) under the new 2017 World Health Organization(WHO) Classification of Tumors of Endocrine Organ, and to provide relevant experience for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of SPA. Methods: Under the new 2017 WHO Classification of Tumors of Endocrine Organ, histopathological features of silent pituitary adenoma were evaluated between 2018 and 2019 in single centre. Results: The medical records including radiological and histopathological reports of 220 patients (55.9% female, mean age 55.25±11.12 years) were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with visual field impairment, headache, and oculomotor palsy accounted for 59.5%, 37.7%, and 4.1%, respectively.9.5% of patients have evidence of apoplexy, the average maximum diameter of the tumor is 29.0±9.8mm, and the proportion of giant adenoma is 11.81%. The most common type of tumor is 107 cases of silent gonadotroph adenoma, followed by silent corticotroph adenoma 74 cases,23 cases of null cell adenoma. Null cell adenoma is more invasive and Ki-67 index is higher (P<0.05). Three types of high-risk adenoma were identified, with 74 cases of silent corticotroph adenoma accounting for the highest proportion, followed by 4 cases of sparsely granulated somatotroph adenoma and 3 cases of PIT1-Positive Plurihormonal Adenomas. High-risk pituitary adenoma is higher than low-risk pituitary adenoma in invasive,recurrence and apoplexy (P<0.05). Invasive pituitary adenoma Ki-67 was significantly higher than non-invasive pituitary adenoma (P<0.001).The invasive of recurrent pituitary adenoma was higher than that of non-recurrent pituitary adenoma (P<0.05). Conclusion: The new version of the classification is very practical. Silent gonadotroph adenoma is the most common silent pituitary adenoma. High-risk pituitary adenoma, recurrent pituitary adenoma, and null cell adenoma have higher invasiveness and Ki-67 index.

  58. Somil Singhal

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  59. Dr. Pravish, V., Dr. Seeja, P., Dr. Soumitran, C.S. and Dr. Johnson, A.G.

    The Objective of this study is to show the versatility of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in secondary correction of craniofacial defects. The goal of secondary correction is permanent cerebral protection in an esthetically acceptable fashion. Reconstruction of cranial defects can be performed with several different materials and methods. Alloplastic materials, such as poly eth-methacrylate, is an alternative frequently used at our institution. We have shown cased case reports of 4 patients who has underwent secondary correction using polymethylmethacrylate. We have show cased case reports of who have underwent the use of intraoperative fabricated PMMA and prefabricated PMMA. Three patients underwent intraoperative fabricated PMMA correction while one had prefabricated PMMA. The esthetic results and post-surgical outcome were excellent. All though recent advances in CAD/CAM assisted implants have come, PMMA has proved to be cost-effective and highly versatile when it comes to surgical correction of craniofacial skeleton.

  60. Gursimran Singh Pabla, Akshita Mahajan, Amit Sood, Fatinderjeet Singh, Divya Jakhar, Sadhvi Gupta, Bharti Kataria and Pardeep Mahajan

    The decision between retention of endodontic ally involved teeth as opposed to extraction and implant treatment is a clinical decision that requires a careful evaluation of the pre, intra and postoperative factors that may influence the outcome of the proposed treatment. A careful and extensive consideration of indications, contraindications, risks, and benefits of both single-tooth implants and the natural restored tooth is of critical importance if an accurate evaluation of treatment options is to be presented to the patient for their informed consent. From a prosthetic point of view an implant retained prosthetic solution is possible for any kind of edentulous situation. While the selection of cases for endodontic therapy should take into consideration the prognosis of the endodontic, restorative and periodontal procedures. The dentist should consider the strategic value of the tooth to be endodontically treated in relation to the overall function of the dentition. This review aims to highlight different aspects and points that every dentist should keep in mind during arranging treatment plan for their patients: Post-operative pain and discomfort, Duration of the treatment, masticatory forces, cosmetics, success and survival rate of the treatment, costs , quality of life, the need for complementary treatment, specific cases, predicting factors , patients tendency, experience of the practitioner.

  61. Gupta S., Aindala K. and Das, I.

    Introduction: The clinical features and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with COVID-19 is Unclear and understudied. Here, there is pulmonary tuberculosis patient with COVID-19infection who were prospectively followed from hospital admission to discharge. We provide information and experience with treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis case with confirmed COVID-19 infection This case has given an insight that COVID 19 infection may aggravate a latent or an occult tubercular infection, but more studies and cases need to be investigated to confirm this uncommon co-infection. Objective: Case Presentation: 27 year young male who tested positive for covid 19 infection and was admitted in our institute with chief complaints of Fever for past 3 days associated with Breathlessness for past one day. Right sided chest pain for past one day. Patient was found to be COVID 19 positive on day 3 of symptoms. On examination Temp – 100 , SpO2 – 85% on RA, HR- 108bpm, rest vitals stable, on 4th day due to hemotysis AFB for ZN stain came out to be positive for two consecutive tests. CT is normal. Patient responded well to ATT & other treatment eventually improved symptomatically ovet the course of stay in the hospital & got discharged & followed through tele communication. Conclusion: This case has given an insight that COVID 19 infection may aggravate a latent or an occult tubercular infection, but more studies and cases need to be investigated to confirm this uncommon co-infection.

  62. Dr. Perveena Fareed, Dryasmeena Gull and Dr. Saleemaltafwani

    Background: Perinatal asphyxia is a serious problem and is a common cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Various predictors have been used to predict perinatal asphyxia but correlation between the clinical and biochemical markers have been poor. NRBC count has been found associated with adverse fetal outcome. Aim of study: To assess NRBC count and its relation with perinatal outcome. Methods: This prospective case control study was conducted in Lalla-Ded hospital GMC Srinagar from Mar 2019-Mar 2020. We studied 200 patients beyond 38 weeks of pregnancy into two groups with 100 patients each in case and control group. After delivery Cord blood sample was assessed for pH, base excess and nucleated RBC count. Perinatal outcome was compared. Results: The mean NRBC count of cases was 23.3+10.1 and it was 12.5+4.7 in control group. The difference was statistically significant. Also NRBC count correlated with non- reassuring fetal heart rate patter, meconium stained liquor, low 1min 1nd 5 min Apgar. NICU admission was significantly high in babies with high NRBC count with significant mortality and morbidity. Conclusion: NRBC count can be used as a marker to confirm perinatal asphyxia. The test is simple, quick, accurate and effective to diagnose and start treatment to prevent long term sequelae.

  63. Patel Chetanaben B., Choudhari Shantanu R., Goyal Swati, Waghela Sweta A. and Patel Bhargavi, S.

    Aims: To assess and co-relate the healing efficiency of Modified 3 mix plus Dexamethasone combination paste and metapex in pulpally involved primary molars. Methods and Material: This study comprised of 60 Primary mandibular molars, which were divided randomly into Group A and Group B, Each treated case was recalled for Clinical and radiographic evaluation at one week, one month and six month interval. Group A: All accessible coronal and radicular pulp was removed, followed by medicational cavity preparation and Modified 3 mix plus Dexamethasone placement in meditational cavity and sealed it in single sitting. Group B: Conventional single sitting pulpectomy was performed using metapex as an obturating material. Stainless steel crown cementation was done on the same visit and used as final restoration in both groups. Results: Among 60 molars, Postoperative follow up of clinical examinations at one, and six months was 93.3% and 90% in group A and while in group B was 100%, and 96.7%.so, there was no statistically significant difference in results between Group A and Group B at any follow up, as demonstrated by fisher exact test. (p value=1 at 1 week , p value=0.52 at 1 month and p value=0.35 at 6 months). Conclusions: Modified 3 mix plus Dexamethasone in primary teeth has shown good clinical and radiographic success which is comparable to conventional pulpectomy treatment.

  64. LANGANFIN GLELE Victor, AGBOKPANZO Richard Gilles and DEGAN Gérard

    In this study, hydrodynamic and magnetic anisotropiesas buoyancy-driven convection effects in a two-dimensional horizontal cavity are investigated analytically. The porous cavity filled with a porous medium is heated isothermally by the sides and its horizontal walls are thermally insulated or conducted gold. The main directions of permeability are oriented in the direction of that is oblique to gravity. Based on scale analysis, solutions for the flow field, temperature distribution, and Nusselt number are obtained. The limiting case corresponding to pure fluid media, and pure porous media, complete these results in order to validate them when compared to those obtained in the literature. It is found that temperature and velocity fields are modified significantlywhen applying the transverse magnetic field. Also, the effects of anisotropic parameters on heat transfer are strongly significant.

  65. Dr. Badge, R.J.

    The rate at which the population exceeds over a particular time affects the natural equilibrium of the region. The growth rate gives sign of the causes which may be the reasons such exceeding growth rate if any. The growth of the regions shows wide disparity on a whole. In this paper the present study reveals the tahsil wise growth of population in the study region during 1991-2011. Jamner is the first largest tahsil regarding the geographical area and Chalisgaon second largest tahsil in respect of population in the study region. It has studied on the basis census Hand book of Jalgaon district for 9 drought prone Tahsils during 1991 and 2011. The secondary data have been collected and computed by recent research techniques and the results have been brought through tables and maps. About 21.2 per cent (4.4 lakhs) of the study region’s population resides in the urban areas as against 42.04 percent (4.10 Crores) for Maharashtra. Growth rate of population in the study area is 10.59 percent where Maharashtra State’s population growth rate is 16.01 per cent during the 2011.Chalisgaon tahsil is the biggest population of 394600 and constitutes about 28.4 per cent of total population of the study region. The growth rate of the study region is 10.59 percent and found equal in all Tahsils in 2001-2011and 11.59 per cent in 1991-2001.The highest growth rate of Muktainagar tahsil is 19.4 per cent in 1991-2001and 10.54 per cent in 2001-2011 and followed by, Jamner, Bhadgaon and Erandol tahsils 18.0 % 11.3 % and 11.0 % respectively. The lowest growth rate comes from the Chalisgaon, Amalner and Dharangaon tahsils which is 8.4 %, 8.8 % and 9.6 % respectively. The results have been discussed with the help of population growth rate refers to the change in population growth rate over a unit time period, often expressed as a percentage of the number of individuals in the population, at the beginning of that period.

