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May 2016

Introduction: Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare neoplasm constituting of 0.1% of breast carcinomas. A 40 year old female patient presented with lump in the right breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of a lump in the lower inner quadrant revealed adenoid cystic carcinoma. We received specimen of modified radical mastectomy (MRM) with axillary dissection. Histopathology in our department revealed adenoid cystic carcinoma, eight lymph nodes were dissected out and all were free of tumour.

This handbook is prepared to meet basicneeds of our laboratory and hopefully, it gives highlights onlaboratory procedures to work with a variety of importantgroups of bacteria. It provides comprehensive information and logically organized, instructive, and progresses through laboratory safety, sterilization and disinfection, use of the microscope, sampling techniques, manipulation of microbes, cultures, staining and observation of microorganisms, identification of unknown microbe, maintaining cultures.

The present study purports to assess the perceived sources of occupational stress among teachers with respect to gender The sample of the study consists of 100 teachers (males=64, females=36) belonging to various schools of District Aligarh. Occupational stress index by Srivastava & Singh was used in the present study. The data was analyzed by using t-test.

In this article we reviewed honeybee genetic resources and honey production in Ethiopia. Books, journals newspapers and fact sheets were used. In Ethiopia, honeybees are known for their roles in apiculture since the third AD. Honey and bees wax have been contributing to the national and local economies as well as human nutrition for centuries.

Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the clinical presentation and document the etiological factors in patients with ocular motor nerve palsy in Kolar region Materials and methods: All patients with ocular motor nerve palsies at R. L. JALAPPA HOSPITAL attached to SRI DEVARAJ URS MEDICAL COLLEGE, Tamaka Kolar were taken up for this observational study between december 2013 to august 2015. Details of various modes of presentation and etiologies were documented. Results: A total of 74 patients presented with cranial nerve palsies.

Background: Many studies show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency across various populations the world over. There is relative lack of prevalence data in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. This cross-sectional study is carried out to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Southern Punjab population of Pakistan. Study Design: Single centre, Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted from June 2014 to December 2015, at diagnostic labs of MINAR, Multan, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: 450 subjects were tested for vitamin D.

Human Epididymis Protein (HE4) is a new promising biomarker in detecting recurrent ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of serum HE4 in comparison to CA125 in the detection of recurrent disease in patients during follow-up.615 ovarian cancer patients treated at Shandong Provincial Tumor Hospital between 2008 and 2014 were included in the retrospective study. Serum HE4 and CA125 were analyzed during follow-up using the ARCHITECT assay. 131 patients developed recurrent disease.

Back-ground: Preeclampsia, a systemic illness of late pregnancy seen in approximately 6% of primigravid women, is an important cause of maternal & fetal morbidity. The levels of calcium and magnesium in pregnancy may implicate in their possible role in pregnancy induced hypertension. This study assessed serum Ca2+ , Mg2+, Na+ and K+ levels in women with PIH (pregnancy induced Hypertension) and Preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy. Material & Methods: This study was conducted on 100 pregnant women as a control & 100 pre-eclamptic women as a study group.

Regional odontodysplasia (ROD) is a rare, localized developmental anomaly of the dental tissues with distinctive clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings. It affects the primary and permanent dentitions in the maxilla and the mandible or both, however, the maxilla is frequently involved. Although the aetiology of the ROD is uncertain, it has been suggested that numerous other factors play a role. The treatment plan should be based on the degree of involvement as well as the functional and aesthetic needs in each case.

Exophytic gingival lesions represent some of the more frequently encountered lesions in the oral cavity. Pyogenic granuloma is a primarily reactive hyperplasia which appears in the oral cavity as an overgrowth of tissue due to physical trauma or hormonal factors and irritation. The growth is typically seen in young adults, it may occur in any age, especially in individuals with poor oral hygiene. The purpose of this article is to present a case report of pyogenic granuloma in male patient with mandible involvement.

The aim of this study was to compare the effect surface finishing and polishing methods on surface roughness of veneering ceramics for zirconia frameworks.35 disc-shaped specimens; (10x2mm) were prepared from each veneering ceramics (IPS e-max Ceram, Noritake-CZR and Vita-VM9) and glazed (Totally 105). Each group were randomly divided into 5 groups and performed the following procedures: G1: Glaze (Control); G2:Silicon wheel+rubber points (Shofu)+diamond polishing paste; G3: Shofu ceramic polishing kit; G4: Edenta ceramic polishing kit; G5: Eve ceramic polishing kit.

Dental caries according to Center for Disease Control and Prevention is a chronic and preventive disease which is 32 times more likely to occur in infants of low socioeconomic status, whose mothers have a low education level, and who consume sugary foods (Alshehri et al., 2015). Oral health care therefore, in infancy itself is the foundation on which a life time of preventive education and dental care can be built up in order to help acquire optimal oral health.

Upper gastrointestinal tract disorders are one of the most common problem in clinical practice. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy is an important diagnostic modality in evaluation of patients with GI disorders. The endoscopic examination of upper GI is not only for diagnosing common upper GI disorders, helpful in identifications of premalignant lesion like Barret’s Oesophagus and malignant lesion. This is a prospective study conducted in 3475 patients. Who had GI symptoms in Department of General Surgery. Out of 3475 patients, 1040 cases had normal finding.

Background and purpose: The presence of a spinal lesion, whether symptomatic or not, presents a diagnostic challenge as many a times clinicoradiological diagnosis differs from tissue diagnosis. Percutaneous transpedicular spinal biopsy (PTSB), along with advanced diagnostic methods in pathology, enable accurate diagnosis of pathological spinal lesions. Our goal was to determine the accuracy and clinical usefulness of this procedure in patients with suspected pathology of spine. Method: Image-guided PTSB was performed in 50 patients with osseous spinal lesions as a day care procedure.

Pyogenic granuloma is an inflammatory hyperplasia affecting the oral tissues. It is a tumour-like growth of the oral tissues, which usually arises in response to nonspecific infection. Pyogenic granuloma shows high predilection rate for gingiva and less for extra-gingival site. A case of extra gingival pyogenic granuloma was reported with presence of exophytic growth on right corner of lower lip and had frequent tendency to bleed. Lesion was treated with surgical intervention. On histopathological examination, it was confirmed as pyogenic granuloma.

Seed An improved and effective method for shoot organogenesis and plant regeneration in Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (L.) was established. Shoot-tip explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media fortified with different concentrations of benzyl amino purine (BAP), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and zeatin for efficient shoot induction. BAP at 1.0 mgl-1 was found most effective for initial shoot bud induction. About 76.67% explants responded, resulting in the highest (5.9 ±0.11) number of shoots per explant after 30 days of culture.

Dental caries is a multifactorial disease of hard tooth structure. The causative factors for dental caries are time, specific bacteria, host factors and substrate. No single factor can initiate dental caries. In oral cavity more than 250 microbial species are persisting. The tooth morphology have many inaccessible areas to physiological clearance mechanism. Thus a tooth becomes an ideal place for stubborn adherence for many of these species. Talon cusp is a prominent accessory cusp supposed to arise as a result of evagination on the external surface of a tooth before calcification.

The State Phytosanitary Service of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock (SFE, for its acronym in Spanish) declared national emergency in 2014 because of rising populations of mealybug Pseudococcus elisae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in banana plantations. Currently, there is a great concern due to the economic losses caused to farmers.

Aims: The prevalence of childhood obesity is a significant public health concern. Family-based intervention programmes have incorporated behavioural, dietary and lifestyle changes which are theoretically underpinned. Few reviews to date have determined the effectiveness of family-based interventions in reducing childhood obesity on a long-term basis. The aim of this research was to systematically review the short and long term effectiveness of family-based interventions in reducing childhood obesity among children aged 2-18 years old living in the UK.

Objective: To evaluate and compare the antifungal efficacy of Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Calcium enriched mixture (CEM) & Biodentine against Candida albicans by modified direct contact test (DCT) at 1, 3 and 7day intervals. Study design: The study materials selected were MTA (Group1), CEM (Group 2) and Biodentine (Group 3). The cements were mixed in strict compliance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. The modified DCT performed was based on turbidometric determination of fungal growth in 96-well microtiter plates.

Treacher Collins syndrome or mandibulofacialdysostosis is the condition where the cheek-bones and jaw-bones such as maxilla and mandible are under-developed. Treacher Collins is the diagnosis, which can be given to the children who have notching or stretched lower eyelids, it can be associated with partially absent cheekbones and small mandible. Here we report a case of treacher collins syndrome with a characteristic clinical presentation

The consumption of foodstuffs contaminated with aflatoxins may lead to hepatotoxic effect particularly in coexistence with chronic viral hepatitis B infection. In Sub-Saharan Africa, hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies. The aim of this study was to measure the level of exposure of aflatoxin and liver damage markers in adults with viral hepatitis B infection in Ghana. The study was conducted in the Ejura-Sekyedumase district, Ghana. Five hundred adults were screened for viral hepatitis B surface antigen. Spot urine and blood samples were collected.

The size, taper & cross-section of an instrument plays a crucial role in cleaning the apical third of a root canal which has a significant amount of debris & smear layer (SL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cleaning efficacy of different sizes and tapers of the MAF (Master Apical File) for penetration of irrigants to the apical third of curved mesiobuccal (MB) canals of first molars.

The pontic design in anterior edentulous region is primarily influenced by aesthetic and phonetic factors and secondarily by residual soft tissue contour. One of the most challenging issues in dental treatment plan is to preserve interproximal tissue after the loss of tooth,which is detrimental in terms of esthetic outcome.

Purpose: Pain control serves as a basis for successful oral and maxillofacial surgical practice. However, the commonest method of intraoperative pain control itself is stimulus for pain induction. In spite of various methods to reduce the pain on injection, topical anesthetic application is still most frequently used. This study compares the efficacy of two forms of topical anesthetics prior to nerve block injections. Methodology: 40 patients were divided into 2 groups.

Nearly 35% of general population associated with a number of health-problems like Parkinsonism, mental disability, motion sickness, allergic rhinitis, hypertension and cardiac failure. To overcome such problems, certain innovative drug delivery systems, like Mouth Dissolving Tablets (MDT) have been developed specially for geriatrics and paediatrics patients. Mouth dissolving tablets offers rapid disintegration so as it dissolve very fast in saliva & then easily swallowed without the need of water which is a major benefit over conventional dosage form.

Acute appendicitis is common abdominal surgical emergency. It is usually seen in teenagers. Acute appendicitis is diagnostic challenge for any surgeon, because many disease simulate acute appendicitis. Diagnostic difficulty with atypical findings resulted in unnecessary appendicectomy. Many studies shown that appendicitis associated with elevated C Reactive protein. When elevated C Reactive protein is associated with leucocytosis is more specific for appendicitis. Normal C Reactive protein associated with normal appendix.

Anal fissure is a common painful condition affecting the anal canal. Chronic anal fissures are traditionally treated by manual anal dilatation or lateral internal sphincterotomy. There is a degree of anal incontinence with these procedures. Subcutaneous fissurectomy was performed in 20 cases with a control of 20 cases operated by lateral internal sphincterotomy. Results were evaluated for pain relief (p<0.01), incontinence (p= 0.03), and no. of work days lost (p< 0.01). Subcutaneous fissurectomy was found to yield superior results when compared to lateral internal sphincterotomy.

The objective of this review is to raise awareness among medical practitioners and patients. Warfarin is still the most frequently used anticoagulant worldwide in the treatment regimen of mechanical heart valves and any condition that could lead to the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels. This drug is particularly used as a prophylaxis regimen for atrial fibrillation and another use of warfarin to prevent thromboembolism that will lead to Stroke is post artificial heart valve replacement.

The availability of potent combination of antiretroviral regimens has resulted in a dramatic reduction in HIV-1 associated morbidity and mortality in the developed world. However, HIV infection and treatment has been associated with the development of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of emtricitabine (antiHIV drug) on pharmacodynamic activity of sitagliptin (antidiabetic drug) in normal and diabetic rats with respect to insulin levels. Alloxan-induced diabetic model in rats has been used in this study.

Overlay myringoplasty is a time tested method to repair perforated ear drum. Underlay techniques for myringoplasty has become the preferred technique due to complications in overlay method like lateralization, blunting and epithelial pearl formation. In this paper we describe how the use of endoscope has helped in preventing the complications in overlay method and the advantages of endoscope in dealing with perforations of various sizes and locations.

Background: There is a major concern all over the world regarding the rise in attempting suicide in certain population especially among the young. Wide variations have been found in suicidal attempt among different cultures, societies and countries. The rate of attempted suicide is 8-10 times more than the completed suicide. Coping is most often conceptualized as a response to the demands of specific stressful situations.

Focal adenomyotic cyst is defined as a cystic structure lined by endometrial tissue and surrounded by the myometrium. It is a rare and benign pathology. It is seen in adolescents and young women of reproductive age group. The presenting complaints are non specific. Most commonly, women present with dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain or abnormal uterine bleeding. Now a day’s its incidence is rising, one because of increasing age of conception and second because of availability of high quality imaging modalities and minimally invasive techniques such as hysteroscopy.

Introduction: Plantar Fasciitis occurs because of micro trauma to the plantar fascia due to abnormal loading. Plantar fasciitis is considered as a self limiting condition. However the typical resolution time is anywhere from 6-18 months or sometimes longer. Conservative management is reportedly very successful. Therapeutic ultrasound with or without phonophoresis, electrical stimulation and administration of NSAIDS through iontophoresis are said to be effective.

Background and Objectives: The positive identification of living or deceased persons using the unique traits and characteristics of the teeth and jaws is a cornerstone of forensics. Establishment of offender’s identity is essential in criminal investigations. Our study aims, to extract DNA from saliva deposited on a solid object (plastic cup), simulating saliva deposited on objects in real situations and to amplify STRs from salivary DNA for purpose of forensic individualization.

Purpose: The surgical extraction of lower third molars is the most frequent intervention in oral surgery. Swelling, trismus and pain are normal phenomena induced after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar. The use of corticosteroids has gained wide acceptance to reduce postoperative complications.

The aim of this randomized, double blind controlled trial was to verify the effectiveness of a commercially available herbal dentifrice (Dantkanti) on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis. Fifty volunteers with were randomly assigned to either a test group (herbal dentifrice) or positive control group after meeting the eligibility criteria. The present study had a controlled double blind crossover experimental design, consisted of 2 x 4 weeks experimental periods, separated by a ten day washout period.

Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetener beverages is a cause of chronic disease such as obesity and diabetes because of the impairment of postprandial state and enhancement of energy intake. Therefore, plant-derived sweetener as substitution of sugar is an alternative sweetener but the evidence in human is limited.

Introduction: Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance have become a worldwide problem predominantly caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially by the family of the Enterobacteriaceae. As a result, more patients need antimicrobial treatment using so called ‘last resort’ agents “The Carbapenems.” This has resulted widespread carbapenem resistant mainly due to Carbapenemase enzymes. Their identification is of primary importance since carbapenemase producers are resistant not only to most (if not all) β-lactams but also to other main classes of antibiotics.

Background: Caesarean section rates are rising with possible negative impact on mother and baby. Methods: This was a prospective, case control study that was conducted in Omdurman maternity hospital during the period July 2013 to January 2014. 400 babies were included in the study, 200 were outcome of normal spontaneous vaginal delivery and the other 200 were outcome of elective caesarian section. Data was collected using a specifically designed questionnaire containing maternal and neonatal data, Neonatal outcome was compared between the two groups..

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as colon cancer or bowel cancer is a cancer resultingfrom uncontrolled cell proliferation or growth in the colon or rectum or in the appendix. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and Oxaliplatin are most frequently prescribed drugs for treatment of CRC. But many side effects like mucositis, diarrhea, nausea; vomiting, neurotoxicity, hand foot syndrome, tinnitus, and myelosuppression, anaphylactic reactionsetc are the problems with chemotherapy.

The Study Objective: 1. To study the role of hysteroscopy in evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding. 2. To correlate accuracy of hysteroscopic findings with histopathologic findings. Material and methods Designs: A retrospective study was done from from March 2014 to March 2016. Setting: study was carried out in the Department of Gynecological endoscopy at Manchanda’s Endoscopic Center, PSRI, Delhi Patients: One hundred and two cases were selected for this study from patients of age group 18 and above, who were admitted with the history of abnormal uterine bleeding.

The maxillary incisors can be lost due to dental trauma at a young age. Along with unpleasant smile esthetics, such condition if left untreated for years, can lead to development of malocclusion which cannot be optimally managed by prosthodontics alone. The condition often requires a multidisciplinary approach and careful treatment planning on the part of orthodontist to consider either space closure or space creation for prosthetic replacement, keeping in mind optimum facial esthetics and occlusal stability and function.

Background: We studied the effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine on characteristics of subarachnoid block with respect to sensory block, motor block, duration of postoperative analgesia and complications encountered. Materials and methods: Hundred patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade I or II (20 – 50 years) presenting for lower limb orthopaedic surgery were included in the study.

Cauterization (Kai) is an ancient medical practice and one of the mode of Ilaj-bit-tadbeer (regimenal therapy) in Unani Medicine. It has been long forgotten in Unani practice due to perceived notion of pain and suffering associated with it. As per quoted in Sahih Bukhari that The Prophet of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) recommended healing through branding with fire (cauterizing) but forbid its practice probably due to pain. However, even after coverage of pain through anesthesia and analgesic drugs, cautery (Kai) is still less practiced in Unani medicine.

Nutrition and diet is now in the integral and the most essential component of healthy living in today’s world. Lack of awareness towards the advantages of nutritious diet and lifestyle pattern is becoming the major threat for human life. Proper and focused diet counselling plays a major preventive and curative role in various diseases. This correlational study was carried out in the time period of three months span amongst the OPD patients. Subjects were selected on the basis that the dietary modifications in their disease conditions played a very significant role.

Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) is a systemic disease with world wide distribution and its occurrence in the oral cavity is well documented in the literature. Oral TB is currently reemerging as an infectious disease and may be a diagnostic challenge for dental care providers. The aim of this study was to report all patients with primary manifestations of oral tuberculosis and to evaluate the clinical characteristics of oral tuberculosis lesions. All these patients were subsequently diagnosed with tuberculosis based on oral histological findings and referred for management and therapy.

Sub acute or chronic upper limb ischemia is often non-atheromatous, especially in the young and is of multiple etiologies. Subclavian artery is affected the most in atheromatous/non atheromatous etiologies but brachial artery is most affected in fibro muscular dysplasia of upper limbs. Here we have a 58-year-old man presented with right upper limb claudication for the last 1 year and on investigation found to have bilateral brachial artery occlusions was treated successfully with Percutaneous balloon angioplasty.

Pleomorphic adenoma of palate is the commonest form of minor salivary gland tumor. As it is always a asymptomatic swelling patients usually reports in a late stage for treatment which resulting in high morbidity surgeries. So we report a case of such Pleomorphic adenoma of palate treated by novel approach with minimal morbity.

Background: The abnormal growth and development of the oro-facial complex leads to disturbances of oro-facial functions. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the pharyngeal airway dimensions in different antero-posterior skeletal patterns i.e skeletal Class I & Class II. Methods & Materials: Sample size was calculated using Cohen’s Formula, consisted of 60 cephalogrmas from the Out-patient department of Post-Graduate department of Orthodontics & Dento facial Orthopaedics, Government Dental College & Hospital, Srinagar.

Aim: To assess the significance of hysteroscopy in diagnosis of Asherman’s syndrome in patients presenting with infertility, hypomenorrhea, secondary amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea. Material and Method: This is a retrospective study conducted in the department of gynecological endoscopy at Manchanda’s Endoscopic Centre, PSRI, Delhi, from March 2014 to March 2016. 230 patients between 18 to 50 years age group, who presented with complaints of infertility, hypomenorrhea, amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea were selected.

Purpose: Autonomic dysfunction is an important cause of orthostatic hypotension. Patients of orthostatic hypotension may or may not be symptomatic. The study was conducted to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic status in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients of orthostatic hypotension. Methods: The study was conducted in 15 patients of orthostatic hypotension and 15 age matched subjects. On the basis of history the patients were grouped control groups symptomatic and asymptomatic. The heart rate variability was assessed from 5 min resting supine ECG.

Ureteric abnormaliities are rare. Ectopic insertion of the ureter is defined as abnormal insertion of the ureter, usually distal to the trigone into the urethra in male in approximately 50% of cases. Other sites include the seminal vesicle (approximately one-third), vas deferens, bladder neck, prostate and epididymis, while the urethra and vagina are commonly affected in females. Ectopic insertion of the ureter in the genital tract is a rare anomaly. Its incidence is about 1:130000.

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a worldwide problem. The incidence of diabetes is increasing globally. DM is known for its micro and macro vascular complications like retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases. Diabetic foot complications are responsible for more than 50% of major limb amputations. Aims: to study the clinical pattern of foot infections in diabetic patients, analyze the risk factors, outcome of treatment modalities and to educate the patient about taking care of feet and preventive care.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the induced histological changes in the Islet of Langerhans and - cells. The ethanolic extraction of Artemisia Herba Alba (AHA) as 20 mg has been injected intraperitoneally (I/P) in induced diabetic (Injected rats intraperitoneal with a dose of 60mg/kg streptozotocin STZ) and normal Wistar rats. Three diabetic groups were selected, each consists of eight rats.

Objective: To compare the efficacy of HiOra-GA gel with that of Hexigel for the management of patients with gingivitis. Methods: 60 patients of either sex aged more than 18 years and who are enrolled with diagnosis of gingivitis will be included in the study under 2 groups of 30 patients each and consecutive sampling will be done for the recruitment of patients. Group I patients will be given HiOra-GA gel and Group II patients will be given Hexigel which are to be taken over the index finger and applied over the gums twice daily for a period of four weeks.

Treatment of the young permanent tooth with a necrotic root canal system and an incompletely developed root is very difficult and challenging. Although it is feasible to perform apexification procedures, the long term survival of these teeth is questionable due to thin, incompletely formed dentinal walls which may subsequently fracture. Regenerative endodontic procedures have emerged as a viable treatment alternative for these teeth.

Tobacco Consumption & Alcohol Consumption is widely prevalent habit among Tribals. Awareness about it is important to reduce the number of users and its dependency in them. Study was conducted to find out the dependency status of Tobacco & alcohol Consumption among Tribals which was measured by KF SCORES & AUDIT SCORES respectively. A cross sectional study using Multi stage Sampling Method with house to house visits. Sample size came out 300. Study was conducted in Narayanganj block of Mandla District.182 (60.7%) of the tribals were consuming smokeless tobacco in various forms.

Free small bowel perforation is frequently encountered in surgical practice with “trauma” being the most common cause. However, there are many non-traumatic causes too with a wide range of clinical presentation that can confuse the clinician. The resultant delay in diagnosis and treatment may then prove fatal for the patient. An effort has thus been made to find out the most frequent aetiologies, different clinical presentations with their treatment options and outcome.

Background and Aim: Clinicians do prescribe antibiotics for either prophylactic or therapeutic reasons. Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics by health care professionals is a worldwide concern. The decision of when and what to prescribe leaves room for misuse and therefore it is imperative to continuously monitor knowledge and pattern of prescription. In recent years, dentists have reported a shift from narrow-spectrum to broad-spectrum antibiotic prescriptions due to increasing antibiotic resistance. Irrational prescription of antibiotics by clinicians might lead to drug resistance.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sugarcane bagasse adsorption capacity for textile effluent. The adsorption process was investigated in a batch mode of operation under the optimize condition of amount of adsorbent, initial concentration of dye, contact time, pH, and temperature on textile effluent. The dried sugarcane bagasse sorbent was ground and sieved into 150µm size. Further investigation of the sorption process was done using the FTIR, SEM analysis.

Background and Objective: Candida albicans a normal commensal of human mucosal surfaces and opportunistic pathogen in immune-compromised states, diabetes mellitus and iatrogenic factors like antibiotic use, indwelling devices, intravenous catheters, etc. Most infections are caused by C.albicans, the shift towards treatment resistant non albicans candida (NAC) species is evident in recent years. One of the important factors contributing to the virulence of Candida species is the formation of surface attached microbial communities known as “Biofilm”.

The complex necrobionts and necrophilous beetles of the south of the European part of the Russia is described ecologically. The specific composition of groups is circumscribed. The legitimacies of creation necrobionts of the complex from a type of a landscape and taxonomic of an accessory of a corpse are detected. Studying of regional features ¬of formation necrobionts and necrophilous complexes has, both scientific, and practical ¬interest.

The investigation was aimed to carry out the antifungal activities of the hexane extract’s of Abutilon theophrasti against four fungal species, (Microsporum gypseum, Penicillium spp, Fusarium spp, Aspergillus spp). Disc-diffusion method was employed to carry out the antifungal activity against selected fungal species. Three concentrations (100µg/ml, 250 µg/ml, 500 µg/ml) were made to check the activity of crude extracts. Itraconazole was taken as standard reference drug, While as dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) served as negative control.

Mill scale is a steelmaking co-product from the rolling mill in the steel hot rolling process. Mill scale contains both iron in elemental form and three types of iron oxides: Wustite, Hematite and Magnetite. The chemical composition of mill scale varies according to the type of steel produced and the process used. Rolling mill scale is a solid co-product of the steelmaking industry that contains metallic iron and three types of iron oxides: wustite, hematite and magnetite. It also contains traces of non-ferrous metals, alkaline compounds and oils from the rolling process.

Rubella infection is normally of minor impact characterized by a mild, self-limited disease associated with a characteristic rash, but during pregnancy due to maternal infection many complications were seen in mother as well as in fetus as rubivirus has capability to pass through placenta and can affect organogenesis which cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In study women suffering from Infertility (primrary and secondary) show highest percentage of infection i.e. 50% of them are found to be susceptible.

The study investigates the synergistic effects of Guava (Psidium guajava) aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts in combination with potassium aluminum sulphate (Alum) respectively. The various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%) of these combinations; methanolic leaf extract plus Alum (MLE+Alum) and aqueous leaf extract plus Alum (ALE+Alum) were tested respectively for antibacterial activity on some bacterial pathogens isolated from clinical samples. These were compared with an antibiotic standard, Chloramphenicol as positive control.

The increasing rate of agricultural wastes due to the large scale of urbanization and a consequence of economic development has become a problem that produces the huge quantities of waste in India and causes a serious environmental problem which is difficult for management. For the present research work, composting of paddy straw waste done along with various fungal strains such as Pleurotus sajor-caju, Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger and Chaetomium globosum in various combination for 40 days and followed by vermicomposting with Eisenia foetida for 30 days of period.

The present study was intended to determine the ovarian developmental stages and changes in the level of vitellogenin and vitellin as a biomarker of ovary maturation. Five different stages were classified based on the size and colour of the ovary. Histological studies clearly illustrate a gradual increase in oocyte development from stage I to IV based on yolk accumulation. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay results also further confirmed gradual increase in the level of Vitellogenin and vitellin levels as the ovary maturation proceeds.

This study presents results from a survey of helminth parasites of fishes in Manipur. The present investigation was undertaken between April, 2015 and September, 2015 with an aim to study the helminth parasites associated with different freshwater fishes in Imphal west district of Manipur. During study period total nine species of helminth parasites were identified belonging to four diverse groups comprising 4 species of nematodes, 3 species of trematodes, 1 species of cestodes and 1 species of acanthocephala.

The present study has been taken up to observe the toxic effect on a fresh water snail, Pila globosa induced by Dithane M-45. The present study shows alteration in lipase activity level in hepatopancrease and renal organ of Pila globosa at acute and chronic exposure of Dithane M-45. Significant depletion in (P<0.05) in lipase activity level was observed in hepatopancreas and renal organ at chronic exposure while slight depletion was observed in both experimental tissues at acute exposure of Dithane M -45.

Studies on the host plants, seasonality and distribution of a phytophagous, polyphagous and edible moth (Bunaeaalcinoe) of the Niger Delta were made. The seasonal population of the edible moth was assessed on its different host plants from 2013-2014. The moth was detected practically throughout the year with lowest populations during the harmattan and dry seasons (December-February) when the host plants shed their leaves. The populations of the emperor moths were highest during the rainy seasons (April - October) when the leaves of host plants were in abundance and blossoming.

Seed recalcitrance is a major challenge in the conservation of many tropical species. Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels is a threatened species due to problems associated with natural regeneration and seed recalcitrance. The study was carried out to understand the physiology and biochemistry of jamun embryos during embryogeny and embryo desiccation. Maintenance of higher moisture content in the embryos was observed throughout embryogeny and lacked an embryo desiccation phase.

In the present study, isolation of post-harvest diseases of fruit banana and papaya was carried out such as Fusarium sp., Colletotrichum sp. and Alternaria sp. based on the cultural and morphological test, the diseased pathogens were identified as Fusarium moniliforme and Colletotrichum musae from banana and Alternaria alternata from papaya. Commercially used Lactobacillus probiotic bacteria was found most effective against Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotrichum musae and Alternaria alternata.

The present investigation is focused on effect of environmental variations as well as human interference on physicochemical parameters from Ekruk tank, Solapur. The correlation is established between various physicochemical parameters during specified period 2010 -2012. In our study it is revealed that all parameters showed correlation with each other and seasonal fluctuations heavily influenced the variations found in native freshwater body. Our results are discussed in the context with influence of season as well as human interference.

The pygidial defense gland of the Pheropsophus hilaris consists of two big gland (g1 and g2), two small reservoirs (r1 and r2) sac like structures filled with secretion with associated secretary tissues and basal eversible membrane structures. The complex structure consisting of two sets of secretary lower collection canals, collector reservoir, one – way valve, sphincter muscles, exit taken and exit nozzle. The bombardier beetle has been the subject of much discussion by creationists and evolutionists alike.

Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of five medicinal plants (Debregeasia longifolia, Colocasia gigantean, Houttuynia cordata, Oenanthe javanica and Solanum xanthocarpum) of Manipur having anti-inflammatory properties was investigated by using DPPH method. The DPPH scavenging activity of the five medicinal plants ranged from 38.61±0.01% to 65.41±0.163% inhibition.

In order to promote increased efficiency of cultivation techniques for higher yield of culture in a sustainable manner, the objective of this study was to evaluate alternative sources of lettuce fertilization in the north of Mato Grosso. The cultivar Marisa was used to obtain answers regarding the agronomic performance and physical characteristics. The experimental design was a complete randomized block design with four replications.

This study was undertaken to determine associations among yield and yield related traits in sweetpotato crop so as to identify the major traits of importance that could be used as a basis for soil nutrients formulation. The experiment was conducted at Umudike in rain forest region during 2013 and 2014 cropping season. The experiments were laid out in split randomized complete block designs with three replications. The plot size used was 3m x 2m with 1m inter and intra- row spacing.

This study aims to determine the effect of mycorrhiza fungi porpagules on growth of the pepper plant seedling and incidences of plant rot disease. Study was conducted in net house located in Sindang Kasih of village, District of Ranomeeto Barat, Regency of South Konawe, Province of Southeast Sulawesi and Laboratory of the Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Science Halu Oleo University Kendari, Indonesia.

The present experiment was conducted in the winter season during 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 at Seed Production Farm Adisaptagram, Govt of West Bengal, Hooghly, West Bengal with twenty three potato genotypes collected from AICRP on potato, BCKV centre. Twenty three potato genotypes were screened and evaluated for yield and yield related characters viz., yield per square meter (kg), yield per plant (kg), number of tubers per plant, number of tubers per square meter, single tuber, weight.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of fungus Aspergillus niger M22 in phosphate solubilization in liquid medium and lettuce development. Both Araxá phosphate and rock residue were added at the dose of 3 g to 100 mL of culture medium yeast extract glucose. The phosphate treatments were inoculated with 1 mL of fungal culture containing 108 UFC mL-1 incubated at 28° C under 190-rpm shaking, for eight days. Both pH and P content were evaluated at the end of the incubation period.

Farm extension and advisory service delivery mechanism has witnessed challenges in diverse forms in the post Green Revolution era. The extension approaches, tools, policies and practices have undergone necessary shifts according to the need of the situation. The ‘top-down’ approach of extension, primarily being adapted in form of the globally recognized ‘Training and Visit’ system during the 1980s was gradually withdrawn and replaced with participatory ‘bottom up’ approaches. Farming system research and extension and participatory technology development became the thrust.

Background: Rapidly changing physical environment has led to socio-demographic mutilation among populations, increasing the prevalence of dual burden of malnutrition especially among school going children. Objective: The study aimed to assess the effect of dietary habits and parental history of chronic disease on prevalence of dual burden of malnutrition among school children. Design: Multistage cluster sampling technique was applied to select 10/113 public-private schools. Students of 4th to 9th standard (n= 6472) were enrolled under the study.

Fusarium oxysporum fs lycopersici (FOFL) is considered as one of the most important plant pathogen causes fusarium wilt specifically in tomato. In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of Umbelliferae members carrot, Parsley, Celery, Coriander, Fennel, Caraway, Anise, Dill and Cumin aqueous extracts on phytopathogenic fungus (FOFL). These extracts used at different concentration (1,2,4 and 8%) and proved their bioactivity as antifungal agents for the inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum radial growth, fungal biomass and sporulation.

Sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and Chloride (Cl¯) play an important role in osmoregulation and homeostasis. In the present study sodium, potassium, chloride and phosphate concentration in the blood of four Indian fresh water carps, Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhana mrigala and Labeo fimbriatus has been investigated in relation to a aquatic body. The results indicate that higher concentration of sodium in the blood of all the four types of carps has been noticed in comparison to other electrolytes. The degree of these concentration is as sodium>chloride>phosphate>potassium.

The present study was the humic acid (HA)-oxidizing and the reduced organisms isolated from different localities of sewage samples in and around the 12 district of Tamil Nadu. The additional electron donating capacity of reduced HA could reasonably be attributed to the oxidation of reduced functional groups. Furthermore, this study indicates that reduced humic acids impact soil geochemistry and the indigenous bacterial community, on the basis of α, β, γ, and σ – Proteobacteria were includes heterotrophs, autotrophs, and methanotrophs.

The opportunistic bacteria including P.aeruginosa are ubiquitous to a wide variety of aquatic environments including drinking water distribution systems. Concern over the survival and spread of opportunistic pathogens in public drinking water supplies has been expressed in recent years because of the public health risk associated with their presence in properly treated water. A municipal drinking water distribution system in Neemuch was monitored over a 12 month period to investigate population shifts of opportunistic bacteria at various sampling sites.

A study was conducted by decomposing of Parthenium hysterophorus (Linn.) weed plants with farm yard waste; maize waste and chick waste in the ratio3:4:2:1 which allowed on an anaerobic fermentation fraction of the C-containing organic colloids of nanoparticles and organic compounds. The carbon containing nanoparticles of humic substancesarehumic acid, Fulvic acid and organic compound content was in the form of GA3, IAA and BAP amount of to 0.13 %, 0.002%, and 0.04% per unit respectively.

The biochemical parameters such as protein, lipid, carbohydrate and ash besides water content in the muscle of Octopus aegina, O. membranaceus, O. dollfusi and Cystopus indicus have been conducted during October2009 to September, 2011 at Visakhapatnam. The percentage composition of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and ash ranges from 9.95 to 17.56, 3.98 to 9.01, 0.23 to 0.62 and 3.73 to 7.79 respectively in juveniles and adults of four species. There was no remarkable variation in the biochemical composition of four species.

