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February 2021

  1. Kaustuv Bhattacharyya

    Extinction and invasion are two major crises of the current millennium which are antagonistic to the sustainable development of the phytodiversity of a region. A plant species may become endangered and eventually extinct when death rate exceeds regeneration rate for a prolonged period of time. The reasons may be natural or anthropogenic. However, now-a-days, anthropogenic activities have become globally prominent in causing extinction of many plant species of ecological and economic significance. Many plant species are facing tremendous pressure and are on the verge of extinction - either globally or locally. In the present paper, a humble effort has been made to present a case study establishing localized extinction of a native plant (Roxb.) Buch.-Ham. ex Wight & Arn. from the erstwhile undivided Bardhaman district of West Bengal in India within the last one hundred fifty years only. This study has been concluded with some recommended interventions for the sustainable conservation of the existing phytodiversity of the surveyed region but admitting that all threat assessments should be pooled to provide more data and broaden their scope for monitoring progress towards targets within the framework of the existing Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. Finally, some of the future scopes for research with respect to finding the causes of extinction of the taxon have been suggested.

  2. Dr. Jayaprakash V. Sagare

    Vicharchika is one of the most commonly encountered skin diseases all over the world. As per the symptamatology and pathogenesis. Vicharchika has been directly co-related with eczema in modern science i.e Atikandu (Excessive itching), Shyaya (Erythema with discoloration), Raji (Thickening, lichenification of skin), Ruja (Pain), Ruksha (Dry lesion) etc. Vicharchiuka is explained as Kshudra Kustha, Kshudra Kustha Roga by Acharya Sushruta. It is characterized by Kandu, Rekha, Ruja and Rukshata on the affected lesion. Though, Shamana and Shodhana Chikitsa are mentioned for it by various Acharyas but in the present study role of Shamana Aushadhis in the form of Taila application is undertaken. Arka Taila is explained by Yogaratnakara as an effective Chikitsa, while Chakradatta explained Durvadya Taila as external application for Vicharchika. It has ingredient which act on Twacha vikaras. Hence both formulations are worth tested for their efficacy in the management of Vicharchika. They are safe and economical and suitable for the fast life while people have no time for the Shodhana chikitsa. Present work was undertaken to study the effect of Arka taila and Durvadya taila in the form of external application ie. Shaman therapy in the management of vicharchika.

  3. Rekharani Anil Singh and Nutan Prakash Makasare

    Nurses need to be prepared to play multidisciplinary roles before and during the process of organ donation. Trained organ donation Nurse could benefit the consent rates for organ donation by educating and guiding the families. Trained nurses play an important role in organ donation and transplantation by discussing medical criteria for assessment of donor, the determination of brain death, approaching families for consent and co coordinating with the transplant team. Medical floor Nurses, ICU/Emergency Department (ED) Nurses, Transplantation Nurses, Procurement Nurses should be involved in establishment of a successful transplantation program.

  4. Vijanthi, J.V. and Prof. Ghosh, P. K.

    Over years, changes in government policies like privatization, liberalisation and globalization has given a boost and opportunity to economy to work freely. As an outcome, economy twitches growing at faster speed. But these reforms had created a tremendous pressure on environment resources like forest, land, water and air. These vicissitudes have made the arcade too competitive that nobody has time to think about the public properties such as environment. In recent decades, undesirable environment changes such as global warming, Green House Gas (GHGs) emissions have raised worldwide concerns. In order to achieve higher growth rate, environmental problems emerged from economic activities have turned into a controversial issue. The worsening of environment instigates to have direct impact on the quality of human life. The aim of this study is to investigate an existence of any relationship between Foreign Direct Investment, Population Density and State Gross Domestic Product on Environmental degradation as hypothesised by Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). For this purpose, the Time Series data over the period (2010-2016) from the World Development Indicator has been taken. The paper clinches with some policy replications; the policy aimed at overall development should certainly include efforts to control carbon emissions and to improve environment quality. To sum up, there is an urgent need to control deleterious pollutants, conserve and protect natural resources and the environment for healthy human beings.

  5. Nagaraj, A., Raghaveer, S. and Amala, G.

    A new series of 2-phenyl-3-(6-aryl[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazol-3-yl)-4H-4-chromenone 10(a-j) has been synthesized from 3-(4-amino-5-sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-2-phenyl-4H-4-chromenone 9. All newly synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activities against bacterial strains of Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli. The activity of compounds containing 2-chloropheny (10b), 4-chlorophenyl (10c) and 4-methoxyphenyl (10f) are nearly equal to that of standard drug. The compound with 4-hydroxyphenyl (10e) showed significant activity against B. subtilis and M. luteus. Compound 10a and 10g did not show any antibacterial activity against P. mirabilis and E. coli at test concentration.

  6. Shifali Thakur, Shailja Choudhary, Isha Kumari, Madhusudan S, Bhawna Walia, Hemlata Kaurav and Gitika Chaudhary

    Restorative plants are considered the most important herbal plants which play a significant role in the preparation of medicines in the whole world. Herbal plants are used for the preparation of medicines from ancient times. Datura, a plant from the Solanaceae family, also known as Jimson weed or Devil's catch, consists of both toxic and restorative qualities. Datura is known as a therapeutic plant around the globe. Datura has a particular spot in Ayurveda since all parts of the plant specifically leave, flowers, seeds and roots, have been used as a medicine. In Ayurvedic medicinal system, D. stramonium has been used for treatment of various human disease e.g. inflammation, sciatica, ulcers, gout, wounds, rheumatism, swelling, bruises, fever, asthma and bronchitis. This plant possesses numerous therapeutic properties. Some studies revealed its toxicity and safety profile too apart from its pharmacological properties like pain-relieving, calming, anti-viral, antidiarrheal and anti-diabetic.

  7. Gerby C. Parra and Emily B. Tan

    The Chaos Theory was used to analyze the disruption to education due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which greatly affected learning continuity. Amidst the disorder, the Chaos Theory application was instrumental in finding direction and understanding how all variables are interrelated to the whole educational system. The key to seeing the order within the disorder is by critically analyzing how the school leaders manage, lead, and respond immediately to the crisis. The education sector utilized learning technologies, resources, and collaborative efforts to create order by continuously configuring, reshaping, and transforming education curriculum and instruction, educational management, and educational leadership.

  8. Amanda Maria Lemos da Silva, Ana Carolina Paiva Farias, Davi Emanuel Fonseca de Assis, Márcia Noelle Cavalcante Medeiros, Raphael Nascimento Cirino, Thayane Araújo Lima, and Luiz Severo Bem Junior

    Background: In view of the pandemic insurgency caused by the new coronavirus, whose clinical picture ranges from asymptomatic to respiratory failure, some clinical associations with syndromes and diseases have been raised, among them Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). In order to bring more clarification, a study was carried out in order to define and analyze neurological disorders by Covid-19, in addition to making comparisons with other viral diseases. Methods: Integrative review based on the Pubmed database. A reading of titles and abstracts was done by 3 reviewers, in a blind and independent way, followed by a complete reading, concluded in the choice of 10 articles. These were reassessed, now by 6 evaluators, for collection, data analysis and weighting according to quality scales. Results: the studies seem to reveal a possible association between Covid-19 and SBG, either by a predominantly post-infectious profile, with an average latency time of 5-10 days; higher prevalence in men and with a mean age of 62.4 years. Discussion / Conclusion: GBS is often preceded by infectious exposure. It is possible for SARS-CoV-2 to gain entry into the central nervous system through systemic vascular dissemination or the cryptous plaque of the ethmoid bone, causing from headache to flaccid flaccid paralysis (characteristic of GBS). In Zika virus involvement, this mechanism is still not well understood. Therefore, there seems to be an association between Covid-19 and GBS with a post-infectious profile, but these are larger studies for further clarification.

  9. Dr. Prakash Pai Gurpur, Dr. Dayakar, M.M., Dr. Anju. S. Sreedhar and Dr. Chandini Shiek

    Nutrigenomics is a branch of nutritional genomics focusing on identifying and understanding molecular- level interaction between nutrients and other dietary bio-actives with the genome. Nutrition is an important environmental factor that interacts with the genome to modulate disease risk. Genes are important in determining the function, but nutrition is able to modify the degree of gene expression. The response of an individual to dietary modification can be attributed to differences in their genetic make-up, which emphasizes the importance of exploring the role of nutrient–gene interactions in the development of chronic diseases and how diet affects the inflammatory mechanisms underlying severe periodontitis. Improved understanding of the mechanism behind periodontal tissue destruction, the potential protective role of nutrients and the advent of modern genomic measurement tools have led to an increased interest in the association between nutrition and periodontal disease. Nutrigenomics aims to reveal the relationship between nutrition and the genome and to provide the scientific basis for improved public health through dietary means. This manuscript reviews the interrelation between nutrigenomics and periodontal health.