  66. Mrs. Sangeeta Sharma, Dr. Aditya Sharma, Mr. Barjinder Kumar Aneja and Dr. Prabha Kashyap

    Introduction: A t was conducted by Meeran Rani in the partial fulfillment of the requirement of M.Sc. Nursing degree course at descriptive study to assess the knowledge regarding prevention of acne vulgaris among the adolescents at Govt. Model Girls Senior Secondary School Portmore in Shimla (H.P.) with the view to develop information bookle Sngnc, IGMC Shimla. Objectives: 1) To assess the knowledge regarding prevention of acne vulgaris among the adolescents 2) To determine the association of knowledge with selected demographic variables 3) To develop an information booklet. Method: A descriptive research design was chosen, convenient sampling technique was used to select 100 sample for the study. The tool used for study was structured knowledge questionnaires to assess the knowledge regarding prevention of acne vulgaris . Independent variable of the study was structured knowledge questionnaires and dependent variable was knowledge of student regarding prevention acne vulgaris. The data gathered was analyzed and interpreted in the light of objectives by using the descriptive and inferential statistics in terms of frequency, percentage, mean, median and S.D chi – square, and to find out the significance of certain variables. Bar diagram and pie diagram used to depict the findings. Results: The major finding of the study revealed that knowledge regarding acne vulgaris prevention was good. Study results revealed that in average, knowledge was 90%, good knowledge was 7% and 3% had poor knowledge. None had very good knowledge regarding acne vulgaris. Mean was 16.01 median score was 17, S.D. 3.06 maximum 22, minimum 9, range 13, mean percentage was 53. 37. None of the group had poor practice of mean score of maximum number of adolescents 86% were in the age group of 15-16 years, followed by 12%were under age group of 17-18 years and 2%were under the age group of 13-14 years but none of them were under the age group of 19-20 years . All the adolescents were Female that is 100%. Majority of adolescents 97% were Hindu, followed by 2% were Muslim and the least 1% were others but none of them were Christian. Majority of the adolescents 64% belonged to urban residence and 36% belonged to rural residence. Most of the adolescents 86% were studying in 11th class, followed by 8% belonged to 10th class and the least 6% belonged to 12th class. Majority of the adolescents had 37% family income of 15001Rs. or above, followed by 26% belonged to family income between 5001-10000 Rs, followed by 22% belonged to family income between 1000-5000 and the least 15% belonged to family income between 10001-15000 Rs. Most of the adolescents 80% were vegetarian, followed by 20% were non-vegetarian. Majority of the adolescents 61% had some previous knowledge, followed by 24% didn’t had any previous knowledge and the least 15% had some knowledge regarding prevention of acne vulgaris. Majority of the adolescents 32% had family, followed by 27% had friends, followed by 24% had mass media and the least 17 % had others as source of information regarding prevention of acne vulgaris.

  67. Narendra Prasad, Sah R. B. and Sahoo, U.K.

    Species diversity and density of trees were assessed in forests of Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary of Jharkhand comprising mostly of tropical deciduous forests. We compared tree community characteristics like stem density, basal area, diversity index, Beta(β diversity), Girth class, Canopy height class and species composition of tree species in all three zones (Altitude between 199 -603m) in the study area. A total of 41 tree species of 25 families, 71 genera, and 95 species were recorded. Gramineae (10) family is most represented followed by Euphorbiaceae (6). It was noticed that the tree density varied from 30.64 to 62.51. The maximum basal area contributed by Terminalia belerica (1.323 m2ha-1) followed by Albezzia stipulate (1.145 m2ha-1). Shan none Weiner index (H’) ranged from 3.073 to 3.997 and species richness index ranged from 1.05 to 1.20. Beta diversity of tree species varied from 2.32 to 3.80. The highest number of tree species was occurred in girth class of 61 – 80 cm in all three zones. At present the biodiversity of these forests are under threat due to the anthropogenic and illegal interference of outside people for cutting of furniture tree species. The present study will help us to understand the patterns of tree species composition and diversity in the Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary, of India.

  68. Dr. Jyoti Bala and Dr. Jyoti Sarin

    Background: Thalassemia is one of the most common human genetic disease which affects overall health of children. Approximately 20% of all children have a chronic illness like thalassemia and 65% suffer an illness severe enough to interfere with daily activities. It is very difficult for both the children and their parents to deal with thalassemia and its treatment. Children with thalassemia often experience poor quality of life due to regular blood transfusion, frequent visit to hospital etc. Successful family adaptation to chronic illness needs nursing interventions. Objectives: objectives of the study were to assess and compare the quality of life of children with thalassemia in experimental and control group; to determine the association of level of quality of life of children with thalassemia with selected variables. Methods: The quasi experimental study following pretest posttest research design was conducted among 107 parents and their thalassemic children (54 in experimental and 53 in control group) in selected hospitals in Delhi. Pretest and posttest quality of life of children with thalassemia (day 30 and day 60) were assessed using a valid and reliable PedsQL inventory. Results: Data was analyzed using SPSS 16; level of significance was kept at 0.05 level, the ‘t’ values computed between independent means of pretest quality of life scores in experimental and control group were not significant at 0.05 level. It indicated that subjects in experimental group and control group did not differ significantly in terms of quality of life scores of children regarding care of children with thalassemia. In experimental group, a statistical significant difference was found between the mean pretest and posttest quality of life scores of children with thalassemia (5-12 yrs) on day 30 and day 60 (p<.05). The mean posttest quality of life scores of children with thalassemia (8-12 years) in experimental and control group on day 60 was statistically significant and it was not found significant on day 30 (p< 0.05). A significant association was observed between age of initiation of treatment and quality of life of children (p=0.03); hemoglobin level and quality of life of children with thalassemia (p=0.0). Discussion: In the current study, a significant increase in quality of life of children was observed after administration of STP on care of children with thalassemia for parents. Similar significant changes have been reported by Kargar Najafi et al. Study also highlights that nursing intervention can help parents to better understand and identify coping strategies which will allow them to gain control over their children’s illness and their family life. So it is recommended to assess the knowledge of the staff nurses working in thalassemia unit to educate the parents and improve the quality of life of children with thalassemia.

  69. Jules DIOUF, Djibril DIOP, Abdoul Aziz CAMARA, Mame Samba MBAYE, Ndongo DIOUF, Sanou NDOUR, Birane DIENG, Modou Fall GUEYE, Khady DIALLO et Kandioura NOBA

    La fragmentation des habitats est actuellement l’une des menaces majeures pour la biodiversité urbaine à l’échelle globale. Considérée comme un écosystème particulier, la réserve spéciale botanique de Noflaye (RSBN) est aujourd’hui menacée par l’urbanisation. Les tendances évolutives de la flore et de la végétation de ce milieu ont montré que la flore de la RSBN s’est appauvrie de 30% entre 1957 et 1991. Ce travail entre dans cette perspective et se fixe comme objectif générale de contribuer à la gestion des écosystèmes forestiers de la région de Dakar. Ainsi des inventaires floristiques ont été faits dans le site en adoptant la méthode du tour de champs à partir des placettes de 50 x 50m. Ce travail de recherche sur la flore de la RSBN a permis de recenser 179 espèces réparties en 132 genres et 49 familles. Cette étude a montré aussi que le milieu est dominé par les espèces soudaniennes à tendance soudano-sahéliennes au profit des espèces guinéennes qui jadis étaient caractéristiques de la zone des niayes. Sur le plan biologique, les Phanérophytes et les Thérophytes dominent avec respectivement 44,83% et 41,95%. Ces résultats obtenus sont importants dans la conservation du milieu et la mise en place d’un plan d’aménagement et de gestion durable.

  70. Abdoul Aziz CAMARA, Samba Laha KA, Sény SANE, Jules DIOUF, Birane DIENG, Ndongo DIOUF, César BASSENE, Doudou DIOP, Mame Samba MBAYE et Kandioura NOBA

    Le genre Indigofera est le plus diversifié des plantes à fleurs dans la classe des Dicotylédones de la flore du Sénégal avec 44 espèces. Cette diversité élevée du genre Indigofera est la principale cause de difficulté d’identification des différents taxons spécifiques. Ainsi, une confusion est observée entre Indigoferaastragalina et I. hirsuta var. hirsuta. L’objectif de cette étude de permettre une meilleureidentification de ces deuxtaxons à partir des traits de caractères morphologiques pertinents observables aussi bien à l’état naturel qu’au niveau des spécimens des herbiers. L’étude est basée sur la comparaison des traits de caractères morphologiques des spécimens de Indigofera astragalina et ceux de I. hirsuta var. hirsuta.Les résultats montrent que les traits de caractères morphologiques discriminants se rapportent au nombre de folioles du rachis, la présence de stipelles uniquement chez les individus de I. hirsuta var. hirsuta, la pubescence blanchâtre chez I. astragalina et brunâtre chez I. hirsuta var. hirsuta, l’inflorescence relativement plus dense avec un pédoncule long de 10 à 15 mm chez I. astragalina et des fleurs plutôt lâches chez I. hirsuta var. hirsuta, des gousses longues de 10 à 12 mm chez Indigofera astragalina et de 17 à 28 mm de chez I. hirsuta var. hirsuta.Les résultats de cette étude comparative ont montré des traits de caractères morphologiques pertinents permettant une identification sans ambiguïté des deux taxons du genre Indigofera.

  71. Collins O. Owuor, Mwakio Tole and Bernards Okeyo

    The study presents the results of rainfall data comparisons from three sources, namely the Kilifi Plantation Limited (KPL), Pwani University (PU) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission’s (TRMM), TRMM3B42v7 satellite derived rainfall. The study aims at evaluating the ability of TRMM data to substitute local rain guage data as a sub-daily input parameter due to its finer temporal resolution. The study is motivated by the need to know the characteristics of sub-daily rainfall that would be useful in groundwater artificial recharge studies. The study’s methodology of comparing trend, seasonality and remainder of the rainfall data indicates that after removal of trend and seasonality in the rainfall data, the remainder signals’ cross correlation function between the datasets have a range of difference that may be accounted for by rainfall variability. The value for TRMM3B42v7/KPL is 0.43, for TRMM3B42v7/PU it is 0.48 and for PU/KPL is 0.49. This is further evidence of variability of rainfall in Kilifi as the cross correlation function of local ground gauges are not much different when compared with and to the satellite data-set. These Comparisons of similarities made on TRMM3b42v7 satellite derived rainfall against two local rain-gauges at a distance of 5 km apart from each other, was for data from 2000 – 2011. Out of the 4017 rainfall data events, 1801 are coincident (wet days) in at least one of the three rainfall data-sets. Kolmogorov-Smirnoff (KS) test that was used on the coincident rainfall events and had a p value of less than 0.05 for the two tailed test. Further cross correlation was done on the rainfall, which was decomposed for more analysis. The similarities obtained from the correlation of the decomposed trend, seasonality and remainder of the three datasets indicate that TRMM3B42v7 data can be used as a data input to model for the hydrological studies in the envisaged artificial aquifer recharge. This study also reveals the strengths and limitations of using the satellite derived rainfall product. The correlation of Kilifi rainfall data-sets with TRMM3B42v7 can be regarded as good when the cross correlation function between the ground gauges are noted to be in similar range to their correlation with TRMM3B42v7 data. This is despite close distance between the rain gauges.