The dye decolourizing isolates, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas florescence, Proteus mirabilis, Alcaligens sp, Serratia marscens and E.coli from garden soil. The present study confirms the ability of all isolates for decolourization of pink and orange dye used in textile. The isolates showed 91.14 % percentage decolourization for pink colour dye and 93.6 % for orange colour dye under optimum conditions. Among all the isolates, Proteus sp for Pink dye and Pseudomonas sp for orange dye were found to be most efficient in decolourization.

Indonesia is famous as an area highly rich in natural resources, both in terms of quantity and diversity. The government is striving to improve and promote the use of Indonesia’s indigenous sources of nutrients and the use of natural herbal medicines Indonesia. The use of herbal medicine is closely related to traditional medicine that is inherited across generations as well as the manufacture and sales made by shamans. Historically, the use of herbal medicine began in 5000 BC by the Sumerians who have been able to identify some of the plants.

Observation on the choice of oviposition site of Nicobar frog, Hylarana nicobariensis was conducted under both natural and laboratory conditions. It was found that H. nicobariensis is the stream breeder, and the breeding season co-incides with winter season (October – February) in Mizoram where the water became shallow and slow flowing, and the peak period of abundance is December when the water become very shallow with the minimum velocity as well as temperature.

Over the decades our understanding of the pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease(CVD) has increased, and infections, including those caused by oral bacteria, are more likely involved in CVD progression than previously thought. The two disorders share several common risk factors, including cigarette smoking, age, and diabetes mellitus. The focus of this study is to assess whether available data support a causative relationship in systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Oral samples were collected from 19 patients with cardiovascular disease.

Aim: The objective of this study was to explore isolation, identification, enzymatic and antibacterial activity of intestinal bacteria of Zebra fish (Danio rerio). Methods and Results: The serially diluted (10-6) sample was plated in sterilized nutrient agar medium and incubated at 37oC for 24 hrs. After incubation the pure colonies were characterized for their morphological and various biochemical characteristics using the Berge’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology.

Background: Acute Febrile illness (AFI) is a common cause of patients seeking healthcare in India, especially between June and September. Co-infections with two or more infectious agents are also becoming a major health problem and the similarity of symptoms further makes accurate clinical diagnosis and treatment difficult without laboratory confirmation. Material and methods: Total 3250 samples were tested for Dengue NS1 and IgM retrospectively from the patients with history of febrile illness between September to November 2015.

The aim of the present study is the characterization and evaluation of purity parameters of oils extracted from studied varieties and local types, in comparison with those obtained from transplanted foreign varieties with to regard to elaborate sterols profiles. The β-sitosterol rates are very high (82%-87%) in Bka; BM3; BMK; BMR; BM4; M1; S1; S2; G9; G10; BLg; BRK; Dahbia; Picual; Gordal; Manzanille and Picholine of Languedoc varieties and high in BMM; M6, and Ascolana Tenera (77%-81%). For Δ5-avenasterol, BMM recorded the highest rate (14%).

Marine debris includes all objects found in the marine and coastal environment. Any object which is discarded, disposed of or abandoned that enters the coastal or marine environment can also be classified as marine debris. Some of commonly occurring items are plastics, electronic material, glass pieces, metals, Rubber and many such objects. The typical character of marine debris is that they are non-degradable and buoyant. These two characters make them enter different realms of the marine environment where they remain for a very long period interfering with the life of biota.

Synergistic and antimicrobial effects of fresh and dried extracts of red and green varieties of Hibiscus sabdariffacalyxes on two enteric pathogens were investigated. Isolates of enteric pathogens namely: Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli were obtained from Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi. Test organisms were subjected to confirmatory tests using standard methods of analysis. Samples of fresh and dried red and white calyxes of Hibiscus sabdariffa were purchased from Modern Market, Makurdi.

Gene flow from one population into another is facilitated by the migration of species resulting into genetic mix in the hybrids. The event of reproduction between different species is termed as hybridization which has been greatly reported in birds.

Five-month old stored soybean seeds (Glycine max [L.]Merr., cv. Soyamax) were subjected to dry and wet treatments. Dry treatments were done with powdered crude plant materials viz. red chilli powder @1g/kg of seed, neem leaf powder @2g/kg of seed, chemicals viz. iodinated calcium carbonate @ 2g/kg of seed (30mg iodine impregnated to 2g calcium carbonate), para-amino-benzoic acid @500mg/kg of seed, ferulic acid @500mg/kg and pharmaceuticals viz. aspirin @50mg/kg of seed.

The study was conducted to determine the effects of different storage materials to protect the ground nut from the attack of groundnut seed beetle in stored condition. To provide protection few materials like polythene bag, gunny bag, polythene coated gunny bag, coal tar coated gunny bag, polythene & coal tar coated gunny bag, decis impregnated and malathion impregnated gunny bag were tried . The observations on pod damage was recorded upto 150 days of storage.

The main objective in this study is to control the process variables (water level, temperature and flow control) of PCT 100 machine using PID controller which will be tuned by PSO/GA algorithms. The proposed work is to do automatic tuning of PID controller parameters i.e. KP, KI, KD, by intelligent methods such as GA/PSO. So the problem of tuning the PID parameters manually is eliminated and automatic tuning gives better results.

Manual gestures have been used as a medium of communication since time immemorial. Speech-impaired individuals extensively use manual gestures for communication. In addition, human-machine interfaces based on manual gestures are much more intuitive than those presently in use such as keyboards and mice. A manual gesture decoder could therefore simplify communication for a speech-impaired individual as well as serve as the backbone for an intuitive human-machine interface.

Vernonia cinerea is a annual herb which is commonly found in India especially in South India. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemical, phytonutrient (carbohydrates, protein, lipid, vitamin,minerals, ash, moisture) and thin layer chromatography profiling of the sequential extracts of whole plant V.cinerea. The sequential extract of acetone, ethanol, ethylacetate and aqueous extract of V.cinerea for analyzing phytochemical and confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC).

In the present study, about 20 samples of soil were collected about 50 m away from Kasimpur Thermal Power Plant to investigate the effect of fly ash spread out from the plant on the nearby soil. Can technique using LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detector has been employed for the measurement of radon activity and radon exhalation rate.

In recent fast and busy world of manufacturing industries, everything changes rapidly and new challenges are arising which require new solutions. Hence, use of technology is necessary for the industries. Digital manufacturing (D.M.) is an emerging technology in the field of industrial manufacturing to visualize the facility virtually for planning an optimized approach to obtain maximum production rate. Also, Lean manufacturing techniques are useful for the optimization of manufacturing facility.

Brain tumor is a very critical problem of the human life. In recent years, brain tumor is one of the major causes for death in people. Manually identifying the tumor is difficult. The physicians may also take risk to identify the tumor because they used for computer programming to perform operation on image. The detection of brain tumor at its early stage with its accurate diagnosis is very important. The computerized method to be used for detection of tumor on early stage. The proposed strategies to detect the extract location of brain tumor using the MRI scan images.

Retinal images is an methodology for diabetic retinopathy detection and analysis. The detection of blood vessels from the retinal images is a exhausting process. In this work a new algorithm to detect the blood vessels effectively has been proposed. Proposed system consists of three stages-first is preprocessing of retinal image to separate the green channel, second stage thresholding, third stage image masking, forth stage morphological processing. Initially enhancement of the image is using thresholding and changes of the variation.

Early detection of pest in bio-aggressor is a major challenge in agriculture field. Many effective measures should be taken to control the uses of pesticides. By using image processing techniques, image analysis can be applied to agricultural science; it can provide maximum cultivation of crops by protecting them from pest. This paper proposed a various software prototype system for pest detection on infected images.

A shape-memory alloy (also known as smart metal, memory metal, memory alloy, muscle wire, smart alloy) is an alloy that "remembers" its original shape and that when deformed returns to its pre-deformed shape when heated. This material is a lightweight, solid-state alternative to conventional actuators such as hydraulic, pneumatic, and motor-based systems. Shape-memory alloys have applications in industries including automotive, aerospace, biomedical and robotics.

Attempts on the occupation of particles (Frederick Reif., 2010; K.Huang. 2009: Mac Donald, 2006; R.K. Srivastava and J Ashok 2005; Avijith Lahiri, 2013; Landau and Lifshitz, 1969) relating to Bosons and Fermions that are indistinguishable particles is still attracting attention in comparison to ideal gas. These particles possess certain special characteristics relevant to its spin, indistinguishability, wave function, symmetry and its restriction. Sequential procedure is followed in obtaining equation for Bose gas and Fermi gas and comparison is implicated with ideal gas.

Recent developments of digital image production and applications have increases importance of digital image compression and security in today’s world. The proposed method is developed to combine both compression and security of image. Compression is achieved by the removal of redundant data. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is a recently developed compression technique in image compression. The existing methods to encrypt images usually treat the whole matrix as the key which makes the key too large to distribute and memorize or store.

In a Human body the cell that grows out of control forms a tumour called cancer. The tumour found in the lungs is named after it as lung cancer which endangers the human life the early identification increase the patient’s survival in this world. For detection of lung nodules Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are the computer aided diagnosis techniques are used. This paper mainly discuss about the pre-processing and segmentation process.

While using a cellular network inactivity timers are used to control and release of radio resources. The timeout time of inactivity timers is called Tail Time. In thus Tail Time wastage of a lot of energy in client devices and a lot of radio assets. To mitigate this problem Idle Leverage method is proposed. This is for batching and pre-fetching which automatically reduce energy consumption. Several modules are there in use namely, Radio optimization, Traffic aggregation, and a tail time mechanism.

Attribute-based encryption (ABE) is a vision of public key encryption that allows users to encrypt and decrypt messages based on user attributes. In a typical implementation, the size of the ciphertext is proportional to the number of attributes associated with it and the decryption time is proportional to the number of attributes used during decryption.

Purpose: To share the experiences and challenges faced by the researchers in building standardized tools for subject cataloging work. Design/methodology/approach: This research used analyzing literature, observation, statistics methods to figure out the cataloging principles and methods and settings as well as integrating subject headings. Besides, personal interviews method is also help to find out the advantages and disadvantages of building subject cataloging tools. Findings: Presentating methods and steps carried out to build the Vietnamese subject cataloging tools.

One of the legally accepted methods of age estimation is dental age estimation. The differentiation of an adult and a child has been quiet easy. But determining the age of an individual with a mixed dentition has been challenging. This article enlighten on the advantages and pitfalls of few dental age assessment techniques.

In the last few years there been a swift increase in the utilization of aluminum-silicon alloys, particularly in the automobile and manufacturing industries, this is because due to their high strength to weight ratio, high wear resistance, low density and low coefficient of thermal expansion. The progressions in the field of application make the study of their wear and tensile behavior an utmost importance. In this present investigation, Aluminum Based Alloys containing 6%, 10%,13%, 16%, 20% and 23% weight of Silicon were synthesized using sand casting method.

A theoretical model of cosmic expansion has been formulated on an assumption of inter-conversion of matter and dark energy, in the framework of Brans-Dicke theory. An empirical scale factor has been used, which generates a signature flip of the deceleration parameter with time. To account for the non-conservation of matter, a function of time f(t) is incorporated into the equation representing the density of matter. Its value at any instant of time is proportional to the matter content of the universe.

Textual information in the world can be broadly categorized into two main types: facts and opinions. Facts are objective expressions about entities, events and their properties. Opinions are usually subjective expressions that describe people’s sentiments, appraisals or feelings toward entities, events and their properties. With the growing availability of online resources on web and popularity of fast and rich resources of opinion sharing such as online review sites and personal blogs, Opinion Mining has become an interesting area of research.

Diabetes is the most common disease currently affecting the more than 371 million people. Blood glucose irregulation is the main cause of diabetes. Many methods are currently available such as artificial pancreas which consist of the glucose sensors, insulin pump and controller. The process of testing blood glucose level was quite tedious in past days. But now a days glucose biosensors are used to test the blood glucose level. The currently available biosensors are electrochemical type. These glucose biosensors are very sensitive, easy to maintain and their cost is too low.

The Zambian truffle has not been marketed both locally and internationally despite the product’s high marketing prospects. This study was to assess the economic and nutritional values of the Zambian truffle, the marketing activities associated with it, the challenges local traders faced in selling it, its marketing prospects, its other uses and products from it and the strategies that could be employed to grow it. The major finding was that the product had high marketing prospects both in local and international markets. It also had high nutrition and economic values.

This study aimed at assessing the current practices of educating students with visual impairment in the integrated primary schools of North and South Gondar. It employed qualitative research design. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and participant- observation methods. Though students with visual impairment have good opportunities to learn and live together with the other students without disabilities; the findings revealed that the teachers have little knowledge, attitude and practice in teaching students with visual impairment in integrated education system.

The use of integration as a pedagogical tool in the teaching of English language and literature subjects is a priority in Kenya. Despite the inception of the integrated English curriculum two decades ago, not all English language teachers use it as conceived by the curriculum developer, Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD). This is why teachers’ pedagogical experiences in implementing it become paramount. The Purpose of this study was to explore pedagogical experiences of teachers in implementing the integrated English language curriculum in Kenya, Kisumu County.

The present study was done to assess and to establish the norms of upper and lower pharyngeal width for Garhwali population and to determine sexual dimorphism among the population. Methodology: Sample of sixty Class I subject (30 male and 30 females) with well-balanced face were selected with age group of 18-24 years. Lateral cephalogram of the subjects were taken using natural head position and true vertical line.All reference points, landmarks and measurement were made according to McNamara airway analysis.

According to media reports corruption in governments occur in all countries around the world, but corruption in developing countries is reportedly higher and more severe than it is in developed countries. The emergence of the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) has been established as one of the most significant moves in recent years to enhance public sector accountability. This study examined the relationship between announcement of adoption of IPSAS and perceived levels of corruption in developing and developed countries.

Ethical conducts of public servants is reinforced by political commitment. This political commitment, difficult to benchmark, has been demonstrated by some policy and pronouncements. It is essential to the proper conduct and operation of government that public officials be independent and impartial and that public office not be used for private gain other than the remuneration provided by law.

The Kandi Development Block is situated in a flood prone region of moribund delta of West Bengal. Flood is a common environmental disaster in Kandi like any other deltaic region of the world. The block is well drained by a number of river systems such as mayurakshi, Kana, Kuye, Dwarka Brmhani, Gambhira etc. Kandi development block is westerly located in Murshidabad district. Apart from heavy and prolonged rainfalls river over flows, there are some casual factors of flooding. As a result the recent flood effect on a large number of people makes huge seasonal neo-refugees in every year.

Husserl saw the crisis of the European science, their loss of significance for life in the advent of modern objectivism and its forgetfulness of the life-world. It was therefore necessary to recover this “ground” for the sciences, on which they, on the one hand, have historically grown up and which, on the other hand, forms their continuing foundation of phenomenology, if phenomenology is to satisfy its own requirmentradical sense-clarification of the subset taken as the transcendental guideline for questioning back into the constitutive achievement of subjectivity.

Morphometric parameters likespatial distribution of relief (contour lines) and drainage basin (Stream area) was studied in Jayankondan block. The Jayankondan block lies between 10⁰54’N to 11⁰30’N latitude and 78⁰40’ to 79⁰30’ longitude with an area of 343.81 sq.km. It is bounded on the south by T, palur and Ariyalur block and on the north by on the western side by andimadam and sendurai blocks. The Jayankondam block consists of 32 panchayat villages.

The study basically aimed at assessing the current practices of play based learning in the Early Childhood Care and Education program of North Gondar, Ethiopia. This issue is important because of the recent movement for a more academic focus in preschool education. Therefore, this study first examined the teachers perceived emotional and social developmental value of play based learning in the preschool education. Second it examined and discussed the role of teachers in implementing play based learning.

This study investigates the impact of pre and post Initial Public Offering (IPO) Performance on selected firms. The data analysis ranges from 1 to 300 observations within a model specification framework on a Multivariate methodology. Two models were formulated to carry out the analysis on an Eview7 statistical package. The objective was to find out the position of the selected firms before and after IPO has been initiated and do a comparative analysis.

Economic growth, with all of its downsides, is clearly unsustainable in the 21st century. The positive, sustainable alternative is a Steady-State Economy. This study empirically analyze show far the Nigerian economy has converged towards or diverged from steady-state. Unit root, co integration, vector error correction, and Granger causality/block exogeneity Wald tests procedures are applied on annualdata set from 1970-2013.Themodel reveals having a self-adjusting apparatus for rectifying any deviance of the variables from equilibrium.

The aim of this research is to determine to what extent the education that teacher candidates receive improves their competence in using technology and what need to be done in order to improve it. To this aim, fourth grade students attending Science Teaching and Mathematics Teaching undergraduate programs at the Faculty of Education were asked to express their opinions. The study was conducted with a qualitative research approach, employing the case study method and descriptive analysis.

Working women are burdened with work and family commitments. Most of working women feel difficult in balancing their work and family life. In Health Care Sector, the employees have to perform shift duties. The nurses have to perform morning, evening and night shifts. The nurses at night shifts observe more stress than others; this shows a negative impact on their professional and personal lives. Research indicates that improper work scheduling and long working hours tend to cause adverse effect on employee’s health and well-being.

WSN is the networking mechanism through which data is transmitted from source to the destination. The main advantage of the WSN is least utilization of wires causing it to be used by wide variety of users. Security of the WSN will always be at stake because of the extravagant use of the WSN. There is a field of the WSN which is most commonly used known as MANET which is prone to security threats also. In the proposed paper we will consider the security concerns of the MANET and propose solution to the challenges present within the MANET.

The beverages sector in India has undergone significant transformation in the past 10 years. The carbonated and non carbonated drinks industry in India is to grow near about 45 per cent annually and would triple or four times in size by 2014. Customer preferences are more complex and even more important for retailers today than in past. The primary purpose of this paper is to find out which company is leading the market. This study is conducted between two global beverage companies’ Coca cola and PepsiCo.