  10. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Krishnamoorthy, S.H., Dr. Nikhil Das, K.R., Dr. Prapti Raval and Dr. Leema Cherian

    Introduction: The habit of mouth breathing can affect the growth and development of dentofacial complex of child. The adverse effects are greatest during the period of growth. Clinical Findings: This case report focuses on the use of oral screen on a patient with mouth breathing and maxillary anterior proclination with incompetent lips. Outcome: The oral screen reduced the proclination and lips became competent within 5 months of usage. Conclusion: Oral screen proves to be a simple technique for interception of worsening of the effects due to habits.

  11. Jason, Savita Handayani and Habibah Hanum

    Objectives: Psychosomatic consequences - such as mental disorders which are sequelae of brain damage or illness - can arise either through the direct effects of CNS infection or indirectly through immune response or medical therapy.. Taking into account that the global prevalence of the depressive disorder is estimated to be around 3.44%, our results seem to suggest that the proportion of depression in the general population was 7 times higher during the COVID-19 outbreak. This implies the substantial impact of the current pandemic situation on mental health that individual and population-level strategies should target. Methods: This study was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic review. A researcher looked for cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of depression published from January 1, 2020 to October 28, 2020 using MEDLINE, via PubMed, and Web of Science. Results: The papers we reviewed report an association between several variables and an increase in depression rates in the general population. Associations with several variables, such as suspected COVID-19 symptoms, contact with COVID-19, reported COVID-19 death rates in the area where respondents are located, poorer personal health status, and/or a history of chronic disease is estimated. Conclusion: The depression that occurs in these circumstances may rarely require pharmacological treatment, at least in the short term. The COVID-19 outbreak and situation of lockdown are extraordinary circumstances requiring significant personal and social adjustments.

  12. Ms. Radha, T. and Mr. Dharanidharan, S.R.

    The different parts of neem tree contain various active compounds which are rich in antibacterial activity. The present study highlights the phytochemical analysis of neem seed. Various bioactive compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarin, leucoanthocyanin etc., were present in aqueous and acetone extract of neem seeds. A soap must cleanse the body properly without disturbing thepH level of the skin. As per the results and discussion of the present study, neem seeds contain antibacterial activity and it also has appreciable quantity of oil. So preparing the soap using neem seed destroys the microorganism which keeps our skin safe and healthy. The homemade neem soap can be replaced with other synthetic soaps for better results

  13. Priyanka Singh and Ansu Narwal

    Background: DAKSH is a tablet-based device developed to improve maternal and child healthcare by addressing challenges in the use of partograph. This device is developed to help in decision making, automated partograph development, and alerts for complications. The aim of the study is to evaluate the usability and acceptability of this tablet-based device in low resource areas. Methods: This study is a mixed-methods cross-sectional study. It was done at four primary health care settings in the Northeast states of India. Staff nurses and medical officers were trained to use this device. The data was collected for 13 months from November 2017 to November 2018. After the training and use of the device, surveillance questionnaire forms were sent to the healthcare settings which they filled. Results: Data for 292 mothers were recorded for the study for 13 months. It was observed that more than 50% of women arrived at the later phase of labor, 37 referrals were made to higher healthcare facilities and most of the women were anemic for which alerts were given. Daksh generated 141 complications alerts. Conclusion: Staff nurses and medical officers concluded that tablet-based partograph is better than paper partograph as it saves time and is easy to use. It is helpful for healthcare workers as it generates reminders and alerts for the patient. There is a need for technology in remote healthcare settings.

  14. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Krishnamoorthy S.H., Dr Vinisha Vinod and Dr. Anjali, N.

    Premature loss or severely destruction of upper primary anterior teeth by early childhood caries (ECC) is a challenge for the pediatric dentist. ECC can be a particularly virulent form of caries, beginning soon after dental eruption, developing on smooth surfaces, progressing rapidly, and having a lasting detrimental impact on the dentition. In the anterior region, aesthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Tooth rehabilitation in this region becomes fundamental. The intention of this case report was to present a case of a4-year-old boy came with a chief complaint of decay on the upper front teeth in the last 2 year. Radiographic examination reveals pulpal involvement wrt 51,61,52,62 and shows good length root. Based on the clinical findings we came to the diagnosis of early childhoods caries type III and stage IV. Hence the patient was planned for pulpectomy followed by half omega post and strip crown. The child was very happy and satisfied regarding all functions of teeth, like mastication, speech, and esthetic

  15. Monojit Ray, Sahali Dey and Gourab Saha

    In this work we had studied Amul Tulsi Doodh, Amul Ginger Doodh, Paper Boat Alphonso Mango, Red Bull Yellow edition, Red Bull Sugar free, B Natural Cloudy Apple, B Natural Orange and B Natural Litchi drinks. We had studied physico-chemical parameters like pH, Salinity, TDS, Conductance and biologically significant ions like sodium, potassium, calcium, nitrate, ammonium and chloride. Milk products are less acidic and have high TDS, salinity and conductance. B Nautural products have relatively low conductance, salinity and TDS. Calcium content is much higher in Amul ginger doodh and Amul tulsi doodh. Nitrate concentration is greater than 20000 mg/lit in Paper Boat Alphonso Mango and B Natural Litchi drink. High chloride concentrations (>2000 mg/lit) are found within Amul ginger doodh and B Natural orange.

  16. Aakanksha Mahajan

    With a given list of k-mers, we are attempting to reconstruct a genome whose k-mers are the same as the input list of k-mers. This will require the development of an algorithm. We will be exploring multiple methods, such as inspection, but we will ultimately be using graph theory. This will be used by, first, creating a graph of the given k-mers. We will then discuss the process of finding a Eulerian path from this constructed graph, leading to the final goal, a reconstructed genome.

  17. Sprincean Mariana, Hadjiu Svetlana, Calcii Cornelia, Lupusor Nadejda, Racovita Stela, Griu Corina, Feghiu Ludmila, Cuznet Ludmila, Egorov Vladimir, Revenco Ninel and Groppa Stanislav

    Background: Ischemic stroke (IS) in children is a major neurological emergency, being a primary cause of morbidity and mortality. It is detected in the neonatal period in one of 2500 – 4000 live births, and in children over one month of age it is found at 1,2 – 8 per 100000. Aim: Studying of immunoenzymatic parameters in IS in children for the assessment of pathogenesis, early diagnosis and predictive factors of the disease. Materials and methods: During 2017 – 2019 in the Republic of Moldova, was carried out a prospective study on a sample of 53 children with IS, which are formed study sample (SS), in which in the acute phase of the process using ELISA immunoassay were analyzed the serum levels of the following markers: endoglin CD105 (ENG), antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These markers were also assessed in 53 practically healthy children which formed control sample (CS). Results: The average values of immune markers in the acute period of IS were as follows: (1) ENG – 2,06±0,012 ng/ml (F=84,812, p<0,001); (2) APA – 11,37±0,046 U/ml (F=60,701, p<0,001); (3) IL-6 – 22,02±2,143 pg/ml (F=43,810, p<0,001), which were significantly different from the values detected in practically healthy children. Conclusions: In children with IS in the acute period some immunological parameters changes which show the role of these parameters as biomarkers which are involved in ischemic processes of the brain. New longitudinal studies in children with IS may improve early diagnosis and treatment of these children.

  18. Narayana Gowda, K.N. and Dr. Sadath Ali khan Zai

    The main focus of this experimental program is to conserve the natural resource and protection of environmental is the key to sustainable development. The investigation on flexural behavior of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete slabs with natural aggregates (NCA), recycled aggregate (RCA) and treated recycled aggregate (TRCA).Twelve test slab specimens of size 600mm x 600mm x 60mm with fixed end condition and two way slab criteria have been considered with four different concrete matrices of three each for following matrices viz.,(i)S-1:100%NCA (ii) S-2:50%NCA+50%TRCA (iii) S-3:30 % NCA+50%TRCA+20%RCA (iv) S-4:80%NCA+20%RCA .The experimental investigation examines testing of test slab specimen under static loading to determine its first crack load, ultimate load, yield deflection, ultimate deflection, ductility index, toughness index, cracking moment. The investigation indicates encouraging results of RCA and TRCA slab in all respect pointing to recycle aggregate as potential alternative source of aggregates of 21stcentury. From the experimental results that the test slab specimen S-2 has attained maximum First crack load, ultimate load, ductility Index, Toughness Index, cracking moment and Punching shear strength W.R.T test slab specimen S-3 and S-4.Comparison is made between experimental results and theoretical prediction of the same.

  19. Dr. Manisha Sharma, Dr. (Mrs.) Anuradha Pathak and Dr. (Mrs.) Jaspreet Kaur Tiwana

    Introduction: Dental caries is a global public health problem, especially among child population. If left untreated, it directly affects the child’s quality of life. Although, many surveys have been conducted reporting the prevalence of dental caries and caries experience, but the data on severity and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries are relatively unknown. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of consequences of untreated carious lesions using PUFA/pufa index, i.e., pulpal involvement, and ulcer due to root fragments, fistula, and abscess index among 7-8 years old school children in Patiala. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Patiala among 100 school going children of age 7-8 years. The clinical consequences of untreated dental caries by PUFA/pufa index was evaluated. The data obtained was compiled and put to statistical analysis. Results: The mean pufa value was 0.967 ± 0.56 and prevalence was 38% with major contribution from ‘p’ component of the index. Untreated caries ratio was 34.1% suggesting that more than one-third of the developed carious lesions cause severe consequences in a population. Conclusion: The PUFA/pufa index can be used to highlight the adverse consequences of dental caries in order to address the neglected problems among children at the earliest.