  72. Uma Shanker Singh IFS

    The state of Uttar Pradesh has been divided into four economic regions namely, western, eastern central and Bundelkhand region. The entire state has nine agro climate zones and the present study area (Kanpur Dehat) falls under central plain agro climatic zone. The district receives 683 mm of average rain fall with the maximum temperature running in between 450 C and 480C during peak of summer. The Kanpur Dehat district occupies the central part of Uttar Pradesh on eastern bank of Yamuna river and encompasses a total geographical area of 3021 sq.km., lying in between 26N to 25 55'N latitude and 79"30'E to 80"E Longitude. The study area was chosen very carefully in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. This was a plantation of early 1990s (to be very precise 1983 and 1984) on both sides of Kolkata-Delhi National Highway number-2 with multi layering. The total length of the plantation carried out along both sides of the Kolkata-Delhi NH-2 was to the tune of 113.17 km. with the total number of plants to the level of 8266. The left and right side of the plantation along the national highway were 56.8km and 56.32 km respectively. Leaf samples are required for the total carbon estimation of foliage. However, obtaining these materials from the branches of trees was extremely difficult in the study area despite of the fact that all the trees (8266 in number) of the study area were felled. It was not humanly possible to collect all the leaves present in the crown of 8266 trees therefore; twenty-seven species with varying diameter classes were selected for the complete defoliation. Once the trees were felled, all the leaves were collected and it was taken care that while collecting leaves, safety equipment and requisite dresses were put on. Results were quite interesting. The carbon content of all the leaves present in crown in each of the twenty-seven species was found through Walkley-Black method. Some of the fast growing species like C. siamea, D. sissoo, F. bengalensis, F. rumphii, A. indica, Eucalyptus spp., S. cumini, A.lebbeck are containing maximum carbon stock in the leaf cells, whereas there are some species namely, Shahtut, Ber, Mango, Imali, Mahua, Desi babul, Brachystegia eurycoma and Prosopis which contain minimum level of carbon storage in the leaves. Only two species namely, Ficus religiosa and Cordia dichotoma have been found to contain a little more than 4 kg of carbon in the crown. This was also seen that increase in carbon stock has no relationship with the increment of girth class of the trees in the study area. Therefore, some other factors are responsible for the carbon stock in the leaves.

  73. Victor Martinez-Pacheco and Raffaele Perez

    Open source 3d printing technology, for some years, has been preparing to respond to the needs of society where autonomous manufacturers take on challenges that until now were reserved for large companies in the industry. Schools work in laboratories taking on new challenges and opening new scenarios and teaching mechanisms. The world of architecture and home design is heading towards land that until now was unexplored and novel. In this research work, the aim is to explore through the experiment if the production on demand results in time, form and viable economy, since it is highly interesting since it greatly reduces the environmental impact of manufacturing. In short, the personal nature of autonomous production adds to the possibility of reusing plastics such as PET (polyethylene terephthalate), which cause great global pollution. The intention is to make it clear that from now on the great industry will surely lose its exclusive character, since on the one hand the FabLab, the Makers and the environmental impact are the main protagonists of the near future.

  74. Jorge A. Cabezas and Adam Amey

    A new protocol for the synthesis of -substituted--unsaturated -lactones was developed. Selective reaction of 1,3-dilithiopropyne with ketones, followed by addition of ethyl chloroformate formed ethyl 5-[(ethoxycarbonyl)oxy]-5-substituted-2-ynoates, used as the basic framework for the synthesis of -substituted -unsaturated--lactones.

  75. Hamadou O., Amadou Oumani A., Morou B. and Mahamane A.

    This study aims to understand the biology of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis peralta) and its ethological characteristics for optimal management. Little is known about the social and reproductive behaviour of the Niger giraffe. This information enables conservation measures to be adapted for the sustainable management of the giraffe. The present study was conducted in the area between 13°00' and 14°30' north latitude and 2°30' and 3°30' east longitude. Direct daily observations of the giraffe were conducted from 0800 pm to 0700 am for 111 days, from April 2018 to March 2019 on the trays of Kouré, Fakara, Fabidji, Falmey, Northern Dallol Bosso, Fandou, Dingazi-banda and Simiri. It appears from this study that adult females are more numerous; are always accompanied either by a giraffe or by other giraffes of different classes and or sexes. The average herd size is 5.59±3.49 individuals in the cold dry season, 3.96±1.42 individuals in the hot dry season and 7.58±5.20 individuals in the rainy season. All combinations are possible, except groups of young and giraffe only. After 243 observations, only 21 individuals were observed solitary and all of them are adult males, so, no solitary females. There are several types of associations between individuals of the same class and/or different sexes. The average birth rate is 0.13±0.08 individuals and a proportion of 32.93% for breeding females. The rate of increase is 11% and the mortality rate is close to 2% by year. The causes of death are mainly natural. The distance between individuals in a group is about 121.19±80.02 meters. There is an important social connection between the mother and the giraffe baby.

  76. Ahmed Hussein Alrefai, PhD

    The Coronavirus, known as COVID-19, grievously impacted the US economy. In response to economic turmoil the US administration implemented rigorous stimulus packages to revitalize the economy and prevent another Great Depression. The objective of this study is to look at the efficacy of macroeconomic policies implemented during the Great Depression and to compare it with those policies undertaken by the US government during the current COVID-19 crisis. Further, the study investigates the number of length lags it takes for the implementation of the macroeconomic policies to be reflected in economic recovery. This will entail the use of U.S. real GDP, narrow definition of money and budget deficit obtained for the years 1926-1945. The study estimated the US monetary and fiscal multipliers during the Great Depression and found that the implemented monetary policy proved effective in economic recovery whereas the fiscal policy was not. However, this result might not hold true during the current disruption. This is because the stimulus packages undertaken are the highest in the US history and the fear of crowding out of the government spending is not applicable as the interest rates are kept at a zero bound. Further, the current government spending share stands at 38% of US GDP, unlike the 5% recorded during the 1930s. Moreover, the study found that the optimum lag length for recovery during the Great Depression was two years. However, if the US contains the current crisis with proper measures and tools, then the pace of economic recovery should be faster.

  77. Dzanvoula Cheri Thibaut Gael

    It is commonly recognized that, the development of humanity inevitably passes through education which sets the means for any society to ensure its sustainability. But the reality within the Congolese education’ system in general, and that of high schools network in particular, shows that the paramount role of a school is no longer valued. In other terms, the Congolese educational system is plagued by the issue of absenteeism, involving both teachers and learners. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the main factors impinging the teaching and learning process. The research intended to go deeply in finding out the causes of this scourge, and showing its consequences, while making concrete recommendations to the attention of policy making people. Through a qualitative approach, using a semi structured interview form Consisting of twelve questions, purposively selected as the data collection tool, to the attention of a study group constituted of sixteen principals and heads of pedagogical bureau across Brazzaville eight high schools, research findings were generated. Certain suggestions were developed in line with the findings obtained as the result of the study.

  78. Obodo, B.N., Iroro, A.P., Iyevhobu, K.O., Ebaluegbeifoh, L.O., Okobi, T.J., Alleh, O.A., Idaghe F.A., Omolumen, L.E. and Uhomoibhi, O.T.

    Background: Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has been used extensively for heating, cooking and as a fuel in vehicles and generators. This study was designed to evaluate renal and liver profile of LPG plant workers in Benin City, Edo State. Methods: A total of one hundred (100) subjects between 20-60 years were recruited for this study which consist 50 liquefied gas plant workers and 50 subjects who do not work in LPG plant stations (controls). Blood samples (10ml) were collected from the cubital vein of each subject with the aid of syringe and needle into plain plastic containers. The renal and biochemical parameter were analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. Results: The results obtained in this study show that sodium and creatinine levels of liquefied petroleum gas plant workers were significantly higher (p<0.05) when compared with the respective controls. There was no significant difference when the serum levels of potassium and urea were compared with the respective controls. There was significant difference (p<0.05) when AST, ALT, ALP, and GGT values were compared with their control. The creatinine levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) within the age group 41-50 years and 51-60 years. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in the sodium, potassium and urea levels in the various age groups. There was no significant difference when AST, ALT, ALP and GGT were compared within the various age groups. Conclusion: The results of this study however showed that exposure to LPG resulted in significant renal and liver profile alterations.

  79. Premalatha, M. and Lakshmi, S.

    Herbal plants are known to make a wide number of bioactive secondary metabolites and several compounds have been consequent from them for potential development of novel drugs by the pharmaceutical and agriculture industries. However medicinal plants have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. In this context Saussurea lappa ethyl acetate extract were evaluated for their potential for bioactivity. In addition, the phytochemical analysis demonstrated the greatest amounts of total phenolic and flavonoid compositions in Saussurea lappa. Ethyl acetate extracts of the Saussurea lappa for the study were prepared using antioxidant and antibacterial activity against, and Xanthomonasoryzae pv. Oryzae and Erwinia chrysanthemi, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae. Results also indicated that the ethyl acetate extract of Saussurea lappa were more effectual against the tested bacterial strains and followed by antioxidant of same extract. Chemical analyses showed that Saussurea lappa ethyl acetate extract recorded the highest percentages of the polyphenol. In conclusion, results indicated that these plants could performance as a hopeful antimicrobial agent, due to their short assassination time.

  80. Kunjummen T Tharian

    Investment is the backbone of the development of a nation because the collection of the savings of the people from various categories are very much relevant for the industrial and economic development of a nation. More than 80% of the savings of the nation are scattered around the small and medium income people including the senior citizens especially the pensioners. In short the senior citizens in all categories either pensioners or non-pensioners are playing an important role in the capital formation and economic and industrial development in all states in India. Therefore, the study of investment patterns of senior citizens are having eminent relevance in this economy. In this study, the researcher depict the problems and prospects of the investment pattern of the senior citizens of Kottayam district of Kerala.

  81. Elvira Mishra

    This paper will be exploring the definition of the term ‘fiction’, and how the genre has evolved over the years, with the change in the socioeconomic atmosphere in gaming. Also, would be diving in examining the modern-day trends of storytelling. Will be discussing different cultural, psychological and societal nuances, concerning writing a storyline for an immersive and inclusive gameplay and ultimately for a game to be successful with a large audience; specially focusing on the local players’ preferences.

  82. Maria Sakellariou, Rodokleia Anagnostopoulou and Panagiota Strati

    In spite of the great interest of the international educational community regarding the issue of transition during pre-school age, only a limited amount of research regarding such has been conducted in Greece. In our current study we set our goals on detecting the preoccupation of parents concerning the matter of their children’s transition from the domestic environment to the nursery school as well as their expectations regarding the school environment since, as proven by the research, the participation of the family in the transitional curricula is crucial for a successful outcome of a child’s transition to a new pre-school environment no less for the backing of the school preparedness itself. On the hereunto study the semi-structured interview was opted as a basic tool for recording the parents’ views on issues of transition in order for valid data and profound information to be gathered concerning the subject of scrutiny. Our research sample consisted of 55 families all from the Region of Epirus. The interviews were carried out from early March until late May, 2017. Based on the findings of our research, the primary concern that occurred, with regards to the child’s transition to the nursery school, was -on the parents’ side- the separation and acclimation on the new context which seems to be quite hard not only for the kid but for the parents themselves. Conclusively, the activation of parents regarding the nursery school educational work shall facilitate the transitional process of the child from one context to the other by creating familiar surroundings for them, offering them security and enhancing their confidence and self-esteem.

  83. Pranita Das

    The recent pandemic COVID 19 is taking many nations into its grasp. The medical workers are working as the frontline force in tackling this global epidemic. The virus being very contagious, it is necessary to prevent the spread from an infected person to the medical personnels. This requires the use of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) kits by the medical workers. The PPE kits are available in both disposable and non disposable variants. The PPE kits such as coveralls and protective gowns are manufactured commonly from HDPE (High Density Poly Ethylene). The disposable PPE kits are adding to the burden of non disposable garbage. As HDPE is non biodegradable and can take centuries to decompose, therefore HDPE PPE kits are impacting the environment. The safe measures of disposal of the biomedical waste is a prime concern now a days as the COVID 19 pandemic spreads from the infected. The alternatives of HDPE for manufacturing of PPE kits and disposal of HDPE PPE kits are one of the major concerns now.