Consumption is an unavoidable element or phenomenon that every economy cannot do without it. Consumption has played a crucial role in the building of the human capital as well as the development of a nation. Consumption as in its peculiar state of action has a stronger multiplier effects on the output of a nation with regard to its impact on the economic growth. The paper used a secondary data from Bank of Ghana and World Bank from 1975 to 2008.

There is a quickening race to put men and machines on the planets as the technology rich countries speed towards a rendezvous with super industrialism. Every nation is attempting to rapidly accelerate towards the future. Yet as nations speed forward evidence mounts that the education sector in Nigeria is dangerously malfunctioning. The Nigerian Dream, if there is any, cannot be realized while the education sector is fast collapsing; though Boko Haram shares a contrary opinion.

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease is a major public health problem worldwide with enormous cost burdens on the patients’ in developing countries. The study aims to provide a detailed analysis of the costs of hemodialysis on patients in private hospital in Sudan and provide the different classification of HD costs, and explain to what extent HD patients are able to cover this costs.

The Country India with 6, 38,365 villages and more than 70% of the rural populationhas become a huge consumer goods market. FMCG has emerged as a major product category in rural consumption. Companies marketing FMCG to rural consumers cannot merely extend their general marketing strategies to rural markets. Instead, they need to devise rural specific strategies. In this process, they need to understand critical issues relating to rural consumer behavior and more specifically relating to different demographic variables.

The thought of integration of students with disability in to regular educational system has old history even though there is no clear vision of why, when and how it applies in the schools of our country. Since this integration needs well organized educational delivery system, the challenges one can observe in the regular education has to get resolved based on relevant evidences supported by scrutinized study. Consequently, this study was designed to investigate the challenges children with hearing impairments face in the integrated classes.

The present study examined the level of aggression among bowlers and batsmen in cricket, for this purpose 120 cricketers were selected in Rewa city among with 60 was bowlers and 60 batsmen in each group 30 subjects was juniors and 30 was seniors. Further in each group 15 subjects was from rich families (R.F) and 15 were from poor families (P.F). The aggression level was measured by Aggression Questionnaire constructed and standardized by Dr. G. C. Pati. Results revealed that significant difference were between the levels of aggression among bowlers and batsmen.

The Sundarban (21° N to 21°30˝N, 88° E to 88°29˝E) is the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world, having a diverse range of flora, fauna and hapless inhabitants. The Sundarban is facing the dire consequences of a premature reclamation for the want of agricultural land. This reclamation has come about with the construction of embankments which reduces the spill areas of the rivers and causes in channel sedimentation.

One of the main causes of defaults and disputes in the public construction projects of Saudi Arabia is attributed to the lack of adequate contractor prequalification and selection. Typically, contractor selection decisions are based merely on price,with absence of better selection criteria. The focus of this paper, therefore, is to identify essential criteria for contractor prequalification and selection processes at semi-government organizations in Saudi Arabia, under the design-bid-build approach for competitive tenders. At first, initial criteria were identified from the literature.

Education sector in India has long awaited an overhaul to meet the growing demand for a contemporary educational system that may be accessible to all. During last decade the youth in our country have transformed themselves into technologically-driven, revealing considerable potential and readiness to imbibe and learn through the use of digital and electronic media inplace of print media. Digital India programme has potential to create of a knowledge based society.

Make in India is a global promoting battling trademark started by the Prime Minister of India, NarendraModi to pull in organizations from around the globe to put and make in India. The battle has been concentrated to satisfy the motivation behind Job Creation, Enforcement to Secondary and Tertiary division, Boosting national economy, Converting India to an independent nation and to give the Indian economy worldwide acknowledgment. The study is aimed at the history of manufacturing sector of India during the era of 1990s-2000s.

Indian agriculture has, for centuries, been solely dependent on the weather and the vagaries of the monsoon in particular. Uncertainties of weather and climate pose a major threat to food security of the country. Extreme weather events like heavy rains, cyclone, hail storm, dry spells, drought, heat wave, cold wave and frost causes considerable loss in crop production every year. Drought is a complex natural hazard. It is defined as any deficiency of water to satisfy the normal need to agriculture, livestock, industry, or human population.

Mössbauer absorption areas corresponding to 57Fe in olivine, pyroxene, troilite, and the metallic phase in ordinary chondrites exhibit certain systematic behavior. H chondrites occupy distinct regions on the plot of metallic phase absorption area versus silicate absorption area. While L/LL chondrites fall in separate region. The absorption area ratio of (olivine to troilite+kamacite) also show characteristic range in which H,L and LL chondrites fall. Based on these systematic, a fallen meteorite near Nathdwara, Rajasthan, India is suggested to be an L chondrite.

“XYZ INTERNATIONAL” is a school from preparatory classes to class-12 which follows CBSE pattern. School management is keen to provide quality education along with inculcating good moral values, proper physical & mental growth of its students. This school is performing good academically & financially, yet, the management is interested in improvements, whatsoever, to align itself with new ways of teaching/learning/collaborative learning so that school’s reputation is enhanced.

Background: The relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Transformational Leadership (TL) has been the subject of study by many authors. There have been very few studies of this relationship in Iraq. Al’Ikha industrial establishment is concerned with high technological industry and attempts to organize the relationship between the managers and staff according to scientifically studied research. Objectives: The objective of this study is to measure the impact of EI on TL in Al’Ikha establishment.

Objectives: The study was conducted in order to apply adequate methodological procedures to determine the influence of cognitive abilities, personality characteristics and social status on success in the subject of mathematics. Methods: For the purpose of determining the influence of cognitive abilities, personality characteristics and social status on success in mathematics with the pupils of the School of Chemical technology, we examined about 400 pupils in all four grades of the school. To evaluate the effectiveness of input processors or perceptual reasoning, IT-1 test was chosen.

In the present work, the composition Bi2Sr2Can-1CunOx were prepared by solid state reaction of more purity metals with Fe2O3 doping. The critical temperature Tc of the high temperature superconducting cuprate Bi¬2Sr4-xCaxFe3-yCuyOz were obtained 157K. On this temperature, The Resistance of the sample is going to zero. We have study in the paper about Electrical Resistant at 157K temperature of the samples.

The major focus in this technological era is on software development and the factors used in measuring the software quality, different types of the metric used in the current market to measure the software quality of their proposed system. It also discusses the issues in which users are concerned to the software quality of the product or system.

In previous activities we identified misconceptions of pre-service teachers about the topic of percentages (Bassan-Cincinatus & Sheffet, 2016). Consequently, we built a teaching unit based on the constructivist approach and used the cognitive conflict method. Our main objective was to assist pre-service teachers to be aware of the fact that intuitions do not always lead to the correct solution of this issue. The teaching unit consisted of six stages.

This communication investigates the oscillatory flow with the combined effects of fluctuating heat and mass transfer past vertical parallel porous flat plates. It is assumed that vertical channel is rotating with angular velocity . The periodic suction velocity is assumed at the plate and other plate oscillating with periodic free stream velocity. The governing equations are solved by adopting complex variable notations. The analytical expressions for velocity and temperature fields are obtained using perturbation technique.

Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, unburnt hydrocarbons and particulate matter are the principal air quality pollutant emission from automobiles. Number of automobiles are rocketed in recent years all over the world. Carbon monoxide it reduces the blood oxygen-carrying capacity which can reduce the availability of oxygen to key organs. Extreme level of exposure can be fatal. Maximum 8 hours average CO level allowed by WHO is 10mg/m3 Thus, it is very necessary to control exhaust emission from automotive source for environment.

In this paper, equality is established and discussed among soft erosion, soft dilation and soft close in multi scale environment. Soft erosion and soft dilation will exist for various thresholds. So soft open and soft close also exist for various thresholds. If definition for soft erosion and soft dilation are studied (5), then some type of equalities are viewed among soft morphological operations. So equality may be established in between soft erosion and soft dilation in multi scale environment (47). open and close are composite operations.

“Arbi leaves”, (also known as Taro) in its dry form has been known as a good source of Calcium. Scientifically known as Colocasia esculenta and belongs to Araceae. The present study was conducted on “organoleptic evaluation of dried Colocasia leaves incorporated in Palak Pakore and Kachori”. In the present study dried Colocasia leaves was incorporated in different ratios in Kachori (5%, 7% and 10%) and Palak Pakore (5%, 7% and 10%). A panel of 12 members was selected through Triangle Test for evaluation of the incorporated recipes.

ZnS/PVA and Pb doped ZnS/PVA nanocomposite films were synthesized using in-situ chemical method. X-ray diffraction patterns of the films confirm the cubic structure of ZnS. Optical absorption studies exhibit the red shifted phenomenon with the comparison of absorption peak of bulk ZnS. The optical band gap energy increases with increasing Pb dopant concentration. Photoluminescence spectra of the ZnS/PVA and Pb doped ZnS/PVA nanocomposite films show the two emission peaks in the visible region.

Investigation on “Influence of plant growth regulators on growth and yield of bitter gourd ecotype mithipagal in the rice fallow of cauvery delta region” was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu The treatment schedule comprised five growth regulators in two levels such as GA3 (25 and 50 ppm), Ethrel (ethylene) (250 and 500 ppm), NAA (100 and 250 ppm), Triacantanol (5 and 10 ppm) and Brassinosteroid (0.5 and 1.0 ppm) sprayed on 15, 30 and 45 DAS and untreated control with twelve treatments laid in randomized bl

The present investigation was carried out in the form of different experiments to find out the effect of organic inputs on certain growth and flowering characters of pumpkin in the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu during the year 2012.And it was undertaken with various organic inputs such as FYM (25 t ha-1), Vermicompost (5 t ha-1 ), Pressmud compost ( 5 t ha-1),Poultry manure (5 t ha-1 ), Neem cake (5 t ha-1) and Humic acid(85%) as soil application @50 g ha-1 which comprises 13 treatment combinations including absolute cont

Snake gourd (Trichosanthes Anguina L.) is an important Cucurbitaceous vegetable and has been traditionally grown due to its easy cultivation and short duration Performance of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes Anguina L.) Varieties on Flowering and Fruiting Attributes. An experiment was conducted by Randomized block design to characterize and assess the growth and flowering attributes collected from different parts of South India at the Department of Horticulture, Annamalai University. Data were recorded for eight characters.

Background and Objectives: The presence of furcation involvement represents a formidable problem in the treatment of periodontal disease. Advances in radiographic analysis such as radiovisuographic (RVG) aid in the early diagnosis and treatment planning, which is critical for long‑term success. The present investigation aims to correlate the interdental and interradicular bone loss in chronic periodontitis patients so as to explore the potential of interdental bone loss as a rough approximate screening tool for early furcation diagnosis in mandibular first molar.

Background: Adjuvant radiotherapy has been given to many women with breast cancer for more than 50 years and it is currently recommended for a substantial proportion of such women. Long-term follow-up of these women has, however, revealed that some past radiotherapy techniques led to cardiac and pulmonary toxicity, because of unwanted irradiation of the cardiac structures and lungs by using traditional 2D techniques. Most of the breast cancer patients in our center traditionally treated with 2D technique and cobalt 60 machine up to 3 years ago.

Background: Spinal mobilization is commonly used in the treatment of chronic neck pain. Various methods are used to treat patient with neck pain. In chronic neck pain patients have impaired neck proprioception. Manual therapy has evidence in improving neck proprioception patient with chronic neck pain. There is no study found in comparing two spinal manipulative therapies on neck proprioception.

This study was conducted to estimate the fermentation characteristics and acceptability of some selected plant species using West African dwarf (WAD) goats in a completely randomized design. The experimental samples were incubated in vitro with rumen liquor taken from three WAD goats in 24 h fermentation. The volume of gas produced at the end of incubation was highest in ECA (27 ml/200mg DM.) and lowest in PRA (24 ml/200mg DM.). The methane ranged from 16 to 5.33 in ECA and PRA respectively.

Protein structure is phyletically conserved to serve its specific functions. But several proteins are found to be partially lacking a definite folded structure under specific conditions and this is known as disorderness. Intrinsically disordered proteins serve many important functions of the cell. Essential genes of an organism refer to the minimal gene set among the genome and mutation in any of which may confer a lethal or non-fertile phenotype. Essential genes show high phyletic retention and high degree of conservation.

“Candida Overgrowth Syndrome” is an upcoming and more of common condition found particularly in youngsters who are on long term broad spectrum antibiotics for the treatment of acne and chronic sinusitis. Candidas are budding yeast cells which normally inhabit our gastrointestinal tract along with the other normal microbial flora. Overgrowth of Candida is made possible by overuse or misuse of antibiotics, a dysfunctional immune system or gastrointestinal distress.

Endoscopic examination of the middle ear cleft visualizes whole tympanum and the ear canal from multiple angles without any need to manipulate the patients head or the microscope. Endoscope allows the surgeon to visualize the middle ear completely and to simultaneously check the ossicular continuity and mobility. The present study was conducted for a period of one year in 70 patients who were admitted for surgical management of tubotympanic CSOM (safe type), atticoantral CSOM (unsafe) and secretory otitis media.

Background: Acute puerperal uterine inversion is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication in which the uterine fundus collapses within the endometrial cavity. Although the cause of uterine inversion is unclear, several predisposing factors have been described. Maternal mortality is extremely high unless the condition is recognized and corrected. Methods: This was a prospective observational study, conducted over a period of three years from March 2012 to June 2015.

Introduction: Each cardiac drug has its own pharmacological properties and side effects. Medication safety is a major concern and global issue related to the quality and safety of patient care. The administration of medication is an important aspect of nurse’s professional practice. So, nurses should update their knowledge to improve the quality of nursing care.

Furan is produced during food processing and preservation techniques that involve heat treatment. Furan-exposed rats showed dose-dependent gross and histological changes in endocrine and reproductive organs. Aim: this work was carried out to investigate the effect of furan on the histological structure of adrenal cortex in adult male rats. Material and methods: twenty adult male albino rats (4 months old) were divided equally into two groups.

A cross-sectional study conducted in Al-Madinah Almonawarah in KSA held during the period from March 2014-March 2015. This study aiming to identify the epidemiological and clinical pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-Madinah Almonawarah area. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected using special questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done using special computer program SPSS. Laboratory specimens were collected using skin scraping and needle aspiration. Staining and direct microscopy were done. LST was conducted.

The aim of this study was to describe the standard diagnostic procedure and the application of the Caldwell-Luc approach for the retrieval of a displaced root from the maxillary sinus and to share our experience in treating this complication. We Demonstrate a modified Reharmann flap that can be used for both retrieval of root as well as can be used to advance the buccal flap for closure of oroantral fistula that could be created because of the displaced root or the attempt by the dental surgeon to retrieve it.

Objective: • To study about the 'perioperative' glycaemic control and postoperative infections. • To study about the postoperative glycaemic status and postoperative infections.

Bowen’s disease is a clinical expression of squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the skin which presents as an asymptomatic well defined erythematous scaly plaque. (Weedon’s skin pathology, 2010) There is a predilection for both sun exposed areas like head and neck and non sun exposed areas like genitalia of both sexes, occurring in elderly people. A case of Bowen’s disease occurring over the right thumb, in a middle aged woman, who is a beedi maker, is being presented.

Objective: To compare efficacy of special blue compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) phototherapy with special blue standard-length tube lights (STL) phototherapy in terms of rate of fall of serum bilirubin levels, required duration of phototherapy and to compare the incidences of clinically observable side effects between both groups. Study design: Randomized prospective Observational Study. Setting: Tertiary level of neonatal intensive care unit. Study was conducted from December 2011 to September 2012.

Introduction: Physical characteristics and the protection from the bone jaw preserve the dentition even when the bony structures of the body are destroyed. Due to this, the use of dental morphology to determine sexual dimorphism is a procedure established in anthropological and biological studies. Aim: This study aims to evaluate sexual dimorphism in crown width and cusp parameters of permanent maxillary first and second molars in Uttarakhand population.

To measure the availability of knowledge of services among women regarding maternal and child health services. Study Design and setting: This study follows check list scale containing 74 set of items related to services provides by the community health set up in rural area. 100 multigravida women who were utilizing the services from the community health center from the sample. Directive technique is used for the data collect to collect the data from the sample. Data analysis consisted of inferential statistics analysis by using non purposive.

Background: Depression is a major public health problem as it can cause significant clinical distress. Major depression disorder (MDD) has been found to cause impairment of social, occupational or other areas of function. Antidepressant drugs being leading psycho tropics that are prescribed worldwide, their utilization in actual clinical practice, effectiveness and safety in real life situation need continuous study. Objective: Present study was carried out to evaluate the prescribing patterns of different antidepressants in psychiatry unit of a tertiary care hospital.

Background: Bipolar disorder despite being episodic illness, due to chronicity imposes a great financial burden of care on service users (patients & caregivers), especially in traditional societies like India where caring for a family member with disability is a norm. Economic burden serves as a barrier in access to health, infringing upon the right to health. Different determinants add to this burden in urban and rural settings, requiring different intervention strategies. There is dearth of health economics data from developing countries.

The incidence of sepsis is increasing globally, with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is still a clinical and laboratory challenge. Though blood culture is gold standard, it sometimes gives false negative result. So, judgement of clinical condition along with various investigations is important. Methodology: Blood culture, sepsis screen, biochemical markers, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study, radiology, MRSA (methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus) surveillance were carried out in this study.

A sinus tachycardia is an accelerated sinus rate that is a physiological response e.g., to fever, anxiety, pain, exercises hyperthyroidism or cardiac disease.

Introduction: Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common causative agent of nosocomial infections. Healthcare workers (HCW) have been shown to be the carriers and hence help in spread of the organism. Carriage by HCWs provides a very convenient niche for this organism to spread in the society, especially to susceptible patient population.

