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October 2017

  1. Moses Kiplagat, Samuel Kimani and James Mwaura

    Background: Burn wound care procedures lead to trauma and excruciating pain and this is associated with longer bed occupancy and poor outcomes. Burn cause a lot of pain in most circumstances and has not been sufficiently controlled leading to psychological consequences and poor wound healing. The study therefore sought to determine pain management practices during wound care procedures in patients with moderate to major burn injuries in Burns Unit and ward in Kenya’s biggest referral hospital, in view of finding out current practices in pain management in severe burn patients for better patient care. Methodology: The study employed a qualitative cross sectional design in which eighty (80) patients selected through purposive sampling method and who met inclusion criteria were recruited into the study. Data was collected using structured questionnaire consisting of two parts: Patient data (demographic and pain scales) and clinician pain management practices. The analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 18 and presented using charts and tables. Results: Patients reported significant increase of pain during wound care procedures with mean pain score 8.5 SD 1.4, P=0.001 in both numerical and behavioral pain scales. Patients who were only on paracetamol analgesic reported more pain during wound care procedures (mean change 5.66) compared to morphine (mean change 4.37, P=0.033). Patients who received non pharmacological pain management practices in addition to pharmacological pain management reported less pain than those who did not benefit from them, P=0.004. Conclusion: Clinicians pain management practices during wound care procedures involved pharmacological as well as non pharmacological pain management; however their pain dissipation was inadequate. Innovative pain management practices combining both pharmacological and non pharmacological therapies need to be implemented and / or researched on.

  2. Anshi Zutshi, Dr. Deptee Warikoo, Dr. Sunil Bhatt and Dr. Kapil Garg

    Background: Work related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD’S) is a term used to describe a painful or disabling injury to the muscles, tenders or nerves aggravated by work. WMSD’S are preventable or at least can be delayed. To date, no systematic review of the literature on WMSD’S in pharmaceutical factory workers has been conducted. Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to identify the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among workers in a pharmaceutical factory to assess the associated risk factors & also to investigate which Body areas among low back, neck and upper extremity are more prevalent sites of WMSD’S among workers in a pharmaceutical factory.

  3. Anshul and Kumari Amrita

    Aim: To compare the efficacy of black coffee mouthwash and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in prevention of gingivitis and plaque formation. Materials and methods: A total of 30 randomly selected subjects visiting the private clinic, were considered for the study. The gingival index (GI) by Loe and Silness was recorded which was followed by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of Quigley Hein plaque index (TQHPI) at 0 and 15 days. Individuals who gave an informed consent, subjects in the age group of 25 to 35 years with having fair and poor gingival index scores, were included in the study. Results: Results showed statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) in mean plaque index (PI) with chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash when compared with black coffee mouthwash. No significant difference in mean gingival index (GI) was seen when chlorhexidine mouthwash was compared with Coffea canephorea extract. Conclusion: From the above observations, it can be concluded that chlorhexidine gluconate as well as black coffee mouthwash can be effectively used as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control methods in prevention of plaque and gingivitis. chlorhexidine gluconate has been found to be more effective when antiplaque property was considered.

  4. Sindhu, V., Misbah Uddin, M. K., Syed Akheel, Dr. A. V. Kishore Babu, Dr. A. Raj Kirit and Dr. A. Srinivasa Rao

    The World Health Organization defines an adverse drug reaction (ADR) as “a response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man for the prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological function.” The fact that drugs might have effects on humans other than the ones intended has been known for many years. The first remarkable adverse drug reaction (ADR) reported in Japan was anaphylactic shock caused by penicillin. The malformation of limbs, etc. caused by thalidomide was a global problem, and thalidomide was withdrawn from the market. Teratogenicity testing during new drug development has been implemented since 1963. During the six month study period, a total 192 patients visited Dermatology department. Highest number of patients from the age group of 21-30 i.e. 35.1%. Majority of the CADRs from the drug class antibiotics 12 (22.2%). According to Naranjo’s causality assessment scale, out of 54 CADRs the dechallenge was done in all cases, out of which 28 cases (51.8%) were probable and 14 cases (25.9%) were possible where as remaining 12 cases (22.2%) were fall into unlikely category. We also assessed the severity by using Hartwigand Siegelseverity assessment scale; it shows that highest number of 32 (59.2%) cases fall into moderate type and 10 (18.5%) cases were mild type whereas 12 (22.2%) cases fall into severe CADRs.

  5. Ruchi Gupta, Subhash Kumar, Prem Kumar, Neetu Sinha, Neha Nischal and Abhishek Anand

    Introduction: Robotic guidance system is particularly useful in reaching and targeting complex lesions in critical or difficult to reach areas for CT guided procedures. Aims and Objectives: To perform a pilot study of CT guided biopsy using a new commercially available robotic guidance system on a group of challenging lesions. Methods and Materials: Six patients underwent the procedure using 18G coaxial biopsy needle, and ease, procedure time, radiation dose and success rates were evaluated by two operators. Results: The procedure was uneventful in all cases and patients were sent back home after about one hour post-procedure observation. Average DLP was 238.03 (47.5-552), and time of procedure was 37.5 min. (30-50 min.) including patient positioning, preparation, planning and the actual biopsy procedure. 100% was the sampling rate and success result. Conclusion: Robotic guidance system offers ease of usage with low radiation dose and good procedure success rates.

  6. Dr. Atula Yadav, Dr. Dhan Singh Meena, Dr. Ashok Kumar Bairwa and Dr. Pooja Sharma

    This report and review of literature aimed to report a rare case of Familial Crouzon syndrome with primary optic nerve atrophy. . It is characterized by premature closure of cranial sutures, cranial deformities, midface hypoplasia, relative mandibular prognathism, hypertelorism, proptosis, strabismus and short upper lip, crowding of teeth and primary optic atrophy. We hereby report a familial case of a 16yr old girl and her father along with pedigree analysis of the trait. Our patient showed characteristic features of Crouzon syndrome and was reported very late though had signs of raised intracranial pressure with primary optic atrophy.

  7. Onemu, S.O. Omonigho, S.E. and Ophori, E.A.

    Immunological infertility induced by antisperm antibodies (ASA) may interfere with fertilization or decrease the chances of pregnancy occurring. This study was conceived to determine the prevalence of ASA in the serum in infertile men and women and their relationship to semen quality. The study involved 209 infertile men, 212 infertile women and 114 fertile men and 118 fertile women as control. Sera were examined by the indirect spermmixed antiglobulin test (MAR )test and micro – titer tray agglutination test (TAT). Semen parameters were determined by standard techniques and ASA in semen was evaluated with direct mixed antiglobulin test. ASA were detected at clinically significant titres (>32) in the sera of 5/209 (2.4%) and 23/212 (10.8%) infertile men and women respectively. The concentration and progressive motility of spermatozoa from infertile men with ASA declined significantly (P < 0.0001) with altered distribution of white blood cells populations. It is concluded that ASA when present in the serum may adversely affect the quality of semen vis-a-vis fertilization and are associated with asthenosoozspermia and or oligospermia and altered distribution of white cell populations which represent important markers of immunologically induced infertility.

  8. Amira Ahmed Hamid, Maissa. K. Albagir and NassrEldin M.A.Shrif

    Background: One of long-term complication of diabetes mellitus is diabetic nephropathy, which affect kidney and other organs. Suggestion and evaluation of its early diagnostic markers is a goal of many researches to help in providing highly efficient biomarkers. Objectives: This study aimed to assess cystatin c as early biomarker for diabetic nephropathy in Sudanese with type2 diabetes, in comparison with ACR Methodology: It is a Descriptive cross sectional study, conducted during the period from March to July 2015 in 72 patients with type2 diabetes mellitus, the serum cystatin c, serum creatinine and spot unrine for ACR tested. Then, the Generated data analyzed using the statistical package (SPSS). Result: Plasma cystatin c level higher in albuminuric than normal urine group. It is directly proportional to ACR and it is early raise than creatinine, also it positively correlate to duration of diabetes. Conclusion: Cystatin c has diagnostic efficiency similar to that of ACR in detecting albuminuria. Furthermore it can detect nephropathy earlier than ACR.

  9. Krishna Chaitanya Appana, Vijaya Kumar Peddinti, Sandeep Chiramana, Durga Prasad Tadi, Ravi Kanth Anne and Sneha Deepthi Gorantla

    Introduction: The most advanced innovation in the last millennium was introduction of implants to dentistry. There were many advances from the onset to the current date in each and every aspect of implant dentistry. Among those advances some were a boon to the implant dentistry at the same time some were at the other side. However, implant success directly or indirectly relates when perfect pre-implant evaluation was made. Pre-implant evaluation can be done by several methods, of which radiography was widely used one because of its non-invasiveness. But the problem with radiography was the percentage of magnification. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the available bone height for placement of dental implant by using Orthopantomography (OPG) and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Methodology: 10 completely edentulous dry cadaver mandibles were selected for this study and radiographic markers i.e. gutta percha sticks were placed on the crest of the ridge bilaterally starting from a point just behind the mental foramen at mandibular 2nd premolar, 1st molar and 2nd molar regions and subjected to Orthopantomography (OPG) and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Then at all the 60 sites the mandibles were sectioned and anatomic length was measured from the crest of the ridge to the superior surface of the inferior alveolar canal by a digital caliper and the radiographic length was also measured with their respective software and finally the obtained values were statistically analyzed. Results: A measurement error i.e. magnification of 3.11% has been noted with CBCT and 22.08% with OPG. A safety margin that is followed till date to prevent the damage to the adjacent anatomical structures has to be increased from 2mm to 2.5 to 3mm while placing implant using OPG and can be reduced to 0.5mm while using CBCT. Conclusion: To conclude, when placing an implant taking CBCT as a guide the length of the implant can be almost the value obtained in CBCT, whereas in OPG the length of the implant should be 2.5mm less than that of the obtained value.

  10. Asya Akkus

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss ways in which dentistry can be efficiently integrated with the general health care system to improve quality of care and save costs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors evaluated a possibility of improving patients’ outcomes and reducing costs via employing cell a phone technology-based approach to integration between dental care and the hospital-based health care system. Findings: Despite the huge implications of oral health on general health, the field of dentistry has remained somewhat isolated from the larger health care network. For the past thirty-five years, health care spending in the U.S. has skyrocketed to costs nearing 3.2 trillion dollars. However, the access and outcomes of care lag far behind those of other developed nations despite this spike. Finding an efficient way to connect dental care and general care would greatly aid in alleviating the fiscal and structural challenges faced by the US health care system by uniting two of the most important aspects of health. Originality/Value: The authors find that involvement of dental “physicians” in providing community-based health care with robust ties to hospitals has potential to substantially reduce costs for the treatment of a number of chronic conditions.

  11. Amit Chaudhari, Harshada Borse, Amita Mali, Priyanka Agrawal, Nilima Landge and Yogesh Khadtare

    To restore periodontal tissues that are lost through disease or trauma is the very rationalae of periodontal treatment. Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) technique has been applied for treating periodontal defects such as intrabony defects, furcation involvements. Outlook of periodontal regeneration has changed by incorporation of GTR concept and GTR membranes. Membranes are of several types used for regeneration. The concept that the fibroblasts from the periodontal ligament or undifferentiated mesenchymal cells can re-create the original periodontal attachment is well applied here. Clinically this is accomplished by placing a barrier over the defect thereby excluding gingival tissues from the wound during early healing. There are two 2 types of membranes: Non absorbable and Absorbable membranes. There is a necessity to remove non absorbable membranes for which second surgery is needed, so these are occasionally used now. Absorbable membranes need not be removed so are used frequently. This paper reviews briefly about the GTR membranes, its uses for various periodontal defects and the predictability of a successful treatment outcome.

  12. Roberta Lopes Gomes Cesário, FauzeRamez Badreddine, Eduardo Guimarães Moreira Mangolin, Marcio da Rocha Carvalho, Lucia Hatsue Yamamoto Nagai, Mario Cappellette Jr

    Objective: Short-term evaluation of the changes in the position of permanent upper central incisors after rapid maxillary expansion. Method: This researchstudy comprised 33 mouth-breather patients with maxillary atresia, 9.51year-old average age, 2.32 standard deviation and age ranging from 6.5 to 14.7years of age. Patients underwent computed tomography in twostages: (T1) before rapid maxillary expansion and (T2) three months after rapidmaxillary expansion. Five linear variables (1-NA, 1-N, 1-Cli, 1-ENP, (ENA-N)-1) and five angular variables (SN.1, N-S.Cli-1, SN.(axis)1, N.ENA.ENP, Rhi-1.ENA-ENP) were analyzed, all of them coming out from the incisal edge of thebuccal inclined upper central incisor. With the data collected through the OsirixMD imaging program, the evaluations of individual changes, before and afterrapid maxillary expansion procedures, were performed accordingly. Results: Significant increase was found in the 1-N (+0.96mm, +1.3%, p=0.003) and inthe 1-Clinoid (+1.26mm, +1.3%, p<0.001) linear variables and a decrease wasfound in the SN.1 (-1.61mm, -1.5%, p=0.034) angular variable. The remainingvariables have not shown significant variables between stages T1 and T2. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is significant protrusion and lingualinclination of the permanent upper central incisor teeth after rapid maxillaryexpansion in a short-term evaluation analysis.

  13. Farhan Alshammari, Silvia Edison, J., Asia Saad Alrashidi, Anamarie M. and Joyce Rosaupan

    Aim: This research attempted to examine the effects of simulation-based education regarding knowledge and clinical performance ability on Endotracheal suctioning among nursing student. Design: A quasi experimental approach was used. The sample consisted of 12 numbers of nursing students and were selected by purposive sampling method. Results: The mean pre-test scores were 6.17 and 8.08 in the post-test. There was a statistically significant difference between the pre-test and post-test in the study group at p<0.05. The mean pre-test performance ability was 19.50 in the pre-test as compared to 22.58 in the post-test. There was a statistically significant difference between the pre-test and post-test participants performance ability at p<0.05. A significant positive correlation was found between post-test knowledge and performance ability (r = 0.0325). The results revealed that increase in knowledge and skill due to simulation intervention enhanced the performance ability of the students. 100 % indicated that the simulation experience provided active deep learning. Conclusion: Simulation based learning had a positive correlation on knowledge and performance ability regarding endotracheal suctioning.

  14. Mohammad Hakamy, Ibrahim Bahri and Eisa Ghazwani

    Background: The appropriate identification and treatment of mental disorders in adolescence provide teenagers with immediate positive benefits, and serve to counteract consequences such as poor academic performance, substance abuse and suicidal behavior. Objective: To screen for symptoms of negative emotional states among Saudi secondary school students in Jizan City. Subjects and Methods: Four secondary schools (two for boys and two for girls) were randomly selected. A total of 772 students were included (350 boys and 402 for girls). A personal characteristics questionnaire and the Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale were used for data collection. Results: Half of students had symptoms of depression 59.7% had symptoms of anxiety, while 39% had symptoms of stress (39%). Mean scores for depression, anxiety and stress were higher among older than younger students. Female students had significantly higher mean scores for depression, anxiety and stress (p=0.002, p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). Mean scores for depression, anxiety and stress were higher among smokers than nonsmokers. Students with a present history of chronic diseases had significantly higher scores for negative emotional status (p<0.001, for all). Mothers’ higher educational status was significantly associated with higher scores of anxiety (p=0.034). Students whose mothers were employed had significantly higher scores for anxiety and stress (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively). Students with a positive family history of psychiatric problems had significantly higher mean scores for negative emotional states. There were significantly positive correlation among the studied three negative emotional states (p<0.001 for all). Conclusions: Prevalence rates for negative emotional states are high among secondary schools students in Jizan City; Anxiety is the most prevalent negative emotional state among secondary school students followed by depression and then stress; Prevalence rates of negative emotional syndromes are significantly higher among older students, female students, students with chronic diseases and students with positive family history of psychiatric diseases. Mothers’ personal characteristics have significant impact on their son’s and daughter’s emotional status. School health care providers should be trained to screen students for negative emotions.

  15. Battiato, C., Sirabella, F. S., Smakaj, A. and Giovannini, F.

    Introduction: Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and rapid prototyping, starting from computed tomography (CT), are promising technologies that can facilitate preoperative programming and intraoperative implementation, thus obtaining better results in complex fractures. Moreover, it is possible not only to simulate CAD reductions but also to design customized plates. In the case that we treated, a plate was made of two pieces (like a puzzle-plate) in order to be able to position a first plate without removing the reduction instruments and the second plate after the partial synthesis obtained to complete it. Materials and Methods: We decided to use this method to increase the evaluation of the "personality of the lesion" and to obtain a custom synthesis tool made in a case of diastasis of the pubic symphysis. Results: The solid model (3D printed model) allowed accurate preoperative planning, facilitating the surgical approach and the production of a custom-made plate. Discussion: We reduced surgical time thanks to the perfect knowledge of the structure of the lesion, the reduction maneuvers and the presence of a custom-made plate. In addition, soft tissue damage, blood loss, risk of infection and use of ionizing radiation were reduced if compared to a case approached by the standard method. Conclusions: The method described has been extremely useful in the surgical treatment of the diastasis of pubic symphysis.

  16. Sonia Shivde, Smitha Mary Rockey, Raghunandan Nadig and Thomas Mathew, D.M.

    Neurosyphilis can have varied clinical manifestations. New generation physicians and neurologists may not be aware of the clinical manifestations of neurosyphilis. Here we report a case of neurosyphilis with optic atrophy and nystagmus misdiagnosed as spinocerebellar ataxia. This case underscores the importance of Serum VDRL test in patients with optic atrophy, nystagmus and cognitive decline.

  17. Sruthi Selvam, Mariappan Jonathan Daniel, Srinivasan, V. and Jimsha, V. K.

    The prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes has reached epidemic proportions. Worldwide, the number of people with pre-diabetes (impaired glucose tolerance) in the age group 20–79 was 308 million in 2007, and is expected to increase to 418 million by the year 2025. Aims and Objective: To evaluate and compare the association of oral candida amongst 1. Smoker prediabetic. 2. Non-smoker prediabetic. 3. Controls. Materials and Methods: The sample size included 60 patients i.e. 20 smoker prediabetic, 20 nonsmoker prediabetic and 20 age and sex matched controls. Fasting blood sugar levels were obtained using routine haemogram. Oral Candida samples collected from saliva. At 37 o C Candida strains were cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar and quantified. Results: Oral Candida albicans carriage was significantly higher in prediabetic smokers (60.6%) and the prediabetic non-smokers (23.3%) compared with controls (16.7%). There was a statistically significant difference observed amongst three groups in the mean CFU value. Conclusion: The prevalence of oral Candida carriage was significantly higher in prediabetic smokers than prediabetic non-smokers compared to controls. Since Candida species may cause opportunistic infections in immune-suppressed patients, additional attention should be paid to usage of tobacco particularly in patients with immune-suppressive disorders.

  18. Amna IbrahimAbdulla, Esam MA Suliman and EM Elsayed

    Background and Objectives: in Sudan, it is estimated that about 7 million people are infected with Schistosoma parasites, distributed all over the Sudan including even Khartoum state, the capital of Sudan. This retrospective hospital-based study aimed to examine immunohistochemical expression of p53 in urinary bladder mucosa associated with Schistosomiasis in Sudanese patients. Material and Methods: Thirty-five paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed archival tissue blocks of bilharzia-associated bladder lesions were included in this study. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out using monoclonal antibody for P53. Results: All the 30 malignant cases (86%) were of squamous cell carcinoma type. The P53 showed positive staining reaction in 25 cases (71%) while 10 cases (29%) were of negative staining reaction. Relation between tumor grades and P53 were as follows G I = 6, G II= 9, and G III= 10 cases. Conclusion: immunohistochemical expression of p53 in squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is important for prognosis and better management

  19. Ramya Gundapaneni

    Abstract: Mucormycosis is a significantly lethal infection affecting immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of Sino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis in a middle aged diabetic lady post renal transplantation. Materials and methods: A 47year old lady, diabetic since twenty years and underwent renal transplantation 6 months back for chronic renal failure, presented with history of loss of vision in the right eye of two hours duration. On examination, her vision was perception of light negative. She had total ophthalmoplegia and with severe proptosis. A clinical diagnosis of orbital apex syndrome was made. Results: An MRI showed invasive sinusitis with cerebritis, orbital cellulitis with proptosis, thickening of extraocular muscles, inflammatory changes in extraconal and intraconal fat. She underwent Maxillary antrostomy and lavage. Following surgerythe patient went into sepsis and could not be revived. Conclusion: Sino orbital cerebral mucormycosis is a potentially sight and lifethreatening complication in immunocompromised individuals.

  20. Dr. Shakera Dedhrotiya

    Introduction: This study was undertaken to identify the maternal and fetal factors associated with intrauterine fetal death and its complications. This will be helpful in counselling of parents as well as formatting preventing measures. Material and Method: This is a retrospective study carried out over a period of one year at a tertiary care hospital. 50 cases of IUFD were studied and their details were collected from the hospital records. Inclusion criteria was all IUFD greater than 20 weeks of gestation. Results: It was observed that 36 (72%) were Emergency admission and 14 (28%) were booked cases from the total 50 cases. The incidence was maximum, 22 cases (44%) in the 26-32 gestational weeks. In 16 (32%) number of cases no identifiable cause of IUFD was found. IUFD occurred in 9 (18%) cases APH and 8 (16%) PIH. Other causes IUFD were GCA (12%), oligohydramnios (8%), diabetes (4%), fever (4%) and MSL (4%). Vaginal delivery occurred in 42 (84%) and LSCS required in 8 (16%).The most common complications associated with IUFD is psychological upset (22%). DIC, ARF, sepsis and PPH are rare but serious complications and majority of them occurred because of associated medical comorbidities. Conclusions: A significant proportion of IUFD can be preventable by proper antenatal care, health education to community about warning signs.PIH and APH accounted for most common causes of IUFD. In cases where cause is not identifiable, there should be some easily available and convenient investigations to find the cause.Proper counselling of parents is of root value in IUFD.

  21. Ketoulelhou Vizo

    Excess gingival display while smiling is one of the most common causes for unaesthetic smile. Altered Passive Eruption (APE) is a clinical situation in which there is a coronally situated Dentogingival complex and excess overlap of gingival tissue over the limits of dental crown, presenting the sensation of hidden tooth and is a frequent finding for the cause of excess gingival display. Perioplastic surgery can play a central role in the correction of such problem. Proper treatment approach and analysis of the individual case with regard to crown-root-alveolar bone relationship should be included.

  22. Murugan, N. and Arulkumaran, P.

    Introduction: Health care workers are occupationally vulnerable to many infectious diseases and accidents. Amongst the several infections, respiratory illnesses are more common, and also are responsible for sickness absenteeism and transmission of infections to patients. This study was done to estimate the prevalence of respiratory illnesses among nurses in a tertiary hospital. Methodology: The study was done on 514 nurses in the tertiary care hospital. All the nursing students were included in the study. A physical examination was done and all of them were evaluated for respiratory and cardiac illnesses by Mass Miniature Radiography. Results: It was observed that the overall prevalence of respiratory illnesses in this study was 7.6%. The prevalence of tuberculosis was 0.194%. This study also effectively evaluated the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension and cardiomegaly among the study participants. Conclusion: The prevalence of respiratory illnesses is a serious public health problem. The preventive measures must be aimed at sensitization, screening during pre-placement examination, and periodic evaluation. Non pharmacological and non invasive preventive strategies must be used as a mandatory method of preventing this occupational hazard.

  23. Tarun Kumar Swarnakar, Arka Swarnakar, Angana Pal and Ayush Kaushik

    Surgical templates guide the proper and precise placement of dental implants. Conventional templates may lack stability and thus be less predictable than those fabricated using modern computer programs. But the computer generated surgical templates are expensive, and require specialized gadgets with trained personnel. Therefore a faster, economical and equally efficient technique is needed. This article illustrates a technique of fabricating a surgical template using easily available dental materials and simple instruments. This template will guide the operator to place and position the dental implant more precisely as well as it help him to determine the implant angulation accurately.

  24. Sarma Kalyan, Borpujari Dhrubajyoti, Shah Nirali, Ahmed, F. A., Das, G., Behera, S. K., Saikia, B. and Talukdar Dibyajyoti

    A one year old Sahiwal male calf was presented to the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, CAU, Mizoram with a history of accidently consumption of lentena camara plant and showed the symptoms of dullness, depression, anorexia, lethargy, icteric mucous membrane and sluffing skin which was diagnosed as hepatogenous photosensitization. Haemato-biochemical analysis revealed anaemia, jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia. The animal was treated with Dextrose 5% with liver injection, antibiotic, antihistaminic and external antiseptic solution application for skin lesions. The duration of therapy for the complete clinical recovery was 30days.

  25. Atul, A., Ravi Kiran, B. S., Sachdeva, A., Kamra, S. and Mishra, A.

    In this paper a case of compound odontome is reported wherein it was associated with an impacted canine in the left anterior maxilla region.An 18 year old female came to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of K D Dental College, Mathura with a chief complaint of swelling and dull pain in the upper left front tooth region since one month. The compound odontome was surgically removed along with left impacted canine and the patient was followed up for 3 months.

  26. Dr. Deivanayagi, Dr. Naveenraj, Dr. Lisa Elizabeth, Dr. Anand Krishnan, Dr. Meenakshi and Dr. Anu

    Nano Technology is a potential tool that could help detect the molecular changes and assist in focusing on preventive efforts. Nanodentistry is an emerging field with significant potential to yield new generation of technologically advanced clinical tools and devices for oral healthcare. The growing interest in this field is giving emergence to new field called Nanomedicine, a science & technology of diagnosing, treating and preventing diseases and preserving & improving oral health using nanoscale structured materials.

  27. Maruhen Amir Datsch Silveira, Natani Ribeiro Demarco, Kelly Cristina Lima Defacci, Oliver Christovão Pedroso, Antônio Pedro dos Reis Filho, Tayla Cosmann, Jennifer Ulrich, Talita Ramos Antunes de Sousa and Luciana Paula Grégio d’Arce

    Changes in aquatic ecosystems are resulting from human activities, for example domestical, agricultural and industrial discharges. Nowadays, conventional physical-chemical parameters are not suitable for hazard assessment anymore. The Quati River (Paraná, Brazil) is a very important river for the population of Cascavel city, and in 2011 was contaminated by a leak of industrial sewage. Since then, no environmental study was made on this river. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the status of the Quati River according to genetic parameters: micronuclei (MN) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) frequencies and the mitotix index (MI); using the Allium cepa test in two points of the river (P1 and P2). Distilled water was used as negative control (NC) and MMS as positive control. Were observed statistically increasing in all parameters compared to NC (p < 0.05). Shockingly, a fold-increase of 7.97 in P1 and 4.23 in P2 were observed in MN frequencies. We observed that the Quati River is contaminated and that this contamination is possible caused not only by the industrial sewage leak in 2011, but by constantly sewages dumped into the river. We suggest more surveillance on the river and the continuity of environmental studies for monitoring.

  28. Sushma, Dr. Sandhya Rani and Dr. Rajitha, P.

    Frontal sinuses are paired lobulated cavities located posterior to the superciliary arches in the frontal bone and each frontal sinus opens in to the corresponding middle meatus via the infundibulum. Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the sizes and patterns of frontal sinus in both genders which can be used for personal identification. Materials and methods: This study was conducted retrospectively on the paranasal CT scans of 2 mm thickness in the axial and coronal planes of 60 cases (30 male and 30 female) taken by a Siemens Emotion Tomography Machine in the Gandhi medical college and Hospital. The mean age range of the cases was 20- 67. All evaluations and measurements were done together by two radiologists. The measurements of widths, heights and total width of the two sinuses were performed on coronal plane. Antero posterior length was measured on axial plane. Measurements of both sides were compared with each other for total population and each gender. Cases were divided in to 2 subgroups according to age as 20- 40, 40-70 for each gender and each measurement parameter was also compared among the subgroups. Results: Bilateral absence of frontal sinus was observed in one case (female). There were four cases with unilateral absence of frontal sinus. The values of the measurements were higher for male in elderly age group (40-70) and also in young age group except height (left and right) and length (right). In males, anteroposterior length on left side is significantly higher (p< 0.05). In females, height on left side and anteroposterior length on right side is highly significant. (p< 0.05).

  29. Dr. Manoj Ramugade and Dr. Sapna Sonkurla

    Knowledge of root canal anatomy and their variation, straight line access to apical terminus, thorough cleaning and shaping with three dimensional obturation of root canals system are the keys to successful and predictive endodontics. Anatomical variations are more frequent in maxillary first molars in the form of additional canal, C-shaped canal configuration or fused roots but variation such as occurrence of Type I canal configuration is very rare in maxillary first molar. This article describes a patient with non-syndromic true generalized microdontia with endodontically involved single rooted permanent maxillary first molar having Type I root canal configuration managed successfully using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a diagnostic tool.

  30. Kalluri Vasavi and Arumugam, P.

    Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune and neurological disorder. The disease can be identified by some early signs and symptoms like numbness, confusion and many others. If neglected can lead to progressive development of disease where based on the stage the disease is classified into four stages. Pathology and pathogenesis of the disease is discussed. Certain drugs which are approved by FDA are used in treating MS. Other than these drugs few monoclonal antibodies are also used. Use of stem cells in treatment of MS is found to be successful in animal models. We mainly discuss about the treatment methods which are available in market and also of those under trials.

  31. Dr. Yash Shah, Dr. Pranay Yajurvedi, Dr. Rakesh Shah, Dr. Siddhanth Jain and Dr. Neel Shah

    Oral Cancer is one of the major life threatening diseases of the modern world. However this disease is also preventable through early diagnosis and treatment. One of the ways is to promote health awareness through various campaigns and other such tools. Oral and maxillofacial surgery is a branch that also deals with the diagnosis and the treatment of such a dreadful disease. Hence the motive behind conducting this questionnaire study was to find out the awareness amongst the patients reporting to our department, most of them from the state of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, about Oral Cancer, the awareness of the causes and misconceptions about the disease in order to collect a demographic data to help improving the awareness campaigns on this disease.

  32. Dr. Kannan, A., Dr. Ramaprabha, M., Dr. Kanmani, R., Dr. Anandi, M. S. and Dr. Raghuram, P. H.

    Condylar hypoplasia is a multifactorial bone disease characterized by underdevelopment or incomplete development of the mandibular condyle. Eagle’s syndrome refers to symptomatic elongation of the styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament with an unknown etiology. Hereby presenting a rare case of bilateral condylar hypoplasia with Eagle’s syndrome in a 31 year old male patient who reported with trismus and tenderness in the temporomandibular joint. Clinical examination and radiological investigations revealed hypoplasia of the condyles with elongation of the styloid process seen bilaterally. Early diagnosis by thorough clinical and radiographic examination helps to achieve a pertinent management for the current scenario.

  33. Dia Diatou, G., Dia Amadou Diop, Ngouamba Blaise M., Berthé Adama, Diagne Nafissatou and Fall Seynabou

    Summary: Biermer's disease is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of gastritis, various auto-antibodies including intrinsic antifactor antibodies and parietal anticellules and accompanied by malabsorption of vitamin B12. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective study between Janvier 2016to August 2017 at the department of internal medicine of the Saint-Louis regional hospital, Senegal. Results: A number of 23patients were retained for the study with a mean age 51.08 years and the sex ratio M/F at 0.53. Average time to diagnosis was 16 weeks with extreme ages ranging from 2 to 48 weeks. The diagnosis was suspected in the presence of Neurologic-anemic syndrome and confirrmed by low vitamin B12 blood levels and the presence of anti intrinsic factor antibodies. In certain patients, vitamin B12 therapeutic test was contributive. The clinical manifestations were dominated by anemia signs (23 cases), palmo-plantar acquired diffuse melanodermia (13 cases), GIT signs including Hunter glossitis (9) and polyneuropathy. The Anemia was macrocytic in 21 (91.30%) of the cases, normocytic in 2 (8.7%) of the cases. The mean hemoglobin level was at 4.79 g/dl. Serum vitamin B12 low in 14 (60.86%) of the patients with a mean value at 50 pg/ml. Anti intrinsic factor antibodies were positive in 4 (17.39%) of the cases. In patients who had gastroscopy, the histology showed features of chronic atrophic gastritis in 65.21% of the cases. The treatment comprised whole blood transfusions and supplementations of vitamin b12 parenterally. In all of our patients, we noted regression completely of the melanodermia, glossitis and normalization of the hemoglobin. Conclusion: In our study Biermer’s disease is revealed by anemia, melanoderma and gastrointestinal signs contrasting with the rarity or absence of neurological and vascular manifestations. Clinical polymorphism justifies thinking more often and trying to eliminate other differential diagnoses.

  34. Dr. Francisco Espinoza- Gómez, José Conrado Aréchiga Ramírez, José Hugo Sánchez Gómez Dr. Oscar Alberto Newton Sánchez, Dr. Iván Delgado Enciso, Dr. Alejandro Uriel Lopez Lemus and Dr. Fabián Rojas-Larios

    Aims and Objective:The impact of dengue on the communities affected largely depends on the presence of complicated cases requiring hospitalization and special care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a rapid intravenous infusion of methylprednisolone (MPDN) on mortality, complications, days of hospital stay, and recovery from thrombocytopenia in patients with type B dengue according WHO criteria (with warning signs) during an epidemic outbreak in Colima, Mexico. Materials and Methods: A random controlled clinical trial was conducted in which 10 patients received MPDN and 20 controls received saline solution as a placebo. Results: The mean hospital stay was 1.2 fewer days in the group treated with MPDN than in the control group (p<0.02), the recovery speed of pulse pressure was faster in the MPDN group (p = 0.03), and there were no differences in the platelet recovery rate or inthe appearance of complications or deaths. Conclusions: MPDN can be useful in the management of patients with dengue with warning signs and possibly in patients with severe forms reducing the hospital stay without undesirable effects.

  35. Dr. Priyadharshini, N., Prof. Dr. Narasimhalu, C. R. V. and Dr. Muhilan, J.

    Occupational dermatoses contribute to a significant portion of work-related diseases. Irritant contact dermatitis does not involve immunological factors, but results when repair capacity of skin is exhausted or when the penetration of chemicals excites an inflammatory response. Irritants affect everyone, though individual susceptibility varies greatly with regard to development. Plants in the Anacardiaceae family, which includes cashewnut tree, is a frequent cause of contact dermatitis worldwide. Recognition of clinical patterns and geographic variations in occupational skin diseases helps to further strengthen future research in these areas, as well as improving their management. We report a case of acute irritant contact dermatitis following contact with cashewnut shell.

  36. Durdana Rais Hashmi, Akhtar Shareef, Muhammad Azam and Razia Begum

    Aim of this study was carried out to determine the concentration of ambient air quality of Karachi city in terms of Air Quality index (AQI). The data of air pollutants were collected from ten different parks and play grounds in residential, industrial and commercial areas of the city. The survey was carried out to evaluate the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases: sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM10) by sampling for a period of 24 hours in winter season of the year, 2014. Sampling was done at ten different Parks and play ground i.e. PIB colony park(R-1), Nazimabad Cricket ground(R-2), Taleemi bagh (R-3) in residential areas, paramount cricket ground (I-1), Qyyum park (I-2), Naurus green belt(I-3), Siemens green belt (I-4) in industrial areas, Hill park (C-1), F.C area Cricket ground (C-2) and Zoological Garden(C-3) in commercial areas of Karachi city. Pollutants concentrations were used to calculate the Air Quality Index (AQI). Air quality index are used for local and regional air quality management in many cities of the world. The experimental results in this study obtained from different air quality categories according to national ambient air quality standard at different parks and play grounds, as Taleemi Bagh (R-3) in residential area though looks a clean area, falls under Good AQI category regarding the trace gases and moderate category regarding the PM10 pollution, as this is purely residential area with low traffic density whereas PIB colony park (R-1) and Nazimabad Cricket ground (R-2) shows moderate pollution AQI category regarding the trace gases pollution and unhealthy pollution, regarding the PM10 pollution with moderate traffic density. In commercial areas parks Zoological garden (C-3) falls under high pollution AQI category. This garden is situated in extremely congested commercial area with high traffic density and high commercial activities, F.C area Cricket ground (C-2) also falls under unhealthy AQI category, whereas Hill park (C-1) falls under moderate pollution level. In industrial areas parks and play grounds Paramount cricket ground (I-1), Qayyum park(I-2), Naurus green belt (I-3) show moderate pollution AQI values whereas, Siemens green belt (I-4) falls under unhealthy category may be due to industrial activities and high traffic density.

  37. Afolabi Romaric Igor Biaou Olaye, Barnabé Zokpodo, Aminou Arouna, Jean Moreira and D.Joseph Hounhouigan

    Production activities and rice processing are done in Benin with inefficient and strenuous traditional technologies. Bad threshing operation in Benin affects the quality of rice. This study aims at evaluating the technical and technological performances of the ASI axial flow thresher-cleaner in farmer’s field. The improved method with the thresher-cleaner and farmer’s practice using barrel have been tested in the real conditions of rice harvesting and threshing in Benin.Indicators of technical and technological performances(Hourly capacity, impurities percentage, threshing losses)reveal that the ASI thresher-cleaner has better results compared to the farmer’s practice using barrel. Results showed that the hourly capacity (kg/h) of the axial flow thresher-cleaner is 1780.5 kg/h or 445.05 kg/man/h compared to 129.14 kg/h or 32.29 kg/man/h for the farmer’spractice using barrel. The percentage of the losses at threshing is 4.13%for traditional threshing practice against 0.14% for the ASI thresher-cleaner. The germination percentage of rice grains is 79.38% for the threshing on barrel versus89.47% for the thresher-cleaner. It emerges from this study that the ASI thresher-cleaner has a high-performance andallows producers to save time by reducing the work hardnesscompared to the traditional method. Moreover, this machine is highly appreciated by rice producers because it does not significantly alter farmer’s practices, gives clean paddy and significantly reduces the broken ratewhich is a key factor affecting rice quality in Benin. This thresher-cleaner can be used in seed production.

  38. Lighty George and Dhasarathan, P.

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the action of supplementary feed on morphometry and digestive tract enzymes of Catla catla. Juveniles of healthy fish, Catla catla were collected from Fish farm. Fish artificial nutrients were clearly mixed in right proportion and allowed to dry for 24 hrs. Using a standard scale and measuring board, the morphometric characters were analysed. Digestive enzymes such as amylase, protease, invertase, lipase and maltase in both control and treated fish samples were tested adopting the standard methods. The present study showed high digestive enzyme activity in control compared to fishes exposed to all other treatment. Enzyme activity of control fish showed in the following order Protease > Lipase > amylase > Maltase >Invertase. On the other hand, amylase activity of tank C fish sample was increased 50% compared to control tank fish sample. Lipase activity is slightly higher in stomach and mid – gut region of control fish sample, but no activity in the foregut and hindgut sample (all group). Combination food supplement such as soya meal, groundnut cake and wheat show remarkable changes in fish Morphometry and digestive tract enzymes. In this combination of food supplement to be improve growth of fish as well as their routine physiological metabolism.

  39. Legesu Girshe, Alemu Abera and Tajudin Sultan

    The experiment was conducted on farm at Bure district of IluAbabor Zone, south westrn Ethiopia, to evaluate the adaptability and yield performance of improved maize varieties during 2016 of main cropping season. The treatment consisted of nine improved varieties namely BH661, BH547, BH546, Limu, G2, G3, MH140, MHQ138, M6Q and a Local cultivar were planted on (4.5m x 2.5m) plots at spacing of 75cm x 25cm. The experiment was laid in RCBD with three replications. Data on plant height, Number of ear plant-1, cob length, cob diameter, number of row cob-1, number of grain row-1, 1000 grain weight and grain yield were recorded. The analysis of variance showed that there were highly significant (P<0.01) differences among varieties for grain yield and other parameters considered except number of row cob-1. The highest number of gain row -1 (40.94) was recorded in variety BH546. BH661 variety had maximum cob length of 21.13 cm. The highest plant height of 2.90 cm was noted in local cultivar. The variety BH547 gave the highest grain yield (10459 kg ha-1). Thus, variety BH547 was superior in terms of yield as well as in other important yield components. It is, therefore suggested that BH547 could be recommended for production in Bure district and similar agro-climatic conditions of south western Ethiopia.

  40. Vijayakumar, A. S., Anthony Johnson, A. M., Vijayalakshmi, T. and Chinta Sudhakar

    Uranium (U) tolerance potential of locally cultivated six legume crop species namely groundnut, greengram, bengalgram, redgram, cowpea and horsegram grown on U mill tailings was assessed to understand the impact of uranium on plant germination. Percent germination of seeds, plant growth parameters and protein profiles were analyzed using biometry and Electrophoresis methods. Plants were grown on U mill tailings for 30 days under controlled environmental conditions before the analysis. The U mill tailings showed negative impact on morphological parameters such as percent germination of seeds, plant growth, etc. in all the six legume plants grown on U mill tailings. During the study, greengram, showed best tolerance, redgram showed moderate to leranceand horsegram showed least tolerance under U stress among the six legume crop species studied. Protein profiles of the three legume species (greengram, redgram and horsegram) grown on U mill tailings were studied by SDS-PAGE.

  41. Elif Yüksel Türkboyları and Ahmet Nedim Yüksel

    One of the major problems encountered in greenhouse establishments is the ventilation and cooling processes of greenhouses. Natural ventilation employed in greenhouses is generally not sufficient. Compulsory ventilation applications should be provided to enhance the volume of ventilation. However, compulsory ventilation cannot be applied in greenhouses due to their location at countryside and lack of electric energy. This energy problem can be solved with the use of solar panels in greenhouses. 12 m2 fan pad area and 0,1 kW circulation pump intended for water circulation system are required for the installation of the cooling system to be founded in a high tunnel in Tekirdağ with the surface area of 298 m2. For operation of the required ventilation system, 4 aspirators with 0,55 kW power and 9500 m3h-1 flow rate will be sufficient. A 4 kW solar panel system will supply required energy for the cooling system.

  42. Patil, U. S. and Kutemate, O. G.

    The present paper reports such medicinal plants which are usually practiced by the Korku tribe from the southern Melghat of Buldana district in the treatment of hepatic disorders. The tribal communities inhabiting in southern Melghat of Buldana district rely mostly on the ethno-medicinal plants for curing common as well as chronic diseases. Now a days, the medicinal plants offers genuine plant materials for using it in the formulation of drugs and also alterative for traditional medicines. It is necessary to document the information blocked with local practitioners with correct identification of plant species.

  43. Syed Ali, M., Anuradha, V., Sripriya, V., Yogananth, N. and Sheeba, H.

    The aim of the study was to investigate anti-genotoxic effect of TiO2 nanoparticle biosynthesized from Turbinaria conoides. Genotoxicity studies were conducted for screening of Mutagenicity using Ames test, direct plate incorporation method using tester strain of Salmonella typhimurium viz., TA 98 and hence to prove this as an anti-genotoxicant. The Mutagenicity assay was performed with 3 dose levels (0.312, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/ml) using all two tester strains without metabolic activation system (S9 fraction). Inhibition in the background lawn or reduction in revertant colonies was observed at tested dose concentration in two tester strains without metabolic activation system. Furthermore works are to be carried out in future to find the exact mechanism of its geno-protective nature.

  44. Patricia MOCANU and Laurentiu MOCANU

    This paper focuses on the application of the usual approach for the environmental assessment of sites which are the subject of a real estate transaction or which are brownfields. The existing Romanian legislation in this field must to be completed with other available regulations.In addition, the success of the approach is provided by a rich professional experience of the environmental assessors involved. The case study presented in this paper refers to the approach taken to investigate and quantify their potential historical pollution for a former industrial land with an area of 8840 m2. In this respect, both the international and Romanian standards were applied.

  45. Debojyoty Bandyopadhyay and Mandira Mukherjee

    Wide diversity of β-lactamases causes resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) the frequently encountered nosocomial pathogen creating treatment complications. In the present study incidence of OXA type ß-lactamase in 3GC resistant UPEC was explored. Phylogenic background and genetic relatedness between the isolates was also analyzed. 40.5% E. coli resistant to 3GCs were isolated from 190 urine culture positive samples from hospitalized patients clinically diagnosed for urinary tract infection (UTI). Highest resistance was observed against non-β-lactams; ciprofloxacin(100%), levofloxacin(90%), cotrimoxazole(95%) and intermediate resistance against amikacin(55%). ESBL(44.15%) production and β-lactamase inhibitor resistance (BLIR;55.84%) was observed with varied imepenem(100%, 88.37%) susceptibility respectively. Multiple β-lactamases (OXA group I, II, III, TEM, CTX-M) were prevalent. Occurrence of OXA group I, III and TEM was highest amongst ESBL(44.1%) compared to BLIR(32.6%) isolates. OXA group I, II and III β-lactamases either alone or in combinations with other β-lactamases were carried on IncF type plasmid (IncFrepB, IncFIB). Majority of the UPEC belonged to B2(75.32%) and D(22.07%) and their ERIC-PCR profiles indicated genetic homogeneity. This study for the first time demonstrated high distribution of OXA group I and III in 3GC resistant nosocomial UPEC isolates of homogeneous genetic origin from the eastern region of India.