  84. Wakara Ibrahimu Nyabakora, Jumanne Mng’ang’a and Hussein Ngomaitara

    Background: Banking sector plays an important role in stimulating the economy of the country especially where the capital market of that country is infant. According to Rousseau and Sylla (2001), security markets with good performance encourage the country’s economic growth. Due to that fact, commercial banks have to evaluate whether their performance is stable or it is just for the short run. In this case, both external and internal factors are to be scrutinized due to their effect on the banks’ performance. However, few studies have done on the impact of external forces affecting the banks’ performance. With this regard, banks have to examine the factors surrounding the business environment mainly the external forces we now call macroeconomic variables such as the inflation rates, exchange rate, government debts, interest rates and the rate of growth of GDP. Our study aims on assessing the impact of macroeconomic variables proxied by Exchange rate, Inflation rate, Interest Rate, money supply, government debts, and GDP growth rate; on performance of Tanzanian banking sector from 2011 to 2019. Materials and Methods: The study uses secondary data collected from central bank of Tanzania, Tanzania bureau of Statistics, and World Bank databases. In data analysis, the study employs correlation and multiple regression analysis using Pooled Ordinary Least Square Regression Model. Results: The results show that, GDP growth rate has an insignificant positive relationship with Banks performance, while the Interest Rate has a negative and insignificant impact on banks performance. The Inflation rate has a negative and insignificant effect on bank performance at 10% level of significance. Furthermore, the results indicate that the exchange rate has an insignificant negative effect on bank performance at 10% level of significance. Conclusion: Economic regulators and policy makers have to concentrate on adjustment of external factors like inflation, exchange rates, interest rates, government debts, and GDP which found to have impacts on banks’ performance, while improving the capital market operations in the country.

  85. Mapamile, A.D., Osunbade O. A., Abodunrin, T.O and Ani, C.P.

    Studies on the quality of dried tomatoes (var. UTC) treated with Aframomum danielli were carried out. Samples were sun-dried and oven-dried at 600C. Tomato samples were treated with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% concentration of A. danielli. Dried tomato samples treated with no A. danielli served as control for dried tomato samples treated with A. Danielli. The treated tomato samples were evaluated for moisture content, ash, pH, crude fibre, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoid, lycopene and total viable and fungal count using standard methods. The results showed that treatment with A. danielli significantly (P<0.05) increased the pH and crude fibre when compared with the control samples. Ascorbic acid and lycopene value were reduced in sun-dried samples when treated with varying concentrations of A. danielli. However, the oven-dried samples treated with A. danielli, the ascorbic acid values were better retained with increasing concentrations of A. danielli from 2.5 to 10% concentrations. The values of total carotenoid were significantly (P<0.05) increased in dried samples treated with 5% and 10% A.danielli’. Similarly, significant increase was recorded in lycopene value of oven-dried samples treated with 5% and 10% A. danielli when compared to the control sample. However, significant decrease in lycopene values of sun-dried samples treated with 5% and 10% A. danielli was recorded. There was also considerable reduction in the values of both viable and fungal count of tomato samples treated with A. danielli over the control samples. The findings revealed that oven dried tomato treated with A. danielli was the best for preserving quality characteristics of dried tomato.

  86. Ramanuj K Gupta, Dharmshila Kumari, Aniket K., and Ajit K Saxena

    Medicinal plants are most important indigenous source of herbal medicine for developing country. There are few of medicinal plants were used for treatment of breast cancer have been documented. The present study aimed to assess the cytotoxic effect of Moringa oleifera plant leaf extracts on three different cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB 231). Different doses of plant extract and standard were taken and introduced into cancer cells lines were recorded at 72 hrs respectively it clearly showed an effective cell growth inhibition of human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 in a dose and specific time duration for the inhibition of cells. The present study demonstrates that M. oleifera leaf extract have anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on breast cancer cell lines in a concentration and time-dependent manner, which suggests their potential to be used as a new therapeutic strategy for breast cancers. These results highlight the novelty of this finding because earlier no report has yet been cited on the effectiveness of Moringa leave extracts found in the indigenous environment as an anti-cancer agent against breast. Our study is the first of its kind to evaluate the anti-malignant properties of Moringa leaves. These findings suggest the leaf extracts of Moringa collected from the widely distributed in different Indian region possess anti-cancer activity that can be used to develop new drugs for treatment of breast cancers.

  87. Efstathios K. Metaxas, Antonios Katsipoulakis, Dimitrios Tsitsimelis, Irini Nikolaou, Nikolaos Anastasiou

    Background: Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare benign soft-tissue tumor with a characteristic location and imaging appearance. Aim of the study to present, strategy for treatment, operative technique and literature review. Methods: During a 7year period a retrospective study took place. Twelve (12) patients treated for Elastofibroma dorsi, at Thoracic Surgery Department at General Hospital of Nicaea-Piraeus Agios Panteleimon –and Department of Thoracic Surgery, Oncological Hospital of Kifisia-Agioi Anargyroi, Athens Greece. Results: Ten (10) female (83,333%) and two (2) male (16,667 %), aged 45-81 years mean age 69 years. Four female patients had bilateral tumor. All tumors were located infrascapular. Conclusion: Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare benign tumor seen in elderly patients. Located Infrascapular deep to the fascia and attachment to the ribs suggest the possibility of soft tissue sarcoma. Could be unilateral or bilateral. MRI may help in diagnosis especially if it is located bilateral. Biopsy usually performed to exclude soft tissue sarcoma. Surgical excision, marginal excision of the tumor can be performed when patient in pain with minimal morbidity. Minimal drainage required for almost two days. The radical surgical excision is the gold standard.

  88. YAO Koffi Constant

    Cette recherche vise l’examen des relations entre le sexe, le soutien social reçu et le risque de dépression chez des retraités. Pour ce faire, 30 retraités dont 15 femmes et 15 hommes âgés de 63 à 68 ans, d’une Association des retraités de la commune de Cocody ont participé à l’étude. Les échelles de mesure du soutien social reçu et du risque de dépression ainsi qu’un guide d’entretien semi-directif ont permis de collecter des données qui ont été analysées à l’aide du Test Khi Carré. Les résultats obtenus révèlent d’une part que, la fréquence des femmes retraitées recevant plus de soutient social et présentant un faible risque de dépression, est supérieure à celle de leurs pairs recevant moins de soutient social. D’autre part, nous observons que la fréquence des hommes retraités recevant plus de soutient social avec un faible risque de dépression, est supérieure à celle de leurs homologues recevant moins de soutient social. Par ailleurs, nos résultats vont dans le sens contraire de l’hypothèse selon laquelle, la fréquence des femmes retraitées recevant plus de soutient social et présentant un faible risque de dépression, est supérieure à celle des hommes recevant plus de soutient social avec un faible risque de dépression. En regard de tels résultats, cette étude pourrait contribuer à renforcer les systèmes psychosociaux de prise en charge des personnes âgée en Côte d’Ivoire.

  89. Rajani Priyal, Rodrigues Lishoy, Jawale Bhushan and Kadam Aljeeta

    Background: With increasing COVID-19 cases in India, hospitals and doctors have been facing the brunt of the crisis. While government hospitals treating COVID-19 are limited, private hospitals are charging unimaginable rates. It has become the biggest challenge to accommodate the increasing number of cases. Dentists have been confined to their homes, due to the high risk nature of the profession. The medical background of dentists has inspired the government to start employing them to help in the fight against COVID-19. Due to the lack of manpower, more and more dentists are being recruited to help, assist and contribute to the requirement in COVID-19 camps. Aim: This survey aims to analyse the attitude of dentists towards working in such camps and gauge their willingness to work and serve in these camps if need be. Methodology: A sample of 107 participants was taken after assessing the sample size within the age group of 18 - 35 yrs of age. A Questionnaire was created on google forms and circulated to participants using various social media platforms. The data of responses of participants was analysed on google forms application itself with the help of pie charts and graphs. Results: The survey analyzed the increased willingness of Dentists to volunteer, work and serve in the COVID-19 camps, despite being worried and well aware about putting themselves and their families at a risk of infection. Not only were they willing to volunteer themselves, but they also were willing to motivate fellow dentists to volunteer in COVID-19 camps, thus pointing out the positive awareness amongst the fraternity of dentists regarding the need for increased manpower. Conclusion: This questionnaire based survey clearly helped in assessing the outlook of dentists towards working in camps treating COVID-19 patients. The results turned out to be positive concluding the increased willingness of dentists to work and serve for a noble cause. However, increased awareness amongst dentists is still required by conducting continued professional education.

  90. Chaudhary Veena

    In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of jaundice and kernicterus in a group of neonates born alive in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India. In our cross-sectional study of 661 neonates (601 term neonates & 60 preterm neonates), the results showed that almost all neonates had transient unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the neonatal period, with more than ninety percent affected during their first week of life. The prevalence of physiologic jaundice in neonates was 86.99% (81.24% in term neonates & 5.75% in preterm neonates) and the prevalence of pathologic indirect hyperbilirubinemia in neonates was 13.01% (9.68% in term neonates & 3.33% in preterm neonates). Among these 13.01% neonates with pathologic jaundice, about 3.93% neonates had TSB between 12mg/dL to 14.99mg/dL, 7.87% neonates had TSB between 15mg/dL to 19.99mg/dL and 1.21% neonates had TSB between 20mg/dL to 26mg/dL. In our study, preterm gestation showed a strong association with pathologic indirect hyperbilirubinemia. In our study, no neonate discharged from Rockland Hospital was reported to have kernicterus or cerebral palsy on follow up. Besides, the neonatal mortality rate was zero, in our study.

  91. Dr. Azza Alomary

    Mobile learning (M-learning) can play an important role in the development of teaching and learning methods for higher education. Nevertheless, the successful implementation of m-learning in higher education will be dependent on users’ acceptance of this technology. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate students’ attitudes towards using tablet computers in learning through exploring factors that influence students’ motivation to use and their acceptance of tablet use in learning. The study develops a new model which integrates the original technology acceptance model (TAM) with self-determination theory (SDT), and names it Motivation and Acceptance of Learning with Tablet (MALT). The model is developed based on students’ perspectives gathered via 303 online questionnaires. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses as well as structural equation modelling are used to analyse the questionnaire. The key finding of this study is that there are five factors named perceived enablers, perceived image, perceived enjoyment (intrinsic motivation), perceived usefulness (extrinsic motivation) and behavioral intention. Perceived enjoyment is the strongest predictor in the MALT model. There are two moderating variables which are access and teacher support in the MALT model.

