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August 2020

  1. M.A. Hannan, Md. Shohidul Islam, Md. Sofiullah, Iftekhar Md. Kudrat-E-khuda and Ahmed Masiha Jamil

    Background: Hydatid disease is still a problem in developing countries. Although the disease is often asymptomatic for many years owing to slow growths of the cyst, it poses a technical challenge to the attending surgeon due to involvement of a variety of organs. Man is an accidental host. However the parasite can cause cystic lesions in various organ systems of the body. Intra-abdominal hydatid cyst continues to be a challenging problem. Objective: To find out the Management of Intra-Abdominal Hydatid Disease: A Surgical Experience in Rajshahi Medical College Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Methods: Indoor case records of 16 patients admitted to a single surgical unit in the Rajshahi Medical College Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh period from January 2014 to July 2019 with a confirmed diagnosis of intraabdominalhydatid disease were studied retrospectively.Case records of patients diagnosed and surgically treated for intra-abdominal hydatid disease were studied. Demographic details, diagnostic modalities and surgical approach to each patient was studied. Results: Hydatid disease in an anthropozoonosis and is caused by Echinococcusgranulosus. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts of Ecchinococcus. Liver is the most common in-volved organ (59-75%) followed by the lung (27%), Kidney (03%), bone, (1-4%) and brain (1-2%). Other sites. Such as spleen pancreas, heart and muscles are rarely affected, 16 cases of intra-abdominal hydatid disease were diagnosed and manageda single surgical unit in the Rajshahi Medical College Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Male are affected more than females, ultrasonography is diagnostic and non-radical open surgery is the safe procedure in Rajshahi Medical College Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Conclusion: Male patients are involved more as compared to females due to their more outdoor activity especially with the livestock. Symptoms may vary from vague fullness to development of pain abdomen and mass. Liver is the commonest intra-abdominal site for hydatid disease. CT scan is diagnostic. Open surgery still continues to be the safest option for treating this condition.

  2. Dr. Phadnaik, M.B., Dr. Pinky, M.L., Dr. Ripunjay kumar Tripathi

    The frenum is a tissue fold which act as a bridge in the oral vestibule that connect the lip and the cheek to the alveolar mucosa, the gingiva, and the underlying periosteum. The aberrant frenum may jeopardize the gingival health, either due to interference in the plaque control or due to a muscle pull. In addition to this, the maxillary frenum may present aesthetic problems or compromise the orthodontic result in the midline diastema cases and causing a recurrence after the treatment. The management of such an aberrant frenum is accomplished by performing a frenectomy. The present article is a compilation of a series of clinical cases of frenectomy which were approached by various frenectomy techniques.

  3. Dr. Avdhoot Kaduskar and Dr. Anagha Kanade

    Background:- Clear aligners have provided patients willing to undergo orthodontic treatment with a highly aesthetic and comfortable alternative to conventional braces and hence are gaining popularity especially among adults who wish to have their smile corrected. Clear aligner technology has evolved over the last 20 years and is continually being modified to achieve most predictable tooth movements possible. However, there is not enough clinical research available to describe the complete predictability of the appliance and hence the overall efficiency of outcome is controversial. Although clear aligner therapy is an aesthetic and comfortable treatment option, it has its limitations. This review highlights on the evolution of clear aligner technology and the changes it underwent till date to provide efficient tooth movements comparable to conventional fixed appliance. It discusses in detail on the ability of clear aligners to predictably achieve tooth movements like rotations, mesio-distal tipping, bodily movement, alignment, intrusion, extrusion and anterior bucco-lingual tip (root torque) posterior bucco-lingual tip (expansion). Simple tooth movement like tipping is fairly predictably achieved by clear aligner therapy, but complex movements require adequate treatment planning and use of additional auxiliaries like attachments, intra-oral elastics, inter-proximal reduction, power ridges, auxiliary anchorage devices and over correction in some tooth movements to improve their outcome. The inclusion of such additional aids can help provide a more stable, predictable and efficient outcome for patients and the scope for improvement in treatment outcomes is immense considering the constantly evolving appliance and innovative treatment strategies on the part of clinicians.

  4. Eliud Nyakundi

    The self-employment sector provides an avenue for workers to earn a living. The returns to the self-employed remains unexplained. In Kenya studies indicate the increasing entry of school graduates of all levels of education entering the self-employment whose returns remains unpredictable. The study objectives were to; analyze the returns to levels of education of the self-employed in computer industry, analyze the returns to education of levels of education of the self-employed in spare parts industry. The study used descriptive and correlation design. The study used human capital theory as advanced by Becker which states that earnings rise with additional years of schooling. The population of the study was 11,240.That is in computer service industry 6,400 and spare parts 4840 workers. The study used Glen model to derive a sample of 384 respondents with 218 computer services and 166 spare parts self-employed workers. Questionnaire and interview schedules were used to collect data for the study. Validation of the instruments was done by consultation with supervisors of this study and other researchers to ensure they complied with universal standard of proposal and research finding reporting. Reliability of instruments was established at 0.7. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Qualitative data was transcribed and analyzed in emergent themes and sub-themes and reported verbatim. The study found out that; on average in computer service industry self-employed respondents with KCPE, K.C.S.E and diploma had similar amount of returns while bachelor’s degree and masters earnings were higher with certificate recording lower earnings. The combined levels of education explained 22.6% of the returns in education. The result therefore indicated that education levels marginally explain the returns to education in computer service industry. In spare parts the results showed that on average; respondents with KCPE, KCSE and certificate earned nearly similar amount of money. Diploma graduates earnings bachelor’s degree and masters graduates recorded higher earnings.The combined effects of all levels of education explained 31.8% while 68.2% remained unexplained. Education levels therefore significantly explained the returns to education. Government intervention were not effective in the provision of: market stalls, loans and market for finished products, but effective in provision of: security, electricity and infrastructure. The study conclude that K.C.P.E level of education had positive returns and other levels of education could not be relied upon to explain the returns to education. The study recommended curriculum review in other levels of education apart from K.C.P.E to make them relevant to the needs of the self-employed in computer and motor spare part. The study is important in formulation of education programmes relevant to the self-employed and government intervention in support of the self-employed.

  5. Filmon Mikson Polin

    This article is discussing abuse of the authority in government implementation in Indonesia. This article examines two legal problems as follows: (1) The essence of preventing abuse of authority in government implementation; and (2) forms of abuse of authority prevention in government implementation. In general, the objectives of this research are to theoreticallycarry out study and to analyzes philosophical thinking, legal theory, and legal dogmaticson proper Laws and Regulationsin preventing abuse of authority in government implementation in Indonesia. This research is normative legal research, which departs from the empty norm, with statutory, comparative, and conceptual approaches. The legal material of this research originated from primary, secondary, and tertiary legal materials which are analyzed descriptively. The result of this research shows that: (1) The essence of preventing abuse of authority in government implementation is realizing a good and clean government; and (2) forms of abuse of authority prevention in government implementation are political and government ethics, government bureaucratic behavior, dissemination on the abuse of authority prevention, supervision by authorized institutions of government administrators and their behavior, awareness enhancement on the ideology of Pancasilafor government administrators, cooperation development with stakeholders (foundations, non-governmental organizations, community organizations, religious leaders, community leaders, and the press).

  6. Kunjummen T Tharian

    Working capital management is one of the most important and crucial function of financial management that ensures the smooth function of the business organisation and it denotes the index of sound position of the business. The success and failure of a business enterprise depends on how it can manage the liquidity and working capital. The finance manager of a business organisation is used to spend more time for managing the short term or working capital management. The purpose of this paper is to study the working management of the construction industry based on their financial statements. The area of studies is related to the working capital management of various components like Management of Cash and Marketable Securities, Management of Receivables, Inventory Management and Payable Management practices in the management of working capital. The key difference between long term financial management and short term financial management is in terms of the timing of cash. While long term financial decisions like buying capital equipment or issuing debentures involve cash flows over an extended period of time (5 to 15 years or even more), short term financial decisions typically involve cash flows within a year or within the operating cycle of the firm.

  7. Zeleke Berie, Gizachew Yihunie and Daniel Seif

    This paper has the objective to assess the indigenous cultural practices of child with disability rearing and handling practices of Gumuz society. The research was conducted in one of the traditional societies in which indigenous child rearing is highly observed that is the Gumuz community in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State of Mundura Woreda. Both primary and secondary data were employed in this study. Qualitative method of semi-structured, participant observation, informal discussion and focused group discussions were utilized for primary data gathering. More over literature reviews, books, magazines and related researches were also used as secondary sources of data for the study. Eight kebeles’ from the Woreda were selected purposively and a total of 85 respondents participated in this study. Men and women farmers who have a child with disability, community elders, and Gumuz teachers were included. Findings of the study show that there are various cultural practices in Gumuz community of child with disability rearing and handling practice, discrimination of children with disabilities and their parents, segregation of children with disability during child playing, domestic violence (pinching, beating, and physical punishment) are the major cultural practices that put children with disabilities at a lower status in Gumuz community. Furthermore, lack of awareness about the importance of education for children with disabilities is also another factor that puts children with disabilities in a lesser rank.

  8. Abdullah Saad Alshahrany, Mohammed S. Alshahrani and Ahmed H. Al-Ghamdi

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 is a rare disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE) leading to immune injury of multiple organs (mainly endocrine). We describe a case with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 presented with features of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and hypoparathyroidism. End stage renal disease was found and the renal biopsy confirmed tubulo-interstitial nephritis which is very rarelyencountered in these patients. Molecular genetic analysis of AIRE gene showed homozygous variant c.274C>T p. (Arg92Trp) which is classified as pathogenic.

  9. Dr. Bakr Alhussaini and Dr. Nawaf Al-Dajani

    Background: The process of gastrostomy has been used for long time for health purposes while the procedures been evolving according to the requirements and advancements of times. This research study is based on the comparison between Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy and One-Step Gastrostomy regarding the infectious rate in hospitalized Children at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: Our retrospective study of 132 Patients, at king Abdul-Aziz university hospital KAUH from 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2019 was approved by the Institutional ethical committee, File numbers were reviewed from Log Sheets in the endoscopy unit & hospital record archives. The inclusion criteria for the study were below 14 years of age, regardless of their diagnosis who had gastrostomy tube placement. And the exclusion criteria Patients who had done surgical gastrostomy. Results: According to the research study, the rate of infection was considerably low for the participants with the one-step Gastrostomy. The difference was around 10.62%. Conclusion: The research concludes that the One step Technique is better than the pull-through technique regarding infection rate, but further large study needed for solid conclusion.