  20. Md. Aynal Hoque, Hossain Sahid Kamrul Alam, Md. Abu Sayeed, Mohammed Abdullah Al Mamun and A. T. M. Azharul Haque

    Background: Uncontrollable rapid growth of urban slum population, accompanied by poor nutritional status is a devastating problem. Objective: To observe the nutritional status among under-5 children in a selected slum of Dhaka city. Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study, conducted among 384 under-5 children who were randomly selected from Public Work Department (PWD) slum of Dhaka city. It was carried out during September-2018 to June-2020. Anthropometric measurements like wasting was determined from weight for height Z-score, stunting was determined from height for age Z-score, underweight was determined from weight for age Z-score and malnutrition was also assessed by Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: According to MUAC classification 32% of children had mild/ moderate malnutrition and 9% had severe malnutrition. According to weight for height Z-score, it was found that 23% of children had mild/moderate wasting and 6% had severe wasting. According to height for age Z-score, it was found that 19% of children were stunted (mild/moderate) and 9% children were severely stunted. According to weight for age Z-score, it was found that 35% of children were underweight (mild/moderate) and 12% children were severely underweight. So 41% under-5 children were found malnourished, wasting was present in 29% children, stunting was found in 28% and underweight was found in 47%. Conclusions: Nutritional status of the under-5 child in PWD slum was below the normal level.

  21. Dr. Sheetal Sharma and Dr. Sapna Saini

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a hereditary disorder involving two or more ectodermal structures which include the skin, hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands. They are caused by the mutations of several genes. The two most common forms of the disease are hypohidrotic/ anhidrotic ED and hidrotic ED. We present a case of a 12‑year‑old boy with hypohidrotic ED. The oral rehabilitation of such cases is often difficult; particularly in pediatric patients. A multidisciplinary approach by a team consisting of physicians from several clinical modalities is required to provide comprehensive medical care to children suffering from ED.

  22. Modou Fall GUÉYE, Mame Samba MBAYE, Fatou Kiné GUÉYE, Sanou NDOUR, Alioune GAYE, Modou KA, Kandioura NOBA

    Une multitude d’habitats marins importants existent dans le monde entier, à la fois dans les régions tropicales comme dans les eaux tempérées. Certains d'entre eux souffrent des effets des impacts humains multiples et ne peuvent plus être en mesure de maintenir et de soutenir la biodiversité marine associée, les processus écologiques résultants et les fonctions des écosystèmes. Cette étude contribue à une meilleure connaissance des services écosystémiques et des connaissances endogènes des macroalgues de la côte Nord du Sénégal. Des enquêtes ethnobotaniques basées sur un guide d’entretien ouvert semi-structuré, des échanges oraux et des observations sur le terrain ont été menés. Elles se sont déroulées dans 5 localités de la grande côte du Sénégal (Yoff, Kayar, Mboro, Loumpoul et Saint-Louis). Des échantillons de nombre restreint de 20 personnes sont formés pour chacune des 5 strates et sont mis ensemble pour constituer l’échantillon global de 100 personnes. Les résultats ont montrés que 86% des personnes enquêtées disent connaitre les macroalgues bien qu’elles ne puissent les distinguées que de par leur couleur (verte, brune et rouge). La majorité (57%) lui accorde le nom vernaculaire « Wakk ». 74 % des enquêtés confirment leurs présences et leurs abondances aux mois de Juin, Juillet, Août et Septembre sur le littoral Nord. Elles sont exploitées uniquement pour la commercialisation et l’espèce vendue serait Meristotheca senegalensis. Ainsi en moyenne, les exploitants peuvent vendre 277,7 kg d’algues par jour à hauteur de 144,4 frs CFA soit une revenue journalière de 32879 frs CFA.

  23. Shifali Thakur, Shailja Choudhary, Isha Kumari, Madhusudan S, Bhawna Walia, Hemlata Kaurav and Gitika Chaudhary

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum), also known as "lavang" in Ayurveda, is a most commonly used spice in Indian traditional system. About 80% of the occupants utilize clove as a traditional prescription as it contains medicinal properties which helps in treating diseases like vomiting, asthma, nausea, liver and stomach disorder. Majorly clove is consumed as a spice in Indian home kitchens. This plant contains active constituents that possess anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-microbial, antidiabetic, anti-platelet, anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antithrombotic, pain-relieving, and insect repellent properties. This plant serves as the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate, and gallic acid which is used in various applications like in agriculture, pharmaceutical, and in various food preservatives.

  24. Sanyogita Singh

    The people residing inside Rajaji Tiger Reserve mainly Gujjars have a great traditional knowledge for curing veterinary ailments. An ethnoveterinary studies on traditional medicinal plants was conducted from 2015-2018 in Rajaji Tiger Reserve, Uttarakhand, India. Information on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was gathered from communities and Gujjars through informal interviews, questionnaires and discussions. A total 103 medicinal plants species have been used to cure different ailments of livestock. The most common method used for mode of administration was mainly decoction, solution, paste, powder, raw parts, juice and pill. This study was undertaken for importance of traditional knowledge regarding medicinal plants used for curing of different diseases of livestock by the local people and Gujjars residing in the area.

  25. Nishi Gupta, Ankita Kasliwal, Aarti Soni and Itika Kabra

    Spontaneous uterine rupture is life threatening in pregnant women. Placenta percreta-induced spontaneous uterine rupture is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose. We present a 35-year-old pregnant woman of G age 26+2 weeks with a history of 1 previous lower segment cesarean section who presented to the emergency department in shock. Massive hemoperitoneum was noted in sonography and exploratory laparotomy was done . During laparotomy, uterine rupture with massive bleeding was detected; uterus repair was done with tubal ligation. Postpartum Hemorrhage was controlled by internal iliac ligation. The patient was discharged without any complications.

  26. Pranay Paul

    Braiding is one of the three main types of river planform. They are mainly characterized by high energy distribution, steep slopes, fluctuating discharge, abundance of sediments, bank erosion along with bar formation. This review paper is an attempt to present a comprehensive summary on braided river environments, process of braiding, the differences in the making of the type of bars and the measurement of braiding intensity. Bank line erosion along the braided river is associated with the bar or island development. Effect of tributaries to the main channel planform is quite significant as it provides water and sediments both. The measurement of braiding intensity is another important factor which is hard to measure against the dynamism of the flow and renewed shape of the bar more often. The Channel Count Index is found to be more appropriate to measure braiding intensity as it is less sensitive to the flow stage and provides a higher level of accuracy. Interdisciplinary approach for braided river management is required to preserve the ecological diversity and lessen the adverse effect of bank erosion hazard.

  27. Das, M., Chatterjee, A.N., Lopamoodra Das, Biswas, R., Khushboo, S., Saha, S., Sarkar and Paul, R.R.

    Background: Corona virus disease 2019 is now a global crisis that needs thoughtful attention. This situation endangers the dental profession as it is mostly based on aerosol-generating procedures. To prevent spread of infection and cross-contamination, use of personal protective equipments including N95 masks or surgical masks is crucial. Along with the prevention of infection, the masks might pose physiological effects. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of N95 respirator and surgical masks on the blood oxygen saturation, heart rate and blood pressure of healthy dentists. Methodology: The present study is designed as a cross-sectional survey including healthy dentists. Blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), heart rate(HR) and blood pressure (BP)were recorded for N95 and surgical mask groups separately. Collected data was statistically analyzed based on student-t test. Results: The 1 hr SPO2and HR values for N95 respirator were statistically significant. No significant change in blood pressure observed for both N95 and surgical masks. Conclusion: The use of short duration N95 masks has impact on blood oxygen saturation and heart rate of healthy dentists. There was no impact on blood pressure in both N95 and surgical masks.