  92. Shruti Bansal, Sunita Singh, Rishu Garg, Yashika Bhatia, Mansi Aggarwal, Manpreet Tanwar and Rajeev sen

    Objective: Histomorphology and immunohistochemistry are essential tools for evaluation and classification of haematolymphoid malignancies. The present study was conducted with the aim to study and categorize various haematolymphoid malignancies in lymph node and bone marrow biopsies using routine H & E staining and IHC markers and to study usefulness of Pax-5 in differentiating various lymphomas and leukemias. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in Department of Pathology at PGIMS, Rohtak. Seventy cases of haematolymphoid malignancy including lymph node biopsy and trephine bone marrow biopsy were included in the study. Various histomorphological changes were examined on routine H&E. Cases with provisional diagnosis of lymphoma/leukemia were further submitted to immunohistochemicalstaining for a panel of lymphoma/leukemia markers including Pax-5 immunohistochemical antibodies. A descriptive study was carried out for all the variables included in the study. Fischers exact test was used to compare the categorical values. P-value <0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results: Immunohistochemical expression of Pax-5 was detected in all cases of Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n=9), Small lymphocytic lymphoma (n=7), Peripheral B Cell Lymphoma-NOS (n=6), follicular lymphoma (n=5), mantle cell lymphoma (n=4), marginal zone lymphoma (n=1) and B cell-ALL (n=8). In Hodgkin Lymphoma, nuclear Pax-5 immunoreactivity was seen in 71.4 % (5/7) of cases.However, Pax-5 was not detected in any case of NHL-T cell type including Anaplastic Large cell lymphoma (n=2) and T cell-ALL (n=1), AML (n=9) and plasma cell neoplasm (n=4).One of the two cases of ALCL was initially kept with differentials of ALCL or cHL but was subsequently reclassified as ALCL based on negative Pax-5 immunoexpression. The expression of Pax-5 in all the cases was statistically significant.(p<0.05). Conclusion: Pax-5 is an excellent B cell marker with its immunohistochemistry being a valuable tool in the diagnosis and subclassification of haematolymphoid malignancies.

  93. Palma Giampaolo, Imitazione Pasquale, Tarro Giulio, Polistina Giorgio Emanuele and Fiorentino Giuseppe

    A key event in the evolution of the Covid-19 disease is represented by coagulation disorders and this is confirmed by more and more evidence and observations. Coagulopathy (CAC) associated with Covid-19 has been defined as a fulminant activation of coagulation, resulting from diffuse thrombosis, which falls within the ISTH criteria for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). Clinical evidence, laboratory tests, histological tests, and radiological techniques have confirmed that Covid-19 attacks not only directly the pulmonary parenchyma but is above all a "widespread systemic vascular disease affecting all organs" and not only the lungs. The coagulation disorders had already been hypothesized when in hospitalized patients, although increasing the pO2, respiratory performance did not improve because the lungs appeared "insensitive"; all this confirmed that there had to be another physio-pathological mechanism of the evolution of the disease in severe respiratory failure. The clinic chart at the patient entry to hospital for worsening dyspnea, chest pain, heart failure with evolution often in septic shock, accompanied by high coagulation indices at the entrance (D-dimer, PT, fibrinogen) and the numerous diagnoses of confirmed pulmonary thromboembolism from the chest CT Angio and numerous cardiac arrests for coronary syndromes and severe heart failure confirm the pathogenetic mechanism of hypercoagulation. The clinical manifestations of coagulation disease from Covid19 are : pulmonary thromboembolism in the lung; acute coronary syndromes (ACS) - heart failure and threatening arrhythmias in addition to heart myocarditis, stroke also in young patients with no brain comorbility, in vasculitis with increased prevalence of Kawasaki syndrome in children often asymptomatic and acute renal failures such as kidney damage and intestinal disorders such as damage to the small intestine. Therefore, therapies that have reduced considerable numbers statistically access to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients for assisted ventilation for severe respiratory insufficiency have proven to be the therapies that block a fundamental physio-pathological mechanism of Covid-19 disease, i.e. hyper-coagulation. and inflammation. As confirmed by the COVID departments in Italy, it was essential to block the storm of coagulation and inflammatory toxins with anticoagulants and steroids at therapeutic doses and administered at the right time to reduce access to ICU for patients. The COVID-19 disease is an endothelial disease; it is a systemic inflammation of the blood vessels that can generate serious micro-disturbances in the bloodstream and damage to the lungs, heart, brain, kidneys, and intestines. At the therapeutic level, this means that viral multiplication and inflammation must be combated but, at the same time, "it is of fundamental importance to protect the cardiovascular system of patients with drugs that act on hyper-coagulation".

  94. Dr. Mohd Tahir Amin Khan

    A comparison has been made between Indian philosophy and it's influence on the culture of Emerson and Thorea. John De Crevecour rightly said that America is a man who acts on new principles and ideas. America was ripe for a literature with a new voice, grounded in a nationalism which welcomed many traditions. This new American culture, unique in the cultures of the world, would also be a universal culture. It would speak of humanity's supreme spiritual quest, the quest for self-culture-the full enfoldments of the individual personality based on knowledge of the Self, that transcendental aspect of the individual connected to universal intelligence. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, Bronson Alcott, and other New England Transcendentalist writers between 1836 and 1860, precursors of Walt Whitman, felt that America was in a unique position to develop a literature at once native and universal. They believed America's diverse origins and cultures should be reflected in its own literature and no longer mimic one tradition-the European. Walt Whitman envisioned a unified America at a time when it was being divided by civil war, an America able to harmonize its differences through the power of language and poetry. For contemporary readers it is difficult to comprehend why Whitman believed poetry could be a force for balancing the needs of individuals and society. This article will evaluate Whitman's claims that his language program could unify the self, culture, and Natural Law through the aesthetic experience, a claim supported by the principles of Maharishi Vedic Science. A strong perception runs through Transcendentalist writings that Nature and human consciousness are not two separate entities. Whitman said that the main intention of Leaves of Grass was “To sing the Song of that law of average Identity, and of yourself, consistently with the divine law of the universal” (“Preface,” 1982, p. 1010). The Transcendentalists also seem to have understood that self-referral was the way to attune oneself to the principle of unity in nature, what Margaret Fuller calls the “central soul”: Every relation, every gradation of nature is incalculably precious, but only to the soul which is poised upon itself, and to whom no loss, no change, can bring dull discord, for it is in harmony with the central soul. (1992, p. 312). The Central Soul, or “Over Soul” according to Emerson, is the wise silence; the universal beauty, to which every part and particle is equally related; the eternal one. And this deep power in which we exist, and whose beatitude is all accessible to us, is not only self-sufficing and perfect in any hour, but the act of seeing, and the thing seen, the seer and the spectacle, the subject and the object are one. (“The Over Soul,” 1979, p. 160) Whitman saw this same relationship between the universal and local operating within a culture's language. Because language embodies both cosmic and local expressions of nature, its sound and rhythm rendered in poetry can marshal individual places and spirits into the grand march of national and even universal unity. Among his hopes for the 1855 edition of Leaves of Grass was a desire to heal divisions among Americans by reminding them that “The soul of the nation . . . rejects none, it permits all”. To capture the multivalent voices of America, to bind them into one rhythmic pulse, Whitman wrote long lines in an unrhymed, rhythmical speech, creating a new form meant to mimic oral rather than literary styles. He hoped by this informal and direct appeal to reach every American including uneducated labourers. He believed that sincere speech spoken from “a developed harmonious soul” would awaken the power “slumbering” in words to penetrate even closed minds. “The art of art,” he said, “the glory of expression and the sunshine of the light of letters is simplicity”. His poetry would speak with the “insouciance of the movements of animals and the unimpeachableness of the sentiment of trees in the woods and grass by the roadside”. Whitman saw him - self as the nation's “equalizer” who could “vivify” and unify the country with his incant - stations: Chants of the prairies, Chants of the long-running Mississippi, and down to the Mexican sea, Chants of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, Chants going forth from the centre from Kansas, and thence equidistant, Shooting in pulses of fire ceaseless to vivify all I will make a song for these States that no one State may under any circumstances be subjected to another State. And I will make a song that there shall be comity by day and by night between all the States (“Starting From Paumanok,” 1980, pp. 273-275)

  95. Jun-ge WEN, Shang-kun REN

    The development of nuclear power is an important part of the national energy security strategy. Nuclear power safety is the most basic requirement for the development of nuclear power. Based on the testing historical data and expert data of nuclear power heat transfer tubes, the integrity of heat transfer tube degradation is evaluated by using the theory of total probability and Bayes formula. By analyzing the influencing factors such as stress corrosion and fatigue damage, the probability calculation of the degradation distribution of the heat transfer tube under different stress corrosion and fatigue damage conditions is realized. The evaluation method can simplify the complex problem of multiple influencing factors into the correction of a single influencing factor one by one, which simplifies the calculation and processing method. This method can be used for evaluating the degradation probability of heat transfer tubes in nuclear power steam generator.

  96. Dr. Pooja Sharma

    Talent management is the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement/ retention and deployment of those individuals with high potential who are of particular value to an organization. Management education in India is considered as professional education and hence it comes under the purview of AICTE which is a regulatory and quality maintenance body of Govt. of India. The guidelines for faculty recruitment are prescribed but their other service related benefits are not ensured by the promoters of these institutions. Moreover only few institutions adhere to the norms laid by government bodies and most of the institutions refrain from following them. These organizational conditions lead to faculty turnover intentions that cause serious damage to management education and its quality and credibility. Faculty turnover as an education problem has received more attention recently as business schools failed to attract and retain talented faculty members which resulted in deteriorating the quality of business education. The present research is an attempt to find the relation between training and development and faculty retention. The study implies that training and development as an important human resource factor for the retention of faculty members in self-financed institutions offering professional education like management programme.

  97. Dr. Surendra Kumar Gupta

    Women education is powerful instrument for development of socio-economic status of country because it holds the half resource of country. If we want to development of a nation through healthy population it cannot be possible without making women population healthy and wealthy. For the utilization of women population with its potential level women education is most important factor. It is well known fact that educated women are the weapons who yield positive impact on the child health as well as on society through giving healthy human recourses. Educated woman has capability to handle her children and professional life. The women education in ancient India was quite good but in the middle age it was deteriorated because of many restrictions against women. However, again it is getting better and better day by day as modern people in India understand that without the growth and development of women, the development of country is not possible. In the above context this paper aims to determine the extent to which women’s education contributes to the good health of their children of EAG state of India. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between women literacy rate and infant mortality rate, as well as highlight this relationship at the rural and urban levels also. Another objective of this paper is to know correlation between child sex ratio and women’s literacy rate in EAG states. Through the data of many years, this paper will attempt to know the trend of infant mortality rate in India. This paper is based on mainly secondary data as census report 2011, NHP 2018 and SRS Statistical Report etc. Simple Statistics is used for analysis of secondary data. After analysis it is very clear that infant mortality rate is not directly associated with women education. The conclusion of study is that women should be given equal opportunity in education like men. Women should not be isolated from any development activities. The pace of social and economic development will be faster in India through the women education because it further improves the human recourse of country.

  98. Dr. Debdas Rakshit and Ananya Paul

    Background: The micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) is the cornerstone of the Indian economy that enables the economic environment to progress leap and bounds. It is considered as the economic growth engine since it helps in fostering equitable and inclusive growth. But, this sector has been badly hit due to the pandemic outbreak. The MSMEs are faltering under crisis by chocking its operational activities and are not in a position to pay their employees, creditors and other dues. So, this sector should be strategically managed as it is cardinal for the Indian economy owing to its ginormous contribution in Indian GDP, exports, production, employment generation, and industrialization of rural areas. Objectives: Therefore, this paper highlights the repercussions of covid-19 on the MSME sector and outlines the strategies that should be adopted by MSMEs to overcome this turmoil. Moreover, certain suggestions are proposed that may help in the development of the MSME sector in India. Result and Conclusion: When will the current situation return to normal is unknown, so the MSMEs should strategically devise their activities towards gradually resuming their business operations and plan for structural modifications in their businesses.