  10. Dr. Sneha Bajoria, Dr. Shwetha Shetty, Dr. Dhananjay Gandage and Dr. Amit Jagtap

    Background: Various methods of sand blasting are used to improve the implant stability which in turn improves the osseo-integration and reduce the chance of implant failure. The most common method used to determine the stability is resonance frequency analysis. Aim : Dental implant is becoming common option for replacement of lost teeth. Various techniques are used to improve the stability of the implant after insertion. Most commonly used is modifying the surface of the dental implant that improves the wettability, resulting in improved osseointegration and implant stability. This systematic review evaluates the effect of different sandblasting techniques of the implant surface on implant stability. Setting and Design: The review is based on articles selected from PUBMED and google scholar and was completed in Dr. D. Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Pune, Pimpri. Material and Method: This review selected articles from PUBMED and Google Scholar. Additional studies were hand searched. Clinical trials, prospective and retrospective studies were included. FEM Studies and case reports were excluded in this study. These studies evaluates the effect on implant stability when the implant surface is treated with different methods of sand blasting. Results: A total of 140 articles were taken through the electronic search. Only 4 articles were included on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the articles have shown good results when the implant surface was treated with different techniques of sand blasting. Conclusion: This review concludes that the treatment of the implant surface with different techniques of sand blasting improves the implant stability during insertion which improves the torque. The study also shows that the implant stability is improved as time progresses. Limitations: Total number of articles screened for full text are limited in number i.e, only 4 articles are screened in this systematic review

  11. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Monika G.K., Dr. Vinisha Vinod, Dr. Nikhil Das K.R. and Dr. Ramesh, R.

    Aim: To assess the psychological impact of early childhood caries in children. Method: Children between 4-6years of age were selected for study and were divided into Group A- sever early childhood caries and Group B- caries free. Face image scalewas used to evaluate the children’s perception of their own teeth in both the groups and children with the help of investigators were asked to fill the simple questionnaire, to evaluated psychological impact in children. Result: The children with severe early childhood caries felt sadder about their teeth compared to caries-free children. Severe early childhood carieschildren had toothache, ashamed of smiling, problem in eating certain food and a significant proportion of children had missed school due to pain/appointment, stopped playing with other children, teased by friends because of their teeth. Conclusion: Sever early childhood caries exhibited psychological impact in children. Psychological impacts on young children, suggested the need for intervention programs to address oral health problems among children.

  12. Dr. Suman De, Dr. Asis Saha and Dr. Prasenjit Das

    A retroperitoneal tumors is uncommon and neurofibromas still rarer. Solitary neurofibromas are frequently detected in the skin, appendix, stomach and jejunum. However, it has rarely been reported as occurring in the retroperitoneum. Most NST’s are small solitary and benign and rarely exceed 6 cm in diameter. Symptoms do not appear until they have attained gigantic dimension or start compressing surrounding structure. A 17yr old male patient presented with a painless lump in the left lumbar region for last 6 months. A lump is palpable in the left lumbar region of about (10x8) cm. The lump is retroperitoneal in type and not mobile. Another lump of about (5x3) cm. is palpable in the left hypochondriac region. This lump is also not mobile and retroperitoneal in type. Laparotomy followed by Excision of the lumps done. Histopathology shows Neurofibroma; diffuse type.

  13. Jagjit Kaur, Navjot Kaur, Manprit Kaur and Deepak Bhat

    Administration of medication is the most important nursing responsibility. The need for accuracy in preparing and giving medications to children is greater than that of adults. Since the paediatric dose is often relatively small in comparison with the adult dose, a slight mistake in the amount of administration of drug represents a greater error. Due to insufficient knowledge about dosage given to the children, it can create severe problems. So, the researchers felt a need to assess knowledge & practices of staff nurses regarding drug administration. To assess the knowledge and practices regarding drug administration among staff nurses working in paediatric unit. A descriptive research design was used and a sample of 60 staff nurses of paediatric unit of DMC & Hospital, Ludhiana were selected by convenience sampling technique. The structured knowledge questionnaire and checklist was used to assess the knowledge and practices regarding drug administration among staff nurses. Analysis was done by descriptive and inferential statistics. More than half of the staff nurses i.e. 37(51.7%) had excellent level of knowledge, 24(40%) had good knowledge and only 5(08.3%) staff nurses had average knowledge regarding drug administration. All of the staff nurses (100%) had average practices regarding I/V drug administration. The correlation of knowledge and practices was found to be weak positive(r=0.36, p=0.004).The association of knowledge and practices of staff nurses regarding drug administration with selected socio-demographic variables was found to be statically non- significant. This study concluded that majority of staff nurses had an excellent knowledge regarding drug administration. The practices of staff nurses regarding drug administration were found to be average. The correlation of knowledge and practices was found to be weak positive.

  14. Kapil Dev. Mohsin Ali and Subodh Prakash.

    Objectives: Elevated blood pressure in the early morning is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. It is crucial that antihypertensive medication controls blood pressure to minimize this risk at this time. The ARB with the longest half-life is telmisartan. Its potential to reduce blood pressure in the risky early morning hours has been demonstrated in numerous clinical studies using Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Material and Methods: This study was conducted during the period from the December 2016 until the end of November 2019 in Muzaffarnagar Medical College, Muzaffarnagar, U.P., India.. A total of 100 subjects of hypertension who were treated with telmisartan 40 mg for six weeks having an age group of 40-65 years were included. Result: The results show comparison of blood pressure between without treatment and with telmisartan 40 mg for six weeks. The mean levels of SBP and DBP in control group without treatment were 176.14 ± 12.06 mmHg and 94.26 ± 8.32 mmHg. On the other hand in study group with telmisartan 40 mg for six weeks subjects were 128.08 ± 10.18 and 84.22 ± 6.14 respectively. It is evident from data that telmisartan 40 mg significantly decreased blood pressure. Conclusions: Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARBs) like telmisartan has been used to normalize the blood pressure. Further studies with large number of subjects with longer duration of follow-up are required to validate these observations.

  15. Kapil Dev, Mohsin Ali, Subodh Prakash

    Introduction: Insulin resistance is a feature of a number of clinical disorders, including T2D/glucose intolerance, obesity, dyslipidaemia and hypertension clustering in the so-called metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle manifests itself primarily as a reduction in insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis due to reduced glucose transport. Material and Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Muzaffarnagar Medical College, Muzaffarnagar, U.P., India.. A total of 120 subjects of type 2 diabetes having an age group of 40-70 years were participated from urban and rural area of Muzaffarnagar District for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results: We found urban subjects had significantly higher fasting Glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values than rural subjects (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Environmental and lifestyle changes resulting from industrialization and migration to urban environment from rural settings may be responsible to a large extent, for this epidemic of insulin resistance in Indians.

  16. Dr. Koyel Bhowal, Prof. (Dr.) Samiran Ghosh and Prof. (Dr.) Soumitra Ghosh

    After tooth loss, alveolar ridge resorption is a common phenomenon, which alters the size and shape of the host bone available for the dental implant placement. In clinical practice, though patients often demand osseointegrated implants to replace their missing teeth; the deficiency of bone volume is the primary reason for avoiding such treatment options. The solution to such situations lies in the re-establishment of the ridge height consistent with prosthetic design and with suitable load-bearing lamellar bone for implant placement and long-term stability. Despite recent advances in bone grafts and bone-substitute technology, the use of autogenous bone grafts continues to represent the “gold standard” in implant site reconstructive surgery. The mandibular symphysis (chin bone in interforaminal region) is a favorable donor site as it has an excellent risk-benefit ratio. In this article , a case report has been elaborated where a healthy patient with 22 years old having edentulous area with single tooth ridge deformity in maxillary anterior region were treated by using ridge augmentation procedure by using autogenous (symphysis ) bone graft followed by implant placement after 6 months. Complete follow up of 6 months post loading had been done in this case .

  17. Dr . Noopur Managoli Kulkarni, Dr. Roshini Vinod, Dr. Nalini Desai, Dr. Sujit Londhe and Dr. Shailesh Gawande

    The dreaded pandemic of corona virus disease 2019 is spreading rapidly. Though the cause was identified at a lightening pace, that it’s the new corona virus named SARS CoV2, our knowledge on this novel virus remains very limited. Tremendous infectivity of the virus, lack of desired antiviral, no vaccinations has made things challenging. As a result of which large human population dwells with asymptomatic corona infections. Along with medical responses, continual efforts in better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease will aid in the optimal management of the growing pandemic.

  18. Nikita Sinha, Amit Kumar and Sonal Rai

    Colon specific drug delivery system has attracted considerable attention for the last few years in order to develop drug delivery system that are able to release drug specifically in the colon in predictable and reproducible manner. Colonic drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for delivery of drugs for the treatment of local disease associated with the colon like Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis etc. but also for the systemic delivery of proteins, therapeutic peptides, anti-asthmatic drug, anti-hypertensive drugs and anti-diabetic agents. Colon specific systems is most important delivery of those drug which are normally inactivated in the upper parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). To achieve successful colon targeted drug delivery, a drug need to be protected from degradation, release and absorption in upper portion of GI tract and then to be ensured abrupt or controlled release in the proximal colon. Colon targeting holds a great potential and still need more innovative work. This review article discusses need of colon targeted drug delivery, factors affecting targeted drug delivery, platform technologies for colon targeted drug delivery systems.

  19. Shounak Das, CMA Sandip Basak and Avijit Kanrar

    Online buying platform in India is moderately to highly developed, especially in urban and semi-urban areas. It has been estimated, out of total retail sales in 2019; almost 5% is through online mode and it has also been estimated that retail e-commerce sales will touch 45 billion dollars figure in 2021 from 16 billion dollars in 2016, in India (Statista Research Department Publication, 17.12.2015). The report has also pointed out that size of India’s e-commerce industry will touch 188 billion dollars in 2025 from more than 50 billion dollars in 2017. These figures have easily pointed out the magnitude of acceptance of online buying mechanisms by the retail customers of the country. Though the penetration of e-commerce or online buying in India is low in comparison to other countries of Asia Pacific. It is mainly restricted to urban areas and semi-urban areas and among younger generation of the nation, unlike other countries of Europe, America and also to some extant South-East Asian countries. But undoubtedly it is a rising industrial sector of the country. The current global pandemic and resultant lockdown has some good impacts on this sector. On one side due to restrictions on free movement due to safety issues many e-commerce companies shut down or limited their service reach in various places and people are also started to avoid online buying due to safety and economic issues. Again, as physical movement of customers are not necessary in case of online buying and ensuring social distancing is need of the time, many people are going for online mediums to buy things. Based on the above facts it is clear that in the current scenario it is very much necessary to understand how much online buying habits of customers changes in context to current situational crisis. The researchers classified retail products that consumers are buying into three broad categories. The data has been collected through sample survey and Related-Samples Sign Test is being run by the researchers to identify the change in preferences. Apart from this descriptive statistics in respect to collected data has been provided. The results show completely mixed results for different categories of products and according to it the researchers provided the recommendations. Finally, the future research ideas in this area have been discussed in brief apart from mentioning research limitations.

  20. Chaudhary V, Meel KC and Meel S

    In this study, the aim was to find out the risk factors associated with neonatal jaundice in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India. In our cross-sectional study of 661 neonates (601 term neonates and 60 preterm neonates), the results showed that almost all neonates had transient unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the neonatal period, with more than ninety percent affected during their first week of life. The prevalence of physiologic jaundice in neonates was 86.99% and the prevalence of pathologic indirect hyperbilirubinemia in neonates was 13.01%. In the present study, the Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity was normal in all the neonates with pathologic jaundice. In our study, the risk factors like early onset neonatal sepsis, preterm gestation, low birth weight, very low birth weight, congenital abnormality (most commonly ventricular septal defect), serum TSH level (≥10mIU/L), polycythemia and infant of diabetic mother showed a strong association with pathologic indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Besides, the association of pathologic jaundice with other factors like male neonate, ABO or Rh incompatibility, anemia, primigravida mother and vaginal delivery was considered to be not statistically significant, in our study.