Hydrochemical study is a useful tool to identify the suitability of groundwater for irrigation purpose. Groundwater samples were collected from fourteen piezometers from the various locations in the study area to assess the quality of groundwater for irrigation use. To achieve this objective, concentrations of physicochemical parameters were analysed and interpreted with different irrigation indexes like Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), ECw, Percent sodium, Magnezium hazard and Kelly’s ratio.

The increasing tendency of deviations from the agro-climatic norms forces the search of alternative forage crops. The great variety of grain and sweet sorghum forms, sudangrass and their hybrids of the breeding program of Agricultural Institute – Shumen is a good basis for selection of adapted to the actual conditions genotypes, allowing harvest of green mass in different stages of the crops’ development during vegetation.

The expression of recombinant protein for structure determination is one of the major challenges in pharmaceutical and academic research, since the number of potential drug targets has increased significantly in the last decade. Despite the fact that the baculovirus expression vector system is widely used for this purpose, the system is hampered by three very slow and tedious procedures, namely generation of high titer baculovirus stock, determination of the virus titer and discovery of the best conditions for protein expression.

Medicinal plants have been an integral part of life in various regional communities for food and drug. The use of medicinal plants to treat human diseases has its root in pre historical times. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ethnomedicinal uses of various plant species in three villages of Poovanur, Velukudi and Lakshmangudi from Needamagalam Taluk, Thiruvarur District. The present study reports a total number of 79 species used to cure various oilments like antidiabetics, diarrhoea and dysentery, Gastrointestinal order, Rheumatism, wounds and skin diseases.

Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems to be considered at utmost priority. Hence, there is an urgent need to tune all our activities in compliance with environment friendly manner. Many efforts have been made to search for effective and economic techniques for the removal of heavy metals from water. Alternative process is biosorption which utilizes the dead biosorbent for heavy metal removal. This is having many advantages over the other processes. The biosorption has low operating cost and high efficiency in detoxifying very dilute effluents.

Introduction: Thyroid hormone is one of the central regulator of body functions. The effect of thyroid hormones on electrolytes has not been well established and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Only few data on the association between thyroid function and electrolyte disorders exists. Thus our aim was to find out the electrolytes imbalance between hypo and hyperthyroidism and their correlation. Materials and Methods: 60 patients and 30 controls were included in this study.

Objectives: The objective of our follow-up study is to evaluate liver enzymes in acne patients treated with isotretinoin. Setting: Dermatology outpatient clinics, MIMS, Mandya. Participants: we included the patients diagnosed with moderate to severe acne. All patients were treated with low dose isotretinoin and followed-up in our outpatient clinics 20 weeks. Patients were subjected to an interview questionnaire which included data on age, gender, previous treatment and liver enzymes. Primary outcome: Blood analyses were repeated in the follow-up visits baseline, 4,8,12,16,20 weeks.

An experiment was conducted under Laboratory culture conditions for 120days to evaluate the nutritional values and acceptability of Lemna minor as component in the diets of Cirrhinus mrigala fry. By replacing fish meal with Lemna minor at 0%, 15%, 30% and 45% inclusion levels, four different fish feeds comprising of Lemna, fish meal, GNOC(Groundnut Oil Cake), rice bran, soybean, salt and vitamin were used to formulate compound diets. The fries were fed twice daily, morning and evening at 5% body weight.

Nawruz is one of the most fabulous festivals celebrated in Kurdistan of Iraq (KOI) with joy and happiness. Nawruz is celebrated by people from diverse ethnic communities and religious backgrounds for thousands of years. During Nawruz festival, which held annually in KOI, thousands of firecrackers are set off, in an intense pyrotechnic spectacle. Firework displays are high-intensity anthropogenic activities that create notable air pollution and obvious short-term air-quality degradation.

The collection of indigenous bacterial cultures was performed to estimate its ability to degrade harmful pollutants present in molasses spent wash (MSW) and to understand its degradation potential through natural attenuation for which bacterial (Bacillus subtilis) and fungal strain (Fusarium solani) was utilized. From the following results 1.2% glucose/peptone concentrations were considered to be the optimized source for carbon and nitrogen for the organisms.

A single blind clinical trial conducted for a period of 3 months to evaluate the effect of the bark of Holoptelea integrifolia (Family- Ulmaceae) on body weight and associated metabolic disorder in over weight human volunteers (BMI >25/m2). The trial and positive control groups received GHANAVATI (Holoptelea integrifolia) and NAVAKA GUGGULU (Standard Ayurvedic Preparation) respectively 30-60 minute before lunch and dinner.

The present work is aimed to isolate, identify and characterize the rare actinobaterial strains VJSY-1 and VJSY-14 from the mangrove soils of Gilakaladindi, Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh. The soil samples were collected, pre treated with calcium carbonate and used for the isolation of rare actinobacterial strains. Identification of these strains was carried out by polyphasic taxonomical studies including morphological, cultural, physiological, biochemical characters along with 16S rRNA analysis.

The comparative study was conducted to analyze the effect of TDZ on Caullogenesis of M. balsamina and M. charantia a closely related important medicinal cucurbits. The highest number of (10.9 ± 0.05) multiple shoots were observed on MS medium fortified with TDZ+ CSH (2.0 + 200 mg/L) from cotyledonary explant of M. balsamina However cotyledonary explants were produced maximum number of shoots (9.00± 0.23) on MS medium augmented with TDZ + CSH (2.0 + 200 mg/L) in M. charantia. Best rooting response obtained from regenerated shoots on MS medium supplemented with IBA (3.0 mg/L) in both plants.

Safflower is primarily intended to produce oil for human consumption, having the potential for biodiesel production. This study aimed to evaluate macro and micronutrients omission effect on biometrics and visual diagnosis of nutritional deficiencies in safflower plants grown in nutrient solution. Research was conducted in a greenhouse. Nutrient solutions containing all nutrients and with individual omissions of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum and zinc were used.

Investigations carried out deal with the effect of inorganic and organic admixtures in different concentrations on the properties of ß-hemihydrate plasters of mineral gypsum (selenite) and chemical gypsum (phosphogypsum). It has been observed that the addition of these admixtures plays a vital role in the increase of the compressive strength and also improves water resistance of the plaster. Addition of 1 % K2SO4 increases about 54 % and 66 % of compressive strength of selenite and phophogypsum plasters respectively, while water absorption decreases upto 30 %.

During present study on the helminth parasites of birds, a total of five Little Egret Egretta garzetta (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidea) were collected from different locations of river Indus at Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. During examination of gut contents and visceral organs, seven trematodes belonging to genus Pegosomum Ratz, 1903 were collected from liver of two host birds.

Artemisia species has various medicinal properties, constituting the main source artemisinin, an antimalarial drug which has widespread importance to mankind. The production of artemisinin either in cell/tissue/the whole plant of Artemisia species is therefore highly desirable. This artemisinin varies in different species of Artemisia based on their genetic diversity. Thus in the present study an attempt has been made successfully to assess the genetic diversity among Artemisia species using EST- derived SSR marker as well as RAPD marker.

The present study was under-taken to assess the changes occurring during the decomposition of municipal solid waste, through the estimation of some typical physico-chemical, and biological characteristics. Changes in the composition characteristics of the compost over-time, included increased electrical conductivity, bulk density, water holding capacity and total soluble solids etc, during the decomposition process, where as the moisture content got reduced towards the end of composting (with final moisture content being around 27 %).

Aluminium is one of the most abundant elements on earth’s crust. It forms approximately 7% of the earth’s crust. In soils having low pH, aluminium combines very frequently with oxygen forming complexes which are rather more stable and harmful to microbes as well as plant species. Microorganisms continuously interact with various elements present in soil. Some interactions are beneficial but under low pH conditions some interactions are there which can cause inhibitory effect on them thereby limiting their growth under such conditions.

In this paper, modified Einstein’s field equations are solved in the presence of bulk viscous fluid for spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi Type-V cosmological model by using the average scale factor as which leads to the time varying deceleration parameter. We also use the barotropic equation of state for pressure and density. The physical aspects of this model have been discussed.

Carbon dioxide is a major cause of natural calamities and changes in climatic conditions. Of all the sources of emission, the amount of carbon dioxide from automobiles is approximately 65%, which is more than any other sources of emissions. Raise in carbon dioxide content in atmosphere is causing global warming which is evolved from greenhouse gases. To reduce the emission and control of carbon dioxide percentage in atmosphere form automobiles, theoretical & practical methods of adsorption of carbon dioxide using activated charcoal (carbon) in diesel operated engines is conducted.

The main objective of the present work was investigated the self-magnetization for Iron filling samples. The experimental shown that the self-magnetization increasing dependent on size nanoparticles for the samples (x1,x2 and x3), which x1 denote the hard sample, x2 is the mid-size and x3 is soft one for Iron filling. The magnetization of sample x3 was greater than sample x2and sample x1.

A new model based on artificial neural network has been developed to estimate monthly average global solar radiation for different Indian locations. Two layers feed forward network sigmoid trained with Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation algorithm with eleven input terminals and ten hidden layer neurons have been used to give solar radiation as an output. The model was trained, validated and tested by using measured global solar radiation data of eighteen Indian locations spread over different Indian climatic zones for which measured data was available.

In the present work various toxic and combustible gases such as CO and CH4 could be well discriminated using ZnO thin film gas sensors from statistical analysis of their conductance transients. ZnO thin films are grown using MOCVD technique. The gas sensing characteristics of the grown films are studied at different operating temperatures in presence of various gases. The first Fourier transformation (FFT) yield excellent results in discriminating the gases at different operating temperatures.

A series of acid azo dyes were synthesized by the coupling of various Naphthoic acids with the diazonium salt solution of 3-(2-amino-thiazol-4-yl) coumarin. The resulting dyes were characterized by spectral techniques, i.e., elemental analysis, UV, IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The dyeing performances of all the dyes were evaluated on woolen fabric. Dyeing of woolen fabric resulted in reddish pink to violet shades with good depth and levelness. The dyed fabrics showed moderate to very good washing and perspiration fastness.

In recent years huge amounts of information has been collected in health based databases depicting patients’ health status (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Thus, diagnosis of patient’s health has been considered as one of the vital processes in health care expert systems for the detection of acquired diseases from the given symptoms of the affected person.

Journals are meant to publish results of original research and current developments as well as announce new discoveries within a specific discipline or field of study usually in successive parts indefinitely. Librarians, like other academics need to consult them in order to conduct research and publish research results. This paper discusses the use of journals in Library and Information Science (LIS) by librarians in university libraries in Rivers and Bayelsa states of Nigeria.

Land use and land cover is an important component in understanding the interactions of the human activities with the environment and thus it is necessary to be able to simulate changes. Empirical observation revealed a change in land use land cover classification in the parts of Pudukkottai District Tamil Nadu state. In this paper an attempt is made to study the changes in land use and land cover in the study area 10 years period (2003-2013). The land use/land cover prepared LANDSAT ETM+ satellite imageries data (Path153, Row053, acquired on 30 meter resolution image).

This study assessed the impact of health insurance on employees productivity, using Nigerian Bottling Company Plc. as the case study. The study based its analysis on the premise that risk and uncertainty are the major elements of care. The study makes use of primary data that was sourced through a well-structured questionnaire. A total of one hundred and four (104) questionnaires were administered to the selected sample from a population of (208). The person product moment correlation coefficient was adopted for the data analysis.

Enterprise development interventions refer to programs that provide business-focused solutions to help entrepreneurs in the developing world work their way out of poverty. They provide an intelligent mix of counselling, training and consultancy; financial interventions; infrastructural development and legal and regulatory framework helping people to work their way out of poverty. This paper examines the role of financial interventions in enhancing the growth of new venture start-ups based on a study of women- and youth-owned new enterprises in Baringo County, Kenya.

This contrastive genre study applies Martin and White’s Appraisal framework, specifically its Attitude subsystem in order to find out if there exist differences between stance patterns exhibited by American and Filipino disaster news writers, and if the manner by which US writers represent Philippines during post-catastrophic events and the way Filipino writers portray the country within similar context vary. Three U.S. daily newspapers and three Philippine broadsheets, which were selected based on readership online rankings, were the sources of data in the study.

River Hindon is an important river catering the demand of highly populated and industrial cluster of western Uttar Pradesh, India. Water quality of river Hindon is constantly deteriorating at an alarming rate due to various industrial, municipal and agricultural activities taking place along the course of the river. The present study investigates the seasonal and spatial variation in the water quality parameters at eight different sites for two consecutive years (2013-2015) along the selected stretch of the river.

The aim of education Endeavour is to help one to develop one‘s individuality, develop all the inborn potentialities and innate capabilities and above all develop both body and mind. The emotional stability and consistency may depend upon the kind of environment in which the individuals been nurtured and trained up. Hence the investigator chose to study a problem in the area of “A study on Emotional Turbulence among XII Students in Madurai District”.

Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOs) play an essential role in economic development as part of the financial system. In Kenya, 63% of population benefit from SACCOs. SACCOs are now a vital instrument embraced by Kenyan Government towards increasing financial inclusion especially now that financial transactions are tending towards a cashless economy. In light of this, various scholars have conducted studies on financial performance within the SACCO movement and using various variables. However, none of the scholars adopted the CAMELS model in their studies.

Mobile delivery of extension information is an idea whose time has come, as this represents the most cost-effective and widespread interactive delivery medium. Communication through mobile phones is not a replacement of traditional communication tools, but compliments and facilitates the process of dissemination. Mobile phone usage by farmers can reduce the information search costs, thereby dramatically lowering transaction costs and enabling greater farmer participation in commercial agriculture.

This study assessed practical discussion on helping the faculty’s enhancement of various competencies. Further, the study conducted to examine the essential core competencies for training faculty in Competency Requirements under the Philippine Technical Vocational Education Training (TVET) in Trainers Qualification System (PTTQS) handling Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Technology at Cebu Technological University. The qualitative and quantitative data were collected through interviews and document analysis.

Background and Objective: The most common radiographic abnormalities related to lung metastasis are pulmonary nodules .The CT scan in most circumstances are the best modality for lung metastasis evaluation..In this study we aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of lung CT scan with slice thickness less than 1 mm (0.625 mm) compared with the usual slice thickness for detection of tiny metastatic pulmonary nodules. Materials and Methods: This study was a diagnostic study performed on 110 patients with malignant diagnosis who were referred to the Radiology Department of Hospital.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCs) is one of the most prevalent types of all oral neoplasms that highly require early diagnosis. Salivary evaluation is non-invasive, simple, and rapid.The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between salivary MMP-9 concentration and its tissue expression in patients with OSCC.Materials and Methods: Saliva samples were collected from 24 patients with primary diagnosis of OSCC and 24 healthy age-and-gender- matched. The unstipulated saliva was collected with spitting method.

Breast cancer is known to spread to bone, lung and liver commonly. However, spread to gastrointestinal tract is rare. As compared to other parts of the gastro intestinal tract, stomach is the most commonly involved metastatic site. Primary gastric cancers must be differentiated from metastasis to stomach as the later condition is underdaignosed and associated with poor prognosis. Information is very sparse regarding the management of patients with cancer breast metastasizing to stomach, as there are very few case series and reports that are available in literature.

Objective: To know the role of USG and CT in pancreatitis, compare the findings of USG with CT, correlate USG and CT findings with biochemical parameters, evaluate the occurrence of complications, and predict the outcome of patients with pancreatitis Materials and Methods: Ultrasound and CT (plain and contrast) evaluation was done in 55 patients clinically suspected of pancreatitis of all age groups and both sexes. The Ultrasound and CT findings were compared and correlated with the biochemical parameters.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is classified as a malignant neoplasm and is endemic to the Far East Asia. Oncogenic viruses such as Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Human papillomavirus (HPV) are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of NPC tumours, with the former being well establish to have a strong association with the cancer. Little is known about the association of HPV, as well as the correlation of cytopathic effect induced by this virus and its presence in NPC tissue samples.

Background: Nowadays, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has become a mainstay treatment option for the management of portal hypertension-related complications in liver cirrhosis. Accumulated evidence has shown that its indications are being gradually expanded. Notwithstanding, less attention has been paid for the selection of an appropriate stent during a TIPS procedure. Aim: To evaluate efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent for decreasing portal pressure and estimate stent diameter according to the classification and patient condition.

The main objective of this study is to determine neonatal sepsis among neonates born to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infected mothers. One hundred and one neonatesborn to CT infected mothers were screened for CT infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Maternal and neonatal risk factors for sepsis were also assessed using a checklist. Thirty-four of the neonates had sepsis of these, twenty-two(22) were early onset and 12 late onset.

Reaction time study has been evaluated in many health and disease conditions. It reflects the alertness, calmness, concentration and cognitive abilities of an individual. Further study of choice reaction time for individual’s response of visual reaction time for red and green and auditory reaction time for low and high frequency sound helps in microanalysis of perception of central nervous system to wide variety of stimulus and response pattern in each of the exposed stimuli.

The present study investigated emotional intelligence and job tenure as predictors of job satisfaction among university administrative staff. The sample was selected through purposive sampling and inclusion criteria were gazetted and non-gazetted administrative staff members having minimum job experience of one year. The data was collected from 153 administrative staff members (Male = 105, Female = 45)of 22 to 63 years old that having current job tenure ranged from 1 to 7 years.

Context: Health related problems of elderly in India needs special attention. There are no prescribed guidelines for elderly in India, various physiological and age related factors contribute to unwanted reactions in elderly. In clinical practice it is very difficult for choose an appropriate medication for them. Considering all this problems we need an appropriate prescription pattern for elderly. Objective: To analyze the prescription appropriateness in elderly using beers and STOPP criteria and to identify the mishaps in prescriptions.