  99. Evelio Geronimo Bautista

    The aim of the research sought to identify the link between the academy and the industry forniture for the training of specialized human resources by taking international and national theoretical references through models such as the Triple Helix (Etzkowitz, 2018) and public-private (Casalet, 2015). The main results of this research were 36% of the companies were linked with a public university and the rest to private universities either formally and informally where the social service was found to account for 17% and professional practices were represented around 12%, this meant that basic activities are still carried out in the Jalisco, Mexico furniture industry.

  100. Mustapha GUENAOU and Abdelfettah ROUIMEL

    Depuis la fin de l’année 2019, le monde vit une crise sanitaire, économique et sociale à cause d’une pandémie qui prit le nom de pandémie du Covid 19. Aucun pays arabe n’a été épargné de cette pandémie et cette crise, malgré leur climat chaud respectif et leur richesse. Cet article est une contribution à l’histoire et à la mémoire des pays, affectés par la pandémie, ayant causé des problèmes d’ordre sanitaire, économique et social. Cette contribution met en avant les marqueurs d’explication de la propagation du coronavirus dans le monde arabo musulman. Pour cerner la question, l’article rappelle les chiffres pour la période étudiée, en présentant le nombre respectif par pays de contamination, de décès et de rétablis. Pour rester dans le cadre d’une approche statistique, nous avons opté pour faire valoir plusieurs taux afin de pouvoir relever les marqueurs de cette pandémie et ses conséquences dans le monde arabo musulman. Nous parlons de taux de l’effectif contaminé par pays, de taux moyens de l’effectif décédé par pays, de taux moyens de l’effectif rétabli par pays.

  101. Ashwini Katole

    COVID 19 infection is spreading all over the world like a wildfire. It is an acute respiratory tract illness that was first identified in Wuhan, China. Non-communicable diseases are already a public health problem in most of the countries. Among them, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the leading cause of mortality. Patients with comorbid cardiovascular diseases are more susceptible to COVID 19 infection. All the comorbidities increases the chance of complications like acute cardiac injury, heart failure, shock, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. The awareness of symptoms, regular medications, help of telemedicine and preparedness of emergency services for exiting morbidity plays an important role in reducing morbidity and mortality, thereby improving the situation.

  102. Rispah Omoke, Eliud Nyakundi, Kennedy Getange

    Over the last two decades, private tutoring has emerged as an important issue in determining the level of academic achievement, as its demand has been growing all over the world. Going for private tuition over the holidays is common practice despite the government’s policy that forbids it. However, the extent of the outcome of private tutoring is not yet clear and distinct. The study examined the influence of private tuition on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Gucha South Sub County, Kisii County, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of private tuition on students’ academic performance. The study was guided by the following objectives: To investigate the cost implication of private tuition on performance in public secondary schools in Gucha south sub county in Kisii County; To find out factors influencing participation in private tuition in public secondary schools in Gucha south sub county in Kisii County. Descriptive survey design was employed in the study and stratified random sampling was used to arrive at schools, the student, teachers and Parents’ Associations chairperson’s respondents. School principals were asked to respond to interviews while data was collected from teachers, parents and students using questionnaires. The study targeted a population of 47 public secondary schools in Gucha South Sub County. There are a total of 370 teachers. There are 1860 students in form three and 2770 in form four. Fourteen schools and 14 PA chairpersons were sampled while 110 teachers and 558 students in form three and 831students in form four were sampled. The validity of the instruments was established through scrutiny by experts from the department of educational administration, Planning and economics who were the thesis supervisors. A pilot study was conducted in 12 schools in the neighbouring Gucha Sub County using split half technique to establish the reliability of the instruments. The coefficient of reliability that resulted was 0.82. Data was collected using interview schedule for the principals and questionnaire for teachers, students and PA chairpersons. Quantitative Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, means, tables and graphs. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 23.0 computer programme. The study found out that despite government ban on private tuition, parents still spend a substantial amount of their weekly income on private tuition. The study recommends stringent and sequential policy to guide parents on private tuition involvement.The study would help the stakeholders in the sector to craft appropriate and relevant policies that affect the learning process.

  103. Ashwani kumar Katotra, Mohinder Singh Chib and Manish singh

    Orthopedic trauma involving leg constitutes one of the commonly involved practice by every surgeon. With the advent of increasing motor vehicle accidents the practice is increasing day by day. The injury ranges from closed to open and may extend to degloving of skin. Fracture pattern may include simple to comminuted and may involved segmental fracture patterns. The study involves analysis of 100 cases presented with compound 3b tibia fracture between Feb. 2018 to Dec. 2019. Degloving injuries and segmental tibia fractures are being excluded from study. Patients were followed for about 1 yr postoperatively. The results are evaluated and analysed in terms of early and delayed complications and functional results of procedure. The results shows favourable outcome in cases operated early usually within 12 hr of injury. The chief reason being the break in microbial exponential growth due to early debridement and closure of soft tissue defects. Repeated debridement can be beneficial but persist ant open wounds predispose to added infections and has chances of increased soft tissue loss with time.

  104. Alaa Sami Bakhsh and Osama Al Wafi

    Back Ground: Insomnia can lead to major of side effect although there is limited data about its prevalence and risk factor among the adolescent age group Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of insomnia among secondary school female students in the east sector of Makkah, 2019, and to list the associated factors related to insomnia particularly smart devices use. Design: Cross-sectional analytic study Setting: Secondary schools in the east sector of Makkah. Patient and methods: random selection of students and distribution of the valid questionnaire. Main outcome measures: sociodemographic data, PSQI, and use of smart devices via questionnaire. Sample size: 341 students. Results: Based on Global PSQI Score 65.4% of the respondents are poor sleepers, while 34.6% are classified as good sleepers. Among the participants with good PSQI, 0.88% don’t use smart devices during the day, 2.93% used for less than one hour a day, 7.04% use for more an hour less than two hours,20.82% for 2 hours and more, and 2.93% used for an uncertain period a day. while the persons with poor PSQI,2.35% don’t use smart devices during the day, 4.11% used for less than one hour a day, 6.74% use for more an hour less than two hours,49.27% for 2 hours and more, and 2.93%use for an uncertain period which is statistically significant (P=0.026). Conclusion: Approximately half of the selected population is suffering from insomnia with mild dysfunction, which indicates the need for a further broad study of other sectors and cities. Limitation: Covering a large population in a limited time Conflict of interest: none

  105. Dr. Pradnya S Nagmode, Dr. Balaji S Kapse, Dr. Harshal V Basatwar Dr. Shubham P Godge and Dr. Ashishkumar K Patil

    Thorough knowledge of internal and external root canal morphology contribute to the successful root canal treatment. A mandibular molar having Radix Entomolaris (Additional lingual root) and Radix Paramolaris (Additional Buccal root) with two distal roots is an interesting example of anatomic variation. This paper describes 3 cases of each of mandibular 1st, 2nd and 3d molar with radix entomolaris.

  106. Dr. Topalakatti, A.A.

    Traditional knowledge of local vaidhyas about medicinal plants and their importance in local health care is well known since Vedic period.Plants are considered as divine in origin and were worshipped as Mother(Goddess). Screening of medicinal plants has become a otential source of bio-dynamic compounds of therapeutic value in phytochemical researches. Ethnobotanical documentation is one way of capturing this body of knowledge. Hence the survey of medicinal plants and their traditional uses by traditional practicners of Badami taluk of Bagalkot district as it has a long history of medicinal plants since from Chalukyan period.

  107. Dr. Ekta, Dr. Lila Vyas, Dr. Ankita Gahlot and Dr. Swati Gait

    Introduction: Induction of labor is defined as the process of artificially stimulating the uterus to start labor. Aims and Objectives: The study was done to compare the maternal outcomes of using dinoprostone gel and dinoprostone insert for induction of labor. Material and Methods: A hospital-based prospective comparative study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur from April 2018 to November 2018. 100 pregnant women at term attending the antenatal clinic were enrolled and were divided into two groups, Group-A (intracervical gel) and B (vaginal insert) comprising 50 women in each group. The primary outcome in terms of mode of delivery, the number of women delivering vaginally, and time interval from induction to delivery were measured. Results: In Group-A, a total of 35 (70.00%) women had a vaginal delivery and 15 (30.00%) had a cesarean section. In Group-B, a total of 38 (76.00%) women had a vaginal delivery and 12 (24.00%) women had cesarean section According to parity, greater number of primipara women delivered vaginally in insert group. Similarly, a greater number of multipara delivered with insert. In the present study, 35.30% primiparas and 18.75% multiparas had a caesarean section in the gel group, whereas 33.33% primiparas and 5.89% multiparas had a cesarean delivery in the insert group. In primipara women, the time interval from induction to vaginal delivery was shorter (18.18 ± 2.11 hours) in the insert group as compared to gel (19.2 ± 2.06 hours). Similar results were seen in multiparas (gel, 14.3 ± 3.12 hours vs. insert, 13.26 ± 1.14 hours). Conclusion: In terms of successful vaginal delivery, dinoprostone vaginal insert is similar to intracervical gel in efficacy.

  108. Harmeet Singh, Naveen Ravi and Gursimranjeet Singh

    Background: India has one of the highest prevalence of Diabetes mellitus globally. One of the leading micro-vascular complication of diabetes mellitus is diabetic neuropathy. Smoking is a huge public health problem in India and is known to affect blood supply of peripheral nerves. Hence, both smoking and diabetes mellitus can adversely affect the peripheral nervous system. Aim & Objectives: To study the effect of tobacco smoking on nerve conduction velocity in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials & methods: The study comprised of 3 groups with 25 individuals each. Group A – Non diabetic, non smoking healthy volunteers. Group B – Non smoking individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2. Group C - Individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2 who were smokers. Every individual in each of the group was subjected to right median nerve motor and sensory nerve conduction studies, right peroneal motor nerve conduction studies and right sural sensory nerve conduction studies, in accordance to established parameters. Results: Sural sensory NCV was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the diabetic smokers (group C) as compared to controls (group A) and diabetic non-smokers (group B). Median sensory NCV was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the diabetic smokers (group C) as compared to non-smokers (group B). Conclusion: In smokers with diabetes there is subclinical reduction in sensory nerve conduction velocities suggestive of earlier onset of peripheral diabetic neuropathy.

  109. Smridhi Bhanot, Sonali Talwar, Pinki Narwal, Pratibha Marya, Sachneet Kaur and Pardeep Mahajan

    Calcium Hydroxide is a material which has been used for a variety of purposes since its introduction in dentistry in the early part of the twentieth century. In its pure form, the material has high pH and its dental use is based chiefly on its ability to stimulate mineralization and its antibacterial properties. A range of products have been formulated with different therapeutic actions, the effects of which are partially dependent upon the tissue to which they are applied. The material is reviewed under the following headings:- history, it is physio-chemical properties, mechanism of action, role and uses in endodontics, combination with other agents, methods of placement and removal in root canals and biocompatibility.