  28. Rattaphong Sonsuphap, Itsaree Phaksipaeng, Sukachai Penpokai, Naris Penpokai and Nuchjaree Pakasat

    This research is aimed 1) to study the current situation of e-cigarette industry, both Thailand and abroad 2) To study control measure and impact of e-cigarette usage, both Thailand and abroad and 3) To find appropriate measure to control e-cigarette in Thailand. The research was qualitatively conducted on the basis of content analysis. Data were collected from In-depth interviews with six groups such as consumer of e-cigarette (working age/students), organization and concerning e-cigarette department, authorities (law enforcer), politicians, medical personnel and academic personnel. The collected data were analyzed according to the objectives, and the results were descriptively illustrated. The result revealed that In 2014, the e-cigarette in Thailand has not control or clearly policy from the government sector. There are few e-cigarette distributors in the market. Most of e-cigarette distributors are online sales through website and Facebook. They have import e-cigarette from foreign countries. However, in 2014, e-cigarette has continuously increased, and so that the Thai government has launched the Banned import measurement, Banned distribution measurements by Ministry of Commerce,. The Consumer Protection Board (CPB), Ministry of Public Health and Customs Department. For the market value of e-cigarettes in Thailand during 2017-2022, show that informal economic sizing is very tricky because the official database has not been collected. However, there are two methods of estimation: direct and indirect estimates. Thus, during the years 2017-2022 who smoke cigarettes electronic around the country. Increased steadily from 2017 with the smoker’s electricity to 1.1 million people and will increase an annual average of 2 million people and rising at the end of 2022 with Cigarette 2.1 million people, the market capitalization of cigarettes will increase in the same direction. In 2017, worth 7,920 million Baht and worth rose at the end of 2022, amounting to Baht 15,120 million, showing growth of industrial electric cigarette. On-demand and economic value. The market capitalization of cigarettes from 5 to 10.3 % of total revenues in the tobacco industry 0.05% to 0.08% of GDP during the years 2017 to 2022.The research results recommended the legalize e-cigarette and implement control measures the same as cigarette, it is recommended to carry out studies and learn from experiences in foreign countries as 99 nations tend to legalize e-cigarette.

  29. Suresh Kulkarni and Vasant Rawangaokar

    The Jansathi Dushkal Niwaran Manch, a network of 150 NGOs in Maharashtra, set up under the initiative and auspices of Sanskriti Samvardhan Mandal (NGO), Sagroli (Nanded) during the drought period 2015 to 2018 for giving relief to people in some of the worst affected drought villages of Marathwada, Western Maharashtra, and Vidarbha by mobilizing MGNREGS schemes and other relief services such as water tankers, fodder and water for animals and Public Distribution System/Food security. Through this project, 123010 job cards were ensconced under MGNREGS, mobilized 349920 labors with an average of 56 days of work to each labor, organized 276 trainings on the watershed, agribusiness related for government schemes to 822849 beneficiaries. JDNM strengthened 3675 SHGs and JDNM associates provided financial assistance of Rs. 83.00 lakh for agriculture inputs to 2113 farming families through women’s SHGs as an interest-free loan. also helped to the production of the compost by 100 farmers. Associates mobilized Rs. 28.65 Crore from Karja Mafee Yojana (crop loan waive scheme) during this year up to Feb.2018

  30. Dr. Shweta Tanwar

    Science expects one to think in a rational and logical manner and studying science renders the ability to question happenings around us. But girls on the other hand are exposed to varied forms of menstrual myths and beliefs which are based on mythological stories and are in complete contradiction to scientific reasoning. Thus it becomes important to see whether they look at these menstrual myths related practices through a scientific lens or not. The paper explores the ability to look at menstrual beliefs through scientific lens among girls of Grade X in schools in New Delhi. The findings point out that girls of these schools have many misconceptions based on menstrual myths surrounded in their life and studying science has not been able to inculcate scientific reasoning among them.

  31. Roomani Srivastava, Murali, R. and Abhimanyu Sharma

    Introduction: Plagiarism is defined as “unauthorized appropriation of another’s work, ideas, methods, results or words without acknowledging the source and original author. Academic misconduct has been the focus of interest in recent times. The new age of technology has enabled the scientific community to fabricate, falsify and plagiarize at a greater rate than before. Many people may plagiarize unknowingly as their knowledge regarding this is limited. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of dental post graduate students of Bangalore city towards plagiarism. Method: A pretested self-administered questionnaire consisting of 24 items was used to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding plagiarism. The questionnaire was administered to the post graduate students of 5 randomly selected dental colleges of Bangalore. All the students present on that day were included in the study. Results: Branch wise 100% of Public Health dentists and Oral Pathologists were aware of what is plagiarism. Lowest percentage was seen in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (83.5%). Although almost 90% of the participants reported they know what plagiarism is, only 58% could state what it is correctly. Among the 3 years, 1st MDS students showed highest negative attitude towards plagiarism and highest practice related attitude. Those who learnt about plagiarism through self-efforts had better attitude (low positive and high negative attitude) and practice related attitude towards plagiarism. None of the differences were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Positive attitude scores towards plagiarism indicate tolerance towards plagiarism. Negative attitude towards plagiarism was high but still considered in the neutral zone. Self-efforts may be a more fruitful method of learning about plagiarism.

  32. Rajendra Bhue

    Gender issue is a major problem now a days. The gender refers to socio-cultural distinctions related with being female or male. The word maleness has positive social view and the word femaleness has negative view. Family is the grass root place where the idea of gender is created. Gender concept spreads from family to society. The creator and celebrator of gender are both family and society. Social gender srules are stereotype in nature. Gender rules are in favour of men, the dominating group of society. Family is the starting point of gender conception. We can see so many differences in between men and women like biological and physical differences, social work and responsibility distribution etc. This paper focuses on the role of gender in family and society as well as gender discrimination prevailed in the society.

  33. Dr. Richard T. Torto

    Contrary to what is often believed, most of the world’s population is bilingual or multilingual. Monolingualism is characteristic only of a minority of the world’s populace. Multilingualism is becoming a social phenomenon governed by the needs of globalization and cultural openness. Owing to easy access to information via the Internet, exposure to multiple languages is assuming rapid frequency, and giving rise to the need for people to acquire more and more languages. Each of the world’s nations has groups of individuals living within its borders who use other languages in addition to the national language to function in their everyday lives. A group of people living and working together in close proximity enforced by an institution like the university communicate with one another both formally and informally by linguistic means. Language is therefore the vehicle of communication of information and it is also the channel of establishing and maintaining relationship with other people. Language is also a medium of meaningful interaction among individuals in a social context. The University of Cape Coast community is multilingual. The population is made up of students and workers drawn from the heterogeneous ethnic regions of Ghana. The linguistic situation is such that many different languages co-exist and individuals speak more than one language. Due to the multilingual nature of the University of Cape Coast, various language choices are made in communication. The current study shown the pattern of language choice that exist in the University of Cape Coast community and this is manifested in the use of unmixed codes, a switch from one language to another or the mixing of languages.

  34. Abebe Hailu, Abraham Assefa and Amine Mustefa

    Ethiopia is known for the diversity and wealth of indigenous domestic animals that enhanced livestock sector which has been contributing considerable portion to the economy of the country. Chicken are among the economically important livestock species which are most widely spread and dominant poultry species. Since local chicken have good potential to adapt in different agro-ecology and provide luxurious source of family protein and income to rural poor households in Ethiopia, promoting the resources using scientific journals, research publications, manuals, policies and strategic documents will have paramount importance to enhance the benefit of the sector to the society. Therefore, this review is, aimed to be carried out to briefly reveal the status major ecotypes of chickens so far identified and their population and geographic distribution, as well as the potential reproductive performances of chicken. Moreover, the review tried to address the economically important production constraints including but not limited to disease, feed and nutrition, markets access and indiscriminate cross breeding with less adaptive exotic chicken breed. This review clearly showed that there is still a need to carry out intensive characterization and identification research both at phenotypic and DNA (genetic) levels to exhaustively identify chicken ecotype of the country. It is also important that researchers, development workers and policy maker work together to put practical and workable strategy to improve, conserve and sustainably utilize the genetic resources for the good of the community.

  35. Sravanthi, T.L.G., Rao B.L., Satyanarayana, T., Krishna Teja, G., Monika, P.K., Aditya, K.

    Aim: This study was aimed to review the role of die systems in prosthodontics and how it is relevant to fixed prosthodontics. Methodology: A systematic literature search was performed electronically and also hand-searched with terms. The search was carried out through Medline via Pubmed, Wiley online library, Ebscohost, Science Direct, and the Google Scholar for articles published from 2000 to 2019. A total of 172 articles were found. A total of 111 articles were found relevant to the topic. Articles selected were critically appraised to evaluate their quality. Results: Different articles described various die systems its advantages and disadvantages. The literature search revealed 33 articles in PMC. 56 articles were found on Wiley online library, 32 articles in google search, 22 articles in Ebscohost. Additional 29 articles were identified by hand search. Conclusion: An accurate working cast with removable dies is essential to make a well-fitting restoration. Detailed reproduction of die materials for fixed prosthesis affect the accuracy of operating casts and was expounded to the compatibility between the die and impression materials.

  36. Strauch Leira, M., Serrano Olaizola, A., Lopez Valenciano, J., Monfort Arroyo, J. and Miguel Masia Masoni

    Postoperative rehabilitation after knee arthroplasty surgery is considered to be of vital importance. The severe Spanish lockdown during the first wave of the COVID pandemic forced patients to stay at home shortly after their knee surgery. This study compares the clinical outcome after 6 months between patients that completed the postoperative rehabilitation protocol and those that did not receive any professional rehabilitation at all. 146 consecutive knee arthroplasty surgeries were enclosed in this study, 46 of them with no postoperative rehabilitation at all. The result of this study showed no inferior clinical outcome for the group without any rehabilitation.