  46. Sarda, P. D., Nagve, A. D., Salve, B. V., Dr. Prashar, K. and Warkhade, B. B.

    Zingiber Officinale is a used in the regular diet in many asian countries. Chemical analysis of ginger shows that it consist of more than 400 different compounds. In the present study, antimicrobial activity of aqueous, ethanol and acetone extracts of Zingiber Officinalewere evaluated against S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and E.coli (ATCC25922). Ethanol extract demonstrated a higher antibacterial activity than the acetone and aqueous extract. These extracts were prepared from fresh Ginger rhizomes. These extracts were evaluated for their part in increasing antibacterial activity of streptomycin and tetracyclin against S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and E.coli (ATCC25922). The antibacterial activity of streptomycin and tetracyclin were enhanced against the test organism in the presence of these extracts. Phytochemical analysis gave positive results for steroids, triterpenoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, amino acids and proteins.Zingiber Officinalecontains pharmacologically bioactive constituents that may be responsible for its activity against test organisms.

  47. Isabel Regina Prazeres de Souza, Geraldo Antônio Resende Macêdo, Márcio Henrique Pereira Barbosa, Beatriz de Almeida Barros, Samanta Gabriela Medeiros Carvalho, André da Silva Xavier andIsabella Aparecida Maia Gonçalves

    Sugarcane crops are cultivated in nearly all tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide andhave a prominent position in the agricultural scenario in Brazil. However, viral diseases can threaten the production of this important commodity leading to large production losses. In the present study, we evaluatedthe reaction of 20 sugarcane genotypes independently inoculated with two different strains of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) isolated from naturally infected sugarcane (SCMV-SGC) and maize (SCMV-MZ). The maize inbred line L19 was used as a control of susceptibility to the SCMV-MZ strain. Symptoms intensity was evaluated through a visual scale with three levels of severity: weak, intermediate, and intense. The viral infection was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. We observed that, although both strains were able to infect sugarcane genotypes and the maize inbred line, SCMV-SGC was more aggressive, resulting in only four resistant genotypes: IN84-58 (S. spontaneum), RB855536, RB 928064, and SP71-6163. Thirteen genotypes were resistant to SCMV-MZ: IN84-58 (S.spontaneum), NA56-79, CB47-355,CB49-260, RB72454, RB855113, RB855536, RB867515, RB928064, SP70-1143, SP71-1406, SP71-6163, and SP81-3250. This is the first report showingSCMV strains capable of cross-infectingand causing mosaic in sugarcane and maize. Our data emphasize the importance of continuous monitoring and screening for virus resistantgenotypes to be used in breeding programs for the development of new resistant cultivars.

  48. Hiralal Jana and Debabrata Basu

    The livestock plays an important role in the economy of farmers. The farmers in India maintain mixed farming system i.e. a combination of crop and livestock where the output of one enterprise becomes the input of another enterprise thereby realize the resource efficiency. The livestock serve the farmers in different ways-income, employment, food, social security, draft and dung. Cattle rearing is an important economic activity in India. Milk and milk products (butter, ghee etc) meat, eggs, leather, and silk are raw materials for industries. Its for our children, milk is a good food. Dairy farming is a good option to replace alcohol brewing. India is leading producer of milk in the world. It is due to initiative taken by government through ‘Operation Flood’. Under this program good breeds of cows and buffaloes, which yield more milk, have been introduced. Co-operative societies in this field were encouraged. Though there are several problems still existing. Therefore, the present study emphasized on the following objective-to identify the major problems faced by milch cow growers in their enterprise and possible suggestions provided to mitigate those.The study was conducted in Midnapur West district of the state of West Bengal. Multistage random sampling technique was used for selection of the area and respondents of the present investigation. A sample of 100 respondents was randomly selected from the five selected villages (20 respondents from each selected village) according to convenience. The study revealed that-there are several problems but the most important ones are- (1) Price of cow is more at the time of purchasing (100%), (2) At the time of selling cow, price is less (100%), (3) Cow feed (Mess) price is so high (100%), (4) Regular bathing of cows is a problem (100%), (5) Cross breed cows have more problems than deshi cows (100%), (6) Insect-pests problems are there (100%), (7) Diseases problems are there (100%), (8) Worm problem is there (100%), (9) Doctors availability in time is a problem (80%), (10) Visit fee of Doctor is high (73%), (11) Price of medicine is high (100%), (12) Milk price is less in market (89%), (13) Mosquitoes and flies everyday suck the blood of cows so much(100%), and (14) Ration for cow is not available (100%). The main suggestions of respondents were (1) price of feed will be less (100%) (2) shallow tube-well should be established for providing water for cattle rearing (100%), (3) short term training should be organized for controlling insect-pests(100%) (4) short term training should be organized for controlling diseases (100%) (5) short term training should be organized for controlling worms (100%) (6) doctor will be available in time (80%), (7)price of medicine will be less(100%) (8)price of milk will be high (89%) (9) using mosquito net at night time is a solution(100%) and (10)animal ration should be provided by the government (100%). Therefore, the extension agencies who are working at base level should take proper measures to promote the milch cow rearing, especially, there is needed more awareness programmes mainly on insect-pests and diseases control measures, maintaining proper diet for growing cows, awareness on suitable breeds, artificial insemination and others.

  49. Chowdhuri, T. K.

    The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of different growth regulators on propagation of Chinese juniper (Thuja chinensis L) in subtropical zone of West Bengal under natural ventilated polyhouse at Instructional farm of Jaguli, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, during 2014-15 and 2015-16. All parameters were significantly varied among the treatments during investigation (IAA @1000ppm, IAA@2000ppm, IAA @3000ppm, IBA @1000ppm, IBA @2000ppm, IBA @3000ppm, NAA @1000ppm, NAA @2000ppm, NAA @3000ppm, without any treatment (Control) and Local banded hormone(rootex). After studying of two consecutive years, it has been found that tip cutting of this plant treated with NAA (2000-300ppm) followed by IBA at 3000 ppm and IAA at 2000ppm in the month of June is found better for propagation towards of its multiplication in subtropical zone.

  50. Md. Abdul Mottalib, Sobug Roy, Md. Shakil Ahmed, Mala Khan and A. N. M. Al-Razee

    A study was conducted on physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of water from the selected area of Buriganga and Balu River of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Four physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electric conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and six heavy metals like Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb were investigated to assess water quality of these rivers on April-May, 2016. The pH, EC, BOD, COD of Buriganga River were found 7.57-7.64, 1096-1117 μS/cm, 109-163 mg/L, 185-381 mg/L whereas 7.58-8.35, 996-1099 μS/cm, 102-149 mg/L, and 204.8-307.2 mg/L respectively found in Balu river water. The concentration of heavy metals in water samples were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The amount of Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in Buriganga and Balu River were 0.47-2.83 ppm, 0.95-2.759 ppm; 0.47-0.90 ppm, 0.47-0.83 ppm; 0.959-8.003 ppb, 0.563-1.296 ppb; 270-556 ppb, 200-485 ppb; 0.62-2.23 ppb, 1.44-2.34 ppb and 22.1-60.6 ppb, 7.5-38.1 ppb respectively. The obtained results revealed that the COD, BOD and heavy metal concentration of both the river water were higher than Bangladesh standard where as pH and EC values were within the permissible limit. The measured physico-chemical properties and heavy metal concentration of study area shows that Buriganga River is more polluted than Balu River.

  51. Mayank Yadav, Deepika Yadav, Aashish Arora, Namita Yadav and Sulabha M. Naik

    Ludwig’s angina is a form of severe diffuse cellulitis that presents as acute onset rapidly progressive disease involving sublingual, sub mental and submandibular spaces. Ludwig’s angina is observed frequently in today’s practice. Our study aims to observe causative factors, clinical presentations and treatment modalities. We carried out study on 32 patients who presented to department of ENT and Head-Neck surgery, of a tertiary care hospital in Haryana from1st January 2017 to 30th June 2017. When a case of Ludwig’s angina comes to OPD, clinician should be vigilant for the presentation of Ludwig’s angina because early and prompt diagnosis and proper treatment could lower down mortality and morbidity of the disease.

  52. Kayla Schmidt, Laura Alvarez, Juanita Arevalo and Bassim Abbassi

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a well-structured method usedto estimate the environmental impacts associated with the full life cycle of product, service, or system. To effectively analyze products, a cradle-to-grave approach is used, from the acquisition of the raw materials to final disposal. LCA studies offer an overview of the associated environmental impacts, which can be used for sustainable improvements, policy making and marketing purposes.This LCA study compares two renewable energy technologies, a 2.0-MWwind turbine and a 570 kWp photovoltaic system. For comparative purposes, the systems were analyzed based on an annual electricity consumption of 47,410 MWh for a periodof 60 years. The two systems were modeled in the LCA software, SimaPro 8.0.4.26, using the European impact assessment ReCiPe. The results are presented based on characterization, damage assessment, normalization, weighting and single score elements. The assessment resulted indemonstrable environmental impacts associated with the implementation of wind turbines compared tophotovoltaic plants. Wind turbine contributed to greater impact in 12 out of the 17 midpoint impact categories. The single score of total environmental damage were found to be 35.9 MPt for wind turbines and 23.8 MPt for photovoltaic systems.

  53. Maifalinda Fatra and Prof. Madya Zulkifley bin Mohamed

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the usage of contextual teaching and learning with students’ achievement in mathematical education. The study was conducted in Madrasah Ibtidayah Negeri (a private Islamic primary schools) in South Jakarta. A quantitative inquiry method was used in this study by applying a quasi-experimental form of analysis. The data on mathematics learning process and students’ achievements were gathered using questionnaires. Then, the data was analysed using inferential analysis through correlation and regression analysis. This present study found that there were differences in the students' achievements between students who learn using contextual teaching and learning (CTL) and those who learn using the conventional approach. The achievement of students using CTL modules is higher than students who had been exposed to conventional method.

  54. Dilip Kumar Mishra and Yadav, S. R.

    As the digital world is growing with various kind of data like text file, image, video. Out of those image plays an important role in different field such as remote sensing, social media, etc. So the image quality is maintained by Digital image processing on various issues. This paper gives a brief survey of image data hiding techniques for various environmental scenes. Image analysis features are described in this paper with there requirements. As hiding data is data hiding but it goes under some kind of attacks which are also covered in this paper as they are the best measure for comparing different techniques of data hiding.

  55. Prerit Jain, Sanya Gupta and Ritika Pathi

    In many application and industries it is required to monitor the electrical and physical conditions around electrical equipment. But it is very difficult to monitor all the parameters of multiple equipment systems at different places far away simultaneously. Here, the system monitors the parameters like pressure, gas, temperature, etc. and transmit the parameters to a Raspberry Pi through Serial Protocol, SPI. The Raspberry Pi then uploads the received values to the embedded web server named Apache server embedded in it. These parameters can be viewed on a PC by connecting it to Raspberry Pi via Ethernet cable. From where the client can monitor all the industrial devices from any remote location using its own local browser by just typing the IP address in a web browser. Ethernet communication is depicted and data and packet flow are analysed.

  56. Ronald Brisebois, Apollinaire Nadembega, Philippe N’techobo and Herve Landry Djeuteu

    Web semantic metadata rules-based harvesting became is an important challenge due to validation of the semantic metadata and the amount of web sites that are rich knowledge sources. Indeed, extracting useful information from the web is the most significant issue of concern for the realization of semantic web; this may be achieved by several ways among which web usage mining, web crawling and scrapping and semantic annotation plays an important role. In this paper, a semantic web metadata harvesting and enrichment model, called Semantic Universal Knowledge Model (SUKM). It goal is to make an enriched semantic encyclopedia. SUKM has to support multi-platform metadata driven applications and interoperability. It may be defined as a structure and rich version of DBpedia in order to increase the usability of various user web knowledge experiences. SUKM aggregates and enriches metadata to create a semantic master metadata catalogue. More specifically, a harvesting modelconsisting of five phases is proposed. This model takes into account sources classification, type of source contents and semantic relationships. SUKM model includes metadata cleaning to remove duplication from different source and semantic metadata enrichments. Semantic Metadata Enrichments consist to identify and enrich topic and emotion metadata hidden within the text or multimedia structure. Enrichment processes use a hybrid machine learning model to propose a topic detection and emotion analysis algorithms. SUKM rules-based harvesting prototype has been implemented using a Java program and more than 10 million metadata hybrid documents have been integrated to the semantic master metadata catalogue.

  57. Meenakshi, P. and Meenakumari, N.

    The concept of bi-ideals for near- rings was introduced by T.Tamizh Chelvam and N.Ganesan [6]. Subsequently the notion of quasi ideals and bi-ideals in Г-near-rings was introduced by T.Tamizh Chelvam and N.Meenakumari [7]. An interesting special case of bi-ideals is given by the quasi-ideals of Steinfeld [5]. The concept of Г-seminear-rings was introduced by Kyung Ho Kim [3]. In this paper we introduce the notion of semigamma quasi-ideals, semigamma bi-ideals and b-simple Г- seminear-rings. Using the notion of semigamma bi-ideals, we show that the set of all semigamma bi-ideals of a Г- seminear-ring form a moore system. Also we proved that the intersection of a semigamma bi-ideals of Г- seminear-ring M and sub- Г- seminear-ring S is again a semigamma bi- ideal of S. We define b-simple Г- seminear-ring and prove certain equivalent conditions of Г- seminear-field. Throughout this paper, by a Г- seminear-ring M we shall mean a zero symmetric Г- seminear-ring.

  58. Hussein Dawoud, Zana Abu Mosa and Samy Shaat

    The mixed polycrystalline ferrites 〖Li〗_0.5(1-x) 〖Zn〗_x 〖Fe〗_(2.5-0.5x) O_4 were prepared by the conventional solid state method using high purity metal oxides ZnO,〖Fe〗_2 O_3 and LiCO_3for different concentration of Zn2+ions. Double probe electrode method was used to study the AC properties: the AC electrical conductivity (σ), the dielectric constant: real(ε'), imaginary (ε'') and complex (ε*), and the dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) over therange of the appliedfrequency (f=1 KHz-5 MHz)at room temperature. σincreased exponentially with the increasing f where the maximum value was for the sample 〖Li〗_0.3 〖Zn〗_0.4 〖Fe〗_2.3 O_4. The obtained results of the dielectric parameter (ε', ε'', ε* andtan δ), also, decreased exponentially with increasing f, which confirmsthe normal spinel ferrite behavior. The behavior of AC propertiescan be elucidated on the basis of the exchanged electrons between . The obtained results reveal that the AC properties change by substitution of the Zn2+ionsin Li-spinel ferrite matrix.

  59. Juhi Mishra and Dr. Tejeet Singh

    Traditional Metal Matrix Composites on micron scale offer opportunities to tailor material properties such as hardness, tensile strength, ductility, density, electrical and thermal resistance, wear strength. After the advancement of nanotechnology, it was applied on traditional metal matrix composites and with this vision, MMC on Nano-scale has overcome all the limitations of traditional MMC. For example Carbon Nanotubes exhibit ultrahigh strength and modulus. In the past decades many research work has done in polymer matrix Nano-composites and have various applications. Metallic composites having nanoparticles can offer excellent properties over polymeric composites due to its inherent temperature stability, high wear resistance, high strength, high modulus, high thermal and electrical conductivity. MMC has great potential of application in every field but there use is very limited due to their high cost and difficulties in fabrication. The major issue of concern withthe fabrication of MMC consistsin the low wettability of the reinforcement phase by the molten metal and that’s why they cannot fabricate by conventional casting method. Although many alternatives techniques have been developed for the production of MMC. In this paper we will review the various important methods of fabrication of Metal Matrix Composites.

  60. Juhi Mishra and Dr. Tejeet Singh

    In the manufacturing world now we need some ‘Intelligent’ or Smart materials which can change their property according to our requirement. Smart materials are one of the unique material and the general characteristics of all these materials are common that is their behaviour or significant property can be altered, reversed or controlled under the influence of external impetus. Their smartness can be characterized by its self-adaptability, self-sensing and self-healing in response to any external stimuli. In the list of these kind of materials, we are about to brief studyof the application of Shape Memory Alloys. Shape memory alloys are the material that have property to regain its original shape when subjected to external stimulisuch as stress, temperature, electric field, magnetic field. Due to its unique and excellent mechanical properties these material has drawn a massive attention of the researchers and the scientists which brings it into a wide commercial use. In this review paper we have focused on the brief introduction and potential application of the shape memory alloys.

  61. Nagila, S. and Myna, A. N.

    Face image annotation refers to automatically assign labels to objects in a face image. Assigned labels may be gender, age, name, etc. For annotating the human faces, wide variety of algorithms and techniques are used in computer vision. In this paper, a real time face image annotation system which involves face detection, gender and age identification is proposed. For detection of human faces in an image Viola and Jones Object detection technique is used. For the detected human faces, features are extracted using the process of Local Binary Pattern. For classification of human faces based on their gender and age, Support Vector Machine is used by considering extracted features as support vectors. The main application of this work is to count the number of human faces who have viewed a particular advertisement. The face database consists of sample face dataset of varying age group and gender. The experimental results show better accuracy for gender and age classification.

  62. Rajan. D and Beulah. A

    In this paper, we study Fuzzy set orders that compare the variability or the dispersion of Fuzzy Measures. The most important and common order that has studied in this paper are the fuzzy set order and the dispersive order. We also study in this paper the excess wealth order which is found to be useful in the increasing order of application. Various related order are also examined in the paper.

  63. Bhagat, A. D. and Popale, P. G.

    The study has been undertaken to investigate the utility of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for comparison of weekly values of pomegranate evapotranspiration (ETp) estimated by ETr and Kc approach and that of estimated by ANNs for 1st to 5th year pomegranate orchards. Feed forward network has been used for prediction of ETr using resilient back-propagation method. For the purpose of this study, the meteorological data of 25 years from 1983 to 2007 were used as input. For training of ETp, crop coefficient values were also taken as input to the networks along with meteorological parameters. The results revealed that, the values of correlation coefficient between estimated ETp using crop coefficient approach and ANN estimated ETp which are 0.998, 0.999, 0.9999, 1 and 1 for 1st year to 5th year pomegranate orchards, respectively and the value of MSE 0.0021, 0.0128, 0.0628, 0.0043 and 0.0001 for 1st year to 5th year pomegranate orchards, respectively. Based on comparison, it can be concluded that in the study ANN model is suitable for prediction of ETp.

  64. Bhagat, A. D. and Popale, P. G.

    The study was carried out for Hasta bahar of pomegranate for optimum production of pomegranate for Solapur district in the semi-arid zone of Maharashtra. Generally, for crop planning, rainfall analysis and water balance studies are required to determine drought investigation, water requirement, and water surplus/ deficit. Rainfall is the major determinant of pomegranate production, especially in rain fed areas because the contribution of rain fed horticulture is almost half to the national production. The study revealed that, the greater intensity of weekly drought for Hasta bahar is found in Malsiras followed by Akluj and Jeyur and lowest intensity of weekly drought is found in Solapur and South Solapur for all the weeks. The water requirement at 70% probability of Hasta bahar is 1260.5 liters/year/tree for mature (5th year) Pomegranate tree. The percent water surplus weeks always lower than the percent water deficit weeks for all the stations of Solapur district for entire study period (1977-2007). The climate is semi-arid with average moisture index -56.85 percent. The uniform variation of all parameter occurred during Hasta which is helpful for healthy and disease free growth of pomegranate tree also good for pomegranate production. The most adequate beneficial and productive season for pomegranate production as compare other seasons.

  65. Kothuri Parashu Ramulu and Ramana Murthy, B. V.

    Requirement engineering is the important phase in software development life cycle process. The objective of requirement engineering is to discover and collect the functional requirements and non-functional requirements. The requirement engineering performs the critical role in analyzing and prioritizing the McCall’s quality factors based on its necessity and feasibility. Requirement engineering makes complex decisions about the requirements prioritization in software development process to maintain the quality software. Selecting and prioritizing the proper non-functional requirements from the multiple requirements is a critical task. The Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) is a multi-criteria decision making method provides an effective quantitative approach for prioritizing the requirements of McCall’s quality factors in various feasibility criteria’s. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the prioritization of requirements in McCall’s Quality factors based on feasibility criteria’s using the AHP.

  66. Kolandavel Natarajan and Abiy Asrat Nigatu

    Rural Savings and Credit Cooperatives ( RuSACCOs) are important financial institutions in remote villages of Ethiopia offering avenues for savings and credit for farmers and the poor. This study was undertaken in Boloso Sore district (woreda) of the Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia. From six RuSACCOs, 116 farmer-members were selected as respondents. Both primary and secondary data were collected. The specific objectives of the study were to assess the level of cash- savings of the farmers in RuSACCOs. Descriptive statistics of the study showed that average per capita farmer annual saving in RuSACCO was 297 ETB (USD 13). The farmers’ savings was found to be increasing moderately over years. Age, family size and RuSACCO distance from farmers' place of residence were found to have negative relationship with average savings. Similarly, education, land size household income, credit eligibility and training had positive relationship with quantum of saving. The study concluded that RuSACCOs are becoming appropriate options for the rural households, which are providing financial services and products to the rural community. Hence, to promote RuSACCOs in the rural areas in a sustainable manner, the study suggested some measures, among others: enhancing governance and management of their structure and appropriate training to farmers.

  67. Debela Lemesa and Getachew Abeshu

    A number of studies have been carried out on sources of stress focusing on general prevalence rather than specific dimensions of the various sources of stress and their consequences along with coping mechanisms. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess perceived sources, consequences and stress coping mechanisms among first year regular undergraduate students’ of Wolkite University. Three hundred and twenty nine (329) first year students were selected from all colleges using multi-stage stratified sampling techniques. A structured questionnaire consisting of items on various dimensions of sources of stress, consequences and coping mechanisms were administered. The finding explicate that freshmen students in Wolkite University had experienced all the major forms of sources of stress mainly intrapersonal sources than academic, interpersonal and environmental sources respectively. The independent t-test analyses in terms of gender indicated that female freshmen students are more prone to all forms of such sources of stress, chiefly of intrapersonal sources of stress with (M = 3.95, SD = .26), t (287) = -16.71, p < 0.05 as compared to their male counterparts. Psychological, academic, social, physical and health related negative consequences of stresses were some commonly revealed ones. Active problem coping followed by active emotional coping approach was the most applied one to handle stress and there was significant gender differences in utilizing coping strategies in which female students employed less active problem and active emotional focused coping strategies than male students (M=2.93, SD =.55), t (287) = 13.37, p < 0.05 and (M = 2.51, SD = .48), t (287) 16.89, p < 0.05 respectively. Moreover in this study, a significant negative correlations were found between all forms of perceived sources of stress (intrapersonal, academic, interpersonal and environmental), and active problem coping style and active emotional coping style while passive problem coping style and passive emotional coping style found to be positively correlated to sources of stress. Female students have experienced all major forms of perceived sources of stress with its damaging effects and used more passive problem and emotional coping mechanisms. Hence, university officials, student’s counselors and policy makers have to make conducive learning environment in the University to curb difficulties first year students face difficulties in their academic, social, health and psychological wellbeing.

  68. Partakson Romun Chiru

    The present study is initiated to determine the local consumer awareness on the consumer rights and protection act; it is still a common practice that businessmen exploit the consumer with regard to quality, quantity, weight, price and the related factor involved in the daily business transaction. Ignorance is one of the prominent factors contributing in the exploitation of rural masses. Hence, keeping in view the vital goal of consumer welfare, grass root level survey has initiated to observed, understand and analyse the behaviour of the rural consumers with particular to weaker section. The study was conducted at Churachandpur District; a hill district in the state of Manipur, all the six development blocks was selected for the study. An attempt is made to know the level of consumer exploitation in rural market in respect of marketing and consumption of fast moving consumable goods in District. Using sampling techniques, 120 respondents from 64 villages were selected. The data was administered by using percentage method and Karl Pearson Correlation Coefficient, the analysis shows that local consumer was exploited in term of price, quality and quantity in the rural market.

  69. Lèfara SILUE

    In human societies, body plays a social role which authenticates its existence and gives it a true meaning. As such, body reveals as a cultural element which enables a social group to identify itself. Amos Tutuola represents body in his writing to highlight the intrinsic relationship between the visible world and the invisible one. In this view, the body of the main character, the wino, follows the way which society imposes it. Here, the impulses of the body force the protagonist to cross the insurmountable boundary which separates the two worlds. In African collective consciousness, a living cannot go to the world of the dead. Likewise, a dead cannot come back to normal life. Human body is then a receptacle for the soul in Tutuola’s imaginary universe.

  70. Dr. Olubiyi, A. O. and Ayemidotun, D.

    This study was carried out on financial performance evaluation of banks in Ado Ekiti. Its main objective was to compare and examine empirically, the performance of the commercial banks in Ekiti State, Nigeria, in terms of liquidity. The five selected banks are WEMA bank, Zenith bank, UBA, Fidelity Bank and GTBank. The financial ratio analysis was used to determine the performance of each of the banks and also to evaluate the managerial performances. The analysis shows that there are significant differencesin the performances of the banks.

  71. Billian Khalayi Otundo

    The focus of this paper is to highlight the various manifestations of intonation patterns to declarative questions by Kenyan speakers of English who use English as a Second Language (ESL). Specific references are made to two ethnic groups (Bukusu and Nandi), who produced maximally distinct accents during the pilot study. The paper describes the range of intonation patterns that exist among Bukusu and Nandi ESL speakers and further establishes whether there are features of intonation that distinguish the two groups. The objectives are achieved with respect to auditory and acoustic analysis of both read and spontaneous speech. Acoustic analysis by use of Prosogram script for Praat software and Tone and break indices (ToBI) for prosodic annotation is adopted to depict nuclear accent placement, accent types and their associated boundary tones. Additionally, the intonation patterns are coded and plotted in Ms Excel for variability tests. The British School is combined with the Autosegmental-Metrical (AM) theory of intonation for discussion. The findings are explored departing from an assumption that these ethnic groups demonstrate dissimilar intonation patterns based on their underlying first languages (L1) substrate. Instrumental analysis reveals that the Bukusu adopt a high nuclear that ends in a low boundary tone (H* L%). While the Nandi ESL speakers predominantly yield a rising nuclear followed by a high boundary tone (L*H H%).

  72. Derek Wambulwa Makokha

    Kaya Muhaka Forest in the Kenyan Coast is one of the remaining lowland forest patches belonging to Zanzibar-Inhambane vegetation mosaic of Eastern Africa, which are rich in endemic and threatened flora and fauna. Although gazetted and protected as a national monument, the forest biodiversity is still endangered. This research attempted to establish the Diversity of flora along disturbance gradient ranging from the forest core to the agro-ecosystems of the forest. The belt transect method was used where quadrats of 20m x 20m placed at intervals of every 250 m were systematically selected along two parallel transects of 3 km long each and all the plant species recorded. An additional nine plots of similar size and placement were surveyed on three parallel transects of 1km each established from the edge of the forest to the forest core. The flora diversity was calculated by use of the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index.There was a high diversity of plant species in the Kaya Muhaka forest and agro-ecosystems. The forest was found to be homogenous with most of the species being indigenous and endemic. The forest edge was the most diverse while the forest core was the least diverse with the species richness steadily increasing from the forest core towards the edge. There was no significant difference in the species diversity between the forest core, forest edge and agroecosystems. The forest edge contained a higher Shannon-wiener diversity index of 5.25 as compared to the forest core which had a Shannon-Wiener diversity index of 4.70. The general trend showed that the diversity reduced from the forest edge to the forest core. A total of 493 species were recorded from 97 families with Papilionaceae (7.9%), Rubiaceae (6.8%), Euphorbiaceae (5.4%), Moraceae and Caesalpiniaceae (4.1%) being the most represented. The high floral diversity displayed is probably a result of frequent disturbances from the surrounding resource poor farmers.

  73. Tefera Jegora and Habib Bati

    Traditional medicinal plants are highly decreasing due to different threatening factors in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted in Gechi and Chewaka, Southwest Ethiopia. The study was conducted with 120 informants randomly selected from 12 kebeles selected by random sampling techniques. Data were collected using structured questionnaire, interview and group discussion. Furthermore, field observation based on a checklist was used. A total of 61 species categorized under 34 families were recorded. Fabaceae family had the highest number of species (6) followed by Asteraceae with 5 species. Five medicinal plants were used selectively to treat headache and shown as Ocimum lamiifolium ranked first in both woredas. Majority of the respondents (57% in Gechi and 48% in Chewaka) revealed that traditional medicinal plants are highly decreasing by different threatening factors. Expansion of agricultural land was the first ranked threatening factors reported by 31.67 and 26.67% respondents followed by lack of awareness (each 23.33%) and drought (each 18.33%) in Gechi and Chewaka respectively. The habitat distribution of medicinal plant was ranked in order of home garden agro forestry (75.47 and 73.91%) followed by forest land (67.93 and 71.74%) in Gechi and Chewaka woreda respectively and varies among the study sites for the rest land uses. In the study areas, local communities are giving less attention to conserve medicinal plants. Therefore, conservation strategies are highly needed to conserve these plant species.

  74. Cengiz TAŞKIN, Mine TAŞKIN, Nuri Muhammet ÇELİK, FiratOKAN and Bilal TAŞKIRAN

    Background/Objective: The aim of this research is to determine the effects of Pilates exercises on balance in females. Methods: Sixty sedentary women volunteers (mean age = 34.67 ± 10.41 years; height = 158.75 ± 4.68 cm; weight = 76.22 ± 11.94 kg) participated in this research. Each subject was randomly allocated to the Experimental Group (EG=30) or the Control Group (CG=30). The EG performed the Pilates exercise program. In eyes open condition, there was no significantly difference in the control group (p>0.05) while Overall Stability Index (OSI) scores significantly decreased in the experimental group after the exercises (p<0.05). Under the eyes closed condition, a significant difference was seen in OSI scores before and after the exercises (p<0.05). Results: In conclusion, this study shows that an 8-weeks Pilates exercise program contributes to an increase in the ability to control the body's position or balance for sedentary adult females through improvements in physical activity and positions.

  75. Dr. Veda D. Malagatti

    Banking system occupies an important place in nation’s economy and it plays a pivotal role in the economic development of a country. Digitalization is the integration of digital technologies into everyday life and the digital revolution in banking has only just begun. Today we are in phase one, where most traditional banks offer their customers high-quality web and mobile sites or apps. An alternate approach is one where digital becomes not merely an additional feature but a fully integrated mobile experience in which customers use their smart phones or tablets to do everything from opening a new account and making payments to resolving credit-card billing disputes, all without ever setting foot in a physical branch. Banking- related documentation work has been the bane of everyone’s life. Even post digitalization documentation remained a big hiccup. The wait for a bank representative to verify the documents unnecessarily delayed the loan process. It almost killed the dream of owning a home for many. Then, came the paperless transaction phenomenon which made banking easier, adding new star to the whole process. Although, currently only a handful of banks accept documents online, the trend is quickly gaining pace and popularity. Once in full force, the service will greatly help speed up the service, will greatly help speed up the loan-disbursal process and reduce the cost. Digitalization minimizes the errors, quantum of handling large amounts of cash will be reduced, Opening and maintaining bank accounts would never been this easier, Repetitive tasks will be eliminated by automation, Rural and urban gap will be eliminated, With the increasing cashless transactions fake currency threat will be reduced, Productivity will be increased etc. The main objective of this study is to estimate the average cost for manual and digitalization operations incurred in the Bank for processing of Retail Loans. The cost of Transaction, Process, Employee, Fixed and Variable for manual and digitalization has being provided by the bankers. This study was about SBI bank situated in Urban, Semi-Urban, Rural and SBM, to analyse whether the cost incurred is the same in different demographic. The data required for an empirical comparison by using the specific format of questionnaire for study of manual and digitalization operation on cost has been collected from two sources: primary sources and secondary sources. It is proved by hypothesis testing that both operation is requisite for efficient operating cost and digitization alone would not be fruitful as it may turn costlier for operating bank services.

  76. Subash Thota

    SAP is one of the most notable Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution. The uniqueness of SAP is that its various business process is seamlessly integrated. For an example, person posting goods receipt at warehouse is expected to impact financial accounting such as inventory account and account payable account. In normal case, warehouse management system generate message to post appropriate accounting entry in financial applications. In case of SAP, this posting happens in seamless way. The moment warehouse user post goods receipt in system, the financial entry posted. It’s so tightly coupled that system ensure both inventory and accounting posting happens together or none.In this paper, we’ll discuss general financial concept and SAP MM-FI integration point.

  77. Docteur KADJO KOUTOU

    The aim of this research is to check if a hairstyle is an entity that abounds richness, identity and expression in its space of evolution. Indeed, a hairstyle is a means by which a person seeks identity, a way of life, a cultural value, consideration and dignity. If a person’s hairstyle makes a person historical person, bearer and agent of a culture, of a civilization and also a psychological element, to adopt a hairstyle is therefore, an act of socialization and metamorphosis that allows the individual to communicate information about his history, his social status and his cultural identity. The traditional hairstyle has at present retained only a purely identity aesthetic function and a symbolic role of agent of recognition.

  78. Nguyen Hai Quang

    Organizational culture plays an important role in the survival and development of organizations in general and airlines in particular. This research aims at identifying organizational culture model of Vietnam Airlines, the national airline operating under the model of traditional airline in Vietnam. By selecting the methodology and surveying 240 employees working at Vietnam Airlines, the result of analysis shows that the employees of Vietnam Airlines evaluated the levels of organization of Vietnam Airlines is quite good. They found that the organizational culture model of Vietnam Airlines today is mainly based on the Clan as well as Hierarchy culture model and wants to continue to strengthen the Clan and Adhocracy culture model. These assessments and expectations are also different between managers and staffs of Vietnam Airlines.

  79. Isha Madan and Namita

    The range of business ethics issues is very much prevalent in today’s corporate scenario. This concept is not only limited to one field but it covers many fields viz accounting & finance, sales and marketing, human resource management and so on. The various issues addressed in the above mentioned fields are business decision making and moral principles, role of moral leadership in business, types of white collar and corporate crimes etc. This paper attempts to find out the ethical practices with special reference to CSR activities followed by different renowned companies and the unethical practices which have created a great panic in the society.

  80. OHIAERI, Nnenna Victoria and AJAPE, Kayode Mohamed

    Incessant stock market failures and waning domestic investor’s confidence in Nigerian capital market as well as foreign portfolio investors activities have generated contentious views among capital market stakeholders necessitating critical investigations. This study employs descriptive and expo-facto research designs using time series data, judgementally sampled between 1985 and 2015 from various report issues of the NSE,SEC and National Bureau of Statistics respectively examine the connectivity among capital market liquidity, market capitalisation and foreign portfolio investment in Nigeria. Vector Granger Causality and sub VAR tests are applied and the result revealed bi-directional and unidirectional relationship among foreign portfolio investment there by rejecting the null hypotheses test of no interconnection and direction of causality among the series examined. The study therefore concludes that significant level of bilateral connection exist among the series and consequently recommends the establishment of foreign portfolio investment department by all stocking firms operating under Nigerian stock exchange market in order to adequately capture daily update of all levels of over the counter foreign and domestic investment transactions with the reports captured by the daily official list report coupled with an integrated grass root capital market investors education to boost awareness for the market activities, products and their benefits respectively Keywords: Capital market, foreign portfolio investment, stock market liquidity, capitalisation and Nigeria.

  81. Dr. Pawan Kumar

    The present study is related to attitude of the secondary school teachers towards information technology in relation to their gender and locality. Descriptive Survey Method was used by the investigator. The random sampling technique was exercised in the selection of sample, which comprised 50 male and 50 female secondary school teachers. 10 secondary schools (5 from rural and 5 from urban area) were selected from that district of Ludhiana (Punjab) that districts randomly selected. After that, 100 secondary school teachers 10 from each school (5 male and 5 female) was selected randomly. Attitude Scale towards information technology (Dr.(Ms) Nasreen and Dr.(Ms) Fatima Islahi ,2012) was used by the investigator. The collected data was analysed by Percentage, Mean, Standard deviation and t-test. It was found that: 1. 99% of the Secondary School teacher had favourable attitude the use of information technology while 1% of the secondary school teachers had unfavourable attitude towards information technology. 2. The difference between mean attitude scores of male and female secondary school teachers towards information technology was not found to be significant. 3. The difference between mean attitude scores of rural and urban secondary school teachers towards information technology.

  82. Truong Quang Dung

    This study identifies the factors that affect people's satisfaction with the bus service in Ho Chi Minh City by empirical research.From the research model and surveying of 620 people, the results of the analysis show that the satisfaction of people about the bus service in Ho Chi Minh City depends on many factors such as communication, sale system, the service of bus service staff, the route network system, the bus and bus infrastructure. The research also finds that the overall satisfaction of the bus service in Ho Chi Minh City is lower than average and there is a wide variation in satisfaction between the type of passengers and their frequency of using the bus service.

  83. Nishant Srivastava, Anand Singh, Vishwajeet Singh, Bhanu Vikram Singh and Ankit Pandey

    This paper describes of about voice recognition controllable robotic vehicle which works by virtue of human voice commands for remote area operations. It is a mobile robot whose motions can be controlled by user using specific voice commands. The specific commands are firstly to be registered in the database & then after processing the speech commands, the necessary motion instructions are to be given to the mobile platform via Radio Frequency link. The following paper carries the detailed information of the prototype of the robotic vehicle. The commands are to be sent to the robotic vehicle using push buttons or voice commands present. The receiver would decode the data before feeding it to another microcontroller, to drive DC motors via motor driver Integrated Circuit for required work. This technology has an advantage over long communication range as compared to Radio Frequency technology. Further the project can also be developed using IoT (Internet of Things) technology where a user can control the robot from any corner of the world.

  84. Suhair Al Alami

    This paper argues that intercultural exchange projects can play an essential role in relation to augmenting students’ communication skills in English as a foreign/second language (EFL/ESL). To achieve the intended aim, the paper reports on a three-year research project which was conducted at a private university in Dubai where the researcher works, in collaboration with the researcher’s project’s partner in Bonn, Germany. Intercultural exchange projects are defined as a communicative, collaborative, and student-driven work, requiring the engagement of students in online communication as well as collaboration with peer students from partner classes in geographically distant places, under the supervision of instructors. The researcher used a ten-item questionnaire to measure the effectiveness of intercultural exchange projects, as perceived by the participating students. The paper concludes with the need to conduct intercultural exchange projects by EFL/ESL instructors and researchers working in different parts of the world, in order for students to promote their communication skills in English.

  85. Deepika, M. and Dr. Avinash, M.

    Literature is the mirror to life and society. It depends upon the writer where he places the mirror. From time to time writers have been exploring the various dimensions of the relationship between man and society. The paper is an attempt to study about Aravind Adiga’s The White Tiger in political corruptions, marginalization of poor people, identity, and inferiority complex higher class society over lower class. It also talks about how corruption corrupts the mind of common people. The animality and human identity were use of animal imagery in novel. In The White Tiger tells how the poor Indian man’s struggle to come out from darkness with its poverty and his experience of life to reach into light. The paper also focuses on metaphor, symbols and imagery in Aravind Adiga’s The White Tiger. Adiga reveals how marginalized people were ignored by education, religion, culture, race and economy and the gradual shifts of the protagonist as an entrepreneur

  86. Nijanth Anand

    People analytics is a relatively new aspect of Business Analytics and this paper deals with the implementation of people analytics in a small-scale retail organization over a period of 4 months. The small-scale Retail organization, the subject of the study faces issues such as High Working hours, Employee Churn, End of Month Sales bulk up which are dealt with using a People analytics approach as Employees are the pillar of any organization. The aspects of data extraction using surveys to find Organizational network analysis, data preparation to remove outliers are discussed. The methods on how essential data was collected in the organization and the graphical aspects of the People Analytics study are achieved using Descriptive analytics. Descriptive analytics was followed by Predictive and Prescriptive analytics post which inferences were made and shared with business. Positive changes were observed post the implementation of the People analytics fix in the work pattern of the employees, organizational efficiency apart from resolution of different issues in the organization. The paper brings to light the capabilities of People analytics together with the power of increasing data availability and emphasizes on why every organization should emphasize developing an in-built People Analytics capability to improve and smoothen its functionality.

  87. Pradeep Dharmadasa

    This study explores the business strategies of family firms and investigates the association between business strategies and firm life cycle. The data employed in this study are drawn from the Australian Centre for Family Business and the centre has collected the data from family firms located in all states and territories of Australia by a questionnaire. The sample consists of 276 family firms in all sectors of business which includes agriculture, forestry and fishing, mining, manufacturing, constructing, transportation, communication and utilities, wholesaling, retailing, finance, insurance and real estates. The findings of the study suggest that while differentiation strategy is significant to family firms, diversification strategy is less important. In addition, study found that family firms favour for the cost leadership at the decline stage rather than other stages.

  88. Jembulingam Sabarathinam and Dr. Preetha

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a common and usually a contagious disease caused by the bacterium bartonella henselae It is most commonly found in children following a scratch or bite from a cat in the household within about one to two weeks. The current best diagonstic tool is the Polymerised chain reaction which gives accurate results within a short span of time. The preferred antibiotic for treatment is azithromycin since this agent is the only one studied in a randomized controlled study.

  89. Dr. Mounis Mahdi Salih, Dr. Qasim Hamza Eriby and Dr. Salih Abdulkafi Hammoodi

    Background: Gallstone disease is one of the most common problems affecting the gastrointestinal tract and the most common biliary pathology, gallstone induced complications have a limited and overlapping pattern of clinical presentations Objective: To evaluate the modalities of clinical presentations of gallstone disease with its incidence among different age groups with their management and outcome. Methods: This study was conducted on a total of (53) adult patients including (48) female (90.5%) and (5) male (9.5%) patients with gallstone disease with their age ranging from 18 to 73 years who were presented to Al- Yarmouk teaching hospital from the period between April 2014 to April 2015, they were divided according to their clinical presentations into two main groups as cold cases group and emergency cases group, within each group a different clinical sub groups were included. Results: Among the (53) adult patients included in the study (10) different clinical presentations of gallstone disease were identified, four of them who included (37) patient (19.6%) belong to the cold cases group and six of them who included (16) patients (8.4%) belong to the emergency cases y group .within the cold cases group (4) different clinical subgroups of presentations were identified including symptomatic gallstones, chronic cholecystits, jaundice, incidental gallstones and within the emergency cases group six different clinical subgroups of presentations including acute cholecystitis, acute biliary pancreatitis, cholangitis, abdominal mass, acute abdomen, intestinal obstruction, all the included patients underwent cholecystectomy either as elective or emergency surgery. Conclusion: Gallstone disease is common and has a wide spectrum of different clinical presentations from silent and asymptomatic to severe life threatening, Among the (10) different clinical presentations of gallstone disease who were encountered six of them were emergency ones, the presentations of gallstone disease as a cold cases outway that as an emergency cases. The highest presenting age group in cold cases group was between 31-40 years and the lowest age group was between 10-20 years, while the highest presenting age group in emergency cases group was between 51-60 years and the lowest presenting age group was between 10-20 years. The highest clinical presentation in cold cases group was chronic cholecystitis while the highest clinical presentation in emergency cases group was acute cholecystitis. The incidence of emergency presentations of gallstone disease is higher in elderly patients than in young age groups.

  90. Dr. Priya D. Deshmukh and Dr. Shilpa Parab

    Low back pain has been growing musculoskeletal disorder. In previous studies it has been stated that, “Fear voidance belief have been hypothesized as most important psychological factor in predicting disability among patients with low back pain”. In order to provide effective rehabilitation it is necessary to explore both physiological and psychological factors. In this experimental study, 30 individuals were included according to inclusion criteria and divided in 2 groups, group A : control group (15) and group B : experimental group (15). Control group was given - ergonomics for back, core muscle (Multifidus, Transverse abdominis) activation with progression to limb loading exercises and experimental group was given rigid taping along with conventional therapy for 4 weeks. Results showed that on comparison between 2 groups a significant difference in post intervention values of average of reduction of kinesiophobia, disability and pain. The t-value for comparison of post kinesiophobia is t=3.343(p=0.0039< 0.005), t-value for comparison of post disability is t=2.257(p=0.032), t-value for comparison of post pain is t=6.517(p<0.0001).The present study shows not only the kinesiophobia is reduced with rigid taping but, also patients may show significant improvement in disability and pain.