  110. Dr. Jay R. Dondani, Dr. Jyoti Tembhurne, Dr. Arti Gangurde and Dr. Vikrant Pardeshi

    Purpose: The case report highlights the fabrication of an auricular and ocular prostheses of a burns' patient establishing it as a primary treatment modality in similar cases. Method: After thorough case history, an auricular and an ocular prostheses were planned for the patient. Conventional impression making with a few alterations were undertaken. Wax patterns were fabricated with the help of indexing from the contralateral auricle and eye respectively. After a thorough try-in the patterns were processed in RTV silicone and heat cure acrylic respectively. The prostheses were delivered and the patient was recalled periodically. Result: The rehabilitation of the patient using the auricular and ocular prostheses respectively resulted in considerable improvement in the esthetics of the patient. Conclusion: Patients with a history of thermal injury often undergo severe disfigurement of the face. Even with advancements in plastic surgery the contracture of the skin and underlying connective tissue renders it inadequate for optimal esthetics. In such cases maxillofacial prosthetics can play a primary role in facial rehabilitation. Such prostheses result in increase in the patients' confidence and ease in resocialization resulting in improvement in their quality of life.

  111. Zhifu Wu

    The question-answer centered theory is another important discovery after the three major theories of modern education (student centered theory, subject centered theory and culture centered theory), and it is also the divergence of educational models between western countries and Eastern countries. Problem centered teaching is a theme of quality education in recent years. Its core ideas mainly include: starting from problems, carrying out innovative questions, cultivating problem awareness; taking problems as a link, running through all links of "preparation, speaking, practice, assistance and examination" in chemistry teaching; cultivating creative thinking and solving problems.

  112. Dr. Shailendra Singh, Dr. Ajinkya Vishnupant Nampelliwar, Dr. Aniket Pawar and Dr. Mangesh Haridas Mutkule

    The conventional prosthetic treatment for the tooth loss can superiorly be improved by implant dentistry. Dental implants are used in oral cavity with the intention of improving the stability of a dental prosthesis. The predictability of well osseointegrated implant rehabilitation of the edentulous jaw as described by Branemark et al, introduced a new era of management of edentulous patient. A fixed restoration gives the psychological feeling similar to natural teeth, whereas overdenture, even though a fully implant supported, remain a removable prosthesis. This clinical report presents rehabilitation of completely edentulous patient who was not satisfied with his existing conventional complete dentures. The patient was rehabilited using full arch implant supported fixed ceramo-metal prostheses.

  113. Dr. Meena, B.S., Dr. Jyoti Jain, Dr. Lata Rajoria and Dr. Sunita Hemani

    Introduction: Reduction of bone density and development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women is very commonly seen in India and causes significant morbidity. Many of these women were found to have age of menarche and age of menopause affecting the bone mineral density of postmenopausal women. derangements in lipid profiles especially serum cholesterol levels. AIMS AND Objectives: To find a correlation between age of menarche as well as age of menopause and Bone mineral density in post menopausal women. Material & Methods: The study was carried on matched cases and controls. The experimental group consisted of 55 females at postmenopausal age, in which by the DEXA method was diagnosed osteoporosis while the control group consisted of 55 females in a postmenopausal age but without diagnosed osteoporosis who served as controls. Age of menarche and age of menopause were determined in both cases and controls. Results: Most women achieved their menopause at 51-55 years of age in both the groups and majority amongst them achieved their menarche between 12-13 years. The mean age at menopause in Group Ⅰ women was 50.32±1.41 years and in Group Ⅱ was 49.67±1.36 years. The difference in menopausal age in both the groups was found to be statistically insignificant (p-value=0.865). The result was also not significantly associated with the age of achieving menarche(p value 0.060). CONCLUSION: No correlation was found between age of attaining menarche or menopause in this study however The sample is relatively small and not large enough to cause adequate study power to the results. Second, repeat measurement of lipids may be necessary for decreasing confounding factors such as diet on lipid profile

  114. Burçin KARATASLI, Deger ONGUL and Bilge GOKCEN-ROHLIG

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of surface roughness and material type on bacterial adhesion to provisional resin materials. Materials and Methods: Standardized specimens of six different materials were fabricated using a stainless-steel mould/computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. A profilometer was used to measure surface roughness. Each group was divided into two subgroups, which were treated with Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans suspensions, respectively. Bacterial adhesion was assessed using a confocal laser microscope. Differences in surface roughness in independent groups were evaluated with the Kruskal–Wallis test, and multiple comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Bacterial data were analysed using the analysis of variance F test, with multiple comparisons using Tukey’s honestly significant difference test. Results: The main result can be briefed as; surface roughness differed significantly among groups. Composite resin CAD/CAM blocks showed greater surface roughness and vital bacterial adhesion than did the other materials. Conclusions: Surface smoothness is important for provisional restorations, as plaque accumulation and diffusion of allergenic elements to these restorations is greater than that to natural tooth surfaces. If provisional crowns are to be used in the long term, this should be taken into consideration.

  115. Konstantinos Tzelepis, Efstathios K. Metaxas, Panagiota Pantoula, Nikolaos Karatarakis Charalambos Kotoulas, Maria Karagianni Georgios Lefakis

    Idiopathic granulomatous orchitis (IGO) considered as inflammatory process of the testicles. It is about a 17year old male diagnosed with IGO, underwent uneventfully radical orchiectomy. An interesting case report presented, analyzed differential diagnosis dilemma, strategy for therapy – orchiectomy and pathology report too.

  116. Dr. Pawan Kumar, Dr. Rajesh Rajput and Dr. Sudhir Kumar Atri

    Background: Evolution of risk-adapted therapies has improved our ability to treat Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This study was planned to evaluate prognostic factors for disease remission, including age, gender, leukocyte count and blasts percentage at presentation, immunophenotype and early bone marrow response. Methods: Thirty-seven newly diagnosed cases of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, aged 14 years and above were recruited for the study. The patients were diagnosed based on cytological and immunophenotypic criteria. Results were analyzed using the chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 32.48±14.39 years and females were predominant (56.76%). The most common presenting features were fever and generalized weakness. The most frequently observed clinical signs were pallor and organomegaly. B-ALL was more common (78.38%) than T-ALL. The most common CD markers expressed were CD34, CD19 & CD79a in B-ALL and CD5 & CD34 in T-ALL. The remission induction rate was 70.27%. Conclusion: The prognostic factors observed are compatible with literature. It was observed that persistence of lymphoblasts in day 7 Bone marrow examination is prognostically significant. M1 Bone marrow response at day 7 is a strong predictor of prolonged complete remission and good clinical outcome as compared to M2 and M3 Bone marrow response. Addition of this clinical characteristic to the usual prognostic factors in ALL could better discriminate patients, especially among those initially thought to have a relatively favourable outcome.

  117. Ashwani kumar Katotra, Mohinder Singh Chib and Manish singh

    Introduction: DHS is a commonly used fixation procedure in stable inter-trochantric fractures. The proper placement of lag screw is important in reducing the incidence of implant failure which depends upon the fluoroscopically assisted placement of guide pin in centre –centre position. This guide pin often gets erroneously removed during reaming or tapping procedures mostly in osteoporotic patients. We studied the incidence of inadvertent guide pin removal in DHS procedure and its association with osteoporosis, With an overview of repositioning of this guide pin using reverse screw technique. Methods: We conducted a prospective study on 100 patients with stable inter-trochantric fractures. We graded the osteoporosis according to Singh index grading system. The incidence of inadvertent removal of guide pin during reaming or tapping procedure and its association with osteoporosis was studied. Results: 100 patients with stable trochantric fractures underwent DHS procedure. Guide pin got removed in 70 patients out of which Singh index 3 or less than 3 was present in 58 patients. Conclusion: On the basis of the study, We found that the erroneous withdrawal of guide pin during reaming or tapping occurs more often in patient with poor bone stock that is Singh Index 3 or less than 3. The primary placement of guide pin should be up to subchondral bone and reaming or tapping should be done gently and carefully and reaming should not be done beyond the guide pin. The reverse screw technique for guide pin placement is an effective method in inadvertently removed guide pin.

  118. Moneef M. Jazzar

    As the world is technologically evolving, speedy solutions show up at any time. Starting from 2019 onwards, a new member of corona viruses has appeared which is COVID-19. The world witnessed a dramatic spread of this virus that it has become a pandemic. The educational system was about to fall apart without the appearance of what is called online learning. In previous times, most educators relied on traditional learning; some did on blended learning, and a few on distance learning. All educators and institutions around the world cooperated to fix the issue of shutting down schools due to COVID-19 deadly cases. It happens that online learning has gained its popularity so quickly as being the most appropriate solution at the current time of COVID-19. However, no field is flawless. It is 2020’s world challenge in education that must be closely reviewed for further reference.

  119. Balakrishnan, M., Venkatesan, P., Soam, S.K. and Ch. Srinivasa Rao

    In our Indian Agriculture, the traditional knowledge or local knowledge has very good prospective for novelty specifically at the grassroots level. Several knowledge of the traditional tools are on par with the recent knowledge and have been delivered by the native societies with comfort and self-support. Agriculture practices through indigenous are mostly organic in nature, do not cause loss to soil and water, air and also safe to human beings. These practices differed considerably from region to region depending on rainfall, soil type topography etc., and show frequently modifications by the local farmers. In current years, there has been a growing scientific knowledge in these indigenous practices as a source of comprehensive ideas that could lead to sustainable use and management of land resources. All ITKs published information is in scattered form and accessing this information is difficult due to its present form in hard copy. In view of the above it has been observed that there is an immediate requirement to documentation and preservation of the ITK of different agro climatic zones in a database format. This format should contain the description and basic set of information related to ITK resources are information of the communities, beliefs on spiritual faiths, implements used in agriculture, resources for house construction work, investigation in farming and health care, natural resources in plants and animals, human resources and proficiency in trained artists, teaching and learning and communication of information. Efficient use of ICT application to developed a portal was developed by ICAR-NAARM, using PHP and MYSQL, which provides information resources on ITK resources of pan India for crops viz., cereals, millets, pulses, fruits & vegetables, spices, medicinal & aromatic, plants etc. The portal developed by the academy is user friendly and it provides all the information about ITK resources of India. This will be a resource base for the multi-stakeholders viz. researcher, academician, policymakers, farmers and NGOs etc.

  120. Nandhini, S., Sangeetha, V. and Nandhini, S.

    Acceptance sampling procedures are practical tools for quality assurance applications involving product control. In this article we have developed new method for designing sampling plans based on range of quality instead of pointwise description of quality by invoking a quality regions approach. The Quality Decision Region proposes wider potential applicability in industry ensuring a higher standard of quality attainment for a product. This paper provides a selection of chain sampling plan of type (0,1,3) with Repetitive Group Sampling plan indexed through quality regions. Tables are constructed by considering the various combinations of acceptable and limiting quality levels, and an example is given for illustration purpose.

  121. Kh. Astaptseva

    In this study, we present the preliminary monitoring results of 15 digital archives in France, Austria, Spain, the USA, Japan, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Poland, and Russia. The purpose of this paper is to give the list of worldwide digital archives and other projects, where old fashion magazines (late 19th and early 20th century) have been digitized and made available online. To obtain the research results, the following methods were used: descriptive research, secondary data analysis, sampling process, interpretive analysis, direct observation.

  122. Hari Haran, B.

    Nearly 38 percent of the individual are facing the eye power issues like long sight and short sight. Comparing to the Gene and all the day to day activities due to oner usage of the mobile phone, tablets, television and video games the eye power can be increased. There are different parameters where individual feel that the power is increased by improper vision. So individual will visit near by ophthalmologist (Eye physician) .And meeting an eye physician is not an easy way where all requires prior appointment to meet him. So the main objective of the research is to check the eye power without any eye physician or eye examiner. This can be done with few sensors and Machine learning algorithm.