Introduction: Functional appliances are mostly used in the modulation of mandibular growth and displacement of the tongue, which results in the alteration of the oropharyngeal airway. This study was carried out to evaluate the cepalometric changes in pharyngeal airway space along with the position of hyoid bone, size and position of tongue and soft palate after functional appliance therapy in growing patients. Aims and objectives: 1.To evaluate the changes in pharyngeal length and width 2.To evaluate hyoid bone position and angulation, and 3.

The present study was carried out to investigate possible antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activities of methanolic extract of the flowering tops of Rosa damascena. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanolic extract of the flowering tops of Rosa damascena was tested by castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice, it increases mean latent period and decreased the frequency of defecation significantly and dose dependently at the doses of 250 mg/kg (P < 0.005) and 500 mg/kg (P < 0.001) body weight comparable to the standard drug loperamide at the doses of 50 mg/kg body weight.

Background: The study was carried out to determine the serum concentrations of Myoglobin in obese subjects attending University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Methods: One hundred and Eighty Five (185) obese subjects of BMI >30 had their Myoglobin determined and compared with 160 age and sex matched controls. Results: The myoglobin concentration of 14.33+15.61 in Obese subjects was higher than 13.59+3.69 obtained in the Control (P>0.05). Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that serum level of Myoglobin is increased in Obese subject.

Background: Salivary Evidence in a crime scene is scaling revolutionary heights in Forensics. Saliva identification on a victim proves malicious contact, thus carrying more evidentiary weight. Salivary DNA is also a promising tool for epidemiological genomic studies. This study was conducted to investigate state of DNA in scenarios of delayed evidence collection in tropical climatic temperatures.

Objective: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered as the principal cause of chronic elevated liver enzymes. The components of metabolic syndrome are found to be significantly associated with NAFLD. The study was carried out to determine association between nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases and components of metabolic syndrome.

Pycnodysostosis is a rare clinical entity, first described in 1962 by Maroteaux and Lamy. It is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by osteosclerosis, brittle bones, short stature, delayed closure of the fontanels, wide lambdoidal sutures and premature synostosis of the coronal suture, clavicular dysplasia spondylolysis and acroosteolysis. This paper presents a very rare case of a patient with Pycnodysostosis, with concurrent osteomyelitis and review the relevant literature.

Urban populations in Morocco receive free medical drugs as prescribed by doctors in district health centres. To explore the exposure pathway of 238U, 232Th and their decay products to the skin of patients, these radionuclides were measured in various medical drugs by using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs).The measured concentrations range of 238U and 232Th in the medical drug samples of interest vary from (4.3±0.3) mBq.l-1 to (11.1±0.7) mBq.l-1 and (0.49±0.03) mBql-1 to (1.3±0.1) mBq.l-1, respectively.

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a common childhood neuro- developmental disorder with early onset, affecting 5.4% and 8.7% of African children. Recent studies reveal that 30% to 70% of children continue to experience the problem in adulthood. In spite of high morbidity, a large majority of children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder remain undiagnosed or do not receive appropriate specialized services because of lack of technology. The disease causes impairments of personal, social, academic, or occupational functioning.

Background: Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) is a recommended treatment for all hypoxic-ischemic pathologies. It has been demonstrated that perfusion abnormalities are present in some areas of cerebral grey matter in autistic children and there is a lack of connectivity in areas of the white matter. The cause of these anomalies is still unknown. The areas involved (temporal lobes, frontal lobes, and other areas such as the thalamus, limbic circuits, corpus callosum, and cerebellum) are connected to the symptoms and behavior of these patients.

In examining the influence of the organizational structure and culture on the medical waste management practice (MWMP) among public hospitals in Libya, this paper depicts a theoretical view to develop several corresponding hypotheses, with the two organizational factors (structure and culture) proposed to draw their effect upon hospital groups who are in charge of medical waste. Therefore, this paper examines the direct relationship between independent variables (structure and culture) and the dependent variable (MWMP).

Objective: To study the demographic risk factors, sites, types, clinical features, management of rupture uterus and to study the maternal & fetal outcome and to make a strategy for prevention of this catastrophe. Method: This study was carried out in Jan 2008 to Jan 2009 at Mahila Chikitsalaya, SMS Medical College, Jaipur. 70 cases of rupture uterus were taken and analysed during 1 year. They were examined after proper history and informed consent, beyond 28 wks of gestation. Patients were dealt according to general condition, parity, presence or absence of sepsis.

This paper was conducted to evaluate the economic and productive efficiency of two layer breeds and their crossing in Egypt. The first breed is indigenous Fayoumi, and the second is exotic Rhode Island Red (RIR). Both breeds have their different performances, and each breed was preferred over the other for some particular traits. By crossing the two breeds, the crossbreds could benefit from the strengths of the purebreds. The economic efficiency measures are used to determine the economic value for various traits and to compare the performance of purebreds and crossbreds.

Aim: The objective of the study was to find out association between serum uric acid (UA) levels and severity of pain in different grades of osteoarthritis of knee (KOA) patients. Methods: After obtaining ethical clearance, 160 patients suffering from KOA were enrolled in the study. Informed consent was taken and blood samples along with the radiographs of the knee joints were obtained. On the basis of the radiographic pictures the patients were categorised into four grades according to Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grading method.

Introduction: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of mortality around the world (2). Identification of risk factors and early diagnosis are important as symptoms may indicate unexpected and serious consequences. In addition to genetic predisposition; obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and smoking are well established risk factors. The relationship between increased Serum Uric Acid level and development of CAD has been investigated for more than 50 years.

Malaria remains one of the deadly diseases in Indonesia. In its attempts to cure malaria, the government has implemented the DHP formulation (dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine) added with primaquine. However, no study has been carried out on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of this combination.

Introduction & objective: Acute Bacterial Meningitis (ABM) is a medical emergency which warrants early diagnosis. Pretreatment with antibiotic before lumbar puncture make interpretation of CSF culture difficult. Clinicians must rely on the other tests to determine the etiology of meningitis. Thus it is very important to ascertain the diagnostic efficacy of different tests employed. This study was aimed to evaluate Real Time PCR with other diagnostic methods in culture negative ABM in pediatric age group.

Debonding of the soft liner from the denture base is a major problem that plagues their longevity. Various surface modifications have been introduced to increase the bond strength. But no studies have been conducted comparing the bond strength between denture liners and acrylic resin following Plasma-oxygen and laser treatment. A total of 108 rectangular denture base resin blocks each having a cross-sectional area of 10mm × 10mm and 40 mm length were fabricated. The blocks were divided into 2 groups (n=54) each for bonding with the 2 soft liners (Group 1-Molloplast-B, Group 2-Permasoft).

Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) that cause a common end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Cytokines regulate inflammatory processes in response to the degree of inflammations. Overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNF-α) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) play a role in the development and progression of DN. Aim: To evaluate the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, and their implication in diagnosis and progression of nephropathy in patients with type 2diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Hydatid cyst or Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by tapeworm. Dog being the definitive host, this disease is common worldwide. Hydatid disease is most commonly caused by E. granulosus. Liver and lung are the frequently affected organs. It is a chronic disease and cyst can be localized in different organs. Incidence of hydatid cyst in head and neck region is extremely rare. This is a case report emphasis on extremely rare presentation of hydatid cyst in buccal vestibule.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus| Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV|AIDS) has become the common deadly chronic disease. Provision of antiretroviral drugs is believed in reducing the effect of stigma and social discrimination. Previous studies verified the association between accesses of ART on stigma reduction. In this study, the urban data results confirmed with the previous study results. However, the rural data do not reflect the access of ART reduces the stigma of patients on ART. Most of patients in rural hospitals give up continuing on ART due to stigmatization.

Background: While working in a clinical laboratory, sometimes it happens that the health and safety can be overlooked, inadvertently pushed aside or forgotten–with dire consequences. However, with proper training and practice in noticing the mundane i.e. safety measures, we can find and correct many common mistakes and prevent hazards and injury. Aim: A study was carried out to study the knowledge and practice of safety measures being adopted in clinical laboratories. Material and methods: The study consists of 97 respondents.

Background: Various changes in the educational system have evolved for educator leaders recently. However, negative impacts on leader’s emotional intelligence due to leadership behavior that arise problems in producing good quality of work can have significant effect on their performance. Objective: This study investigates the impact of an emotional intelligence on leadership behaviour as well as fitness of the suggested hypothetical model and the observed data.

The jugular foramen is a hiatus located at the base of the skull. The ninth, tenth and eleventh cranial nerves pass through this foramen. The increasing use of modern diagnostic procedures and new surgical approaches has created a need for detailed anatomical studies of the foramen. Hundred dry south Indian human skulls were collected from the Department of Anatomy Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center and a study was undertaken to measure the size of jugular foramen.

Nanotechnology refers to the research and development of an applied science at the atomic or molecular level (i.e. molecular engineering, manufacturing). Although the nanoscale is small in size, its potential is vast. Almost every area of human activity will be affected by future nanotechnologies. Nanotechnology is based on the concept of creating functional structures by controlling atoms and molecules on a one-by-one basis.

Background: Human in contact with petroleum products always in regular life needs as they are parts of many materials on consumption needs, the more affected individuals are those in direct contact with these products are individuals in work positions make easy direct exposure, as workers in petrol stations, petrol products enter the body though breathing from air; swallow in water, food, or through touching. Most components can enter the blood stream rapidly when inhaled.

Condom Social Marketing is a means in which condom brands are developed and marketing with the promotional campaigns to be sold to specific target groups. Currently, more than two billion socially marketed condoms are distributed each year and present in 66 countries in the globe. The origin of Condom Social Marketing was in 1960’s when Government of India expanded it family planning methods with special focus on condoms. The efforts are further focused on condom promotion in 1980’s with discovery of HIV/AIDS.

Background & Aim: Literacy is as an active link between people and health literacy field. People with certain factors such as cognitive abilities, social skills, emotional state and physical condition are healthy tissue. The aim of this study was to Investigation of health lieracy level of cardiovascular patients hospitalized in educational hospitals of Kerman city in 2015. Material & Methods: This study used survey methods, analytical and cross-sectional manner.

Despite availability of several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for the management of epilepsy the problems of inadequate seizure control and disturbing side effects with these drugs persist and hence, quest continues for newer agents with superior clinical efficacy and safety profile. Brivaracetam (BRV) is a new AED that is an analog of levetiracetam (LEV). Its mechanism of antiseizure action seemingly involves selective binding to synaptic vesicle protein 2A, akin to LEV.

This review article overview the advancement in the oral dosage forms, application, formulation consideration, method of preparation, evaluation of new generation Anti migraine drugs. Fast dissolving oral films (FDOFs) have been introduced in the market recently as they provide convenience and ease of use over other dosage forms such as orally disintegrating tablets.

Biggest challenge that a pediatric dentist has to face is the ever dynamic changes in a newborn and infant through childhood and adolescence. Being a pedodontist, and having to work exclusively on child patients, our foremost requirement is to be able to appreciate fully the massive difference in each and every aspect of biological and behavioural spheres between a child and an adult through adolescence.

Patellar fractures are common and constitute about 1% of all skeletal injuries and results because of direct trauma, which causes more comminution whereas indirect injury leads to more displacement with transverse fracture pattern1, 2. Modified tension-band wiring (TBW) technique 6,7,8 is the most widely used technique and has give best results in the operative group. We carried out a prospective study of displaced fracture patella by modified tension band wiring in adults with an objective of evaluating the functional outcome and associated complications.

Gynecological specimens form a major bulk of histopathology laboratory. Aim of this study was to determine the frequency and histomorphological patterns of lesions of the cervix. This was a 2 year retrospective study done in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 600 cases were retrieved from histopathology department and evaluated. The age group of the patients was between 20-75 years. It was concluded that about 79% cases were non –neoplastic and 21% were neoplastic. The most common of all these lesions was chronic non-specific cervicitis.

Background: Twin pregnancy is considered as one of high risk for both mother and baby with variable incidence worldwide. Methods: This was a prospective, observational, hospital based study that was carried out in Omdurman maternity hospital during the period September 2012 to February 2013, 112 ladies with twin pregnancy and their respective babies were included in the study. Maternal and neonatal data were recorded using a specifically designed questionnaire. Data was processed and analyzed using SPSS Program.

Background: Balance is a component of basic needs for daily activities and it plays an important role in static and dynamic activities. Core stabilization training is thought to improve balance, postural control, and reduce the risk of lower extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of core stabilizing program on balance in spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy children. Subjects and Methods: Thirty hemiplegic cerebral palsy children from both sexes ranged in age from six to eight years participated in this study.

We describe a case of 25 year old male patient with a growth over the anterior rugae region of hard palate since 3 years. Based on histological appearance, diagnosis of sebaceous gland hyperplasia in fibroepithelial polyp was given which itself is a rare entity and in our case it was encountered at the rarest of sites.

Background: Angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) are commonly used drugs for treatment of hypertension and heart failure. Cough is most common side effect occurring in 0.7-35% according to various reports. Objective: To estimate the incidence of ACE-I induced cough in IRAQI patients.

Background: Intertrochanteric (IT) fractures are common injuries that most commonly affect the elderly but are also seen in younger age patients. Understanding of Biomechanics of the fracture and also development of implants had led to improvement in the treatment modalities available for these patients.

Ectodermal dysplasias is a rare hereditary disorder that results due to disturbances in the ectoderm of the developing embryo. The classic features that define this condition are partial or complete tooth agenesis which is a congenital lack of one or more teeth of primary and or permanent teeth, sparse hair, dystrophies of nails and lack of sweat glands. Since the pediatric dentists are the first to be consulted in case of loss of teeth, this article is a sincere effort to spread awareness about this rare entity.

Objectives: To determine and assess the oral health knowledge and awareness of early childhood caries (ECC) and its prevention among the pregnant mothers. Methodology: About 110 mothers were interviewed combined with questionnaires.

Background and Aims: Leakage rates from colonic anastomoses continue to be significant. The effect of luminal butyrate on the healing of colonic anastomoses in the ascending and descending colon was investigated in rats. Methods: Colonic resection and anastomosis was performed in the proximal and distal colon of adult Wistar rats. Daily enemas of butyrate (40 mM) or saline were administered to case and control rats respectively. Animals were sacrificed on the 6th day and colonic segments of 4 cm including the anastomoses were excised from both the ascending and descending colons.

The unique complexity of the oral cavity and adjacent areas presents a continual challenge to prosthodontist. Patients usually maintain acceptable speech if the dentures satisfy the requirement of function and esthetics. However, some patients with dentures encounter difficulty and their speech becomes a major concern. Recording the posterior palatal seal area in complete denture fabrication has always been an attempt by the clinicians.

Background: Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) found in the normal skin flora and mucous membranes have recently got attention as a potential pathogen, specifically for nosocomial infections. Recent reports suggest coagulase negative Staphylococci as the most common pathogens of blood stream infections. Aims: To identify and speciate various species of coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated from bloodstream infection and determine their antimicrobial resistance pattern.

• To study the epidemiology of the solitary nodule of the thyroid. • To study the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the management of solitary nodule of the thyroid. • To study the incidence of malignancy in solitary nodule of the thyroid. Materials and Methods Case selection All patients admitted with a solitary nodule of the thyroid. Exclusion criteria • Patients with severe comorbid illness. • Patients with solitary nodule of thyroid and regional lymph adenopathy. Materials and Methods Place of study: Thanjavur medical college hospital, Thanjavur.

Objective: To evaluate the association of verbal memory scores of similar and dissimilar pairs with their Hb concentration in elderly population. Methods: From an urban health centre, 60 healthy elderly subjects (aged between 50 to 60 years) who had participated in a health camp were selected. Their verbal retention memory levels were evaluated using PGIMS. The Hb concentration was collected from their haematology report. Then values of verbal memory was analysed against their Hb concentration.

Nitrobenzene is a nitrite compound often used in polishes or solvents. Its toxic effects are due to its ability to induce methemoglobinaemia. The clinical presentation of this poisoning varies according to the concentration of methemoglobin level in blood. The importance of early identification of the compound on the basis of clinical suspicion corroborative with methemoglobin levels with timely intervention is required to prevent fatal outcome (Agrawal et al., 2011).

Objective: 1) To estimate the prevalence of primary infertility in the study population. 2) To describe the socio demographic characteristics prevailing among couples with primary infertility in the study population. 3) To identify the probable medical conditions associated with primary infertility. Design: Cross- sectional descriptive study. Setting: Rural field practice area of tertiary hospital, Bangalore. Sample: Complete enumeration of entire Kumbalgodu Primary Health center area covering 26, 190 populations.

Rehabilitation of patients with facial deformation requires multidisciplinary approach. Repair of auricular defects can be a difficlut task replicating pronounced convolutions and severe undercuts with wide range of clinical presentations and available treatment options.

Background: Age estimation in the living is one of the most important tasks of a forensic practitioner especially in developing countries where birth records are often not well-maintained. Objective: Prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in Wad Medani Teaching Hospital, Wad Medani orthopedic Center and Gezira National Center for Pediatric Surgery with the objective to assess the bone age by epiphyseal fusion of the distal end of the femur by using radiographs of Sudanese subject at Gezira State.

Dentigerous cysts are benign odontogenic cysts that surrounds the crown of impacted, embedded, unerupted or developing tooth. These cysts are the second most common odontogenic cysts of the oral cavity after radicular cysts and they are most frequently associated with impacted mandibular third molars, less frequent with canines and maxillary third molars. but dentigerous cysts involving impacted second premolars are extremely rare occurence.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant infectious disease in many parts of the world, which is of great concern. Prompt detection, isolation, identification and susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical specimens is essential for appropriate management of patients with tuberculosis. This study aims to compare the sensitivity of BACTEC MGIT method in detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among various clinical samples and to detect the drug resistance pattern to 1st line drugs among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates.

DPP-4 Inhibitors are the class of oral hypoglycemics that block DPP-4 (Dipeptidyl peptidase-4), used to treat T2DM. The first agent of the class Sitagliptin was approved by the FDA in 2006. Most of the antidiabetic have major side effects like weight gain, hypoglycemia, GI adverse reactions etc. DPP-IV Inhibitors are devoid of such major side effects. Designing pyrimidinedione-based compounds may probably give safe pharmacological profile with significant antidiabetic activity.

Emollients have been part of human life for centuries. It softens and smoothes the skin. They improve the skin barrier function by decreasing the Transepidermal water loss. Leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum and Azadirachta indica as well as peel of Aloe vera have been principle ingredients in emollient creams. They were subjected to qualitative tests and quantitative total phenolic content assay. It was found that the ethanolic extracts of the sample had high phenolic content and it had a good correlation with DPPH free radical scavenging assay.

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder related mainly to the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, a structure of the basal ganglia. Objective: To analyze quantitatively the changes in postural stability and static balance in patients with PD. Methods: The sample was comprised of participants with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic PD, and healthy participants. The participants remained in static position on the force platform. Data were obtained with open and closed eyes.

Biotransformation processes are defined as the use of complete biological systems or its parts to make structural funcionalizations to xenobiotics compounds. Microbial transformations are characterized by versatility, efficiency, regioselectivity, chemoselectivity and enantioselectivity of the enzymatic processes involved. In a single process one or more products can be obtained and they occur under mild conditions considered environmentally friendly and can be placed in the field of white biotechnology and green chemistry.

The present investigation was conducted to determine levels of heavy metal pollution in tannery area of Dhaka city. Concentration of Fe, Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni and As have been estimated in soil and vegetables grown around the leather industrial area. The investigated soil and vegetables samples were collected in open place of different distances from the tannery area. The order of metal contents was found Fe > Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > As > Cd both in soil and vegetables.

Natural convective MHD flow of a viscous incompressible fluid along a vertical plate is discussed with the effect of variable electrical conductivity and heat generation under the action of transverse magnetic field in porous medium. It is supposed that there is an internal heat generation along the plate that decays exponentially while electrical conductivity of the fluid is a function of fluid temperature. The process of similarity transformation is used to transform the partial governing equations into ordinary.

The present investigation is carried out at two urban parks to assess the soil metal and atmospheric heavy metals in plant species which are commonly growing at varying distances from heavily trafficked National Highway 24 in Moradabad city. Emission of heavy metals from the automobile exhaust and brassware industries nearby the highway contaminates the soil and surrounding plants. Unwashed leaves samples were used to assess the of total metal concentration (Cr, Cu, Cd, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb) and for the purpose six common plant species i.e.

Wireless technology has been gaining rapid popularity over the years. Nowadays, security is considered as one of the most critical parameter for the acceptance of any wireless networking technology. Although implementation of technological solutions is the most common way to respond to threats of wireless security systems and susceptibility, wireless security is basically a management issue. Effective management planned after analyzing current threats will help to sort out issues in a better way.

Research works the relationship between students’ mathematics self-efficacy and academic performances are scarce in African context. This study, therefore, is conducted to fill this gap. 218 first year engineering students completed scales on self-efficacy belief and sources of self-efficacy beliefs in math. The result indicated moderate mean on both variables. 19.3% of the variance on first semester grade in applied Math I explained by performance experience; and 21.4 % of the variance on first semester grade in applied Math I was explained by students self efficacy belief in math I.

Pregnancy is a special time during a woman’s reproductive life as a result of the unique physiology and the presence of a developing fetus. Despite an impressive amount of effort and extensive research over the past century, our knowledge of the development, physiology and pathophysiology of the fetus and its environment remains limited. Thus, study of amniotic fluid (AF) provides unique as well as vital information about the understanding of the biochemistry and physiology of AF and to foresee ways in which the fluid might be used in other diagnostic problems.

Energy conservation can be achieved by trimming down the energy consumption of the edifices. Six storey edifice of Shoolini University at Bhajol, Solan, Himachal Pradesh (India) is taken as a case study in this work. Energy load of the edifice during winter months is 165.27 MWh, whereas during summer months is 110.99 MWh, and thus annual load is 276.26 MWh. The total energy load of the edifice has been met out by using conventional sources of energy. The emission of CO2 by using fossil fuels has been estimated and worked out 1.11 tonne per annum. Adoption of solar passive features (viz.

In this paper, a configuration of a five-level neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter that can integrate solar PV with battery storage and it is connected to the induction motor and vlf speed control is also proposed. This paper illustrates the design of three-port dc–dc converter for stand-alone PV systems based on an improved Flyback-Forward topology.

Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes without fixed network infrastructure and centralized control, it is a type of network in which nodes are interconnected by wireless medium, it is self configure network in this network nodes automatically change its location. In this paper predictive methodology is provided which includes the genetic algorithm for improving the performance of the mobile network.

At present condition both type of capacitor high and low voltage capacitors are made up of using All Polypropylene Film (APP) and Low tension capacitors made up of using Metalized Polypropylene Film (MPP).APP film capacitor having less dielectric losses and high voltage stress. It also have long life hence generally used in high voltage and low voltage capacitor. But the cost of low voltage capacitor is increased due to use of All Polypropylene film. So due the high, the use of this type of capacitor is less.

Brick light of Kalla Block is a subsidiary of PT.BUMI SARANA BETON at Kalla Group, which produces light brick of high quality raw materials with German technology that meet acceptable standards Deutch Industries Norm (DIN). Problems faced of Kalla Block this time is how to increase production ratio because increasing demand, one of the efforts is how to increase productivity and work efficiency.

Two- wheeler riding calls for constant attention. The moment you become unmindful of speed, applying sudden brakes to avoid obstacle may lead to accident. An over-speed alarm can be of great help to avoid such situations. It acts like a watchful friend that warns you whenever you drive faster than the set limit speed. Over speed indicator is a device that tells the driver if he is exceeding the particular speed limit. With the over speed indicator in your car you can be sure that you are not going get yourself booked for over speeding.

Biomass is the most potential considering their quantitative availability. Prosopis juliflora a Mesquite is a shrub or small tree in the Fabaceae family. It is also one of the biomass which is available hundred hectares in our area. Casuarina equisetifolia is an evergreen shrubs trees growing to 35m tall. In order to characterize the physical and chemical properties of P.juliflora and C.equisetifolia as feed stocks for energy conversion process, we developed protocol. The particle size of both samples was found to be 8nm from X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique.

The aim of this system is to track person of interest in real time based on scenes obtained from camera modules. This system avoids potential human errors as we are using automatic monitoring. It is a histogram based real time tracking system. Moving objects are detected using background subtraction. Moving object detection, recognition and tracking are basic steps in processing video frames.

In this paper a comparison of double priors assumed for the parameter of power distribution is ‘made sometimes we may have different prior information’s available instead of single prior for the parameter of the power distribution. It may be beneficial to include such different types of information’s in the Bayes estimation of the parameter. We have considered three double prior distributions viz. Gamma and Uniform priors, Gamma and Jeffrey’s priors, Gamma and priors and only Gamma prior. The results are compared with results based on single Gamma prior.

The project ‘Inverter uses switch mode power supply’ is use to convert direct current into alternating current using IC LM 324 and IC CD4047. This project is designed to meet up with power demand in home and office in the absence of power supply. It is designed in such a way that it will take 12v DC from the battery and convert it into 220v, 50hz AC. The circuit is capable of charging the battery that is 12v source in case of power is present.

Business Intelligence (BI) allows an Organization's executives to obtain a better understanding of their customers, sales, market, supply and resources, and competitors in order to make effective strategic decisions. The rapid growth of computer in today's business environment has increased the demand and urgency of successful business organization to be able to react quickly to the changing dynamic market demands in locally as well as globally.

The Calcium oxalate (CaOx), a biomineral occurs in both plant and the animal kingdom. Calcium oxalate also has a commercial importance; it is used as filler and a pigment in coated paper and the cardboard industry to impart brightness. Three hydrate forms of Calcium oxalate which are crystallized in different morphologies and the natural occurrence is connected with the three minerals whewellite as monoclinic monohydrate (COM), weddilite as orthorhombic dehydrate (COD) and caoxite as triclinic trihydrate.

Mechano heterocyclic chemistry (MHC) is a recent and quickly growing technique in synthesis of heterocycles. Benzo[b]1,4-thiazepines,benzo[b]1,4-diazepines\were prepared via new mechano-chemical (grinding)technique of α,β-epoxyketoneswith o-aminothiophenol, and o-phenylenediamine, respectively. The same compounds were synthesized under conventional thermal method. However, quinoxalines were obtained from α,β-epoxyketones and o-phenylenediamine, mainly under conventional method.

A problem for container tillers is managing container substrate and plant fertility. A comparative study in nurseries on the effects of soil quantity in pot and nitrogen fertilizer on the chemical properties of residual soil and the nutriments uptake by cocoa seedlings were led in a Randomized Complete Block Design. Two types of pots with different capacities (1055 cm3 and 2021 cm3) without any contribution and four nitrogen doses applied in pots of 2021 cm3, were used. The two nurseries were managed under the same conditions.

Bioethanol is one of the energy sources that can be produced by renewable sources. Waste potatoes relatively inexpensive as compared with other feedstock considered as food sources. However, a pretreatment process is needed. In Chitrakoot a much amount of potatoes are produced every year. This research was carried out to find out the optimum conditions for bioethanol production. The protocol was used by co-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF).

A field experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Station, Madhira for two consecutive seasons of kharif, 2012 and 2013 on clay soils to study the effect of different sowing dates on tillering behavior, growth and yield of rice varieties under aerobic culture. The results indicated that, the crop sown early i.e on 18 June produced more number of total and effective tillers, grain and straw yields and decreases with every successive 15 days delay in sowing from 7 July to 18 August during both the years.

A research study conducted on the Himalayan Dal Lake has shown that this lentic ecosystem is rich in microalgal flora. During the study, a total of 21 algal genera comprising of 39 species, 6 varieties were identified during the four seasons at six different sites of Dal Lake. Cyanophyceae with 16 genera, 29 species and 2 varieties were the largest class recorded, showed their peak abundance during summer and autumn seasons with the maximum standing crop at DLS-VI.

In India there is a practice of using plants in traditional medicines from the time immemorial. Among many other problems, infertility is a major problem taunting the modern society. With increasing pollution at all levels and stress factors in the present day situations, infertility is mushrooming like an epidemic and creating havoc for couples and their families causing lot of turmoil in their lives. To overcome the problem of infertility the traditional practitioners are using various plant products to treat infertility one among them is stem bark of Syzygium cumini (jamun).

The data of a varietal trial having 40 genotypes evaluated in three replications at Forage Research Project on forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] were collected and were subjected to factor analysis using SAS software. The data on Days to flowering(DTF), Plant height(PH), No. of tillers /plant(NTP), Leaf stem ratio(LSR), No. of leaves/ plant(NLP), Leaf length(LL), Leaf width (LW), Stem girth ratio(SG), Green fodder yield(g) /plant (GFYPP), Dry matter content (DMC), and Dry matter yield(g) /plant (DMYPP) were used for the present study.

The present investigation was carried out on an important ornamental plant Jasminum sambac L. Aiton. belonging to family Oleaceae. The different vegetative parts i.e. nodal explants, shoot apices, stem and leaves were used to standardize the protocol through in vitro.The explants excised from field grown mature plant and thereafter planted on variously supplemented Murashige and Skoog’s medium for multiple shoot proliferation and callus induction.

Fish is a prospectus source of protein, vitamins, and minerals. In compared to other food product, fish protein consist of amino acids that has a composition more complete and more digestible. The fish flesh also contains fatty acid, particularly Omega-3 which important for health. Research aimed to study the profile of amino acid and fatty acid of Indian Mackeral Scad and Darkbar Flyingfish which it applied to treatments: presto and presto by added 12% yeast.

The major problem faced by current period is water pollution. Due to this pollution the physicochemical properties of water are highly influenced. The parameters show different values at upstream and downstream level, the value of parameters also fluctuate with changing locations. This problem is created by man itself either through industrialization, or discharge of sewage or chemicals in water bodies which affect the life of aquatic flora and fauna and becomes unsafe for agricultural and drinking purpose.

Manudevi forest is one of the richest floristic regions among Satpuda forest ranges of Maharashtra. An attempt has been made to document the rare, endangered and threatened species of Manudevi forest area which become helpful for the protection, management & conservation of biodiversity in general.In this work attempt has been made to highlight some of threatened important medicinal plants species found growing still in the Manudevi forest area reported in the Red list of IUCN.

Passiflora L. belonging to the family Passifloraceae includes more than 465 species, of which 12 are cultivated with worldwide distribution. A breeding program of the genus for developing new cultivars has therefore become much important, and diversity analysis has become a necessity to screen the elite germplasm. The present study thus aims at determining the genetic variability in the genus Passiflora with a view to identify the superior germplasm for the improvement of the fruit crop. Eight wild and two cultivated species of Passiflora L.

The aim of this research is to control the pathogenic fungus, which causes Fusarium wilt disease in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var lanatuscv. (Crimson Sweet 0015) by grafting it onto pumpkin, Cucurbita moschatacv. (Tetsukabuto). Pathogenic fungus was isolated from the infected roots of watermelon seedlings through growing it into PDA culture. In this study, Tongue approach grafting method was applied. Plants have been divided into four groups.

Identification, classification and the prevalence rate of intestinal parasites of different fish species found in Afikpo North Local Government Area fresh waters were carried out. A total of 58 fishes were collected at random locations in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state. They were sampled, identified and classified into 28 species. Seven (7) common fishes among them were examined for gastrointestinal parasites.

The antibacterial activity of local isolates frome isolated from Baghdad, Iraq samples of different sources urine and wounds, ear and eye swab(25)strain of Staphylococcus aureus. From the collected clinical samples that gave positive result in coagulase of it was (MRSA methicillinresistance S. aureus 1 according to sensitivity test and vitek 2 system. Bacteriocin synthesis is a valuable character of some staphylococcal strains.

This study conducted in the semi-arid lands of central Sudan, aimed at investigating and analyzing the coping mechanisms that have been adopted by the traditional farmers on the main staple food (sorghum and millet) to cope with rainfall variability. Primary and secondary sources were used in the study. Five hundred (500) headed households were randomly selected from eight sample sites and questionnaire interviews were conducted focusing on the adopted coping mechanisms. Coefficient of variation and descriptive analytical methods were used in the data analysis.

Whereas Food and Nutrition security play a crucial role in the management of HIV and AIDS, the scourge is a significant threat to good nutrition and food security. It increases vulnerability and depletes the capacity of a society to cope yet no proper documentation has been done in Migori County. This paper examines food and nutrition coping strategies adopted by sugarcane and tobacco farmers living with HIV and AIDS and their families in the County. Design of the study was a cross sectional descriptive and analytical survey.

The present effort has been made to characterize the arecanut accessions based on total phenolic content and native protein profiles. The study showed significant variations for total phenolic content in the mature fruits among the arecanut accessions. Accessions VTL-26 (Fiji), VTL-11 (Indonesia) and VTL-60 (West Bengal) recorded higher phenolic content while low content was noticed in VTL-56 (Hirehalli Dwarf).

Innumerable plants were used in Indian Systems of medicine like Siddha, Ayurvedha and Unani. With increasing demand for herbal drugs, the natural populations of Aristolochia bracteolata are threatened with overexploitation. The present study was aimed to develop an innovative micropropagation protocol in Aristolochia bracteolata. Nodal and shoot tip explants were used as a starting material for micropropagation. Explants were surface sterilized and aseptically cultured on MS medium supplemented with different plant growth regulators.

Changes in micronuclei frequency of fish captured from stressed environments may represent a reliable tool in revealing sub lethal effects of the pollutants found in aquatic ecosystems. The response patterns of peripheral erythrocyte micronuclei were assessed in fish caught at Dal Lake and Mansbal Lake which have different pollution levels with the aim to evaluate the suitability of the MN, for the Halics detection of mutagens in freshwaters. As indicator species, Cyprinid fish (Cyprinus carpio and Carassius carassius L.) were used because of their ecological significance.

This research dealt with findings that included laboratory and greenhouse studies on the efficacy of our isolates of Trichoderma spp. in controlling Fusarium spp., Nigrospora oryzae, Exserohilum rostratum, Bipolaris spicifera, Curvularia lunata, Alternaria spp., and Thanatephorus cucumeris. Ten isolates of Trichoderma spp. were pre-screened on chitin plates to determine its ability to digest chitin therefore indicating the presence of chitinase which is a good disease resistance candidate.

IMNCI is a key evidence based strategy for reducing neonatal and infant mortality through systematic approach. The focus is on overall well being of the child. The aim of IMNCI is to train, and provide preventative and home-based care through, India’s network of frontline health workers and supervisors. ASHA occupies a major position and perform as important element in health system networking. Supportive supervision and timely monitoring of any program is of utmost importance to make the program a success.

Profenofos is commonly used pest control in the agricultural fields surrounding freshwater reservoirs. This study was conducted to determine the acute toxicity of organophosphate pesticide and its effects on some haematological parameters of fresh water teleost fish Notopterus notopterus. The experimental groups showed decreased RBC, and Hb at 24 and 96 hrs exposures, and WBC value were found decreased at 24 hrs and increased at 96 as compared to control groups respectively. The results of examinations of blood profile indicate marked nuerotoxic effect of profenofos in fishes.

Swarna is high yielding and widely grown indica rice cultivar covering a substantial portion of rice area in India and in the Asian countries such as Bangladesh, Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia, but it is highly susceptible to blast disease. The donor selected for the resistant gene is C101LAC carrying blast resistance gene Pi-1 derived from LAC23. The Pi-1 gene was done introgressed into Swarna by using Marker assisted backcross breeding method.

The Vanda orchids are totally tropical and are cross compatible with other genera like Ascocentrum, Aerides, Rhyncostylis, Neofinetia, Renanthera and even Phalaenopsis. All orchids having the same characteristics as the Vanda genus is called as a vandaceous orchid and they grouped together to form the Vanda Alliance. Genera like Vandas, Aerides, Ascocentrum, Renanthera, Rhyncostylis, Aranda, Mokara, Kagawara are included in the Vanda Alliance. They are ideal for cut flowers, hanging baskets, pots or tree logs.

Rice is a major component of the agricultural sector in particular and the overall economy in general. Flooded paddy is often sold at low price causing economical loss to the farmers. Therefore, the present study was conducted to study the physical quality properties of flood affected paddy and rice in comparison with normal paddy and rice to find the quality of various physical parameters.

An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the Avidanallavijayapuram (Pappanadu) village of, Orathanadu (tk), Thanjavur (dt), Tamilnadu, India. Interviews and detailed personal discussions were conducted with the herbalist and local people to identify plants and collect the medicinal information for 12 months (from January 2015 to December 2015). The medicinally important plants were botanically identified. Totally 137species of 125 genera belonging to 57 families were reported with ethno medicinal values. Leaves are the mostly used part to prepare medicine.

Background and Methods: The majorities of young people have no healthy life style or dietary habits. In the current study, we investigated the associations between hypertension and smoking among Hail University students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among university students. Randomly, 100 male young students between the ages of 18- 24 years were selected. Data were collected on a self-completed questionnaire in order to record smoking behavior and dietary habits.

The present study was carried out to determine the morphological and anatomical character of fresh-water air-breathing fish Clariasbatrachus to characterized the length, weight of alimentary tract and reproductive aspects like condition factor (K), Gastrosomatic index (GSI), Gonadosomatic index (GnSI), Hepatosomatic index (HSI). The result obtained indicated adverse effects on the gonads as well as on liver weight.

The purpose of this paper is to explain the importance of math Manipulative. For decades, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has encouraged school districts nationwide to use Manipulative in mathematical instruction. The value of Manipulative has been recognized for many years, but some teachers are reluctant to use them in their lessons. Throughout this paper, a discussion of the positive results of several research studies that strongly suggest the use of Manipulative will be mentioned. The history and advancement of Manipulative with also be discussed.

According to the National strategy for environmental investments in the Republic of Macedonia 2007- 2013, the country has enough green energy, sunny days, hydropotential, geothermal watersuu8and biomass, i.e. potentials which are not sufficiently exploited, and it is bound to produce at least 20% renewable energy by 2020.

Soil pollution is mostlyrelated to human activities such as industry, agriculture, burning of fossil fuels, mining and metallurgical processes and their waste disposal. A work was undertaken to study the physico- chemical characteristics of soil at three villages like Raika, Bansapani and Kalinga near the mining area of Keonjhar District, Odisha. The physico- chemical parameters like pH, conductivity, organic carbon, and organic matter, N, P, K, Zn, Fe and Mn were analyzed following the standard methods.

The present investigation suggests that the influence of metrological and Physico-chemical factors on the seasonal variation of cyanobacterial diversity were performed. Marine water samples were collected at monthly wise from Thondiyakadu coast for one year from July 2013 to June 2014 and Physico-chemical Parameters such as rainfall, atmosphere temperature, water temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen; Nitrate and total phosphorous were analyzed. Maximum rainfall was September may record during the period of 2013 to 2014. Maximum pH was June and July was recorded in the study.

The present investigation was carried out to isolate the Bacillus species. From clinical and subclinical Bovine mastitis milk and to determine antimicrobial susceptibility. The samples were collected from mannargudi Taluk, Thiruvarur (Dt) Tamilnadu.from January 2016 to March 2016. A total of 41 Milk samples suffering from mastitis were screened and a total 9 Bacillus species. Were recovered. The isolated were subjected to the antibiotics resistance screening.

An apparently healthy 50-year-old male, reported in OPD with the history of fever for last 1 year associated with decreased appetite and weight loss in last 6 months and skin rash all over body for last 4-6 weeks. On physical examination, the patient was looking ill. He was febrile, pale, tachycardic and blood pressure was within normal range. Axillary lymph nodes were enlarged, right was approximately of6cms x 4 cms, and left was 3cms x 4 cms, firm, non-tender and mobile. He had raised skin lesions of varying sizes 0.5-1 cms all over body including the genitals, sparing palm and sole.

The study was carried out to assess the water quality parameters of the Agniyar estuary, Tamil Nadu, India from August 2015 to April 2016. The monthly variations showed minimum and maximum value water temperature (24.52 – 32.15˚C), turbidity (47.75 – 59.15 cm), pH (7.62 – 8.4 ppm), dissolved oxygen (3.35 to 6.19 mg/L), salinity (18.27 - 25.57 ppt), calcium (95.15 – 146.9 mg/L, nitrate (0.32 – 0.51 mg/L) and ammonia (0.13 – 0.24 mg/L) respectively..

Managathi forest of Ariyalur district, Tamilnadu was explored for the floristic studies and life form spectrum. It covers an area 32ha. Totally 141Angiosprmic plant species represented by 105 genera belonging to 49 families and the habit wise distribution of plants species dominance of herb 48 (28.36%)followed by shrub 38 species (26.95%), trees 36 species (25.53%)and climber 27 species (19.14%) were recorded.

The present study deals with the analysis of macro and micronutrients and microbial diversity of soils from Thanjavur Taluk, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu. Soil samples were collected at various seasons (Monsoon, Pre monsoon, Summer, Post monsoon) from three villages namely Thanjavur, Sengipatti and Sadayarkovil. The physico chemical parameters of soils were analysed. The physical parameter includes the analysis of pH, moisture content and temperature of the soils.

The present investigation is focused on effect of environmental variations as well as human interference on physicochemical parameters from Ekruk tank, Solapur.The correlation is established between various physicochemical parameters during specified period 2010 -2012.In our study it is revealed that all parameters showed correlation with each other and seasonal fluctuations heavily influenced the variations found in native freshwater body. Our results are discussed in the context with influence of season as well as human interference.

Presidential inaugural speeches have witnessed a rapid proliferation of research in the 21st century in the field of political discourse. This paper focuses on how presidential inaugural speech is used as a vital vehicle for setting social agenda as well as prioritize policies both local and international as a roadmap to a new democratically elected government. The paper uses Agenda setting Theory to highlight how issues gain prominence in media coverages. CDA is also harnessed to portray the connection of language and power in political discourse.

Political instability and market reassessment of sovereign credit risk pricing could be considered as being the most relevant determinants of Tunisian and Egyptian sovereign CDS spreads volatility. In fact, after the “Arabic Spring” revolutions, Tunisia and Egypt knew a wave of sovereign credit rating degradations; CDS spreads increases and economic fundamentals deterioration. Under dictatorial political regimes, these two economies seemed to be economically stable despite their worsening macroeconomics fundamentals.

At the national level the first ever coalition government was formed under the Prime Minister ship of Late Shri Morarji Desai Ji which existed from 24th March 1977 to 15th July 1979. Country India is a geographically vast with varied dialect divided in 28 states and 7 union territories has blessed with predominance of the regional and sub regional issues and problems. Within these issues and concerns the birth of regional political parties is inevitable and resulted in to more politically sharp focused regional parties.

The study examines the relationships between equity and foreign exchange markets with a focus on return and volatility spillovers in Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa and Tunisia. To aid analysis, a bivariate VAR-GARCH BEKK model is employed in the study. The main findings suggest a higher dependence of own return in the stock markets and a uni-directional return spillover from the currencies to the equity markets except for South Africa which has a weaker interrelation among the two markets.

Maternal lifestyle is a key determinant of maternal health in the global world. Maternal health has become the top most priorities for the United Nations, the World Health Organization, Governments and institutions around the world. As a result many attempts have been made in order to improve maternal health by educating the pregnant women on their way of life, nature of diet and the kind of activities they engage themselves in during the period of pregnancy.

The aims and objectives of Home Science education have been changed to a greater extent. It is treated as the systematic arrangement for the use of human and non-human resources for deriving maximum satisfaction to bring about qualitative change in life. Further, the study of Home Science opens avenues for a number of vocations. Hence, it was felt necessary to construct a comprehensive, valid and reliable scale and an attempt was made to develop a scale in order to measure the attitude of the students towards Home Science degree programme.

Literacy is an important indicator for all round development of an individual as well as a nation. It eradicates the poverty and unemployment, cultural and social advancement, economic growth and political maturity, generates peace, international relationship and brotherhood and free demographic processes. There is a wide disparity of literacy between SC and ST population of Goalpara district. The main objectives of the paper are to study the circle wise disparity between SC and ST population and to compare the gender disparity of SC and ST population of Goalpara district.

This study assessed the extent of implementation of student services program and its activities in ESSU Salcedo Campus during the school year 2014-2015 in order to derive input for an intervention scheme. The study utilized the descriptive correlational method of research and utilized a descriptive survey questionnaire in gathering data from the respondents. This was conducted in all colleges of ESSU Salcedo Campus. The respondents of the study composed of 325 fourth year college students of ESSU Salcedo campus.

The luxurious consumption of China increased fast in recent years and got much concern. At least for several years, China consumed the most part of the luxurious goods. In Europe, some thinkers gave the riveting evaluations for luxury. Wemer Sombart’s famous work Luxury and Capitalism describes and analyses luxury, and believes that luxury is the origin of capitalism. There were also some Chinese thinkers assessed the luxury phenomenon, and literary works described that. According to the opinion of Wemer Sombart, the luxurious consumption of China could accelerate the economic development.

Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua is a well-known insect pest of various crop plants, commercial trees, ornamental plants and flowers. This insect has a wide range of host plants around the world, therefore it has a potential to become pest of medicinal plant plantations in commercial use. A study was conducted to determine the suitability of four medicinal plant species as host plants: Gynura procumbens (Sambung Nyawa), Cantella asiatica (Pegaga Daun Besar), Orthosiphon stamineus (Misai Kucing) and Capsium frutescens (Cili Api), for the growth and development of beet armyworm.

The tribal population in India constitutes 8.6% of the country’s population (Census, 2011) and is considered as socially and economically backward and disadvantaged. Tribal poverty has come into sharp focus since their food sources from the forest have started dwindling.

An overview of the history of Open and Distance Education integration strategies in institutions of repute the world over reveals at least two distinct characteristic features: being fraught with myriad challenges and an outstanding determination and resolve exhibited by the founders to make a success of the project in order to achieve the set goals of ODL. This paper examines the educational management and technical challenges facing integration and implementation of Open and Distance Learning programmes in public universities in Kenya.

Muslim population is the highest minority in India by occupying a modest equivalent status as others in the society but it has been degrading due to the uneven opportunities in the fields of education, economic participation, health etc. This manuscript is an attempt to assess the socio-economic conditions of Muslim population in urban areas. A cross sectional investigative survey among the 150 migrant Muslims residing in Okhla Vihar, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi, was conducted in the month of March 2015.

Street sweepers play an important role in maintaining the health and hygiene in the cities. This job exposes street sweepers to a variety of risk factors such as dust, volatile organic matter and mechanical stress, which makes them susceptible to certain occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the awareness and knowledge on health and safety conditions of sweepers. The study was also conducted to investigate the health problems among street sweepers of shyamoli area in Dhaka city. Quantitative methods were used on this research.

The Dermatoglyphic features may be used as a suggestive diagnostic tool to the persons who are at risk of some ailments and to check the performance. The ‘‘atd’’ angle is the most widely used method in Dermatoglyphics. The present study aims to examine the dermatoglyphic ‘atd’ angle among different pace runners of all India varsity track runners. The study was confined on 88 athletes, who are participated in the 75th All India Inter University Athletic Championship held at Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka during 16 to 20 January 2015.

Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of the ultimate consumer. Many factors, specificities and characteristics influence the individual in what he is and the consumer in his decision making process, shopping habits, purchasing behavior, the brands he buys or the retailers he goes. A purchase decision is the result of each and every one of these factors. An individual and a consumer is led by his culture, his subculture, his social class, his membership groups, his family, his personality, his psychological factors, etc..

Capital market provides a variety of investment opportunity to the investors which help them to invest. Mutual fund ensures the minimum risks and maximum return to the investors among various financial alternatives. Consequently, close surveillance and evaluation of mutual funds has become crucial. For that reason, choosing profitable mutual funds for investment is a very important issue. This study is deals with the performance evaluation of selected large-cap mutual funds in India based on risk-return and risk-adjusted return performance measurements.

Globalization dates from the earliest period of the history of human society, from the time when people began to spread their knowledge and skills of knowledge and phenomena that surround them. Today, when globalization has entered in almost all segments of social phenomena, modern society is preoccupied with exploring the risks of globalization. The research aims at overcoming the risk of danger affecting the security of the state, society and individuals, respectively, on security in the broadest sense.

The paper has tried to review the progress towards EFA goals, MDGs related to education and NEP (2009) objectives and targets pertaining to universal primary education and literacy and to identify issues and challenges. Some progress has been made for achieving universal primary education and literacy targets, however, the pace of progress is very slow and Pakistan has missed most of the targets set under EFA, MDSs and NEP (2009).

Whiz Kid - iclass program is designed to enable students to enhance their intelligence in a stress free environment and to start enjoying the student life aiding in the child development right from the crucial age. The program is enlisted for 3-7 years of age. This 104-hour unique programme is specifically framed for weekend sessions; 2 hours/session, stretching it for a year. It builds a mindset that always delivers when the situation arrives. The in hand research study was conducted in Chandigarh, Panchkula, Hoshiarpur and Jalandhar.

This paper proposes an Adaptive Volterra Series Filter with a lattice structure and delayed element for reducing noise from nonlinear system. Based on the lattice-channel structure, the Adaptive Second Order Volterra Series Filter Least Mean Square (ASVF-LMS) algorithms have been derived. In order to reduce the computational complexity and the nonlinear distortion with no need of solving the nonlinear acoustic equation, the ASVF-LMS algorithm with a lattice structure and least means square algorithm is proposed.

The aim of the study is to find out the relationship between academic achievement and home environment of high school students with reference to gender, type of family and parents’ educational qualification. In the present study normative survey method was employed and to assess the academic achievement of the high school students (X standard students), the board examination total marks (2015) is taken into account and for the assessment of Home environment, the tool was constructed and validated by Aaliya Aktar and Dr.Shail Bala Saxena (2013).

Social institutions such as family and schools have a leading role in gender role socialization of boys and girls. Observation of role plays of children was undertaken to analyse the patterns of gender identities and extent of role differentiation among primary school children. The sample consisted of boys and girls in the third standards of six primary schools each in Malappuram and Thrissur districts of Kerala State. Role plays were done by 12 boys’ groups and 12 girls’ groups, each with 4 to 6 members.

Globalization Without any iota of doubt had contributed to bring lot of changes and reductions to the scope of State Sovereign Powers. There had being numerous threats to the state sovereignty of which special can be made of Global financial flows, multinational Corporations, global media empires and the internet. The World War Second had changed everything drastically and most of the sovereign state deliberately and consciously limited their rights.

The infectious diseases are common now days. We catch these infections easily because of unbalanced diets that human being takes. Once person catches infectionthere are several ways by which that infection is spread to multiple persons. When infection is considered then there must be some infection agent and population. The infection agent will be responsible for passing the infection to the population. The infection separations will also depend upon the immune system of the human within the population.

Internal business is comprised by many theories and explanation. This article is aimed on a Chinese company, a foreign company at Malaysia and a Malaysia company in order to elaborate on their success. Each of them are discussed based on individual theory and explanation, thus this gives a good understanding to public on their path of success and the application of international business theories.

It is well established through studies of diverse parameters that there are a number of palaeochannels exist in the Thar Desert of western Rajasthan. These palaeochannels are good sites for plantation. Plants through their transpiration process increases in content of water vapour in the atmosphere leading to precipitation in form of rain. The rain will reduce frequency and intensity of draught and will convert dry land into greenery which will check further extension of the desert. Other then wood we will get a number of products from plants too.

Organizations live with greater risk of poor decision making amidst challenges and assumptions likely to jeopardize performance and reputation. Present day organizations need to be flatter and dispersed; people operating at higher levels – decentralized decision making because businesses cannot hinge around limited people and decisions need to be made at functional, operating and local level. Success depends on the intent and quality of decisions made at every level in supporting and strengthening strategy; reaching out to more people and larger goal.

Teacher education is being challenged in the last decades on every front by fundamental changes in the concepts about the nature of knowledge, the phenomenal speed at which knowledge is created, the emerging knowledge- driven economy, the paradigm shift in the theories of learning, rapid developments in the information technology and globalization. In the turmoil, the teachers are being held accountable for the failure of schooling and teacher education held accountable for the quality of teachers.

Cost Audit represents the verification of cost accounts and check on the adherence to cost accounting plan. This article focuses on various provisions regarding applicability of cost audit rules to various companies, how cost auditor is appointed, how remunearation of cost auditor is determined etc. Cost Audit ascertain the accuracy of cost accounting records to ensure that they are in conformity with Cost Accounting principles, plans, procedures and objective.

Water is one of the most valuable natural resources, which supports human health, economic development and ecological diversity. Because of its several inherent qualities (Eg., consistent temperature, wider spread and continuous availability, excellent natural quality, limited vulnerability, low development cost, drought reliability etc.). It has become an immensely important and dependable source of water supplies in all climate regions including both urban and rural areas of development and developing countries.

Objectives 1. To evaluate the common causes of acute intestinal obstruction in this region. 2. To identify the etio-pathogenesis 3. To evaluate the various modes of presentation. 4. To study the various modalities of treatment in this centre. 5.

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