  37. Dr. Kholoud Alharbi and Dr. Saud Alzahrani

    Background: Prescribing errors are common, rarely fatal but can prolong the duration of illness. Additionally, illegible hand writing or using uncommon abbreviations can lead to prescribing inappropriate medications. Objectives: To evaluate prescription writing skills of physicians working in primary health care centers, Ministry of Health (MOH). Methods: Multi-center analytical cross-sectional study was carried out including a random representative sample of manual prescriptions issued by physicians working at MOH primary health care centers inside Makkah Al-Mukarramah. A self-constructed validated checklist was used to assess the prescriber’s certificate and job description, legibility of hand writing and fulfillment of certain information about the prescriber, the patient and the medications. Results: The study included 348 prescriptions; more than half of them (57.2%) were written by specialists. All words were legible among 29% of prescriptions whereas among 15.2%, only few words were legible. Patients` name was written and prescriber`s signature was present in all prescriptions while patient weight was present in minority of prescriptions (4%). Prescriber`s stamp was present in 88.5% of prescriptions. Overall, only 0.9% of prescriptions were without errors of minor omission and 39.7% of prescriptions were without errors of major omission in the first drug and only 5.5% in the 6th drug. Conclusion: Different types of prescription errors are quite common among primary healthcare physicians in Makkah. Fortunately, minor errors are more frequent than major errors. Errors in general were more frequent among resident, MBBS holder and low experienced physicians.

  38. Balpreet Kaur, Renu Bala Sroa, Jagvinder Singhmann, Navjotsingh Khurana, Summeta Sandhu, Sunakashi Sharma and Bikramjeet Singh

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of direct composite veneers using different restorative materials. Setting and design: This was an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 Maxillary central incisor’s were selected and divided into four groups of 30 each. According to the restorative material used-Group A-Nanohybrid composite (Tetric n Ceram), Group B Microhybrid composite (Filtex Z 250), Group C- Nanohybrid composite( Ceram X Spheretec) , Group D-Submicron-hybrid (CHARISMAR smart). The tooth preparation selected for the study was window preparation. All specimen were mounted in an acrylic block embedded 2 mm apical to the CEJ. Compressive load was applied at an angle of 45 degree at the facial part of veneer using a universal testing machine. Results: The results of this study showed that Ceram X Spheretec (Nanohybrid composite) showed the highest fracture resistance score followed by Tetric N Ceram (Nanohybrid composite) and Charisma® Smart (submicron hybrid composite). While the specimen restored with Filtex Z 250 (Microhybrid composite) showed least resistance to fracture. Statistically analysis of fracture resistance showed a significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: It was concluded from the study that Ceram X Spheretec showed the highest fracture resistance amongst all the groups. Thus it was a favourable material for direct composite veneers on anterior tooth in comparison to Tetric N Ceram, Filtex Z 250 and Charisma® Smart.

  39. Dr. Seema Bagchi (Chattaraj) and Prof. Sujit Chandra Lahiri

    Central Forensic Science Laboratory Kolkata receives huge number of exhibits of pre /post blast explosive mixture and parts of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) from eastern and north-eastern parts of India for examination. In most of the cases low or inorganic explosive mixture were used. Forensic exhibits of Manipur IED blasts were examined by the standard techniques of chemical and instrumental analysis. The results showed that in most of the explosions, high explosives or millitary explosives like Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 2, 4, 6-trinitro toluene (TNT), Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) or Ammonium Nitrate and Fuel Oil (ANFO) based were used. These were probably smuggled. But the origin of the explosive could not be detected.

  40. Dellaiane Caroline Barbosa, Jacqueline Stephanie Fernandes do Nascimento, Thais de R. Bessa-Guerra, Nicolle dos Santos Moraes Nunes, Shirlei Lacerda, Marco Antonio Alves Azizi, Antonio Marcos da Silva Catharino, Maria Eduarda de Abreu Rangel, Karolina de

    Background: Parkinson’s disease may affect individual’s quality of life, once it interferes in their functional capacity. Caregivers can also have their quality of life compromised due to the difficulty of dealing with complex manifestations of the disease, so it might be possible they assume the position of a hidden patient, suffering from the overload of the function, wich contribute for their illness. Method: Search in PubMed and Scielo databases, with a total of nine selected articles. Results and Discussion: Emotional, social, physical factors and personal characteristics might interfere in caregivers’ quality of life. In addition, patients and family members may also have impaired quality of life. Thus, it is important for these professionals, subjects affected by Parkinson’s disease and family members to participate in support groups is necessary in order to share feelings experienced in daily life. Conclusion: Therefore, it was possible to verify that caregivers also needs guidance and support to deal with the problems provided by caring for the others.

  41. Avinash Kumar, MDS, Pranav V Mody, MDS, Deviprasad Nooji, MDS and Immidisetty Krishna Chetan, MDS

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of 3 surface characterizations and incorporation of color pigment into maxillo-facial RTV silicone elastomer on the bond strength with heat-cured acrylic resin using cyanoacrylate as bonding agent. Materials and Method: Five groups of 10 specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were fabricated with dimensions of 75 × 10 × 3 mm. These acrylic specimens were bonded to RTV maxillo-facial silicone using cyanoacrylate as a bonding agent. In the first group, silicone without any color pigment or characterization was bonded onto cured PMMA denture base blanks using cyanoacrylate as bonding agent; this was the control group. In the second group, silicone with added color pigment but no surface characterizations was bonded onto the acrylic blanks. In the remaining 3 groups, silicone was bonded onto acrylic blanks whose surface had been roughened with an acrylic bur in the form of retentive holes of 1 x 1.5 mm, 1.5 x 1.5 mm and 2 x 1.5 mm in dimension. The ‘overlap- joint’ model was used to evaluate the bond strength and the specimens were subjected to 1800peel strength test on universal testing machine according to ASTM D-903 specifications with a cross head speed of 10 mm/min until bond failure occurred. One- way ANOVA and Scheffe multiple post hoc test were carried out to detect statistical significance (p < 0.05). Result: Maximum bond strength was seen in the samples with surface characterization with retentive holes of 2 x 1.5 mm. The control group showed the minimum bond strength. Surface characterization in the form of retentive holes increased bond strength considerably as compared to color pigment and samples without any surface characterization. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that Cyanoacrylate formed a significant strong bond between maxillofacial silicone and acrylic resin. Retentive holes made on acrylic surfaces increased the bond strength considerably than those without any surface characterization and silicones with color pigment.

  42. Yazeed Abdulrahman Alahmadi and Saud Hasan Surbaya

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) appeared as one of the most critical problems between residents by its negative effect on life. We aimed in this research to measure the prevalence and determinants related to low back pain (LBP) between residents of the family medicine program in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Aim of the study: To assess the magnitude of low back pain and its risk factors to improve the family medicine resident's productivity and performance. Method and Material: This study was a cross-sectional study carried out between residents ofthe joint program of family medicine (JPFM) in Makkah city. Residents of different levels were randomly selected from the family medicine program, using a self- assessed questionnaire, which contained 37 items, the questionnaire was divided into three parts: demographic data, personal and occupational characteristics, and prevalence data. Results: This research results showed a prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and it was (76.4%). Investigated data of residents showed significance (P<0.05) tojob satisfaction, stress level, and prevention strategies. And showed non-significance (P > 0.05) to other dependents such as age, gender, smoking, stress level, and BMI. To relieve back pain many affected residents used painkillers and took rest as the best option. Conclusion: Results showed LBP has a high prevalence rate in family residents with many avoidable risk factors. Recommendation: This research further recommends that more studies, educational programs, and campaigns should be conducted to reduce the severity of the condition.

  43. Dipankar Bhattacharyya

    As galloyl derivative/ gallate equivalent class of molecule(s) were found to have more or less bitter taste and as well as strong antioxidant, antiinflammatory, strong antiproliferative, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor, antiulcer, antiischemic, antiatherosclerotic, antidepressive/ antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antimalarial, antiarthritic, immunomodulatory, antiretroviral and anti-human coronavirus (anti-HCoV) like versatile properties as therapeutic as broad spectrum antiviral in the sense of host defensive manner, could be two in one role as it posing a CQ/HCQ like lot of similar functional bioactive- and similar physical bitterness properties or posing a similar structural property with multioxygenated and physically bitter compound like azithromycin (AZM)/ ivermectin (IVM) of anti-SARS-CoV-2 property and the galloyl/ gallate class as bearing similar polyhydroxy/ polyoxygenic type of molecule(s) could be therefore repurposed against novel coronavirus (nCoV) when compared with either bitter CQ/HCQ functionally or AZM/IVM structurally as special references, as well as it can act as a respiratory medicine/ natural ventilator of aerial oxygen by reopening the collapsed air ways of lung in COVID-19 symptomatic patients depending on their strong antioxidantal and antiinflammatory/ immunomodulatory properties so that normal breath/ sufficient aerial oxygen can enter easily when treated. Since the said class of molecule(s) as it possess the strong antiinflammatory property might be involved in decreasing proinflammatory cytokines and/ increasing antiinflammatory cytokines and as well as able to stop the episode of cytokine storm, a key step in ARDS, which was further strengthen by a preliminary study where gallate equivalent enriched Abroma augusta leaves hydroalcoholic extract (AALHAE) (50%) and AALHAEplus (50%) has been implemented on a few covid-19 suspected moderate and severe symptomatic patients respectively from my Institute, a promising result was thus obtained. I believe from my experience that the gallate eqv enriched AALHAE/ AALHAEplus may have tremendous role on controlling distress of lung which is used to be damage-targetted by SARS-CoV-2 in serious symptomatic cases.