  21. Guy Clarence SEMASSOU, Abdel Deen Derrick Vital Dai TOMETIN, Kouamy Victorin CHEGNIMONHAN and Edmond VODOUNNOU

    La performance énergétique d’un bâtiment est considérablement influencée par les paramètres de l’enveloppe du bâtiment, sa toitureet ses configurations géométriques (la forme, l’orientation, les matériaux…). Cependant, déterminer les configurations optimales de forme et de l'enveloppe du bâtiment demeure un défi. Différentes méthodes ont été utilisées dans la littérature pour optimiser les paramètres de l'enveloppe du bâtiment, sa toiture et ses configurations pour atteindre une meilleure performance énergétique. L’objectif du présent travail est de réaliser une vue panoramique sur les méthodes d'optimisation utilisées dans la conception des bâtiments à haute efficacité énergétique. Ainsi, les potentiels et l'applicabilitéde ces méthodes sont identifiés. Les méthodes d'optimisation associées qui sont soit avec dérivée ou sans dérivée et leurs applications dans la conception de bâtiments éconergétiques sont considérées dans ce travail, ainsi que les approches de prise de décision relatives aux optimisations multi-objectifs. Certains outils d'optimisation couramment rencontrés (Matlab, GenOpt, BEOptTM, Opt-E-Plus…) sont également présentés.

  22. Mohan Rao Thokala

    Reversible logic gates, in which the number of outputs is equal to number of inputs and each input, must give equal output pattern. These gates are reversible gates as it also helps in recovering inputs from outputs. The reversible 5x32 decoder consists of a reversible 4x16 decoder and fredk in gate which again consists of peres gate,one TR gate,one NOT gate, three CNOT gates,28 Fredkin gates. Reversible decoder 5x32 is designed with 4x16 decoder and fredkin gate with minimum cost, both delay and power consumption are reduced compared to normal decoder. Reversible decoder can be widely used in low power VLSI, DSP, nano computing, and optical computing.

  23. Dinabandhu Adhikari, Arumay Jana and Dr. Asish Paul

    The most important variables for measuring performance in soccer are physical condition, technical skills and tactical performance. Physically active people possess considerably less total body fat than their active contemporaries. Body composition and anthropometric measures are the important factors among other important variables, which influences the soccer playing ability. Proper soccer training for specific age group improves these qualities. The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of 12 week soccer training on selected anthropometric measures and body fat % among three age group soccer player. Twenty district level male soccer players from each of the three age category of 14yrs., 17yrs. and 19yrs. were considered as the trainee of the study. Significant (p=.014) weight gain took place only in case of 19yrs. group. The pre and post-test value in case of weight (F = 74.32 and 88.10) and height (F = 42.55 and 42.29) signifies the differences among the three groups but in case of body fat % (F = 0.85 and 1.03) there were no significant differences. The critical differences of weight, height and Fat % in ANCOVA were 0.44, 0.01, 0.06 and the different adjusted post-test mean values clearly indicated the maximum changes in case of 19yrs. boys. The conclusion may be drawn that maximum development occurred in case of the 19yrs. group soccer players due to the proposed soccer training.

  24. Dr. Itishree Mohanty and Dr. Smruti Ranjan Rath

    The recent economic turn down has taken toll of large number of companies all over the World that has claimed many organisations as casualties. Employees who are well paid today found their jobs gone overnight. This nightmare is across in all sectors are equally affected. In relate to this, the challenge of HR (human resource) professional is to survive him and then playing a key role to make the organisation survive during trying times. Moreover, companies are exploring innovative ways to overcome the situation by some innovative HR activities like managing the talents, link reward to performance, create learning environment, employee counselling and guidance, honing quality workforce, creating work life balance, provides effective incentives schemes and organisational assessment etc. As we know that the HR professionals have to depend upon the 3E i.e. Experiment, Experience and Excel to sustain the future in a continuous manner. So, this is the time to build more cohesive teams and the actions are required to put the right performing employees in the right key performing areas as well as retain key talents with the attention for survival and sustainable growth of an organisation. Human Resource strategy is a overall plan for managing its human capital to align it with its business activities that sets the direction for all the key areas of HR. Creating an HR strategy takes time, as it takes execution time but when strategy is well-defined that can create tremendous benefit by aligning HR’s activities with the goals of the organisation. The study place a great deal of concern on technological advances, greatly increases business, constantly changing views of the Government as well as the management and the increasing urge for employee satisfaction and retention. The main aim of the study is to inquire into the status of the existing HRD activities in Indian Industry and to identify the problems, which impede the growth of the organisation climate particularly in the Steel industries and service sectors.

  25. Vagish, C.B., Sudeep, P., Jayadevappa, H.P. and Ajay Kumar, K.

    Triazoles can exists in two viz. 1,2,3- and 1,2,4- isomeric forms. The compounds with 1,2,4-triazole ring core have attracted the researchers all over the world due to their broad spectrum of synthetic and biological activities. There has been a significant interest in recent years in developing simple, clean, non-toxic, cost-effective and eco-friendly procedures for the synthesis with or without metal catalysts, and the exploration of these molecules to wide range of biological potencies. In this review, we have summarized the recent developments in the synthesis and their medicinal potencies of 1,2,4-triazole derivatives and the reports have been critically discussed.

  26. Dr. Usha kiran, C. and Dr. Sreelatha

    The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of debate on innovations in Nursing among 1styear B.Sc.(N) students in, CON, SVIMS, Tirupati. Objectives • To assess the level of knowledge on innovations in nursing, among1st year B.Sc.(N) students • To assess the effectiveness of debate, among1st year B.Sc.(N) students • To find out the association between level of knowledge and selected demographic variables, among1st year B.Sc. (N) students. Methodology: By using convenient sampling technique, a Pre-experimental research design was adopted, 100 B.Sc. (N) 1st year students were taken as samples. Data collection was done by using a self-structured questionnaire. Results: The study results revealed that out of 100 samples 92% (92) had inadequate knowledge, 8%(08) had moderate knowledge, and 0%(0) had adequate knowledge in their pre-test, whereas in post-test 8% (8) had inadequate, 53%(53) had moderate knowledge, and 39%(39) had adequate knowledge. Conclusion: As the technology in nursing education has been increasing day by day; debate is one of the best method of understanding the facts and faults about a specific topic and the students be able to understand the scenario in a clear way, which gives essential information to the students. In the present study the result showed that, the debate was effectively improved the knowledge of 1st year B.Sc. (N) students regarding innovations in nursing.

  27. Dr. Usha Kiran C. and Dr. Sreelatha

    The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of panel discussion on quality of care at hospital among 1styear B.Sc.(N) students in, CON, SVIMS, Tirupati. Objectives • To assess the level of knowledge on quality of care at hospital among 1st year B.Sc.(N) students. • To assess the effectiveness of panel discussion among1st year B.Sc.(N) students. • To find out the association between level of knowledge and selected demographic variables among1st year B.Sc. (N) students. Methodology: By using convenient sampling technique, a Pre-experimental research design was adopted, 100 B.Sc. (N) 1st year students were taken as samples. Data collection was done by using a self-structured questionnaire. Results: The study results revealed that out of 100 samples 92% (92) had inadequate knowledge, 8%(08) had moderate knowledge, and 0%(0) had adequate knowledge in their pre-test, whereas in post-test 8% (8) had inadequate, 53%(53) had moderate knowledge, and 39%(39) had adequate knowledge. Conclusion: As the technology has been increasing in has been nursing education; panel discussion is one of the best method of understanding the multi-dimensionality of a specific topic under discussion and the students be able to understand the scenario in a clear way which provides essential information, helps in developing critical thinking and also improves the presentation skills of the students. In the present study the result showed that, the panel discussion was effectively improved the knowledge of 1st year B.Sc. (N) students regarding quality of care.

  28. Gitanjali Devi

    Tinospora cordifolia, which is known by Giloy, is a herbaceous vine, commonly found in India. It is widely used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. This review reveals the phytochemistry and cultivation practices of Giloy, along with the economic importance of the plant.

  29. Oleg Arnaut, Ion Grabovschi, Ruslan Baltaga and Serghei Sandru

    Background: Despite big progresses in early management of trauma patients, traumas still represent an actual subject at international scale being the main cause of death for persons younger than 44 years. Polytrauma is the most unexplored and unsearched category of traumas. There is no international consensus according the most efficient scale, many of them returning different results in estimating the patient’s condition complications and patient’s mortality risk in case of trauma. The described situation makes us to search some solutions inclusively new factors with a higher predictive power in estimating the polytrauma patient’s outcomes. We supposed that such an instrument could be different protease/antiprotease system’s components. Objectives: The aim of this research was to estimate the predictive potential of proteases and antiproteases by polytrauma population survival rate modeling. Methods: In a prospective pilot study, 65 polytrauma patients admitted in acute period of trauma were analyzed. Plasma samples were collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours after traumatic impact. We measured the values of two antiproteases concentration and enzymatic activity of six proteases. In order to identify the potential biomarkers for survival rate, we have compared proteases/antiproteases system components between survived and non-survived patients. The evidenced potential biomarkers were used for regression analysis modeling, discrimination, determination and calibration characteristics being estimated. In addition, the resampling procedure for model’s stability estimation was applied. Results: The comparative evaluation among evidenced molecular phenotypes in survived and non-survived patients allows to consider a seria of primary outcome potential biomarkers/predictors. The outcome modelling by regression analysis used these potential predictors. Finally, five parameters, especially α2M3, CDEA3, ARDS, α2M6, CHEA6, EEA3 and CGEA12, were the components (efficient variables) from models that predict the survival rate using their values at 3, 6 and 12 hours after the trauma, results being adjusted to age, gender and ARDS diagnosis. Conclusions: In our research, we estimated the predictive potential of different protease/antiprotease system’s components for polytrauma population. Using this data, three predictive models were obtained. Without any doubts, they can be used in clinical practice after validation and improvement by including more variables in equation. The identified survival prediction biomarkers could be used as base stones of potential therapeutic strategies

  30. Dr. Aswani, PK., Dr. Jayadevan, C.V. and Dr. Satheesh, K.

    Introduction: Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating, complex and chronic psychiatric disorders which disrupt a person’s ability to think, feel and act. It is characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized behaviour, grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviour and negative symptoms. Among this delusions, hallucinations, disorganized behaviour and grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviour can be called as positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Most of the symptoms of schizophrenia found similar to the symptoms of unmāda-a disease explained in Ayurveda classics. So schizophrenia can be correlated with unmāda and its management is being used with efficacy in such cases. A management protocol with ṡodhana (elimination therapy), ṡamana (palliative therapy) followed by rasāyana (rejuvenation therapy) and satvāvajaya, distinct psycho educative approach is being in use for schizophrenia. Dhūpana (fumigation therapy) is one of the techniques mainly used in the management of psychotic conditions along with ṡodhana and ṡamana. Jaṭādi varti dhūpana which is being practicing for the last 10 years has taken as trial drug for its efficacy in the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Methodology: 28 subjects satisfying the inclusion criteria were selected from OPD of Vaidyaratnam PS Varier Ayurveda College and Government Ayurveda Research Institute for Mental diseases (GARIM), Kottakkal and those who were taking antipsychotics and had no improvements were considered as phase A and observed for 2 weeks and then they were administered jaṭādi varti dhūpana as phase B for 15 minutes twice daily for a period of 7 days. Assessments were done using Scale for Assessment for Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia (SAPS) and WHO Quality Of Life BREF questionnaire on 0th, 14th, 18th, 21st and 28th day. Results: On assessment, most of the domains were statistically significant at the level of p <.05. The study concluded that administration of jaṭādi varti dhūpana has got significant effect in reducing the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and also in the quality of life.