  123. Dr. Shashi Kant Sharma

    Emotional intelligence of teachers plays vital role in managing their own life and deal effectively with the feelings of others. Emotionally healthy teacher behavior is reflected in characteristic ways of thinking, identifying, managing and expressing feelings. Emotional Intelligence is the ability to understand own emotions and those of people around. The concept of emotional intelligence means persons have a self-awareness that enables to recognize feelings and manage his emotions. An effort is made in this paper to analyze the concept of emotional intelligence and compare the emotional intelligence of prospective elementary and secondary teachers’ on self- awareness, self - motivation, emotional stability, self- development, value orientation, commitment and altruistic behaviour components.

  124. Latif Adéniyi Fagbemi, Gaston Ganhoun, Gildas Farid Adamon, Evrard Karol Ekouedjen, Safiou Bouraima

    Charcoal is the main fuel used for domestic cooking in urban and peri-urban areas, with wood being used more often in rural areas in Benin. The quality of charcoal and the anhydrous weight yield of wood charcoal depends on several factors, including charcoal temperature and wood species. The lack of control of these data by charcoal makers in Benin causes socio-environmental and economic problems. The objective of this paper is therefore to determine the optimal charcoal temperature range and wood species best suited for optimal production of excellent quality charcoal in Benin. For this purpose, based on the physicochemical characteristics of about ten wood species, three tropical species, namely Bridelia ferruginea, Burkea africana and Prosopis africana, are selected and charred at different temperatures for a constant time. The physico-chemical characteristics of the coals obtained and the anhydrous weight yield of the carbonisation are determined in accordance with the standards in force. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) between the calculated values allowed to potentially identify the Prosopis africana and Burkea africana species as the best for optimal coal production. The requirements of standard NF EN 1860-2 on the quality of a charcoal make it possible to identify the Prosopis africana species as the best adapted to the optimal production of quality charcoal. Prosopis africana produces charcoal with the maximum anhydrous weight yield (41.3%) at a charring temperature of approximately 400°C. The physico-chemical characteristics of the coal produced are: lower calorific value (26,82 MJ/kg), ash content (1,35 %), moisture content (6 %), fixed carbon content (78,84 %), volatile matter content (19,81 %).

  125. Dr. Vertika Kulshrestha

    Work-life balance is a vital aspect of the overall economic and cultural growth of an organization. However, there is a need to explore the factors that affect the ‘work’ and ‘life’ balance and then the resulting outcome in improving organizational performance. Employees are the basic building blocks of every organization. Family and work both are essential elements of life. In case of disruption or conflict between any of these elements, it will negatively affect the well-being of both employee and employer. The objective of this review is to contemplate whether work-life balance initiatives and practices can be considered as an approach for human resource management, which can translate into improved individual and organizational performance. Here is a comprehensive literature review of how work-life balance affects the growth of an organization.

  126. Jayabalan Prakash, Marisamy Sindhu and Tittu Thomas James

    Background: Cervicogenic headache is a syndrome characterized by chronic hemi-cranial pain thatis referred to head from either bony structure or soft tissue of the neck. Adverse neyrodymanics as well as altered biomechanics of the cervical spine contribute to this. Objective: This study identifies the effect of neural mobilization and postural correction exercises on reducing pain and improving cranio-vertebral angle in patients with cervicogenic headache. Methods: 30 patients who were diagnosed with cervicogenic headache were divided in to two equal groups. Group A received neural mobilization and postural correction exercises whereas the other group (B) received postural correction exercises alone. Analysis was performed using t test between the pre and post-test values. Results: It was found that both group demonstrated significant improvement (p<0.05). On analysing mean difference, it was identified that group A showed more improvement than group B in terms of HIT-6 (-8.66 vs. -1.7) and improvements in cranio-vertebral angle (5.82 vs. 3.6). Conclusion: We conclude that administering neural mobilization and postural correction together will provide better results in the treatment of cervicogenic headache.

  127. Basuki, E., Alamsyah, A., Yasa, IWS, Skurray, G and McGlasson, W.B.

    Correlation of Softening and Polyamines levels during the Controlled Atmospheres Storage of Avocado were examined. The fruit was harvested then stored for 9 weeks at 0oC in Controlled Atmospheres (CA) containing 2.5, 7.5 % O2 with 5 and 10 % CO2 in all combinations (4 mixtures) and air (20 % O2). The incidence of CI, textural change and polyamines concentration, rates of respiration, ethylene production was determined. Fruit stored for 9 weeks in 2.5 % O2 and 10 % CO2 softened after transfer to air while fruit from other mixtures containing 10 % CO2 did not soften. The polyamines concentrations were high on the day fruit were transferred from 0oC to 28oC after storage 3, 6 and 9 weeks and subsequently decreased during the ripening stage at 28oC. Polyamine concentrations in CA stored avocado were higher than those in air stored fruit. After 9 weeks of storage in CA at 0oC then transferred to air resulted in a slight increase in putrescine (PUT), a slight increase in spermidine (SPD) and a major decrease in spermine (SPN). Low oxygen concentration (2.5 %) at 0oC storage induced higher levels of polyamines and significantly inhibited the softening of fruit compared to fruit stored in air (20 % O2). Following 3 weeks storage at 0oC no indication of CI in all treatments after ripening for 6 days, but was light discoloration after 6 and 9 weeks storage and very severe in air storage. The rate of respiration and ethylene production of fruit stored in air were higher than those of fruit stored in CA treatments.

  128. Nirmal Surya, Hitav Someshwar, Balaji Patil, Divyasiny Sharma, Aarti Sharma, Mangal Kardile and Janvi Someshwar

    As we are facing a critical pandemic since last 2.5 months. This pandemic not only impacted the financial and social life of people but made us change the conventional way of managing patients. This pandemic created a completely new normal for the world, and to face this new normal, we required a completely new armament to face challenge of pandemic. Epilepsy Foundation is NGO from Mumai India. From long time, Epilepsy Foundation dedicatedly worked for People with Epilepsy who are not able to get the comprehensive care. Now, in this Pandemic, Epilepsy Foundation created innovative model for comprehensive care of Epilepsy. This module not only provides the Pill and pill related services but, this module enables to provide a comprehensive care for patients which includes Yoga, Physical Therapy, Cognitive therapy and occupational therapy and Quality of life of patient. This module designed by keeping in mind the social distancing aspects of Pandemic and new normal of world.

  129. Essowè Badanèzi Potcho, Oudjaniyobi Simalou, Kafui Kpegba, Kossi Saloufou, Kodjo Selom Evenamede, Kosi Novidzro, Komi Michael Fulbert Adanlemegbe, Nagba Yendoube Gbandjagba, Nambo Phinthè and Pakoupati Boyode

    Sesame oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from sesame seeds (Sesamum radiatum Schum and Thonn, Pedaliaceae). Sesame oil is composed of fatty acids like linoleic acid, oleic acid palmitic acid, stearic acid and small amounts of other compound. Although other species of sesame have been studied, there has been little study of S. radiatum in Togo. The aim of our study is to compare the quality of sesame oil, Roasted sesame seeds (RS) and Unroasted sesame seeds (US) and to optimize the oil extraction yield. Saponification index, Acid index, Acidity and peroxide index were determined using physico-chemical test according to the AFNOR standard. Soxhlet is used for oil extraction. Hexane is used as solvent. We observed that the oil content in relation to weight is the same, while in relation to volume, there is a slight difference which can be explained by the density. The Acid index and the Acidity of the RS oil change significantly after roasting treatment. The color content of sesame oils varied with roasting Roasting seeds treatment change sesame oil quality. The oil of (RS) can be consumed, but that of (US) must be refined. Roasting improves the physicochemical properties and has a positive effect on the nutritional quality of S. radiatum oils, the oil is rich in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

  130. Orioki Motiso Edward and Dr Eliud Nyakundi

    Teenage pregnancy leads to dropout of girls from school. As a consequence, it makes the girl child incapable of fending for herself and to become socially and economically unproductive in society. In Nyamira South Sub-County, the number of teenage pregnancies is on the increase despite the various government interventions to mitigate the vice and enable teenage mothers continue with their studies. Such interventions include the government policy of integration of the teen mothers in school which was introduced in 1994. The policy allows teen mothers to come back to school to continue with their studies after delivery. However, little is known in the international literature on the challenges teen mothers who come back to school after delivery to complete their studies face and to what extent they are taking advantage of the integration policy. The purpose of this study was to establish the challenges facing teen mothers’ integration in mixed secondary schools in Nyamira South Sub-County of Nyamira County, Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were to establish the academic and socio-economic challenges teen mothers face in mixed schools and to establish measures that can curb teenage pregnancies in schools in Nyamira South Sub-County. Descriptive survey design was employed in the study. The study population comprised 42 principals, 42 guidance and counseling teachers and 5953 girls. Clustered sampling was used to select 13 public mixed secondary schools in the Sub-County whose principals, guidance and counseling teachers and students participated in the study. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used to collect data. Face validity of the instruments was determined by three experts from the faculty of Education, Kisii University, who ensured they complied with universal standards of proposal and research finding reporting. Data collected was summarized and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The study revealed that teenage mothers in school were stigmatized, discriminated and experience financial challenges that make them drop out of school. The study concluded that the challenges teenage mothers face in school need urgent remedy for Kenya to realize the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Vision 2030. The study recommended further research on challenges facing teenage mothers’ integration in pure girls’ boarding schools and in primary schools.

  131. MANANGA Vital, ITOUA OKOUANGO Yvon Simplice, KABA INLOVO Divanne Modelvie, HUSSEIN Abdoulaye, ELENGA Michel

    To feed one self is for the human being a primordial necessity. A good diet is the first medicine to keep your nutritional status normal. Malnutrition is one of the main causes of infant and child mortality. Nutritional problems observed in infants and young children, are closely related to complementary feeding practices. A study was conducted on the nutritional practices and nutritional status of children aged 0-2 years in Brazzaville. Its objective was to assess the nutritional practices and nutritional status of children aged 0-2 in Brazzaville. Methods: By way of this, a lateral survey by interrogation has been carried out from a sample of 206 children of the nine districts. The data had concerned the nutritional condition, the dietary observance, the diet of infants and young children. Results: Breast-feeding is almost general to 95.1% with taking of colostrum by 75.7%, 92.3% children were taking breast dining the period of survey. After the birth, only 9.2% of children had been given immediately the breast after the birth. Exclusive breastfeeding made up 22.96% of children, with more than 4 times a day practiced in 80.1%. 57.3% took the porridge, 33.9% of which took it from the age of 6 months with 55.1% who took it twice a day. 61.2% take water of which only 2.4% took it from 6 months. 21.8% of children started eating special meals once a day (82.2%). 15.5% of children already eat family meals once a day, or (71.9%).The rate of emaciation weight of inadequacy and the late of growth are respectively to 7.2%, 8.2% and 13.6%. Conclusion: the investigation found that the dietary practices inflicted on these children are not good. The early introduction of additional food and the dietary diversification, also the weakness of frequency daily of consumption are factors which lead to different nutritional status of children survey.

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