  44. Dr. Anju Kumari and Dr. Anuradha Pathak

    Background: Traumatic accidents and sports activities may cause injuries to the teeth and surrounding structures especially among children and adolescents. The most commonly involved is tooth avulsion. The experience of pain, emotional distress and physical impairement during dental trauma has a potential of producing dental anxiety in the children. Objective: The study aimed to assess the level of knowledge and attitude of parents regarding the management of avulsion of tooth. Material and method: A questionnaire comprising of 10 questions with multiple choices was given to the 80 parents participated in the study. The knowledge assessed through the responses given by the parents after completing the proforma. The data was collected and statistically analyzed. Result: 78.75% of parents experienced that the tooth of their child become avulsed by the trauma. Conclusion: Preventive programs and educational campaigns should be conducted to improve the knowledge of the parents, teachers and general population about the preservation and management of the avulsed tooth.

  45. Rimple Sharma and Pity Koul

    Background: In the health care system, shift work is considered necessary and indispensable to ensure continuity of care in hospitals. Due to shift change of nurses, patient handover is a routine in nursing profession. During the shift change handover process, complete information related to the patient is transmitted amongst nurses. Objective: The study aimed to 1. develop Pediatric Patient Handover Documentation Tool. 2. establish the validity of Pediatric Patient Handover Documentation Tool.3. establish the reliability of Pediatric Patient Handover Documentation Tool. Methodology: The aim of this study was to develop and test the validity and reliability of Pediatric Patient Handover Documentation tool. It is a new tool developed to facilitate structured patient handover during nurse’s shift change. The tool was developed using three rounds of Modified Delphi technique. According to the suggestions of 15 panelists included in the study, items were added, deleted and modified. The final tool consists of 86 items. Validity and reliability of the tool was established. Results: The content validity index of the newly developed tool was 1. The reliability of PPHD Tool was calculated by Cohen’s kappa (k) with value being 0.95 and percentage agreement of 99.1 %. The values demonstrate good validity and reliability. Conclusion: The new PPHD Tool is a valid and reliable instrument for giving a quick handover without missing necessary information related to patients.

  46. Roomani Srivastava, Murali, R., Madhusudan, K., Mansi Yallamalli, Vinod Kumar, A., Punith Shetty and Abhimanyu Sharma

    Background and Aim: Oral complications of diabetes are numerous and often affected by other variables. This study was conducted to determine the influence of demographic and other covariates on the oral health status of patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Method: An in-vivo cross-sectional analytical study was conducted where in 1200 subjects in the age group of 35 – 74 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus were examined in a hospital setting in Bangalore. Data regarding demographic details, time since onset of diabetes, and history of any adverse habits was collected. Oral health status was assessed using WHO oral health assessment form, 1997. Random Blood Sugar on the day of examination was recorded. Results: The study opined that all covariates assessed had an effect on caries status, periodontal status, loss of attachment, presence of oral mucosal lesions and prosthetic need of the subjects (p<0.05) in the final model of logistic regression analysis done using backward elimination. Unaffected factors were TMJ signs and symptoms. Conclusion: Other factors such as age, onset of diabetes, habits and SES can further worsen oral health status of diabetic patients.

  47. Sanjeev Vaid, Naresh Kumar, Bhawna Sayare, Ankit Mahajan, Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj, Ishani Chadha and Deepak Sharma

    Background: Medical and dental professionals are at high risk of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. HBV infection can be transmitted in dental practice by skin prick with infected, contaminated needles and syringes e.t.c. Limited knowledge of dental students at risk of HBV infection is the greatest obstacle in implementation of infection preventive practices. Therefore the present study was aimed to assess the knowledge attitude and practices (KAP) regarding Hepatitis B among dental undergraduates, interns and postgraduates students. Method: A cross sectional survey was conducted among dental students of HP Government Dental College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. The number of questions related to knowledge, attitude and practice was 23, 6 and 11, respectively. Students who were present on that particular day and willing to participate were included in the study. Result: A total of 134 students participated in the study, which included 64 undergraduates, 41 interns and 29 postgraduates. Of these 47 students were male and 87 students were female. Assessment of knowledge questions was done by scoring 1 for correct response and 0 for incorrect response. They were later graded according to score as less than 12 as poor, 12-17 as average and more than 17 as good. In this particular study the overall knowledge about hepatitis B among various years is good (mean score = 19; SD = 2.017). The level of knowledge regarding HBV was good among interns and postgraduates when compared to undergraduates. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated a satisfactory level of knowledge and attitude of dentists about HBV infections, but some gaps were observed, suggesting that higher knowledge level of dentists plays a very important role in forming the attitudes and practices regarding patients with HBV.

  48. Dr. Himanshu Kaushal, Dr. Shaminder Kaur, Dr. Ravinder Garg and Dr. Chaitanya Tapasvi

    Background and Objectives: Hypothyroidism is a common but underdiagnosed disorder because of its nonspecific clinical presentation. The study was done to determine the etiological and clinical profile of the patients with hypothyroidism. METHODS A hospital based descriptive study was conducted in Department of Internal Medicine, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot where 120 patients of age>=18 years diagnosed as new cases of hypothyroidism and willing to give blood samples were included. They underwent thyroid ultrasound and nuclear scan and/or FNAC wherever required. HAMD scores were measured for all patients to determine the association of depression and its symptoms with hypothyroidism. Results: The mean age of the study patients were 43.37 ± 14.6 years with majority of the population (23.33%) in the age group of 41-50 years. The gender distribution showed female predominance with 85% females and 15% males. Primary thyroid disease were seen in majority 98(81.67%) patients, subclinical hypothyroidism was present in 20(16.67%) cases and 2 cases were of secondary hypothyroidism. Anti TPO and Anti TG antibodies were assessed where 48 cases (40%) and 12 cases (10%) were positive for them respectively. On USG we found that in majority 86(71.67%) of patients, USG neck finding was normal followed by diffusely bulky thyroid in 27(22.50%), solitary nodule in 6(5.00%) cases and single showing lingual thyroid. The radionucleotide uptake scans showed significant association with USG findings (p<0.0001) USG findings were significantly associated with thyroid antibodies (p<0.0001) such that Anti TPO antibodies(IU/mL) was positive in 100% of patients with bulky thyroid and Anti Tg antibody(IU/mL) was positive in 40.74% of patients with bulky thyroid. In our study on thyroid FNAC, 86(71.67%) were normal, 28(23.33%) had lymphocytic thyroiditis, 1 case had colloid nodule and 5(4.17%) cases were malignant. The findings of FNAC showed significant association with radionuclear scans as the uptake was decreased in malignant cases and lymphocytic thyroiditis. Conclusion: Hypothyroidism in increasing mainly among female population with rising autoimmune phenomena. The investigations comprising of thyroid profile, USG and FNAC holds importance for the diagnostic workup of the patients.

  49. Dr. G Abhishek, Dr. S. K. Vishwanath, Dr. K Sounderraj, Dr. Gagan Malode and Dr. Ashrith K Malalur

    Copious alternates are available nowadays to address the challenge of immediately replacing a missing anterior tooth, these include a removable or fixed, temporary or permanent, acrylic prosthesis, or resin-bonded bridges. Ribbond single-visit bridges provide strength, durability, and immediate convenience. They are cost effective and reliable and are excellent for emergencies like implant temporization, congenitally missing teeth and patients who cannot afford conventional lab fabricated bridgework. In place of the pontic, a natural tooth, denture tooth can be used or composite build-up can be done. Creating an adhesive FRC bridge by using a composite resin pontic is a successful treatment option for the direct aesthetic replacement of missing anterior teeth.

  50. Daisy Loyola, Sathyanarayanan, R., Raghu, K., Thamizhp Pozhil Guna and Raja Sethupathy Cheeman, S.

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to get the history of Dental Implants in chronological order. This collection of historical perspective in Dental Implantology leads to a thorough understanding of all the tireless work done by the pioneers in this field to come to this stage. Background: Dental Implantology have evolved drastically over the years but its origins take roots as early as 2500 BC. Dental Implantology has been a constantly evolving field with new inventions coming up every now & then. Inorder to understand the inventions it is better to get to know the history behind it properly. Conclusion: Dental Implantology is a constantly evolving field, knowing the history of it helps to achieve new innovations in a better way.