  31. Dr. Divyachampa D. N. Khaunte and Dr. Kiran Gadre

    Background: Anterior mandibular fractures are common entity in maxillofacial trauma with average incidence of 17%. The unique anatomy of mandible along with vector forces exerted by muscles separates the inferior border of mandible making these fractures problematic. Aim: To compare and evaluate use of 2.5mm stainless steel single lag screw with 2.5mm single miniplate (6-hole with gap) for non-communited anterior mandibular fractures Objective: 1. Evaluation of efficacy of lag screw as compared to miniplate, 2. Evaluation of intra-operative/post-operative complications, 3. Comparison of ease of placement of hardware, 4. Radiological evaluation of adequacy of fracture reduction Method: All patients were operated at an institute in Pune from 2012-2014. They were divided in two groups- Group S (2.5mm suitable length lag screw) and group P (2.5mm 6-hole with gap miniplate with 6 bicortical screws). Arch bar was spanned at upper border in both the groups. Standard pre-operative clinical and radiological evaluation-orthopantogram for supero-inferior and true occlusal for antero-posterior displacement was done. Post-operative assessment was done for correctness of implant position, adequacy of fracture reduction, and evidence of infection, relation of hardware to vital structures, occlusion, wound healing & vitality of teeth on 7th day, one month & 3 months interval. Results: Male predominance with mean age of 25 years was noted in sample group. Wound dehiscence of less than 3cms in two patients, infection in one patient were noticed in group P which were statistically insignificant. Mean time required for procedure in group S was 78.4min while in group P was 75.3 min. Inter-maxillary fixation post-surgery was required in two patients in group P. Seven patients in group S had reduction of fracture segment less than 0.5mm as compared to four in group P. Conclusion: Minimum difference was noted in time required for procedure and adequacy of reduction which were in favour of group S over group P.

  32. Mrs. Taghreed Alrehaili and Dr. Sajjadllah Alhawsawi

    This research paper explores a creative way of teaching writing by adapting design thinking - a human-centered approach- as an innovative solution in response to writing challenges in English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Design thinking which is proposed in this paper consists of seven phases i.e. empathize, define, ideate, prototype, revise, evaluate , publish. Thirteen EFL learners, age of 17 years, studied a proposed writing unit based on design thinking approach were investigated. Their results indicated statistically significant differences at (≤ 0.05) level between the mean scores of the pre-test and post- test of writing skills in favor of the post-test. The findings show that teaching writing through design thinking process has improved learners writing skills in relation to organization, development, cohesion, structure, vocabulary, and mechanism, as well their active involvement and satisfaction.

  33. Md. Shohel Mahmud, Shah Mohammad Ashraful Amin, Md. Abdul Wahab Rashed and Rayhan Mahmud

    The present study aims to explore the water, sanitation and hygiene practices among ethnic communities in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. This study included all three districts, Rangamati, Khagrachhari and Bandarban of the area. From ten selected villages across all three districts 250 participants, 156 male and 94 female, were selected based on three criteria's, (i) their belonging to ethnic groups in hill tracts, (ii) permanent inhabitance in the hill tracts and (iii) their association with the ‘Jhum’ agriculture practice. Data were collected from the participants deploying both qualitative (key informant interview and transect walks) and quantitative (questionnaire survey) methods. The result illustrates that the ethnic people in the Chittagong Hill Tracts have limited access to safe drinking water, while their sanitation and hygiene practices were also deplorable. The data reveal that poor water, sanitation and hygiene practices have negative impacts not only on the ethnic people’s health as they often suffered from diverse health issues such as diarrhoea, scabies and dysentery but also on their socio-economic lives as they reported often losing income and forced to more expenditure for treatment. The data also show that the mean prevalences' of unhygienic practices among the ethnic people across all the districts were 54.30 per cent (Khagrachhari), 52.20 per cent (Bandarban) and 52.10 per cent (Rangamati), while the mean impacts of unhygienic practices on their health were respectively 44 per cent (Khagrachhari), 42.30 per cent (Rangamati) and 41.30 per cent (Bandarban).

  34. Semeneh Bedemo (ME.d)

    The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with education enrolment of Gumuz people female students at school level. The study was conducted at public primary and secondary schools in Madura Woreda. From 33 schools, 265 teachers and 10346 students of the public schools in the Woreda 7 schools, 270 students and 64 teachers were taken using purposive sampling techniques. In the study Quantitative research method was used in collecting information from the sample. The study used four categories of research instruments to collect data. These are questionnaires, semi structured interview, focus group discussions and a review of documents (rosters). Descriptive statistics mean and percentage were used to investigate factors that hinder equity of education enrolment of Gumuzfemale students at school level. The data obtained from semi- structured questionnaires and questionnaire was analysed by using percentage whereas data from focus group discussion was analysed by using percentage and direct matrix ranking. The key factors that associated with Gumuz female students education enrolment were Early marriage, abduction, exchange marriage, credit marriage, Cultural attitude of the society, far school distance from home, impact of boys in the family not to send their sisters to school for the sake of exchange marriage, low education background of the society and Female child labour. A series of discussions should be held with the community regarding the benefits of education and the rights of children. Particularly this is helpful in eliminating parental fears for the security of girls where such illegal actions as abduction, raping, etc. are common. Another action to be done is to remove early marriage of girls. This will reduce the impact of unnecessary pressures on Gumuz female students to drop out of schools for marriage.

  35. VSM Ramakrishna, R., Sanjana E and Aishwarya, KVS

    Polymeric materials have been gaining increasing importance over the past. This is due mainly to the flexibility in regulation of characteristics of polymers at our convenience. At times, these materials compete with numerous metals and alloys in critical sectors like aerospace and defence owing to their easy processibility and lighter in weight. However, these sectors do not involve polymers in their parent state rather as composite polymers and nanostructured polymers. Even though polymers suffer from the inferior strength and high temperature resistance, yet they are regarded to be the most sought after materials when the properties electrical resistivity, and good oxidation resistance are counted. However, some of the industrial applications call for good conductivity, easy manufacturability, and better recyclability. In these regards, conductive polymers have been synthesized of recent to serve the purpose to become front liners in meeting the requirements of industry sector. The current paper critically emphasizes the background, classification, applications and characterization of polymers. Later, detailed study on conductive polymers is done where in the mechanism of conduction, characterization, and fabrications of conductive polymers are discussed at length. Ultimately, appropriate conclusions are drawn basing the review conducted.

  36. Dr. Dhanya John, Dr. Josey Mathew, Dr. AngelMary Joseph and Dr. Basil Joy

    Aim: The aim of this article is to give a brief review on clinical features, diagnosis and treatment options of mesiodens. Background: The most common type of supernumerary teeth found between the two central Incisors is the mesiodens. It can cause several complications including compromised aesthetics and malocclusion. Till date surgical extraction and orthodontic correction are considered as excellent solution for the management of mesiodens. However aesthetic rehabilitation with direct composite veneers could be considered as an alternative minimally invasive treatment option. Case Description: This case report describes the successful clinical management of an unaesthetic smile of a 35 year old male patient caused due to the presence of mesiodens in the midline primarily using aesthetic treatment only. Conclusion: Satisfactory aesthetic correction could be achieved with direct composite veneers.

  37. *Ibtisam Dhuwayhi Alanazi

    Background: The dynamic business environment in Saudi Arabia and the world at significant increases the volatility of the labour market. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia experiences high rates of unemployment among the youth. Objective: This study aims to explore ways of narrowing the gap between employers' expectations and accounting graduates' soft and technical skills. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among a group of 55 employers in the taxation, auditing, and accounting firms and 60 accounting graduates from higher learning institutions in Saudi Arabia. Results: This study showed that accounting graduates overrate their soft and technical skills. A significant gap is identified in employability with all soft skills, except for entrepreneurial skills. Besides, technical skills also have a considerable difference, except in auditing and taxation. Discussion: Accounting graduates’ professional qualifications after garnishing their studies do not meet the expected standards of their employers. Higher learning institutions should revise their courses to equip students with soft and technical skills that need the expectation of the labour market. Conclusions: Higher learning institutions should have a responsibility for the achievement of Saudi Vision 2030. They need to increase the employability of accounting students to reduce the high rate of youth unemployment in Saudi Arabia.

  38. Djelle Opely Patrice-Aime

    This study examines the link between cyberdependency and school performance among students in the 3rd grade of the Mamie Houphouët Fêtai High School in Bingerville. It covers a sample of one hundred and ninety (190) female students between the ages of 14 and 17. Students' addiction to the Internet and social networks is measured using a questionnaire based on Vavassori et al (2002) and Young’s Internet Addiction Test in its French version validated by Khazaal (2008). As for academic performance, they are verified using the end-of-term scoring matrices.. The results, obtained using student T and Anova, show that students in the third grade using the Internet as teaching tools have higher academic performance than their peers who use it as entertaining instruments. All these different results are explained by the models of Zuckerman (1969) and Viau (1994). Ultimately, this study will inform and raise awareness among students, educational system actors and parents about the risks of excessive use of the Internet and social networks on school learning.

  39. Ayemidotun Damola and Enikanselu Ademola

    In the last two decades, the Nigerian banking industry had undergone some reforms and regulations with the main aim of making the industry more impactful to the growth and developmental goals of the economy. This had undoubtedly tampered with the structure of the nation's banking industries and perhaps negates some previous empirical findings on the structure and performance of the industry. Therefore, this study re-examined the structure, conduct, and performance paradigm in the Nigerian banking industry. The study employed secondary data from 2008 to 2017, which were obtained from the Nigerian stock exchange Annual report, Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin, Fact Book and Annual report and accounts for commercial banks in Nigeria. To analyzed the data obtained co-integration and error correction econometric techniques was used. Our findings revealed that the market power hypothesis with the notion that a direct relationship exists between the market concentration and bank performance was not very true. The performances of banks are not necessarily determined by its structure nor its concentration. The results negate a priori expectations of increased market power that could have possibly come from the banks' cartel and a corresponding increase in the level of concentration which could, in turn; increase bank performance. Consequently, the financial industry regulator in Nigeria should focus less on competition among the banks but pay attention to internal practices among the operators within the system.