  91. Dr. Davinder Kumar Gaur, Dr. Naresh Kumar and Dr. Satish Pal

    Osteoporosis, also known as the silent disease, occurs in women and men, and is associated with a loss of bone mass and increased risk of fracture. With aging there is a loss of bone mass and bone strength But does that mean that osteoporosis is a disease characteristic of aging, or that its incidence increases in old age? Data on prevalence of osteoporosis among women in India come from studies conducted in small groups spread across the country with 230 million Indians expected to be over the age of 50 years in 2015, 20% are osteoporotic. The DEXA scan & Qualitative ultrasound (QUS) methods are widely used for BMD analysis. Bone has a mechanically anisotropic structure, which ultrasound parameters are thought to reflect which is principle mechanism of QUS method. Methods: All 138 subjects between 20 – 70 years, 57 females & 91 males of north delhi region, in the study were examined by use of quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) method to evaluate their bone mineral density (BMD) at right calcaneus. Prevalence of osteoporosis or osteopenia in all males & females were calculated. Results: The results of present study were Indian females of north Delhi region depicts a high prevalence of 64.91% in 57 females and 62.63% in 91 male studied. Hence it was concluded that prevalence rate of osteoporosis as compared with previous studies has increased alarmingly to average 63% approximately in the studied population.

  92. Shailesh Kumar, Rakesh Kumar, Harsh Priya, Randhir Kumar, Namrata Kumari and Sudhir Kumar

    Background: The overwhelming majority of fungal infections of the urinary tract are caused by Candida species, and they usually present as complicated nosocomial infections. Colonization of the bladder most commonly is a complication of prolonged catheterization of bladder in a patient receiving antibiotics Objectives to assess the significance of candiduria in catheterized patients admitted in ICUs, to study the significance of speciation of candida isolates and determine the predominant Candida species. Methodology: A total of 17 yeast isolates obtained from sixty catheterised urine samples collected from ICU patients after consent were included in the present study for final analysis. The candida isolates were identified upto species level by standard mycological techniques like wet mount, and culture on SDA. For speciation, rapid method – CHROM agar, cornmeal agar and germ tube test were used. Results: The mean age of the patients was 46.9 ± 19.7 (mean ± SD). Of the 17 patients from whom the Candida spp. were isolated 9 (52.9%) were female and 8 (47.1%) were male. The mean duration of ICU stay and catheterisation were 3.8 ± 2.2 and 3.76 ± 2.3, respectively. Of the 17 patients, 7 (41.2%) had diabetes mellitus. Of the 17 yeast isolates, Nonalbicans Candida spp. (76.47%) was the predominant colonizer (Table 3). In our study group, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata accounted for 29.4% each, followed by C. krusei 11.7% and C. parapsilosis (5.88%), whereas C. albicans accounted for 23.57 % of the cases. Conclusions: The Nonalbicans Candida species are more difficult to treat and chances that these strains would remain persistent are higher thus species identification should also be performed for appropriate management of ICU patients. The use of chromogenic media is an easy and reliable method for presumptive identification of commonly isolated Candida species. Speciation will help in selection of antifungal agents as C. glabrata and C. krusei are inherently resistant to azoles.

  93. Noreen Atzaz, Shahzad Ali Jiskani and Siraj Muneer

    Background: Iron deficiency anemia is most common nutritional deficiency in pregnant women due to increased iron turnover and additional requirement by fetus. Glycemic index is popularly measured by assessing glycated proteins. HbA1c is affected by several factors including pregnancy. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women and glycated protein (HbA1c). Patients and Methods: It is a prospective study conducted at Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, and Department of Pathology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Science, Islamabad, Pakistan between the duration of April 2017 to June 2017. Total of 40 normal females were taken as control group, while 42 pregnant non – diabetic iron deficient patients. Results: Both groups included females of reproductive age. All parameters including hemoglobin, serum iron, serum total iron – binding capacity (TIBC), serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin showed statistically significant between two groups (p <0.001). HbA1c also showed statically significant difference (p = 0.021). Conclusion: Study showed strong correlation between iron deficiency anemia and glycated proteins as it is increased as iron deficiency develops. So it may give false increase in levels in evaluation of glycemic index.

  94. Nisha P Nair and Anitha Victoria Norohna

    Acquisition of bowel and bladder control is one of the milestones of child development and one of the major challenges that a child will have to face, since in addition to requiring physical control of bowel and bladder sphincters, it is also necessary to adapt to the social and cultural values of the environment in which the child is living. The study aimed to find out the knowledge of mothers regarding toilet training. In this study descriptive study approaches was used.Non probability convenience sampling technique was adopted to select 60 mothers between the age group of 21-40 years in selected area of Mysore. Self administered questionnaires was adopted to collect the data. The data were collected and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.The result revealed that maximum number of mothers 34 (56.6%) have average knowledge. 15 (25%) have good knowledge regarding the toilet training. Chi-square value as computed to find the association between the level of knowledge and the selected personal variable.It was concluded that majority of mothers have average knowledge regarding toilet training. So there should be provision for more health education programmes regarding toilet training to the mothers to increase the awareness regarding toilet training and to decrease the problems while giving toilet training to the toddlers.

  95. Fuad Saeed Yousif, Elsiddig Yousif Mohammed and Haron Mohammed Sayed

    This study examines the applicability and significance of adopting self-assessment EFQM excellence model in Sudan Airways company to improve its competitiveness and to increase its market share. Self-assessment has wide applicability to both small and large firms, public or private. Organizations often use the model as basis for operational project review. They are increasingly using results of self-assessment as part of their business planning process. The EFQM excellence model is a framework for assessing applications for European Quality Award. It is widely used in Europe and has become a basis for the majority of national and regional Quality Awards. The results of the study showed that the model enabler criteria could be adopted and implemented by Sudan Airways to increase its efficiency and market share as the study survey revealed that more than 74% of customer's satisfaction could be attributed to enabler criteria.

  96. Grace Angwech, Hannah Lunyolo Gidudu and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Children with disabilities while at school due to mainstreaming worldwide face many challenges. Mbale District, Uganda is not an exception. These challenges hinder their ability to participate actively in their education. The consequences are that they underperform or drop out of school all together. The many challenges faced include discrimination, negative attitude of teachers and normal fellow children, unsupportive roles of parents, lack of specialized services, unfriendly environment and infrastructure. The purpose of this study therefore was to examine the effect of discrimination on academic performance of children with disabilities in mainstreamed primary schools in Mbale District, Uganda. The study adopted a cross sectional survey research design. The population of the study included 3 Boards of Directors, 100 Headteachers. 1,600 Teachers, and 75,000 pupils. The study established that discrimination accounted for 94.9% of the variation in academic performance of children with disabilities. This means that discrimination in mainstreamed schools explained 94.9% of the children with disabilities in academic performance. The other 5.1% was due to other factors which were not the subject of this study. In essence, discrimination is a major factor in determining academic performance of children with disabilities in mainstreamed schools. The findings of this study are significant to stakeholders in Special Needs Education as they inform the way forward for successful inclusive education. Therefore; government should prioritize the needs of children with disabilities, refresher courses for teachers teaching children with disabilities, and the Directorate of the Education Standards should enhance standards in schools that handle children with disabilities.

  97. Dr. Dimpal Jangra

    In the contemporary world; Information and communication technology plays a vital role in enlargement of knowledge, skills and talent of youth of this 21st century. Now a day, Modern Technologies become more affordable, accessible in the larger section of country and serve as the mediator to form interactive learning with students’ participation. Therefore, technology is to be treated as learning process which unlocks the value of time and providing information to a facilitator where students are encouraged to explore for more information. India actively encourages the use of ICTs in higher education with some initiatives for instances NME-ICT project of MHRD, Massive Open Online Courses and so on. This paper describes the utility of the ICT in the higher education and exploring the factors which convert the traditional teaching into the modern teaching.

  98. Stifanny Brenda Alves Dos Santos, Luis Henrique Oliveira Souza, Luciana Gonçalves Lima, 1Dilma Ferreira dos Santos, Adriana Lopes Rodrigues Alves, Rafael Luíz Araújo Rodrigues and Stênio Fernando Pimentel Duarte

    The use of benzodiazepines (BZDs) to control anxiety and insomnia is indicated for treatment of a maximum of four weeks, since the prolonged use of this medication generates adverse effects that increases the cases of accidents, reduces coordination, causes amnesia, sedation, dependence, tolerance. BZDs act on the central nervous system by modifying psychomotor and cognitive factors; they are medicines used for anxiety, sleep problems, depression and seizures. However, these medications end up causing dependence, and a dose increase is necessary to achieve its therapeutic effect. Students in the health area are those who consume anxiolytics, because they have to live constantly in practice with the human being, always worrying about the well-being of others, for that reason ends up being insecure. These students are the ones that require more attention, in relation to the level of anxiety being superior in relation to other courses. When anxiety levels are too high, it ends up hampering attention, learning, concentration, reasoning. Students seek to consume drinks, drugs and tranquilizers as a refuge to feel good, but the high consumption of these psychoactive substances cause great problems to health and social and economic impacts.

  99. Richards, P.N., Prinu C. Philip, Ashok, A. and Jaiswal A. K.

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is the important techniques in 4th Generation Long Term Evolution (LTE). Now the work is going on to for 5G. OFDM provides high reliability, high data rate, speed and robustness. But, there are some drawbacks in OFDM to minimize the efficiency of the communication system. One of the drawback is loss of Orthogonality in between the subcarriers there is intercarrier interference (ICI) and intersymbol interference (ISI) and this is over come by cyclic prefix. So, cyclic prefix will consume 20% of bandwidth. IN our proposed method, to overcome loss of bandwidth and to improve the performance of BER wavelet transform is used instead of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and cyclic prefix. Hence, spectrum efficiency of the signal is increased so as to increase the performance of BER. In the future work, Stanford University Interim (SUI) channel is replaced by AWGN channel. In SUI modeling is done in the channel to improve the performance of the signal at different paths.

  100. Sasi Vaithilingan, Bakkialakshmy N. and Aswini Safali, K.

    Immunizations is one of the most successful and core effective public health investigation to bring healthy future generation. Though India had implemented the universal immunization schedule, the magnitude of its coverage is yet poor. The predominant reason for non-immunization is lack of knowledge and awareness among caretakers. Aim: The study aimed to assess the level of knowledge regarding immunization among mothers of under five children in OPD, Primary Health Centre, Abhishegapakkam, Puducherry. Methods: A descriptive design was utilized for the study. A sample of 75 mothers of underfive children were selected using convenient sampling technique. Result: The majority of mothers of under five children 40(53%) were found to have moderate knowledge, and 28(37.34%) of them had inadequate knowledge and only 7(9.34%) of them had adequate knowledge regarding immunization. However, there was no significant (P>0.05) relationship between age, education, religion, occupation, number of children to immunization. Conclusion: The study called for public oriented awareness programme on immunisation and its importance which helps to achieve the target.

  101. Anita Singh, Khushwinder Singh and Jora Singh Brar

    The present investigations were carried out on seasonal abundance of neem looper, Cleora cornaria (Geometridae, Lepidoptera). It was feeding mainly on green leaves and tender branches of neem trees at Talwandi Sabo (Bathinda), Punjab. The results obtained during investigation shown the significant correlation between adult population and maximum-minimum temperatures. The increasein relative humidity and rainfall during June- July leads to decrease in the adult population of C. cornaria. Hence, this information will be helpful in development of proper management practices against C. cornaria.

  102. Sandeepan Mukherjee, Soumen Roy and Abhay Chowdhary

    Of the estimated 55000 cases of Rabies deaths in the world, 20000 occur in India. Even in the second decade of the 21st Century there is no chemotherapeutic available for Rabies, a disease that finds a mention in Ayurveda. The present study was undertaken to assess the in vitro anti rabies virus activity of Mangifera indica (Mango), Aegle marmelos (Bael) and Ricinus communis (Eranda). Methanol extracts of the leaves from these plants were prepared using the Soxhlets apparatus. Total proteins were extracted using commercially available kit. BHK-21 cells infected with the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) strain of the Rabies Viruswere treated with the methanol and protein extracts from the plants. Anti-Viral activity was assessed using a modified Rapid Fluorescent Foci Inhibition Test (RFFIT) and reduction estimating the reduction in relative viral load using qRT-PCR. Methanol extract from Eranda exhibited the most effective activity with an IC50 value of 19.70 µg/mL (SI=496.95). This was followed by methanol extract of Mango followed by methanol extract of Bael – IC50 of 24.66 µg/mL (SI=286.29) and protein extract of Bael at 39.37 µg/mL (SI=350.27). Methanol extract of Bael also exhibited a promising IC50 at 55.71 µg/mL (SI=203.37). Viral load estimation presented a similar picture with methanol extracts of the 3 plants and the protein extract of Bael exhibiting over 100-fold reduction in the viral RNA copies as compared to controls at 1000 µg/mL. AM, MI and MP exhibited over 30-fold reduction even at 10 µg/mL. In the light of the situation where thousands of people die every year due to rabies and since there is no known anti-viral, the above results present potential leads, which must be explored further for developing anti rabies anti virals.

  103. Saroja, M and Dr. Gopal, G. V.

    Phytoplankton diversity is an important criterion for evaluating the suitability of water for irrigation and drinking purposes. Phytoplankton composition of Chantaru lake, Brahmavara and Manipalla lake, Manipal was studied for a period of one year from June 2013 to May 2014 (see Fig.1).The physicochemical parameters of water such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, water pH, biological oxygen demand, nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates ware observed and their ranges were 24.5º –30.7º c, 5.59–11.40µg/l, 6.74 – 9.49, 2.89–5.61 µg/l, 21.3–36.5 µg/l, 0.12–4.91 µg/l and 0.21–5.24 µg/l. During the period of investigation 33 species of phytoplankton representing five taxonomic groups such as Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Dinophyceae. The Chlorophyceae is dominant than all other forms.

  104. Emmanuel NIYONSABA and Dr. Jaya SHUKLA

    Interest rates are typically determined by the supply and demand for money in the economy. If at any given interest rate, the demand for funds is higher than supply of funds, interest rates tend to rise and vice versa. In Rwanda Interest rates change in response to a variety of economic events including changes in government policy, crises in domestic and international financial markets and changes in the prospects for long-term economic growth and customer attributes. The interest rates in Rwanda remain high, despite central bank’s efforts to reduce the key repo rate. In spite of volatility of interest rates in commercial banks the interest income keeps increasing. Therefore, researcher intends to assess the effect that the volatility of interest rates has on interest income of commercial banks. To analyze the effect of banks internal factors on interest income from loans in commercial banks in Rwanda, to analyze the effect of external factors on profit from government securities in commercial banks in Rwanda and to examine the relationship between interest rate volatility and interest income of commercial banks in Rwanda. This study was adopted both comparative research design and descriptive research design. Researcher attempt to identify and analyze similarities and differences between I&M bank and Bank of Kigali. For the purpose of this study, a sample size of 229 respondents was determined from total population of 540 employees from BK and I&M banks. Researcher used purposive sampling; the researcher chooses the sample based on who they think would be appropriate for the study. Fist objective Spearman's correlation coefficient, (r=0.914) shows that there is Positive high correlation between internal factors and commercial banks income. Second objective (r=0.741) shows that there is Positive high correlation between external factors and profit from government securities and third objective show that Spearman's correlation coefficient, (r=0.724) shows that there is Positive high correlation between Interest rate volatility and Interest income of banks. ANOVA test show that F-statistics (F=214.145) is far greater than the P-value (0.000) hence a further confirmation that aspects of internal factors and external factors are significantly influential the interest income of two selected commercial banks in Rwanda. The government of Rwanda regulates the banking practice to ensure the consumers are protected from the practices of the banking institutions to promote growth and stability. It is due to the significance of the banks in their financial intermediation that the governments ensure to keep close watch of the financial institutions. Based on the findings in chapter four and conclusions above, the study recommends that commercial banks evaluate their lending rates properly to ensure that they have adequate loan disbursement but also high returns that would improve the interest income of commercial banks.

  105. Quezia de Sousa Monteiro, Viviane de Carvalho, Emily dos Santos Franco, Dessana Francis Chehuan and Márcia Melo Damian

    Hepatic hydrothorax is defined as a unilateral and mainly right-sided pleural effusion, showing a transudative pattern, non-justified by any secondary causes. Rarely, it may occur independently from and concomitantly with a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with or without pulmonary metastasis, keeping its transudative features. In this article, we address the case of a 64-year-old-woman with liver cirrhosis due hepatitis C virus (genotype 2) with a large, transudative and recurring right-sided pleural effusion characterized as hepatic hydrothorax since 2013, period in which evaluation exams for hepatic cancer were negative. However, two years after the beginning of the hepatic hydrothorax, the existence of hepatocellular carcinoma was evidenced, even though the patient shows lung metastases which were found in the necropsy, and also because she made use of diuretics, in all analyzed pleural fluids – in different moments – the pleural effusion patterns remained transudative, reinforcing that the pleural effusion was due to the portal hypertension and not because of the neoplastic process. This case showed that, even though hepatic hydrothorax and hepatocarcinoma are not frequently seen together, they do not exclude each other and they need to be recognized as different disease entities which need different approaches for a better patient management.

  106. Dr. Yashmeet Kaur, Dr. Sarfaraz Padda and Dr. Vaneet Kaur Sandhu

    Complications are the integral part of any minor and major oral surgical procedures but with a detailed and proper medical case history and consultation a majority of such complications can be avoided. We present here the management of post-operative bleeding after a simple tooth extraction performed by a local dentist who did not give any importance to a thorough clinical history taking procedure.

  107. Kirthika, R., CH. Uma Reddy, Br. Sathvikalakshmi, Chandrashekar. L., Sudarshan, R. and Vignesswary, A.

    Dark chocolate is made from the seed of the cocoa tree which is loaded with nutrients that can positively affect your health and lower the risk of heart disease. Dark chocolate is one of the best sources of antioxidants on the planet which contains 12.5 % flavonoids quite higher than green tea & red wine. Flavonoids include a huge group of naturally occurring organic compounds containing antiallergic, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Many studies have shown that there is a strong association between flavonoid intake and the long-term effects on mortality. It is widely used in dentistry and it has many clinical effects. This article summarizes the effects of flavonoids to humankind and its clinical applications in dentistry.

  108. Mensudar, R., Anuradha, B., Mitthra, S. Vellore Ravi Anupriya, Chandra Mohan Anusha, and Panneer Selvam Victoria

    Dentistry has incorporated a lot of newer technological advancement to benefit both dentist and patients. In this modern technological era, lasers offer dentist a door to its rewarding, high tech and potentially profitable arena. Currently, various types of laser are available based on their applications. This article explains the basic principle, mechanism and interactions of laser and also its application in dentistry.

  109. Dr. Pritesh Gangde, Dr. B. K. Motwani, Dr. Mohd Tabish Rashidi, Dr. Sanjeev Singh and Dr. Sanket Mendhe

    Aims: The Aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile bond strength between addition silicone medium body impression material and two different tray material (auto and light polymerizing) after application of various types of adhesives on the samples of tray materials. Methods and Materials: Eighty flat, squares, resin plates were fabricated with auto and light polymerizing tray material & a hexagonal lock nut was reinforced with it. Tray adhesives was applied & medium body addition silicone impression material was injected into the gap of 3mm between the two plates. Ten samples were prepared for each type of tray adhesives. A total, 40 samples each of auto & light polymerizing tray material were been fabricated & were tested for tensile bond strength using universal testing machine. Results: For auto polymerizing tray material significant difference was found in all the adhesives except for 3M and GC which showed statistically no significant difference & for light polymerizing tray material, significant difference was found in all the adhesives except for 3M and Dentsply which showed statistically no significant difference. Conclusions: The auto & light polymerizing tray material exhibited similar bond strength values when same adhesive was used. With auto polymerizing tray material, Dentsply tray adhesive has shown highest tensile bond strength followed by 3M, GC and Coltene. With light polymerizing tray material, 3M tray adhesive has shown highest mean tensile bond strength followed by Dentsply, GC and Coltene.

  110. Dr. Stephen Chain, Dr. Vaibhav Vashishta, Dr. Sulabh Grover, Dr. Ankita Singh and Dr. Monisha Singhal

    Ligation is adaptation of the wire to the bracket slot in order to move the tooth. Usually Metal or elastics are used for this purpose. A voluminous knowledge is required for the placement of ligatures in order to make better and faster treatment. This article gives an insight to the different ligation technique and each to be applied at given situations for the benefit of the treatment result.

  111. Bahja Al-Maqadma, Mousa Alnahhal, Safaa Abu Mostafa and Nuha El Sharif

    Over the past ten years, infant mortality and neonatal mortality rates in Gaza Strip had an increasing trend despite all the efforts that were done to reduce it. This study aimed to examine the effects of exposure of Palestinian refugee women to psychosocial stressing factors during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and consequently their birth outcomes in Gaza Strip. A prospective cohort study was applied on 500 pregnant (aged above 18 and less than 39) women in their third trimester attended eight health centers to receive antenatal care using an interview questionnaire. After delivery women were approached to collect information about their birth outcomes. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS (version 20). Chi-square analysis test was used to describe the study variables and univariate analysis was done to examine the association between the study independent variables and the birth outcomes (P-value ≤ 0.05). The results showed that (21.2)% of the babies; their weight were less than 2500 and (16.4)% were preterm babies. Also, (1.6)% of the woman experienced perinatal deaths. More than half of low birth weight, preterm babies, and perinatal deaths were among the women who completed secondary and high school. Also, In addition, (7)% of low birth weight and (8)% of PTB were to employed pregnant women. About (16)% of pregnant women were exposed to domestic violence during their pregnancy. Some of those women had adverse birth outcomes, results demonstrated that domestic violence contributes to (18.9)% of low birth weight babies, (17.1)% of preterm babies. Yet there wasn’t any perinatal death occurred among the women who were exposed to domestic violence. A (17.4)% of pregnant women perceived that they have received low social support and (43.2) % of them had high stress level. Also, (45.6)% complained of severe level of fatigue and (16)% had high stress level caused by pregnancy. There were significant associations between the husband’s education and having preterm babies and the relationship of the women with their husbands and having low birth weight babies or preterm babies. In conclusion, Although social support; violence; fatigue; having stress due to pregnancy or exposed to any kind of other stress did not show significant roles in determining birth outcomes in this study, but is still considered factors affecting pregnant women’s health.

  112. Dhakshinamoorthy Malarvizhi, Karthick Arumugam, Radhakrishnan Mensudar, NewBegin Selvakumar Gold Pearlin Mary and Nagarajan Geethapriya

    Our society gives high value to the personnel appearance of a person. The dentist plays an important role in fulfilling the patients expectation. With the advancement of new techniques and materials, wide varieties of treatment options are available to the dentist in restoring and improving the patients smile. There are various proportions and analysis which aids the dentist in achieving it. The analysis of surrounding soft tissues also plays a major role in achieving a pleasing smile. Even the signs of aging can be masked by elective dental treatments and conservative restorative procedures, such as bonding and porcelain veneers.

  113. Wael Barakaat Ahmed Mohamed, Omar Abdelraheem and Mohammed A. Omar

    Background: Several surgical modalities were advocated to improve the results of hemorrhoidectomy. Ligasureis one of the recent techniques to optimize the outcome of hemorrhoidectomy. But until now, conventional Milligan and Morgan diathermy hemorrhoidectomy is still the standard operation. Our aimin this study is to answer the question, does the use of Ligasure improve the outcome of hemorrhoidectomy in comparison with the conventional hemorrhoidectomy?. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective comparative multicenter study. The study populations consisted of patients attended to the surgical outpatient clinic in Sohag University Hospitals and Qena University Hospitals between October 2013 and April 2017. The patients were classified into two groups, the first group had conventional hemorrhoidectomy and the second group had Ligasure hemorrhoidectomy. Demographic data and surgical outcome were compared in both groups. Results: 185 patients had fulfilled our inclusion criteria and were included in this study. 93 patients had conventional hemorrhoidectomy (CH) and 92 had Ligasure hemorrhoidectomy (LH). The mean age of both groups were41.55±10.36 and 39.50±8.59 years respectively without significant P value (P= 0.183). The mean operative time for CH was (30.34±8.51 minutes) and for LH (18.43±5.51 minutes) which was statistically significant (P=0.027). The intraoperative blood loss and postoperative pain were significantly lower in LH(P=0.001). Hospital stay was significantly shorter (P=0.001) among ligasure group. Also, the return to work was earlier in LH(P=0.001). Conclusion: Ligasure hemorrhoidectomy had many advantages over conventional hemorrhoidectomy such as reduction of operative time, less intraoperative blood loss, less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay and early return to work. So it is safe substitute to conventional technique and should be used when available.

  114. Nilima Rajhans

    Background: Periodontal diseases are oral disorders characterized by inflammation of the supporting tissues of the teeth. The aetiology of periodontal diseases is multifactorial. The effects of various psychosocial factors such as emotional stress, a high level of work stress, dissatisfaction at work or stress from unemployment have been the focus of several investigations on oral diseases. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease and job satisfaction in rural area of India. Material and Methods: The case-control study included 241 subjects in the age range of 35-60 years, from a rural region of India. The study participants were divided into three groups: Group I (n = 80), Group II (n = 80), Group III (n = 81). All the subjects were instructed regarding completion of a questionnaire from job satisfaction scale. The periodontal status was assessed by plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment levels. The results were statistically analysed by means of one way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed that the comparison of z-score with Group I was 66.21 while in Group II the z-score was 84.05 and in Group III the z-score was 92.52 and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: It can be concluded that job satisfaction may be a risk determinant of periodontal disease & not only the type of stress but coping behaviour of the person is important as far as its effects on health are concerned.

  115. Dr. Santosh Kumar, Dr. Shresth Kumar Bhagat, Dr. Mobeen Khan, Dr. Archana Bhagat, Dr. Khushboo Kumari and Dr. Rekha Prashad

    Direct composite restorations are used very commonly due to its availability, high strength and excellent aesthetics. Early composites were weak and suitable only for anterior restorations. Current composites are highly aesthetic and offer high strength for their intended purposes. Aesthetic restorations always play an important role for emotional and psychological well-being of the individual. In the present article, an aesthetic rehabilitation of maxillary right and left central incisors with dislodgement of filling material restored with Direct Composite resin is presented.

  116. Suchismita Pahantasingh, Hrushikesh Das, Madhusmita Nayak, Sarmista Swain, Biswajit Dalai, Jyotirmayee Mahapatra and Tilotama Parida

    Promotion and provision and maintenance of one’s health is one of the basic need for development in societies. In society it is important that the entire student be mentally healthy. Among all students of medical science especially nursing students are usually go through various kinds of stress and anxiety in their clinical areas. With regard to importance of nursing student’s general health and considering the various existing strategies to reduce the anxiety, use of complimentary treatments is more convenient because of their better public acceptance, low cost and less complication and yoga is a non-pharmacological option to relieve stress and anxiety. The present study is a humble attempt to find out the effect of musical yoga therapy on anxiety among students. In the study pre experimental one group-pretest-post test research design with purposive sampling technique was adopted to achieve the goal of the study by using socio demographic data and A Modified Hamilton’s anxiety scale among 60 1st year Bsc. Nursing students in a selected nursing college, Bhubaneswar. The findings of the study demonstrate that in pretest most of the nursing students in psychological aspect had severe anxiety (21.1%) in pre-test but after giving the intervention (33.3%) had mild level of anxiety. In physiological aspect the percentage (31.6%) had moderate level of anxiety in pre-test but after giving the intervention the (6.66%) had mild level of anxiety. It is concluded that musical yoga therapy can be used as a effective strategies in reducing the level of anxiety among nursing students. Future research is prescribed is to expand the extent of this study by adopting different methodologies.

  117. Dr. Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Dr. Sunita Kumari, Dr. Mohd Riaz and Dr. Nasib Chand Digra

    Appendectomy remained standard treatment for acute appendicitis even after two centuries of chance appendectomy. Conventional appendectomy with standard Grid Iron incision in the era of minimally invasive surgery is loosening its essence. In low resource conditions when laparoscopic facilities are not available, mini appendectomy can be practiced as standard treatment to decrease morbidity of conventional appendectomy. Present study was conducted in Postgraduate Department of Surgery, Govt. Medical College; Jammu, over a period of 04 years from January 2013 to December 2016. 200 patients each were divided into two groups: Group I as mini appendectomy (MA), Group II as laparoscopic appendectomy (LA). Patients in Group I were operated under SA or GA. But all patients in Group II (LA) were operated under GA. Patients with clinically apparent appendicular lump, perforation peritonitis, marked obesity and doubtful diagnosis were not taken up for MA (Group I), but in Group II (LA) obese & patients with doubtful diagnosis were also considered. Our experience of mini appendectomy and laparoscopic appendectomy reveals that the two procedures are comparable in terms of analgesics use, hospital stay, return to routines and satisfaction with the scar, but laparoscopic appendectomy takes significantly more operating time than mini appendectomy. In low resource situations grid iron incision can be replaced with rectus muscle medial retracting mini appendectomy incision. However, patients with moderate to severe obesity and appendicular lump may not be fit for mini appendectomy. Furthermore, small incision of MA can be used as one of the ports for diagnostic laparoscopy if appendix is normal.

  118. Dr. Anshu Nair, Dr. Nayana Anasane and Dr. Dilip Kakade

    Objective: Present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the efficacy of three most commonly used disinfectants on irreversible hydrocolloid material. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 alginate disks with 13mm diameter and 2mm height were prepared with irreversible hydrocolloid material. These specimens were divided into four groups (n=15), i.e, Group A Distilled Water, Group B Sodium Hypochlorite, Group C Glutaraldehyde and Group D Iodophor. All alginate specimens were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus strain for 1 min. After contamination Group B, C and D specimens were disinfected by spray method, whereas, group A specimens were only washed with distilled water. All the specimens were placed into the test tubes containing nutrient broth media for 30 sec. 25um of nutrient broth solution was plated on soyabean casein digest agar plates for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration. The number of colonies were identified and colony forming units (CFU) were counted. Between and within group differences in antibacterial activity was analyzed using one way ANOVA test of significance and Post Hoc Test. Result: 53.33% of the samples disinfected with Sodium Hypochlorite and 33.33% of the samples disinfected with Gluteraldehyde showed complete disinfection. All the samples disinfected with Iodophor showed bacterial growth but colonies were countable, whereas, all the samples washed with distilled water showed uncountable bacterial growth. Conclusion: Sodium Hypochlorite is the most effective disinfectant followed by Glutaraldehyde and Iodophor.

  119. Vitthaldas Shetty, Prasanna Raisoni, Pravin Rathod, Vikram Garcha, Vineet Vinay, Suraj Sonawane, Niyati Mulgaonkar and Vikas Pawar

    Introduction:- Prescription writing is “a written order, which includes detailed instructions of what medicine should be given to whom, in what formulation and dose, by what route, when, how frequently, how long.”Most of the time dental treatments require prescription. The study mainly focuses on assessment of prescription writing skills of interns, post-graduate students and faculty member of a dental college. Objectives:-To writing determine their competency and knowledge gained during pharmacology and therapeutics and to assess the knowledge of prescription skill of interns, post graduate students and staff of a dental college and hospital, Pune. Method: -It is a cross sectional questionnaire based study to assess the prescription writing skills following WHO format was conducted among 200 participants including interns, PG, Staff. Participants were asked to write a detailed prescription format without any pre-printed format. A blank space without any pre-printed parameter was provided for prescription writing. Each twenty parameters were used for prescription writing having a score of 1.The parameters used for the study were taken from WHO prescription writing format which are as follows Hospital name, hospital address, date, patients name, patients age, patients sex, patients address, doctors name, professor degree and registration number, doctors signature, symbol Rx, diagnosis, drug name, dose, frequency, route, duration, refill information, quantity to be dispensed and instruction for labeling. Results:-The forms were scored for 20 parameters which were to be ideally mentioned in a well written prescription. Frequency (99%) and symbol Rx (94.5%) were the most commonly listed, followed by duration (92%), Patient’s name (81%), Patients age (77.5%), Refill Information (2%), Patient’s Sex(60%), Date (60%), Doctors Signature (55.5%), Doctor’s Name (47.5%), Quantity (77%), Label (37.5%) Registration Number (39.5%) and Designation: - Interns (37.5%), Post Graduates (27.5%) and Faculty Member (35%). Parameter that where least or not listed include Route of Administration (0%), Diagnosis (1%), Patient’s Address (3%), Hospital Address (6%), Hospital name (8%), Dose (18%), drug name (21%). Conclusion:-The current study concluded that prescription writing skills of interns, postgraduates and faculty members were deficient in important details.

  120. Dr. Osama Abdullah Abdul Raheem, Dr. Abd-EL-Aal A- Saleem, Dr. Hassan Ahmed Abdallah, Dr. Mahmoud S. Ahmad and Dr. Ragab Ahmed Ali

    Acute cholecystitis is a relatively common complication of gallstones It can lead to significant morbidity and mortality from potentially life-threatening complications such as empyema, gallbladder gangrene and gallbladder perforation It presents as a surgical emergency and usually requires hospitalization for management Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is advocated for acute cholecystitis; laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most common surgical operation done by surgeon has become the gold standard in the treatment of symptomatic gallstones..The introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in surgical practice was pioneered by Mouret in 1987. It rapidly replaced “traditional” open cholecystectomy as the curative treatment of cholecystolithiasis. The major advantages of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) include less postoperative pain, less time required for hospitalization, recovery and better cosmetic results. The common opinion about treatment of acute cholecystitis is initially conservative treatment due to preventing complications of inflamation and following laparoscopic cholecystectomy after 6- 8 weeks. However with the increase of laparoscopic experience in recent years, early laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become more common. Aims of the study: The aims and objectives of this study to evaluate the results of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis with cholelithiasis.

  121. Binu, K. M., Nimmy N John, Lovely Panavila, Jilu Varghese, Kavali Lahari and Doddayya, H.

    Background: There was limited data on assessment of quality of life in patients reporting breakthrough symptoms of acid related illness, as well as their responses to recommended adjunctive measures. Objective: To identify appropriateness of acid suppressant drugs in hospitalized patients and to gain a better understanding of attitudes towards PPIs and H2 receptor blockers and usage patterns of these agents in individuals prescribed for acid related illness. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out for a period of 6 months among 400 patients prescribed with ASDs by following prospective observational design. A cross sectional questionnaire survey was also carried out to assess patient satisfaction regarding use of ASDs. Results: Ranitidine was the most prescribed drug (54.75%). Most of patients received only one ASDs (72.75%) than two ASDs (25.55%) in dosage form such as injection (52.5%) and tablet (22.75%) respectively. The clinical study carried out in 100 participants to assess the patient satisfaction regarding the use of ASDs showed 67% of respondents reported use of drug less than once a week who were taking once a day (64%) regimen mostly. The condition for which physician prescribed acid suppressant drugs was heartburn (33%). 97% of them used non-prescription remedy without any recommendation. 79% of them do not use both acid suppressant drugs and non-prescription remedy on same day for which 74% of patient got proper advise to use the drugs. Conclusion: We found the overuse and underuse of acid suppressant drugs in study hospital. There is a need for a local protocol for rational use of these agents in current clinical practice. Our study also highlighted the satisfaction of patient after the use of these agents.

  122. Sahli, A., Humiran, Y., Dahlan, A., Fagih, A., Jafar, E., Magalt, Y., M. Alatas, Saif, W., Algasmi, A. and Seham A Habeeb

    Tuberculosis is still a health problem of global concern, WHO estimates that there is two millions deaths annually and eight millions new cases of TB and encourages all countries to adopt all strategies to control TB and Directly Observed Therapy Short Term (DOTS) is one of these strategies. Therefore, the kingdom of Saudi Arabia adopted the implementation of DOTS in 2000 at facility level and then at community level in 2013. This is a descriptive study aims at identifying the effect of DOTS implementation at community level on the national tuberculosis program indicators. The main question of the study is that: what is the effect of CBDOTS on the national TB program performance indicators? The data were collected with two well-constructed and pre tested questionnaires with well-trained data collectors. Moreover, it includes all the registered patients in in national tuberculosis registry in 2011 and 2014 and all the health workers in the program. It is found that there is no statistical significant difference between the program indicators before and after the implementation of directly observed therapy short term at community level, and there are many administrative factors affecting the program performance such as the absence of policies, procedures and strategic planning. The study recommends the upgrading of the policies, procedures and the strategy to cope with the global movement towards TB elimination, updating and expanding of the laboratory net for TB diagnosis, implementing the quality measures especially in laboratory services and ensuring all the financial resources for the strategy implementation.

  123. Gokhale, S. G. and Gokhale, S.

    Objective: Vitamin- D deficiency is very common and various modalities are suggested to treat the same. Annual Single dose of Vitamin-D is one of the few options tested by some authors. Here we present reports of our Annual Single Mega-dose of Vitamin-D injection as Supplementation Therapy. Type of study-This was a prospective interventional study. Design: This was open, uncontrolled dose finding design. Participants- 18 Women participated in study. Vitamin-D Doses- All these participants received one single mega-dose of 600,000 IU by intramuscular route. Final blood sampling was done one year after the mega-dose. Results: All those with Vitamin-D levels more than or equal to 50 nanograms/ml in Last/ final sampling were grouped as ‘YES’ response candidates. Out of 18 participants; 11/18 or 62% showed Vitamin-D levels more than 50nanograms/ml. Both groups were at par in terms of all parameters like Base line Hemoglobin and Vitamin-D levels, BMI, Age and Parity. Conclusion: In our series all participants of Indian Ethnicity had good vitamin-d levels to start with but one single megs-dose failed to maintain it for one year in all subjects again pointing to prominent role of genetic factors in Calcium and Vitamin-D metabolism.

  124. Marcos Antonio Neves Noronha, Deborah Marques Centeno and Andrew England

    Melanoma is a malignant cancer that occurs in melanocytes and is the most common cancer in people aged 15-34 in the UK. The article aimed to provide the backgrounds of the appropriate care pathway of melanoma included the prevention, diagnosis, treatment e multi-professional approach based on literature review

  125. Dr. Ratna Samudrawar, Dr. Heena Mazhar, Dr. Fatima Khan, Dr. Sneha H. Choudhary, Dr. Rajesh Sabnis and Dr. Mukesh Kumar Kashyap

    Ameloblastoma is an aggressive, benign odontogenic tumor of epithelial origin. It comprises about 1-3% of all odontogenic tumors of maxillofacial region. It is characterized by slow persistent growth, locally aggressive infiltrative lesion mainly occurring in mandibular ramus region. They are occasionally associated with the presence of an impacted third molar. Conservative to radical surgical approach is mainstay of treatment depending on the extend of lesion and its histopathological behavior. There may be a high local recurrence rate when the tumor is not properly removed, due to remaining tumor cells or seeding of tumor cells in adjacent regions. This article reports a case of a multicystic ameloblastoma that had been previously treated with conservative therapy which failed and resulted in recurrence eight years later. Radical surgical protocol with wide surgical margin of safety adopted to prevent the recurrence of these aggressive tumors.

  126. Monika Khangwal, Monika Khokhar, Ravinder Solanki and Arjun Soni

    Intentional reimplantation (IR) is an intentional extraction of tooth followed by reinsertion into its own alveolus. In this case report endodontically failed tooth with large periapical radiolucency was choosen for intentional reimplantation in mandibular second molar. After 6 month follows up the patient was asymptomatic and radiographically no evidence of root resorption was seen. The indications for and limitations of intentional reimplantation are discussed in the case report.

  127. Dr. S. Padmashree, Dr. Jyotsna, T. R., Dr. Shilpa Padar Shastry and Dr. Naveen Kumar, N.

    Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumour of epithelial origin that exhibits a locally aggressive behaviour with a high level of recurrence. Among the variants of ameloblastoma, desmoplastic ameloblastoma is a rare and unique entity which is characterized by marked stromal desmoplasia. Until now only 150 cases of desmoplastic ameloblastoma have been reported worldwide. Among them only one case had been reported with multiple intraoral swellings. Hence we report a rare case of 36 year old female patient, presenting with multiple swellings in the lower jaw which was diagnosed as desmoplastic ameloblastoma by correlating the clinical, radiological and histological findings. The present case deserves a special attention because of its unfamiliar appearance & potentially aggressive behaviour.

  128. Jesin Y. Das, Manasa D. Hosamane, Satheesha Reddy, B. H., Roshan P. Verghese and Anjali, P.

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and applicability of modified Cameriere’s European formula given by Rai B et al for dental age estimation in south Indian children. Methods: The study comprised of a total of 600 subjects, who were divided into 10 groups, according to the chronological age. The first group consisted of subjects who are 5 years old, including subject’s age ranging from 5.00 to 5.99. Next group included the subjects who were 6 years old, and so on. Digital form of the orthopantomogram obtained for diagnosis and treatment were collected. Chronologic age was noted and Dental age estimation was performed on the orthopantomogram using the formula described by Rai et al. Age= 9.402-0.879 C+0.663 N0-0.711 s-0.106s×N0 Statistical analysis of data was done using paired t test. Pearson's correlation was used to measure the strength and direction of association between chronological and dental age. Results: The results showed a mean difference of 0.31 between the chronologic and dental age in total sample, which is statistically insignificant. Pearson's correlation was used to measure the strength and direction of association between chronological and dental age and a value of 0.985 suggest a positive correlation between chronologic age and estimated dental age. Conclusion: The results showed that modified Cameriere’s formula given by Rai et al gave a statistically insignificant underestimation of 0.31 years, suggesting its suitability for age estimation in children in south Indian population.

  129. Dr. Pradkhshana Vijay, Dr. Nilesh Pardhe, Dr. Manas Bajpai, Dr. Deshant Agarwal and Dr. Mohd. Saleem

    Introduction: Changes in the lipid profile are said to be associated with oral cancer and potentially malignant disorders. Incidence of cancer has been reported to be more in patients with reduced cholesterol levels. Patients with oral cancer with reduced cholesterol are said to be having higher mortality. We carried out a hospital based case control prospective study to assess the relationship between lipid profile and oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders (leukoplakia and OSMF). Aim and objective: To evaluate alteration of serum lipid profile in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders (leukoplakia and OSMF). Material and method: The study consisted of 50 patients each of oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders (30 OSMF & 20 Leukoplakia) and 50 controls. Lipid profile included analysis of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), triglycerides (TGL) and ratio of high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Lipid profiles were measured using the standard reagents. Result and observation: We found TG, LDL & VLDL were more in males in all the 3 groups. TC and HDL was highest in the females, however it was found to be higher than males in all the three groups but were non significant. A significantly reduced serum level of HDL, VLDL, TGL, TC and LDL were also reduced in the disease groups. When we correlated histological grading and lipid profile, well differentiated OSCC had low TC, and HDL, moderately differentiated had increased TG, LDL, and VLDL. TGL were highest in patients who had mildly dysplastic leukoplakia and lowest TC, while, moderate dysplasia cases had highest TC and lowest Tg, LDL, VLDL, HDL. Also in OSMF, most cases showed early changes (65%) and 35% cases showed moderately advanced changes. TC, Tg, LDL, VLDL, HDL levels were lowest compared to moderately advanced stage. Conclusion: The reduced levels of lipid profile in cases of OSCC could be due to the increased utilization of cholesterol by the cancer cells and in case of potentially malignant disorders this could be due to tobacco habits that reduced the lipid fractions. The reduced levels of lipids in leukoplakia and OSMF could be used to assess the malignant transformation that could help in early detection and prevent the progression to carcinoma.

  130. Pollini Comoti, Sergio Tadashi Kussaba, Angelica Castro Pimentel, Adhmar Sani Junior, William Cunha Brandt and Caio Vinicius G. Roman-Torres

    Unfavorable systemic conditions condition a low resistance of the host to the virulence of the aggressive agent, causing in a more rapid evolution of the periodontal disease and being able to lead to difficulties in the therapeutic response. The longer the duration of diabetes mellitus (DM), the greater the severity of periodontal disease and loss of insertion. The objective of the present literature review was to evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms that explain the association between diabetes and periodontal disease suggest that diabetic patients present reduced polymorphonuclear leukocyte function and chemotaxis, reduced collagen synthesis by gingival fibroblasts and glycosaminoglycans, increasing the collagenase activity of the crevicular fluid, resulting in loss of periodontal fibers and loss of alveolar bone support. Epidemiological studies have found a high degree of association between DM and periodontal disease. It has also been shown that this relationship is bidirectional, with periodontitis exerting an effect on DM. Thus, the high prevalence of periodontal disease in DM indicates the need to evaluate glucose levels in patients with periodontal disease. Intervention studies have shown that treatment of periodontal disease improves glycemic control.

  131. Anjali Slathia and Renu Hashia Dhar

    Objective: To assess prevalence of eye diseases in primary school children in Jammu city, J&K Settings and Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study Material and Methods: All school going children of both genders aged 5-16 yrs under school screening programme underwent V.A assessment, ocular motility evaluation and cover-uncover test. Depending on type of eye disease, they were categorised. Children with defective vision were further examined employing objective refraction using autorefractometer followed by streak retinoscopy after instilling 1% cyclopentolate eye drops. Children with any kind of refractive errors were evaluated & categorized according to the type of refractive error on post mydriatic examination. Children with prior ocular surgery or any ocular disease contributing to diminished V.A, manifest strabismus & pathological myopia were excluded from the study. Statistical Analysis: done by Chi square test Results: Among children, the prevalence of refractive error in this study was found to be 11.6%.There was no significant difference in prevalence of refractive error between two sexes. The prevalence increases with age. The common refractive error was astigmatism followed by myopia and then hypermetropia Conclusion: Refractive error is important cause of treatable blindness in School going children in the age group of 5-16 yrs. Hence, regular eye screening among school children is mandatory as is covered under NPCB. Conflict of interest: Nil Financial support/Source of funding: Nil.