  51. Dan Călugăru and Mihai Călugăru

    The authors are commenting on the study entitled:“The impact of race on short term treatment response to bevacizumabin diabetic macular edema” published by Osathanugrahet al. in Am J Ophthalmology 2020; Doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2020.09.042, which reported the impact of race and ethnicity on efficacy of intravitrealbevacizumab for diabetic macular edema in anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment naïve patients after one and three injections.The authors found that the race is a risk factor for treatment effect in diabetic macular edema. However, the validation, extrapolation, and generalizability of this finding can only be validated by statistical analyses including all the missing baseline potential risk factors referred to above by us in addition to the baseline characteristics already evaluated in this study, serving to emphasize the key metrics assessing the impact of race and ethnicity on efficacy of intravitrealbevacizumab for diabetic macular edema in anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment naïve patients.

  52. John Kipruto, Isaac Njuguna Kimengi and Wilson Kiptala

    The world is experiencing an unprecedented demographic transformation. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of demographic factors on the attitude of healthcare workers towards older people in Western Kenya. The objectives of the study were to: explore the influence of gender and marital status on their perception towards the elderly and establish whether their religious beliefs influence their perception towards older people. The study was guided by Ajzen and Fishbein’s Theory of Reasoned Action and Townsend’s Structured Dependency Theory. The ontology was post-positivism and the epistemology was realist/objectivist. The research method was quantitative. The research design was ex-post-facto. Random sampling, stratified and purposive sampling were applied. Data was generated using questionnaires. The 60-item Attitudes Towards Older People Scale (ATOPS) was the main instrument for data collection. A total of 295 participants, responded to the Questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequencies and percentages. The findings revealed that gender had no influence on their perception towards older people, it also revealed that there is no significant influence of religious belief on their attitudes towards older people and that marital status did not significantly influence healthcare workers’ attitudes towards older people. It recommended the importance and urgency of more concerted research to inform the public and organizational policies to better promote and manage care of older people in an ageing society like Kenya. Further, there is need to explore psychological constructs of ageism across cultures.

  53. Tarek Hijazi MD, Malek el Bouheirie MD, Racha Seblani MD, Sabrina Nasredine MD, Tala Hijazi Pharm D and Ali Alameh MD

    Introduction: Biliary obstruction, that affect around 5 cases per 1000 people in the united states, are due to several causes, with the Gallstones presenting the most common cause. Of parasitic causes, adult Ascaris lumbricoides, eggs of certain liver flukes (e.g. Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola hepatica), echinococcosis, can obstruct the smaller bile ducts within the liver, resulting in intraductal cholestasis (1). Hydatid disease is a worldwide zoonosis produced by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm (2). In humans, hydatid disease involves the liver in approximately 60 to 75% of the cases (3). Echinococcal cysts of the liver can cause complications in about 40% of cases and manifest linically with acute abdominal pain. The most common complications in order of frequency are infection then rupture mainly into the biliary tree. Only 3-17% of the patients have a frank rupture, which has an overt passage of intracystic material to the biliary tract and, among hem, only 8 to 11% occur in the common bile duct (CBD) or cystic duct (4,5). We report this case of an abdominal pain due to an intrabiliary frank rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst, occurring in the common bile duct causing a cholangitis. Case presentation 30 years lady presented with picture of cholangitis, found on ultrasound abdomen to have a cholelithiasis with dilation of common bile duct and possible CBD stone without abnormalities in the liver. While doing ERCP, incidentally a brown to white thick amorphous membrane was discovered in the common bile duct instead of a stone, that have been extracted by balloon technique. The finding raised the suspicion of a parasitic infection, so MRCP was done that showed remnant of complicated hydatid cyst in the right hepatic lobes. Discussion: Based on the previous results, an intrabiliary ruptured hydatid cyst of the liver was suspected in the common bile duct, causing an bstructive jaundice/cholangitis due to the intracystic hydatid material (membrane) that was found on ERCP. In front of an obstructive jaundice, the first test to do is an ultrasound abdomen to differentiate intra and extrahepatic causes of cholestasis according to the presence or absence of bile duct dilation. Once choledocholithiasis suspected, ERCP should be done to drain the common bile duct. (6) Most patients with Echinococcosis infection are asymptomatic and hydatid cyst is discovered incidentally during imaging. However, in around 25% of the cases, patient presents with an obstructive jaundice due to the rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst into the biliary tree (7). The diagnosis of Echinococcosis is usually established by radiologic tests and serology (8). ERCP is indicated when the results of these tests are unconclusive in patients with biliary colic associated with cholangitis. 3 different aspects may be seen on ERCP: round lucent filling defects due to daughter cysts or filiform wavy material in the common bile duct due to laminated hydatid membranes or brown thick amorphous membrane also due to hydatid membranes (9). Treatment of hydatid disease usually involves a combination of an anti-helminthic therapy and surgical resection / percutaneous aspiration of the cyst with endoscopic treatment in some cases (10,11,12). Conclusion: Physician must raise attention about parasitic disease-causing abdominal pain in the mergency departments. The diagnosis of abdominal parasitosis can be delayed because of the clinical similarities with other more frequent causes of abdominal pain. US abdomen may miss the diagnosis of a hydatid cyst due to several factors (obesity, location of the cyst, and the physician skills). A hydatid cyst may rupture in the biliary tract with migration of intracystic material into the CBD, such as hydatid membranes, mimicking CBD stone on US and leading to an obstructive jaundice / cholangitis.

  54. Dr. Shakil Ahmed, Dr. Zahida Choudhary, Dr. Shokia Jehav Ul Nesa and Dr. Rahil Muzaffer

    A Foreign body is an object or substance foreign to the location where it is found. Foreign body ingestion is a common occurrence and carries significant morbidity. The increased incidence of swallowing foreign bodies in children could be due to their natural propensity to gain knowledge by putting things in their mouth, inability to masticate well and inadequate control of deglutition as well as tendency to cry, cough or play during eating. The most common foreign body seen was coin (70%), followed by metallic foreign body (13.33%), and meat bone (10%). Others were battery and vegetative foreign body. In our study, foreign bodies were more common in <4 years of age (60%), followed by 5-8 years of age (30%).There were no complications seen in our study.

  55. Theresa Ruba Koroma MD, MMed, Qiyu Zhang MBBS, Sallieu Kabay Samura MSc, PhD, Enkui Hao MD, Haiyang Hu MD, PhD, Ming Zhong MD, PhD, Yuguo Chen MD, PhD and Meng Xiong Tang MD, PhD

    Background: Dyskalemia is a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). There is still controversy regarding the optimal level of serum potassium in these patients. Method: We studied patients who were admitted with a recorded diagnosis of AMI retrospectively. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we assessed the relationship between admission serum potassium concentration (SPC) and the risk of in-hospital mortality and arrhythmias. Potassium levels were divided as follows: K+< 3.5; K+= 3.5-<4.0; K+= 4.0-<4.5; K+=4.5-5.0; k+> 5.0mmol/l; with K+= 4.0-<4.5mmol/l as reference group. Results: Of the 2698 patients included in this study, 38.1% were diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 60.3% with non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Frequency of patients with diabetes, renal failure, atrial fibrillation and 2nd/3rd degree AV block were higher in theK+>5.0mmol/l group and those with Hypertension and ventricular arrhythmia in the K+<3.5mmol/l group. A U-shaped association between admission SPC and in-hospital mortality was observed (OR 1.30; 95% CI: 0.50, 7.35) and (OR 1.21; 95% CI: 0.55, 4.38) in patients with K+>5.0mmol/l and K+<3.5mmol/l respectively. However patients with AMI and diabetes demonstrated a J shaped curve with the highest in-hospital mortality observed in the K+>5.0mmol/l group. The lowest risk for in-hospital mortality was observed in K+=3.5<4.0(OR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.53, 2.19) followed by K+= 4.0-<4.5mmol/l. Conclusion: Potassium levels between 4.0 and 4.5mmol/l was relatively safe but not superior to levels between 3.5 and 4.0mmol/l. It might be beneficial to target SPC between 3.5 and 4.0mmol/l.

  56. Dr. Suresh Babu, K. S., Mallikarjuna Hosamath and Rajendra Gai

    The traditional HCF/LCF life evaluation is manual process of recording/probing the alternating stress and mean stress for each node in FEA model, followed by using Goodman diagram to calculate the life. The process is time consuming for evaluating the entire model fatigue life. Automating the manual process in CAE is of utmost importance for error-free calculation, productivity improvement, reliable, and reduced design cycle time. The above objectives were met by developing fatigue life calculator tool. The tool carries out high cycle and low cycle fatigue life calculations based on Goodman failure theory. The fatigue life calculator is automated process of calculating the HCF/LCF life. The tool extracts the stress for all nodes from alternating stress and mean stress FEA models. The tool also supports the solution combination operations for various load case result sets. The ACT extension "HCF/LCF Fatigue Life Calculator" is developed for ANSYS Workbench. The tool is developed using ANSYS Workbench API, XML, Microsoft visual studio VB, and Python. The tool also contains several .NET forms for user information and guidance. The ACT extension creates seven submenus under "Life Calculator" menu. First, The tool extracts the mean stresses and alternating stresses. The tool created ANSYS Workbench journal for mapping the results from harmonic analysis FE model to mean stress FE model i.e., tool supports the different mesh between mean and alternating stress FE models known as location-based evaluation. Then, user choice for solution combination will be taken using additional tool developed in Microsoft visual studio VB application. Once user choice is taken, the ACT extension performs solution combination and fatigue life calculations for entire FE model. The tool also supports the displaying the results in Ansys mechanical. The tool plots the life contour on FE model in ANSYS mechanical.