  40. Dr. Spriha Smriti and Dr. S. N. Singh

    Introduction: Hepatitis B is the single most important cause of viral hepatitis in developed and developing world. Hepatitis infection leads not only to acute viral hepatitis but in a number of cases it leads to carrier state which may progress to chronic liver disease, liver cirrohosis and ever liver carcinoma. Material and Method: Patients were taken attending medicine and blood bank of PMCH, Patna. Total no of cases were divided in to three groups. The diagnosis of acute viral hepatits was established on the basis of clinical presentation and liver function test characterised by hyperbilirubinaemia, serum transaminases etc. In the microbiology department serological test for hepatitis virus infection was done by ELISA method and result was noted. Result: In Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 cases were tested . Observations showed that out of 38 cases of acute viral hepatis the most common aetiological agent was Hepatitis B virus 55.26%. Hepatitis B virus is most common in 3rd decade of age group. Males were more affected than female. Discussion: Tandon et al (1984) have reported an incidence of hepatitis B in 42% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis. The presence of HbsAg in the serum of 10-25% of patient of chronic hepatitis has been demonstrated by Wright et al (1969), Gitinick et al. (1969), Mathews and Mackay (1970) and Boyes and Klatskin (1970). Thyagarjan et al. (1978) reported that out of 93 patients screened with feature of chronic active liver disease 17 were HbsAg (18.3%).Conclusion- Hepatitis B surface antigen is the most common marker in hepatitis B virus infection.

  41. Ezekiel Tagwi Williams, Sunday Godwin and Nachana’a Timothy

    The nutritional and antimicrobial activity of Guava seed collected from Mubi and Mararaba main market were investigated. The nutritional and antimicrobial activities were determined by standard methods, while the elemental composition by using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The result revealed that the proximate analysis: protein content, fat, fibre, ash content, moisture and carbohydrate were 7.845 %, 6.280 %, 15.415 %, 8.220 %, 9.250 % and 52.990 % respectively. The result of the mineral composition showed that potassium has the highest value with 3241.532 ± 0.012 mg / 100 g and Magnesium having the least value of 8.525 ± 0.005 mg / 100 g. Also Guava seed contains beta carotene, B1, B2, B3, B5 and vitamin C with 47.530 ± 0.010 µg / 100 g, 0.530 ± 0.010 mg / 100 g, 4.155 ± 0.005 mg /100 g, 0.625 ± 0.005 mg /100 g, 0.325 ± 0.005 mg /100 g and 514.355 ± 0.005 mg / 100 g values respectively. The result of the antibacterial activity against three clinical isolated organisms was Staphylococcus aureus (12.436 ±0.009 mm), Escherichia coli (17.536 ± 0.009 mm) and Sterptococcusfaecalis (4.560 ± 0.006 mm). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Sterptococcusfaecalis, Candida Albicans and Aspergillus Niger were 5.0, 5.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 10.0 mg / ml respectively. From the result, guava seed can be regarded as a good source of nutrients and also can be used in pharmaceutical industries.

  42. Natalia V. Chernetska, Hanna Ya. Stupnytska and Oleksandr I. Fediv

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a multifactorial disease characterized by gene-gene interaction as well as environmental effects. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is proved to be higher than in case of its absence.All the patients were divided into two groups. The first group included 53 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The second group included 49 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with comorbid type 2 diabetes mellitus. CAT test, 6-minute walk test, BODE integral index, spirometry, bioimpedansometry were used for examination. Lipid spectrum, carbohydrate metabolism, endothelial functional status, leptin, adiponectin and serum levels were also determined by means of enzyme immunoassay. The results of our study showed that there is no significant difference between the genotypes of the control group of healthy individuals and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and comorbid type 2 diabetes mellitus. Though, certain association of this gene polymorphism with clinical findings by CAT-test, certain parameters of carbohydrate (fasting glucose) and lipid metabolism (total cholesterol and low density cholesterol lipoproteins), endothelial functional state (nitrate / nitrite level) with minor allele T available is found. Further investigation is required and possible use of the findings obtained to be implemented in personalized treatment in case of comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, taking into account MDR1 (S3435T) gene polymorphism.

  43. Amudha Ondiveerappan

    The number of Covid-19 cases in the world and the United States. Virus risk group. SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that causes the new coronavirus Covid-19. The confirmed cases range from mild to severe, and Covid-19 of each severity is subdivided every day. Covid-19 affects our mental health. The method used to trace or track covid-19. Test for coronavirus. Finally, the Covid-19 vaccine showed promise in early research.

  44. Dr. Bakshi Om Prakash Sinha, Dr. Narendra Prasad and Prof. Dudheshwar Mahto

    In this paper we have defined a new class of operators T on a Hilbert space H for which T +T* and T*T + T T*commute where T* stands for adjoint of T. This operator will be called quasi M normal

  45. Kossa Terefe Abebe

    Soil erosion has been recognized as a serious socio-economic problem in Ethiopia.. Roadside soil erosion of Adama-Asella highway is among the problems affected the traffic from the two zones to the country’s capital city, Addis Ababa. Studies concerning the alignment of the road versus natural runoff flow has not been studied. The objective of this study was to characterize runoff contributing watershed to the Adama-Asella roadside erosion and prioritize of its micro-watersheds for watershed management intervention. To identify runoff contributing watersheds and extraction of drainage lines, area encompassing the damaged road were delineated using DEM. By overlaying natural runoff flow lines of the watershed against the road alignment was evaluated in the GIS. To analysis morphology of the micro-watersheds, areal, linear and relief aspects were used. Using compound values of 4 linear parameters, 4 shape parameters and 1relief parameter, prioritization of four micro-watersheds (MW1, MW2, MW3 and MW4) connected to the road were done. The study identified that micro-watersheds MW3 is the highest priority micro-watershed while MW4 is the least priority micro-watershed. MW1 and MW2 are the second and third priority micro-watershed, respectively. Therefore, implementation of watershed management intervention per the identified priority micro-watershed is important.

  46. Kapil Dev, Mohsin Ali , and Subodh Prakash

    Introduction: Insulin resistance is a feature of a number of clinical disorders, including T2D/glucose intolerance, obesity, dyslipidaemia and hypertension clustering in the so-called metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle manifests itself primarily as a reduction in insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis due to reduced glucose transport. Material and Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Muzaffarnagar Medical College, Muzaffarnagar, U.P., India.. A total of 120 subjects of type 2 diabetes having an age group of 40-70 years were participated from urban and rural area of Muzaffarnagar District for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Result: We found urban subjects had significantly higher fasting Glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values than rural subjects (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Environmental and lifestyle changes resulting from industrialization and migration to urban environment from rural settings may be responsible to a large extent, for this epidemic of insulin resistance in Indians.

  47. Asqual Girma and Kitata Adugna

    Clear and effective traffic signs are essential for the efficient operation of the road network, for the enforcement of traffic regulations and for road safety. In our country due to poor trend, after an accomplishment of road construction, traffic sign management is not given proper assessment and management. This paper aimed at assessing the traffic signs in Arada Sub-city as traffic signs play a great role in minimizing traffic accidents and traffic congestions making the traffic flow smooth. This sub-city was chosen in a purposive sampling technique because the sub-city is at the center of the city whereby it is the busiest business center with a high traffic flow. Four research questions were forwarded to be answered at the end of the study. The first one was to identify what type of traffic signs were installed in the sub-city while the second one was to check the condition of the existing traffic signs, and the third question checked the causes of failure for problematic traffic signs followed by the last question which asked what kind of remedial measure could be taken for the problems observed. The researcher used a descriptive survey study which was appropriate for this study. Observation, questionnaire and interview were used as data collection instruments. To make the assessment convenient, the sub-city was divided into nine sites and the traffic signs on the major roads of each site were observed; their type, height, age, legibility, visibility, condition were assessed. In addition, two sets of questionnaire were prepared for thirty traffic police officers and fifteen AATMA (Addis Ababa Traffic Management Agency) workers while two sets of interviews were prepared for the shift manager of Arada Sub-city Traffic Police Office and infrastructure asset management expert of AATMA. Then the data gathered through these instruments were analyzed. The result reveals that only few redundantly used type of signs dominated the sub-city; other types of traffic signs that are important are not used. There are not sufficient traffic signs in the sub-city. The posted signs do not have any standard and quality. The condition of most of the signs shows that most of them have several problems and need solutions; so some remedial measures were given for the problems. Finally in light of the research findings which show that there are several problems in relation to the traffic signs in Arada Sub-city the recommendations are made in order maintain a safe and secure highway environment.

  48. AMON Anoh Denis-Esdras, YAPI Solange, MRANKA Agnero Stéphane and SORO Dodiomon

    The study aims to know the diversity of Loranthaceae in fruit species associated with crops and to establish their degree of infestation in the plantations in the rural area of the city of Daloa. The inventories by surface and intinerant surveys combined with direct observations were carried out in the plantations. Twelve fruit species being to 8 genera and 7 families were inventoried. They are parasitized by 3 species of Loranthaceae: Phragmanthera capitata, Tapinanthus bangwensis and T. globiferus. T. bangwensis is the most infesting parasite. Among the fruit species recorded, Citrus sinensis (78.92% and 4.46 tufts/plant), Persea americana (73.82% and 5.23 tufts/plant), Psidium guajava (69.69% and 2.55 tufts/plant) and Cola nitida (56.24% and 9.84 tufts/plant) registered elevated pairs of infestation values (rate and intensity). Citrus with 41.67% of the host taxa is the most infested genus. The infestation rate of every fruit trees is of the order of 32.65% for an infestation intensity of 5.67 tufts/plant. For sustainable agriculture, the association of some fruit species with annuity crops under the influence of Loranthaceae should be followed and controlled.

  49. KOUAO Toffe Alexis, KOUAME Bosson Antoine, ATSAIN Marie Rosine, KOUASSI Kouadio Christian, MAMYRBEKOVA-BEKRO Janat Akhanovna and BEKRO Yves-Alain

    This research is mainly focused on Solanum rugosum which is a well-known Solanaceae found in Côte d'Ivoire. The goal of the study was to investigate the chemical composition of the crude extract; total phenolic, flavonoid compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of S. rugosumfrom Côte d’Ivoire. It was found that Ca, K, P, Cl, S, Si, Pb, Na, Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Va, Se and Mg are the major minerals imbedded in the plant. The phytochemical screening using thin layer chromatography (TLC) carried out on the extracts of the leaves, stem bark and the roots bark has highlightedthe presence of various classes of secondary phytocompounds (coumarins, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, tannins and terpenes). The crude hydromethanolic extracts has shown a specific potential by reducing iron and trapping DPPH free radicalmainly in the leaves of S. rugosum. The extracts of the leaves showed a significant action against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC, Staphylococcus aureus 348C / 19 CNRa and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC.

  50. Meshari Alaifan, Bakr Alhussaini and Nawaf Al-Dajani

    Background: Celiac disease (CD) has been associated with multiple forms of gastritis in adult and pediatric patients. Gastritis types include chronic active gastritis (CAG), chronic inactive gastritis (CIG), or lymphocytic gastritis (LG). the objective of the study is to evaluate the incidence of different forms of gastritis in celiac patients. Methods: A retrospective chart review was done for confirmed celiac patients in a tertiary carecenter in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from January 2012 to December 2019. A total of 450 celiac patients. All patients with gastric in addition to duodenal biopsies taken were included. All biopsies were reviewed by a gastrointestinal pathologist. SPSS Version 2.2 and the chi-square test were used for the Statistical analysis. Results: A total of 366 patients their biopsies were identified, other 84 patients were excluded because they are adults, above the age of 18 years. Age 2-40 years with 65% males. About half of patients, 177 patients had normal gastric biopsies (48.4%). The other 189 (51.6%) patients had different types of gastritis. Nine patients had lymphocytic gastritis (2.5%). Helicobacter pylori gastritis is seen in 87 (23.8%) patients with different types of gastritis including CA (19.7%), CIG (2.5%), and chronic atrophic gastritis (1.6%). Conclusion: Celiac disease is commonly associated with different types of gastritis. Lymphocytic gastritis was surprisingly lower thanusual in our data (2.5%), incidence usually of 5%. Our incidence of helicobacter pylori gastritis is higher than most previous pediatric cohorts. More data is needed to assess the effect of a gluten-free diet on gastritis.

  51. Dr. Sandhya Jain and Dr. Nikita Choudhary

    Background: Disaster is an unfortunate event that occurs suddenly and cause death and injury of many people. Dealing with this situation and proper management after disaster is a very challenging task. This article gives an overall general overview about the procedure of managing a disaster especially focussing on identification of victims of disaster. The article describes about teams and their overall functions involved in management of disaster and also an overview about methods of disaster victim identification. Central Emergency Rescue unit is first to reach the situation and starts the rescue operations. Central Investigation Unit investigate the extent of disaster. Victim Identification Unit is focused towards identification of victims of disaster. ‘Command’ of victim identification unit takes all the decisions required and issues all the orders for actions. Management and communication staff is the collection point of information between Recovery, Evidence collection, and Disaster victim identification unit. Recovery and Evidence Collection Team recovers the dead bodies from the disaster site. AM Team collects ante mortem data from various sources for identification of victims. PM Team collects the data from deceased victims (dental, medical, forensic information). Disaster Investigation Unit investigate cause of disaster

  52. Chaudhary Veena

    In this study, the aim was to compare the prevalence of ABO and Rhesus blood groups in mothers and their neonates born in a tertiary care hospital in North India. In this cross-sectional study, the results showed that the B gene was most common, followed by O gene and further followed by A gene in both mothers and their neonates. The blood group A was 3rd most common blood group and the blood group AB and Rh negatives were infrequent in both mothers and their neonates. In this cross-sectional study, the results also showed that most often about 42.63% mothers had same blood group as that of neonates, about 27.13% mothers and neonates had ABO incompatibility, about 23.26% mothers and neonates had other compatible blood groups, about 6.01% mothers and neonates had Rh incompatibility and least often, about 0.97% mothers and neonates had both ABO and Rh incompatibility.

  53. Dr. Evan. A. Clement, Dr. Vivek Kakkat and Dr.Dharmisha

    Aim: Study was done to assess the practices, knowledge, and attitude among middle schoolchildren aged 10–13 years toward oral health hygiene practice. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 school Students of age group between 10 -13 years were included in the study. A pre-structured self-administered questionnaire consisting of 10 questions were given to the school students to assess their knowledge and attitude towards Oral Hygiene practice. Results: A total of 200(100%) of all the Students brush their teeth once a day teeth, 110(55%) of the Students brush twice a day, 140(70 %) of students brush in horizontal direction, 103(51.5 %) of students brush in vertical direction and only 25(12.5%) of students used mouthwash along with tooth brushing. Among the school Students 170(85 %), 97(48.5 %), 60(30 %) and 50(25 %), were aware that improper oral hygiene would lead to Dental caries, plaque accumulation, halitosis and gum diseases. Majority of the students 180(90%) were aware that they need to visit a Dentist for the teeth related problems Conclusion: Findings confirmed that there is a positive awareness towards Oral Hygiene practice among Middle School Students, but barrier exist towards awareness of ill effects due to improper Oral hygiene.

  54. Dr. Neeta V. Bhavsar, Dr. Swapna Patki and Dr. Rachana Gaonkar

    Background: Dental implants have been used to replace missing teeth for more than half a century. For successful implant placement, a standardized surgical protocol needs to be established. Aim: To present results of a survey to know the surgical protocol and associated materials used by dental professionals in Gujarat for an efficacious implant practice. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was sent to 150 dentists. The survey specifically targeted dentists who place dental implants. The questionnaire requested information regarding the protocol adapted by dentists during surgical phase of implant placement. Results: Results from 132 respondents were available for analysis. 10 surveys were partially completed and 8 practitioners did not respond and hence were not included in the results. Conclusion: Most of the dentists followed the well documented techniques which have been documented in the literature. These techniques may be useful in reducing errors in placement of dental implant and increasing implant success rates.

  55. Dr. Bendre, K. B.

    In view of the demand for fodder in the bulk, great importance is being laid on the involvement of high yielding, short duration and nutritive varieties of fodder crops as a result there is a glut of fodder during the peak periods of growth and scarcity during other periods, particularly in summer. The most practical solution of such fodder scarcity lies in conserving supplies of green fodder available during the favourable season to use during the scarcity period (Sohane and Chaudhary, 2001; BalwinderKumar et al 2019). Maize and Berseem resulted in good hay with 76.9 % dry matter and 6% relative water content (RWC) and 91.6% dry matter and 1.5% relative water content respectively when dried in Sun for 6 days.

  56. Balpreet Kaur, Dr. Renu Bala Sroa, Dr. Mann J.S., and Dr. Navjot Singh Khurana

    The use of ceramics has a long history. During the last 200 years, there have been many changes in the way of performing endodontic treatment. Bio ceramics are ceramic materials specially designed for its use in medicine and dentistry. Bio ceramic are inorganic metallic bio compatible materials. They are chemically stable, non-corrosive and interact well with organic tissue. Bio ceramics offers a new treatment options for improving prognosis in many operative and endodontic procedure. Bio ceramics are widely used in dentistry as restorative materials, root canal sealers, and obturation material, for perforation repair, retrograde filling and in regenerative endodontics. This review deals the properties and uses of bio ceramics in operative dentistry and endodontics.

  57. Dr. Abhik Singh

    In this paper we establish that every Fredholm operator F on a Hilbert space has a decomposition F=F+ K , where k is a finite rank operator. It is also shown that the product of two Fredholm operators can again be Fredholm.

  58. Dr. Shifan Khanday

    Objectives: This study is a record and representation of what efforts and modalities were used in delivering online Anatomy course to “Net generation / Millennials”. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of students towards e-learning during the lock down. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done with a questionnaire and survey sent to MBBS students of Dubai Medical College. Results: Students preferred real time lectures and recorded version of the same. Other teaching modalities are also preferred to an extent but most preferred are recorded and real time lectures. Conclusion: A blended or hybrid approach needs to be used in post Covid world. Students preferred e-teaching over face-to-face teaching during the lock down situation.

  59. Dr. Dalia Biswas

    Introduction: Hypertension is usually called "the silent killer" since no symptoms are there till serious complications develop. Hypertension is directly related to the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Method: A intervention, randomised ,pre and post study. 40 essential hypertension (EH) patients in the age group of 20-40years, including both sexes and taking treatment since 5 to 10 years . By random selection 40 patients with essential hypertension were allocated to the study. The study had 2 groups namely control and study. The study group of 20 EH patients were subjected to intervention for 3 days with 1 hour duration of work out. Result: In our study the main finding was fall in post test values of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure , pulse and BMI in study group. The finding of diastolic pressure is more pronounced as one way anova test is significant. BMI, post test finding in study group is significant. Conclusion: It can be concluded that all patients of essential hypertension should be mandatorily prescribed dietary modifications and simple exercise in the form of walking along with routine antihypertensives.

  60. Simran Kaur and Mandeep Kaur

    “BIO MEDICAL WASTE” is any waste, which is generated during diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings. This waste is also generated during research activities or in the production or testing of biological material. Today, there is increasing demand for the broader level of knowledge and skills to handle the waste from doctors, nurses, ward attendants, sweepers, laboratory technicians and all others working in the hospitals. For safe Bio medical waste management hospital workers should be familiar with the rules and regulations, practices of biomedical waste management. Inadequate and inappropriate knowledge of handling of healthcare waste may have serious health consequences and a significant impact on the environment as well. A quantitative research approach with a descriptive research design was selected to assess the knowledge and practices of ward attendants regarding biomedical waste management in G.G.S Medical Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab. Total enumerative sampling was done and all the 60 subjects were selected. A socio demographic sheet, a questionnaire and a self reporting checklist was selected. Ethical permission to conduct study was obtained from the concern institutional ethical committee. The results of the study revealed that the majority of ward attendants had average knowledge and had good practices. There is a positive relationship of knowledge and practices with demographic variables i.e. with age and educational qualification.

  61. Abdulrahman M. Alsheikh, M.B.B.S, MPH and William M. Weiss, Dr. P.H.

    Like many remote areas in the world, the Indian rural population suffers huge disparities and lack of healthcare services, which led to the development of a novel system by Intel health called HxGuide. This paper focuses on assessing HxGuide to serves its mission to minimize the gap in healthcare delivery. The paper consists of a strategic plan with clear identification of internal and external inputs. The plan starts with a description of the target population and the Indian Healthcare system. Like many health care systems, many stakeholders involved in the delivery of health services. The list of stakeholders chosen the ones engaged in the implementation of the system, e.g., community health workers (CHWs), physicians, and Intel health team members. Then, a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis listed, followed by describing the strategic challenges, advantages, success factors, and strategic opportunities for the system. Finally, the paper concludes with a description of some challenges, and the strategy mitigates blind spots. The paper urges a number of steps that could benefit the implementation of the system, including privacy and interoperability sections. These advantageous strategic plans, however, may not be so significant as developing a system that is engaging the communities to build and sustain the system. Subject Area: Digital health (Public health) Keywords: digital health, mHealth, CHATS, computer assisted history taking system.

  62. Chandrashekara, P.G.

    The novel biologically active two mononuclear tetra coordinated copper (II) complexes were synthesised and formulated as [M(L)(L1) H2O].2H2O,where L=ligand and L1=1,10-phenantholine. the newly synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, UV-Visible, IR, mass spectra and magnetic property studies. The spectral studies have shown that the complexes are paramagnetic and tetrahedral structure. The metal complexes were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities show some complexes exhibit moderate activity.

  63. Dr. Lalitha Indrani Malwenna

    Background: School Health policy in Sri Lanka aims at improving nutritional status of school children of all ages. Ensuring the health of school children is essential to get the maximum from educational opportunities and to have healthy and productive adulthood. Objectives: To study the practice of school canteen policy in Rathnapura district by identifying the current situation of school canteens in relation to school canteen policy, to assess the level of monitoring of the practice of school canteen policy by the public health staff and to assess the knowledge of school canteen service providers on the issues in the school canteen policy. Method: Institutional based descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in all schools with functioning school canteens in Rathnapura district in Sabaragamuwa province; using a check list and interviewer administered questionnaires; by trained volunteers. Practice of components of canteen policy was assessed in percentages. Associated factors were assessed using chi square test for significance. Results: Among 583 schools in the district, 179 (30.7%) have functioning school canteens, of which 167 participated in the study (93%). Only 9 (5.4%) schools have less than 200 students. 148 (88.6%) have school health clubs and school food committees. All have school development committees. The PHI has inspected in 122 (73.9%) schools while only 25 school canteens (15%) have completed H 800. Satisfactory levels were seen in relation to environment & building in 57%, hygiene & sanitation in 82.6%, food storage in 24.6%, food handling in 71.3%, availability of food varieties in 79.6%, food safety activities in 35.3%, knowledge of canteen owners in 25.7%. Significant association was seen between practice of school canteen policy with type of school being category AB (p=0.003), school zone being Rathnapura (p=0.001), Adherence to administrative criteria (p=0.000), Knowledge of canteen owners (p=0.001), availability of school food committee (p=0.001) and Grading of food handling establishments - H 800 (p=0.002). Conclusions: Implementation of school canteen policy requires involvement of both health and education sectors.

  64. Emilia Visileanu, Alexandra Ene, Carmen Mihai and Razvan Scarlat

    CeO2 nanoparticles were characterized by SEM and TM analyzes that showed a size of about 10 ± 0.46 nm and a ployed shape. By Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was obtained the thermograme that releved the absence of cerium oxide sample peaks due to the high melting point 2400°C, the temperature range in which the sample was analyzed being between 35°C and 500°C. Two ypes of CeO2 dispersions were made, in ultra pure water (UPW) and solvent. The statistical indicators: average, coefficient of variation and standard deviation were calculated and they showed higher values in the case of dispersion with solvent then dispersion in UPW. The evolution study of the amount of CeO2 on the surface of knits depending on the treatment of resistance to acid/alkaline perspiration and washing releved for all fibrous mixtures, white or dyed, a decrease of max.5% of the amount of NP on the surface of the knits after the tests of acid, alkaline and washing perspiration. Statistical indicators of dimensions and distances distribution of CeO2 on the surface of knits depending on the nature of the oleophobic agent revealed the tendency to increase the average values of the agglomeration dimensions does not differ significantly from the oleophobic variant with Nuva N 2114 compared to the one with Rucostar EEE6 in all three categories of treatments: acid, alkaline and washing. The evolution of the statistical indicators of the distribution of the distances between CeO2 on the surface of oleophobic knitwear with Nuva N2114 or Rucostar EEE6 and functionalized with CeO2 in UPW dispersion shows that the average distance between CeO2 agglomerations is significantly more balanced acid/alkaline and washing, compared to the oleophobic variant with Nuva N 2114. The friction test leads to an increase in the size and distances between the nanoparticles.

  65. Kh. Astaptseva

    In this study, we present the preliminary monitoring results of 15 digital archives in France, Austria, Spain, the USA, Japan, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Poland, and Russia. The purpose of this paper is to give the list of worldwide digital archives and other projects, where old fashion magazines (late 19th and early 20th century) have been digitized and made available online. To obtain the research results, the following methods were used: descriptive research, secondary data analysis, sampling process, interpretive analysis, direct observation.

  66. Dr. Emeka A. Nwachukwu

    This study is geared towards the determination of the challenges facing principals in newly opened secondary schools in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. The study is a descriptive survey research work carried out in Ebonyi state, south eastern Nigeria. The study was guided by two research questions and one hypothesis, all derived from the purpose of the study and the literature. The population of the study comprises a total of 340 secondary schools. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 36 secondary schools which is about 10% of the entire population. An instrument titled ‘‘Challenges of Principals of Newly Opened Secondary School Scale ’’ (CPNOSSS) was used to generate data. The face and content validation of the instrument was carried out by the appropriate experts. A reliability index of 0.80 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha tools. Direct delivery method was used to administer the instrument. Frequency tables, means and standard deviations were used in answering the research questions, while Z-test was used to test the hypothesis. Based on the analysis of the data collected, the following findings were made to be the challenges: inadequate fund,shortage of qualified teacher ,challenges of low enrollment, problem of office space/classroom, inadequate library provision, insufficient desk/furniture provision, challenges of accreditation, security problem, problem of land space ,laboratory provision, challenges of registration, sanitary provision by the school and sourcing of instructional materials. Recommendations were made, which include among others, proper funding of the schools and leadership training programs for the principals.

  67. Kristiova Masnita Saragih

    Background: The utilization of STI’s clinic is done to suppress the spread of STIs among the commercial sex workers, men, gays, and the STI's high-risk groups such as public transportation and becak drivers through the health services implemented at STI’s clinic. Aims: analyze the relationship between sociodemographic (age, education, tribe, occupation and the distance the venue of service facility) and the behavior of public transportation and becak drivers and the utilization of STI’s clinic. Methods: This quantitative survey study with a cross-sectional design was conducted from December 2013 to May 2014. The population of this study was all of the STI's high-risk groups with high mobility and knew about the existence of STI's clinic at Puskesmas Tomuan. They were 62 public transportation and becak drivers hanging out in the working area of Puskesmas Tomuan, Pematang Siantar selected through consecutive sampling technique. The data obtained were analyzed through univariate analysis. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression tests. Results: The result of this study showed that only 19 respondents (30,65%) utilized the STI's clinic. There was a relationship between education (p<0,001), occupation (p = 0,003), and behavior (p < 0,001) with the utilization of STI’s clinic at Puskesmas Tomuan. The most influential variable on the utilization of STI's clinic at Puskesmas Tomuan was education with the value of coefficient B= 10,335. Conclusion: Pematang Siantar Office Health Service is suggested to improve the knowledge of the high- risk group especially the public transportation and becak drivers with a low educational background who was susceptible to STI's disease through the extension on STI’s disease and the utilization of STI’s clinic.

  68. Kalyani, V. and Neelakandan, R.

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to classify the different soil and geomorphic units of Kumbakonam town Thanjavur district, Tamilnadu. The drainage, contour and delineated geological units have been overlaid on IRS-ID LISS III satellite imagery (bands 2, 3 and 4) the system to delineate and characterize different geomorphological units and analysis of their processes based on the field observations. The study area is basically of sedimentary in origin with different geomorphological formations and is influenced by the various processes. Based on the satellite data analysis, the distinct geomorphological units viz., alluvial plain and deltaic plain fills have been delineated and characterized. The information generated from satellite data in the form of vector layers has been used in GIS to generate soil and geomorphological maps of the study area. The present study demonstrates that IRS-ID LISS-III data in conjunction with geomorphology, soil, river and drainage and parameters to enable detailed evaluation of different geomorphological units and analysis of their processes based on the field observations. The delineated geomorphological units can be utilized for evaluation and management of natural resources and geo-environment on sustainable basis at fiver catchment level.

  69. Dr. Sandhya Jain, Dr. Teena Maria Wilson, Dr. Sharmila Debbarma and Dr. Vijeta Angural

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to critically review the available data about the association between the deep bite and temporomandibular disorder and to discuss, evaluate based on the scientific evidence. Material and methods: Electronic databases were searched. Articles on temporomandibular disorder, any association between deep bite and TMD, data only from human subjects, language in English, randomized controlled studies (RCTs) and case- control studies, prospective clinical studies, and retrospective clinical studies and sample size not less than 30 subjects, overbite more than 4mm or moderate deep bite mentioned in the articles were included. Results: Total 162 articles were retrieved. 13 articles full text was thoroughly evaluated and only 7 articles were included for final evaluation. Out of 7 articles included in 2 studies significant association between deep bite and TMD, in 5 studies no significant association was observed. Except for 1 study, none of the studies considered gender influence for their study. 3 studies were of moderate quality and 4 studies were of low quality and none of the studies had high quality. Conclusion: Scientific evidence is lacking to confirm the association between deep bite and temporomandibular disorder. To set the exact scientific evidence further properly design randomised control trials only between the moderate or severe deep bite and temporomandibular disorder is required.

  70. Trapanese Ersilio, Salvatore Vittorio, Lamberti Rossella and Tarro Giulio

    The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has show a global spreading trend. Early and effective predictors of clinical outcomes are urgently needed to improve management of Covid-19 patients. Lung ultrasound (LUS) combined with D-Dimer (DD) testing could be a new strategy for early diagnosis in patients with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and helpful prevent the progression of intravascular pulmonary coagulopathy. Modern assay for D-dimer are monoclonal antibody based. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the reference method for D-dimer analysis. Elevated D-dimer levels are associated with clotting activation and fibrinolysis and can be used as indirect biomarkers of thrombosis than in combination with B-lines detected by lung ultrasound become highly sensitive in the diagnosis of pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy in COVID-19 pneumonia. Careful attention needs to be paid to the initial diagnosis, prevention and treatment of the prothrombotic and thrombotic state that can occur in a substantial percentage of COVID-19 patients. We believe that lung ultrasound early detection in COVID-19 and a rapid D-dimer assay may provide better prognosis in these patients.

  71. Dr. Nagabhushan C.M., Anil Gore, Sharayu Paranjpe and Madhav Kulkarni

    Books are the principal tools of the profession of education. This hand book is useful for the beginners to get interest in the field of statistics. Statistics is a branch of mathematics concerned with the interpretation of large data or vague data into a more scientific and systematic understanding to draw to a finite decision. This book is not intended as any prescribed text book for some course in mathematical sciences but is likely to be useful supplementary reading for everyone at undergraduate level as it creates awareness about the need of statistics in the reader as the title suggests.

  72. Rubab Jawed, Ruqayyah Quresh Hashmi, Zubaida Shahid, Kubra Merzayi, Sarosh Khan Afridi and Saqib M. Malik

    Background: Blood or saliva is considered as a direct carrier of infection, whereas contaminated equipment's, surfaces and airway carry infection indirectly, and the transmission is mainly due to lack of hygiene standards, disinfection and sterilization procedures. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practices of dental impression disinfection among the graduates and undergraduates of Baqai dental college, Karachi. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among the graduates and undergraduates of Baqai dental college, Karachi. The two-page anonymous questionnaire contained questions on personal information such as age, sex and level of education followed by multiple-choice questions to evaluate the knowledge and practice regarding disinfection of dental impressions sent to the laboratory. Data was recorded and analyzed in SPSS 20. Results: A greater number of the study participants practice disinfecting the impressions through liquid disinfectant spray (34.8%, n = 55) and sodium hypochlorite (34.2%, n=54) while rest of them disinfect impression through washing with soap and tap water (31%, n = 49). Half of the participants picked sodium hypochlorite as the most commonly used (47.5%, n = 75) chemical for disinfection of laboratory work surfaces. Conclusion: Lack of information about cross contamination protocol and its implementation results in the transfer of the blood-borne and saliva borne diseases to the technicians from patients which could have been easily be avoided by following the proper disinfectant protocol.

  73. Zeleke Berie, Abebe Getahun and Eshetie Dejen

    Diversity of fish species of Beles and Gilgel Beles Rivers were studied. Fishes were sampled using gill nets of various stretched mesh sizes, and hooks and lines. Identification of fish was made to species level by comparing the sample characters with taxonomic keys found in literatures and specimens deposited. Shannon diversity index (H`) was used to evaluate species diversity of fishes. A total of 1124 individual fishes belonging to 5 orders, 7 families, 13 genera and 23 species were caught in Beles and Gilgel Beles Rivers. Cyprinidae was best-represented family with the highest number of fish species in the rivers while Labeo and Labeobarbus were the best-represented genera. A higher number of species were recorded in the Beles River (22 species) than in the Gilgel Beles River (5 species). The diversity index was higher in the Beles River (H´=2.43) than in the Gilgel Beles River (H´ = 0.88). In general, Beles River is richer than Gilgel Beles River, in terms of total numbers of fish caught and number of species recorded. In order to have a better knowledge of the fish populations in the study area, further studies are required on diversity, abundance and biology of the fishes. Therefore, sustainable utilization and conservation measures should be taken in the two rivers.

  74. Dr. Reshmi Sharma MDS, Dr. Amod Patankar, MDS, Dr. Swapna Patankar MDS, Dr. Sudhir Pawar MDS, Dr. Kisana Tadas MDS, Dr. Rajat Bhende MDS.

    Adenomatoidodontogenic tumor (AOT) is a relatively rare, benign, hamartomatous, and cystic odontogenic neoplasm that was first described more than a century ago. The lesion still continues to intrigue experts with its varied histomorphology and controversies regarding its development. The present article describes threecases of AOT with an unusual locationin maxillary sinus and the other two cases associated with an impacted canine.The rarity of AOT, association of this lesion with regards to maxillary sinus in one of the cases, the exaggerated size at presentation, uneventful healing of the bony defect makes this cases unique.

  75. Dr. Bhavana Rajeev and Dr. Rekha Pillai

    The surge in financial scandals, widening gaps in social inequality, increasing political and financial muscle by MNC’s, global uncertainties as well as environmental degradation has put the spotlight on firms to strengthen their involvement and be sensitive to socially responsible activities. It is here where Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) acts as an effective tool, bridging the gap between the growing public perception of the company’s social role and its conduct thus improving its competitiveness, thereby translating into an indispensable, potent and legitimisation strategy for the long- term success and survival of companies. The main aim of the paper is to elaborate on the theories underlining CSR to disseminate a more comprehensive perception that integrates behavioural and operational aspects of corporate endeavour, thus giving birth to various unconventional CSR models, both of which offers a structured and systematic overview on how to embark on CSR decisions given the fact that each organisation is distinct in its own aspects with respect to the resources the possess, the management mentality, overarching aims, global uncertainties and the jurisdiction they belong to. The paper makes a significant contribution to CSR research by offering an inclusive read on the theoretical underpinnings as well as models developed by academicians and Internationally recognised organisations at one glance, thus enabling organisations to first choose an appropriate theoretical stance which is in lines with their organisational policy and later employ corresponding models which aligns both with the theory and organisational structure.

  76. Dr. Tarkase, A.S.

    Background: One of the primary aims of anaesthesia is to alleviate the patients’ pain and agony, there by permitting the performance of surgical procedures without any discomfort. Any expertise acquired in this field should be extended into the postoperative period, the period of severe, intolerable pain requiring attention. It is well known that when pain is treated pre-emptively, the amount of drug required is considerably less than which would be required, if treatment is delayed until the pain becomes apparent. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Buprenorphine (90 μg) and Fentanyl(25 μg) for intraoperative analgesia and postoperative pain relief, when administered intrathecally along with local anaesthetic agent 0.5% Bupivacaine (heavy). Study the characteristics of sensory and motor blockade, quality of block, and any side effects produced by combination of both drugs. Methods: Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of 120 pts; ASA I and II; aged between 15 - 60 years. Ethical committee approval, applied inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients randomly divided in 3 groups of 40 each. Group A(control) Group B(Buprenorphine) and Group C( Fentanil). Postoperative pain evaluated by VAS. All figures in tables are expressed as mean ± SE. The results of data between the groups were analyzed statistically using unpaired t-test. A p<0.05 was considered significant and p<0.001 as highly significant. Results: All groups were comparable in relation to sex and age. The differences in mean pulse rate, mean respiratory rate, mean arterial pressure and oxygen saturation between the groups before and after administration of drugs were statistically insignificant (p>0.05). Onset of sensory and motor blockade was significantly rapid (p<0.05) in Fentanil group as compared to group A and B. None of the pts. had respiratory depression. Onset of sensory block was early in group C as compared to group A and B(1.26 ± 0.63, Vs 4.05±1.25 and 4.46±2.33 min) while time for two segment regression of sensory block was higher in group B(136.73±26.48 min) as compared to group A(115.5±11.62 min.) and group C(119.5±26.76 min.). The onset of motor block was early in group C(2.23± 1.47 min.) as compared to groups A(4.47 ± 2.23 min) and B(5.03± 2.58 min.). The mean duration of postoperative analgesia was higher in group B(10.34 ± 3.70 hrs) as compared to groups A(2.7 ± 0.78 hrs) and C(5.43 ± 1.31hrs). None of the patients in three groups had any statistically significant intra or postoperative side effects. Conclusion: From the observations of our study, it can be concluded that intrathecal administration of Buprenorphine and Fentanyl significantly enhances the onset of sensory analgesia. Doesn’t alter the characteristics of motor block. Prolongs the duration of sensory blockade. Provides excellent surgical anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia without any significant increase in side effects.

  77. Smt. Roopa Shettigar and Dr. Shiva Shankar, K.C.

    Banking sector is deemed to be one of the major vital sectors for the economy to be able to function as it is the ‘Lifeblood’ of economic activity from collection of deposits to providing credits to the public. It is also being one of the key service sector in India, witnessed an explosive growth and expansion. Banking is an evolutionary concept. There is continuous expansion and diversification as regards the functions, services and activities of a bank. The use of technology has brought a revolution in working style of the banks. Employees under performing would cost the organization fortune especially in a banking industry where competition is increasing every day. Unmotivated employees will not positively influence the performance of the banks. To bring about food performance, everyone has to give their best effort to their organization at workplace and more eventually the employees should be motivated.

  78. Aschale Kassie and Temesgen Melaku

    This study was conducted to assess the overall status of harmful traditional practices against women and children in Yem special woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia. It involved the use of cross-sectional research design with the purpose of exploring the issue in focus. Methods of data collection such as key-informant interview (KII), FGD and structured interview were used to gather data required to meet to objectives of the study. The data and discussions showed that HTPs that affect children, particularly ‘feeding butter to babies’ are found to be more prevalent as compared to other forms. This practice could have a number of health related impacts on babies. HTPs such as child/early marriage are nowadays becoming less prevalent as compared to the past times based our data and discussions implications. In the study, it was found that, FGM-a type of harmful practice that significantly affects girls/women in other parts of Ethiopia, is not a serious problem in the study area. Social interaction and cultural contacts with neighboring cultural communities may still leave a gap where FGM/C get chance to spread to parts of the study area though. Marriage by abduction is not common in the study area based on our systematic investigation. Still occasional acts of rape and other forms of violence against school girls are being witnessed. Polygamous marital arrangements are to some extent prevailing in the study area, especially, in more remote rural kebeles.

  79. Gaurdas Sarkar

    Education in every sense is one of the fundamental factors of economic development. No country can achieve sustainable economic development without substantial investment in human capital. . In fact, Economic development is a complex process in which financial and human capital are combined in sophisticated and productive ways, and that is why certain countries advance in this process much more rapidly than others. So the human capital and physical capital are both required for economic development and that each has a positive external effect on the productivity of the other. No nation could achieve sustainable economic development without substantial investment in human capital. From the point of view of Economics teachers may be considered as suppliers of inputs and employer may be supposed to be suppliers of output in the form of service. Hence employer's objective should be to maximize net return. Here output is quality education provided to the student community and it is not quantifiable, where as costs involved in providing such quality education is quantifiable. Thus net return is measured in terms of extent of quality education provided at the cheapest possible cost. Usual maximization exercise cannot be carried out here, as both of the benefits and cost are not measured in same unit. The most appropriate economic tool that can be exploited to analyse the situation is cost-benefit analysis and therefore the optimal situation requires attainment of greatest possible benefit at cheapest possible cost. Coming to the case of operational part only feasibility open to the employer is to ensure minimal wastage and therefore salary must be dependent on the extent of quality education provided to the student community. process by which quality education can be imparted is to cultivate professionalism in teaching and the most economic way of ensuring cultivation of professionalism is to make gross salary dependent on the performance of a teacher. The object of my article is to discuss the economics of professionalism in this noble profession. Here I have tried to provide some effective measures, which will incorporate professionalism in teaching in most economic way. The term professionalism refers to dedication towards the profession. Therefore professionalism in teaching includes retention of teaching skill, feeling comfortable to teach various papers within the reasonable limit, willingness to expand knowledge and so on. Hence our objective is to identify some factors, which will economically determine the salary of teachers having some factors, which will economically determine the salary of teachers having some professional character. Section-I of this article deals with determination of Basic Pay, Section- Il deals with determination of Gross Salary, section -Ill deals with modification of promotional scheme, Section– IV deals with economics of the scheme prescribed and section- V contains concluding observations.

  80. Gaurdas Sarkar

    The welfare economists have been confronted with the controversies of interpersonal comparisons or of value judgments for a long period of time. Following Pareto most of the conventional theory of welfare economics rested on the assumed value judgment that if one person was better off and no one was worse off welfare was increased. But without the knowledge of utility or welfare function none can be sure that satisfying those conditions is better than violating them. Moreover Paretian value judgment did not apply to a situation where some persons were benefited and some were harmed by some policy change. . Professor Amartya Kumar Sen in his article “Interpersonal Aggregation and Partial Comparability”, Econometrica 38, May1970, has made an attempt to provide a fairly rigorous presentation of a possible framework of interpersonal comparability. In this paper I have found out how far Prof. Sen’s partial comparability analysis suits our practical problem of evaluation of alternative social states in respect of social welfare. At the same time I have tried to point out unexplored part of the problems of measurement of social welfare and comparability. In course of my exploration I have kept it in my mind that both welfare and non-welfare information constitute the appropriate basis of social welfare evaluation.

  81. Sonal Rai, Hina Chadha and Seema Mahor

    Marine microorganism has required setting up opinion based on bioactive metabolites and approaches a unique possibility to both enhance the amount of aquatic natural foodstuffs in clinical trials as well as speed up their progress. This review focuses especially on those molecules originated from marine microorganism these days in the medical pipeline that have been expected or highly required to be identified based on growing casual confirmation .especially karlotoxin class compound isolated from din flagellate karlodinium veneficum offer chances to create new molecules for control of cancer and high serum cholesterol levels.

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