  132. Rupashri Nath and Sisir Kumar Mandal

    Dadrukustha is a type of skin disorder, characterized by Sakandu (Itching in the site of lesion), Raga (Reddish discoloration of skin like blood), Pidaka (Papule over lesion), Mandalamudgata (Circular patches with elevated edge on skin) etc. Many scholars have opined that it can be correlated with the superficial fungal infections of the skin as per modern science. But for proper application of novel treatment principle of Ayurveda, the diagnosis of the diseases based classical thought is mandatory. On this context the present study aimed to make a preliminary arbitrary grading system for easy diagnosis of Dadru Kushtha in order to provide an accurate treatment therapy. All the features of Dadru were evaluated by the preliminary approach of arbitrary grading system and with the help of captured photography. Appropriate literary meanings of scrupulous words were used to make the grading. The upshot of the study can make vital fortitude for future through further validity and reliability.

  133. Dr. Kaushik Adeshra, Dr. Shriprasad Sarapur, Dr. Rohit Lakhyani and Dr. Nivedita Pachore

    Aim: To study the effect of gum arabic and calcium hydroxide on surface hardness of type III dental stone. Materials and Methods: A metal die with 10mm diameter and 12 mm height was fabricated. Type III dental stone was mixed with additives and one without additives. Vickers hardness was measured for specimens. Data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The Vickers Hardness for type III dental stone with additives was significantly higher (p<0.001) compared that without additives. Conclusion: Surface hardness can be significantly increased by additives i.e. gum Arabic and calcium hydroxide.

  134. Dr. Sumana J Kamath, Dr. Debarshi Saha, Dr. Umesh Krishna and Dr. Bindu Kolavala

    Chronic dacryocystitis is frequently caused by nasolacrimal duct obstruction or infection. Chronic stagnation of tears within the lacrimal sac leads to formation of mucocele which upon pyogenic infection turns into pyocele. Encysted lacrimal mucocele or pyocele presenting as a huge swelling causing distortion of surrounding structures is relatively uncommon. Very few cases were reported yet in the literature. Tumors originating from the lacrimal sac may mimic chronic inflammation and be misdiagnosed, delaying treatment. Here we report a case report of a 73 year old man with encysted lacrimal pyocele secondary to chronic dacryocystitis which was initially thought as malignancy due to the enormous swelling causing distortion.

  135. Dr. Aditya A. Manekar, Dr. Anjali M. Chitale, Dr. Sudarshan B. Thakare and Dr. Jagruti Gulati

    We hereby present to you a rare case in a 1 day old baby who presented to us with a right sided inguinal hernia. An inguinal hernia occurs when an intestinal loop or part of the omentum or genital organs passes into the scrotal cavity or labia through an incompletely obliterated processus vaginalis. Inguinal hernias are most common in preterm neonates, especially at 32-weeks gestation. The management of inguinal hernia in premature infants is slowly drifting from urgent exploration, surgery before discharge to readmission and elective surgery weighing the balance between risk of complications and anaesthesia. Advances in neonatal intensive care and improved survival of preterms have resurfaced the issue of dealing with such cases. Urgent surgery is indicated in patients with an akinetic dilated bowel loop (a sign of strangulation) or impaired testicular/ovarian perfusion. A baby born with inguinal hernia is a rare entity and no case has been reported in literature.

  136. Daniela Iv. Koleva, Maria M. Orbetzova, Julia G. Nikolova, Tanya I. Deneva and Iliana B. Atanasova

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is considered to be a prototype of metabolic syndrome (MS). Objective: To determine the levels of resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) as well as to assess their relationship with clinical and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. Materials and methods: The study included 22 overweight/obese PCOS patients and 20 metabolically healthy obese (MHO) women. Anthropometric, glucose and lipid parameters, total testosterone, resistin, IL-6, ADMA were determined. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Results: Significantly higher levels of ADMA and resistin were found in the PCOS women as compared to those in the MHO. IL-6 was positively correlated with WHR and negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol in the PCOS group. Conclusion: Higher resistin and ADMA concentrations in PCOS women showed a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. The correlation of IL-6 with WHR and HDL-cholesterol suggested a possible role of IL-6 in the development of MS in PCOS.

  137. Bingu Shiv Kiran Reddy, Dr. Silpi Basak, Dr. Sanchari Das and Pankaj Kaushik

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of hospital-acquired and community-acquired infections worldwide. It causes various types of infections from relatively benign skin infections to life threatening systemic illness. S. aureus can readily develop antibiotic resistance especially with emergence of MRSA strains. The increasing incidence of MRSA has led to the excessive use of Macrolide-Lincosamide-StreptograminB (MLSB) especially clindamycin due to its excellent pharmakinetic properties. Presently, inducible clindamycin resistance is a cause of concern for Clinicians and Microbiologists while treating patients with S.aureus infection. Aim: Hence, the study was undertaken to detect the incidence of inducible clindamycin resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in our tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: 130 clinical isolates of S.aureus were studied. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. MRSA strains were detected by Cefoxitin (30μg) disc. Inducible Clindamycin resistance was detected by D zone test using erythromycin (15 μg) and Clindamycin (2μg) disc. Results: 56.2% strains were MRSA. 28.5% S.aureus strains produced Inducible Clindamycin resistance and hence were designated as iMLSB phenotype. Conclusion: The phenotypic detection of MRSA and Inducible Clindamycin resistance must be done in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory to treat patients effectively with S.aureus infection.

  138. Piyush Tewari, Raji Kurumkattil, Anil Kumar Upadhyay and Shrikant Waikar

    Purpose: To evaluate the occurrence of cystoid macular oedema (CME) and to identify changes in the thickness in the central macula (CMT) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD- OCT) after uneventful phacoemulsification surgery. Method: In this prospective study, 150 patients of cataract, were subjected to examination by SD-OCT one day before and 1, 4, and 12 week post operatively to detect any changes in foveal thickness and presence of cystoid macular oedema. The results were analyzed and correlated with the visual acuity. Results: 150 patients were included in this study. Out of these 150 patients, 86(57.33%) were males and 64(42.67%) were females, with mean age being 65.33±6.82 years. None of them had any pre-existing ocular pathology. The average central macular thickness (CMT) measured preoperatively was 243.35± 19.508. Out of 150 patients, 5 (3.33%) patients were detected to have post operative CME. Decline in visual acuity was noticed in those patients who developed post operative macular oedema, and improvement was noted by the end of 12 weeks. Mild increase in macular thickness (±35µ) was noticed even in those eyes which did not develop macular oedema. Conclusion: CME can develop even in patients who had undergone uncomplicated cataract surgery. SD OCT is a reliable and non invasive method to detect the changes in the macula at early stage and helps in accurate diagnosis.

  139. Amitoj Kaur Walia, Harshita, Monika Vashisht, Fatinderjeet Singh, Pratima Sharma, Harsimranjit Kaur and Gajinder Krishan

    Aim: As management of non-vital teeth with open apices is a challenge to dental practitioners. So, the aim of this case series is to use MTA plug in teeth with open apex. Summary: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plug method is an alternative treatment option for open apices, as it requires reasonably less time with predictable results and appears to be a valid material to obtain periradicular healing in teeth with open apices and necrotic pulps.

  140. Manjusha Litake and Sudheer Kanchodu

    Dermato Fibro Sarcoma Protruberans (DFSP) is a very rare malignant tumor of subcutaneous tissue characterised by slow infiltrative growth. It presents mostly in second and fifth decade. Even though there is no well defined protocol for treatment of this tumor, wide local excision is being practiced. Present case report is of a 60 year old lady with lump in left breast for 5 years who developed ulceration over the lump progressed in 15 days underwent wide local excision. Histopathology revealed DFSP as diagnosis with CD 34 positive.

  141. Dr. Sharath Kumar Shetty, Dr. Mahesh Kumar, Y., Dr. Rajeshwari Poojari and Dr. Neeraja, U.

    Purpose: This retrospective study aimed at determining the changes in facial profile of patients undergoing first four premolar extraction treatment through cephalometry as determined by Holdaway Analysis and compare the soft tissue norms with findings in Indian adults. Study design: A retrospective cephalometric study Material and Methods: Pre-and Post-extraction treatment lateral cephalograms of 30 patients selected from Department of Orthodontics, KVG Dental College, Sullia, were evaluated. All the patients included in the study underwent first four premolar extraction treatment. Various soft tissue measurements of pre and post extraction lateral cephalogram were compared to the Holdaway soft-tissue norms of Indian adults. Results: On comparing the pretreatment values to that of post treatment, there was decrease in upper lip curvature, skeletal convexity at point A and upper sulcus depth, reduction in H lingle angle and upper lip strain whereas nose tip to H line, lower sulcus depth and soft tissue thickness increased. Our study showed there is an effect of first premolar extraction on facial profile.

  142. Kasthuri, S.

    As nursing students commonly experience stress, they encounter stress either adaptive or maladaptive. This experimental study investigated the prevalence of coping strategies and its changes on introduction of stress management techniques training program for six weeks daily among nursing students. The study on comparison between pre-test and post-test coping strategies observed that in experimental group, there is significant increase in usage of coping strategies of post-test like positive interpretation (p=0.025), Mental disengagement (p=0.013), Focus on end (p=0.045), denial (p=0.006), Behavioural disengagement (p=0.005), use of emotional social support (p=0.04) and acceptance (p=0.04). There is no significant increase in the usage of coping strategies like use of instrumental social support, active coping, religious coping, humor, restraint, substance use, suppression of competing activities and planning. On Comparison between post-test coping strategies between Experimental and Control groups it was found that there is significant difference in usage of coping strategies during post-test like positive interpretation (p=0.01), mental disengagement (p=0.03), denial (p=0.007), religious coping(p=0.001) and behaviour disengagement (p=0.002). There is no significant difference in coping strategies like focus on end (p=0.10), use of instrumental social support (p=0.18), active coping (p=0.02), humour (p=0.33), restraint (p=0.29), use of emotional social support (p=0.09), substance use (p=0.13), acceptance (p=0.30), suppression of competing activities (p=0.15) and planning (0.46). As many coping strategies were adapted by nursing students after training on stress management techniques, this stress management techniques training program was effective.

  143. Mandar Malawade and Rui Corredeira

    Background: The study was done to explore the ethnic diversity in physiotherapy education between Portugal and India. Methods: Qualitative research design based on ethnographic data collected by the ethnographer in terms of diaries and informal interviews. Setting: Adapted Physical activity department and centers attached to one of the reputed university in Portugal. Participants: physiotherapy faculty members, clinical physiotherapists, physiotherapy students, and administrative staff. Results: The views of physiotherapy students and faculty revealed their perception as they are quiet advanced, patient centered, believe in active physiotherapy interventions and what they are doing is probably the best. Conclusions: Physiotherapy education in Portugal is different from Indian perspective and their focus is more on student centered approach with more of active learning.

  144. Bhuvaneswari Devi Chinthirla and Kiran Kumari Konduru

    Trace amounts of Manganese (Mn) are essential for the proper functioning of a variety of physiological processes, including development, in all living organisms. However, several studies indicate that high Mn levels may be toxic to terrestrial and aquatic organisms, especially due to its neurotoxic properties. In the present study, the young and adult albino rats (2 months and 4 months old) were exposed to low dose (2.5mg/kg body weight) and high dose (5mg/kg body weight) of Mn through intraperitoneal injection for a period of 3 weeks and a separate batch treated with Mn was left for a period of one week supplementation with Alpha-tocopherol at a dose of 5mg/kg body weightalong with Mn until the end of the study.Control animals received only deionized water without Mn. In the present study, it was observed that, the potential effect of Adenosine Triphosphatase (ATPase) activity (EC 3.6.1.3); Mg2+ATPase and Na+K+ ATPase activities were assayed. From our observation, it was cleared that the Mg2+ATPase and Na+K+ ATPase activities were decreased in synaptosomal fraction at both 2 months and 4 months old rats at both concentrations (i.e. 2.5 mg/kg bw and 5 mg/kg bw) when compared to control rats. The adult rats showed greater frequency of Mg2+ATPase activity compared to young rats. However, the high dose (5 mg/kg bw) of Mn treated rats of both age groups showed decreased Mg2+ATPase activity compared to low dose (2.5 mg/kg bw) of Mn treated rats. Whereas, the rats supplemented with Alpha-tocopherol along with Mn showed gradual increase in Mg2+ATPase and Na+K+ATPase activities respectively. In addition to this, we have also examined the body weights of 2 months and 4 months old rats at both low dose and high dose of Mn and Alpha-tocopherol also. In this, it was clear that, the low and high dose Mn exposed rats showed decrease in their body weights at both ages (2 and 4 months) as compared to control. Decrease in body weights were higher in high dose exposure compared to low dose. However, partial recovery of body weights were observed in Alpha-tocopherol Supplemented rats at both ages in high dose and low dose of Mn exposure. The above findings suggest that short-term Mn in vivo administration causes a statistically significant decrease in energy metabolism and body weights. The Mn toxicity was reversed with Alpha-tocopherol co-administration which could thus be considered for future applications as a neuroprotective agent against chronic exposure to Mn and the treatment of manganism.

  145. Bikash Kumar Pattanaik, Girish S Nazirkar, Ahmed Faraz M.A Farooqui and Prasad Ramesh Padiyar

    Objective: This case report aims at highlighting the importance of preserving natural remaining teeth followed by the fabrication of telescopic denture as an alternative to conventional removable dentures. It is easy, less technique sensitive and a cost effective alternative to conventional over dentures and helps to minimize the problems associated with conventional dentures regarding retention and stability. Background: Telescopic dentures consist of an inner or primary telescopic coping on a root canal treated tooth which is permanently cemented to an abutment and an outer or secondary telescopic coping which is attached to the prosthesis. These copings protect the abutment from dental caries and also provide retention and stabilization of the secondary coping. The secondary coping engages the primary copings to form a telescopic unit and it provides retention and stability to the prosthesis. Materials and Methods: An impression was made with a polyvinyl siloxane elastomer after the preparation of the abutments, the primary copings were fabricated on the cast which was obtained from the impression. The copings were checked for parallelism using a surveyor incorpaorated with a micro milling unit. After assessing the parallelism of the coping it was finished and polished ensuring a 0.5mm margin. The fit of the primary copings on the abutments was evaluated, they were cemented with glass ionomer cement. An impression of the cemented primary copings was made for the fabrication of secondary copings, which were attached to the prosthesis. Conclusion: Telescopic overdentures have better retention and stability as compared to complete dentures, they improve the chewing efficiency and the comfort of the patient and they also decrease the alveolar bone resorption. They can be used as an alternative to conventional overdenture techniques as it does not require attachments, is easy to fabricate less technique sensitive and cost effective.

  146. Dr. Kshama Chandan, Dr. Naina Swarup, Dr. Gaurang Mistry and Dr. Unmesh Khanvilkar

    A well accepted prosthesis is a successful prosthesis. The success of the prosthesis is based on factors such as Retention, Stability, Support and Aesthetics. These factors are incorporated during the various stages of fabrication of the prosthesis starting from impression. However, sometimes all the factors cannot be incorporated into the prosthesis due to reasons related to patients health or the condition of the oral cavity. So to improve the success rate of the prosthesis we can make use of additional factors of which magnets are one of them.

  147. Dr. Rao Naman Rajeshkumar, Dr. Abhishek Parikh, Dr. Amit Patel, Dr. Hirenkumar N. and Parsana Mrunal Dave

    When searched on data bases regarding oral cancers- a lot of articles pops up showcasing different epidemiology in different countries. The real numbers of incidence are always not achievable due to serious lack of precise diagnostic tools. Thus, prognosis for patients with oral cancer remains poor in spite of advanced therapy- the reason being the same due to which a lot of patient suffering is observed Biopsy is one of the favorite diagnostic method used for diagnosis- but it should be only used for evaluating highly suspicious lesions and not for the majority of oral lesions which are clinically not suspicious. There is an urgent need to formulate critical diagnostic tools for early diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy which are practical, noninvasive and can be easily performed in an out-patient setting. The early detection diagnostic tests include brush biopsy, toluidine blue staining, auto fluorescence, salivary proteomics, DNA analysis, biomarkers and spectroscopy. This review describes and examines these new methods which are the best early diagnostic tools for detection of oral cancer.

  148. Dr. Gandhali A. Limaye, Dr. Pushkar P Waknis, Dr. Pranav Sathe, Dr. Sonal B. Shah, Dr. Pratik Suthar and Dr. Sharvika Aher

    Condylar fractures are the most common accounting from 9-45 % of all condylar fractures. They can be managed conservatively or by surgical modalities. The advent of the Endoscope in Surgery was an innovation which soon found its way into Maxillofacial Surgery. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopy assisted ORIF vs. traditional ORIF in the treatment of condylar fractures. Information was collected using electronic data sources such as PubMed and Google scholar. 1. The inclusion criteria were studies published in english comparing the Endoscopy assisted ORIF with traditional ORIF for treatment of patients suffering from mandibular condylar fractures. Studies published between 1st January, 1995 and 31st December, 2015 were included. 2. The exclusion criteria were non availability of full length articles and the articles that were not published in english. Patients suffering from condylar fractures were treated with either endoscopy assisted ORIF or traditional ORIF technique. Out of all the articles screened 2 studies were selected after removing of duplicates and assessing full length articles. The studies revealed that both endoscopic approach and traditional ORIF approach comes with their respective set of pros and cons and neither can be called better than the other at this point. The primary limitation encountered during the review was that there are very few studies conducted comparing the Endoscopic and non endoscopic ORIF techniques. The sample sizes in these studies are small and hence it becomes difficult to draw a conclusion regarding the results. Associated with them. Reviewing the current available literature makes the comparison between the two approaches inconclusive. Both the traditional and endoscopic approach for ORIF have comparable results and more studies need to be conducted to compare the two. Once the drawbacks associated with Endoscopy assisted approach are overcome, it can be used by more number of surgeons including the developing countries.

  149. Dr. Akhilesh, A.V., Dr. Ravindran, V., Dr. Thomas Joseph, Dr. Manoj Joseph Michael, Dr. Bindu Das, R. and Dr. Fasalulla, O.

    Background: The management of mandibular fractures has evolved greatly over the years from supportive bandages, splints, circum-mandibular wiring, extra oral pins to rigid fixation and more lately semi rigid fixation. Arch bar fixation has been the popular method for so long. The introduction of intraoral bone plating systems has widened the horizon. This prospective study is aimed at providing the clinician an evidence based recommendation in adopting suitable method. Objectives: Purpose of this study is to compare two different methods for intermaxillary immobilisation namely intermaxillary fixation screws and Erich arch bars. Materials and Methods: 24 patients with mandibular parasymphisis fractures with or without sub-condylar fractures, fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected and grouped into two (group A and group B) with 12 patients in each by random sampling allocation. Group A patients received Intermaxillary fixation screws while in group B Erich arch bar fixation was done. Two groups were evaluated with respect to variables such as reduction of displaced fracture and stability of IMF, possible iatrogenic dental injuries, needle stick injury, time consumed for achieving intermaxillary fixation and evaluation of oral hygiene during the intermaxillary fixation period. Results: Significant differences were observed between the two groups with clear indication of Intermaxillary fixation screws being more beneficial to the patient and clinician especially in terms of time consumed, avoidance of needle stick injury and oral hygiene maintenance. Conclusion: Intermaxillary fixation screws are a better alternative to arch bars in achieving intermaxillary fixation in indicated cases.

  150. Dr. Neeta V. Bhavsar, Dr. Seltun Selnary Anal and Dr. Sakshee Trivedi

    Background: Pre-diabetes is the precursor stage to diabetes mellitus in which not all of the symptoms required to label a person as diabetic are present, but blood sugar is abnormally high. This stage is often referred to as the ‘grey area’. Gutka, a smokeless tobacco; a mixture of powdered tobacco, areca nut and slaked lime is known to jeopardize periodontal health; however, severity of periodontal inflammation in gutka chewers with and without prediabetes remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the inter-relationship between pre-diabetes, gutka chewing and periodontal inflammatory conditions. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the effect of gutka use on periodontal health is investigated among 50 individuals with prediabetes and 50 without prediabetes. Demographic information regarding age, sex, duration of prediabetes, and gutka-chewing habits was collected using a questionnaire. Periodontal inflammatory conditions (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth [PD], clinical attachment level [CAL] and fasting blood glucose levels (FBGLs) were recorded. Results: Periodontal inflammatory parameters (PI, BOP, PD and CAL) were significantly higher in individuals with prediabetes irrespective of gutka-chewing habit (P <0.05). Periodontal inflammation in individuals with prediabetes were higher than in patients without prediabetes (<0.0001). Gutka chewing alone did not significantly increase the periodontal inflammatory conditions. Prediabetic patients were significantly more likely to have periodontal inflammation than individuals without prediabetes (<0.05). Conclusion: In patients with chronic periodontitis, periodontal inflammatory conditions are worse in gutka chewers compared to non-chewers; in patients with both chronic periodontitis and prediabetes, hyperglycemia governs the severity of periodontal inflammation when compared to habitual gutka usage.

  151. Akwaji Patrick Ishoro and Edu Esther Aja

    Due to the high rate of deforestation and degradation activities carried out by local people on forest ecosystem, this study assessed the tree species population frequency, density, abundance and diversity in ten communalforests (two each) of the five Local Government Areas (Ogoja, Yala, Bekwarra, Obudu and Obanliku) of Northern Cross River State, Nigeria using the modified Whittaker method. The study was carried out from (November, 2015 – May, 2016). In each site a 30 × 90 m plot was laid out in a spoke design and tree species present on the plots were recorded. Survey results revealed a total of 143 trees belonging to 45 families in the study area. The relative frequency and abundance of the tree species under study varied across the study sites. The highest percentage frequency of the tree species was 24% while the lowest was 6%. The highest population density recorded for the tree species was 2 stem/ha while the lowest was 0.1666 stem/ha. Abundance results show that the species were mostly low in their distribution with abundance of (1.00≤AB≤2.99) except in Bechevie and Sankwala forest where there were occasional (3.00≤AB≤3.33). Results from the study area show that Sankwala (8.18) had the highest species richness index while Omulako (4.63) had the lowest. Sankwala forest had the highest diversity index value of 2.12 while Omulako (1.21) had the lowest. This study shows that majority of the trees were low in their distribution and are declining in the study area. Appropriate decisions and measures in sustainable forest management are strongly recommended so that the forests would continue to provide goods and services for communities around the forests.

  152. Gamal A.M.Younis, Rasha M.Elkenany and Amany M.Saleh

    Enterococcus spp are one of the environmental mastitis pathogens with public health hazard and have different harmful effects on milkand dairy farms. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Enterococcus spp in mastitic cow’s milk in Egypt, detection of some virulence genes as esp and cyl A of E.feacalis and their resistance to different classes of antibiotics. 130 (71.82 %) out of 181 milk samples were identified as Enterococcus spp particularly E.feacalis (33.34 %). Multiplex PCR was applied for detection of some virulence genes of E.feacalis as Enterococcus surface proteins (esp) and cytolysin (cylA). ESP was the predominant gene in all tested E.feacalis isolates, whereas cylAwas completely absent. In addition, antibiotic sensitivity tests noticed that Enterococcus spp isolates had multidrug resistance to different classes of antibiotics as 69.77% streptomycin, 53.49% gentamicin and 38.37% ampicillin. Also, higher resistances of E.feacalis isolates were observed to streptomycin (47.73%), ampicillin and gentamicin (45.46%, each). On the other hand, the Enterococcus spp especially E.feacalis were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, mastitc cow’s milk is considered as potential reservoirs of virulent and antibiotic resistance Enterococci with public health hazard when milk is consumed without any thermal treatment.

  153. Alesker Gulgezli and Orkhan Efendiyev

    We know that porosity is a dimensionless quantity, it does not depend on the size of the particles that make up the porous medium. More precisely, if we imagine two porous bodies that are geometrically similar to each other at the micro level and differ only in the particle size, then their porosity will be the same. The bottom line is that in the coarse-grained material the pores are larger, but their number per unit volume of the medium is smaller and these effects just compensate each other. When calculating the stability of thin-walled constructions, it is necessary to take into account geometric nonlinearity. Accounting for geometric nonlinearity in turn leads to great mathematical difficulties in solving stability problems. To avoid mathematical difficulties, an approximate method of mathematics is usually used. One of the effective approximate methods of mathematics is the variational method. In this paper we propose a functional whose Euler equations are equilibrium equations with allowance for geometric nonlinearity, physical relationships for porous bodies, and also boundary conditions with allowance for geometric nonlinearity.

  154. Okram Abemsana Devi, Mamoni Das, Ananta Saikia, Pranati Das and Okram Bijaya Devi

    Traditional medicine has always played a key role in the health systems of different ethnic groups living in remote areas of North East India. For the documentation of ethno-medicinal information, a survey was conducted in Thoubal district of Manipur comprising of three villages Ningombam, Sabantongba, Leisangthem to collect the information on ethno-medicinal plants of Manipur through household survey by using a standard questionnaire. The information on medicinal plants were collected and documented which were most frequently used by the local healers Maibas and Maibis for the treatment of different inflammatory diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, rheumatic arthritis, gout, cancer, liver problems, urinary tract infections, respiratory disorders, different skin diseases etc. The present paper reports the some common plant species and their scientific name, family, local names, part used and medicinal used for curing diseases.

  155. Meena, Seema and Prahlad Dube

    Microorganisms are responsible for different soil ecosystem and biodiversity. Diversity of microorganisms of different area varies both in quality and quantity of microbs. Microorganisms available in biogeochemical cycles, mineralization, and solubilization of organic and inorganic matter in soil vary widely. Symbiotic and non-symbiotic bacteria make colony in plant root, rhizosphere and mycorhiza. Diversity and interaction of microorganisms in plant root and microbial activity in soil has been studied in detail in India and abroad. Present paper deals with such studies and reviews the available literature which may be useful for the researchers and planners equally.

  156. Amaël Borzée and Yikweon Jang

    Numerous amphibian species are currently restricted to breeding in agricultural landscapes, although the impact of agricultural techniques, such as harvesting, are not yet determined. In the Republic of Korea, the Suweon Treefrog (Dryophytes suweonensis) is restricted to breeding in rice paddies. In fall, numerous individuals are found on cultivated bean plants, on the edges of rice paddies. In this study, we conducted repeated surveys at four sites during the brumation period, from late September to the first freeze, to determine the relation between the abundance of individuals and harvests of bean and rice crops. We found that the rice and bean harvests had a significant negative effect on the number of adults present at sites, while it only was a trends for juveniles. We consequently recommend the delay of rice and bean harvests until after the first freeze at site where D. suweonensis occurs.

  157. Singh, D. P., Saxena, R. R. and Gautam, S. S.

    To develop appropriate nonlinear statistical models with a view to provide analytical approach to describe the agricultural production trends in India. Reviews were made to study the various nonlinear statistical growth models. The parameters of each model were estimated using Levenberg -Marquardt (LM) iterative method. The main assumptions of ‘independence’ and ‘normality’ of error terms were examined by using the ‘Run-test’ and ‘Shapiro-Wilk test’ respectively. Measure the accuracy of the model fitting, we considered the performance of several model goodness of fit criteria viz., R2, MAE, MSE, RMSE, MAPE, AIC and BIC. Nonlinear model discussed important five points of consideration 1. Parsimony, 2. Parameterization, 3. Range of applicability, 4. Stochastic specification and 5. Interpretability.

  158. Nasrin Begam, Kaiser Jamil and Suryanarayana Raju, G.

    Objective: Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP3) and Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) are tumor suppressor genes, which play important role in regulation of extracellular matrix proteolysis and cellular detoxification from various xenobiotic drugs and carcinogens. Aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor gene at the promoter regions can inactivate its expression, which is important in the carcinogenesis of various cancer including breast cancer. Hence the present study was designed to determine the role of promoter methylation of TIMP3 and GSTP1 genes in sporadic breast cancer patients from South Indian population. Materials and Methods: DNA methylation analyses of TIMP3 and GSTP1 gene were performed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). Fifty biopsy samples of breast tumor and their corresponding non-malignant portions as controls were studied. mRNA expression analysis of these two genes were also done using real time PCR. Results: Methylation of the TIMP3 promoter was detected in 18% (9/50) and GSTP1 promoter was detected in 20% (10/50) tumor samples. None of the normal tissues showed promoter hypermethylation in both the genes. The difference in methylation frequency between cancerous and normal tissue was statistically significant (p = 0.0029 and p =0.0013). GSTP1 promoter methylation was positively associated with lymph node involvement (p = 0.034) and metastasis(p = 0.036). Any significant association was not found between TIMP3 promoter hypermethylation and clincopathalogical parameters. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study showed that promoter hypermethylation of TIMP3 and GSTP1 genes were associated with sporadic breast cancer patients from the South Indian population and may be useful as a new biomarker for breast cancer detection.

  159. Anekere Dasappasetty Sathisha, Kyathegowdanadoddi Srinivasa Balaji, Rachitha Puttasiddiah and Shankar Jayarama

    Objective: Depressive disorder is a prevalent psychiatric disorder, which affects 21% of the world population. The presently using drugs can impose a variety of side-effects. In the traditional system of medicine is useful in treating various ailments. The main objective of the work was to evaluate the antidepressant activity of aqueous extract Calendula officinalis L. flowers using forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. Methods: The aqueous extract (10 to 50 mg/kg) was administered to albino mice for 14 days for evaluating antidepressant activity using forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. Results: In case of forced swim test the aqueous extract Calendula officinalis L.flowers showed significant dose dependent effect on immobility and climbing behavior. As it was evident, oral administration of 50mg/kg of flower extract effectively decreased the time of immobility in both TST and FST compared to control. Potentiality of Calendula officinalis L.was almost similar to that of standard drug Imipramine in alleviating depression in both the animal models. Conclusion: The results indicate that aqueous extract of Calendula officinalis L.flowers contained flavonoids, glycosides and saponins which might be active in case of Forced swim test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) to show anti-depressant activity, which support the ethno medicinal application of the plant as an antidepressant agent.

  160. Soni, Lalita and Ashok Kumar

    A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different levels of molybdenum & iron on Vigna radiata (L.) plants. The experiments were conducted in the field of Botany department of CCS University, Meerut during Kharif season 2017. Different levels of molybdenum (3, 6 and 9ppm) and iron (30,60 and 90 ppm) along with Rhizobium were applied. Results revealed that maximum chlorophyll content, nitrogen content, protein content, proline content and legheamoglobin content were observed in those treated plots where Mo 6ppm and Fe 60 ppm (with Rhizobium) were applied . Results shows that with increasing the amounts of Mo and Fe up to a certain level in soil, biochemical parameters (nitrogen, protein, proline, chlorophyll and legheamoglobin) significantly increased. Moreover, in the present study when we applied the Mo and Fe above this level (6ppm and 60ppm) the biochemical parameters decreased. The present study suggests that plants require these micronutrients in trace amount and their optimum level is beneficial to improve the legumes growth when applied in combination with Rhizobium.

  161. Dutta, D., Hazarika, P. and Protul Hazarika

    The genus Garcinia (family Cluciaceae) with its 400 species is reported to distribute in tropical parts of the world. The genus has 36 species in India mostly in forest as well as in non-forest areas of North-East, Western Ghats, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Of which, 16 species are endemic in India. Garcinia in Assam is locally known as Thekara and use for timber, food and medicinal values. However, the genus found to be disappearing from natural habitat in Assam. This study was conducted to survey in different forests, patch vegetations and homesteads on distribution, diversity and status of Garcinia species in Upper Brahmaputra Valley of Assam. The study recorded 10 species of Garcinia i.e. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb., G. paniculata Roxb, G. cowa Roxb. G. morella Desr G. kydia Roxb., G. xanthochymus Hook., G. dulcis (Roxb) Kurz., G. spicata (Wight & Arn) Hookf., G. lanceifolia Roxb. and G. sopsopia (Buch.-Ham.) Mabb. The study also revealed that except G. lanceifolia all these species were available in different evergreen and semi-evergreen forests with specific plant communities like Holong-Morsal-Nahor, Holong-Mekai-Nahor association. Moreover, G. pedunculata, G. xanthochymus, G. cowa and G kydia were recorded from the patch vegetations around the villages. Garcinia lanceifolia, which is a small tree of the genus, was found only in the homesteads. Out of 12 reserve forests (RF) of Upper Brahamaputra valley, distribution of G. kydia Roxb was recorded in 9 RFs and G. xanthochymus Hook.f. ex. T. Anderson was recorded from 8 RFs. IVI of these species in the forest is very less in number in comparison to the other plants and its abundance is mainly restricted to core forest areas where anthropogenic disturbance is very less. Associated plant species of Garcinia in Kukuramara RF was highest with 33 plant species and lowest in Tengani RF with 10 plant species.

  162. Dr. Mariappan Senthilkumar

    The present investigation was aimed to detect the specific protein polypeptide(s) appeared during the organogenesis stages of differentiation in Solanum trilobatum L. Among different explants, only internode showed good results for micropropagation. To analyze and compare their variation of protein profiles were assessed from callus, organogenic calls, multiple shoots, root, and regenerated plants. The highest response of callus induction (92.8%) was observed in 2.5 mg/l of 2,4-D (2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) supplemented in Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium. Organaogenic callus induction was maximum (34.6%) in medium supplemented with 2,4-D 3.0 mg/l. α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 2,4-D with BAP various combinations were showed variable redifferentiation response along with callus formation and multiple shoot initiation. The medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l BAP with 3.0 mg /l of 2,4-D showed better shoot multiplication (87.6%) and elongation. High rate of root induction (68.3%) was observed on medium supplemented with NAA (1.0 mg/l). Simultaneous induction of shoot and root (58.4%) was observed in MS medium supplemented with BAP 2.0 mg/l with NAA 1.0 mg/l. For best plantlet regeneration was achieved in (86.2%) medium supplemented with BAP 2.0 mg/l with NAA 1.0 mg/l. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed a unique protein bands in tissues. Significantly different pattern and concentration of total soluble proteins were seen in differentiation of callus to plantlet regeneration stages. Polypeptide banding pattern of regenerated plants were different from naturally growing plants. When comparing the protein bands in cultures of each stage they were different to each other. The molecular weights of detected bands for all samples ranged from 62.66 to 86.51 KDa. Three similar culture specific callus, Organogenic callus and root polypeptides (MW 86.65, 83.45 and 80.10 kDa) and four shoot specific polypeptides (MW 86.51, 83.25, 80.18, and 62.66 kDa) and were synthesized during the differentiation. Similarly, one shoot specific (MW 62.66 kDa) and two regenerated plants specific (MW 77.52 and 75.32 kDa) polypeptide band were appeared during differentiation in S. trilobatum. In vitro regenerated plant cultures showed totally five (MW 86.34, 83.78, 80.44, 77.52 and 75.32 kDa) plant specific polypeptides.

  163. Charles Bristone, Ariahu Chukuma Charles and Paul Yahaya Idakwo

    Guliguli is a snack like biscuit; a Nigerian base food produced from mixtures of sorghum, maize, soybean, crayfish and moringa leaves. The study investigates functional properties of different flours and their composites. But the successful application of the adopted method in food product development and the acceptability of the final products is the key objective. The proximate composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of the products (guliguli) were also determined. Raw materials were first milled into flours and further formulated into six (6) composite flours. These flour composites were finally processed into their respective guliguli. Flours of sorghum and maize were mixed into ratio 1:1 and percentage soybean added was varied from 0-50% which yielded six (6) formulations. Result of the bulk density of flours ranged from 0.42-0.88 gcm-3, loose bulk density 0.28-0.79 gcm-3, water absorption capacity 1.13-4.03 cm3g-1 and percentage dispersibility 21.00 – 83.33%. The moisture content of guliguli ranged from 9.07-10.46 g, protein 7.60-23.60 g, ash 1.00-3.11 g, fat 1.07-5.00 g, fibre 5.00-6.31 g and soluble carbohydrate 52.91-76.05 g. Weight and spread ratio of guliguli ranged from 1.44-1.59 g and 1.48-1.86 respectively. Sensory attribute of guliguli recorded for consistency ranged from 7.27-7.82, flavour 7.00-7.55, taste 6.82-7.91, colour 6.45-7.73, texture 7.09-7.55, and overall acceptance 7.27-7.73. All result for functional properties of composite flours and proximate composition of guliguli increases upon complementation except for soluble carbohydrate, moisture, bulk density and loose bulk density. Sensory attributes of guligulli varied slightly (p < 0.05) and are moderately acceptable. The composition of these food produced was observed to be within a regimen of fat related ailments and each is well fitted for each categories of people besed on protein requirement. The processing technology used was observed to be successful in terms of physical and chemical data obtained and so recommended as other alternative technology especially for producing free-wheat baked products such as breads or biscuits.

  164. Bahulayan Janani, Kullappan Shanmugam Uma, Sekkizhar Geethalakshmi, Natarajan Kabilan, Thiyagarajan Balasubramanian and Thankaiah Mohan Raj

    Aim: The aim of this study is to screen In-vitro Anti-microbial activities of aqueous extracts of Karappan Kudineer (KAK) - A Siddha formulation. Methodology: KAK was collected from the pharmacy of ATSVS Siddha Medical College, Munchirai, Kanyakumari Dist. Aqueous extract of KAK was prepared by soxhlet method. In-vitro antimicrobial activity of extract of KAK was screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans using disc diffusion method. The micro-organisms were collected from the Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC). Sterilized discs were soaked in aqueous extract of KAK individually at the concentration of 25mg/disc. Anti-bacterial and anti-fungal suspension was inoculated in Muller-Hinton Agar Media and Potato Dextrose Agar Media respectively. Streptomycin and fluconozole was used as standard drug for the Antimicrobial study. Zone of Inhibition was measured and recorded. Result: Aqueous extract of KAK showed more anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus flavus (11mm) and showed anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (9mm) Conclusion: It is concluded that KAKcan be prescribed as the medicine for skin diseases due to Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus flavus infection.

  165. Mandal, S., Dutta, A. and Bhattacharyya, P. K.

    Field experiment was conducted during kharif 2015 at Mondouri Teaching Farm and during kharif 2016 at Central Research Farm, Gayespur, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal to study the Effect of Pinching and Foliar Nutrition on Growth and Yield of Dhaincha (Sesbania rostrata Bremek & Oberm). The results indicated that pinching had significant effect on plant height (cm), number of primary branches plant -1, number of pods plant-1, pod yield plant-1 (g), seed yield plant-1 (g), and seed yield (kg ha -1). Among the different treatments through foliar spray the characters maturity days, number of pods plant-1, pod yield plant -1 , seed yield plant -1 and seed yield (kg ha -1) showed significant values. The treatment N4 i.e. foliar spray with DAP (2%)+ Micronutrients Mixture (ZnSO4 0.5%+Boric Acid 0.3%) + NAA 40 PPM showed highest seed yield of 1416.7 & 1062.5 kg ha -1 in 2015 & 2016 respectively followed by N3 i.e. foliar spray with NAA 40 PPM with seed yield of 1294.6 kg ha -1 in 2015 and 970.9 Kg ha-1 in 2016 respectively.

  166. Lídia Maria Fonteles Cândido, Cibele Mary Ramos Nogueira, Ismael Paula de Souza, Guilherme Ferreira Maciel da Silva, Gildênio Estevam Freire, Larice de Carvalho Vale, Fernando César Rodrigues Brito, Vanessa Duarte de Morais, Iramaia Bruno Silva Lustosa, G

    Surgery treatment is currently the most effective option for reducing and maintaining weight loss in morbidly obese patients. Changes in dietary habits should be continuous for obtaining successful treatment. This study aimed to identify and analyze changes in dietary habits developed after bariatric surgery relating them to the treatment of nutritional deficiencies and complications resulting from surgery. The study was conducted from August to October2013, with the participation of 60 invited patients assisted by the Obesity Nucleus of Ceará. A self-administered quiz was made to evaluatethe feeding behavior before and after the surgery. Statistical tests were performed using GraphPad Prism Software, considering statistical significance levelof p<0.05. There were prevalence of night-eaters feeding behavior (58 %), changes in chewing, considerable reduction in fluid intake in meal patterns, and the presence of complications and disabilities such as alopecia (41 %), dumping (37 %), vitamin B12 deficiency (20%), calcium and vitamin D deficiency (12%). The feeding frequency showed an increased intake of fruits and raw vegetables, wholemeal pasta, but a reduction in milk and dairy products ingestion. Several changes in eating habits have evolved after surgery, confirming the importance of proper monitoring by a nutritionist.

  167. Karthikeyan Nagarajan, Uma Kullapan Shanmugham, Kabilan Natarajan, Balasubramanian Thiyagarajan and Geethalakshmi Sekkizhar

    Fever is known both as a symptom and a disease. Many were affected by this without knowing its cause. Younger population to older is get affected by fever. In Ayurvedic system Fever can be correlated with jvara. The Jvara has many types caused by different doshas say Vata, Pitta and Kapha. "Panchatiktha Kwatha Churna" (PTKC) which is mentioned in the Hospital pharmacopeia of Arignar Anna Hospital of Indian Medicine is one of the drug indicated especially for this disease. This drug is also useful in treating skin disorders too. The aim of this paper is to explore the literary evidences of its use for both in Fever and Skin disorders in Ayurvedic system. More than 100 scientific papers were reviewed to justify the activity of the ingredients present in the PTKC. PTKC is made up of five ingredients. Further study is to be done to explore its activity scientifically and thereby standardizing the medicine.

  168. Ajaz Ahmad Waza and Zeenat Hamid

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of Rheum emodi (MER) on ethanol (EtOH) induced cytotoxicity in human liver cells. Cells were treated with either EtOH (30mM) alone or together with MER (150μM) for 12 hours. It was found that exposure with EtOH induced different cytotoxicity processes like formation of oxygen radical formation (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, lipid peroxidation, decrease in glutathione (GSH) as compared to untreated cells. EtOH induced ROS formation was significantly prevented by MER treatment. Other beneficial effects associated with MER treatment in EtOH challenged cells were increase in GSH level and reduction in LDH leakage and lipid peroxidation. Our findings suggest that MER exert cytoprotective action against EtOH induced liver cell damage.

  169. Arun Kumar, P. and Elangaimannan, R.

    Induced mutagenesis was conducted in Gloriosa superba by using both chemical and physical mutagens to study various morphological characters in six genotypes viz.., Arupukotai, Chittor, Dharapuram, Mulanur, Nellore and Vedaranyam. The tubers were subjected with four doses of each chemical and physical mutagens were administered at various concentrations of 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 % ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS) and 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4 gray Gamma rays respectively. Experiment was conducted at Variyankaval village, Udayarpalayam taluk of Ariyalur, district Tamil Nadu. Nine characters were recorded in the study among 48 mutants. Plant height was recorded highest in EMS 1% in Chittor (146.58) and 50% flowering was more in EMS 1% in Mulanur (114.64). EMS 1% in Mulanur produced more number of pods per plant (35.57) and seeds per pod (70.64). EMS 1% in Chittor recorded highest fresh seed yield (208.34) and dry seed yield (65.24). Length of tuber (21.64) and tuber weight (71.85) was high in EMS 1% in mulanur. Quantification of colchicine content in 48 mutants was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. Colchicine content was high in Arupukotai (0.8567) followed by Chittor (0.6821) in EMS 1% and lowest at 4 gray in Vedaranyam (0.0501)

  170. Meenakshi Sundaram, M., Logamanian, M. and Banumathi, V.

    With the tremendous advancement in modern day life style and technological development, sophistication of human life is at peak nowadays. Even then, certain things and achievements are still in their own way to attain. Health care industry is marching forward in optimizing the life expectancy against the hilarious challenges put forth. But nature has its own decision in shaping the modern man in this world. Infertile couples are standing as an example for this. Siddhars of Indian continent were on their methods to go in harmony with nature. Hence, they were successful in designing the line of treatment for infertility particularly for females with the treasures of Siddha principles. As a testimonial to this, the following review throws some light towards the approach.

  171. Aher S. K.

    Biodiversity is an important gift of nature that provides all basic requirements for human existence. Since time immemorial plants have played an important role in human civilization. It has been observed that large number of plants being used for the worshipping of gods and goddesses as well as for socio-religious functions which serve as a useful tool for conservation of plants. A present article attempts to highlight the importance of some sacred plants which are traditionally used in Ahmednagar District of India. A total of about 57 species under 54 genera and 33 families were recorded during the study. People of the study area are highly religious. These beliefs are not only showing the human relation with plant diversity, but also help in the conservation of species.

  172. Raja Nisar Ali

    The ground state properties of the atomic nuclei provide valuable information on their structure. The investigation of atomic nuclei is one of the fundamental and mostly pursued topics of the natural sciences, owing to its direct as well as indirect impact on human life. Atomic nuclei being quantum many-body systems, render the investigation of their properties among the challenging disciplines of the natural sciences. It is because of the fact that the single particle and the collective behavior of the constituents is at play almost on the same scales, making them interesting laboratories for the investigation of the different phenomena. These phenomena are also responsible for the varied shapes of atomic nuclei i.e., spherical, prolate, oblate etc. These shape changes take place from spherical doubly-magic (closed shell) nuclei, as one moves away from the valley of stability towards the drip lines, one can find the diversity in shapes of atomic nuclei and hence variation in their size, resulting in the change in the rms radii. In the present work the Sr isotopes have been investigated using the microscopic Energy Density Functional approach. The HFBTHO solver has been employed for calculation of binding energies, charge radii and the two-neutron separation energies which are in agreement with the experimentally measured values.

  173. Ragamayi, S., Eswarlal, T. and Bhargavi, Y.

    In this paper, we introduce and study the concept of vague magnified translation of a vague set in Γ-Near ring, vague magnified translation of a vague ideal in Γ-Near ring and vague magnified translation of a vague Bi-ideal in Γ-Near ring. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) : 08A72,20N25, 03E72.

  174. Kankale, K. P. and Pote, R. S.

    Today, in this era we want to produce more energy from various types of energy sources. Bifacial solar panel can be the best alternative to produce more energy because both sides as front and rear will absorb more energy. To make rear surface more absorptive as it is not in direct contact with sunlight we have to use more reflective surface. If we compare mono-facial and bi-facial solar panel, bi-facial solar panel 5% to 20% more output. We need a cheap and useful reflective surface such as plane mirror which will effectively boost up our output. As the name indicates our panel is light dependent from one side and other side takes the reflected rays. The design is optimized in such a way that it will achieve maximum yield from specific site setup. In this article we have taken the readings for both with and without reflector solar panel, for various angles of inclination of solar panel and calculated the values of current.

  175. Manvinder Kaur and Harvinder Singh Sohal

    Pyranopyrazoles are valuable heterocyclic compounds in which pyran and pyrazole moiety coexist in same molecule. Pyranopyrazole derivatives are significant pharmacophores which are associated with broad range of biological applications. Pyrano(2,3‐c) pyrazole derivatives show many bioactivities such as antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti‐inflammatory activities and molluscicidal activity. But the production of such molecules required harsh reaction conditions and costly catalyst. So, in the present world reactions mediated with green protocols always attract much attention. In this report we synthesize some pyranopyrazole based tetrazoles using glycerol as clean and green solvent. The targeted compounds were evaluated for their anti-microbial activity and it was observed that pyranopyrazoles linked with tetrazoles exhibit potent antibacterial activity as compared to their starting analogues.

  176. Manvinder Kaur and Harvinder Singh Sohal

    A new series of pyranopyrazole based benzoxazole derivatives 2(a-h) were synthesized from reaction of compounds 1(a-h), o-aminophenol and carbon disulphide. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of rigorous analysis of their spectral data. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against selected bacterial strains using serial tube dilution method. It was observed that pyranopyrazoles based benzoxazole derivatives exhibit potent antibacterial activity as compare to their starting analogues.

  177. Manoranjan Soora and Mekala Soujanya

    Brushless DC motors are having a major problem with harmonics in torque. The variations in speed and production of noise should be minimized by using proper topologies. BLDC motors have been gaining attention from different Industrial and domestic appliance manufacturers, because of their high efficiency, high power density and easy maintenance and low cost. This paper presents a three phase BLDC motor with low cost drive to be driven without DC link capacitor. The proposed technique uses an electronic commutation and operates the machine exclusive of the intermediate DC link capacitor. The designing of Brushless DC motor drive system along with control system for torque ripple minimization, speed controller and current controllers are presented using MATLAB / SIMULINK and results are evaluated.

  178. Nima Jessieba Daniel, S., Thangaraj, N., Suresh, D. M. and Joseph John, N.

    Cadmium Selenite (CdSeO3) nanoparticles were prepared by simple microwave irradiated solvothermal process using a domestic microwave oven with frequency 2.45 GHz. Cadmium acetate and Sodium selenite were used as precursors in the molar ratio 1:2. The powder XRD result shows that particles are purely crystallized in hexagonal phase with the broadening of diffraction peaks attributed to nanoscale size of the particles. The dielectric measurements were carried in two frequencies for temperatures ranging from 40 to 150oC. The present study indicates that the polarization mechanism in the nano particles considered is mainly contributed by space charge polarization. It can be understood that the space charge contribution plays an important role in the charge transport and polarizability in all the systems considered in the present study. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss, AC conductivity and DC conductivity increases with increase in temperature.

  179. Dheeraj P. R.

    In this paper, a recently proposed optimization method known as Firefly Algorithm (FA) is used to solve the Load Frequency Control (LFC) problem of an interconnected hydro thermal power system. A normal Proportional Integral (PI) controller is used for control purposes in each area of the system. The optimum gain values KPi, KIi of the controllers are determined using FA method of optimization. The result obtained using FA is cross verified against the results obtained using BAT algorithm in order to demonstrate that FA suits better for LFC.

  180. Susheel Kumar and Kuldip Singh

    Haryana is one of the northern provinces of India divided into 22 Districts, 140 community development Blocks, 6752 villages and 89 Urban Local bodies having population 2.68 Cr, out of that 8.9% are beneficiaries under Social Security Pension Schemes. The State Government has been providing Financial Assistance to the eligible residents of the State who are unable to sustain from their own resources. Assistance provided in the form of monthly pension upto Rs. 1600/- to more than 23 lacs beneficiaries who are enrolled under 9 Schemes of Old age, Widows, Disabled, Destitute Children, Ladli, Dwarf, Eunuch, Financial Assistance to Kashmiri Migrants & Mentally retarded non school going Children of less than 18 years. The annual budget of Financial Assistance has reached up to Rs. 4588 Cr which has average increases of Rs. 50 Cr every year (Budget document of the Government). As per the case study, upto few years ago benefits were disbursed in cash on the basis of data maintained at district level. Cases of fraudulent, wrong and delayed disbursement to ineligible beneficiaries were also reported. Flagging of deaths and other ineligibles was a big challenge. To overcome such problems, data was hosted on central server and online secured access was provided to the department for data updation, processing and disbursement of pension benefits through respective Panchayats and Urban Local Bodies across the state. During late 2014, the State Government decided for Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) to the beneficiaries accounts. Scheduled banks, their BCAs, Post offices, m-Paisa Vodafone were engaged for opening, uploading & updating of beneficiaries accounts with pension database and the goal was achieved in December 2015 for entire state. As a impact more than 1.13 lac beneficiaries weeded out who did not turn up for opening & uploading of accounts. But scope of data cleaning & improvement was still there by using biometric based de-duplication and disbursement. Therefore, the state government, in line with the DBT Mission of Government of India, planned for Aadhaar (Unique ID) based DBT in 2016-17. The DBT process required Aadhaar number of a beneficiary as financial address to credit or debit his/her account, means it does not check for Name, Account no., Bank IFSC etc. Also, the probability of human errors can’t ruled out in collection, typing & manual seeding of 12 digit Aadhaar in beneficiaries accounts, there are chances of wrong transactions. Besides that the beneficiaries who have migrated to other states and maintain accounts there may also get pension benefits by seeding Aadhaar with any of their accounts, which is a violation of eligibility, indeed a beneficiary must be state resident and pension benefits should be credited in the state located bank branches only. Also, a number of beneficiaries who do not have qualifying biometrics scanned due to old ages or other health problems are not issued Aadhaar. Thus, it is difficult to ensure the success of Aadhaar based DBT system as such. Therefore, a Mathematical Model of a random data-set of 500 villages have been formulated using SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) and processed using the LISEREL 9.3 & MATLAB to know the relationships between Observable and Latent Variables (LVs) helping to predict sustainability of ‘Aadhaar based DBT in Social Security pension Schemes of Haryana”. The data inputs to the model consists of adoption of Technology (Scalable, Platform Independent, Branding, Usability, Secure) and 25 other parameters on Resources Planning, Aadhaar Enrollment, Opening of accounts, Aadhaar seeding to bank accounts, data digitization with Aadhaar, role of Sponsored bank, mapping with NPCI (National Payment Corporation India) and Biometric based verifications that is e-KYC of beneficiaries etc. Result of the study produces Mathematical Equation of sustainability model, Index of Sustainability which ranges between 0.0312 to 3.1562, Standard Deviation is 0.2946 and RMSEA is zero along with analysis for Goodness of Fit for the model, the sustainability index is moderate therefore given recommendations may be followed in decision making to achieve high level of sustainability for Aadhaar based DBT.

  181. Özge Yazıcıoğlu, T. Yaşar Katırcıoğlu and ÜmmügülErözbek Güngör

    This paper presents the experimental characterization of an atmospheric (atm) pressure, high-power alternating-current (AC) three-phase plasmatron established in AR&TeCS Inc. by using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) method. Power of the arc plasma jet changes in the range of 590-1100 kW. At each power, emission of the jet is collected by an fiber optic spectrometer (200-1100 nm). The atm plasma is mainly dominated by the nitrogen species in the visible range. The strongest nitrogen atomic line (NII or N+-singly ionized) is detected at 510.45 nm. The others are observed at 589.32, 606.50 and 617.33 nm. The electron temperature (Te) is replaced by the excitation temperature (Text) according to the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The calculated Te is in the range of 11654-12400 K. The electron density (ne) is determined from the equation that is referred by McWhirter. The value of the density changes around 10-21 m-3. The both Te and ne increase with the arc power up to 950 kW and then a sharp decrease is clearly observed. After 1 MW power, the decrease becomes stable.

  182. Uma Divya, A. and Lakshmi Priya, K.

    With increasing contribution of performance of digital circuits is judged by its speed, run-time leakage control techniques are becoming extremely important. The most common technology for designing digital circuits is the CMOS technology. After the development of CMOS logic, there was increasing need to optimize circuits in terms of speed. One technique thought was using PTL which makes use of lesser number of gates to realize an operation. The Pass-Transistor Logic (PTL) is a better way to implement circuits designed for low power applications. Although PTL has disadvantages like it reduces the circuit speed at low power operations and greater static power dissipation. As the technology is growing gained the prominent importance. In this design of 1 bit ALU, GDI technology has been deliberately implemented. In this research work a new design of ALU by using GDI technique that can be used to design fast and low power circuits using lesser number of transistors. The total Design of ALU has been done by using GDI technique in 45 nm technology. The total Design process flow in Soc and the power is 0.044.

  183. Brahmam, V. and Lakshmi Priya, K.

    QCA technology is a promising future nanotechnology for computing. It takes great advantage of a physical effect, the Coulomb force that interacts between electrons. There also exists an alternative implementation that uses magnetic fields, a novel design of a Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) PeersGate (PG) and its simulation. PeersGate (PG) is a reversible logic gates. Reversible logic gates are attracting a lot of attention due to their zero power dissipation under ideal conditions. Reversible logic circuits are useful for constructing quantum computers. By the adjustment of electrons in a small limited area of only a few square nanometers. QCA is implemented by quadratic cells, the so-called QCA cells. In these squares, exactly four potential wells are located, one in each corner of the QCA cell. In the QCA cells, exactly two electrons are locked in.

  184. Madhusudana Rao, A. and Koteshwara Rao, R.

    The need for low-power, area efficient, high speed VCO is pushing toward the use of dynamic regenerative oscillators to maximize speed and power efficiency. In this paper, an analysis on the fast frequency of the dynamic VCO will be presented and analytical expressions are derived. From the analytical expressions, designers can obtain an intuition about the main contributors to the vco, delay and fully explore the tradeoffs in dynamic vco design. Based on the presented analysis, a new dynamic VCO is presented by using dynamic double tail comparator. The entire design flow has been done by using Tanner EDA Tool in 180 nano meter technology.

  185. Madhusudana Rao, A. and Koteshwara Rao, R.

    The need for low-power, area efficient, high speed VCO is pushing toward the use of dynamic regenerative oscillators to maximize speed and power efficiency. In this paper, an analysis on the fast frequency of the dynamic VCO will be presented and analytical expressions are derived. From the analytical expressions, designers can obtain an intuition about the main contributors to the vco, delay and fully explore the tradeoffs in dynamic vco design. Based on the presented analysis, a new dynamic VCO is presented by using dynamic double tail comparator. The entire design flow has been done by using Tanner EDA Tool in 180 nano meter technology.

  186. CH. Mahesh Kumar and D. Kavitha

    In this paper, I have designed a low-power circuit-shared static flip-flop (CS2FF) for low power digital VLSIs. The CS2FF consists of five static NORs and two inverters (INVs).The CS2FF utilizes a positive edge of a buffered clock signal, which is generated from a root clock, to take data into a master latch and a negative edge of the root clock to hold the data in a slave latch. The total number of transistors is only 24, which is the same as the conventional tri-state buffer based flipflop (TBFF) used in the most standard cell libraries. Spectre simulations in 0.18micrometer standard CMOS process demonstrated with different voltages that our proposed CS2FF achieved clock-to-Q delay of 17.4ns, setup time of 5.91ns, hold time of 1.17ns. The DCVS has been designed having less transistors. Cascode voltage switch logic (CVSL) refers to a CMOS-type logie family wich is designed for a certain advantages. It requires mainly N-channal Mosfet transistors to implement the logic using true and complementary input signals, and also needs two P-channel transistors at the top to pull one of the outputs high. This logic family is also known as Differential Cascode Voltage Switch Logic (DCVS or DCVSL).

  187. Mammadov Shahriyar Agamirza Oglu

    This article deals with the USA’s doctrinal policy in the Caucasus and with the major developments in this concept. It states that, American foreign policy of Caucasus has always been loyal and truthful to peace and democracy, to prevention of threats against its allies. Starting from the period of “Monroe Doctrine” in the twentieth century up to Donald Trump’s current presidency term, the entire period is a subject of these analyses. The research paper also illustrates the changing priorities in American foreign policy towards the region of CIS countries and Caucasus, where the exploration and transition of energy resources from these regions occupy special place in the significance of the historical developments. The research states that, relations of NATO and Caucasian countries, reduction of Russia’s political, economic and military impact, restricting Iran’s and China’s regional activities and participations are also the effective measures for protecting the security of the States and its allies. It specifically pays attention to the issues related to the development of political and military chronicles around Armenia-Azerbaijan-Nogorno Karabakh conflicts. The paper brings a lot citations from the outstanding world political figures and political analysts, illustrates the commonalities and differences of socio-political line pursued by American foreign policy in various periods of presidency.

  188. María Elisa Álvarez Ossa and Lizeth Alejandra Gómez Hoyos

    This article is derived from the project titled "Processes of inclusion through Social Pedagogy in a group of basketball players in wheelchairs in the municipality of Tuluá". Its main objective is the comprehension of the social inclusion processes, it is a work with mixed methodology that used methods of quantitative and qualitative approach, that allowed the interpretation of the subjects’ experiences . It was considered that in order to advance in social inclusion it is necessary to develop training processes in civic culture. The population object of study included nine athletes, from the wheelchair basketball modality, from the Vida Independiente Club of the municipality of Tuluá, Valle del Cauca, Colombia; who in this process carried out their sports practices in the university campus of the Central Unit of Valle del Cauca UCEVA. An inclusion intervention strategy was applied through Social Pedagogy and it was possible to develop abilities for participation in social processes and in the construction of public policies in these sportsmen focused on the population in situation of disability.

  189. Dr. Sivakumar, S.

    An Index Fund is a passively managed scheme investing mainly in equity shares of only those companies comprised in indices like the S&P CNX Nifty that may be defined from time to time. Investors need to know how risky index schemes are and what would be its contribution to the total risk of a portfolio. Before investing investors would also want to know which funds gives more return, which fund is performing well, which fund is more risky etc. This study analyses the performance of the selected index funds by comparing it with the benchmark S&P CNX Nifty. The present study does these using certain key statistics. With the help of these key statistics an investor can analyze different Index Funds and put his/her money in a fund which suits his/her risk perception. A sample of 10 Index Funds have been taken for the analysis. For the analysis of risk of these funds Standard deviation and Beta is used. For the performance on Risk-Return - Sharpe ratio has been used along with ratios such as Treynor ratio and Jensen Alpha. Also, the sample funds are compared with a benchmark Nifty to find out how well they are performing with respect to the market. Based on the quantitative study conducted between the schemes and the S&P CNX Nifty for the study period i.e. 2005 to 2011 it is found that there is no significant difference of volatility between the two.

  190. Ballet Tiama Guy Nicaise, Yapo Ossey Bernard, Gnagne Agnes Essoh Jean Eudes Yves, EFFEBI Kôkôh Rose and Aka Etienne Narcisse Adouony

    The dysfunction of the sanitation works in Niangon Nord and Toit Rouge, districts of Yopougon (Abidjan), results in the flow and stagnation of domestic wastewater in the households and in the streets. In contact with these kinds of water, the population is exposed to some diseases. The objective of this work is to highlight the socio-sanitary and environmental impacts of wastewater from the dysfunction of the sanitation network on the inhabitants of these districts. In order to do so, the register of customers’ requests of the DRANA maintenance and repair service was consulted, and a sample survey of households in the two districts was carried out. The data collected showed that the dysfunction of the sanitation works in Niangon Nord and Toit Rouge is caused by the bad behavior of the populations on these infrastructures. The wastewater analysis has shown high concentrations of physico-chemical and bacteriological pollutants. There is an average of 204.08 mg/L of Suspended Solids , 8.57 mg/L of (NO_3^-), 38.76 mg/L of de (NH_4^+), 2.46 mg/L of (PO_4^(3-)), 1.73.108 UFC/100 mL of total coliforms, 07.107 UFC/100 mL of fecal coliforms, and 2.39.107 UFC/100 mL of fecal streptococci. These waters near residential areas which are also playgrounds for children constitute a health risk for these families. The bacteriological contamination from these waters, as well as the odors they emit, would particularly cause malaria, typhoid fever, and diarrhea. On the other hand, the presence of nitrogen compounds would constitute a minor risk to human health in case of ingestion of these waters.

  191. Dr. Suparna R. Deshmukh

    Large number of studies have been carried out for relief on Depression since last few decades. Sudarshan Kriya and its accompanying breathing techniques were found to give an extreme relief  from depression to the persons who practiced it regularly. Many studies have demonstrated about 67-73% success rate in relief from depression, regardless of the severity of depression. These results are experienced rapidly, often within 3-4 weeks. It was observed that, there was rapid uniform relief from depression with SKY practices, unlike any conventional treatments. The results were found to be independent upon time period for how long a person was being suffering from clinical depression or the degree to which brain dysfunctioning was found in the depressed individual. Sudarshan Kriya is a natural rhythmic breathing technique which releases stress, tensions, and depression and also brings an effective control on emotions simultaneously by minimizing stress hormone, Cortisol level in blood. Present study focuses on effects of Sudarshan Kriya on Depression.

     

  192. Josef Kefas Sheehama and Sadrag Panduleni Shihomeka

    This paper explored sustainable economic challenges and opportunities experienced by funded Small and Medium Enterprises at a selected commercial Bank in Namibia. The study was guided by the following objectives; to identify the sustainable economic challenges experienced by the commercial bank funded SMEs in Windhoek; to identify sustainable economic opportunities that exists for these funded SMEs and finally to offer recommendations which can serve as guidelines which the management of the Bank can consider to support, grow and sustain local SMEs. The study followed a phenomenological (i.e. quantitative) philosophy and adopted a questionnaire as an instrument to collect data from a sample of 70 SME owners as a sample from an accessible population of more than 500 SMEs (including those that are not funded by the commercial bank in the study) in the Khomas region by using a stratified random sampling strategy. The strata were: Manufacturing and construction=40, Agriculture=10, Education and Training=8 and other=12 based on the retailing sector within which they are operating. Data were analysed using an excel application to draw tables and graphs to depict the most challenges facing the funded SMEs in the Khomas region and to uncover the opportunities available to these SMEs for growth and sustainability. The findings reveal that funded SMEs were experiencing challenges that impede their smooth operation such as access to finance, employees’ turnover, and availability of affordable workplaces/rental rooms. Additionally, the findings of the study indicate that there are opportunities available to these SMEs in Namibia such as availability of financial assistance from development banks and other commercial banks in Namibia, increased population growth which signals market expansion and improved technological applications. The study recommends that stakeholders such as government agencies, other ministries and entrepreneurs should to introduce capacity building leadership and management programmes or strengthen the SMEs capacity and leadership skills to sustain their organisations. Additionally, the study suggests that SME division should revisit their funding criteria to cater for the underrepresented sectors such as education and training as well as female representation in funded SME ownerships.

  193. Praveen Hoogar, Ashwini Pujar and Dr. Basavanagouda, T. T.

    This article has been produced as a part of Ph.D. thesis entitled “A Study of Health Seeking Behaviour among Halakki Vokkalu Community of Uttar Kannada District, Karnataka”. Halakki Vokkalu is a community mainly found in Uttar Kannada district and distributed densely in four taluks; Ankola, Honnavara Karwar, Kumata. This article focuses on life cycle rituals exist in the community. It’s an abstract ethnographic account of the Halakki Vokkalutribe. In this article author furnished details about the life and rituals celebrated in different stages of life within the community. Here author has given simple and comprehensive account of Halakki Vokkalu community Lifecycle rituals.

  194. Dr. Virender Negi and Dr. Monika Negi

    The mindset and attitude of the generations keeps on changing with the passage of time. There are ample examples of vanishing of rudimentary and age long practices and customs which were once considered to be the integral part of one’s culture and society. Some of them proved to be reformatory for the society like abolition of Child Marriage, Sati, Widow Remarriage, whereas some concept came out of the contemporary needs of modern generations. Live in relationship is also one of the concept adopted by the youths in India as a substitute to the marriage. The paper discusses the social and cultural conflict between live in relationship and marriage in country like India which is known for its Unique Culture and Traditional Values.

  195. Zarah Puspitaningtyas

    Background: The purpose of investors in investing is to obtain income or return, one of which is a dividend. However, the level of dividend income earned by investors varies depending on the company's policy on dividend payout to its investors. Aim: The purpose of this study is to know the meaning of net income and operating cash flow in determining dividend policy on manufacturing companiesin the consumer goods industry sector listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange on the period 2014-2016. Methods: Samples are chosen by using purposive sampling technique. The data collected, then analyzed by using multiple linear regression method. Results: The result of analysis shows that at 0.05 significance level, it is proven that operating cash flow has a significant effect on dividend policy, while net income does not affect dividend policy. Conclusion: These results indicate that operating cash flow tends to provide meaning in determining dividend policy, so that accountants as the presenter of financial information should focus the presentation of this information as an effort to attract investors to invest in the company's shares, as well as to focus the other important information presented.

  196. Olive Taabu Baraza and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    The teaching profession is one of the professions that are considered stressful. This fact has been revealed by many studies worldwide. It is asserted that school factors influence teacher stress more than any other factors. However, some studies have contradicted these assertions indicating that schools are haven of peace and therefore do not generate teacher stress. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the influence of school factors on teacher stress using Kakamega North Sub County as the site of the study. A conceptual framework based on Bray, Camlin, Fairbank, Dunteman and Wheeless (2001) concept that stress is influenced by work factors which in turn influences performance of workers was adopted to guide the study. The study established that school factors influenced teacher stress. The influence was however weak with a Pearson correlation coefficient of .238 and was significant. School factors accounted for 4.6% of variation in teacher stress as was signified by Adjusted R square .46. School factors were also found to be significant predictors of teacher stress. (F (6, 92) = 2.028, P < .05). As specifically the school factors that influenced teacher stress were; location of the school, evaluation policy on students, gender parity of students, bench marking policy, Board of Management and school ethos, customs and traditions. The factors that had little influence on teacher stress included; class size of below 45 students, class size of 45 and above students, entry behaviour of below 250 marks being the average Kenya Certificate of Secondary education examinations, delegation policy, communication policy, gender parity of teachers, teacher students ratio, school routine, teacher –students relationship, office space, sanitation and students dress code. The study concluded that school factors influenced teachers stress in Kakamega North sub-county. The study recommended that stress audits need to be conducted in schools with a view to improving stress levels among teachers to the benefit of students academic performance. The findings of this study are significant to educationists in identifying strategies to deal with stress levels among secondary school teachers in enhancement of students’ academic performance in the Sub County.

  197. Olive Taabu Baraza and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Studies worldwide have revealed that teachers like other professionals do experience stress in their workplaces. Moderate stress has been found to enhance performance of workers whereas low and high stress characterized by boredom, fatigue, exhaustion and burnout leads to poor performance. Preliminary survey in five public secondary schools revealed that teachers in Kakamega North sub-county were experiencing stress. Students’ performance on the other hand was below average from 2009 to 2013. The mean score in Kenya Certificate of Secondary School Examinations had remained below 4.29 compared to neighbouring sub-counties that had recorded higher means of 4.8 and above for the same period thus Kakamega North Sub County had a mean of 4.29, Kakamega South 5.38, Kakamega East 5.16 and Matete 4.84 for the same period. The objective of the study therefore was to establish the influence of teacher stress on student academic performance in public secondary schools in Kakamega North sub-county, Kenya. A conceptual framework based on Bray, Camlin, Fairbank, Dunteman and Wheeless (2001) concepts that stress is influenced by work factors which in turn influences performance of workers was adopted. On average, secondary teachers in public schools in Kakamega North sub-county were moderately stressed with a mean rate of 3.44. and its influence was weak, negative and not significant as signified by Pearson’s “r” coefficient -.129 and accounted for .6% of the students academic performance as signified by Adjusted R square coefficient .006. Low and high stress levels among teachers had negative influence on students’ academic performance as signified by Pearson’s r of -.220 and -.017 respectively though not significant. Moderate stress levels among teachers had a weak positive influence on students’ academic performance as signified by Pearson’s r of .278 though not significant. The study concluded that teachers in Kakamega North sub-county were moderately stressed and stress among the teachers had little influence on students’ academic performance. The study recommended that stress audits need to be conducted in schools with a view to improving stress levels among teachers to the benefit of students academic performance. The findings of this study are significant to educationists in identifying strategies to deal with stress levels among secondary school teachers in enhancement of students’ academic performance in the Sub County.

  198. Sanghamitra Basak, Shri Subrata Biswas and Prasenjit Deb

    Hooghly is one of the non-DPEP districts of West Bengal. However from census report 2011, it is revealed that the overall rate of literacy of the district is 81.80 per cent whereas, as per census 2001 as reflected on UNDP report 2011, the overall literacy of the district was 75.11 per cent. This article deals with Sarva Shiksha Mission (SSM) and its impact due to the participation of the parents of elementary students of two block of Hooghly district of the state of West Bengal. In this study, eighteen variables such as, Age of Father (X1), Age of Mother (X2), Father's Occupation (X3), Mothers' Occupation (X4), Family size (X5), Home facility (X6), Monthly expenditure towards student (X7), Reason behind dropout (X8), Financial condition (X9), Interest towards society (X10), Use of mass media (X11), Government support towards Children (X12), Satisfaction towards the institution (X13), Necessity of private tuition (X14), Protection from various diseases (X15), Health conciseness (X16), Monthly family income (X17) and Social interaction (X18) had shown their significant contribution on the participation of parents towards impact analysis of Sarva Shiksha Mission. The study found that eleven causal variables namely. Age of Mother (X2), Home facility (X6), Financial condition (X9), Interest towards society (X10), Use of mass media (X11), Government support towards Children (X12), Necessity of private tuition (X14), Protection from various diseases (X15), Health conciseness (X16), Monthly family income (X17) and Social interaction (X18) had been identified as the strong contributors upon the predictor variable (Y) i.e. the level of participation of parents towards impact analysis of Sarva Shiksha Mission.

  199. Bondopadhyay, U. and Singh, D. C.

    India and Singapore are two important Asian countries having commonality of being a multi-religions and multiethnic societies. Currently, both the countries are on the vibrant continuum of different developmental levels. One of the most important ladder of this journey is education. Students, in both the countries, are experiencing significant psychological stress arising from the environmental and socio-cultural pressure to perform well. Sometimes, such chronic stressors in extensive levels lead to psychological disorders and impairment in the child’s functioning. This review aims to elucidate the nature of this ongoing stress being experienced by school students from an early age and the possible reasons as why these are perpetuating. Certain possible preventive measures that might help curb this trend have also been discussed.

  200. Sajad Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Gh. Hussain Mir, Dr. Sanjiv Kumar Bansal, Dr. Syed Nisar Ahmad Dr. Mir Nadeem and Dr. Pawan Tiwari

    Introduction: Cancer is an abnormal growth of cells which tends to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and in certain cases depending upon the stage, cancer may metastasize involving adjacent organs and lymph nodes. Worldwide colorectal cancer is the 3rd most common cancer in men and 2nd most common cancer in women. In India the annual incidence rate of colorectal cancer in men is 4.1 to 4.4 per 1,00,000 people and in women it is 3.9 per 1,00,000 people. Tumor markers have an important role in all aspects of cancer care and have a momentum in early diagnosis, prognosis and screening for malignancy in asymptomatic groups. Objective: The aim of the study is to correlate the values of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) and Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in colorectal cancer patients. Material and Methods: This was a case control study of clinically diagnosed 100 colorectal cancer patients and 100 age and sex matched healthy controls were studied. Colorectal cancer patients were diagnosed by clinically and histopathologically. Results: The mean LDH levels (189.83 ± 22.97 vs 173.66 ± 54.35, p< 0.007) and CEA levels (7.30 ± 3.350 vs 1.40 ± 0.625,p<0.001 ) are significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients as compared with controls. Conclusion: Serum lactate dehydrogenase (p<0.007) and Carcinoembryonic antigen (p<0.001) are elevated in colorectal cancer patients. CEA levels were significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients and showed positive sensitivity to remain the marker of choice in monitoring colorectal cancer.

  201. Sujith, A.

    Cardio vascular disease such as angina pectoris and ischemic disease is a major disorder in India.Treatment of angina pectoris is traditionally aimed at reduction of symptoms as well as prevention of future cardiac events such as myocardial infarction or death. 15% of refractory angina pectoris patients either fail to respond fully to such therapy or ineligible to further intervention. External Counter Pulsation therapy (ECP) is a non pharmacologic, cost effective and non invasive therapy can be use safely in any age group without any complication. Education is one of the best way to change knowledge and attitude of staff nurses working in hospital. This has motivated the researcher to conduct a study “A study to assess effectiveness of structured teaching programme on external counter pulsation therapy among staff nurses working in selected hospitals at Bangalore”. Objective of the study: To evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on external counter pulsation therapy by comparing pre and post test knowledge score among staff nurses. Methodology: One group pre-test, post-test research design, which is a pre experimental design with purposive sampling method, is used to select 40 staff nurse. The study was conducted in Pristine Cardiac hospital, Bangalore. The tool used for the data collection was self administered structured knowledge questionnaire which comprised of 8 items on demographic data and 40 items on knowledge of External counter pulsation therapy. The reliability of the tool was established by using Test-Retest method. The reliability Co-efficient is 0.965. The pre test was administered to 40 staff nurses followed by the STP then post test was conducted after 7 days to the same samples using the same tool. The conceptual framework used for this study is based on Stufflebean “CIPP evaluation model”. Data gathered was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in terms of frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, paired‘t’ test and chi-square test. Results: The present study conducted to assess the effectiveness of STP on ECP therapy among staff nurses highlights that the pre-test mean knowledge scores was 28.22% while post-test mean knowledge scores was 74.44%. Further the statistical obtained‘t’ value was 25.61, which is significant at 5% level. There exists a significant difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge scores among participants. Hence H1 is accepted. The findings revealed that there is significant association between pre-test knowledge scores of staff nurses on ECP therapy with demographic variables such as professional experience and family income. Hence H2 is accepted .But there is no significant association between pre-test knowledge scores of ECP therapy with demographic variables such as age group, gender, professional qualification, and duration of experience as a cardiac nurse, professional experience and source of information. Hence H2 is rejected and null hypothesis is accepted. Conclusion: Hence the findings revealed that structured teaching programme was effective in enhancement of the knowledge of staff nurses on External Counter Pulsation Therapy. The study recommends nurses can use this knowledge for caring patients with ECP therapy.

  202. Mammadov V. T. and Shahnazarov, M. A.

    In this article it is learnt oscillatory motion of pump-compressor pipes during the packer setting in empty column and at liquid presence. Galerkin's method in calculus of variations was used in order to study this process. Forms of pipe fluctuations in emptiness and its movement in liquid are defined. Attenuation coefficient for the first mode has been set.

  203. Sureshkumar Natarajan, Parth Deshpande, Pranali Gole and Poonam Bhosale

    A major problem in industries and homes is the leakage of gas. One of the preventive methods to stop accident associated with the gas leakage is to install a gas leakage detection kit at vulnerable places. This project aims to automatically detect, alert and alert gas leakage. Particularly, a gas sensor having a high sensitivity to gases like propane and butane is used (Ramya and Palaniappan, 2012). This system consists a GSM Module which is able to send an SMS to alert the user (Padmapriya and Kamini, 2013).

  204. Sureshkumar Natarajan, Shashank Roy, Arjun Singh and Aniket Bhosale

    From our daily life, we see quantities of water getting wasted. Hence we are proposing a project where the water can be used in a smart way. This system can be easily installed in various surroundings. Sensors placed in the tank which continuously informs the water level at the same time interval. This information will be updated on the cloud; user can visualize the water level on computer system that is connected to Internet. According to the level of water in the tank the valve functioning will be automatically controlled, at low level of water valve will automatically turn on and when tank is about to fill up it will cut off [2].

  205. Syamsuddin, Emzir and Sabarti Akhadiah

    The objective of this study is to obtain a deep understanding of the learning to read in grades 4 and 5 at SDN Kompleks IKIP I Makassar with sub focus (1) the objectives learning to read, (2) reading materials, (3) strategy, approach, methods, (4) lesson plan procedures, (5) media (6) the roles of teacher and students, (7) evaluation. The study used ethnographic methods. This study concludes the objectives of learning to read, learning technique and reading comprehensive used analyzed contain material, the technique of learning is related to the characteristic of the students' age. The lesson plan steps there are learning to open, learning activity, and learning closed. The roles of teachers as partners of learner, organizer, facilitator, motivator, model, and the role of the students as a communicator. Learning used projected visual media and not projected visual media, formative and summative evaluation, reading stories is an activity the entrenched in high class, read the story of the popular primary students.

  206. Sureshkumar Natarajan, Shraddha Maruti Khambal and Pooja S. Ram

    The technology of Electronic Metering has gone through rapid technological advancements and there is increased demand for a reliable and efficient Automatic Meter Reading system. This system presents the design of a simple low cost wireless GSM energy meter. The proposed system replaces traditional meter reading methods and enables remote access of existing energy meter by the energy provider and also it offers additional functionality including real-time reading, power usage notification etc. Also they can observe the meter readings frequently without the person visiting each house. The accurate functioning of electric meter is controlled by a specially designed IC called ASIC. Usually Person will come from the MSCB office and take the readings from meter and then analyses the reading, generate the bill. This process will take more time as compare to smart meter system. To reduce the time smart meter system is used. In this proposed system the time required to generate the bill is reduced. The measurement system is an ARM7 based wireless technology that incorporates with disconnecting meter via esp8266 web page application & alert via SMS network. This system is time saving and work reducing.

  207. Sambudha Roy and Akshay Singh Ghalot

    Today when the world is growing in its capacity of innovation and technology, its high time we deal with the problems of different resource scarcities specially water scarcity with new emerging ideas of innovation. The idea is to re-invent the old traditional practices using new and innovative ways. Keeping in mind that every drop is precious and is not wasted, we need to come up with methods that would be cost effective as well as feasible for every common man.Hence it is pivotal that one has exposure to present day practices and traditional knowledge to protect, promote and conserve what we have. XSoS at XUB through its Sustainable Discovery Programmes provides an opportunity to understand and engage in such initiatives.

  208. Kapil Dev, Dhaka, S.S., Yadav, A.S., Patil, C.S. and Lalit

    The success of Indian dairy industry is much dependent on productivity and efficient reproduction performance of Murrah buffaloes. .It is a established fact that first lactation yield is a good indicator of lifetime performance but still there is further need to study the relationship between first, later lactations and lifetime performance traits for overall better evaluation of genetic worth of the female individual’s own performance and for ranking of sires. Economic return from dairy animals depends on lifetime performance. The prediction of expected correlated response to selection based on early performance and development of selection schemes for genetic improvement in lifetime traits are likely to be more beneficial. The impact of any selection programme depends upon degree of accuracy of selection and genetic correlation between early and lifetime performance traits. Keeping in view, the above facts available through the literature on this species of livestock indicated immense opportunities for the evaluation of genetic parameters and devising appropriate selection indices. The literature pertinent to genetic and phenotypic parameters of lifetime performance traits viz. number of lactations completed, herd life (days), lifetime milk yield (kg), productive life (days), milk yield per day of productive life (kg/day) and milk yield per day of herd life (kg/day) and non genetic factors affecting lifetime performance traits were reviewed in Murrah buffaloes.

  209. Tatjana Boshkov and Dimitar Kovacevski

    FDI represents a potential means of growing and diversifying the SME base and achieving greater integration within global networks. Without a market - there is no trade, and without trade - there is no profit, economic growth and development. Therefore, all economies, especially small ones, are "searching for" and fighting the restless spirit of competition and "hoping" to be a "link" in this international trading concept and supply chains. This paper aims to focus on contribution for developing the strategies that could help to strengthen the SME sector. From one side it could be done through their promoting of integration into, and potential benefits from external markets. Implementation of the strategies should increase the attractiveness of the transition and developing countries for foreign investors which will improve the capacity of the SME sector. From the other side, the policies will strengthen the benefits from FDI to local economies trough facilitation of SME trade and capacity building of local SMEs to use the opportunities from the external markets.

  210. Constantinos Mantzikos, Zoe Charoumenou, Gabriela Andreadou, Christina Lappa and Nicholas Kyparissos

    This study explores the views and experiences of parents with children on the autism spectrum on Parallel Support. The sample of the study consisted of 121 parents who have children with ASD [90 (74.4%) women and 31 (25.6%) men]. The study was conducted from February until September 2017. The survey data was analysed using SPSS version 21 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). The results of the study showed that parents are satisfied with the Parallel Support programme and that Parallel Support contributes positively to their children's socialisation. Additionally, the findings showed that parents are aware of the responsibilities of the special education teacher, and the final goals of the Parallel Support their children receive. However, parents seem not to be satisfied with the way special education teachers are recruited. In respect to the way Parallel Support operates in regard to the general learning development of the pupil, the majority of the parents found it to be poor. Finally, parents are quite satisfied with their cooperation with the Parallel Support teacher. In conclusion, the findings indicate that more effort from the Greek government is needed in order to implement Parallel Support for children with ASD.

  211. Daura Vega-Moreno, Carlos Barrera, Andrés Cianca, Laura Cardona, María J. Rueda, José J. Hernández- Brito and Llinás, O.

    Although ocean monitoring technology has improved significantly over the last twenty years, there are still many deficits in terms of data quality, reliability, efficiency and sustainability. Macaronesia is a vast area of key interest for the marine and maritime sectors. However, logistics and support to develop and maintain a useful and sustainable monitoring strategy programme still fall short of the needs. There is now a multi-disciplinary group of companies and institutions that have come together as a result of working on common initiatives for many years, for the purpose of consolidating a regional ocean observation strategy entitled R3M (Macaronesia Marine Monitoring Network). This network gathers data from several meteorological and oceanographic devices, such as buoys, underwater vehicles and weather stations, all integrated to a data portal where the data is managed and displayed according to end-users needs.

  212. Dr. R. Shankar Shanmugam, Dr. P. Nellaiappar, Dr. E. Prabhu and Mangalam, S.

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing and also the cost of managing its co-morbidities. Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) is a devastating complication of diabetes. Patients who have diabetes and a co-morbid psychiatric disorder are at increased risk of poor management and treatment outcomes than those without a psychiatric disorder. Methods: A descriptive Cross sectional study was carried out to find out prevalence of DAS symptoms among diabetes foot ulcer clients attending HRM (Hand & Reconstructive Microsurgery) Clinic. Results: There was a high level of mental health problems (DAS) found among DFUs clients. Conclusion: The study results highlighted the importance of assessing and treating DAS symptoms as part of a comprehensive management plan for diabetes and to have positive productive life.

  213. Dr. Rimi Najeeb, Dr. Anamika Sharma, Dr. Ritika A Kapoor and Dr. Shivi Khattri

    Introduction: Periodontal diseases are chronic bacterial infections that lead to gingival inflammation, periodontal tissue destruction, and alveolar bone loss. Gingivitis is one of the most prevalent dental diseases. Scaling and root planning along may not achieve best clinical outcome therefore use of adjuncts like mouthwashes, laser, LDD etc can lead to better results. Pomegranate a medicinal fruit, used as an astringent, hemostatic, antidiabetic, antihelmintic, and for diarrhoea and dysentery too. Aim: This research was aimed at investigating antigingivitis and antiplaque effect of a mouthwash containing pomegranate extract,1 month post scaling, in patients with chronic gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects diagnosed with generalized chronic gingivitis were selected and divided into two groups: A and B, with 25 subjects in each group. Group A subjects underwent single sitting of oral prophylaxis while group B subjects were advised 15ml of Pomegranate mouthwash (undiluted) twice daily for 1 month post scaling. Clinical parameters: gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded at baseline and 1 month post scaling. Results: Use of Punicagranatum mouth wash showed significantimprovement in bleeding and gingivitis score in Group B subjects (P value <0.001). Conclusion: Punicagranatum mouthwash improves gingival status with its profound styptic action, sufficiently reducing the plaque scores.

  214. Dr. Anamika Sharma, Dr. Vishal Sharma, Dr. Ritika A Kapoor, Dr. Sakshi Khattar and Dr. Preeti Sharm

    Gingival growths are one of the most frequently encountered lesions in the oral cavity, of which Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is one such reactive gingival growth. It is relatively uncommon, usually composed of cellular fibroblastic tissue containing one or more mineralized tissues, such as bone, Cementum like material, or dystrophic calcification. It is a focal, non-neoplastic tumor-like growth of the soft tissue that often arises from the interdental papilla. It may appear secondary to irritation or trauma. This case report highlights a case of POF and its treatment with 980 nm diode laser with no history of recurrence in one year.

  215. Manasa, M., Murali Krishna, P., Girinadh, L. R. S. and Sridhar, N.

    Tuberculosis (TB) can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract and is the sixth most frequent site of extrapulmonary involvement. Both the incidence and severity of abdominal tuberculosis (AT) are expected to increase with increasing incidence of HIV infection. Peritoneal tuberculosis a form of abdominal tuberculosis occurs in three forms wet type, dry type and loculated type. Clinically peritoneal tuberculosis is characterized by abdominal distension, constitutional symptoms and abdominal pain. Along with peritoneal tuberculosis other forms of abdominal tuberculosis can coexist. Peritoneal tuberculosis can be associated with extraabdominal tuberculosis. Ascitic fluid analysis and abdominal imaging aids in diagnosis in majority of cases. Acid Fast staining and culture of ascitic fluid analysis is the diagnostic but sensitivity is very low. Other molecular diagnostic like TB PCR etc improves sensitivity but the availability is limited and the cost is very high. Response to Anti Tubercular treatment (ATT) helps in the confirmation of diagnosis. Conventional Anti Tubercular treatment for 6 months is the treatment of choice.

  216. Nadeem Ahmad, Tufail Ahmad, Nihida Akhter and Rakesh Koul

    Background: Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic abnormality of varying severity that can be adequately diagnosed and treated. Primary hyperparathyroidism and malignant neoplasms are responsible for >90% of all cases. Objectives: To study the clinical presentation and etiological profile of hypercalcemic patients at a tertiary care institute over a period of 29 months. The number of patients of hypercalcemia due to other rare cause like vitamin D intoxication have been increasing mainly due to over the counter supplementation. Methods: Thirty subjects 18(60%) females and 12(40%) males with a mean age of 65.5±10.28 with hypercalcemia were studied. The first step in evaluating hypercalcemia was confirming it first, an initial evaluation included the measurement of intact parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in patients with history of multiple injections of vitamin D. Results: Out of 30 patients studied, the most common clinical presentation was altered sensorium in 10(33.33%), incidental finding of hypercalcemia in 06(20%) and low back ache with bony pains in 04(13.3%) patients respectively. In etiological profile, the most common etiology was vitamin D intoxication in 11(36.67%) followed by malignancy in 09(30%) and hyperparathyroidism in 06(20%) patients respectively. Conclusion: In our study vitamin D intoxication (VDI) was the most common cause of hypercalcemia. Inadvertent excessive use of pharmaceutical preparations is the most common etiology of exogenous vitamin D toxicity.

  217. Akash Agrawal, Ajay Saxena, Manoj Chandak, Madhur Kalra and Abhilasha Mishra

    The accomplishment of endodontic treatment depends on diagnosis of all the canals, thorough biomechanical preparation followed by three dimensional obturation with hermetic seal. Missing any of these steps may occur dueto bizarre tooth morphology. Usually mandibular molars have two roots with three canals (mesiobucccal, mesiolingual & distal) but in some teeth, the number of roots and canals vary. The variation in the number of roots is called radixentomolaris. This article presents three case reports of mandibular first molars with extra roots. Also mentioned are the modifications in the canal preparation, problems encountered during the treatment, common iatrogenic errors which occur during the treatment and factors which affect the prognosis.

  218. Shruti Chandrakar, Dr. Anitha Padmanabhan, Dr. MilindV Patil and Dr. Shruti Chandrakar

    Oral metastatic tumors are uncommon and account for approximately 1% of oral malignant neoplasms. Here we report a case of metastasis to the mandible. The patient was a 74-year-old male who presented with left mandibular swelling since 3 months. CT scan- revealed a 8x6x4 cm growth eroding and expanding the mandible. Hemimandibulectomy was done and histopathology was suggestive of adenocarcinoma. The parotid gland was unremarkable. Subsequently ultrasonography abdomen revealed a mass in liver and further workup was suggestive of hepatocellular carcinoma

  219. Dr. Arka Swarnakar, Dr.Tarun Kumar Swarnakar, Dr.Angana Pal and Dr. Sandip Rajan

    Oral carcinomas accounts for about 40% of all carcinomas prevalent amongst the human beings. Those involving the tongue results in mild tosevere deficiencies of phonation, deglutition, mastication and taste depending upon the degree and extent tissues involved. Rehabilitation of such patients pose a challenge for the clinician and involves a careful observation and evaluation ofthe residual oral function. This article presents a case report of prosthodontic rehabilitationcompletely edentulous patient, who underwent partial glossectomy following surgical resection of the squamous cellcarcinoma involving left lateral borders of the tongue. An attempt was made to restore the comfort, speech and function of the patientwith additional assistance through speech therapy and simple oral exercises.

  220. Dr. Kushnareva, M. V. and Dr. Keshishyan, E. S.

    Introduction: The rationale for conducting research is high frequency of morbidity and mortality among newborn infants due to the infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Objective: There was the study of antibiogramm of 117 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pathogens were isolated from the different loci (the respiratory tract, mucous eye, umbilical wound, ear, blood, urine) among 117 newborns. Methods: The determination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa’s sensitivity to antibiotics by standard discs method. Results: The 10 strains were nosocomial and referred to the three genetic types (3 strains - I and II type, 4 strains - III type). The 107 clinical strains were individual ("wild-type"). All the strains were sensitive to Piperacillin, Piperacillin + Tasobactam, Colistin and resistant to Carbenicillin, Doxycycline, Cefaclor, Chloramphenicol. The sensitivity to the rest of the 15 antibiotics was variable. Conclusions: The nosocomial and individual strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa are polyresistant to antibiotics. The systematic implementation of microbiological monitoring should be (2-4 times per year) in the stationary and also the antibiotics’ rotation has to be applied.

  221. Cengiz TAŞKIN, Önder KARAKOÇ, Ali Kemal TAŞKIN, UbeydeGÜLNAR and Cemalettin BUDAK

    Background/Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise on hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in 10-12 year-old obese children. Methods: A total of 40 obese children volunteered in the study. Mean age and height of the children participating in the study was 11,40±0,68 years and 149,40±3,60 cm, respectively in the training group and 11,30±0,80 years and 149,20±3,55 cm , respectively in the control group. Run-walk exercise for 20-45 minutes, three days a week for 8 weeks targeted at 40-70% target heart rate was applied in the training group of obese children participating in the study. No statistically significant differences were found between pre-test and post-test body weight, body mass index, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation values in the control group of obese children (p>0,05). On the contrary, statistically significant differences were found between the pre-test and post-test body weight, body mass index, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation values in the experiment group of obese children (p<0,05). Results: In conclusion, regular physical activity can be suggested to have an important place in healthy development and growth of children and in the treatment of negative effects of respiratory system complications that develop in the metabolism as a result of obesity.

  222. Tujuba Ayele Tesso and Guohua Liu

    The increasing cost of feed ingredients necessitate improving poultry feed utilization to enhance production. To fulfill increased world food demand and to overcome the consequences related to natural and industrial changes, scientists have been trying to select and improve both feedstuff and livestock with the application of biotechnology. The trends of biotechnology application in livestock involve traditional breeding, biochemical and physical techniques in nutrition to increase the abundance (availability) of feed and to improve the utilization of nutrients in those feeds to maximize animal production. Additionally, animal nutrition studies are conducted to determine the safety of human food and modeling of some human diseases. Manipulating animal ability to absorb and utilize more nutrients starts from the plant breeders and continues until where those nutrients are utilized in the body. Microorganisms that have symbiotic life with livestock organism are also transgenically manipulated to improve nutrition and feed utilization. The different biotechnological applications used in poultry industry to improve poultry nutrition and feed includes; engineering of bird’s genes, micro flora of birds and their enzymes, use of antibiotics, Probiotics, prebiotics and others. Hence, biotechnology application is paramount in poultry nutrition and feed improvement for efficient utilization and sustainable development of the poultry industry in the future.

  223. Jyothi Gurupadappa

    Right to food is one of the human rights of consumer’s to which every consumer is entitled by virtue of being born as human beings. Right to food is one of directive principles of state policy and it is enforceable by law. Food adulteration has now become a major threat to consumers health and consumers are suffering various types of health problem. Every human is a consumer while availing various necessities of his life. To overcome food adulteration the government of India introduced the food safety and standards Act 2006. To overcome the deficiencies in the prevention of food adulteration Act 1954. There are the number of laws to protect the consumer against adulterated food. The article deals with various provisions and law that aim to protect the consumer against food adulteration is discussed. The paper also deals with various provisions and remedies to protect the consumer’s right.

  224. Dr. Boa Reena Tok

    This study focused to find out the language proficiency development among the secondary school students. The study is not a fault finding assessment, rather it is an attempt to find out the problems of students in understanding the subject and to identify teacher’s problems in teaching of English subject. For this purpose, normative survey method of research was employed. The sample consists of 150 students from government school and private secondary schools of Papum-pare district of Arunachal Pradesh. The study indicates that government school students face more difficulty in proficiency in English than the private secondary schools. This study thus assumes significance as it will help the teacher to have bird’s eye view on the whole learning situation of the subjects.

  225. Dr. Boa Reena Tok

    The present study aimed at investigating the attitude of elementary school teachers regarding training programmes provided in DIETs of Arunachal Pradesh. For this purpose, investigators selected 24 teachers each from DIET Naharlagun and DIET Kamki as a sample. Normative cum Survey method was used and a tool used was a self developed tool in the form of Questionnaire, consisting of 22 items. To analyse and interpret the data, investigators used Measures of Central Tendencies, Measures of Variability, t-test and Correlation. The findings revealed that computed t-value for the case of (DIET Naharlagun) was 0.82 and this computed t-value was lesser than the criterion t value of 2.07 at 0.05 level of confidence for 22 df. Therefore, no significant difference was found between male and female elementary school teachers regarding training programmes provided in DIET, Naharlagun. Again, for the case of DIET, Kamki the computed t-value was 0.32 which was lesser than the criterion t value of 2.07 at 0.05 level of confidence. Therefore, no significant difference was seen again. The co-efficient of correlation value was 0.31 for the relationship between the impact of training programmes on the attitude of elementary school teachers in Papumpare and West Siang districts of Arunachal Pradesh. Therefore, there was low and positive correlation between the variables.

  226. Sied Muhumed Jibril

    Using time serious data of forty Ethiopia spanning over 15 years this paper analyzes the relationship between governance and economic growth in Ethiopia. The descriptive result showed that the country achieved mixed result some dimension of governance improved while the other deteriorated like freedom of press and freedom of expression. In general the country performance showed it is below the African average. Moreover, consistent with most recent empirical works, the study found that good governance has significant direct impact on growth over the time under consideration. It was found that improvement in good governance has highly significant effect on the growth. Similarly, labor force growth is also significant positive effect on the recent growth. While the other variables like government education expenditure, openness and foreign direct investment were found to have no statistically significant effect on economic growth in Ethiopia. Thus, the government has to improve the governance at all dimension to benefited out of it.

  227. Dr. Jagannath.K.Dange

    People desire to achieve something and make incredible breakthrough in different aspects of life. People have an ultimate goal, something toward which their entire life is being directed. There is nothing more important than having a desire deep down to achieve goals. Every single day, we should have both long and short term goals that are fueled by desire. The larger our goals are, the greater our desire needs to be. It may be said that for most humans, the ultimate goal is the achievement of well-being and security for themselves and their loved ones. Through the achievement one can contribute to the self and for family development. The contribution is significant criteria for considering one’s achievement. This article proposes and describes the theory of contribution through a proposed model which shows the different levels of contribution of an individual. It is a combination of five levels of contribution, Minimum level of contribution is “contribution to family” and the maximum and greatest level of contribution is “contribution to mankind”. The proposed theory of contribution would be helpful in understanding the levels of contribution by individuals and also be consideredfor an individuals’ improvement in the vision for contribution.

  228. Thuraya A. Al-Saadi

    Effects of ethanol extracts of Curcuma longa L., Myristica fragrans Houtt. and Piper nigrum L. on the mortality of red flour beetle were investigated. In the current study, ethanol plant extracts showed that the mortality rate increased with increasing concentration as well as the length of exposure times. On the other hand, results of this study point out that the three plants of this study might be useful as potent insect control agents. The results showed that Myristica fragrans had the best effect on the mortality of adults and Larvae (100%) in 8% concentration, followed by Curcuma longa and Piper nigrum extracts of mortality were achieved. After 24-hour exposure, the LD50 values of ethanol extract of Piper nigrum, Curcuma longa and Myristica fragrans against adult Tribolium castaneum were found to be 0.73, 0.79 and 0.45 mg/cm2, respectively, while in larvae found 0.34, 0.27 and 0.12 mg/cm2 respectively. No mortality was observed in control. The LD50 values for fifth instar larvae were 0.34, 0.27 and 0.12 mg/cm2 in Piper nigrum, Curcuma longa, and Myristica fragrans respectively.

  229. Prof.(Dr). Manish Anand and Neha Sharma

    In present scenario, Budget Accommodation is one of the fastest growing sectors in Indian hospitality industry with intense competition. This study has focused on the adoption of the information and technology practices by the Budget hotels in Chandigarh (Tri City). There is a large difference in the different practices adopted by the hotels depending on the facilities and clients. The manpower in hotels has been reluctant to make best use of IT at times. The analysis has been done through personal interviews with the managers of 76 hotels of Chandigarh (Tri city). The study results to promote IT adoption among Room Division in a better way to increase their revenues and provide excellent guest satisfaction.

  230. Ramprasad S. Kodavanti and Dr. Prabhat Kumar

    Global studies and research reveals that, construction is the most hazardous process and is responsible for severe and fatal injuries. The construction process is a phenomenal, complex, temporary and complicated activity, it demands for aversatile, comprehensive and easy-to–adopt parametric approach to evaluate and improve its safety performance. The parameters are Lead and Lag indicators. The Lead indicators are pro-active and lag indicators are reactive. It has been the traditional and historical practice, to report the safety performance by the Lag indicators like number of injuries, man-days lost, extent of disability, compensation etc. The author during the course of periodic review of progress observed that accidents and its consequences are the only parameters reported on the safety performance of the construction project. This traditional practice doesn’t seem to be the right approach as the absence of accident does not mean that the safety performance is good. At present, nationally or internationally, there are no uniform, harmonized or standardised and accepted bench – marking metrics / indicators available for reporting, comparing and improving safety performance in any industry. In this study the key parameters combining the Lead and Lag indicators are identified and quantified for construction industry, based on the safety performance of a group of 30 organisations which consists of construction, production and processing, services and research and development units. The purpose is to objectively assess the safety performance. This exercise facilitates in building the robust Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Management System in the construction industry.

  231. Rita Prima Bendriyanti

    The purpose of this research was to determine the stage and analyze the relationship between work experiences in improving the professionalism of teachers. Research conducted at the Madrasah Aliyah in Bengkulu. The research was conducted by descriptive method with quantitative approach. The data were collected by questionnaire as an instrument of research related to the study variables. Data analysis in this research used descriptive analysis and inferential analysis using t test analysis, ANOVA, correlation and regression analysis to determine the relationship between the study variables. The results showed that the work experience and professionalism of teachers are at a good level according to the respondents, there are no differences in work experience and professionalism of teachers based on the demographics of the respondents and there is a relationship between work experience and professionalism of teachers, the relationship to the level of a simple and significant, as well as aspects of the dominant work experience of teachers in the professionalism of teachers is the dimension of control over the work and equipment and working lives. It was concluded that work experience has a relationship to the development and improvement of the level of professionalism of teachers in performing their duties as an educator at the school, their work experience good teacher will have a positive influence on the professional development of teachers.

  232. Anji Reddy Nalamalapu

    Inclusion has been the topic of interest in education for many years. Various methods of teaching in an inclusive teaching have been created and researched. This study investigated the effects of collaborative teaching on Algebra scores in an inclusion high school class. The findings tended to indicative collaborative teaching in an inclusive setting for special education students. The research was conducted in a rural setting in the South with 15 special needs students to determine the impact of collaborative teaching.

  233. Dr. Kadjo Koutou

    Dans cette recherche, nous nous sommes proposé de définir de manière explicite la lecture d’une œuvre d’art qui découle d’une succession à l’intérieur de l’instant de vision. Le problème qui se pose à l’analyse sémiologique est de se demander comment l’unité de vision sera articulée et découpée par la discursivité de la lecture sans jamais cesser d’être une. Et l’interprétation de l’image comme aide visuelle dans les apprentissages à l’école élémentaire. Pour la sémiologie de l’art, l’image ou sémiotique qui a développé tout un secteur de sémiotique visuelle, l’image est conçue comme produite par un langage spécifique. Elle est lecture instantanée et présence immédiate du monde. L’objectif de cette étude vise essentiellement à promouvoir l’enseignement au niveau de l’école élémentaire, afin d’intéresser les acteurs, les apprenants et les gestionnaires du système éducatif à appréhender la valeur culturelle de cet instrument dans la formation des enfants.

  234. Nguyen Hai Quang

    The article studies methods to determine the amount of goods through airports and determine the relationship between export - import goods through airports and export – import turnover of goods in Vietnam. From analyzing the 27-year data series from 1990 to 2016 by a linear and non-linear regression model show that when the value of exports increased by 1%, cargo exports through airports increased 0.8205% and when the value of imports increased by 1%, cargo imports through airports increased 0.8393%. It is forecasted that Vietnam's airports will serve nearly 500 thousand tons of exported goods of about 410 thousand tons of imported goods by 2020.

  235. Truong Quang Dung

    The impact from airport noise on staff and surrounding communities has been demonstrated. Many countries have authorized different measure ranging from regulating aircraft technical and airport safety or maintaining monitor right of directly affected community. In Vietnam, apart from ICAO standards and airport safety regulations, people do not have the means to monitor and present their opinions to the aeronautical authorities. Tan Son Nhat Airport, which exists in the heart of the city, has the largest noise impact on the surrounding communities. However, the only step to tackle the problem now is making noise map. This article is aimed to figure out the necessity of community involvement in monitoring the impact of airport noise.

  236. Thankian Kusanthan and Margaret Malambo

    Throughout history, child sexual abuse has been a global phenomenon. Various studies have been documented on the causes and outcomes of such an act on a child. This study however aimed at investigating the gender differentials in nature and experiences of child sexual abuse. Using various methods and techniques like descriptive designs, in-depth interviews and qualitative and quantitative methods, the study based its research on 70 respondents, 10 boys and 60 girls, between the ages 8 and 18. The respondents were all sexually abused victims at the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) in Lusaka. According to the study, it was found that while the female sex was most prone to sexual abuse, boys experienced and disclosed their experience longer than girls. It is for this reason that children should be awared on the issues of child sexual abuse from a tender age. Thus providing them with information on what to do when a perpetrator approaches them, how to protect themselves and what to do if sexually abused. This would also lessen on the misconception society imposes on both sexes, particularly boys.

  237. Nadhirah Faiz and Dr. Muralidharan, N. P.

    Aim & Objective: To assess the antimicrobial activity which can be conducted with the help of tea tree oil. Background: Melaleuca alternifolia, also known as tea tree oil, is a commonly used antiseptic. It's a safe yet effective antiseptic in its action. Its chemical composition is extremely complex. These constituents of tea tree oil is what gives it its antiseptic as well as antimicrobial activity. Reason: It is found that microorganisms are beginning to become resistant to the antimicrobials which used to be used often. So it's essential to know the antimicrobial effect of substances which haven't been utilised for such activities that are possess. Result: The antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil on Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas was studied.

  238. Dr. Ashok Jairth, Dr. Farhat Raza, Dr. Archana Nagpal, Dr. Rajeev Gupta, Dr. Jasjit Kaur and Samita Chauhan

    Management of the patient with congenital or acquired defect of palate is a new era in prosthodontics. Rehablitation with lighter obturator is a burning topic of research and practice as well. Depending on their origin, two groups for such defects can be congenital and acquired, which may result due to some injury or surgery. Such defects vary as far as etiology, location, and size are concerned. The size of the defect may vary from small to large, which may include parts of the hard and soft palate, alveolar bone, floor of the nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and may extend up to floor of the orbit and zygomatic complex. In general, such defects can be prosthodontically rehabilitated by prosthesis called obturator. The obturator is a disc or plate, natural or artificial, which closes an opening or defect of the maxilla as a result of a cleft palate or partial or total removal of maxilla for tumor mass. The obturator can be of different types and designs depending on the defect to be restored. This article reviews various aspects related to obturator prosthesis and elaborates the procedure of making an obturator as well.

  239. Dr. Anita Khokhar, Astha Gupta and Swati Keshri

    The popularity of portable listening devices (PLDs) including iPods has increased dramatically over the past decade. Many of them use earphones for prolonged periods at high sound that may pose a risk for hearing loss; and accidents because of their use even on road. Objective: To study the knowledge, attitude, practices and health problems related to the use of Portable Listening Devices among college students of Delhi. Settings and design: cross sectional, descriptive study conducted among college going students of Delhi in the year 2016. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken among 399 students from 8 different colleges of Delhi in the year 2015. A 27-item, pre-tested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 16, Chi-square test for association was used and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 67.2% students listened to Portable Listening Devices every day, and 61.2% used them for more than an hour. Most common Portable Listening Device used is mobiles. 28.3% students listened to music at high volume. 72.2% students faced one problem or the other due to the use of Portable Listening Devices. 5.5% students have already been in some kind of accident due to use of earphones. Maximum percentage of subjects perceived the same period of use of Portable Listening Devices to be less than ones hour. There was a significant difference in the practice and health problems between males and females; students who stayed alone and who stayed with parents. Conclusion: Use of personal listening devices is a part of lifestyle of an average college going student from Delhi and they need to be educated about various aspects of its use.

  240. Shakir Rashid, Imran Khan, Arshad Bashir, Mohammad Yahya Dar and Manzoor Ahmad Halwai

    Aims and Objectives: to observe and evaluate the efficacy of aperture fixation for complete ACL rupture by arthroscopic tans-portal single bundle quadrupled hamstring auto graft reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Quadrupled hamstring auto graft prepared was secured using femoral interference screw via the anteromedial port with knee in hyperflexion to ensure absolutely parallel screw placement. Tibial interference screw was placed with knee in full extension and graft under longitudinal traction to prevent proximal migration during screw advancement. Results: The Lysholm functional score improved from a mean pre-operative value of 55.23 (range 36 – 77) to 89.88 at six months (76-96) and improved to 93.8(range 80 – 98) at final follow up. The Tegner activity level improved from a mean pre-operative value (post injury) of 3.13 (range 2 – 4) to mean postoperative value of 5.13 at six months to 6.3 (range 4 – 8) at final follow up. The single leg hop test measurements improved from a mean preoperative value of 57.2% (range 40 – 71) to 86.76 at six months and 90.5 (range 79 – 98) at final follow up assessment. Discussion and Conclusion: ACL reconstruction using quadrupled hamstring auto graft and interference screw fixation is safe and highly successful with very few complications. Accelerated rehabilitation is possible in view of strong fixation of graft using interference screws.

  241. Dr. Vinesh Kamath, K., Dr. B. S. Jagadish Pai, Dr. Annaji Sreedhar, Dr. Amit Walvekar and Dr. Haritha, T. V.

    Aims: To demonstrate the viability of amniotic membrane for the treatment of mucogingival defects (shallow-to-moderate Gingival recession defects). Methods: The aim of this study was to record the use of processed dehydrated allograft amnion in the treatment of 20 shallow-to moderate recession defects defined as ≤3 mm of recession. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups to receive either Amniotic membrane graft with coronally advanced flap Group-1 or Coronally advanced flap Group-2 and followed up for a period of 6 months. Results: The results were statistically analysed using unpaired t test. The mean recession depth at baseline in both the groups was 2.75mm±0.78mm. 24 weeks postoperatively the mean recession depth was 0.15mm±0.36mm and group 2 it was 0.35mm±0.48mm. The difference between group 1 and 2 was not statistically significant in any of the occasions as analysed with independent samples t test. However, better root coverage was achieved in group 1 when compared to group 2 at 24 weeks postoperatively as compared with values at baseline. Conclusion: Based on the data collected in this study, processed dehydrated amnion may provide an effective alternative to autograft tissue in the treatment of shallow-to-moderate Miller Class I and II recession defects.

  242. Lígia Aurélio Bezerra Maranhão Mendonça, Natali Camposano Calças, João Pedro Teixeira Basmage, Larissa Sawaris Neto and José Carlos Souza

    Insomnia is a sleep disorder of great magnitude that significantly interferes with the homeostasis of the circadian and sleep systems. This culminates in important changes in the leptin-ghrelin axis, leading to adverse effects on the dietary choices, a consequent increase in weight and installation of obesity. The hormonal and metabolic mechanisms that promote this important change are not yet fully understood. However, it is known that a chronic process of sleep deregulation culminates in increased levels of ghrelin and decreased levels of leptin, resulting in a vicious cycle. Therefore, it is necessary to raise the population's awareness for the importance of sleep periods in order to avoid metabolic imbalances involving the development of diseases, especially obesity.

  243. Dr. Azra Mubeen Karnul

    Background and Objectives: Appendicitis is common surgical disease which continues to remain a diagnostic problem and can baffle best of the clinician. Delay in diagnosis definitely increases the morbidity, mortality and cost of treatment. In equivocal cases, however, aggressive surgical approach in spite of advancements in medical diagnostics, its diagnosis is mainly clinical one. Thus the objectives of this study are to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of modified alvardo score in patients of acute appendicitis and to find out gender differences. Methods: The study was prospective and conducted in a group of 100 cases admitted in department of general surgery with suspected appendicitis. The study involved application of modified Alvarado scoring system to all 100 cases before surgery and co related with histopathology reports. Results: In our study number of male and female patient is 52% and 48% respectively. Highest incidence was seen in age group of 21-30 (29%). Distribution of the patients according to Modified Alvarado Score in >7 range is 45. Out of those 45 patients, 42 (93.3%) had acute appendicitis and 3(6.66%) patients were having normal appendix on histopathology. Negative appendisectomy rate is 6.6%. Distribution of the patients according to modified Alvarado score of <7 is 55%. Out of those 55%, 22(40%) had acute appendicitis, 33(60%) patients were having normal appendix on histopathology. Negative appendisectomy rate is 60%. With modified Alvarado score >7, 19(45.23%) male patients were histopathological positive and 23(54.76%) females patients were histopathological positive. With modified Alvarado score <7, 14(63.67%) male patients were histopathological positive and 8(36.36%) female patients were histopathological positive. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive predictive value in males were 97%, 94.7%,75%,92.05% respectively, while in females were 96.8%, 94%, 88%, 99.56% respectively. The overall sensitivity =96.93% specificity=97.14%, accuracy= 95.2%, positive predictive=93.65%, negative appendisectomy rate is 6.67%. Conclusion: Thus, applying Modified Alvarado scoring system preoperatively as a protocol in patients with suspected appendicitis is useful in reducing negative appendisectomy rates.

  244. Azza A. Ali, Mona G. Khalil, Hemat A. Elariny and Shereen S. Elshaer

    Background: Aluminum (Al) is very abundant metal in the earth’s crust. It is a constituent of cooking utensils, medicines, cosmetics, some foods and food additives. Salts of Al are widely used in the treatment of drinking water for purification purposes. Excessive and prolonged exposure to Al causes oxidative stress and impairment of many physiological functions. Its accumulation in liver and kidney causes hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Social isolation (SI) or Protein malnutrition (PM) also increases oxidative stress and may enhance the toxicity of Al as well as the degeneration in liver and kidney. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and has strong antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory activities and can protect against oxidative stress-induced degenerations. Objective: To study the influence of stress or PM on Al-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats, as well as on the potential role of EGCG in providing protection. Methods: Rats received daily AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for three weeks (Al-toxicity groups) except one normal control group received saline. Al-toxicity groups were divided into four treated and four untreated groups; treated rats received EGCG (10 mg/kg, IP) together with AlCl3. One group of both treated and untreated rats served as control for each of them and the others were subjected to either stress (mild using isolation or high using electric shock) or to PM (10% casein diet). Specimens of liver and kidney were used for assessment of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB), oxidative stress (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO), Caspase-3 and for DNA fragmentation as well as for histopathological examinations. Biochemical changes were also measured in the serum as cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, albumin, total bilirubin, glucose, creatinine and urea as well as the levels of ALT, AST and ALP. Results: Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by Al were enhanced in rats exposed to PM as well as to stress, the influence of stress especially high stress was more pronounced as indicated by the increase in liver and kidney MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3, DNA fragmentation and in serum ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol, triglycerides, total bilirubin, glucose, creatinine and urea levels, together with the decrease in HDL, albumin, SOD and TAC. EGCG provided protection against hazards of Al as indicated by the decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation as well as in levels of ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol, triglycerides, total bilirubin, glucose, creatinine and urea, together with the increase in HDL, albumin, SOD and TAC that is confirmed by histopathological examinations. It provided more pronounced protection in high stressful conditions than in mild one than in PM. Conclusion: Stress have bad impact on Al-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity more than PM, thus it can clarify and maximize the role of EGCG in providing protection. Consequently, administration of EGCG is advised with excessive Al-exposure to avoid nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity especially in populations more subjected to stress or PM.

  245. Sophia, M., Anandakrishnakumar, S., Viswanathan, G. A. and Sabhesan, S.

    Background: Physical illnesses create a spiraling augmentation of psychological distress, both to the sufferer and to the caretaker. This is especially so, when the sufferer is a child. Prompt recognition and evaluation of psychiatric problems are essential, because psychiatric co-morbidity exacerbates the course of medical illness, causes significant distress to the patient, prolongs hospital-stay, and increases cost of care. Methodology: The present study thus aims to understand the psychological consequences of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on the children, their family burden, Functional capacity, illness related variables and their associations with psychopathology. Results: Children with ALL are more prone for Psychological disturbances than major Psychiatric disorders. Depressive Conduct disorder is the most common among children with ALL in our study. Longer the duration of illness significantly increases psychopathology but treatment period do not show association with psychopathology. The presence of psychiatric disturbances significantly reduces global functioning in the Children with ALL. Presence of Psychopathology significantly interferes with Family interactions, Family dynamics, Financial Burden and Subjective distress. Conclusion: Development of chronic illness in Children results in major impact on their physical growth, emotional maturity, social relationships, Family dynamics and academic achievements. These children should be given not only utmost medical care but their emotional suffering should also be addressed. They should be encouraged to express verbally and should be spent with adequate attention to their psychological needs and concerns. Their parents should be adequately educated about the illness and its outcome so that they may be effectively fulfilling adequate parental role.

  246. Prakash R. Kengnal, Sharankumar Holyachi and Ashok Kumar

    Introduction: Population ageing is an important emerging demographic phenomenon in India. A growing older population implies the need for a higher quantity and quality of geriatric services, arrangements of income security and improved quality of life in general. In order to offer high quality and effective nursing care to those with a great need, a well-educated workforce is important. Aim(s) and Objectives: To assess the knowledge and attitude of the nursing students towards old age people in Davangere, Karnataka. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in all the existing Institutes of Nursing Sciences (four) providing Bachelor of Science (B. Sc.) Nursing situated in Davangere, India using the Kogan’s Old People Scale (KOPS) and the Palmore’s Facts on Aging Quiz I (PFAQ1). Results: Final year students had a higher total score than the first year students for the Kogan’s positive subscale (mean scores 50.65 and 45.02, respectively); reverse was observed for the Kogan’s negative subscale (mean scores 51.81 and 55.28, respectively). However this was not statistically significant. PFAQ1 total scores were more for the final year than first year students. Statistically significant difference in PFAQ1 was noted for the physical component. Conclusion: Nursing students in this study have an adequate knowledge and a positive attitude towards the elderly.

  247. Abhishek Kumar Singh, Athar Parvez, Gurmeet Singh and Pradhan, S.

    Although SSIs are not associated with a high case-fatality rate, they cause significant morbidity and huge economic burden. In 1992, the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) revised its definition of 'wound infection', creating the definition 'Surgical Site Infection' (SSI) to prevent confusion between the infection of a surgical incision and the infection of a traumatic wound. So, post-operative wound infection hereafter referred to as Surgical Site. This is a hospital based prospective study. This study was conducted in the General surgery ward of Department of Surgery in a well-equipped tertiary care center. Each patient undergoing surgery both elective and emergency were observed in the ward and carefully assessed each day for signs of surgical site infections till the day of discharge and post operative. Better control of blood sugar in diabetics and if possible opt for elective surgery and even if surgery done in emergency post operative glycemic level optimization is must. Avoid wound drains, if this is not possible, using a closed drainage system and removal of drains as soon as possible may help in control of SSI.

  248. Azza A. Ali, Toqa M. Elnahhas, Abeer I. Abd El-Fattah, Mona M. Kamal and Karema Abu-Elfotuh

    Background: Environmental pollution with the different aluminium (Al) containing compounds especially those in industrial waste water exposes people to higher than normal levels of Al that represents an environmental risk factor. Cosmetics, Al ware and containers are also sources of Al besides some foods and food additives. In addition to its known neurotoxicity, Al affects other body structures like skeletal system, blood cells, liver and kidney. Accumulation of Al in kidney and liver induces nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a pseudo-vitamin substance primarily present in the mitochondria. It is a powerful antioxidant and acts as radical scavenger. Wheat grass is a natural product that contains carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, enzymes and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and cardiovascular protection activities. Cocoa is an excellent source of iron, potent antioxidants and can protect against many diseases. Vinpocetine is an antioxidant and anti inflammatory while zinc is an essential trace element involved in cell division and its deficiency is observed in many types of liver disease. Objective: To evaluate and compare the potency of different drugs and nutrients (CoQ10, wheatgrass, cocoa, vinpocetine and zinc) against nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by Al in rats. Methods: Rats were divided to seven groups and received daily for three weeks either saline for control group or AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for Al-toxicity model groups. Five groups of Al-toxicity model (treated groups) were orally received together with Al each of the following; CoQ10 (200mg/kg), wheat grass (100mg/kg), cocoa powder (24mg/kg), vinpocetine (20mg/kg) or zinc (32mg/kg). Biochemical changes in the serum levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as total bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine and urea were measured. Liver and kidney specimens from all groups were also collected for the assessment of hepatic and nephrotic level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6β, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), Caspase-3, oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO) and DNA fragmentation. Histopathological changes in liver and kidney were also evaluated. Results: Three weeks of AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) exposure induced nephro- and hepato-toxicity in rats. Treatment by the all used drugs showed protection against hazards of AlCl3. The protective effects were indicated by the significant decrease in ALT, AST, ALP, LDH as well as total bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine and urea levels which were increased by Al. Liver and kidney of the treated groups showed decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation which were increased by Al, together with significant increase in SOD and TAC which were decreased by Al. The protection against both nephro- and hepato-toxicity was more pronounced especially with CoQ10 and wheat grass than the other used drugs. Histopathological examinations confirmed the biochemical results of toxicity and of protection. Conclusion: Protection from nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and the consequent degenerations induced by Al can be achieved by using different drugs as CoQ10, wheatgrass, cocoa, vinpocetine and zinc, but CoQ10 as well as wheat grass possesses the most superior protection.

  249. Dr. Prabhu, R. and Dr. Sudheer

    The implant / abutment interface connection, is generally described as an internal or external connection. The distinctive factor that separates the two groups is the presence or absence of a geometric feature that extends above the coronal surface of the implant. The infiltration of the bacteria at implant abutment interface has been shown to depend on the type of implant-Abutment connection and their sealing capacity.This article is a review on the importance of implant – abutment interface and factors effecting the implant – abutment connection.

  250. Houssam Laachach, Ilham Benahmed, Alaa Fliti, Bachrif Mohammed, Ofkir Mohammed, Mehdi Berrajaa, Ikbal Alla, Mustapha Beghi, Nabila Ismaili and Noha Elouafi

    The proximal occlusion of the right coronary artery can be predicted of fatal haemodynamic and rhythmic complications. We have illustrated this fact in a young man who presented with complicated right ventricular infarction and who was rescued by clinical and electrical diagnosis and then by immediate angioplasty.

  251. Bilkay Serez

    Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL), is a minimally invasive method performed via bronchoscopy, and has been essential to obtain samples which may provide information about the inflammatory status, and infectious conditions of the alveoles. BAL is very substantial procedure for diagnosing especially interstitial lung diseases but also important other pulmonary diseases such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, alveolar hemorrhage, malignancy, Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The most important issue regarding a BAL procedure is the qualification and adequacy of the sample. Cell counting and culture, pathologic evaluation should be performed in every sample by certain staining methods.

  252. Oladipo Gabriel Sunday, Alabi Ade Stephen, Paul Chikwuogwo Wokpeogu, Paul, John Nwolim, Alalibo Orikarama, Uzomba Godwin Chinedu and Amadi Paulinus Nmereni

    Background: The term dermatoglyphics is coined from two Greek words `DERMA` and `GLYPHE` which means skin and carve respectively, which refer to the friction ridge formation that appears on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Dermatoglyphics has found application in establishing ethnic differences. Finger ridgecounts are important for identification of an individual’s true identity. There is dearth of information on the Finger Ridge Counts of the Igbos’ and Okrikas’ in Southern Nigeria. Aim and Objective: This study was aimed at determining the Finger Ridge Counts of the Igbos’ and Okirikas’ in Southern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was non-experimental and analytical. A total of two hundred subjects were used for the study. 100 Igbos and 100 Okrikas, all of which were normal subjects. These subjects were randomly selected through simple random sampling method from Igbo and Okrika Population. One–way Anova test was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0 version). Result and Discussions: The test of significance revealed significant differences between the distribution of Right ring finger and Left little finger of Igbo and Okrika subjects (P<0.05). The study showed in the distribution of the ridges amongst the Igbos where the males had higher distributions than the female subjects consistently. In the Okrika population, sexual dimorphism was not prominent as was seen in the Igbo population.On comparison the Igbos had higher mean ridge count in the ridge distribution than Okrikas which may be attributed to the difference in genetic make-up of both tribes. The ADT angles revealed that the Okrikas’ had higher values than the Igbos consistently in both sexes which could be explained to be a result of difference in the genetic make-up of both tribes. Conclusion: This study established handedness, sexual dimorphism in ridge distribution, a trend in the ADT angular dimensions of the hand and revealed that both tribes are distinct and unique in their genetic makeup as such are unrelated by any means in their ancestry and the little similarity in the ridge distribution could only have occurred by chance.

  253. Dr. Aakruti Agrawal, Dr. Amit Dalmia, Dr. Priya Bhagde, Dr. Pritesh Gangde, Dr. Manisha Tijare and Dr. Tushar Rothe

    Cancer is a complex disease involving multifactorial sequential processes. Metastasis is a complex biological course that begins with detachment of tumor cells from the primary tumor, spreading into the distant tissues and/or organs, invading through the lymphovascular structures followed by their survival in the circulation. Metastatic tumors to the oro-facial region are uncommon and may occur in the oral soft tissues or jawbones. The clinical presentation of metastatic tumors can be indistinct, which may lead to erroneous diagnosis or may create diagnostic difficulty. Most of the literature on oral metastases involves either single case reports or reviews of these reported cases from various geographical centres. Hence this review article is an attempt to provide a detailed review of pathogenesis, epidemiological details including clinical and radiographic presentations, microscopic features and treatment of metastatic tumors to the jaws and oral cavity.

  254. Dr. Terence Abraham, Dr. Abhnay Sorake, Dr. Kavita Eappen and Dr. Ridhima Suneja

    Aims: The objective of this case report is to establish splint therapy prior to orthodontic treatment and stabilize the mandibular position for three months on symptomatic case.
    Introduction: An occlusal appliance, called a splint, is a removable device, usually made of hard acrylic that fits over the occlusal and incisal surfaces of the teeth in one arch, creating precise occlusal contact with the teeth of the opposing arch. It is commonly referred to as a bite guard, night guard, interocclusal appliance, or orthopedic device. Splint therapy is indicated any time that there are symptoms present and when mandibular manipulation is difficult.
    Case Description: This case report discussed the splint therapy in a 20 yr old male patient came to dept of orthodontics AJIDS, mangalore with chief complaint of forwardly placed upper front teeth with deviation, clicking sound and crepitus of TMJ on jaw movements. Treatment planned as splint therapy for 3months ie, muscle deprogramming flat plane splint for relaxing muscles of joint followed by PEA- MBT prescription. After 4months of splint therapy the patient experienced no symptoms of muscle tiredness, no clicking sound, no bulging of condyle laterally. On examination of postoperative TMJ view, improvement in articular eminence and hypermobility of condyle on wide opening were noticed. After splint therapy, fixed orthodontic treatment was advocated.
    Conclusion: Establishing a stable occlusal reference point prior to initiating orthodontic therapy is the key to preventing undiagnosed skeletal discrepancies.
    Clinical Significance: Careful diagnosis and pretreatment planning may help to eliminate unsuspected occlusal relationships that would otherwise result in treatment surprises that require embarrassing alterations of the original treatment plan.

  255. Abbas Ali, Anum Abbas and Mustapha Debboun

    Although mosquitoes are the primary vectors of Zika virus (ZIKV) and are considered to be responsible for its major outbreaks worldwide, sexual transmission is also agreat concern. Another major concern is the neurological disorders of ZIKV infection of pregnant mothers on the newly born babies. The ZIKV is an emerging Flavi virus of the Spondwenisero complex, a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen that causes dengue-like syndromes and is described as a mild, self-limiting febrile illness with no known fatalities. ZIKV remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it spread eastward, first to Oceania and then to South America. The virus is vectored by mosquitoes but other modes of transmission are also common. Sexual transmission is a unique characteristic of this virus and increased travel and commerce movements have facilitated the spread of ZIKV to different parts of the globe where the vectors are either absent or not established to transmit the virus locally. ZIKV was limited to isolated cases in Africa and Asia, until the 2015 Brazilian epidemics when it rapidly spread throughout the Americas. Mostly ZIKV infections are characterized by mild subclinical illness but the severe neurological manifestations like Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly with other neurological disorders in babies born to infected mothers are serious public health concerns. Unfortunately, neither an effective treatment nor a vaccine is available to treat the infected patients and the public health response is focused on vector population management and transmission prevention, particularly in pregnant women. Information on growing knowledge about ZIKV regarding the vectors, reservoirs, modes of transmission, neurological disorders, microcephaly, and vector management with possible potential synergy of co-infection with other co-circulating viruses is very crucial to develop management strategies. This paper presents a critical review of the available literature on epidemiology, vector and sexual transmission and neurological disorders of ZIK Valong with the vector management.

  256. Ramachandran Tamil Selvi, Veronica Arunakumari, Ilango Porkodi, Bhaskaran Sathyapriya and Purushothaman Lakshmanan

    Taurodontism is the dental anomaly caused by the failure of Hertwig’s epithelial sheath diaphragm to invaginate at the proper horizontal level. The characteristic features are, enlarged pulp chamber, apical displacement of the pulpal floor, and no constriction at the level of the cemento-enamel junction. Both the permanent and deciduous dentition presents taurodontism, unilaterally or bilaterally, and in any combination of teeth or quadrants. Permanent molar teeth are most commonly affected. The complexity of the root canal is the challenging task while performing endodontic treatment on such teeth. Careful diagnosis and investigation with the three dimensional imaging technique like computed tomography, use of surgical microscope and ultrasonic irrigation and thermoplasticised obturation technique helps in success of endodontic treatment with taurodontism.

  257. Parul Bhati

    NCC is a common parasitic infection of childhood. Its presentation is variable both in children and adults. Cysticercosis most commonly infects central nervous system. It can present as both parenchymal and extraparenchymal infection. It can be completely asymptomatic or can present with seizures, headache or vomiting. It might present with complications like hydrocephalus, cerebral edema and raised intracranial pressure in patients. Neuroimaging modalities like CT or MRI are mainstay of diagnosis. Serological tests are not routinely used. Albendazole is an anti cysticercal drug used for its cure although its usage and duration of its use is widely debatable. Surgical interventions like ventriculoperitoneal shunt and excision of cysts are used for treatment of complications.

  258. Houssam Laachach, Virginie Chelini, Ismaili Nabila and Noha Elouafi

    During the first episode of heart failure, especially in young people, the real challenge after symptomatic treatment is etiological research. HIV infection is known to bepredictive of cardiac complications by several mechanisms. We report the case of a young person diagnosed with AIDS after inaugural cardiacfailure on dilated cardiomyopathy.

  259. Deepika Meesala and Kishore Sriram

    Imaging is an important diagnostic adjunct to the clinical assessment of the dental patients. Since the discovery of x-ray, dental radiology has played a vital role in diagnosis of diseases. With the expanding array of imaging modalities, dental radiology has played revolutionary role in determining diagnosis, treatment plan and prognostic value. Present day intraoral and extraoral procedures, used individually or in combination, suffer from the same inherent limitations of all planar two-dimensional projections: magnification, distortions, superimpositions, and misrepresentation of structures. Numerous efforts have been made toward three dimensional (3D) radiographic imaging. During the last decades, an exciting new array of digital imaging modalities, has provided astounding new images that continually contribute to the accuracy of diagnostic tasks of the maxillofacial region. Among which computed tomography is one of them. This article reviews about the evolution, history, principles and advances of CT.

  260. Abd-Alhafeez Osman Ibnouf, Esam M. A. Suliman, Nibras Abdelmajed Babeker, Abrar Khalid Abdalmjeed and Esmail Seddiq Esmail Saed

    Background and Objectives: naturalplantdyeshave gained worldwide interest and give encouraging tissue staining results when tested. This study aimed to assess the quality of staining of hepatictissues by Hematoxylin and curcuma longa solutions compared to Hematoxylin and Eosin routine stain. Methods: tissue biopsies were obtained from a liver of a healthy rabbit and stained using Curcuma Longa solution instead of eosin in the different Hematoxylin-eosin protocols. Results:The best results were obtained with the time duration 10 – 20 min when using Weiger's Hematoxylin. Interpretation and Conclusions:Curcuma longa extract is a promising histological dye that effectively can replace Eosin stain in the Hematoxylin &Eosin staining protocol.

  261. Dr. Dantkale, S. S., Dr. Khiste, J. A., Dr. Pandit, G. A. and Dr. Kokate P. S.

    Introduction: HIV/AIDS is viewed as a pandemic affecting nearly all countries of the world. Haematologic abnormalities are among the most common complications of HIV infection. Aims and Objectives: Present study was aimed at evaluating the haemogram in HIV positive patients and its correlation with CD4 count. Materials and Methods: The present study was an observational study carried out in a tertiary care center during period of 12 months from January 2016 to December 2016 after the approval of Institutional Ethics Committee. All the pre ART HIV positive newly diagnosed patients without any gender preference attending ART center were included. However children below 15 years, patients with previously known haematologic disorders, pregnant and lactating women were excluded. A complete blood count on 3 part differential automated cell counter, peripheral smear examination and CD4 count on BD FACS flow cytometer was done. Results: Females outnumbered males. Majority (84.54%) of the cases had anaemia. Leucopenia was found in 13.63% and thrombocytopenia in 8.18% of cases. Total leukocyte count was in correlation with CD4 count but the occurrence of anemia and thrombocytopenia was independent of the increase or decrease in the CD4 count. Conclusion: Hematologic abnormalities like anemia and thrombocytopenia have also been reported to occur in early stages of HIV infection. Hence recognising these haematological alterations and treating them at the earliest is very important in order to reduce morbidity and mortality of patients.

  262. Dr. Md. Jubaidul Islam, Dr. Dilruba Alam, Dr. Rubyat Hasan Chowdhury, Prof.Zafar Ahmed Latif and Dr. Ahmed Salam Mir

    Background: Hypoglycemia is a common medical emergency in diabetic patients, which is defined biochemically with blood glucose level 45-50 mg/dl with clinical features of adrenal over activity and neuroglycopenia. It is one of the preventable acute complications of diabetes mellitus through appropriate outpatient diabetes management. Our study aims to find out the causes of hypoglycemia in the patients with type-2 diabetes in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: This cross sectional observational study was performed in BIRDEM General Hospital on 100 adult type 2 diabetic hypoglycemic patients of both sexes to find out causes of hypoglycemia. and to determine the knowledge of overall diabetic education including dietary compliance (regular meal timing, consistency of day- to- day intake, meal spacing, sucrose limitation, calorie restriction and food exchange system etc), recommended way of exercise (aerobic, anaerobic, with complications etc.) and sick day management. Alterations of common biochemical parameters and presence of concomitant diseases in patients with hypoglycemia were studied. Results: Hypoglycemia occurred more in elderly (56%), with long duration of DM (56%) and frequency slightly more in male (66%) than female. Fifty percent of the patients presented with clinical features of severe hypoglycemia. Delay or omission of a snack or meal alone was the commonest (53%) cause in this study. Delay or omission of a snack or meal plus irregular diet habit emerged as 2nd important cause (22%). In 11% cases irregular dietary habit alone was responsible, and administration of excess insulin/secretagogues were responsible in only 4% cases. Hypertension (66%) was the most prevailing co-morbid condition. Others were nephropathy (38%), IHD (30%), diabetic neuropathy (19%), diabetic retinopathy (17%), dyslipidemia (12%), stroke (9%) and PVD (2%). Most of the hypoglycemic patients (69%) were on insulin when they had spells of hypoglycemia. The glycemic status was poor in most (87%) cases, having HbA1c>7%. Regarding overall diabetes care only 7% had some knowledge about diabetic education. Conclusion: In the present study, delay or omission of meal and irregular dietary habit were the causes of hypoglycemia in most of the cases, which signify lack of proper diabetic health education. Therefore, diabetic self management education is the most important element for the prevention of hypoglycemic events, and also to prevent long-term complications.

  263. Dr. Deepika Rathi, Dr. Seema Sathe and Dr. S. R. Godbole, Dr. Tejas Bhandari and Dr. Rasika Jibhakate

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare, color stability of prefabricated and custom made ocular prosthesis. Method: 20 samples of prefabricated ocular prosthesis and 20 samples of custom made ocular prosthesis were taken in 2 groups. Both were checked before the immersion and after immersion in neutral soap solution after 6 weeks. To assess the color change, spectrophotometry test was performed; and the results were statistically analysed by Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Result: Among prefabricated and custom made ocular prosthesis as painted with oil paint; prefabricated ocular prosthesis showed more color stability, after immersion in neutral soap solution for 6 weeks. Conclusion: Prefabricated ocular prosthesis, is more color stable.

  264. Sayali A. Deolikar, Dr. Sangeeta J. Palaskar, Dr. Archana A. Gupta, Dr. Prakhar Kapoor and Dr. Rasika Pawar

    It has long been recognized that patients who receive radiotherapy for cancer of the head and neck area are at a risk of developing osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws. Guidelines to reduce risk have been written, based upon the evidence of many studies which have looked at the incidence of ORN in different groups. Much of the research was carried out over 20 years ago and more recent analysis of data and consideration of the changes in radiotherapy raises the question as to whether modifications to the guidance is now needed. There is a wide variation in recommendations and a simpler, more unified approach to prevention of ORN could be developed as well as research on recent management techniques. Definition: Osteoradionecrosis is defined as an area of bone tissue exposed to radiation that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without a residual or recurrent tumor (Sukh S Ryatt et al., 2007).

  265. Dr. Roopali Goyal Gandhi, Dr. Manju Puri, Dr. Shailaja Shukla and Dr. Amita Yadav

    Background: There are limited studies on biochemical and haematological response to vitamin B12 supplementation in pregnant women with vitamin B12 deficiency in literature. Aim: To evaluate the biochemical and haematological response of vitamin B12 supplementation in pregnant women with vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia. Method: Thirty pregnant women with macrocytic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency with gestation <36 weeks, hemoglobin<10.0 gm/dl, MCV > 100 fl, platelet count>30,000 cells/mm3withno other co-morbidity were administered a single dose of 1000 µg of vitamin B12 intramuscularly. Blood samples were subjected to complete blood count with peripheral smear, reticulocyte count and vitamin B12 levels before and 4 weeks after vitamin B12 administration. Results: Majority (90%) were multigravidae and 90% were vegetarian. Fatigue was the commonest complaint (70%). Mean hemoglobin improved from 8.76 ± 0.65 to 10.53 ± 0.63 gm/dl, TLC increased from 5483.33 ± 866.65 cells/cumm to 7726.66 ± 1275.75 cells/cumm, platelet count improved from 1.86 ± 0.44 lac cells/cumm to 3.16 ± 0.66 lac cells/cumm, MCV decreased from 102.1 ± 1.6 fl to 96.4 ± 1.55 fl. Mean MCH decreased from 32.87 ± 0.65 pg to 29.39 ± 0.7 pg. MCHC changed from 32.18 ± 0.85 gm/dl to 30.47 ± 0.84 gm/dl, Reticulocyte count increased from 0.52 ± 0.14% to 0.78 ± 0.18% and vitaminB12 levels improved from 189.83 ± 10.85 pg/ml. to 435 ± 107.91 pg/ml. The difference was statistically significant, P < 0.001 for all values. Conclusion: A single dose of 1000µgvitamin B12 intramuscular administration results in a statistically significant increase in serum vitamin B12 levels in pregnant women with vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia.

  266. Dr. Kurdukar, M. D., Dr. Khiste, J. A., Dr. Pandit, G.A. Dr. Rakhonde, S. V. and Dr. Kurdukar, D. V.

    Background: Maternal mortality is a global health problem. WHO claims some progress towards reduction in maternal mortality especially in the past decade. The key requirement in further reduction is to understand the causes of deaths and formulate effective policy and health program strategies. Aims: Evaluation of causes of maternal deaths based on autopsy findings as per categorization of WHO application of ICD 10 MM. Materials and Methods: The present study comprised of 155 cases of maternal deaths .The complete autopsy was done by a team of pathologist and forensic experts. Detailed external, in situ and gross examination of organs was done. Representative bits from all organs were taken and processed as per the standard protocol. Slides were examined jointly by two pathologist and final opinion was formulated to know the cause of death. All deaths were categorized as per WHO application of ICD 10 MM. Results: Direct causes of maternal deaths outnumbered indirect causes. Amongst direct causes obstetric haemorrhage 29.68% was the leading contributor followed by PIH (21.29%). Amongst indirect causes of maternal deaths a wide range of causes were found involving different systems. . Contributory causes were found in (86)56.13 % of cases. Conclusion: Majority of maternal deaths were due to direct causes ( 62.58%). Potentially preventable causes were haemorrhage and sepsis. Present study encourages categorization of maternal deaths as per WHO application of ICD10MM coding system as it gives leading and contributory causes of maternal deaths and helps us in formulating a meaningful clinical groups and makes us understand the areas of weakness to formulate effective health care strategies.

  267. Dr. Gadekar, N. J., Dr. Shete, S. S., Dr. Gadgil, P. A., Dr. Pandit, G. A. and Dr. Mahalle, P. G.

    We report Nevus Lipomatosus Cutaneous Superficialis (NLCS) which is considered a rare entity. Two types are recognized, the classical form with multiple, soft, pedunculated, cerebriform papules and nodules that coalesce into plaque and the solitary form consisting of solitary papule or nodule. Histologically it is characterized by the presence of mature ectopic adipocytes in the dermis

  268. Dr. Marina Komaroff

    Background: Eurasian Economic Commission (EEC) was established in 2014 by Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Armenia and Kyrgyzstanas a regulatory body of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU).EEC’s goal is to unite participated states under the uniformed regulations for the development, registration, production, and circulation of medical products.In 2016, the EEC created and released about 40 regulatory documents for medical drugs and devices and half are currently under revision. Rationale: The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) and other international organizations constantly revise and update regulations and guidelines for development and registration of medical products. They admit that existing process is long, expensive, and contains multiple gaps that motivate to look aggressively for novel approaches in clinical research. Therefore, it is an interest to understand if recently formed EEC has developed innovative ways to build pharmaceutical industry in the EAEU. Objective: The aim of this paper is to understandif EEC’sprogression in building domestic pharmaceutical industry carries scientific values and novel approaches that can be sharedwith theother global players in the field of clinical research. Method: To review and evaluate EEC’s signed-off regulationsin terms of consistency with theworld-wide standards, and/or possession of innovative scientific approaches. Conclusion: The developed by EEC regulations are consistent with international industry in terms ofconduct and supervision of clinical trials. There is little progress regarding the discovery and development of new medical products, possiblybecause of lack of scientific and analytical background underlying committed clinical research. There is no intention ofaligning with the global movement towards developing innovative approaches in clinical research.The author proposed some thoughts about alternativesthat could have been considered to build up anadvanced pharmaceutical industryin the EAEU.

  269. Rui He, M.S., Elgenaid Hamadain, Hamed Benghuzzi, Satya Packianathan, Madhava R. Kanakamedala, Michelle Tucci, Robert M. Allbright, Sophy H. Mangana, Srinivasan Vijayakumar and Claus Chunli Yang

    Objective: To evaluate the dosimetric differences in esophagitis induced from radiotherapy using three radiation techniques of lung cancer patients: “Low-Modulated” Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (LM-IMRT), Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) and Three Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3DCRT). Methods and Materials: In this retrospective study, treatment charts of 243 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy or combined with chemotherapy from year 2014 to 2017 at University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) Radiation Oncology were reviewed. The dosimetric parameters such as mean esophagus dose (MED), Dmax, Dmin, V5, V10, V15, V20, V30, V40, V50, and V60from three treatment techniques are collected from the Pinnacle treatment planning system. One way ANOVA method was used to compare the dosimetric parameters, and Tukey multiple comparison tests were used for pairwise comparisons of the three treatment techniques. Results: There were significant difference indosimetric parameters between SBRT and LM-IMRT, and between SBRT and 3DCRT. There were no significant difference between LM-IMRT and 3DCRT for mean esophagus dose, V5, V10, V15, and V20, but there were significant difference for V30 and V40 for treatment prescription of 3DCRT at 37.5Gy in 15 fractions(or 30 Gy in 10 fractions) and LM-IMRT at 60Gy in 30 fractions (or 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions) daily. However, after rescaling the prescription of the 3DCRT to the same level of LM-IMRT at 60Gy in 30 fractions daily, dosimetric difference of esophagus between 3DCRT and LM-IMRT turned out to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusions: The result of this study suggests that the Low-Modulated IMRT was superior compared to the 3DCRT technique in sparing the esophagus. Additionally, it is important to rescale the dose prescription to have apple to apple treatment technique comparison regarding the dosimetric parameters of esophagus from clinical application point of view. All treatment data for this research is from the single institute, therefore the variety of volumetric metrics of the esophagus from the different institute’s published data are avoided. Findings from this study can help clinicians in making decisions about which treatment technique to choose and how dosimetric parameters can be optimized to avoid potential complication in esophagus.

  270. Dr. Pradeep Christopher, Dr. Senthilnathan, K.P., Dr. Poorna Devadoss and Dr. Santhosh Kumar, M.P.

    Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a very rare clinical entity. We report a case of 40 year old male patient who presented with a pigmented growth in anterior maxillary palatal region. Clinical features, Histopathological findings and Immunohistochemical studies were consistent with the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity has very poor prognosis, because of its rapid tendency for regional and distant metastasis and multiple local recurrences after surgical excision. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment improves prognosis. Complete excision with adequate negative margins is the treatment of choice. Our patient was planned for surgical removal of the entire primary lesion with neck dissection for regional lymph node metastasis followed by chemotherapy with Dacarbazine. Owing to the rarity of the lesion, In this article we present and discuss a case of oral malignant melanoma in the hard palate.

  271. Tungala Navya Teja, Reddy sudhakara Reddy, Nallakunta Rajesh, Rayapureddy Sruthi, Darna Geetanjali and Penugonda Bala Satya Srinivas

    Background: Sex determination is one of the prime factors employed to assist in the personal identification. It was realized that anthropometric measurements of the hand has been very useful tool in sex determination. Apart from this dental evidence is also considered as valuable tool in sex determination. Aim: This study is intended to correlate the Anthropometric parameters like hand length, hand breadth and Odontometric parameter like mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canines in gender determination. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects constituting a sample size of 120 (both right and left sides) were included. Hand length is measured as the straight distance from the metacarpophalangeal wrist crease to the most forwardly projecting point on the middle finger. Hand breadthis measured as straight distance from the most laterally placed point on the head of 2nd metacarpal bone to the most medially placed point on the head of 5th metacarpal bone. The mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canine is measured from mesial aspect of canine to distal aspect of canine on dental cast. Results: All measurements showed significant sexual dimorphism with p-value < 0.05 except the mesio distal dimensions of left mandibular canine with p-value 0.83. Among all parameters Left Hand length had shown high accuracy in sex determination with high mean difference (12.1) between males and females. Conclusion: Hand length, Hand breadth and Right mandibular canine had shown sexual dimorphism and therefore they can be used for sex determination.

  272. Neha Antil, Mahesh Kumar Mittal, GarvitKhatri and MukulSinha

    The horseshoe kidney is the most frequent genitourinary anomaly, characterized by series of anatomical events of congenital fusion of both kidneys across midline, non-rotation, arrest of ascent and vascular changes. It is important to understand embryogenesis and development of HSK, which explains the vascular changes and related complications. Horseshoe kidney is more prone to a variety of complications, the common ones are pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction, infection, urolithiasis, trauma and malignancy. Multimodality imaging plays a vital role not just by providing information about the vascular supply to HSK but also helps in diagnosing associated complications in patients with HSK.

  273. Dr. Nitish Sharma and Dr. Amarjeet Singh

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Kirschner wire fixation after closed reduction of radial metaphyseal fractures with high risk of redisplacement. This study has shown favorable outcome with closed reduction and pinning for displaced complete fractures of the distal radius in children compared with closed reduction and casting alone, which showed a high rate of redisplacement in addition to complications that develop from extreme positions for maintaining reduction and anxiety developed from remanipulation of fractures. Methods: During the period between July 2016 and July 2017, 30 cases of metaphyseal fractures of the distal radius weremanaged by closed reduction and primary pinning with the application of a forearm cast. Results: No case of redisplacement was reported until complete healing, and no major complications were observed. Conclusion: It appears that primary pinning for distal radius fractures is a simple and safe method that can be used as an alternative to closed reduction and casting alone in the treatment of displaced metaphyseal fractures of the distal radius in children (from 5 to 12 years), and this study supports previous studies on this method of treatment.

  274. Princy Thomas, Manju Chhugani, Jahanara Rahman and Neha Varun

    Background: Postnatal mothers sometimes face breastfeeding problems such as breast engorgement and nipple pain due to excessive milk production, outflow obstruction or poor removal of milk by the baby which sometimes led to early weaning if not corrected. Aims of study: 1) To assess the level of breast engorgement among postnatal mothers. 2) To assess and compare mild breast engorgement, breast milk pH and neonate’s suckling speed before and after the administration of breast massage to postnatal mothers. Design and Setting: A pre-experimental study was conducted with one group pre-test post-test design. The study was conducted in postnatal ward of Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi. Sample and sampling: 30 postnatal mothers with their babies who had mild breast engorgement were selected using purposive sampling technique. Method: Structured interview schedule, Storr breast engorgement scale, numerical pain rating scale, digital pH meter, structured checklist on suckling speed and LATCH system were used to collect the data of mildly engorged postnatal mothers with their babies. Results: The findings revealed that there was significant difference between pre-test score and post-test score from day 1- 3 which was found to be statistically significant as evident for numerical pain rating scale ‘t’ value 19.7 at 0.05 level of significance, for breast milk pH ‘t’ value 7.67 at 0.05 level of significance and for suckling speed of neonate ‘t’ value 7.86 at 0.05 level of significance respectively. Both descriptive and inferential statistics was used for analysis and interpretation of data. Conclusion: The current study there was a significant improvement in breastfeeding techniques of postnatal mothers and their babies due to the reduction of breast engorgement after application of breast massage which was effective to relieve mild breast engorgement, breast pain, increase in breast milk pH and increase in the suckling speed of neonates of the postnatal mothers.

  275. Dr. Deepak Srivastav, Mithlesh Kumar and Dr. Arpita Mohan

    Introduction: Fractures of the clavicle account for 2.6–4 % of all adult fractures, 35 % of all injuries to the shoulder girdle, and 69–82 % of these fractures occur in the middle-third and are usually treated non-operatively. There is an increasing trend toward their surgical fixation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical, functional and radiological outcome following titanium elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) for midshaft non-comminuted clavicle fractures with >20 mm shortening/displacement. Materials and Methods: 50 patient with mid shaft clavicular fracture, which met inclusion criteria, were fixed with titanium intramedullary elastic nail under image intensifier control between July 2013 and June 2017. There were 33 males and 17 females. The mean age was 33 years. Elastic nail introduce from 1cm lateral to sternoclavicular joint to fix the fracture. Outcomes assessed on the basis of Constant score. Results: All patients achieved complete healing at a mean of 10.3 weeks.17 fracture reduced by closed means but 33 needs open reduction. Common size of elastic nail used was 2mm. no major complication was recorded all were minor and can be taken care off. Most common was pin tract infection recorded in 35 patients. 76% had excellent result and 24% had good result. 100% had nail removal. Conclusion: In our hands, ESIN is safe and minimally invasive with good patient satisfaction, cosmetic appearance, and overall outcome.

  276. Dr. Vidhya, C., Dr. Khushbugupta and Uma Ballav

    Aim: The aim of our study was to analyse the varied presentation and difficulties encountered while treating the patients with accomodative spasm. Methods: A retrospective study of four patients of accomodative spasm. Three were children and one adult. All underwent a thorough work-up to be diagnosed with accommodation spasm and then treated with vision therapy. Results: Average age of the patients was 14.25 years. All the patients underwent in-office vision therapy for the average of 16 sessions followed by maintenance therapy. The average follow-up period was 9 months (range – 6-9 months). One patient didn’t showed improvement after 12 sessions as expected, so sent for systemic evaluation. She was diagnosed with hypothyroidism and treated for the same and continued with vision therapy. One patient presented with acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) with pseudomyopia. With the treatment of accomodative spasm, the esotropia and the pseudomyopia resolved. Conclusion: We have discussed about the varied presentation of accomodative spasm and the promising results with vision therapy. Accomodative spasm needs to be looked in children presenting with AACE.

  277. Shefali Waghray, Vaishali Narayen, Mahesh Kumar Duddu, Dara Balaji Gandhi Babu Mamatha Boringi and Reddy Lavanya

    Introduction: Osteoporosis is a progressive disease of the bone causing micro architecturaldeterioration of bone tissue leading to enhanced bone fragility and consequent increase in fracture risk. It is essentially a preventable disease and panoramic radiographs can prove to be a novel and easy method for early detection of this otherwise debilitating disease. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the precision of panoramic mandibular index (PMI) and Body Mass Index (BMI) in detecting osteoporosis in post-menopausal women and their correlation with skeletal bone mineral density. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in a dental college in India and included 71 women in their natural menopause. The Body Mass Index (BMI) and Panoramic Mandibular Index (PMI) were calculated. The Skeletal bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed and the T-score was obtained. Based on the T-scores obtained, the patients were divided into three study groups of Normal (n=24), Osteopenic (n=30) and Osteoporotic (n=17). All the readings of T-score, Body Mass Index, PMI were tabulated for statistical analysis which was done using the ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey HSD test and Pearson correlation coefficient test with the SPSS software version 18 (IBM, Chicago) Results: A statistically significant difference in the mean scores of PMI among Normal, Osteopenic and Osteoporotic subjects was found (p<0.00). However, the difference in BMI was not significant. Also, less inter and intra investigator variability was found in our study. The PMI was significantly decreased in osteoporotic patients when compared to normal. Conclusion: As dental panoramic radiographs are relatively inexpensive and regularly taken in a large fraction of the adult population, they represent an enormous potential as a screening tool for osteoporosis.

  278. Mario Cappellette Jr, Lucia Hatsue Yamamoto Nagai, Fauze Ramez Badreddine, Raquel Mori Gonçalves, Aparecida Keiko Akutsu Yuki, Reginaldo Raimundo Fujita

    Background: Different exams can provide clinical information in mouth breathing children undergoing rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and to assess the effect of this procedure on nasal airway, however the correlation among these exams remains unclear. Objective: Evaluate through two methods of exams, the volumetric changes of the anterior nasal cavity post-RME. Methods: Nasal cavity changes in fifty mouth breathers, undergoing RME, were evaluated by acoustic rhinometry (AR); ten children were selected from the total sample and examined by acoustic rhinometry and computed tomography (CT). AR and CT were undertaken at pre-RME (T1) and 3 months post-RME (T2), and the correlation between AR and CT was estimated. Results: Significant increase in nasal volume demonstrated by both methods in basal conditions revealed that RME has a great effect on the nasal valve area, which have a significant value for rhinology. Conclusion: Correlation was observed between AR and CT in anterior nasal cavity.

  279. Dr. Parveen Akhter Lone, Dr. Nisar A. Wani, Dr. Bashir Ahmed and Dr. Shakeel ur Rehman

    Objectives & Aims: Canine impaction is one of the anomalies that should be considered by clinicians in detail. Various studies have reported impacted & transmigrated canine teeth in literature, but comprehensive studies available are very few. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, prevalence, patterns & potential distribution of unusually impacted canine teeth in mandible stratified by gender, location (RT or LT) & unilateral or bilateral in mandibular. This study also aims to report transmigrated canine & the possible relationship between impacted & transmigrated with dentigerous teeth & other associated pathologies in mandible Methods: The study was carried out in the department of Oral & Maxillofacial surgery over a period of three years. Patients were referred from oral medicine, radiology department with the symptom of swelling, pain, discharge or missing canines. Patients were also referred from orthodontics department for missing canines & retained deciduous canines. Patients with maxillary canine impactions were excluded. After examination of panoramic radiographs & clinical symptoms diagnosis was made, associated symptoms like pain, swelling, number, localization (RT/LT) age & sex, retained deciduous teeth, root resorption of adjacent teeth was also noted. Results: The included sample consisted of 83 patients diagnosed with canine impacted canines in mandible on clinical examination & panoramic radiographs. Age ranged from 21 to 67 years. 46 were females &37 were males 62% were on left &36 on right side of mandible. 41 patients were between age group of 21-40 years, 19 cases were between 40-45, 21were between 45-60 years. Two patients were between 60- 65 years dentigerous cyst was seen in 48 cases above the 40 years of age, 27 cases were diagnosed on routine radiographic examination without any pathology, 24 cases reported with malocclusion, retained & mobile deciduous teeth. Two patients had transmigrated canine associated with draining sinus Conclusion: The early detection of impacted as well as transmigrated teeth is crucial for successful treatment, therefore demographic studies are important & should be managed to prevent complications.

  280. Suresh Mitthra, Venkatappan Sujatha and Sekar Mahalaxmi

    Nanotechnology entered dentistry with the advancements in dental materials mainly composites and bonding agents. The development of nanodentistry will alter the focus to more specific diagnosis and treatment modalities for the maintenance of perfect oral health. Many studies have demonstrated that nanomaterials can exhibit inflammatory responses and promote DNA damage through direct or indirect mechanisms. The key point is that different nanomaterials exhibit a variety of toxicity depending upon the type of living organism. Future research must be based on the development of methodologies for nanomaterials control and to minimize nanomaterial hazard. This review provides an overview of the challenges faced by nanodentistry and related toxicology issues.

  281. Thirupathi, G. and Narsimha Reddy, Y.

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the neuroprotective activity of methanolic leaf extract fractions (ethyl acetate, n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous) of Butea monosperma (BM) on β-amyloid peptide induced amnesia in mice. From previous studies, the methanolic leaf extract showed neuroprotecive activity in amnesia mice. Further, the leaf extract is subjected to fractionization by using ethyl acetate, n-Hexane, chloroform and water as solvents. The fractions are subjected to jumping test and Y-maze test, rectangular maze test and also for biochemical parameters such as acetyl cholinesterase enzyme (AChE), peroxidase, MDA and DPPH radical scavenging activity. From the results, it was found that the fractions of extract possess neuroprotecive activity and ethyl acetate fraction having significant anti-amnesic activity and anti oxidant activity compared with other three fractions. By identifying and isolating the chemical constituents responsible for anti-amnesic and anti-oxidant activities, we may find a breakthrough in the treatment of other neurodegenerative disorders which occur due to oxidative stress.

  282. Vaibhav Vikas and Sanjay Jain

    Background: DVT, in post surgical patients, is less prevalent among the Indians and Asians, varying from 1.3% in spinal surgery to 41.7% following colorectal surgery. The majority of the patients developing post-operative DVT are subclinical and asymptomatic. Subclinical DVT means presence of thrombus (semi-solid coagulum) in deep veins of lower limb without any signs and symptoms. DVT can be prevented more successfully in its subclinical phase than that in its clinical phase. Aim: The present study “Assessment Of Subclinical Deep Vein Thrombosis In Post Laparotomy Patients” was undertaken to estimate the occurrence and associated risk factors of subclinical deep vein thrombosis at our institute after exploratory laparotomy in both elective and emergency surgeries. Methods: This is a prospective study of 175 patients who underwent exploratory laparotomy, for acute or chronic conditions, and includes both elective and emergency cases. Patients of age<18 years, haematological disorders, on anticoagulant treatment including aspirin, having history of Myocardial Infarction, Congestive heart failure, pregnancy and postpartum, intake of oral contraceptives or Hormone Replacement Therapy, and duration of surgery <1 hour 30 minutes were excluded. On 5th and 10th postoperative days, duplex venous ultrasound of bilateral lower limbs were performed in every patients to look for presence of thrombus in the deep veins. Results: Out of 175 patients, 3 (1.714%) developed subclinical deep vein thrombosis. Incidence was maximum in the age group 51-70 years (5.88 %). The incidence of subclinical DVT was found to be more in females (4.08)% as compared to males (0.79 %). The incidence was maximum in patients undergoing surgery for duration longer than 5 hours (25%) leading to longer periods of immobilization. Among the various pathologies, incidence was more in patients of malignancies (11.76 %). Conclusion: It can be concluded that incidence of subclinical deep vein thrombosis is very low in the post operative period among the Indian population undergoing major abdominal surgeries. However, patients of old age, those with duration of surgery longer than five hours, those with malignancies and those with longer periods of immobilization need anticoagulant prophylaxis. It has also been found that VTE, if develops, is maximum between 5th and 10th postoperative period depending upon various compounding factors and is easily cured by giving LMWH (Low Molecular Weight Heparin). Thus routine prophylaxis against DVT with anticoagulants is not warranted in patients with moderate risk undergoing major abdominal surgery in Indian scenario.

  283. Dr. Ahmed. S. Resheed, Bassim M. Salman, Salah A. AL-kubaisi and Mohammed S. Dawood

    Background: Ano-rectal malformations is an abnormality of the ano-rectum at birth in which the infant born with abnormal rectal opening. Different types of ano-rectal malformations are present which occurs in 1/ 5000 live birth. Usually it’s not lethal even with complex variants and their management, the association of serious renal or cardiac anomalies increasing the morbidity and mortality of ano-rectal malformation cases. Study were carried out to determine the congenital cardiac anomalies associated to patients born with ano-rectal malformation and its rate, type , impact on the outcome of surgical reconstruction and the utility of the preoperative echocardiography. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between July 2007 and January 2016, including 67 cases born with ano-rectal malformations which were managed and the associated congenital cardiac anomalies were evaluated by preoperative Echocardiography. The cases with positive echocardiography findings were tabulated with the sex, congenital cardiac anomalies types, mortality and type of ano-rectal malformations, other associated anomalies, and the type of surgery performed. Results: Sixty-seven patients born with ano-rectal malformation were referred to the pediatric surgery unit. Age of patients ranged from 18 -38 hours with a mean age 28 hours. According to the echocardiography, 17(25.3%) of patients had congenital cardiac anomalies. Atrial septal defect (7 cases) predominated followed by Ventricular septal defect (5 cases). In 12 patients (17.9%), the associated congenital cardiac anomalies were of a mild nature, and reconstruction of the ano-rectum went smoothly. Five patients (7.4%) had significant congenital cardiac anomalies and all of them were died. Conclusion: Associated congenital cardiac anomalies are present in many patients with ano-rectal malformation. Prognosis of the ano-rectal malformations patients, mostly depend on severity of the associated anomalies than on ano-rectal malformations itself. Thorough systemic clinical and radiological examination must be done to detect any associated anomalies at an early presentation and should be managed as soon as possible to reduce the future morbidity and mortality. While most of the congenital cardiac anomalies associated with ano-rectal malformations was of the mild type and had no effect on their surgical reconstruction, some of these associated anomalies were serious and affected the prognosis. Preoperative echocardiography evaluation of all cases of ano-rectal malformations is important and mandatory to reduce the morbidity and mortality.

  284. Gihad Khalid, H., Mohammed Yousef and Mohammed Alfadil Wadah Mohamed Ali and Mohammed Saeed Ali

    Objective of This study to evaluated the time elapsed between bone scan and chemotherapy dose. Bone scan is the accepted initial imaging modality for skeletal metastases. Some patients use chemotherapy in the initial stages before and after surgery for breast cancer patients According to the international protocol followed, and in our study, it is used to give patients chemotherapy compounds for several cycle and medicines used in the study are and to determine the duration of this effect. The most common drugs used for adjuvant and nanadjuvant chemotherapy. Include: Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin (Adriamycin) and epirubicin (Ellence) Taxanes, such as paclitaxel (Taxol) and docetaxel (Taxotere) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) Carboplatin (Paraplatin)(1) some chemotherapy regimens. Knowing that platinum reacts with phosphate compounds such as methylenediphosphonic acid (MDP), decreases bone absorption and new bone formation, it can be proposed that chemotherapy may decrease Tc-99m MDP bone uptake. We aimed to demonstrate, if present, the decrease in bone uptake with the possibility of the effect of chemotherapy on the weakness of blood flow to the entry of radiopharmaceutical material to the bone cells and their effect on the oesteablast.

  285. Venkateswara Rao, S., Vijaya Sri, P. and Padmalatha, K.

    Emulgel is one of the emerging topical drug delivery system for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs which overcome various disadvantages of ointments and creams such as greasiness and phase inversion. The aim of present work was to develop and evaluate Oxiconazole emulgel with controlled release. The oxiconazole used in treatment of various fungal infections such as cutaneous and subcutaneous diseases like acne and psoriasis. Different formulations (F1-F4) of Oxiconazole emulgel was prepared by using carbopol 934 as gelling agent with varying concentrations of oily phase such as liquid paraffin and Tween-80 and Span-80 as a emulsifying agent. The prepared emulgels were evaluated for physical appearance, pH, drug content, In-vitro diffusion studies, microbiological assay and skin irritation test. By the In-vitro diffusion studies it was observed that formulation F1 showed 47.2% and marketed formulation (Oxistat cream) showed 42.1% of drug release after 10 hours and results concluded that the formulation F1 showed better releasing of drug than comparison with marketed cream.

  286. Dr. Kuldeep Sudhir Patil and Dr. Akash Agrawal

    Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that applies principles and methods of engineering and the life sciences towards the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, and improve the function of damaged tissues and organs. The goal of tissue engineering is to promote healing, and ideally, true regeneration of a tissue’s structure and function, more predictably, more quickly, less invasively, and more qualitatively than allowed by previous passive techniques. The aim of this article is to bring awareness among the dentists about the huge potential associated with the use of stem cells in a clinical setting, as well as the growth factors promote true regeneration of the periodontal attachment apparatus and the use of combination protein therapeutics which is commercially available can provide more predictable, faster, less invasive, less traumatic, and efficient outcome for the patient.

  287. Dr. Mandeep Kaur, Dr. Mamta Sharma and Dr. Sumit Dubey

    Introduction: Lipids are the major cell membrane components essential for cell growth and division and the maintenance of cell integrity of normal and malignant tissues. Alterations in serum lipid profile have long been associated with malignancies. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the serum lipid profile in oral cancer patients and to study the relationship and clinical significance of serum lipid level and risk of oral cancer. Material and Methods: In this study total of 30 cases were taken, out of which 20 were of oral cancer and 10 were controls. Fasting lipid profile including cholesterol(C), triglycerides (TGL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were analysed. Results: Decrease levels of C, TGL, HDL, and LDL were observed in patients with oral cancer as compare to controls. VLDL values as such were not significant. Conclusion: An inverse relationship was found between serum lipid profile and oral cancer which may have an early diagnostic or prognostic role in oral cancer.

  288. Juniet M. Jose and Maria Nesam, M.

    The human female reproductive system is one of the most complicated system and is influenced by a number of hormones secreted by both the pituitary gland and the ovaries. The normal reproductive system in females is characterized by the monthly menstural cycle. Any abnormality in the secretion of any of the female reproductive hormones will result in improper menstrual cycle or infertility.

  289. Dr. Sheeba, V. T.

    Paddy cultivation was a part of proud culture of Kerala. According to State Planning Board Kerala lost over 500,000 hectares of paddy fields between 1980-2007. Paddy cultivation in Kerala has witnessed a steady decline. The sharp fall in area under paddy cultivation as well as quantity of rice produced has had important implication for Kerala’s economic, ecological and social development. The state produces less than 15% of the requirement of rice in the state. The situation is a threat to food security in the state and needs urgent attention.

  290. Chaudhari, V. B., Parmar, V. L., Chaudhari, M. H. and Udutha, J.

    The investigation was carried out on two sugarcane varieties, namely CoN -05071 and CoC-671 at the Sugarcane Tissue Culture Laboratory of Main Sugarcane Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari during 2016-017. The current study deals with the studies on protoplast isolation such as protoplast purification, protoplast density, protoplast viability in Sugarcane (Saccharum complex). In this experiment, successful isolation of protoplast from mesophyll cells of inner two leaf whorls and callus suspension cultures of sugarcane cultivars CoC-671 and CoN-05071 was obtained. Cultivars were standardized at 1 per cent cellulase, 0.5 per cent macerozyme, 1.0 per cent pectolyase and 0.5 M manitol. Maximum protoplast yield was observed at 600 rpm in callus suspension cells (68%) at 2 hrs of incubation period. Maximum density of protoplast was observed in callus suspension derived protoplast culture ((2.0×104, 2.2×104) in both the varieties at 2 hrs of incubation periods. Highest protoplast viability observed at 2.2x104 density level of callus suspension origin protoplast. In this study 2 hrs of incubation is optimal time for protoplast isolation from mesophyll cells and callus suspension cells of sugarcane cultivars.

  291. Bhagwat Chavre

    Agriculture is closely associated with the survival of not only of human being but it influences other living organisms too. Soil provides necessary anchorage to the crop plants and a source of food and water as well. Since all animals depend on the plants for their livelihood. So, directly and indirectly they depends on the soil. It is obvious that, all agricultural activities directly or indirectly depend on the quality of soil. Natural soil is a mixture of several things like mineral matter, humus, water, air, animals and unicellular organisms including bacteria. Due to some manmade calamities this natural treasure, soil is becoming polluted and converting in to deserts. The percentage of fertile soil is decreasing day by day. With the help of different physical, chemical and Biological techniques, the polluted soil can be converted in to fertile one. In the present article different remediation methods are discussed.

  292. Nisha Sharma and Nivedita Sharma

    Lignocellulosic biomass which is rich in cellulose and hemicellulose can be used in submerged fermentation for the production of industrially important enzyme i.e., cellulase. The present work deals with standardization of pretreatments of forestry waste for enhancing the suitability of this abundant waste for cellulase production. Among different pretreatments alkali peroxide pretreatment to Populus deltoides has emerged as a cost effective substrate for cellulase production by Bacillus stratosphericus N12 (M) yielded maximum cellulase activity of 41.73 U/g. The maximum cellulase production for pretreated P. deltoides was carried out in the PYC, pH of the medium was 8 and incubated at 30oC for the production and incubation period of 72 h and partial purification of cellulase was done by ammonium sulphate precipitation method leads to increased cellulase activity. It has also been noticed that though forest lignocellulosics when used as carbon source yielded fairly good amount of cellulase but its production is directly dependent upon type of biomass used versus physicochemical treatment given to it prior to biodegradation.

  293. Manju Suman, Mahavir Singh, Ashok Kumar and Mallaya

    Most of the work involving livestock management is considered the traditional responsibility of farm women in India. To make livestock extension programme’s effective it is imperative to study the involvement of women, their perceptions and knowledge. This paper describes briefly some studies carried out with women from various communities, in a irrigated pockets of North India i.e. Uttar Pradesh and dry region Rajasthan. The studies revealed that the women have a great deal of information about local feed resources and a good working knowledge of animal behavior, feed preferences and production characteristics. Through experience the women have developed feeding practices to suit different types of livestock. They have identified beneficial feed resources, ranging from farm by-products to forest products. The rural men and women have also developed ways of conserving useful feed material for periods of scarcity. This paper recommends that groups of women facilitators be developed as well as suitable extension and training programmers which include women. Likewise, this paper discusses development strategies which may lead to improvement in feeding and management practices suitable for more productive livestock systems. These practices are developed through a participatory approach. Development planners and researchers pay very little attention to women's perceptions, needs and constraints, although many talk about the role of women in livestock production (particularly livestock feeding). This paper strongly recommends more studies on the involvement of women, giving more weight to their views and making use of their experience and knowledge.

  294. RiyankaMaity, Basudev Mandal and Ashis Gupta

    The concentration of heavy metals such as zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in water sample and different body parts of thread fin cat fish such as muscle, gill and liver were analyzed. There was considerable increase of metal concentration in sample water collected from mouth of Haldi River. The descending order of heavy metal concentrations in sample water was Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd. The concentration of lead was4.172µg/L followed by copper 3.102µg/L, zinc 1.079µg/L and that of cadmium was 0.050µg/L. The accumulation of heavy metals in different body parts of thread fin cat fish is i) Muscle: lead- 6.39µg/g, copper- 3.81µg/g, zinc- 10.19µg/g and cadmium- 0.54µg/g ii) Gill: lead- 8.09µg/g, copper- 1.56µg/g, zinc -22.48µg/g and cadmium- 0.50µg/g iii) Liver: lead- 5.22µg/g, copper- 1.01µg/g, zinc- 4.63µg/g and cadmium- 0.61µg/g. In the gills, zinc concentration was found maximum but cadmium was minimum. In the muscles, the maximum values of zinc was observed as compared to the values of cadmium. The concentration of lead in liver was higher as compared to cadmium. The concentration of heavy metals in gills and muscles was found in the order of Zn >Pd> Cu > Cdand in the livers was Pb> Cu > Zn> Cd. In this study, gills and body muscles shows highest tendency to accumulate both zinc and copper, while accumulation of metals is less in livers. As the fish thread fin cat fish largely consumed by local people, it is essential to make awareness about water pollution and effects of heavy metals on human beings.

  295. Saravanan, R., Dhachinamoorthi, D. and Sudhakar, Y.

    Plant Tissue culture has advanced the knowledge of fundamental Biotechnology especially in the field of agriculture, horticulture, plant breeding, forestry, somatic cell hybridization, phytopathology and industrial production of plant metabolites, etc. During the last two decades plant cell, tissue and organ culture have developed rapidly and become a major biotechnological tool in agriculture, horticulture, forestry and industry. That problem which was not feasible through conventional technique, now have been solved via plant tissue culture techniques. In recent years growing of tissue culture banana becoming popular in this area. Banana is an economically important crop, which is extensively cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries. The in-vitro banana plants are superior to the conventional suckers due to their vigorous growth, precocity and higher yields. An attempt was made to standardize the production of tissue cultured banana (Robusta sp) compare to conventional sucker propagation method.

  296. Janani, N., Revathi, K., Rengarajan, R., Anjalai, K., and Vidhya, G.

    Rhizospheric soil samples were collected from in different garden samples in Chidambaram. Among 7 isolates 1 strain was developed deep pink colour, which was selected as potential strain for further study. It was showed highest OD value at 530nm. It was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens was found to produce IAA 2.5µg/ml. The maximum production of 3.7µg/ml was observed at pH 7 and minimum at pH 10 (1.9µg/ml). Maximum production of 3.3µg/ml was observed at 30°C which seemed to be the most favorable and minimum was observed at 40°C (1.5µg/ml). The effect of Nacl on the IAA production maximum 2.9µg/ml (0.2%) and minimum 0.8µg/ml (1.0%), different carbon sources maximum 3.9µg/ml in glucose and minimum fructose (2.3µg/ml), different nitrogen sources on IAA maximum 3.8µg/ml in yeast extract and minimum potassium nitrate were observed. Influence of tryptophan on the IAA production maximum 3.5µg/ml at 1.0% and minimum at 3.0% (2.1µg/ml) were noted. Pseudomonas fluorescens in mass scale with optimized parameters, produced the highest IAA at 8th day of incubation (4.6µg/ml) On further incubation the amount of IAA was found to be reduced. The TLC done for the crude IAA compound showed a Rf-value of 0.88. The purified and standard showed same Rf values. The seed germination test revealed 100% germination in IAA treated seeds and only 76% germination was observed in control seeds. In the present observation the average Vigna radiata root length developed in 50 seedlings was estimated in both IAA treated and control seedlings. The average root length was 42mm in IAA treated seedlings where as it was only 28mm in control seedlings.

  297. Fatih YILDIRIM, Ahmet YILDIZ and Burak OZDEMIR

    This study was conducted to evaluate of information about the training of horses in horse javelin sport in Erzurum province of Turkey. Information about general training steps for training javelin horses was obtained from horse breeders who were trained in javelin. The basic and dressage movements of the javelin horses in the javelin sport training and the movements of the rider in the training have been examined. The results of this study suggest that the training period of javelin horses consisted of two basic stages, individual and team. In the individual training, it was determined that the exercises of harmony with the horse rider, the rewarding in education, the horse gaits, the activities of the basic and dressage movements of javelin. In the case of trainings in teams, it was determined that they were taught to recognize their own and competitor team horses and to perform the commands of the rider at the same time. It was also learned that training and recreation were important for horses to remember their training and to improve their ability to move.

  298. Swati Sharma, Dr. Parihar, M. S. and Dr. Abha Swarup

    We all know proper cell functioning needs energy which will be provided by Mitochondria. Sometimes some bacterial infections like Lip Opolysaccharide (LPS) affects these functions of cell by degrading mitochondrial biogenesis. LPS infection increases ROS (Reactive oxygen species) production which affects H9C2 cells contractility and functions and leads to degraded heart health. But as protective agent quercetin pre-treatment to cells provides safety from these types of infections in H9C2 cells. In our study we have focused on increased ROS production due to LPS induced inflammation and found protective effects of quercetin on pre-treated H9C2 cells.

  299. Daharia Madhuri, Patel Akanksha, Gupta Rakshapal and Rout Om Prakash

    In Ayurvrdic Grantha, Veda, Samhita and Lexicons there are many drugs mentioned for the treatment of diseases. In A.P.I. there is collection of these drugs. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act, the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A.P.I.) is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India is official. Jvara roga is commonly treated with Ayurvedic herbs. In each case, the physician must not only determine which doshas and dhatus are imbalanced, but also the stage of samprapti (pathogenesis). The entry of dosha and ama (toxins) into rasa dhatu (the plasma) causes Jvara. According to Ayurveda, Jvara can either be a disease or a symptom of another disease. Total number of antipyretic single drugs mentioned in A.P.I. part I is 158 and total number of formulations having antipyretic property in A.P.I. part II is 25. The present study is designed to screen all drugs mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A.P.I.) used for treatment of Jvara.

  300. Khanvilkar, A. V., Madira, R. B., Modi, R. J., Islam, M. M. and Wadhwani, K. N.

    The blood glucose level (mg/dl) declined significantly (P < 0.05) to the tune of 7.32% in hot humid season as compared to hot dry season. The blood glucose level (mg/dl) did not change in hot dry season due to rehydration. The blood glucose level (mg/dl) recovered at much faster rate in Goats after 2nd (7.31%) and 4th (11.26%) day of rehydration as compared to Sheep (3.25 and 11.09%). The significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum urea (mg/dl) concentration in the experimental animals under 50% water restriction group dropped down significantly (P < 0.05) due to rehydration to the tune of 30.00 and 34.58% after 2nd and 4th day of rehydration, respectively in hot dry season. The corresponding values for hot humid season were 26.75 and 32.08%, respectively. The uric acid concentration (mg/dl) significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 8.88% when experimental animals were subjected to 50% water restriction which dropped down significantly (P < 0.05) by 14 and 27.40% after 2nd and 4th day of rehydration, respectively. Whereas, in same experimental animals during hot humid season uric acid concentration (mg/dl) dropped down non significantly (P < 0.05) after rehydration by 8.77%, but, after 4th day of rehydration uric acid concentration (mg/dl) dropped down significantly (P < 0.05) by 34.25%. The creatinine (mg %) level raised significantly (P < 0.05) by 6.89% when experimental animals exposed to 50% water restriction. The creatinine (mg %) level dropped down significantly (P < 0.05) after 4th day of rehydration by 20.57% in hot dry season and 7.50% in hot humid season. In both the species of experiment this creatinine (mg %) level again dropped down significantly (P < 0.05) after 4th day of rehydration by 13.12% (Sheep) and 15.42% (Goats).

  301. Khanvilkar, A. V., Neelam Gupta, Modi, R. J., Islam, M. M. and Wadhwani, K. N.

    The experimental animals ingested 50% water of its requirement showed significantly lower Hb (g %) concentration than the animals of control group. The PCV (%) increased to the tune of 9.9% when experimental animals consumed 50% less water than the requirement. This may be due to haemo concentration induced by water restriction. However, seasons did not play any significant role on Hb (g %). The experimental Goats showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower value of Hb (g %) and PCV (%) to the tune of 9.30 and 21.7% as compared to Sheep. The PCV (%) reduced significantly (P < 0.05) due to rehydration after 2nd (9.38 and 9.32%) and 4th day (5.60 and 8.21%) in hot dry and hot humid season, respectively. The RBC count (X106/µl) did not show significant effect due to treatment and seasons but, the WBC count (X103/µl) differed significantly (P < 0.05). The Goats exhibited lower RBC (X106/µl) count than Sheep. Similarly, Goats exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) lower WBC (X103/µl) count (11.51%) as compared to Sheep. The rehydration of experimental animals did not show any significant change in WBC (X103/µl) count. Similarly, WBC (X103/µl) count did not differ between two species due to rehydration.

  302. Luiz Sérgio Costa Duarte Filho, Edson Ferreira da Silva, Geraldo Veríssimo de Souza Barbosa, Carlos Assis Diniz, JosealdoTonholo, Cícero Carlos de Souza Almeida and José Antônio Bressiani

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugar and ethanol in sugarcane, and genetic improvement was essential for raising agroindustrial yields, providing gains of 1% to 2% per year. The objective of this work was to evaluate the main genotypes grown in Alagoas-Brazil from 1975 to 2010 in a competition experiment conducted between February 2012 and February 2013 at the Sinimbu-Alagoas Plant, adopting the following statistical-genetic procedures: estimates of averages and grouping of cultivars for agroindustrial characteristics; estimates of genetic parameters of agroindustrial characteristics; evaluation of the levels of genetic diversity of the cultivars through microsatellite molecular markers and recommendation of genetic crosses among the studied cultivars. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four replications. The plot was composed of three double lines of seven meters, spaced at 1,50 m x 0,80 m. The cultivars that showed the highest sugar yields were RB92579, RB867515, RB99395 and RB951541; the highest estimates of heritability and ratio between the genetic/environmental variance coefficients were for the BRIX, POL, TPH and TCH characteristics, indicating that it is very probable to obtain gains in the selection of superior individuals in these characteristics, performing genetic crosses with the genotypes evaluated in this study; The microsatellite primers SSR05, SSR06 and SSR93 were efficient in determining unique genetic profiles and in discriminating degree of kinship and genetic diversity; the crosses that can predict higher gains in sugar yield are from cultivar RB92579 with cultivars RB867515, RB931003, RB931011, RB951541, RB98710 and RB99395.

  303. Zainab Mohammed Al Eid, Zahra’a Ibrahim Al Radhi, Fatimah Abbas AlMohammed Saleh and Fatimah Adnan Al Ramadhan

    Background and objective: Smoking cessation is associated with decreased smoking related morbidity and mortality and increased life expectancy. It can be achieved through several pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in which nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is an example that help to replace nicotine from cigarettes, therefore, reducing nicotine withdrawal symptoms and the urge to smoke. The aim of this review is to determine the effectiveness of NRT in enhancing, achieving, and maintaining smoking cessation. Methods: A literature search was conducted in March 2017 using Medline/PubMed, Science Direct, SCOPUS, TRIP and Google scholar databases, in which randomized trials of NRT and smoking cessation with final follow-up at least 6 months after the start of treatment were selected. Twenty-one eligible trials were identified, in which NRT was compared to placebo, other pharmacotherapy or non-pharmacotherapy and reported abstinence rates. The main outcome measure is self-reported 7-day point of quit rate over study conduction period to assess the specific effect of nicotine replacement therapy among interventional group. Results: NRT use for at least two weeks is an effective measure in promoting smoking cessation among male and female smokers regardless of the degree of their smoking dependence. Also, NRT use during pregnancy is a safe intervention to enhance smoking cessation among pregnant smokers and is associated with delivery of babies with higher birthweight. Conclusion: This review concludes that nicotine replacement therapy is an effective, safe intervention to promote and sustain smoking cessation whether used alone or in combination with additional support of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions.

  304. Sudhakara, S. N. and Narayanaswamy, T.K.

    Bivoltine silkworm breed CSR2 was reared at Main Research Station, Hebbal, Bangalore on mulberry grown with the application of at nitrogen at recommended level through organic manures and inorganic fertilizers in different combination with four feeding schedules, treatments and interactions. Among these FS2 (Chawki worms fed with S36 leaf + Late age worm fed with M5 leaf) and T12 (recommended 20 tonnes of compost + 300: 120: 120 kg of NPK / ha / year through fertilizer) exhibited significantly higher mature larval weight (40.42 and 40.62 g/10 larvae) and silkgland weights (0.777 and 0.788 g), effective rate of rearing (85.95 and 94.16 %), while the lower disease incidence (14.17 and 14.17 %), moulting duration (4.98 and 4.30 days) and larval duration (26.83 and 26.12 days) respectively. Among interactions, FS2T12 contributed more towards matured larval weight, silkgland weight and also effective rate of rearing (42.21 g/10 larvae; 0.836 g and 94.16 %). However, lower disease incidence and larval duration was recorded in FS2T12 (5.83 % and 26.08 days), but FS2T11 (FS2- chawki worms fed with S36+ Late age worm fed with M5 T11 combination of Bio-fertilizers 10 kg each of Azospirillum + Aspergillus awamori/ha/yr + 20 % recommended N through each of Compost, Green manure (Glyricidia maculata), Oil cake (Castor cake), vermicompost and fertilizer, remaining PK through fertilizer) exhibited significantly lower moulting duration (4.13 days).

  305. Sudhakara, S. N. and Narayanaswamy, T. K.

    An experiment was conducted out to study the post-cocoon parameters of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. as influenced by feeding of leaf obtained by the application sources of N through organic manures and inorganic fertilizers. Significant differences were excerted with respect to feeding schedules, treatments and interactions. Among FS2 (Chawki worms fed with S36 leaf + Late age worm fed with M5 leaf) T12 (recommended 20 tonnes of compost + 300: 120: 120 kg of NPK / ha / year through fertilizer) contributed maximum with respect to filament length (937.25 and 948.39 m) and lower denier was accounted as (2.65 and 2.62). However, the interaction effect was found to be significant towards filament length in FS2T11 (FS2- chawki worms fed with S36 leaf + Late age worm fed with M5 leaf, T11 combination of Bio-fertilizers 10 kg each of Azospirillum + Aspergillus awamori/ha/yr + 20 % recommended N through each of Compost, Green manure (Glyricidia maculata), Oil cake (Castor cake), vermicompost and fertilizer remaining PK through fertilizer) (1045.62 m) and lower denier recorded in FS2T11 (2.39) respectively.

  306. Putu Tantri K. Sari, Noor Endah and Dwiaji Ari Yogyanta

    The cone penetration test (CPT) has emerged as most widely used for obtaining soil profile and soil properties. In several studies showed that CPT data can also be used for the soil settlement calculation. However these calculations have a different parameter for each location. The main objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the results of settlement using laboratory testing data and consolidation measurement using CPT data of soft clay soil in some area in Indonesia. Furthermore, this study also conducted to find the parameter of CPT settlement (m) that appropriate with the soil condition in this study area and also to analyze the value the horizontal coefficient (Ch) of PVD installation that installed in the field. The Pre-loading with trial embankment of soil subgrade is considered in this study. This study uses a several field soil data CPT test, consolidation laboratory test and settlement plate measurement. The area of study in this research is in access road construction project of Trisakti harbor in Lianganggam, Kalimantan, Indonesia. The results obtained from this study are the horizontal coefficient of PVD (Ch) for the soil in this area is measures as 5 times higher than the vertical coefficient of PVD (Cv) measurement from laboratory data. In addition, the appropriate parameter of settlement using CPT data () is 2.77 obtained by back calculation method in trial embankment and settlement plate result. These results are slightly different from the results of similar research but at a different location in another country.

  307. Cicily Flora, S., Arockiarani, I. and Jafari, S.

    The notion of bipolar vague A-ideals of BCI-algebra is introduced and their properties are investigated. Characterizations of bipolar vague A-ideals are given. Relationship between bipolar vague ideal and the newly defined ideals are analyzed. Also we studied some equivalent conditions for bipolar vague A-ideals. And we show that a bipolar vague subalgebra and a bipolar vague ideal. And Finally, we prove theorem in bipolar A-ideal using bipolar vague level cut.

  308. Kiril Kolikov, Radka Koleva and Yordan Epitropov

    In this paper we reduce a linear homogeneous form of n unknowns with an orthogonal transformation of the unknowns in a linear homogeneous form of one unknown with an exactly definite positive coefficient. As an application of this result we find the canonical form of an arbitrary hyperplane in the real n-dimensional affine Euclidean space En. This method for the obtaining of the canonical forms of the hyperplanes is new, since until nowa canonical form of hyperplanes is not defined and is not considered.Besides we find an effective canonical form of the surfaces of the second degree in . Our methodfor the canonization of the surfaces of the second degree in is effective since it gives the exact coefficients of the canonical form of the surface in a dependent ofthe coefficients of the givensurface equation. As an application we give a canonization of the hypersurfaces of the maximal absolute and relative inaccuracies (errors). Besides this method is different from the known approach in the case of the obtaining of a cylinder.

  309. Andra-Maria Ciutac and Carmen-Gabriela Popa

    This paper presents general aspects of the eye, along with a multitude of experiments performed in order to obtain the most suitable micro-drive. There are described theoretical aspects about the movement of the eye, as well as the results of each experiment and conclusions. Final models are also included in this paper. Research thesis - Given the types of eye movements and the range of values of this bio-drive, the purpose of this research theme involves: research, theoretical studies and technical experiments regarding new unconventional systems of electromechanical drive, based on micro motors and micro actuators with different operating principles: piezo, electrostrictive, electro thermal, electromagnetic, electrochemical as well as other operating principles that can have a great contribution to the drive of a spherical object, in different directions and with different mechanical parameters. Great emphasis will be put on the control of the direction, speed, acceleration, as these unconventional systems can also be applied in robotics, medicine, and bioengineering. Domains of value of the micro drive: ● specific geometry and the structure of the micro muscular system ● angular displacement areas ● linear displacement areas ● micro forces of the drive ● mechanical micro couples ● micro forces ● micro couples of the micro biomechanical resistance Characteristics and mechanical parameters: ● Spherical diameters: 0-200 mm ● Linear areas: 0-5 mm ● Angular areas: 0-60 ● Meridian plans ● Micro forces areas: 0-100 cN ● Micro biomechanical couples areas: 0-100 cNcm ● Power: 0-100 W ● Temperature areas: 0 – 60 ● Speed area: 0-30 rpm

  310. Dadarao Dhone

    Cause and Effect is one of the Basic Laws of Nature. Hence, a Light Photon having mass property, the momentum, does not have 'rest-mass', cannot be a true fact. An exhaustive endeavor is done, in this article, to confirm that, a light photon have the smallest, ultimate mass. As per Relativistic mass energy transformation relation [E = mc2], mass doesn't convert into energy by disappearing as a mass and appearing as an energy; but, outwardly, it gets attached the photon masses increasing its speed suitably and transforms its 'rest mass internal energy', into radiations by braking its own consolidated mass into ultimate mass particles Photons which are Dark Matter Particles possessing the Dark Energy. Due to their mutual gravitational forces, mass cannot concentrate at a point across an mm. because, 'no gravity shells' are created inside a body of radii decreasing from outwards surface towards the centre, as a function of radius/density. Hence, Big-Bang, the cause of the Birth of Universe, seems a remote possibility. Whirling created in Dark Matter gave birth of Universe.

  311. Sankhanil Dey and Ranjan Ghosh

    The method to Subtract, Multiply and Divide two Field Numbers over the Extended Galois Field GF(pq) is a well needed solution to the field of Discrete Mathematics as well as in Cryptology. In this paper the addition of two Galois Field Numbers over Extended Galois Field GF(pq) has been reviewed and Subtraction, Multiplication and Division of two Galois Field Number over Extended Galois Field GF(pq) has been defined.

  312. Onyema, K. N. and Adedimila, A. S.

    This paper on price as an engineering subject seeks a defining of platform engineering type price concept and accounting, emphasizing a partnership concept to tax incidence as complementary and underlining. Being guided by the characterized story of Animal Farm, with a focus on the case principal leader’s institution, as establishing challenges on a market type ground, it was emphasized that in a perfectly competitive market, therefore, the main problem for a profit maximizing firm is not to determine the price of its product but to adjust its output to the market price so that profit is maximum. Based on included theoretical framework from concepts of payment series mathematics, payment relay based price mathematics is defined. This defined mathematics suggests a redefinition of duty recommendation relative to management task systematic. On this a systemic as equivalent rectangle is suggested for a duty workman and a lender, with a case on balance sheet solved. In addition to this, complementary outlet/finished state equivalent prices are solved. The practical idea is to find equilibrium points for the systemic and the finished state price for objective pricing, and strategies where such may be required. Finally, the accounting framework is defined.

  313. Neeraj Kumar Sharma

    Association necessitate to comprehend its application not just from approach of production enhancement or finance augmentation or resource exploitation, but also should tackle decisively the spongy region of workers to confer the best to not only for accommodating the productivity solutions, but also be a element on vanguard during tangible accomplishment to compose the learning in fact value its instance and effort. This paper spotlights on the decisive area of productivity enhancement with the intelligent use of techniques. The methodical application to enhance productivity, reduce costs and increase profits.

  314. López V Juan D, Uribe Andrés, Vélez Francisco, Lagos José, Malpica Mateo, López Francisco and Rincón Erika

    A technological crusade of a computer platform for the meeting between supply and demand that can be used by any user from a cell phone (even if it is a low-end cell phone) and that is complemented by other technologies such as USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) and SMS (Short Message Service), with the idea of escalating the number of people using the technology in order to look for machinery requirements, employment, news, agricultural alerts, etc. Case study Cooperativa de Ganaderos del Valle del Cauca - Colombia.

  315. Srinivas, H. R. and Dr. Sadath Ali Khan Zai

    This paper presents detailed experimental investigations on compounding technology with two layered as well as three layered reinforced cement concrete, consisting of fibre reinforced high performance concrete (FRHPC) and Normal strength concrete (NSC) to improve the efficiency of concrete matrix (M60 and M20) and consequently to enhanced load carrying capacity of different layered concrete matrix and also to study compatibility condition between FRHPC and NSC layers. Since, High performance concrete (HPC) is a specialized series on concrete designed to provide several benefits in the construction of concrete structure. The Mechanical properties of layered fibre reinforced high performance concrete matrix along with normal strength concrete was studied by preparing several varying thickness of FRHPC and NSC layers. Compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of the layered concrete matrix specimens were carried out to assess the enhancement in strength and same is to be optimized with minimum use of FRHPC to obtain increased strengths.

  316. Dheerendra Kumar, V., Upadhyay, S. K., Chaturvedi, P. N., Pandey and Singh, D. P.

    Aim of present study was to apply a mathematical model of two phase human blood flow in pulmonary Venules, keeping in view the nature of pulmonary blood circulation during lung cancer. We have applied Herschel Bulkley model in Bio- fluid mechanical setup and we have used with respect to clinical data in case of Lung Cancer for hemoglobin versus blood pressure. In this examination overall presentation was in tensorial form and the solution method adopted was analytical as well as numerical. The role of hematocrit is clear in the determination of blood pressure drop in case of pulmonary disease Lung Cancer.

  317. Shiva Nagender Rao, L., Sai Rishishwar Reddy, Y. and Manoj Yasaswi, V.

    Hash functions were introduced in Cryptology as a tool to protect the integrity of information. Secure Hash Algorithm-1 (SHA-1) and Message Digest-5 (MD-5) are among the most commonly used hash function message digest algorithms. Scientists have found collision attacks on SHA-1, MD-5 hash functions so the natural response to overcome this threat was assessing the weak points of these protocols that actually depend on collision resistance for their security. So to increase the security, modified SHA-192 is introduced in this paper having a message digest of length 192 bits with larger bit difference. To generate larger bit difference, best properties of MD-5andSHA-1 are combined. So the new solution will be no longer vulnerable to the collision attacks.SHA-192 currently used in security applications and protocols applications including Transport Layer Security (TLS), Secure Socket Layer (SSL), Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) and as Digital Signatures. This technique is designed by using Verilog HDL with Xilinx ISE Design suite 12.4 version tool. The designs implemented in Xilinx SPARTAN 3E XC3S500EFG320 FPGA board.

  318. Mahesh, T. R., Mohammed Waaiz, Mahboob Basha, G. and Krishna Reddy, K.

    In order to understand the formation mechanism and vertical structure of precipitating cloud systems associated with the Meiyu/Baiu frontal cyclone, special observational campaigns have been conducted in the downstream of the Yangtze River during June-July 2001 and 2002. We deployed a Lower Atmospheric Wind Profiler (LAWP) with Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) at the Meteorological Observatory, Dongshan, China to observe the inner structure of precipitating cloud systems seen frequently in the observational area. The LAWP provides vertical profiles of three-dimensional wind, convective boundary layer (CBL) and temperature from the lower atmosphere with a height resolution of 58 m to 202 m and a time resolution of about 1 to 60 minutes. LAWP had been operated in two modes: low mode and high mode up to 4 km and 11 km height during non-rainy and rain conditions, respectively. A study was carried out during intensive observational period 2002 (IOP-2002) to understand the pre-convective environments in the boundary layer during pre-Meiyu and Meiyu convective days to find out whether there is any precursor before the convection triggering. The LAWP observations demonstrate that during Meiyu period the average CBL is below < 1 km and whereas, pre- and post-Meiyu period the average CBL height above 1 km. The results show that distinguishable CBL evolution was noticed during pre-Meiyu and Meiyu period. LAWP observed eleven precipitating cloud systems in the vicinity of Meiyu frontal zone during IOP-2002. Each precipitating cloud system was divided into three rain types: convective, mixed convective-stratiform, and stratiform rain based on the LAWP observation data from the echo intensity above melting layer and the difference of the fall speed of precipitation particles between 3 and 6 km altitude. In the passage of the cloud system, convective systems embedded within a wide stratiform precipitation were observed. The observed precipitating cloud systems showed a diurnal variation with a peak in the late evening and nighttime. Boundary layer winds often shows strong South/southwesterly flow when the Meiyu precipitating cloud systems passes overhead of the LAWP.

  319. Amrutha Hippalgaonkar and Dr. Gadge, S. J.

    As the saying, the future is where the destiny goes….the future of any organization is going to be the number crunch that is data management. It goes like the destiny is going to be based on the big data management. In today’s scenario, Challenges faced are capturing, storage, analysis, search, sharing, transfer, visualization, querying, updating, privacy, meeting the need for speed, data quality, understanding data& many more to go. The analysis techniques used also matters a lot. In 2001, Bank of America solved the problems with managing the data across the enterprise. Through a single enterprise data model & standards, the bank could achieve the consistent, timely, & accurate data it was lacking across its franchisee. Data extracted from the data warehouse are analyzed by data mining software to discover the hidden patterns based on which decisions were made easy. Our desk research work is concentrating on the importance of number crunch or data management in this competitive Corporate World. Companies have to create an edge to stay in the market. Not only the survival is vital but having potential customers base is also utmost important. As it is seen Reliance Jio is creating a customer base leaving the competitors such as Airtel and other telecommunication service companies work hard for the survival. Motto of this desk research work is to analyze the importance of data management in various sector but the focus is on academics.

  320. Shradhanand Tiwari, Jagdish Yadav (Assist.Proff), Amit Kumar Dubey, Vipin Kumar Dubey, Ashish Kumar Pathak and Yashwant Rav

    Low cost house is today’s are used very high amount. Today’s in India large population Poverty is a significant issue in India, despite having one of the fastest growing economies in the world, clocked at a growth rate of 8.0% in 2017. Bank Research estimated that there are nearly 300 million people who are belong to middle class family. India's share of world GDP will significantly increase from 7.3% in 2016 to 8.5% by 2020. More than half of rural households depend on manual labour for livelihood, and 75 percent of the rural population, or 133.5 million families, earn less than Rs.5, 000 per month. According to this revised methodology, the world had 872.3 million people below the new poverty line, of which 179.6 million people lived in India. In other words, India with 17.5% of total world's population had 20.6% share of worlds poorest in 2011.

  321. Mary Olle, Hyunsook Kang and Gina Fe Causin

    The purpose of this study is to further expand the understanding of how Hispanic college students’ life styles influence their health. The research design employed a cross-sectional survey approach utilizing the purposive sample of 116 Hispanic undergraduate students (62 men and 54 women, all lived in the dormitory during the semester) at a university in Texas. The results indicated that there is a significant difference between Hispanic male and female college students in their life styles. In addition, there is a significant relationship between health and life styles of Hispanic male and female students. It is necessary to have amacro-level public awareness providing healthy life style in college life.

  322. Arzu Fasahati, Mohammad Mahboudi and Dr. Mohammad Hassan Haddadi

    This study is aimed to identify different levels of organizational intelligence in the knowledge based pharmaceutical companies in Paradise Technology Park, Tehran. In this regard, the components of organizational intelligence were determined for identifying, investigating and measuring. The method applied in this study is descriptive survey and the population are the knowledge based pharmaceutical companies in Paradise Technology Park. For analyzing data, descriptive statistics including frequency percentage and inferential statistics including mean test of population were used. The results reveal that organizational intelligence of the study population with the experimental mean of 3.49 was higher than the theoretical mean of 3 and the highest mean was the component of alignment and congruence and lowest one was appetite for change.

  323. Elizabeta Najdova

    The concept of the European Administrative Space occurs as a result of the practical needs of the countries – members of the Union, as well as the countries that strive to be a part of the union to create an individual legal framework in the way of the functioning of the public administration. The contemporary public administration, which is situated as a service of the citizens, is exactly the one that exercises the communitarian law in a complete way, more precisely the one that exercises the European principles and standards in a consistent way. The study itself makes subject determination of the European Administrative space by analyzing its content, determining its characteristics and features, as well as analysis of SIGMA as a mechanism for improvement of the public administration in the European Union. The European Administrative Space basically represents the whole process of Europeanization of the national legislations, in the sector of arrangement and standardization, in order to establish a system of the public administration that would be efficient and effective in the direction of complete fulfillment of the rights and the interests of the citizens.

  324. Branko Krsmanović, Nenad Lalic, Stevo Pašalić and Aleksandar Đurić

    The research subject of this paper are migration from BiH starting from the end of the 20th century until today. The aim of the study is to analyze the consequences of total migration and other demographic losses in BiH, that have reached the highest percent of migration during the nineties of the 20th century in Europe after the Second World War. The results of the research show that migration demographic losses were approximately 50% of nowadays population in BiH. The long-term effects of emigration have come to its fullest. Emigration of the most vital age groups has led to the reduction of fertile cohorts, which results in a decrease of birth, increase in mortality rates and the population aging. In the first decade of this century, there was a negative birth rate. Several factors have had the influence to biological (natural) depopulation and the first was emigration. Continuous and intense emigration was one of the main cause why BiH was in the group of European countries with expressed population aging. After the 20th century where population of BiH was doubled, 21st century was marked by the total depopulation. Among various factors that have an influence to the demographic perspective of BiH, the most important one is the negative migration balance. The social impact of migration in BiH is visible and multidimensional. War and post-war changes have led to the sensibility of many groups to economical and political turmoil, and the consequence is a lag in the overall development.

  325. ABDERAMANE Hamit, KENGNI Lucas, IDDO Ernest Sakamou and NJUEYA Kopa Adoua

    N’Djamena, the capital city of Chad has been experiencing a rapid population growth and a fall in water resources for the past years. In order to preserve and protect these resources, this work aims at assessing the vulnerability of aquifer to pollution. The overall objective is to identify areas prone to high risk of contamination, no matter the type of pollutant is. The DRASTIC approach required the inclusion of data from different sources such as field campaigns, borehole data, DEM satellite image, geological and hydro-climatic data. Finally, a map illustrating the water vulnerability was developed based on the seven parameters required by this method. The water table is deeper as one moves away from the banks of the Logone and Chari rivers. The study area is mostly covered with recent deposits of clay and loamy clay. The slopes below 5% cover 98% of the area, indicating a greater potential infiltration of contaminants. While the aquifer consists only of fine-grained sand, almost impermeable surface layers, combined with low slopes, explain that water tends to stagnate on the surface after rainfall. The values of the DRASTIC index vary from 75 to 145 underscoring three vulnerability classes. However, the classes of high to average intrinsic vulnerability cover 61. 39% of the study area, located in the northwest and south-central part of N’Djamena. The level of vulnerability is strongly influenced by the depth values in this sector and the nature of the unsaturated area made up of compact clay materials.

  326. Suman Kumari

    The paper highlight concisely socio-economic condition with historical framework of tribal community to inhabitant in Deoria. There is very few studies of tribal people who inhabitant in Deoria because as regarded it is a very distant part of the state which is locate in eastern zone of Utter Pradesh. It’s also known as Purvanchal. This paper examine the ground realities and various dimension in tribal life, on the basis of census data poverty, lack of basis facility, Unemployment, lower literacy rate, non irregular- occupation is a fate of tribe in Deoria. Every tribes in this district has its own history they are owner of his cultural, social and spiritual heritage but now they conflict for their cultural, traditions and social identity, They lost his identity and also sublimity. Their cultural, traditions and social life are different but their economic status are same. On the basic of census report majority tribes live in under poverty line, depend on agriculture and non regular occupation.

  327. Akram Belhadj Mohamed

    The competitive advantages that make and unmake the sectoral structure of Tunisian regional economies remain the same. Indeed, the sectoral structure of regional economies of Tunisia remain heavily dependent on competitive advantages that enabled their emergence, despite the upheavals and difficulties faced by some sectors in this area. Reliance on the cost of production factors remains important for the regions of the west and south, despite some areas that are beginning to emerge. This dependence has affected negatively the outbreak of entrepreneurial spirit in this environment with, for young people, a lack of known entrepreneurs on which they could take such models.

  328. Birgül Çakıroğlu and Reyhan (Gedikli) Akat

    Today, people who live in urban areas, especially those who are desperate for open-green areas, are increasing the tendency to nature, their curiosity about learning different cultures and lifestyles, as well as the desire of such people to move away from crowded city environments. Rural settlements; Their natural, historical and traditional values and their cultural-natural inheritance occupy an important place. For this purpose; Kahvadüzü Khans in Anatolia was chosen as a case study area in this work for preserving and preserving the cultural - natural heritage. In-situ observation, analysis, analysis and evaluation methods were used in the research. As a result of evaluating the obtained data, suggestions have been developed to help the survival and tourism of the Kahvedüzü Khans by introducing different functions without disturbing their architectural features and to help increase the tourism potential.

  329. Dr. Puvana, T.

    A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted to assess the knowledge of primi mothers regarding newer vaccines, a total of 30 primi mothers were selected by purposive sampling techniqueatSuramangalam Maternity center, Salem. Interview schedule was used to collect the data and collected data was analyzed by descriptive statistics.Major finding of the this study shows that majority of the mothers were 20-25 years of age highest percentage of the mothers had high school education, majority were private workers, highest of the family were in the economic group of Rs. 5000-10,000 most of the mothers were in nuclear family. Over all primimothers had average knowledge on newer vaccine.

  330. Dr. Kalaiselvi, A., Soniya, S. and Gananasundhari, S.

    NCC Customer doesn’t have to wait in line and doesn’t have to plan our day around the bank's hours. Customer can look at their balance whenever they want, not just when they get a statement. There are some hidden benefits too. Online banking allows watching our money on a daily basis if we want to. Customer is the king for the development of trade, industry and financial services. Hence, the significance of customer service in the banking sector came to force to compete in a market driven environment. Customers can feel much satisfied when they see a facility that they can transfer their money anywhere in the world and another prominent factor is involved in E-banking is time saving. Hence the purpose of this research paper is to investigate the purpose and satisfaction level of electronic banking.

  331. Akram Belhadj Mohamed

    The regional dynamics can be embodied in various ways. The shift-share analysis (ASR) is a methodology that allows us to observe the influence of global and local sectoral dynamics on regional growth. We start from the idea that the growth of a region is due in part to global sectoral dynamics and partly to specific regional dynamics. Applying this analysis to the case of Tunisia dishes highlight regional imbalance with the consolidation of the coast and the lower regions of the interior.

  332. Saous Cheikh and Lemtaouch Latifa

    This paper investigates the long termed relationship that exists between the Algerian economic growth and its industrial water pollution during the period 1975-2005. The Biochemical Oxygen Demand per worker (BOD) for Algeria was utilized as the environmental indicator, whereas the GDP per capita was utilized as its economic indicator and using other explanatory variables such as, exports, imports and population growth which may influence the environmental degradation in Algeria. The Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology was used to test the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, and its empirical findings suggest that there exists a long term relationship between per worker BOD emissions on one hand and the real per capita GDP (Gross Domestic Product) on the other hand. Accordingly, there is an inverted-U formed relationship that lies between the GDP and the BOD emissions, and the fact that supports the EKC hypothesis is that this relationship stands in both short and long terms. On the other hand, the causality relationship between the BOD emissions and the economic growth turned out to be absent when tested by the Granger Causality test while based on the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) in the short term. However, in the long term, it represented a uni-directional causality when reversed from the economic growth to BOD emissions.

  333. Birgül Çakıroğlu and Reyhan (Gedikli) Akat

    Change, development is the inevitable way to a society. This is the way to address the history and the value of reviewing their creation of components, demonstrate clearly their creation environment makes it easy to find the way to a bright future. Architecture is known that factors that affect physical factors and cultural factors. The architectural style of the formation and organization of these factors is difficult to separate from each other. Architectural space is seen, heard, sensed, measurable, among the factors that can be felt, we effectively identify the remodeling, we cannot see, cannot feel, but there are other factors we estimate that there. Belief, the architecture consists of belief, there in the creation of thought, space, to the construction, decoration, structure effect sufficiently be unprocessed, architecture, belief, examine the impact of beliefs originating from architecture to reveal it was necessary. Religious architecture is one of the most important factors shaping. To examine the effect of the architecture of religious concepts, architectural structures of meaning attached, forms, by analyzing the size- proportion will contribute to the explanation of these factors is likely quite be useful for determination of parameters will be the guide for new designs. For this purpose, a wide range of examination subjects listened with examples from the history of civilization in Anatolia and contains the required architecture composed, so that the window is open to the influence of religion on architectures. Anatolia take as a work area, in terms of our experience on the practice, it is extremely important to have both cultural richness. Anatolia, which bears on the many cultural riches, civilization dating back thousands of years into the past, where there are also beliefs that make up the rich mosaic is a rare region in the world.

  334. Prof. Dr. H. M. Darwis Hude, Si, M. and Ifa Faizah Rohmah

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and determine the influence of student learning interest and student learning motivation in an effort to improve student learning achievement at school, this research use descriptive analysis and inferential analysis, inferential analysis used is correlation analysis. The research was conducted at Al-Muhajirin High School, Purwakarta, Indonesia. The study was conducted on students in school this was done in the hope of getting more clear and real answers about student's interest, motivation and achievement in school, the sample of research involving 100 students. From the research found that students' interest in learning has a high influence on student achievement, this also applies to the motivation to learn students in schools that has a high influence on student achievement. Thus it can be said that student achievement in school can be improved with the effort and high attention in improving and developing interest in learning and motivation of student learning in school. The existence of interest in learning and motivation to learn students give a positive influence on student achievement in school.

  335. Docteur KADJO KOUTOU

    In this study, we intend to show the relationship between African art and western art. The study was about the historians of artethnologists and those who are in charge of anthropologic and aesthetic discipline. This study is sustained by some bibliographic, documentary and iconographical though process. The outcomes of our study show that it is in the 20th century that western painters and sculptors would regularly come to visit black Africa in order to discover the artistically richness of this part of the continent. We notice that western artists have some imprints of African arts these are some identical factors that shows their presents in African land: than western art is the outcome of African on.

  336. Dr. Sridevi, K. and Suryaprakasam, B.

    The purpose of this study is to know the awareness level among the parents of children who are studying in general schools at Medak District of Telangana State about Right to Education Act 2009. Total 87 parents participated for the present study. The Questionnaire was developed based on act, provided& implemented by the central and state Governments related to children. This study adopted survey method, validated questionnaire was used as data collection instrument and it was administered on parents which includes fathers 56and mothers were 31 Parental gender, Parental Education, parents economic status, social status are the variables for the present study. The obtained Data was analyzed in terms of percentage and the results were compared by using t-test between the parents (fathers and mothers) and to find out the impact of parental education on their awareness ANOVA test was used. The results of the study showed that there is an overall moderate level 59.3 % of Awareness on Right to Education Act 2009. Results showed that parental education and parents social status, have impacted significant difference but parents economic status is not shown any impact on their awareness level and it is observed that the awareness among fathers (63%)is more when comparatively with the mothers(52.6%)

  337. Mustafa Can KOÇ

    The aim of this study is to compare the peer pressure of the students in different high schools. In our research, 108 volunteer participants that have been selected by the random sampling method in Beykent Doğa Anatolian High School and Beylikdüzü Cahit Zarifoğlu Anatolian High School students in İstanbul. A personal information form and the Peer Pressure Scale (PPS) which have been developed by Kıran (2002) have been used to collect the research data of the volunteers participating in the study. The obtained data have been recorded on the SPSS package program. The U-Test has been used to determine the participant’s peer pressure according to the schools and gender and the Kruskal Wallis test has been used to reach the data on father’s and mother’s educational attainment. As a result; when the findings have been examined, it has been found that there is no significant difference between the two schools according to the school situation. In addition, no significant difference has been found between the students who receive education in public and private schools according to gender, father’s and mother’s educational attainment status.

  338. Lily Sema and Nagendra Pandey

    The Palaeogene Disang - Barail Transitional Sequence (DBTS) developed at the tip of Kohima Synclinorium, Naga Hills have been analyzed for their litho-facies characteristics using environment sensitive parameters viz. lithology, sedimentary structure, geometry, fossil content and palaeocurrent. A total number of six litho-facies – A: Sand – Conglomerate facies, B: Sand facies, C: Sand – Mud facies, D: Mud – Sand facies-i, E: Mud – Sand facies-ii & F: Debrite facies have been identified and studied along six vertical profile sections measured at different locations across the study area. A facies scheme depicting litho – facies interpretations in terms of processes has also been attempted. Based on the entire assemblage of characteristic sedimentary features of different litho-facies, a turbidite fed fan-slope depositional environment has been envisaged for the DBTS of the study area.

  339. Dr. Krishna Banana and Dr. Meeravali Shaik

    Human resource management is concerned with the people who work in the organization to achieve the objectives of the organization. The HR plays a major role in providing safety and security to the employees in the organization. The management should discuss with the employees about safety measures and tools to protect them. Career development is an ongoing, dynamic process, employees may need encouragement and support in reviewing and re-assessing their goals and activities. The Executive development is now seen as a strategic lever for implementing change and transmitting the firm’s core capabilities (competencies) in learning organization. Career development should be conducted by both individuals and organization for achievement, recognition, growth, the goal and quality of life. Career development brings self confidence and also helps to achieve career success. Executive development includes organizational learning, leadership development. It plays an important role in the growth and development of an organization. It helps to built relationship to access resources. Executive development is an ongoing and continuous activity to ensure the goal of an organization.

  340. Preet Kumari, Shruti Dutt, Sinha, S. P. and Antim Verma

    The purpose of this study was to assess the difference between study approaches used by male and female undergraduate students of continuous and annual evaluation system. The sample consisted of 100 students (50 from Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra where continuous evaluation system exists and 50 from B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra where annual evaluation system exists). The revised two factor study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F). Developed by Biggs, Kember and Leung (2001) were used. Two way analysis of variance revealed that for the deep study approach there was no difference in its use by the students of continuous and annual evaluation system. Female students were found to use deep study approach more than males. Interaction effect of evaluation system and gender was not found to be significant. Students of continuous evaluation system were found to use surface strategy approach significantly more than the students of annual evaluation system. Moreover, the highest score was found on surface study approach by the male subjects of continuous evaluation system and lowest for the females of annual evaluation system.

  341. Dr. Sasikanta Tripathy

    Capital structure has been a database issue in financial economics ever since Modigliani and Miller showed in 1958 that given frictionless markets and homogeneous expectations, the capital structure decision of the firm is irrelevant because it does not contribute towards the firm’s growth. The dilemma firms are faced with is making a decision on the capital structure choice to use. The purpose of this paper is to find out the effect of capital structure on financial performance of firms based on ROE, ROA, Tobin’s Q and EPS for the companies listed both at BSE and NSE over the period 2011-2016, measured through a simple regression model. Results indicate that Capital Structure is significantly and positively associated with firm Performance when measured by Tobin s Q, however they report a negative relationship between capital structure with firms’ performance when measured by ROA, and no significant relationship when measured by ROE as well as by EPS. Altogether, the study provides evidence which indicates firm performance is positively or even negatively related to capital structure. One important reason for this conflicting result can be the high cost of borrowing in developing countries like India. This study contributes to the empirical literature on the effect of capital structure on financial performance of Indian firms.

  342. Vipin Benny

    Ayurvedic formulations have often been redesigned to address the biomedical disorders of a new global clientele. This has developed a holistic approach to the medical cultures and the creation of heterodox epistemologies, which have then allowed the creation of new “traditional” products that suit the demands of the market. In India, these new formulations fall under the category of “Ayurvedic Patent Medicines,” which are distinct from classical and textual formulations already in the public domain. Patented medicines are the objects of specific systems of appropriation and protection that have not only gained central stage in the country but also have influenced international regulatory bodies. This study investigates the factors that have influenced the manufacturers to produce patent drugs for promoting Ayurveda tourism. The study based on 270 samples units of researchers and experts in the state of Kerala. The results obtained show that market factors, investment factors and economic factors have great influence on manufacturers in production of patent drugs.

  343. Dr. Kshetrimayum Rojeet Singh

    The objective of the present study is to compare the junior swimmers, runners, cyclists and traithletes on sports motivation scale and to assess which sports is more motivated among the selected sports. Method: 80 National junior boys’ swimmers (20), runners (cross country runners - 20), cyclists (20) and triathletes (20) were selected for the purpose of the study from Manipur, Pune, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi and Assam. The age of the athletes were ranged from 15 to 19 years. And to assess the level of motivation in the participation of sports by the athletes the sports motivation scale (28 SMS) questionnaire by Pelletier et al. (1995) was used. The descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, std. error mean etc. was used and for the comparison between the sports on the factor of SMS the one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Results: The mean and standard deviation of the factors of sport motivation for triathletes, runners, cyclists and swimmers are Intrinsic motivation to know (IMTK) (24.45 ± 2.46), (23.55 ± 3.40), (20.3 ± 5.06) and (18.45 ± 2.77), Intrinsic motivation to accomplish (IMTA) (23 ± 2.78),(20.75 ± 5.15), (20.85 ± 3.89) and (18.7 ± 3.80), Intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation (IMTES) (22.8 ± 4.05), (23.85 ± 4.23), (20.45 ± 4.10) and (17.9 ± 3.81), Extrinsic motivation identification (EMI) (22.2 ± 4.47), (21.15 ± 4.38), (20.55 ± 4.57) and (17.7 ± 4.75), Extrinsic motivation Introjection (EMIJ) (22.3 ± 4.12), (21.6 ± 5.83), (20.3 ± 4.53) and (18.45 ± 4.21), Extrinsic motivation external regulation (EMER) (22.45 ± 3.63), (20.1 ± 5.08), (19.75 ± 5.08) and (18.15 ± 4.27) and Amotivation (AM) (21.05 ± 4.08), (22.4 ± 4.16), (20.05 ± 4.32) and (17.3 ± 3.45) respectively. The ANOVA result shows that the p-value of the factors of the sports motivation of the selected athletes was less than 0.05 and hence the F- value is significant at 5 % level. Since the ANOVA results was significant so the Post hoc Comparison of Means was applying by using LSD Test and the results shows that there exists a significant difference in the different factors in between triathletes and cyclists ( p = .000), triathletes and swimmers (p = .000), runners and cyclists (p = .005) and runners and swimmers (p = .000) in IMTK, triathletes and swimmers (p = .001) in IMTA, triathletes and swimmers (p = .000) runners and cyclists (p = .010) runners and swimmers (p = .000) and cyclists and swimmers (p = .050) in IMTES, triathletes and swimmers (p = .002) and runners and swimmers (p = .019) in EMI, triathletes and swimmers (p = .012) and runners and swimmers (p = .038) in EMIJ, triathletes and swimmers (p = .004) in EMER and triathletes and swimmers (p = .004), runners and cyclists (p = .000) and cyclists and swimmers (p = .034) in AM as their obtained p–values were less than 0.05 (p ˂ .05). This implies that in spite of similarities in nature of events there exist differences, or there are special requirements for participation in these sports. The existence of similarities in between these four sports is prevalent in triathletes and runners (p = .427) in IMTK, triathletes and runners (p = .079), triathletes and cyclists (p = .093), runners and cyclists (p = .937), runners and swimmers (p = .108) and cyclists and swimmers (p = .093) in IMTA, triathletes and runners (p = .414) and triathletes and cyclists (p = .070) in IMTES, triathletes and runners (p = .467), traithletes and cyclists (p = .254), runners and cyclists (p = .677) and cyclists and swimmers (p = .051) in EMI, traithletes and runners (p = .641), triathletes and cyclists (p = .185), runners and cyclists (p = .387) and cyclists and swimmers (p = .219) in EMIJ, triathletes and runners (p = .107) traithletes and cyclists (p = .065) runners and cyclists (p = .809), runners and swimmers (p = .180) and cyclists and swimmers (p = .270) in EMER and triathletes and runners (p = .291), traithletes and cyclists (p = .434) and runners and cyclists (p = .068) in AM as their obtained p-values were greater than .05 (p ˃ .05). Conclusion: It must be noted that the present research was solely comparison in nature and that future studies would be needed to assess how athletes actually interpret behavior in competitive sports situations. Elaboration of this information could be potentially useful to coaches and athletes in order to optimize the experience of participants in sport and exercise activities.

  344. Walter Duarte de Araújo Filho, Paulo Augusto Oliveira Ramos, Armando Luiz Andrade Peixoto and Julián Hermógenes Quezada Celedon

    For Aristotle, the free-falling body tends to occupy your place natural (soil), moving in a straight line with a speed proportional to its mass. Galileo discusses this phenomenon describing an experiment supposedly held in a tower. For some commentators to your work, this experiment had a bias more rational than empirical. In the development of your reasoning Galileo predicted that a largest iron-ball 100 pounds of mass would hit the ground with a difference "two fingers" in relation to another lighter iron ball of mass 1 pound when both fall from a height 100 fathoms. To check the veracity of this statement, the experiment course reissued based on the history given in the book Discorsi, using a mathematical model implemented by software Mathematica 11.0. The results showed that both balls reach the ground with a difference much larger than two fingers provided by Galileo, more exactly 9.12 m away.

  345. Gabriela Lisboa Tamagno, Marta Elisete Ventura da Motta, Alice Munz Fernandes, Beatriz Lucia Salvador Bizotto and Ademar Galelli

    Creative accounting is the use of the flexibility of accounting standards, where and used the unfilled gaps within them without at the same time violate any rule. The objective of this study was to verify the evolution of scientific production on the theme of creative accounting. For both, it was a analysis bibliometric on the database Scopus, Boolean search terms and establishing "creative accounting", it was noted that since 1986 until then were 84 articles written related in one way or another to the song. During the study it was found that the amount of authors who report on the topic and how many articles each lectured, as well as highlight keywords, areas of knowledge that most published on the topic, related universities to published articles. Include different concepts for the theme, since natural easing of standards until the concept of handling/fraud. For further work it is suggested to carry out field research, both qualitative as quantitative, in order to identify the perception of accounting professionals, business people and Government and the use of creative accounting.

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