  57. Budianto, Deny F., Nia H., Rahmat, S. and Alif, G.

    This study aims to create an alternative media in the form of Chicken Broth Agar (CBA) by utilizing chicken bones. This study succeeded in proving that CBA media could grow more bacteria than NA. This quantitative research is carried out by conducting practical and direct analysis related to the media-making process, and colony analysis in each media. The originality of the research lies in making CBA media in the utilization of chicken bone waste as an effort to increase the variety of bacterial culture media. The limitation of this study lies in the analysis sample which is not representative of all types of microbes. The sample should be adjusted to the composition of the chicken bones.

  58. Bassa Bruno N. Ngarmaïm and Ngargueudedjim K.

    The recovery of plastic waste is an environmental challenge for the world today having regard to the problems of pollution. New alternatives for the recovery of this waste must be found. One possible solution is their use in the design and the realization of wood-plastic composites. This is the aim of our work, which consists to evaluate the properties of the composite made from recovered plastic waste used as a matrix and the fibers of tall-palm (Borassus aethiopum Mart., Arecaceae) used as reinforcements. This composite material, constituted by wood fibers and plastic waste, has been designed in the logic of an "eco-material", for structural or decorative use. It is manufactured using a compression process. The physico-mechanical tests carried out have given interesting results.

  59. Deborah T. Gonzaga, Edgar J. Gonzaga, Jun Lester C. Paunel, Jeaneth G. Sagales, Liberty Bayking, Marilyn M. Miranda and Emily C. Rosal

    The threat of the widespread pandemic COVID19 has hit every nation around the globe by surprise. There has been a sudden closure of economic activity and a need to alter processes to what we now call the “New Normal”. Along with the changes in economic system and lifestyle during the pandemic time, are changes in the education system of the Department of Education in the implementation of different modalities of learning and new teaching approaches. It has been a notion for our Education Department to look for alternatives in order for education to continue despite the threats of the Pandemic. The pandemic caused many reasons for concern from the people in the education sector most especially the public teachers who are now given the burden to make education happen no matter what the consequences and challenges there may be. This study evaluated the different coping mechanisms of public teachers to handle stress that was brought by the pandemic.

  60. DABILGOU Téré, DGHEIM Joseph, SANDWIDI Sayouba, DAHO Tizane, ZONGO S. Augustin, CHESNEAU Xavier , KOULIDIATI Jean, SANOGO Oumar, ZEGHMATI Belkacem and BERE Antoine

    A numerical study of the evaporation by laminar natural convection of a heptane liquid droplet is presented. The classical boundary layer equations are used in the liquid phase and in the vapor phase. The transfers are described by the natural convection equations. The linkage between heat and mass transfer in the liquid and vapor phases is ensured by the continuity at the liquid vapor interface by the heat and mass flux densities and the shear stresses. Dimensionless equations in the liquid and vapor phases are solved using an implicit numerical scheme and Thomas algorithm. One analyzes the effects of the gaseous medium temperature and the initial droplet radius values on the profiles of the temperature and radial velocity in both phases, of the heptane vapor fraction in the gaseous medium and of the vapor phase thickness. Thus, the vapor phase thickness is calculated and presented versus time for different physical parameters especially the theta angle. The none-sphericity of the evaporated heptane droplet is clearly observed.

  61. Seyma Kilicaslan and Fulya Callialp

    Microwave ablation is a treatment method that effects malignant tissue area directly without damaging surrounding healthy area. Microwave energy lead to rise tissue temperature instantly and coagıulation occurs. Micro coaxial slot antennas ere employed to apply ablation process. The main objective of this work determine the efficiency of antenna geometry on the ablation process. Three different slot coaxial antenna models (single slot, double slot and sleeved) are employed to comparison and exposed to power of 10w, 20w and 30w during 10 minute. The COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS (ver 4.3, COMSOL Group) software is employed to design and simulate antennas. Eventually ablation length, ablation diameter, temperature, special absorption rate and power dissipation are obtained with finite element method from the electromagnetic simulations using COMSOL. Experimental validations were designed to evaluate the proposed antenna. Model verification and simulation results have been evaluated in effective antenna geometry.

  62. Ajay Kumar, K., and Renuka, N.

    The small molecules, in particular chalcones are regarded as buildingblocks for the construction of varied classes of biologically potent heterocycles such as pyrazoles, isoxazoles, triazoles, benzothiazepines, etc. The chalcones are basically derived from aromatic aldehydes and aromatic ketones; in which aromatic group may be a phenyl or heterocylic ring. In recent years, the heteroaryl, in particular thiophene ring containing chalcones have attracted the larger interest among the researchers all over the world, due to their diverse applications, viz., useful scaffolds in organic synthesis, bioactive nature in medicinal chemistry, and varied physicochemical properties. There has been a significant interest in recent years in developing simple, clean, non-toxic, cost-effective and eco-friendly procedures for the synthesis, and the exploration of these molecules to wide range of biological potencies. In this context, this review article presents the developments in the synthetic strategies for thienyl chalcones, their utility as synthons for preparation of bioactive molecules, pharmaceutical applications, and physico-chemical properties in the last ten years.

  63. Alpana Kamble

    This is a study done on the research done by various authors worldwide on the effect of the daylighting on houses commercial building, library and some specific models and understanding through rationalising the outputs from the research. This paper summarises the studies conducted by various researchers from a 2018-2020 and their tools to determine the outputs and analysis of the output either software tools or mathematical analysis.

  64. Debarshi Dasgupta

    Homosexuality, as a subject matter, incites a lot of discussions and debates across the globe. Much of the confusion arises when we ask why such a phenomenon has persisted in natural populations of numerous species through time. Expectedly, evolutionary biologists have been trying their best to understand same-sex behaviours to shed light on the causes and the reasons of its existence. In this article, we look at various ecological explanations for homosexuality. We also take a brief look into the idea of epigenetics, and how the field of epigenetics can help us answer some of the most burning questions surrounding homosexuality.

  65. Yang Mei, Zhang Wenting and Yu Chunwei

    Al3+ plays important roles in biological and environmental process, so the detection of Al3+ attracts the intrest of many scientists. Among the detection methods, fluorescent probe method has many advantages such as high sensitivity and good selectivity, and has become an important detection method for the analysis of Al3+ in vivo/vitro. In this work, a fluorescent probe P derived from benzoyl hydrazine was synthesized and characterized as an Al3+-selective probe. Compared to other tested metal ions, P shows better selectivity to Al3+ in ethnol solution, a linear relationship was found between the fluorescence intensity at 444 nm from 5.0×10-6 to 2.0×10-5 M of Al3+ concentration with a detection limit of 1.7×10-6 M of Al3+. Job’s plot revealed that P and Al3+ formed a complex in 1:1 stoichiometry.

  66. Imam Suswoyo and Ismoyowati

    Shifting duck production systems from extensive traditional to more intensive could have significant effect on egg production and welfare. This research aimed to study the duck welfare under extensive and intensive systems of production. Fourty duck farmers have been involved as respondents comprised 20 farmers using extensive system while the rest was intensive duck farmers. From each farmer 10 samples of duck blood have been taken for hematological analyses. The sample ducks were also used for crop contents analysis. Direct observations were conducted to study the daily management. Sampling was done using cluster sampling method based on location and production systems. The cluster was two locations namely Purbalingga Regency as high altitude area, and Cilacap Regency as low altitude area. Whereas the sub-cluster was production systems i.e. extensive and intensive systems. Farmer respondents were randomly selected from each cluster for both systems. Parameters observed were egg production and blood status. The results showed that average egg production was 64.50 % and 30.56 % in intensive and extensive systems of production respectively. Values of H/L ratio of ducks in Purbalingga were 1.69±1.06; and 2. 29±0.84 for extensive and intensive systems; while those in Cilacap were 2.25±1.22; and 2.94±2.23. It was concluded that local ducks kept at different environmental condition would have different resistance, however areas and production systems did not bring about different stress condition.

  67. Shirurkar Deepavali D.

    Chickpea seeds are rich source of proteins and consumed as food and fodder. Chickpea seeds are contaminated with various fungi during storage. Fungi are the widespread pathogen and the rate of seed deterioration is noteworthy for the food industry. Association of mycoflora during storage is a common problem and the most dominant genera were Aspergillus. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. quericinus, A. Oryzae, and A. nidulans are major Aspergillus species recovered from selected chickpea varieties. Fungal infestation affects seedling growths as well as reduction in nutritive values was also observed during investigation. During investigation decrease in dry weight, protein, carbohydrate and starch content was recorded.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
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Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
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Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
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Dr. Achmad Choerudin
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Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari