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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





August 2019

  1. Dr. Rashmi Prakash, Dr. Ankita Prakash, Dr. Mohd Nawaj and Dr. Nitin Ashok John

    Maturity Onset Diabetes of Young (MODY) is a hereditary form of diabetes mellitus and is caused due to mutations in autosomal dominant gene and is referred to as Monogenic diabetes. It may be confuses to be a disease Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adult (LADA). But LADA has a slower progression to insulin dependence as age progresses while MODY has childhood onset and occurs later in life. MODY variant forms include MODY 2 and 3 which are most common forms. Children and adolescents with MODY may have fasting hyperglycemia at diagnosis and these patient presents with typical microangiopathic and macroangiopathic complications with similar degree of hyperglycemia In retrospect we can now recognize that this category covered a heterogeneous collection of disorders which included cases of dominantly inherited diabetes, still call MODY today. As in 20th century the concept and understanding of MODY has become refined and debatable, hence the pathophysiology and management has been explored through literature in this review.

  2. Kotue, T.C., Wirba, L. N., Jayamurthy, P., Pieme, A. C., Kansci, G. and Fokou, E.

    Background: Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a chronic, debilitating disorder with a myriad of symptoms that make disease treatment challenging. The use of food and nutrition in managing SCD is gaining increasing attention because some nutrients from food could serve as a source of the antisickling new lead compounds. Objective: It was to profile; to investigate in vitro antisickling properties, membrane stability effect and antioxidant potentials of amino acids extract from black bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgarus L.) used in the management of SCD in the West Region of Cameroon. Methods: Amino acids extract was carried up on a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The sickling of red blood cells (RBCs) was induced using sodium metabisulfite (2%) followed by treatment with amino acids at different concentrations. The evaluation of the rates of inhibition of induced sickling and that of acquired reversibility was performed using microscopic enumeration. The evaluation of membrane stability effect; Ferric Reducting Antioxydant Power (FRAP) assay; 2,2-DiPhenyl Picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH°) and radical hydroxyle (OH°) was determined using colorimetric method. Results: Total 16 amino acids were found in the black bean seeds, alanine is the major constituent and followed by cysteine, asparagines and threonine. The results obtained show that 12mg/mL was the best concentration because gave the highest rates of inhibition and reversibility of sickling of red blood cells (92.06±3.52% and 86.74±2.1%). Hemolysis also decreased at different extract concentrations showing the stability effect on the membranes of erythrocytes. However the concentration of 12mg/mL has showed the best activity (from 100 to 20.12%). Amino acids extract from black bean seeds exhibited antioxidant potentials at 23.12±0.116 mg FeII/100g of black bean seeds after carrying out FRAP. It also showed a inhibitory activity on free radicals of DPPHo and HOo at IC50 10.76±1.57mg/mL and 2.04±0.029mg/mL respectively. Conclusion: Amino acids extract from black bean seeds used to manage sickle cell disease in the west region of Cameroon have antisickling, anti-hemolytic and antioxidant properties. These results may justify the use of black bean seeds by sickle cell patients.

  3. Dr. Vijaya, D., Dr. Leelavathy, B., Dr. Anand Kumar, B.H., Dr. Venkatesh, D., Dr. Santhya, S.T. and Dr. Shakthi, R.

    The purpose of this study was to compare KOH, culture and CFW stain in the diagnosis of superficial mycoses and to determine their sensitivity, specificity and predictive value. Clinically diagnosed 100 superficial fungal infection cases (males 56 and Female 44) age ranged 25 to 55yrs formed the study group. This is in collaboration with department of Dermatology, Victoria Hospital Bangalore. The study was conducted in Microbiology department AIMS BG Nagara. Samples from skin, nail and hair were collected as per individual symptomotology. Samples were processed using CFW stain, KOH and culture. Result: Of the 100 cases, T.corporis (62) was the commonest clinical type followed by T.cruris(14), onycomycoses(12), T.versicolor(5), T.pedis(4), T.capitis (2) and T.faceie(1). KOH was positive in 82, culture in 78 and CFW in 84 case. Culture isolates were dermatophytes in 64 (82.05%) and yeast like fungi in 14 (17.94%). T.rubrum (64.06%) was the commonest followed by T.gypseum (17.18%), T.mentagrophyte(14.06%), T.tonsurans(1.56%), T.canis(1.56%), and T.violaceum (1.56 %). Among the yeast like fungi isolates were Candida spp (78.57%) and Malssisia furfur (21.42%). Discussion and Conclusion: Considering culture as gold standard, KOH showed sensitivity of 95.12%, specificity 73.33%, PPV 90.69 NPV 84.61 and CFW stain showed sensitivity of 100%, specificity 78.57, PPV 92.85, NPV 100. CFW stain has the advantage compared to KOH and culture, being rapid (30-60sec), simple, reliable, easy visibility at low power, with high sensitivity and specificity and inexpensive if fluorescent microscope is available in the laboratory.

  4. Bekalu wube and Workalemahu Tasew

    The study was conducted at Awabel Woreda to analyze the market chain performance of bee honey. The area is known for its production of honey. However, market chain of honey is not well understood. The study has focused on market participants, the structure, conduct and performance of honey markets. The research design used for this study was cross sectional survey type. The data were generated by structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews. This was supported by secondary data collected from NGO’S, bureau of agriculture and rural development, woreda trade and industry office, CSA, websites, articles, research works and review of related literatures. Producers, Collectors, Retailers, Processors and consumers were the main actors in honey market chain. Quantity of honey passed through different marketing actors from farmers to consumers. The Producers- Consumers channel carried the largest volume, which is 38.1% of the total volume followed by Producers-Collectors-Processors-Consumers channel which carried about 21.9% of the total volume of honey transacted. Structure of honey market indicates four-firm Concentration Ratio (CR4), that is, the share of the largest four traders in the total volume of honey purchased. The four largest traders handled 38.4% of the total volume of purchased honey. This suggested that the honey market in Awabel Woreda shows a weak oligopoly market structure. In relation to the conduct of honey market, pricing mechanism of the traders indicated that 57.4% of traders and 8% of producers set their selling price. Cheating was very common in honey marketing by manipulating weighing scale. Regarding payment strategy, about 100% of sample producers sold their product on cash bases. Traders took a total of 9% out of the total profit margin. The Total Gross Marketing Margin is highest in Producers- Collectors- Processors- Consumers (30.32%) followed by Producers-Retailers –Processors- Consumers (16%). Therefore, the development of honey producers’ bargaining power through cooperatives is the best measure that should target at reducing the oligopolistic market structure and increases honey production in the Woreda.

  5. Akinyele, M. O., Oyewale, R. O., Idowu, G. A., Ibrahim, H. M. and Afolabi, S. G.

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is an important staple food crops and provide bulk of raw materials for the livestock and many agro-allied industries in the world. There are collections of sorghum genotypes in some research institutes and most of these collections lack information on its morphology- agronomic traits that could be used by researchers to improve sorghum production in Nigeria. However, breeding for high yield crops requires information on the nature and magnitude of variation in the available materials and the relationship of yield with other agronomic characters. Grain yield in sorghum is quantitative in nature and polygenically controlled, effective yield improvement and simultaneous improvement in yield components are imperative. Selection on the basis of grain yield character alone is usually not very effective and efficient. Genetic variability studies provide the basic information regarding the genetic properties of the population based on which the breeding methods are formulated for further crop improvement. For any progress in plant breeding, there is the need to study the genetic variability which cannot be easily quantified. Genetic improvement for quantitative traits depends on the nature and amount of variability present in any genetic stock and the extent to which the desirable traits are heritable. Knowledge of association between yield and its component traits and among the component parameters themselves can improve the efficiency of selection in plant breeding. Therefore, there is the need to characterize as much as possible sorghum genotypes available in Nigeria to identify traits for yield against future sorghum improvements for better food production and security.

  6. Sonal Agrawal

    Background: Physiotherapy is a form of rehabilitation science which helps to make a difference in an individual’s ability to live an active and healthy lifestyle. For many physiotherapist working in India, the main source of reference is a orthopaedic. Slowly and steadily physiotherapy did establish a firm base in India with lot of new developments, but still by large, physiotherapy remains a secondary referral profession. Hence this study was conducted to look at the orthopaedic perspective as to how much importance is given to the physiotherapy. Methods: A Sample size of 70 subjects were purposely choosen. The study was conducted in a questionnaire based interview format. A willing orthopaedic surgeons were included, whereas interns and unwilling practitioners were exclude. Results: From the study, it was learned that there is awareness regarding physiotherapy among orthopaedic surgeons. With regards to the different streams of physiotherapy, the Orthopaedic (100%) and Sports rehabilitation (98%) are the most popular, followed by Neurological field(94%),Cardio respiratory(88%) and 82.86% aware of community based rehabilitation. Conclusion: The study revealed that there is full awareness of physiotherapy among orthopaedic surgeons. Musculoskeletal physiotherapy and sports physiotherapy showed good awareness among the study subjects. This was followed by Neuro physiotherapy, Cardio respiratory and Community based rehabilitation.

  7. Gazissou, R., Adjia, Z. H., Ebio, G. and Noumi, G. B.

    The agricultural waste corn ears have been used in the depollution of sewage loaded with coloring, including Methylene Blue (MB). The adsorption balance was reached in 15min. The yield of elimination of Methylene Blue reached 96.85%. The experimental data are analyzed by two isotherms (Freundlich and Temkin). The Freundlich nf constant is between 0 and 0.5. We have studied thermodynamic parameters in the temperature range of 298K and 338K. We got free energy negative (ΔG˂0), the standard enthalpy of the removal positive and below 50 KJ/mol, demonstrating that the reaction is favorable, spontaneous, endothermic, and of physical nature. The kinetic model of pseudo second order and Elovich were applied is the correlation coefficients R2 is 0.99. The reactions are made according to the models of pseudo second order and Elovich suggesting the hypothesis that the mechanism of the reactions are done in two phases: - The diffusion of the BM towards the surface of the adsorbent; - The interaction between the adsorbate molecules (MB) and the surface of the adsorbent, suggesting the existence of chemisorption.

  8. Mridula Das, Barkha Devi, Snigdha Roy, Yourika Tamang, Dikshya Rai, Puna Yami, Asha Chetry, Shama Bashal, Passang D. Bhutia, Anamika Chettri, Pangki Lepcha, Rita Chettri and Rinchen Lepcha

    Introduction and Background: Continuing professional development programme has become a popular term among professionals in recent years. Professional organizations are exploring continuing professional development programme to monitor accountability and clinical competence. The present study was planned to assess and compare the attitude and barriers towards participation in continuing professional development programme among nurses working in Government and Private Hospitals, Sikkim. Methodology: Investigators adopted the descriptive comparative research design .The 100 nursing staff working in the hospital setup and directly or indirectly engaged in patient care with the qualification of degree /diploma/certificate were recruited through stratified random sampling technique from different wards, outpatient departments and laboratories of government and private hospitals of Sikkim. Structured attitude scale, barrier assessment scale and semi structured questionnaire on identified barrier were used to collect data on nurses attitude and barrier towards participation in continuing professional development programme for which validity and reliability was established. Written informed consent was taken from the respondent prior to the administration of the questionnaire. Result: The analysis of the data indicated that the 7o% of nurses in Government and private hospital displayed a favorable attitude towards continuing professional development programme. The mean positive attitude score was slightly higher among nurses of private hospital (79%) than the mean attitude score of nurses in government hospital (77%) with the mean difference of 1.24 which was not found statistically significant (t=1.037,p>0.05). Nurses working in Government hospital had scored high barriers (62%) towards participation in continuing professional development programme than the private nurses (38%). Conclusion: It was indeed encouraging to see that even in presence of personal and organizational barriers, nurses expressed favorable attitude towards continuing professional development.

  9. ZHENG Linghui, REN Shangkun, ZHANG Dan and XU Yang

    Lamb wave is widely used in the detection of butt weld defect of steel plate. In order to solve the high requirement of traditional piezoelectric ultrasonic on the surface of the specimen, the electromagnetic ultrasonic testing technology (EMAT) is adopted to stimulate Lamb wave. On the basis of solving the Lamb wave frequency scatter curve diagram of 3mm thick steel plate by MATLAB programming, COMSOL software was used to simulate the propagation of characteristic guided waves in steel plate welds. The simulation results showed that the characteristic guided waves in steel plate welds had an obvious effect on defect identification, and the error was about 2%. The experimental design of electromagnetic ultrasonic excitation Lamb wave detection of rectangular through-hole defects in steel plate welds. The results show that the excited characteristic guided wave can effectively detect the position of the through-hole defect, and the positioning error is about 2.9-3.5%. Both simulation and experiment show that the electromagnetic ultrasonic Lamb wave detection method has obvious effect on the positioning of the butt weld defects of the steel plate.

  10. Ahmed Wali, Marjan Khan, Tamour Khan Tareen, Asad Ullah, Muhammad Saleem Panezai and Muhammad Samsoor Zarak

    Objective: To determine the frequency of atrial fibrillation in patients presenting with ischemic stroke and outcome in terms of death or survival at the time of discharge from the tertiary care hospital in Quetta. Patients and methods: This case series study was carried out in a period of one year from May 2014 to April 2015 at Neurology department, Bolan Medical Complex Hospital, Quetta, Pakistan. A sample of 136 patients of age >20 years &<60 years who were ischemic stroke diagnosed on MRI were included. Patients with the transientischemic attack, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral infections Meningitis (Bacterial, tuberculous, viral) and epileptic seizures were excluded. Frequencies and percentages were expressed for categorical variables like gender, outcome variables i-e; presence or absence of AF and survival. Effect modification tested through Chi-square with P value < 0.05 significant. Results: The mean ± SD age of patients was 49.13 ±7.13 years (Range: 35-60). Mean ± SD duration of disease (presenting symptoms of stroke) was 8.62 ± 6.48 hours (Range of 1-29). Male to female ratio was 6.62:1 and male patients were 87.76% (n= 118) while only 13.24% (n= 18) were females. The frequency of AF among patients of ischemic stroke was 21.32% (n= 29) and 3.68% (n= 5) did not survive. Stratified analysis showed that the age, gender, residence and duration of disease were effect modifiers for the frequency of atrial fibrillation as well as the outcome among ischemic stroke patients. Conclusion: Every one out of five ischemic stroke patients may have atrial fibrillation as comorbidity or the underlying reason. Elder age, especially female after menopause, late presenters and those referred from rural areas should be screened thoroughly for atrial fibrillation as a possible underlying diagnosis.

  11. Woromogo Sylvain Honoré, Kibimi Ngoubili Chrismichel Emmanuel, Derguedbe Nebardoum, Antaon Jesse Saint Saba, Mbueh Vifeme Mirabel, Mabiala Babela Jean Robert and Tebeu Pierre Marie

    Introduction: Acute malnutrition is defined by the weight / height (W/ H) index <- 2 Z-score at the median of the WHO standards. It is responsible for 45% of deaths of children under 5 in developing countries. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition among children under five in the district of Djiri in Brazzaville in 2018. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 482 mother-child pairs whose children were aged 6-59 months in the Djiri district of Brazzaville. We collected data from May 30 to July 15, 2018. We identified the factors associated with acute malnutrition. Anthro 2005 and Epi-info version 7.2. softwares were used for storage and analysis of data. The influence of the variables on the occurrence of acute malnutrition was calculated using Chi2, Odds Ratio with 95% CI. The level of significance was set up at p <0.05. Results: The prevalence of acute malnutrition or wasting was (40/482) 8.3%. Factors associated with acute malnutrition were age less than 23 months [ORa: 2.10 (1.30- 3,37); p = 0.0016], birth weightless than2500g, [ORa: 3.23 (1.82-5.72); p = 0.001] and households with more than 7 persons [ORa: 2.28 (1.31-3.96), p = 0.01]. Conclusion: Preventive measures are needed to reduce their prevalence.

  12. Dr. Arasi, K.V., Prof. Dr. Balaji, A.R. and Prof. Dr. Prakash, JVS.

    Background: The aim of the study is to correlate between the value of digital rectal examination (DRE), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy as predictors for diagnosing prostate cancer and to find out whether combined modality is better in screening and detection of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 62 male patients seen over a period of 2 years in a single institution with abnormal DRE, serum PSA levels, TRUS and TRUS guided biopsy and correlated. Results: TRUS biopsy revealed prostate cancer in 26 out of 62 patients. 60% of patients with abnormal DRE had cancer prostate and the remainder 40% reported to have benign lesions. And 92% of patients with abnormal PSA levels had cancer prostate on trus biopsy. Combined abnormal PSA and DRE revealed cancer in 88% of patients. This percentage increased to 95% when TRUS was also abnormal, but dropped to 77% when TRUS was normal. Conclusion: Digital rectal examination together with serum PSA and TRUS have the highest predictable values for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Serum PSA alone is more predictable than DRE in our study. TRUS guided biopsies should be performed in the presence of high serum PSA, and/or abnormal findings by DRE.

  13. Alsayali, R., Alhejji, S., Alzahrani, A., Elgari, D., Alfowzan, E., Algodair, A. and Alsuwaidan, S.

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) adverse reactions are the main complaint of patients receiving metform in and caused approximately 5% of patients to the extent that discontinue their medication or compliance impaired. Objective: The study aimed was to reduce GI disturbance in patients receiving met form in with a primary endpoint to improve patient’s outcome by reducing HbA1c and patient satisfaction. Methodology: This study was conducted on 203 patients receiving met form in and can’t tolerate GI disturbance. The intervention is to conduct patient’s education and counseling using pharmacist’s skills and knowledge. Patient’s improvement outcome was measured using HbA1c and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Student t-test was used to compare HbA1c before and after education. Results: The most common GI symptoms reported were flatulence, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, heartburn, vomiting and others. Pharmacist intervention went with many methods to overcome GI adverse effects. This study showed a significant HbA1c reduction after patient’s education and counseling. The impact of the education was also shown in VAS with a linear regression of the pain and patients satisfaction. Conclusion: Pharmacist intervention including medication review, patient counseling, telephone and face-to-face follow-up were associated with lower GI disturbance, improved patients’ quality of life, higher patients’ adherence and therefore decreased HbA1c. The main implication of this study that “patient education” reduced GI side effect, increase patient compliance, and improve patient’s quality of life.

  14. Dr. Patil Namdeo Arjun

    Knowledge of the water balance is the basis for the development of agricultural production, crop selection, and determination of cropping pattern (Oldeman and Frere, 1982 in Sujalu, 2000). Water balance is defined as ‘the net change in water, taking into account all the inflows to and outflows from a hydrologic system’. Rainfall is the main source of water supply on the earth surface and it determines the moisture level at various depths of soil available to crops. The availability of moisture in soil is a controlling factor for growth and development of all types of vegetation especially for exiting crops in an area. Day to day human activities are normally governed by the prevailing climatic conditions of human beings like deforestations, farming practices, industrialization, rapid urbanization etc. The location and physiographic factors also combined influence the climatic characteristics of a region. In the same way climate helps to define climate vegetation of a region and also sets limits for crop growth. In this context, the numerical estimate of climatic water balance and its study has obtained an important place in geography. In the present study an attempt has been made to describe the climatic characteristics of the study region and to evaluate the water balance parameters for the study region according to the revised scheme of Thornthwaite and Mather (1955).The study shows that the entire Kharip season is deficit free and during Rabi season the deficit amount is 643.9 mm. There is water surplus from July to October and water deficit from November to May. Though on an average the study region is under deficit (1072.2 mm), the agro climatic situation of the region is arid (MI = -59.2 %).

  15. Dr. Geedhu Daniel

    The present study was designed to determine the bioactive components in aqueous hot extract of Eugenia uniflora leaves. Phytochmical screening of the extract revealed the presence of various metabolites like alkaloids, flavanoids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, tannins etc., GC-MS analysis in aquous extract was carried out using Perkin Elmer GC Clarus 500 system comprising AOC-20i Auto-sampler and a Gas chromatography interfaced to a Mass spectrometer (GC-MS) equipped with a Elite-5MS (5% Diphenyl 95% Dimethyl Poly Siloxane) Fused capillary column (30× 0.25m 1D × 0.25m dF). GC-MS analysis has shown the presence of 39 biomolecules corresponding to 39 peaks. From the result it is evident that the aqupous leaf extract of Eugenia uniflora leaves contains various phytocomponents and is recommended as a plant of phyto pharmaceutical importance.

  16. Megha Rastogi, Abhijit Das, Swati Sharma, Poonam Gupta, Madhu Sinha and Man Mohan Mehndiratta

    Hansen’s disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae, is a chronic granulomatous disease. As this bacterium cannot be cultured, it remains the least understood bacterial pathogen. Skin, peripheral nerves & nasal mucosa are mainly affected but this bacterium is capable of affecting any tissue or organ. National leprosy control program was launched in 1955 with an aim to achieve leprosy control but it did not succeed. Later on, global leprosy strategy (2016-2020) have been adopted. Global statistics show that 203600 (96%) of new leprosy cases were reported from 22 priority countries. With 127,369 new cases, India accounted for 60% of the global new cases. Brazil, reported 26395 new cases, representing 13% of the global new cases; & Indonesia reported 17202 new cases, 8% of the global case load. Diagnosis of Hansen’s disease can be done by examination of skin smear, animal inoculation, immunological tests, histopathological test, FNAC, PCR, radiological examination. BCG vaccine was being widely implemented for control of both leprosy & tuberculosis. Mycobacterium indicuspranii (MIP) vaccine has received approval from central drug standard control organization & the U.S food & drug administration (FDA) as a vaccine against leprosy.

  17. Dr. Arul Selvan, Dr. Yashpal Singh, Dr. Singh, D.K., Dr. Sarath Kumar, Dr. Siva Kumar, R. and Dr. Mohan

    Background: Multiple attempts and needle redirection in a single attempt while performing combined spinal epidural anaesthesia are associated with a greater incidence of postdural puncture headache, paraesthesia, and spinal hematoma. We hypothesized that the routine use of a preprocedural ultrasound-guided combined spinal epidural anaesthesia would reduce the number of attempts and needle redirection in a single attempt when compared with the conventional landmark-guided combined spinal epidural anaesthesia. Methods: Sixty consenting patients scheduled for elective total joint replacements (hip and knee) were randomized into group U (Ultrasound guided technique) and group L (Landmark technique) with 30 in each group. In group L, combined spinal epidural was done via the midline approach using clinically palpated landmarks. In group U, a preprocedural ultrasound scan was used to mark the insertion site, and combined spinal epidural anaesthesia was performed. Results: The mean number of attempt was lower in Group U (1.06±0.25) than Group L (1.26±0.89) and p-value (0.039) was found to be significant. The mean total number of needle redirection in a single attempt were found to be lower in Group U (1.16±0.53) than Group L (1.60±0.89) and the p-value (0.027) was found to be significant. The mean value of time taken for identifying landmark for Group U (126.9±9.31) was higher than Group L (25±7.08) and p-value (<0.05) was found to be significant.The mean value of time taken for the procedure was higher in Group U (634.83±48.90) than Group L (458.93±41.15) and p-value (<0.05) was found to be significant. The mean periprocedural VAS score of pain and the demographic profile were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: Routine use of combined spinal epidural anaesthesia in the orthopaedic patient population undergoing joint replacement surgery, guided by preprocedural ultrasound examination, significantly decreases the number of attempts and needle redirection needed to enter the subarachnoid and epidural space.

  18. Binu K. M., Joslin Mariya Grace Jose, Akhila Mariam George and Doddayya, H.

    Objective: To study the antibiotic prescribing pattern in surgery department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted over a period of six months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. A total of 300 case records of inpatient undergone treatment in surgery department was reviewed. The relevant information was recorded in structured proforma and data was evaluated. Results: Case records of 300patients who have undergone surgery were observed during the study period. Antibiotics were recommended for 254 patients. The most preferred route of administration wereparenteral (95.27%) than oral route (3.94%) followed by both (0.79%). Cefotaxim was mostly prescribed (23.33%) followed by sulbactum (18.24%) and metronidazole (17.55%). Majority of prescriptions were prescribed with 2 antibiotics (53.15%) and single antibiotic was prescribed in 39.37% cases. Among the 154 antibiotic combination prescribed, out of which cefaperazone + sulbactum (39.61%) was the most commonly prescribed regimen followed by ciprofloxacin + metronidazole (8.87%) and Cefotaxime + metronidazole 27 (17.53%) . The first dose of antibiotic was administered more than 2 hour before operation in 143 (56.30%) cases. Conclusion: We have evaluated the prescribing pattern of antibiotics in Surgery department. Almost prescribing patterns were found to be rational, as we can see adherence to American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) guidelines in many of the cases. The results of this practice can help to provide evidence for recommendations that may help to improve health care.

  19. Gona, A. and Mohammad, K.H.

    The study examined the role of animal traction technology on profitability and income of small scale farmers in Kebbi State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected through the use of pre tested questionnaires in 2017. A multistage sampling procedure was used to collect data from two categories of respondents that is ATT Users and Non-users. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Net Farm Income Analysis and Gini Co-efficient. The result showed that bull (100 %), camel (60.26 %) and donkey (32.05 %) are the various types of animals used as draught animals in the study area. The result further reveals that ploughing (100 %), ridging (98.72 %), tillage (97.44 %), weeding (88.46 %), transportation (65.38 %) and fetching of water (12.82 %) are the activities performed using draught animals. The result further reveals that farmers who are ATT users outperformed farmers who are non ATT users when using Net Farm Income analysis. Farmers who are ATT users achieved a Net Farm Income of N436,885.36 and non-users achieved about N150,365.38 which shows a significant difference of about N286,519.98. This suggests that ATT users achieved more profit than non-users. Furthermore the result also showed that for ATT users there was less income inequality having a Gini coefficient value of 0.4592 while for non-users there is wider income inequality with a Gini coefficient value of 0.7284. This suggests that ATT usage enhances the profitability and income of the farmers. It is recommended that farmers should key into the use of Animal Traction Technology as it increases income and profit of the users at a low cost in the absence of machines such as Tractors. Also farmers should be supported with incentives in kind with draught animals as credit at low interest rate.

  20. Mohit Arora, Kanika Gupta and Vaibhav Tewari

    Background: Postoperative pain occurs due to the peripheral tissue injury which provokes peripheral and central sensitization. Several modalities have been developed, using analgesics and adjuvant drugs, to assure complete pain relief in perioperative period. Spinal anaesthesia, is a popular and common technique used worldwide, for lower limb and lower extremity surgeries. However, post-operative pain control is a major problem with using local anesthetics alone in subarachnoid block, because of relatively short duration of action. Regional techniques with adjuvant drugs are effective in control of post-operative pain. Objectives: This study is aimed at evaluating and comparing the efficacy of Fentanyl and Dexmedetomidine as adjuvants to 0.5% Bupivacaine, for post-operative analgesia in terms of- a. Onset and duration of sensory and motor block. b. Duration of post-operative analgesia. c. Observe side effects if any. Material & methods: This prospective, randomized, comparative, double-blind clinical study was conducted at St. Stephen’s Hospital, Delhi, on 90 patients between the age group of 15-70 years, belonging to ASA class I and II, who were to undergo any lower abdominal or lower limb surgery under subarachnoid block. The patients were randomly allocated into 3 groups of 30 each: Group B: Bupivacaine 0.5% 3.0ml + 0.5ml saline. Group F: Bupivacaine 0.5% 3.0ml + 0.5ml Fentanyl (25ug). Group D: Bupivacaine 0.5% 3.0ml + Dexmedetomidine (5ug) Results: 1. The mean duration of complete analgesia for group B was 150± 26 minutes, 215.3 ± 30.9 for group F and 252.2 ± 33.4 for group D. This was found to be stastically significant (p Value=0.00). 2. The mean duration of 1st analgesic medication requirement for group B was 182.03± 31.99 minutes, 255.1 ± 36.15 minutes for group F and 310.5± 38.6 minutes for group D. This was found to be stastically significant (p Value=0.00). 3. The incidence of Hypotension and Bradycardia was significantly higher in Group D as compared to group B and group F (P=0.002 and 0.002 respectively). 4. The incidence of Pruritus was significantly higher in group F as compared to group D and Group B (P=0.005). Conclusion: The conclusions that were drawn from the study can be summarized as follows: The addition of Dexmedetomidine may benefit patients undergoing lower limb surgery or lower abdominal surgeries under spinal anaesthesia in terms of prolongation of analgesic-time and reduction of analgesic dose without any major side effect.

  21. Dr. Vaibhavi J Parmar and Dr. Manoj Kumar

    Objectives: comparison of trunk training exercise versus pelvic PNF to improve trunk control and gait in chronic stroke patient. Method: A sample of 20 patients was recruited from the Physiotherapy Department of shree B.G. Patel College of physiotherapy and Iris Hospital anand through convenient sampling technique. Ten patients were placed to each TTE and PNF groups. TTE group was treated with trunk and L/E exercises on unstable surface and PNF group was treated with PNF patterns of Pelvic for four consecutive weeks. Pre and post treatment measurements were determined by Trunk impairment score (TIS) and Time up and go test (TUG). Results: Both group showed improvement after training, but the Trunk training exercise (TTE) group demonstrated better scores relating to PNF group in the Trunk control and balance (TIS= 0.0083 & TUG= <0.001) at the end of the protocol. Conclusion: The study revealed that there is significant improvement in trunk control in both group but more significant improvement in trunk control and balance in TTE group compared to PNF.

  22. Kaur Jaskirat and Sharma Preksha

    Music therapy is one of the complementary therapies which not only delights our mind but also delivers immense relief to the body. The selective use of music therapy is a simple practice without any unwanted collateral effects on the patients during the treatment of the most other variables and reduces a considerable amount of anxiety, pain, stress and depression in Intensive Care Units.

  23. Nilam Tupe and Suchita Rajurkar

    The present investigation deals with the Atmospheric Fungal Assortment over Cajanus cajan Field at Maliwada village Dist. Aurangabad (M.S.). The aerobiological investigation was carried out by using volumetric Tilak air sampler from 1 July 2016 to 31 December 2016. Total number of fungal spores found during the month of July to December 2016 were (62289 spores/m3) belonging to 44 genera. Dominant spore group accounted were Deuteromycotina about (70.09%). Throughout the season Cladosporium were most dominant spore (29.51%). Variations were seen among the fungal spores with respect to seasonal changes.

  24. Meenakshi, Prabhat and Sahu, D.

    Background: Thyroid disorders are among the common endocrine problems in pregnant women. It is now well established that not only overt, but subclinical thyroid dysfunction also has adverse effects on maternal and fetal outcome. There are very few data from India about the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy. Aims and objectives: This study aims to find prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy and its impact on obstetrical outcome in Indian population. The study has also an objective of finding the occurrence of subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods:1055 pregnant women in first and second trimester were registered. Detailed history and examination was done. Apart from routine obstetrical investigations, thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) level estimation was done. If TSH level was deranged then free T4 and T3 levels estimation were done. Results: Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was high in this study, with subclinical hypothyroidism in 13.2 %, hypothyroidism in 20.7%and overt hypothyroidism in 1.4% women in a north Indian tertiary care center. Conclusions: Prevalence of thyroid disorders, especially hypothyroidism (20.7%) and subclinical hypothyroidism (13.2%) was high.

  25. Tittu Thomas James, Amishi Oza, Asma Parveen, Jowena Parikh, Pooja Motar, Unnati Shetty, Vrushali Bhore and Pradnya Dhargave

    Background: The delay or malfunction of any of the neuromuscular systems for postural control leads to a spontaneous oscillation of the center of mass within the position maintained by the individual, resulting in postural sway. Force-plates and dynamic posturography are been widely used in clinical settings to analyze the postural sway. Swaymeter is found to be a cost-effective and easy tool to analyze the postural sway in neurologic patients. This study identified the test-retest reliability of Swaymeter and its concurrent validity with the Multi-Directional Reach Test. Methods: Thirty patients with age ranged from 19 to 79 (19 males and 11 females) and those who can maintain one minute independent standing were assessed using Swaymeter thrice with 10 minutes rest between the tests. MDRT measurements were also assessed within these individuals. The test-retest reliability was identified using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and the concurrent validity with MDRT using Pearson Correlation. Results: We identified a moderate test-retest reliability in Swaymeter (0.602-0.757) in all directions, with the right side showing moderate to good reliability with ICC of 0.757. The analysis shows a positive correlation between Swaymeter values and MDRT values, with posterior direction showing a moderate positive significant correlation (+0.463, p<0.05). Conclusion: The moderate to good reliability of Swaymeter makes it an effective tool in the clinical and rehabilitation settings for the benefit of the patients. The performance of static balance tests cannot be compared with that of dynamic balance, and therefore must be assessed separately in patients.

  26. Khan, M. S. A.

    The measurements of the thickness of the removed active layer of a cellulose nitrate-85 (LR-115, type II) detector have been carried out by using surface profilometry method through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) system with the spectroscopic wave number at 1598 cm−1 corresponding to the O–NO2 bond of a CN-85 (LR-115, Type II) SSNTD. Due to chemical reaction between the etching solution (etchant) and the detector material, some molecules of the detector are removed. The final effect is the removal of the material from the detector surface. During etching, the material is removed layer by layer and the thickness of the detector becomes smaller and smaller. It was found that the bulk etch rate or removed active layer of CN-85 (LR-115, Type II) detector could not controlled by temperature easily during chemical etching and is significantly affected by the presence and amount of stirring. Therefore actual layer monitoring of the active layer thickness is necessary when using CN-85 (LR-115, Type II) solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD). For the standard etching condition of CN-85 (2.5 N aqueous solution of NaOH kept at 60 0C temperature) detectors, the bulk etched rate under magnetic stirring and no stirring condition was found respectively 6.61± 0.33 µm h−1 and 3.59 ± 0.12 µm h−1. Also there is some variation have been found in the initial thickness of the active layer in CN-85 (LR-115, type II) detector of 12 µm.

  27. Girma Tassew

    Illegal harvesting is the most significant threat to biodiversity in Ethiopia. Similar problem is facing in Borecha Woreda (Ameto, Leka Siden and Markafo kebele). The aim of this study was to assess the drivers and impacts of illegal hunting. For this study, cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs were employed. To collect necessary data through interview and focus group discussion cross-sectional design was employed and longitudinal research design was used for quantification and identification of wildlife while hunters engaged on hunting. Primary data collection tools were interviews, focus group discussion and observation checklists. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and explained in number and percent and presented in tables and figures. The rest data explained qualitatively. The findings revealed that the main driver of illegal hunting in the study area were increased demand of bushmeat, cultural influence, protection form crop and livestock and medicinal purpose, common method hunters used for hunting were spear and wire snare. The number of wildlife is highly decreasing compared to the past ten-fifteen years due to intensive illegal hunting. Awareness creation and educating the community about illegal hunting impacts and importance of wildlife conservation, establishing ground rules at local government level in collaboration of woreda Wildlife management office, kebele leaders, religious leaders, elders and youths to reduce illegal

  28. Venkata Subbamma, S.


  29. Cinjel Nandes Dickson, Joseph Danjuma and Tamti Samuel Nuvalga

    The Pe speaking people of Dokpai community in Kanke Local Government Area of Plateau State are group of people who are living in the mountainous and hilly area of the Local Government Area. They are remote, isolated, left behind and as well do not use or rely on contemporary modern technology to provide ease and comfort of living. Their thought and ways of doing things are still orthodox, primordial and resistance to developmental functions. Pe speaking people are cruel, vicious and ferocious in their act and how they relate with others. Their barbarous nature and culture of resisting modernity are the basic impel that spurred the study. The study attempted to examine the nexus between primitivism and the challenges of development among the Pe speaking people of Dokpai. The secondary sources of data used in this study are generated from an array of both published and unpublished materials such as text books, journal papers, news papers, magazines, conference and seminar papers, internet materials and so many others. Interview was the major instrument of data collection used in this study. In interpreting our data, relationship between insistence of the Pe people on primitive way of doing things, (resisting modernity and contemporary things), their barbarous activities and the challenges of development in the area were established at both theoretical and empirical levels. Empirically, we used a qualitative and historical method that was critical and analytical in providing descriptive and historical details. This was complemented by descriptive analysis. In doing this, information gathered were summarized and processed through statistical packages for social science (SPSS). It was established that there is a strong connection between their primitives ways (Cultural insist and barbarous activities) and the challenges of development among the aborigine of Dokpai community in Kanke Local Government Area. Recommendations such as the needs for sensitization, advocacy activism, government presents and reforms, patronage by modern religious institutions, developmental programmes, and poverty reductions schemes among many others were proffered.

  30. Dr. Aye Thida Aung and Dr. Phyu Phyu Mar

    The Ultrasonic Based Distance Measurement System details the implementation of distance measurement system using the ultrasonic waves. The distance can be measured using pulse echo measurement method. The measurement unit uses the continuous signal in the transmission frequency range of ultrasonic transducers. The signal is transmitted by an ultrasonic transducer, reflected by an obstacle and received by another transducer, reflected by the obstacle and received by another transducer where the signal is detected. The time delay of the transmitted and received signal corresponded to the distance between the system and obstacles.

  31. Daw Me Me Aye, Dr. Aye Thida Aung and Dr. Phyu Phyu Mar

    Today the electronic devices are widely used in this Era. So the measurement of potential difference and current is very important to know. In this work the implementation of voltmeter is carried out. The advantage of this voltmeter is that can be measure the wide range of voltage and precision is 90% efficiency. This circuit is designed to measure 0 to 230VThe new microcontroller based voltmeter cost is very cheap and can be setup easily. When we use what we have learned of microprossers and adjust the program to calculate and show the measure in the 7 segment. The software programming has been interpolated using MPLAB and PROTEUS.

  32. Shalini Verma and Deepak Sharma

    Photoshop is a image editing software not a designing software. Adobe provides many designing software Adobe Illustrator, Image Ready, and Adobe In-Design. Photoshop can do important task includes treating, manipulation, compositing, converting to different format and printing etc. You can know about the Photoshop Interface and how the tools, layers, colors palette, navigators and properties works. How to work with raster images, smart objects, levels and adjustments in Photoshop. How to work color theory in Photoshop. How you can edit the original images. Photoshop work with different file format.

  33. Daw Set Set Swe, Phyu Phyu Mar and Aye Thida Aung

    Nowadays, a smart phone has variety of uses and becomes one of the most important devices. This paper is described the design and implementation of a door opening system using smart phone through Wireless Fidelity (WiFi ) technology. There are different types for transmitting data wirelessly: Bluetooth WiFi…etc. It is used the Bluetooth technology to establish communication between user's smart phone and controller board. The prototype supports manual controlling and microcontroller controlling to open and close home door. By connecting the circuit with servo motor and connecting to the Arduino controller board, it can be controlled by a Bluetooth available to provide remote access from smart phone.

  34. Suprabha, K. and Dr. Subramonian G.

    Blended learning is a mix of pedagogical approach that combines the effectiveness and the socialization opportunities of the classroom with the technological enhancement of online learning. Blended learning increases the interaction between the instructor and the student by integrating formative and summative feedback in order to boost students learning experiences. The objective of the study was to find out the effectiveness of blended learning instructional strategy on commerce outcome at higher secondary level viz; (i) achievement in commerce (ii) attitude towards commerce and (iii) social skills in commerce. The study employs pre-test post-test control group design under the quasi-experimental method. The sample includes 80 students of standard XII, 40 students each in experimental group and control group. The test scores were analysed and compared between the two groups with the statistical techniques of mean difference analysis and ANCOVA. The results of the study revealed that there is significant difference in the mean scores of achievement and social skills in commerce after the intervention of blended learning instructional strategy.

  35. Vindhya Shukla and Shweta Dubey

    Stress is the emotional and physical strain caused by our response to present from the outside world. Stress is a part of today living. In our daily lives we are often exposed to situations that produce stress. However if our stress level is too high it can result in serious medical and social problems. Any event or Stress at work resulting from increasing complexities of work and its divergent demand has become a prominent and pervading feature of the modern organization. Stress as opined by Robinson (2007) is a pressure of adverse influence, circumstance that disturbs the natural physiological balance of the body. The research entitled Study of stress management practices adopted by senior secondary students was formulated with the objective to study the stress management strategies adopted by the students. The sample consisted of 100 class 12th female students studying in Saraswati Vidyamandir, Lakhimpur Kheri (U.P). The tool used for the study was a self structured stress scale consisting items on stress management practices. The result was analyzed on the basis of frequency and percentage. The study concluded that most of students were found using physical exercise like; yoga, walk, sports and dance for reducing the stress level. Some of them were also found taking help of meditation, listening to music, talking to others and drawing and painting. All of them accepted that crying helps them to become stress free.

  36. William W.S. Chen

    Efron and Morris (1975) gave an amusing example of batting averages of major league baseball players in the United States, to illustrate the superiority of James Stein estimators over direct estimators. In this paper, we include eight more competitors and attempts to seek a best estimator of all. These new estimators include the overall sample proportion, a synthetic estimator using the previous year batting average, two composite estimators that we mentioned, the Bayes estimators using either noninformative or informative prior distribution. We use about 370 more times at batting average was taken as the true value. Since the true values are assumed to be known, we can compute the relative overall accuracies. Four more criteria have been included to increase the selection results.

  37. Wondwosen Tesfamichael Ali

    The purpose of this study was to identify challenges that the students faced while learning paragraph writing through process writing approach and a descriptive research design was used. The participants of the study were grade 11 students at Yekatit 12 Preparatory School, Ethiopia. The data for the study were gathered through questionnaires. The results of the study showed that inadequate learning resources, irregular written feedback, inadequate practice of paragraph writing, interference of mother tongue while writing paragraphs, limited vocabularies, not rewriting the corrected version of the paragraphs, inappropriate usage of grammar and unable to use the different stages of process writing approach to compose paragraphs were the students’ challenges. Recommendations based on the study were made to enable curriculum developers, policy makers and teachers to come up with strategies to address the challenges that the students faced in writing different types of paragraphs through process writing approach.

  38. Tesfaye Megerssa Oljira

    The concept of anf-contraction mapping with generalized altering distance function is introduced, and some fixed and common fixed point theorems for f-contraction mapping with generalized altering distance function in partially ordered metric spaces are proved.

  39. Khan, M. S. A.

    The measurements of the thickness of the removed active layer of a cellulose nitrate-85 (LR-115, type II) detector have been carried out by using surface profilometry method through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) system with the spectroscopic wave number at 1598 cm−1 corresponding to the O–NO2 bond of a CN-85 (LR-115, Type II) SSNTD. Due to chemical reaction between the etching solution (etchant) and the detector material, some molecules of the detector are removed. The final effect is the removal of the material from the detector surface. During etching, the material is removed layer by layer and the thickness of the detector becomes smaller and smaller. It was found that the bulk etch rate or removed active layer of CN-85 (LR-115, Type II) detector could not controlled by temperature easily during chemical etching and is significantly affected by the presence and amount of stirring. Therefore actual layer monitoring of the active layer thickness is necessary when using CN-85 (LR-115, Type II) solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD). For the standard etching condition of CN-85 (2.5 N aqueous solution of NaOH kept at 60 0C temperature) detectors, the bulk etched rate under magnetic stirring and no stirring condition was found respectively 6.61± 0.33 µm h−1 and 3.59 ± 0.12 µm h−1. Also there is some variation have been found in the initial thickness of the active layer in CN-85 (LR-115, type II) detector of 12 µm.

  40. Massandjé TRAORE and Michel GBAGBO

    People living with Human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHA) are ostracized, judged morally and mostly rejected by their communities. This study aims to highlight and analyze the processes of stigmatisation of PLWHA as well as the rationale for their adaptability. The theories of causal attribution and stigmatization have been used to account for this phenomenon of rejection as well as the adaptation logics developed by victims. Methodologically, the research was conducted in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, and 56 people, including 30 people living with HIV/AIDS, participated in the survey. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with these individuals. The method of analysis is qualitative and phenomenological in nature and aims to show that PLWHA have difficulties in social adaptation. The results show that despite adversity, the best adapted PLHIV use a coping waybased on a triptych: acceptance of HIV status, concealment of status (moving, diversification of consulted health centres, etc.) and maintenance of professional status.

  41. Landry Martial Miguel, Didier Gesril N'jilo, Ruphin Bertrand Bolanga, Jean De Dieu Bimangou, Etienne Mokondjimobe, Donatien Moukassa and Ange Antoine Abena

    Background: The oil of D. edulis pulp fruits is known for its medicinal and nutritional potentialities. Evaluation of hepatic and renal function is a major step in the study of the pharmacological activities of plant extracts. Objective: To evaluate the effects of D. edulis (DEO) oil on biochemical parameters in mice. Methods: Lipid (TG, CT, HDL-C), transaminases (ALT and AST) and creatinin levels were determined in the serum after oral administration of DEO (5 and 10 ml/kg), for 6 weeks. The LDL-C level was calculated according to the Friedwald formula. The biochemical parameters levels of DEO treated animals were compared to those of the control animals. Results: The results obtened in dicate that DEO administration did not cause any significant modification of the animals weight and the concentrations of TG, CT and HDL-C.A dose-dependent decrease in LDL-C, ALT, AST and CR was observed in animals treated with DEO, compared to control animals. Conclusion: The results of this study show that DEO does not significantly alter the lipid profile but provides protection for hepatocellular and renal function.

  42. Swatipawar, Smitakhalikar, Dange S.P. and Kishor Mahale

    Xerostomia refers to a subjective sensation of dry mouth. A variety of factors can cause xerostomia including radiotherapy (RT) given for the treatment of oral carcinoma. Depending on the cause, treatment is provided to a patient suffering from xerostomia. In severe xerostomia salivary substitutes can be used and if the xerostomic patient is edentulous, then reservoir space for artificial salivary substitute can be created in partial as well as complete upper or lower dentures. The methods advocated so far for incorporating reservoir space in mandibular complete denture are costly, time consuming and require extra‑laboratory steps. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to report a simpler method for fabrication of maxillary reservoir denture in a 67‑year‑old edentulous male patient suffering from xerostomia due to RT for oral carcinoma.

  43. Dr. Padma Vishal and Dr. Srinath, S.

    With the change in the emphasis from an inpatient to outpatient, hospital and office-based medical/surgical enhancement, there has been increased interest in the ‘big little problem’ of PONV, one of the main complaints in patients undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia. It is one of the most important factors that determine the length of hospital stay after ambulatory anaesthesia, can delay discharge and result in unplanned overnight hospital admission. This high incidence may justify the use of prophylactic antiemetic therapy and among them,the 5 HT3 antagonists are very effective in preventing post-operative nausea and vomiting and do not produce any significant side effects. This randomized, open study compares the efficacy of Ondansetron and Palonosetron in the prevention of post – operative nausea and vomiting. The incidence of PONV was significantly less in the Palonosetron group (5.55%) as compared to the Ondansetron group (43.33%), with a lesser need for rescue antiemetic in the Palonosetron group (10% vs. 53%). Though the side effects of Ondansetron and Palonosetron are comparable, Palonosetron is one of the most effective anti-emetic drug used for prevention of PONV in ENT surgeries.

  44. Adesoji Olubunmi OMONIYI and Ominowa Olajumoke Toye

    The study examined the relative effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and Classroom Demonstration Technique (CDT) on the performance of students in acid/basetitration under volumetric analysis aspect of the O' level practical Chemistry. A pre-test, post-test control group design was used for the study. A sample of 123 SSS II Chemistry students from three secondary schools in their intact classes in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State were used for the study. The three classes were assigned to treatment and control groups. The first group comprising 46 students were taught using Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), the second group comprising 42 students were taught using the Classroom Demonstration Technique (CDT), while the control group comprising 35 students were taught using the conventional lecture methods (LM). A pre-test was administered before treatment, and after four weeks of instruction, a post-test was administered..Data obtained were analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance and t-test. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the performance of students taught CAI and those taught with CDT (t = 4.95, p <0.05). Also a significant difference existed in the performance of students that were exposed to CDT and those exposed to LM (t = 13.80, p <0.05). There was also a significant difference in the effectiveness of CAI in improving students’ performance in practical Chemistry (F(2,120) = 92.58, p <0.05). It was therefore concluded that CAI was very effective in teaching acid/base titration in practical Chemistry.

  45. Dr. Suman Chaudhary, Dr. Anand Prakash Verma and Dr. Pankaj Gupta

    Background: Anatomical complex areas seen in parasellar region includes e.g. orbits, cavernous sinus and its contents like ICA and the walls of the cavernous sinuses, suprasellar cistern, hypothalamus attach through the pituitary stalk and dural reflections forming diaphragm sellae. Wide diversity of anatomy and pathology includes tumors, cyst, vascular lesion, inflammation, infection and congenital lesions1. A number of diseases that affect the pituitary-hypothalamic axis can have profound clinical, endocrinological as well as neurological consequences. Aim of study was to evaluate MRI findings in Sellar, Parasellar and Suprasellar lesions and compare the results with histological findings and asses diagnostic accuracy of MRI in characterisation of these lesions. Methods: We reviewed the records of 50 patients strong clinical complaints suggestive of Sellar, Parasellar and suprasellar lesions or previous CT was showing abnormality, were evaluated. Radiological appearances were correlated with intraoperative findings and post-operative histopathology. Results: Majority (66%) of patients in study belonged to the third and fourth decade. Most common mass lesion was pituitary macroadenoma comprising about 66% of total cases. We observed a very good diagnostic accuracy of 100% in diagnosing pituitary macroadenoma. MR was 75% accurate in diagnosing craniopharyngioma. MR have 100% efficiency in diagnosing meningioma. Conclusion: MRI is the modality of choice for characterizing sellar and suprasellar lesions, morphology of lesions, nature of contrast material enhancement and extent of lesions. Hence MRI has very good diagnostic accuracy in characterisation of masses with good correlation to histopathology is the modality of choice for diagnosing sellar and suprasellar masses with high accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

  46. Dr. Gouri V. Anehosur, Dr. Pragnya Medappa, Dr. Salian Bhavya Keshav, Dr. Roseline Meshramkar and Dr. Lekha, K.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phase stability, surface characteristics, hardness and flexural strength of Yttrium stabilised zirconia ceramics after various low temperature aging using X-ray diffraction analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, a micro hardness tester and a universal testing machine respectively. Materials and methods: Blocks of Y-TZP from two manufacturers (n=15) Group-A AIDITE (Qinhuangdao Technology Co., Ltd, Hebei, China) and Group-B UPCERA(Shenzhen Upcera Dental Technology Co. Ltd, Guangdong, China) were machined, sintered and glazed according to manufacturer’s specifications. These were of 40mm (length)×5mm (width)×3mm (height). Specimens were artificially aged in distilled water by heat treatment at 100°C, 150°C and 200°C for 10 hours each to induce phase transformation. These specimens after aging were individually evaluated for the phase transformation using X- ray diffraction (JDX 8P, JEOL machine) and surface characteristics using scanning electron microscopy (6380 LA, JEOL machine). They were also evaluated for hardness using micro hardness tester (Reichert Austria micro hardness tester) and flexural strength using universal testing machine (Unitest-10). Results: The results from x-ray diffraction analysis of both the specimens with and without low temperature aging revealed only the tetragonal phase. On scanning electron microscopy, the surface of the specimens in as received condition appeared to be smooth with a few blebs here and there. As aging was carried out, the surface irregularities became more pronounced. Hardness testing showed that the hardness was highest without aging as compared to when aging was carried out. There was a considerable decrease in hardness in group B when compared to group A. The results from flexural strength evaluation showed that in group A, there was a decrease in the mean flexural strength when aging was carried out. The flexural strength in group B kept fluctuating and was the highest when aged at 100°C. A sudden decrease in the flexural strength was noted when aged at 150°C. Conclusion: The in vitro tests conducted reveal that the two materials Aidite and Upcera did not show significant results on x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. These tests also reveal that when low temperature aging was carried out at a temperature of 100°C for 10 hours, the hardness of Y-TZP ceramics decreased whereas the flexural strength increased. However, beyond this temperature of 100°C especially at 150°C and above, the flexural strength of both the materials started to decrease.

  47. Somya Sinha

    There has been an enormous increase in the frequency and severity of fungal infection inrecent years. This increase has been driven ina large part by two factors. First, the global AIDS epidemic has fostered the emergence of life-threatening infections by the opportunistic fungi Cryptococcus neoformans and Pneumocystisjiroveci and by other fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum and Penicilliummarneffei. These infections occur most oftenin resource-limited countries in Africa, SouthAmerica, and Southeast Asia. Second, advancesin medical care and treatment have led to increases in the number of opportunistic infections in patients who are immunocompromised drugs or chemotherapy, or who are infected by way of treatment with immunosuppressive agents. This review lays emphasis on the older and newer methods for fast diagnosis of fungi so that the benefits of modern antifungal treatment are availed and not misused.

  48. Humira Bashir, Zubair Qureshi, M., Nazia Bhat and Saleem Hussain

    Background: Ovarian cancer encompasses a heterogenous group of malignancies that vary in etiology, molecular biology, and numerous other characteristics. Their complex nature, unpredictable behaviour, prognosis and varying therapeutic strategies, necessitates an accurate diagnosis. Aims and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to study the diverse histomorphological patterns of ovarian tumors over a period of 2 years(June-2010 to May-2012. Results: Out of 119 neoplastic ovarian lesions, 57.98% (69) were labeled as benign, 1.7% (2) as borderline and. 42.0% (48) as malignant. Age of the patients ranged from 1 to 70 years. with maximum cases (42.8 %) seen in the age group of 21-40 years. The commonest category of the ovarian tumors encountered in our series was epithelial tumors (73.94%) followed by germ cell tumors (16.8%). Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom. Conclusion: Benign ovarian tumours were more common than malignant ones across all age groups. Surface epithelial tumours were the most common histopathological type of ovarian tumour. Due to vague symptoms, patients present late. Development of methods for early diagnosis of ovarian neoplasia is therefore, a pressing need today. The relative frequency of incidence of different ovarian tumours shows regional variations, highlighting the need to identify region-specific risk factors.

  49. Nazia Bhat, Huzaifa Nazir, Nuzhat Samoon, Mohammad Iqbal Lone, Asima Aijaz, Salma Gul and Ishrat Younis

    Bladder cancer is the 10th most common form of cancer worldwide, with an estimated 549,000 new cases and 200,000 deaths. These tumours are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Objective: The objective of this study was to present the histopathological patterns of urothelial tumours and to determine the grade and stage of these tumours. Methods: This was a prospective study conducted on 110 TURBT biopsies and cystectomy specimens at Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura Srinagar over a speriod of 1 year from Jan2017 to December 2017. Results; A total of 110cases were received. Out of those 105 cases (95.4%) were TUR biopsies and 5 were cystectomy specimens (4.54%) Hematuria was the most common clinical presentation and was seen in 90(81%) patients. Majority of patients were seen in 50-60 years of age(34 cases).Male to female ratio was 4:1 and mean age of 56.58.Transistional cell carcinoma was the most common type found(99 cases). Low grade TCC were seen in71 casea. Muscle invasion was seen in 26 cases. Tumor recurrence was seen in 20% of cases. Conclusion: Transitional cell carcinoma was the most common bladder tumour in our study. Most of these tumours were low grade. Pathological grade and muscle invasion are the most valuable prognostic predictors of survival.

  50. Rafael Rodrigues Rothbarth, Roberto Zilio, Raquel RezzadoriMatos, Marcelo Bortoluzzi, Jovani Antonio Steffani and Carina Rossoni

    The aim of this study was to analyze the perception of patients, with severe obesity in relation to body image and quality of life, who underwent to bariatric and metabolic surgery. This is an observational study, carried out with 12 female patients evaluating body image (BSQ) and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) in the postoperative period (90 days). There was improvement in quality of life in the four domains scores. Regarding body image, there was an improvement at 90 days, and there was no association between the percentages of reduction of excess body weight at 90 days after surgery with the improvement of body image perception.

  51. Dr. Rakesh Kumar (Associate Proffesor), Dr. Shailesh Kumar (Additional Proffesor), Dr. Somya Sinha, Dr. Sweta Muni (Assistant Proffesor), Dr. Namrata Kumari (Proffesor) and Prof (Dr.) Shahi, S.K.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has altered both the epidemiology and outcome of enteric opportunistic parasitic infections. This study was done to determine the prevalence and species/genotypes of intestinal coccidian and microsporidial infections among HIV/AIDS patients with diarrhea and/or a history of diarrhea alternately with an asymptomatic interval, and their association with ART therapy. This cross sectional study was done from May 2015 to March 2018 in IGIMS, Patna. Sociodemographic data and a history of diarrhea were collected by interviewing 234 HIV patients ( 146 males and 94 females).Using routine microscopy, trichrome staining, modified ZN staining incidence of coccidian parasites were found to be as Cryptosporidium 21.8% , followed by Strongyloides 17.6%, microsporidia, Isospors, Giardia, Trichuris, and taenea. ART treatment was significantly associated with the decline of opportunistic parasites and diarrhea (p < 0.05) while no ART had relatively greater incidence of opportunistic intestinal parasites.

  52. Dr. Umapathy Thimmegowda, Dr. Praveen M.N., Dr. Amrutha, B., Dr. Prasanna Kumar Bhat and Dr. Ashwini Chikkanayakanahalli Prabhakar

    Tooth transposition is a disturbance of tooth eruption and is defined as change in the position of two adjacent teeth within the same quadrant. Tooth transposition is a rare condition and is usually related to eruption disturbances of the teeth and to the subsequent abnormal occlusal relationships. Transposition can be complete when the position of affected teeth is totally transposed or incomplete when only the crowns are transposed, while the roots remain in normal position. The present article reports a rare case where there is complete bilateral transposition of canine.

  53. Amarinder Singh and Prof. Deepinder Kaur

    With the growth of computer vision, digital image processing is necessary to provide a clear image to the user. In existing technique only conversion between colors of email picture from RGB to GRAY SCALE image. That is not enough for a enhanced image which is not give the properly recognition of an Image. In this work, SVM (SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE) is use to give the useful result of an image and proper recognition of an image. SVM is a Machine learning technique, which is useful for balance the Pixels, which is very useful from the point of view of digital image processing. It will enhance the image quality and will give the better results. It can also improve the accuracy of an image as well improve the text classification of an email image.

  54. Dr. Satyanarayana K.V.V., Dr. Tipirineni Vanisri and Dr. Narasimha Rao, V.V.L.

    A prospective study of The incidence of central retinal vein occlusion associated with primary open-angle glaucoma conducted at Govt. Regional Eye Hospital Visakhapatnam. Materials and Methods: 32 cases central retinal vein occlusion with primary open-angle glaucoma are documented in patients during one and half years period. Results: the incidence of CRVO in POAG more as the age advanced, and equal in both sexes. Conclusions: incidence of CRVO in POAG is almost 10%. Proper control of IOP within normal limits may prevent the onset of CRVO.

  55. Hawa Yatera Mshana and Magdeline C. Aagard

    Background: Improving community health in many developing nations requires synergetic leadership. The concept of public-private partnership in health and social care initiatives was adapted to improve health outcomes in many developing countries; the implementation lacks community leadership engagement to promote ownership and accountability of health and social health outcomes Objectives: To understand strategies that could promote community partnership leadership engagement to enhance ownership and accountability on health and social care initiatives, and to increase awareness of primary health care collaborative initiatives needs in Tanzania, the developing nation. Methods: Empirical qualitative case study used. Twenty-six leaders and managers responded to in-depth one-on-one interviews and partnership national policies and guidelines documents reviewed. Content analysis and NVivo 11 software employed to analyse collected data. Results: Two major themes emerged. Firstly, findings indicated that integrated supportive supervision, teamwork, and strategic communications promote leadership synergy. Secondly, the findings showed that limited data, unclear roles and responsibilities, limited understandings of the benefits of Public-Private Partnership at the community level hinder the promotion of ownership and accountability of health and social initiatives. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate significant evidence of improving population health through promoting community leadership ownership and accountability of health and social care initiatives. Also, this study finding provides insight into supporting community leadership synergies for the implementation of primary health care initiatives in a partnership setting. Further studies are needed to explore partnership and community engagement in provision of primary health initiatives in private for-profit health organisations. In addition, this study contributes to the strategic development goal 3.

  56. Tika, L., Randriamalala, N.C.R., Razakanaivo, M., Rafamantanantsoa, S., Betely LTS, Riel, A.M., Rakotosaminana, J. and Fenomanana, M.S.

    Introduction: Cervical cancer affects many African women, particularly in younger women. It is however preventable if it is detected early. Better knowledge by health personnel, especially paramedics being the first responsible in rural areas, on the prevention of this cancer would reduce its frequency. The aim was to assess the knowledge, the attitude and the practice of paramedic students in the third year on cervical cancer. Method: It was a cross-sectional descriptive study, Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) survey on May 3, 2017 in Toliara city. The study population was female student midwives and nurses in the third year of training. Included were the institutions which accepted the survey request and the female students who were registered, present during our visit, and consenting to the survey. Results: The survey involved 169 female students, 132 from private institutions and 37 from public institutions. Fifteen percent of students had good general knowledge about cervical cancer. Eleven percent of female students had found more than three risk factors for cervical cancer. One hundred and nine students (64%) were aware of HPV vaccine. One-third of the students knew that Pap smear is a means of screening for cervical cancer. Regarding their attitudes, 78% of students thought they would have to screen for cervical cancer. About their practice, 14% of them had already made a screening. Conclusion: KAP of paramedic students on cervical cancer remain insufficient. Trainers should adapt their teaching with the new Bachelor, Master and Doctorate system with a focus on prevention, to have qualified paramedics.

  57. Davies N. Chelogoi, Fred Jonyo and Dr. Henry Amadi

    This study examines the influence of demographic variables on access to healthcare in Kenya, a case for Nairobi County. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of these demographic variables on access to public healthcare, a case for Nairobi County. It focuses on age, gender, income, education and wealth. This paper examines the health status of the residents in Nairobi County and reviews the effects of selected demographic factors on access to healthcare. The study used data from a sample of 1066 households purposively selected from Nairobi County. All households were aged 15 years and above. The households were subjected to interviews that covered a wide range of topics. Descriptive and cross-sectional designs were chosen for the study. The study adopted multiple sampling methods for the study. These included purposive sampling, systematic sampling, snowball sampling, and multistage cluster sampling frame. The data was collected using various techniques or instruments which included observation, key informant interviews, questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and focus-group discussions. The data was processed using descriptive statistics. Correlation and regression analyses were used to correlate and interpret the data of the study. The findings show that access to healthcare was unequal amongst all the social classes in the County. This is despite considerable attention to the problem of health inequalities. There are substantial differences in health, and these still perpetuate. These differences have been attributed to socio-economic inequalities among the social classes. The upper and middle classes have better access to socio-economic resources, and this provides them with adequate capabilities to access healthcare resources. The lower social class lack these resources and therefore have no capabilities to access healthcare. This explains the persistent inequalities in healthcare between the social groups in the County. This study argues that health inequalities should be reduced or illuminated in the County. Socio-economic inequalities limit the capabilities of the households to access healthcare. The distribution of these factors needs urgent research. There is evidence that there are biases in the allocation of these resources and policymakers should address these skewed allocations.

  58. Linthoi Watham, Indira Sarangthem, Devarishi Sharma, L. and Punil Kumar Singh, L.

    Soil samples were collected from three different districts of Manipur under different land use system viz. Churachandpur (Jhum), Imphal east (Valley) and Senapati (Terrace) following the method of stratified multistage sampling. The aim of the work described here has been to assess the distribution of different forms of iron and aluminium in different land use system of Manipur. The value of KCl extractable Fe and Al was found to be highest In Jhum cultivation than Valley and Terrace cultivation. In Jhum cultivation the value of NH4OAc extractable Fe and Al observed the highest than in valley and terrace. Similarly in Jhum cultivation, the Pyrophosphate extractable Fe and Al showed higher value than the valley and terrace cultivation. Acid ammonium oxalate extractable Fe and Al showed higher values in Jhum cultivation in comparison with Valley and terrace cultivation. The value of Dithionite citrate bicarbonate extractable Fe in terrace cultivation was found to be the highest. On the other hand, the value of Dithionite citrate bicarbonate extractable Al was observed highest in Jhum cultivation.

  59. Gelásio António da Costa Ribeiro, Elidio de Araujo, Augusto da Conceicão and Romeu Marques Daçi

    Servisu Municipio Saúde (SMS) Baucau has carried out various efforts to improve service and quality improvement where health services are one of the determinants of good and bad services at Community Health Centers (health Centre) but there are still less employer/employee performance and satisfaction supported by the discovery the lack of a service index or per capital annual visit is still very minimal in each health Centre. Caused by the Effect of Motivation, as well as the Style of Leadership and Organizational Culture to have an impact on Employee Performance at the Community Health Center at SMS de Baucau. Community Health Center (health Centre) is a functional organization that is the spearhead of basic health services from the government of the Republic Democratic of Timor-Leste (RDTL.) For the wider community that is carried out in a comprehensive and integrated manner in the form of basic activities. Research is a process to get answers to the results of an analysis of the effects on Work Motivation, Leadership Style and organizational culture on the performance of organizational employees. The hypothesis (provisional conjecture) stated is that work motivation has a very significant influence on the performance of employees/employees of the organization. Leadership style has a significant influence on the performance or job satisfaction of employees/employees. Leadership style is very influential and significant to employee performance. Leadership and organizational culture have a significant influence on employee performance. Organizational culture also has a significant influence on employee performance. Work motivation has a significant influence on organizational performance. Organizational culture has a significant influence on organizational performance. The results of the study have proven that work motivation, leadership style, and organizational culture have a significant correlation to employee work performance. To solve problems and prove the hypothesis used analytical tools such as; Multiple Regression, Multiple Correlation, analysis of determination and in its calculations using SPSS version 21 for windows.

  60. Yaaser Q. Almulaiky

    The current study describes the purify and characterize xylanase from Trichoderma virens. Xylanase (Xy1a) was purified to homogeneity 47.6-fold via sephacryl S-200. The molecular mass of Xy1a estimated by gel filtration was once 20 kDa with 24.7% recovery. Purity was proven by means of SDS-PAGE and a single band was observed. The highest activity of the Xy1a was observed at pH 5.5 and at temperature 50°C. The Xy1a enzyme was very stable up to 50°C. The purified xy1a showed higher affinity for Birchwood xylan with Km and Vmax of 5.83 mg/ml and 0.575µmol min-1 mg-1, respectively. Metallic cations, such as Ca2+ and Ni2+ were found to enhance the enzymatic activity of the purified Xy1a, while Cu2+, Co2+, Pb2+and Zn2+ ions were found to be partially inhibitory. Metallic cations, such as Hg2+ and Cd2+ were found to be strongly inhibited the enzyme. Based on the results, it could be confirmed that the purified enzyme has potential role in some application such as the food, feed, pharmaceutical and paper industries.

  61. Spandana Deepika, K., Dr. Geetha Reddy, R., Ms. Kameswari, S.L. and Dr. Sreedevi, P.

    Background: Women are the backbone of healthy and progressive family. Hence coordinated and convergent efforts are needed to ensure survival, protection and empowerment of the girl child; Government has announced Beti Bachao Beti Padhao initiative and is being implemented through a national campaign (GOI, 2015).Gender discrimination in India is a reality which cannot be conveniently ignored. Driving a change in the mindset of people is the key to end this discrimination. Our girls deserve equal opportunities as boys. Education is an essential part of a living being, whether it is a boy or a girl. Materials and Method: The present study was conducted to see the effect of Child Discrimination on education of girl child among women of rural and tribal areas of Telangana state. Exploratory research design was adopted for the study and Purposive random sampling was done for selection of respondents. A total of 120 samples were taken for the study, 60 from rural area of Gadwal district and 60 from tribal area of Nagar Kurnool district. Results: The findings showed that majority belonged to young age may be due to the reason that while selection of the respondents the main criterion followed for selection was that they should have at least one girl child of school going age and 80.83% were illiterates. There was effect of child discrimination on the education of the girl child was in rural and tribal areas, indicating that there was impact of discrimination of the child on education and the impact was more in both rural and tribal areas. Conclusion: Majority of the women were functionally illiterate. Hence capacity building programmes should be developed by the government for these women on education and social development. It was clear from the study that women were showing discrimination towards girl child. The preference of sons was continuing in this 21st era, majority of the women viewed that girl child as burden to them.

  62. Tursunov Behzodbek Bakhodirovich

    The article analyzes the issues the transliteration formation and development of Uzbekistan in the last century as an independent field. It also focuses on the organization of translation groups, methodological support and translation work in higher education institutions.

  63. Kanaga, M. and Uthayasuriyan, K.

    The reason for the paper is to explore the e-initiative selection with ICT in an association. A study was sent to the authoritative pioneers in Chennai. Altogether, 1201 substantial organized poll were gathered. No sexual orientation inclination was distinguished in the example respondents. The gathered information were broke down through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to survey the proposed research model. To decide non-invariant parameters over the two gatherings of sex, a test for invariance was directed. Both dynamic familiarity with ICT and Quality of ICT assessment are appeared as precursors for saw quality, and thusly, saw quality effects the aim to utilize ICT. The effect of expectation to utilize ICT on E-administration reception is critical, however feeble. Sexual orientation contrasts are likewise analyzed and all parameters of the model are found to work equally among sex, demonstrating the two gatherings perform comparatively. This paper features the nature of ICT assessment measurement and incorporate it in their authority procedure. In spite of the fact that the connection between saw quality and aim to utilize ICT is entrenched, there are as yet few examinations that extend this connection upstream or downstream. This paper examinations the following connection in this chain.

  64. Sagar Patil, Dange, S. P., Smita Khalikar and Kishore Mahale

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different drying methods of the post space on dentin bonding in composite core build-up method by using hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents. Methods: Total 30 caries-free incisors and premolars were endodontically treated for post and core build up. After drying each post space using three drying methods (air drying, paper-point drying, or ethanol drying, which involves filling the space with 99.5 vol% ethanol followed by air drying) A dual-cure one-step self-etching adhesive system bonding agent (Prime and Bond universal™, Universal Adhesive) was coated in to the canals and filled with dual-cure resin composite. The bonded specimens were sectioned into square beams of approximately 1 mm square for microtensile bond strength (mTBS) testing. mTBS were analyzed using Scheffé multiple comparison. Results: The mTBS significantly decreased in the order of ethanol drying, paper-point drying, and air drying (air drying/ethanol drying: p < 0.001, air drying/paper- point drying: p = 0.048, ethanol drying/paper-point drying: p = 0.032). There were significant differences among the three drying methods (airdrying/ethanoldrying: p < 0.001). Similar tendencies were clearly observed with hydrophobic agents. But as compared to hydrophobic agent, hydrophilic shows higher strength. Conclusions: Ethanol drying was found to be an effective method for direct resin composite core build-up, as compared with two other methods, in terms of less residual liquid, less gap formation, and higher bond strength as compared to hydrophobic bonding agents.

  65. Nyoman Agus Hermawan, I.

    In general, only insolvent debtor is declared bankrupt by the Court. Hence, the Court should reject request of bankruptcy if the debtor is still solvent. However, there are many cases in Indonesia where the court passed on bankruptcy decision to the solvent debtors. The purpose of this article is to examine the needs of using insolvency test for bankruptcy decision ruled down by the judge. This article employs normative legal research. The results show that it is not easy for the judge to implement the insolvency test in bankruptcy case because the Indonesian Bankruptcy Law regulates that authentication process should be done in a simple way.

  66. Milind Vinayak Gokhale

    Background: Today’s clients tend to cross the traditional marketing funnel boundaries by changing the way they research and purchase. Any organization that wants to be successful must consider buyer behaviour while developing their marketing mix. This paper aims to study the role of psychological factors in determining consumer’s buying behaviour, which ultimately affects the product sales performance in the given market. Construction chemical industry of India is considered as a target market. The leading idea is to identify and analyse the factors, which majorly affect and work as psychological barriers for consumers in the construction chemical industry. Method: An effective tool, survey questionnaire was floated to different types of end customer like dealers, distributors, applicator, Ready-mix Concrete (RMC), infra companies and project site in order to know the customers’ opinion about company products. As these chemicals are primarily utilized during construction work, an individual as a consumer will rarely buy them, so the target customer base is chosen as dealers, distributors, applicators, industrial buyers and large infra companies. Results: This paper identifies, and empirically validates, the psychological barriers, its impact on brand recognition and its consequences in sales of construction chemicals and its related new product systems. Conclusion: After calculating the mean value of all the factors it is observed that the Emotional Factor plays a central role in the decision-making process of the construction chemical buyer.

  67. Dr. Bhushan Jawale, Dr. Shilpa Jamenis, Dr. Lishoy Rodrigues, Dr. Almas Shaikh and Dr. Kadam Aljeeta

    Although continuous positive airway (CPAP) pressure therapy is the most recommended treatment for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) not all patients are able to remain compliant with this form of treatment. Some complain of claustrophobia, dry nasal passages, skin irritation from masks, difficulty tolerating pressurized air, and accidentally removing the mask while tossing at night. For patients like these, an alternative to CPAP therapy may be recommended, and depending on the level of severity of their disorder, may benefit from a substitute treatment such as an oral dental appliance. Oral appliances (OA) have emerged as an alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment (Sutherland et al., 2014). The most commonly used OA reduces upper airway collapse by advancing the mandible (OAm). There is a strong evidence base demonstrating OAm improve OSA in the majority of patients, including some with more severe disease. However OAm are not efficacious for all, with approximately one-third of patients experiencing no therapeutic benefit. OAm are generally well tolerated, although short-term adverse effects during acclimatization are common. Long-term dental changes do occur, but these are for the most part subclinical and do not preclude continued use. Patients often prefer OAm to gold-standard CPAP treatment (1). Head-to-head trials confirm CPAP is superior in reducing OSA parameters on polysomnography; however, this greater efficacy does not necessarily translate into better health outcomes in clinical practice. Comparable effectiveness of OAm and CPAP has been attributed to higher reported nightly use of OAm, suggesting that inferiority in reducing apneic events may be counteracted by greater treatment adherence. Recently, significant advances in commercially available OAm technologies have been made. Remotely controlled mandibular positioners have the potential to identify treatment responders and the level of therapeutic advancement required in single night titration polysomnography (Sutherland et al., 2014). Objective monitoring of OAm adherence using small embedded temperature sensing data loggers is now available and will enhance clinical practice and research. These technologies will further enhance efficacy and effectiveness of OAm treatment for OSA (Sutherland et al., 2014)

  68. Dr. Smitha C. Saldanha, Dr. Lokanatha D., Dr. Linu Jacob Abraham, Dr. Suresh Babu, M C., Dr. Lokesh K. N., Dr. Rudresha, A. H. and Dr. Rajeev L.K. and Dr. Premalatha, C.S.

    Background: Neuro Endocrine Tumors (NET) comprises a family of neoplasms derived from the diffuse neuroendocrine system, with a wide range of morphologic, functional and behavioral characteristics. NETs are very uncommon and studies on their clinical profile, management and outcomes are very rare. This study was undertaken to document the clinico-epidemiological profile and outcomes of NETs presenting to a regional cancer centre in South India. Materials and Methods: From a retrospective records review, 252 patients with NET presenting to the Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore. The tumor location, clinical symptoms, stage at presentation, sites of metastasis, grading, and modalities of treatment received and their outcomes were studied. Results: The mean age was 53.74 years (± 13.97) (range 19- 85 years) and male: female ratio was 1.6:1. The most common site of presentation was foregut (49.5%), followed by bronchus and lung (17.58%). Among the NETs arising in gastrointestinal tract, esophageal NETs (23.6%) were the most common. Among the oesophageal NETs, nearly 80 % of tumors were located in the lower third of esophagus and gastro-esophageal junction. Metastases seen in 51% of cases, with the majority in liver. Nearly 10% were secretory NETs. Serum Chromogranin levels performed in 10 patients showed a median of 765ng/ml (range 56-2550 ng/ml). Over 70% were classified as poorly differentiated tumors. Nearly 51% received chemotherapy, with 35% receiving cisplatin + etoposide. Almost 15% underwent surgery and 14% received concurrent chemo radiotherapy. Progressive disease was seen in 11% treated cases. The overall survival in the treated cases was 11.25 months for the localized NETs and 4.75 months for the metastatic NETs. Conclusion: NECs occurred more commonly in males and in the foregut, mostly in the lower third of the oesophagus. Metastases were seen in over half the cases, with a large proportion of cases treated with chemotherapy and performed well with intervention.

  69. Shukhratjon Abdullaev

    This article analyzes the historical and philosophical foundations of the dialectical relationships of the conceptions of mutual cohesion and tolerance, as well as the peculiarities of modernity. The focus of the Central Asian region is to emphasize the importance of good-neighborly and friendly relations as a strategic social platform for mobilizing towards common interests.

  70. Kamelia Sinaga, Namora Lumongga Lubis and Heru Santosa

    Background: the causes of high maternal and perinatal deaths in Indonesia and other developing countries are due to the length of labor. Efforts can be made by pregnant women so that labor runs smoothly by doing pregnancy exercises. Maternal needs in childbirth: assistant by husband/family, who can greatly provide support both physically, emotionally and advocately. Aims: to identify relationship between childbirth assistant and pregnant gymnastics with smooth delivery. Methods: The study was retrospective with approach case control. The respondents were selected by purposive sampling numbered 132. The research instrument used in this study was made in the form of a questionnaire. Data analysis used chi-square test. Results: there was a relationship between labor attendants and the smooth delivery (p = 0.015); there was a relationship between pregnancy gymnastic and smooth delivery (p = 0.002). Conclusion: It is expected that improve health promotion and education to mothers and labor assistants (husbands) about the importance of assisting childbirth and pregnancy exercises to increase the chances of a smooth delivery.

  71. Reeta Devi Yadav, Rita Goel and Beena Yadav

    The transfer of improved technology and their effective adoption is influenced by the method of its transfer to the farmers in accordance to their need. The media is playing an important role in passing on meaningful information at faster rate to the large number of farmers in country. It has emerged as one of the powerful sources of seeking relevant scientific information by our farm families, therefore, tapping and utilization of media for transferring the newly generated technologies in agriculture among the farm families is crucial and significant. This is mainly due to the fact that the vast majority of farm families belong to remote rural areas where facilities could not be arranged for sustainable individual or group approaches of technology transfer as it could be highly expensive and difficult in managing information infrastructure, therefore, responsibility and intervention of media in rural transformation is becoming more imperative and challenging. In this way the farmers can get hold of their future planning in a better way. The present study was conducted in Haryana state. Two districts viz. Sirsa and Fatehabad and 2 blocks from each district were selected purposively. Fifty farm families from each village selected randomly, thus comprising 200 farm families and total 400 respondents. It was evident from the study that communication means, news paper, T.V. and mobile phone were possessed by majority of the respondents. Regarding communication behavior, information input pattern, use of individual sources was of medium, whereas group and mass media sources were used to low extent. Information processing pattern and output pattern of respondents was found to be medium level.

  72. Mulugeta Tesfaye Teshome

    This paper is a review of peace and security in the Horn of Africa and the role of Ethiopia in peace operation in the region. The analysis presented in the article is based on the qualitative data provided by international organizations, governments, research institutions and other concerned bodies. The paper is developed with the use of a historical method, as well as discourse analysis of the literature on the subject, official documents and the press. In the contemporary world politics Regional security Complexes play an important role in sponsoring Peace and stability. Conflict and instability trends in the Horn of Africa region continue to make it one of the most unstable regions in the world. Significant portions of the Horn of Africa have not been able to break free of the lethal cocktail of armed conflicts, violent crime, extremism, communal violence, political instability, and state failure that has plagued the region for decades. Most parts of the Horn of Africa of armed conflict and instability today are concentrated near border areas, posing a major risk of spillover and featuring powerful cross border drivers, interests and actors. Ethiopia is a key ally of the Western world, especially the U.S., which considers it as an important regional security partner in the global war on terror, and recently as negotiators in conflict resolution stages in most of Horn of African states. Undoubtedly, Ethiopia plays a key role in the security complex of the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia, which is located at geographically strategic place, and the most populous country in the region, enjoys relative power among the countries in this region. Regardless of the external and internal problems, Ethiopia's position is growing from time to time, just as its economic and political potential developed. In the region itself, no country doubt Ethiopia’s leading role and compete for hegemony in the Horn of Africa, which is because of the magnitude of Ethiopian economy and its rich history. It means the historic legacy/link with almost all of the horn countries levy Ethiopia a burden as well as privilege on Ethiopia in patrolling the region.

  73. Nzeribe Ejimnkeonye Abangwu, Ph.D

    This article examines the maritime claims that are subject to liability limitation as provided for in both the Nigerian Merchant Shipping Act, 2007 and the repealed Merchant Shipping Act 1963. It identifies some distinctions inherent in the application of the two Acts in respect of limitable claims. It concludes by stating that the legal provision allowing ship owners and their representatives to limit liability for loss or injury suffered by cargo owners due to delay in the delivery of goods under a contract of carriage should be abolished as the law is not in the best interest of Nigeria and its cargo owners.

  74. Gona, A., Mohammed, I., Baba, K. M. and Tanko, L.

    The study employed a Translog stochastic frontier production function approach to examine the technical efficiency and its determinants among sheep fattening enterprises in Kebbi state, Nigeria. Data were generated from a sample of 160 fatteners using the multi-stage random sampling technique. The results of the analysis revealed that labour, feeds, fattening animals, depreciation, water and transportation are the dominant variables that influenced the level of technical efficiency in sheep fattening with coefficient values of (-2.761, 25.549, 15.609, 9.326, -2.704, and 0.905), respectively. Mean technical efficiency of sheep fatteners ranged between 0.13 to 0.91 having a mean of 0.73, This suggest that the fatteners were not technically efficient in the utilization of existing resources. The results also showed that technical efficiency can be enhanced through provision of credit and increased years of fattening experience.

  75. Khemacara, Dr. Kumar Gautam Anand and Dr. Gurmet Dorjey

    “In Myanmar, the Buddhist ordination ceremony symbolizes the great renunciation of Buddha and also the ordination eight years-old son of Lord Buddha. Both this historical eventissymbolized and dramatized harmoniously in the ordination ceremony to join the monastic Sangh Order as a novice-hood and monk-hood as long as they desire to stay there. The ordination ceremony is as essential part of their life in Myanmar. The ritual performance of pabbajjā and Upsanpadā ordination ceremony currently being practiced in Myanmar will approached here by five stapes of study: the first is introduction the two kinds of ordination according with stories illustrate; the second is the role of supporter in ordination ceremony; the third is about the entry day of ordination ceremony; the fourth performant isactual ordination ceremony day; and the fifth exploration is three types of presently ritual ordination in Myanmar.”

  76. Paromita Das

    Change is the inevitable part of everyone’s life because life has to go on. Change is never easy especially when it involves too many people and an entire system. Yet it is an essential part of our lives especially when some innovation is required for influencing a person or society. This can be in the form of education for the handicapped or those with special needs. It is much more effective if started at the elementary level of education. According to the Kothari Commission (1964-66), the first education commission of independent India, observed : “ the education of the handicapped children should be an inseparable part of the education system.” From this observation came the first concept of Integration into teaching-learning process. Both parents and teachers are equally important in educating the special children and more emphasis given to the role of parents because they know their child from birth onwards till the time they are into schools and can assess them better. The special education means an educational intervention which refers to education of children with disabilities. Usually these are done in special schools outside the institutions of regular schools. Jean Piaget has propagated the theory of Cognitive Development and there are different stages of development of a child from infancy to adulthood. The implications of this theory can be of assistance to special child development as well. At present the new concept of Inclusive education has come about which means creating and planning curriculum within the regular educational settings with normal children. This is supposed to be much more beneficial and at the same time challenging too. Rehabilitation is a comprehensive term which means embracing all within a system. It also means to bring the disabled people back to normal by opportunities and self-help. The Continuing Rehabilitation Education (CRE) is working for providing health care services, social services, education and vocation to different types of disabled people and children. Here our target group are disabled children starting from infants to adults. It further means not only keeping these children in normal conditions but also arresting further disability. Parents can participate as equal partners by realizing the needs of their child and their special abilities. A little effort can make a lot of difference at home itself only with a little awareness. Parents’ role is important not only at home but also at school by making their special children able to prepare themselves to receive the education with other children. This paper describes the objectives of Rehabilitation Education, planning of the special education, Parent Involvement and Improved Achievement, Home Environment’s Influence on Schooling, Parent control of children, effects of disabilities on families, Communication between parents and school personnel and parents’ empowerment.

  77. Dr. Balaraju, K.

    This paper deals with the nomadic, semi nomadic and denotified tribes’ access to basic amenities like housing, infrastructure, drinking water, sanitation, electricity etc. Denotified and nomadic communities have tendency to move from one place to another new place in groups for their livelihood, this nomadic tendency has direct influence on their vulnerability to access basic amenities for their families. The present study is carried out in Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy, Mahbubnagar, Nalgonda and Warangal districts of Telangana state. Using stratified random sampling techniques primary data collected from nomadic, semi nomadic and denotified tribes. Study revealed that more than half of the respondents living in temporary structures, and do not have owned land. 70 percent of sample denotified and nomadic tribes depended on hand pumps and municipal or grampanchayat public taps for drinking water, few of them are fetching drinking water from one kilometer distance. Majority number of denotified tribes does not have toilet facility at their residence. 40 percent of sample respondents are still not able to access electricity facility at their homes. Almost 41 percent of sample denotified and nomadic tribes are not having bank accounts.

  78. Endale Berhanu Demissie

    Expanded access and improved quality of secondary education in sub-Saharan Africa is one of key components for economic growth in the region. The review is timely because it discusses best practices and solutions for developing and implementing sustainable and high quality secondary education systems in African countries. The review’s objectives are to facilitate the dialogue between African countries and its development partners and to provide a “roadmap” to practical solutions facing Africa’s secondary education systems in the 21st century. Throughout much of the twentieth century, Ethiopia was one of the most educationally disadvantaged countries in the world (MOE, 2005b). The majority of its current population has had little access to schooling, a legacy that continues to affect the country’s human resources (MOE, 2004a). Only 36 percent of the adult population (aged 15 years and over) is literate (MOE, 2002). Great strides have been made in education since 1994(TGE, 1994). Access has surged, especially at the primary level, with 85 percent of children of primary-school age now in school (MOE, 2003). Enrollment growth has also been impressive at the secondary level, especially in the first cycle (grades 9–10), for which the gross enrollment rate has more than doubled since 2000. Yet key challenges remain for secondary education, including: (1) a low primary education completion rate that constrains enrollment at the secondary level; (2) inequitable access, with rural populations and girls at a particular disadvantage; and (3) student learning achievement that is disappointingly low(World Bank,2005). In contrast to remarkable achievements in access, progress to date in raising the quality of education in Ethiopia has been limited. Efficiency and quality input indicators, achievement tests, and classroom observations suggest that it has been difficult to maintain the quality of education during a period of very rapid enrollment expansion. Learning achievement (School performance and student achievement) in the education system remains unacceptably low. This has become a source of concern for government officials, educators, parents, and other stakeholders. School performance is critically dependent on the leadership skills of school principals. The starting point here must be a sustained effort to enhance school leader effectiveness. It is so clear that the quality of school leadership is the most important factor influencing school performance. Skills of effective school leaders include instructional leadership, financial and human resources management, effective working relationships with the staff of line educational agencies, and winning the confidence of parents and School Management Committees.

  79. Kartika

    Background: preschool are 3 until 6 years old. Children urgently need full support from their family. The support will reflected trough by parenting. Aims: to know relationship between parenting parents and the independence of preschool in fulfill activity daily. Methods: the study was analitic with cross sectional approach. Total population were 37 respondents by using total sampling. Data collection were used by distributing questionnaire’s which contain 30 statements and then data were analyzed using chi-squre. Results: the result of this study obtained the majority of the 22 (59.54%) respondents whose children were cared for in an authoritative manner had independent children and 4 (10.84%) respondents whose children were cared for in an authoritarian manner had children who were not independent. Conclusion: there was a relationship between parenting parents with preschoolers independence with p-value (0,001) < α(0,05), and p-value (0.021) < α (0.05). Expected to respondents to be able to apply the appropriate parenting to establish the children independent in fulfill their daily activity.

  80. Sanjib Chakraborty

    Tulaipanji is one of the oldest indigenous aromatic rice varieties in the physiographic division of the North Bengal plain of West Bengal, India. Raiganj CD Block of Uttar Dinajpur District, located in this physiographic division is very famous for the cultivation of this rice variety. Cultivation of this rice has been done in this natural habitat for more than 100 years back. Thus, this rice variety adapted itself in its microhabitat or niche. The fundamental niche of this rice was spread in major parts of the Raiganj CD Block. But the introduction of the cultivation of HYVs of rice mainly Swarna started to decrease the fundamental niche of Tulaipanji. Cultivation of Swarna requires very high chemical inputs which change the soil properties in such a way that badly affects the growth and aromatic quality of the Tulaipanji rice. As a result of which, the vast fundamental niche of this rice, converted into small restricted realized niche out of which cultivation of this rice become totally ignored. This study incorporates the using GIS and GPS techniques besides the intensive field study to delineate the niche zones. The main aim of this paper is to highlight the causes behind the conversion of the fundamental niche of the Tulaipanji rice to the realized niche in the study area as well as its further impacts.

  81. Dr. Prabhati Gupta and Dr. Abhima Kumar

    Background: During scaling and root planing procedure aerosol production has been known as potent source of infection. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two different mouthwashes containing Chlorhexidine and Essential Oils by using them as pre-procedural rinsing agent in reducing the bacterial load of the aerosol produced by ultrasonic scaler. Methods: 45 subjects, age and gender matched were randomly divided into three groups on the basis of agents used for pre procedural mouth rinsing - Group I: Distilled Water (Control), Group II: Chlorhexidine (CHX), Group III: Essential Oils (EO). The aerosols were collected on three previously prepared and sterilised blood agar plates at three different positions in the operatory. The colony forming units were counted after incubating the plates for 48 hours. Results: At all locations, the mean CFU was highest in Group I followed by Group III and Group II. Conclusion: 0.2 % chlorhexidine was found to be most effective pre procedural mouthwash in reducing the bacterial load in the aerosol produced during ultrasonic scaling followed by essential oil and distilled water.

  82. Sadhvi Gupta, Divya Jakhar, Gursimran Singh Pabla, Pratibha Marya, Bharti Kataria and Fatinderjeet Singh

    Successful endodontic practice requires complete knowledge about the various medical conditions and appropriateness in planning treatment as per the need with effective safety measures. This review focuses on a number of systemic complications encountered in endodontic practice that necessitate extra knowledge and care to prevent potential complications causing otherwise unnecessary morbidity and mortality. These include diabetes, multiple drug interactions, cardiac abnormalities, respiratory disorders and infectious diseases. When the procedure is carried out in healthy individuals, it is sufficient to concentration the technical course of action, but when there is a demand to preserve the tooth for patients with systemic illness and who are under medical management, it is equally important to avoid the potential medical emergencies. The first step in managing the patient with medical problems is acquiring a thorough health history, the second step is for the clinician to fully understand the significance of the disease. Each identified condition can affect dental care in a unique manner. Hence, practitioners must be aware of common diseases, and drugs that have an impact in endodontic treatment and the management options in medically compromised patients. This review aims to highlight the clinical conditions that require special endodontic attention.

  83. Evaristo Antonio Mendonça, Jose Cornelio Guterres, Avelino Guterres Correia and Romeu Marques Daci

    Work productivity is an illustration of the ability of workers to produce output. The higher the output produced by a worker, shows the higher the level of productivity of these workers. Centro de Saúde (CdS) area of Servços Municipio Saúde (SMS) Municipio de Baucau is the most many absorb health workers in Municipio de Baucau. But many factors influence productivity the work of health workers at these government institutions. Therefore, what was analyzed in this study was work motivation factors, work discipline and work environment towards the work productivity of CdS health workers in the SMS area Municipio de Baucau. This study aims to analyze the influence of work motivation variables, work discipline, and work environment on the work productivity of CdS health workers in the area of SMS Municipio de Baucau. Data in this study using primary data through distributing questionnaires to 110 health worker respondents in the CdS SMS area Municipio de Baucau with a list of questions prepared. To reach the goal, in this study using a cross sectional survey method. The sampling technique uses the Slovin formula. Sampling was done using the Proportionate Random Sampling method. Data analysis in this study uses Analysis Multiple Linear Regression using SPSS version 22 software for Windows. The results of this study indicate that the variables of work motivation, work discipline, and work environment are an influential positive and significant effect on work productivity of health workers in the CdS area of SMS Municipio de Baucau, and has an effect of 57.0% and the remaining 43% is influenced by other variables.

  84. Sagar Patil, Dange, S. P., Smita Khalikar and Kishor Mahale

    Aesthetics plays an important role in complete denture treatment. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a completely edentulous patient no longer confines to only the replacement of missing teeth. Nowadays patients are too demanding for improvement in esthetics at the completion of treatment. The loss of support of the facial musculature is of great concern in treating completely edentulous patients. Sunken cheeks are one of the major consequences of flaccid facial musculature. Natural teeth should be preserved but at the same time, clinician must be aware of the edentulous ridge that could be destroyed by forces exerted on the denture during function. Further, it has a greater impact on the aesthetics as well as the psychology of the patient. Conventional Cheek plumper appliances can restore such facial delinquencies. The underlying principle for providing this appliance is that some patients have depressed cheeks and require extra support for improved facial aesthetics. This clinical report describes a simple technique to improve support for sunken cheeks using undetachable acrylic cheek plumper.

  85. Richa Sharma, Sunita Singh, Sudhir Atri, Renuka Verma, Manali satiza and Rajeev Sen

    Introduction: The present study was conducted with the aim to diagnose and categorize aplastic anemia (AA) according to the severity as non severe (NsAA), severe (sAA) and very severe (VsAA) and to study microvessel density using immunohistochemical stain using CD 34 and morphometric analysis of microvessel density by computer assisted quantitative analyser and to compare it in the three subcategories of aplastic anemia with control group. Material and Methods: The present prospective study was conducted in the Department of Pathology at Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak. Thirty cases of AA patients and 10 cases of control were taken. AA patients were diagnosed on the basis of complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, bone marrow aspiration examination and bone marrow trephine biopsy (using Jamshidi’s needle). AA patients were categorized as sAA, NsAA and VsAA using camitta et al criteria. IHC using CD 34 was performed to look for angiogenesis and to calculate microvessel density (MVD). Results: Majority of patients (56%) of AA were between 1st and 3rd decade of life. Females were more commonly affected with a male to female ratio (11/19) of 0.58:1. In Aplastic anemia patients (Group I), using Camitta et al criteria 30 cases were categorized into NsAA (10 cases), sAA (12 cases) and VsAA (8 cases). MVD was calculated using CD 34 which is a good marker of angiogenesis. MVD showed a decreasing trend with increase in severity of the disease. Conclusion: The study shows that Aplastic anemia is associated with reduced bone marrow angiogenesis and mean MVD score shows a decreasing trend from non severe to very severe Aplastic anemia.

  86. Sailaxmi Gandhi, Maya Sahu, Jothimani Gurusamy, Pooja Mukherjee, Naveen Kumar C. and Suresh Bada Math

    Background: Telemedicine is an emerging health care technology in India. The success and utilization of any new technology depends on several contributing factors such as knowledge, awareness of the concept, competencies, and attitude towards technology by the concerned health care professionals. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, skills as well as perceived advantages and barriers of telemedicine among the primary care providers working in District Mental Health Program (DMHP), Karnataka, India. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted among nurses working in DMHP who participated in an onsite training program at NIMHANS. A pre-validated, self-administered questionnaire of Nurses Experience with Empowerment through Telemedicine (NEET) was used to assess the knowledge, attitude and skills of the nurses after attending 16 monthly telemedicine sessions. Open ended questions were used to explore their perception about the advantages and barriers towards telemedicine. Results: Majority of the subjects gained adequate knowledge (93%) through telemedicine session, had positive attitude (97.67%) towards telemedicine and confidence (93%) in identifying, managing and referring the patients with mental illness. Content analysis revealed that gaining knowledge, identification of mental illness and its management were the most common positive experiences while technical disturbances or internet problem and time constraint were some barriers perceived by the nurses. Conclusion: Nurses working in remote areas can be equipped and educated through telemedicine to make strong contribution to nursing and health services. Thus, empowering nurses through telemedicine can become a powerful strategy to bridge the treatment gap for mental health issues in a developing country like India.

  87. John J. Barnard

    Multiple-choice tests are usually scored dichotomously, i.e. as correct or as incorrect. A correct response is scored one and an incorrect response is scored zero. Using these scores different psychometric paradigms and models are used to analyse the data and to quantify the performance of the test takers. Classical Test Theory commonly add the question scores to obtain a total score whilst Rasch and Item Response Theory models estimate measures from probabilities. In this paper an argument is made that dichotomous scoring includes significant measurement error as uncertainty of responses is not considered. It is demonstrated how Option Probability Theory can overcome this through assigning percentages to one or more options according to the test taker’s mental processes.

  88. Sujitha, R. and Amritha, M.L.

    Stroke causes debilitating effects on the overall functioning of the individual and its consequence varies widely based on its site of lesion.Among the various factors triggering the incidence of stroke,renal failure followed by dialysis also plays a major role which is constantly overlooked. With emerging awareness, a considerable number of research have been documented targeting the medial profile of an individual who suffered an episode of stroke following dialysis. Due to the dearth of literature in profiling the speech and language characteristics and outcomes in this population, the current study was undertaken. A 65 year old individual with history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and chronic kidney disease, undergoing dialysis was considered as the participant. Formal evaluation was carried out to profile the speech and language characteristics of the client. The evaluation revealed that the individual had features of anomic aphasia with preserved repetition and normal cognitive skills. Thus, alongside venturing the medical effects of dialysis on stroke, the effect on speech and language characteristics can also be profiled pre and post dialysis CKD, leading to a better understanding of the condition.

  89. Oluwapelumi B. Oluboyo, Ph.D., Oghenekevwe E. Etso, B.MLS., Funmilayo J. Akinseye, Ph.D., Yomi R. Akele, Ph.D., Adeola O. Oluboyo, Ph.D., Funmilayo A. Adewumi, M.Sc.

    Background: Dairy products strongly enhance the growth of microorganisms. Soft cheese sold in Ado-Ekiti are mostly prepared locally and hawked by women who are mostly illiterates. The paucity of information on health safety of consumers of the local cheese necessitates this study. The prevalence, microbial load and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolated bacteria were investigated. Methods: Twenty samples of soft cheese randomly collected from various hawkers were processed. One gram of the curd was homogenized in 9 ml of peptone water and 0.1 ml of various dilutions from 10-1 to 10-6 was plated on standard media. Aerobic plate count, total coliform count and other bacteria count were enumerated after culture. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolated organisms was evaluated using disk diffusion method. Results: The mean aerobic plate count of bacteria and the total coliform count were 6.8 x 107 and 3.7x107 respectively. The most prevalent organism was Escherichia coli 18 (90%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 14 (70%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12 (60%), Salmonella typhi 6 (30%), Staphylococcus aureus 5 (25%) and Bacillus cereus 5 (25%). The mean colony forming unit/g of cheese was highest in Escherichia coli (8.2x106), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.4x106), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.3x105), Staphylococcus aureus (6.9x104) and Bacillus cereus (4.6x104). Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus were susceptible to ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus were susceptible to ceftaxidime, cefuroxime, gentamycin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: Local cheese sold in Ado-Ekiti may not be safe for human consumption.

  90. Nisha Bhatia, Sarika Prashar, Baljinder Singh and Devinder Kumar Dhawan

    Introduction: Technetium-99m pertechnetate is the most readily available radionuclide employed for thyroid uptake using gamma camera, which provides an assessment of the trapping ability of the gland. The present study was carried out to compare Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake values by three different protocols (gamma camera, uptake probe using computer software and uptake probe using manual method). Material and Methods: This prospective study was performed in twenty seven consecutive patients (5 males and 22 females) using three different protocols and two different modalities ie. Gamma camera and uptake probe. After intravenous administration the mean time taken for the uptake on gamma camera and thyroid uptake probe was 30 ± 10.02 minutes (range 20- 52 minutes) and 32.1± 12.65 minutes (range 21-75 minutes). Results: The mean uptake values and standard deviation calculated using thyroid uptake probe with computer software and Manual method (8.1±6.1, and 8.06±5.9) were slightly higher than uptake values calculated using Gamma camera (5.8±6.2). The correlation (r) between probe and manual uptake, gamma camera and manual uptake, and gamma camera and probe were 0.9947, 0.9691 and 0.9625 respectively. The correlation coefficient between all the three uptake methods is very high and shows a positive trend. Authors observed that the uptake values evaluated by the two modalities co-relate well but their mean values are different significantly. However, there is not much difference between the uptake values calculated using the probe software and the manual calculation formula. Conclusion: The uptake probe can be routinely used for thyroid uptake calculation using Tc-99m pertechnetate. But standardization of the thyroid uptake using pertechnetate needs to be performed before putting this for patient’s routine use. The gamma camera underestimates the thyroid uptake than the probe but provides the thyroid image for the size and shape evaluation.

  91. Varghese, A. and George, G.

    Aims and objectives: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice on hand hygiene among registered nurses and nursing students in a referral hospital. Background of study: HCAIs is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, prolonged hospital stay, increased health care costs, and antibiotic resistance in both acute and long term care facilities. Based on recommendations from WHO and the Centers for Disease Control, HH is the most important and easy way for the control of hospital infections. The five moments of hand hygiene opportunities by WHO is a simple schema which can be remembered and put into practice by prudent nurses. Design: A quantitative survey approach was used to collect data from the registered nurses and students of a referral hospital. Results: The mean knowledge of entire sample (registered nurses and students) on WHO hand hygiene questionnaire in our study was 13.9 (moderate knowledge) and the percentage was 60.8. Moreover there was no significant difference among the registered nurses and students in their knowledge level. Furthermore a positive attitude and practice was observed among registered nurses and students. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of regular services of in-service education for registered nurses which can help to prevent health care associated infections to a great extent. The nurse educators and practitioners should serve as role models and emphasize the importance of hand hygiene to budding as well as registered nurses for improved patient care outcomes.

  92. Dr. Geeta Choudhari, Dr. Aishwarya Choudhari and Dr. Mahmood Gulsha

    Aim: Aim of the study is to evaluate the role of Laparoscopy with hysterosalpingography in evaluation of patients with infertility. Materials and Methods: This prospective clinical study is conducted at in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Al Ameen Medical College Vijayapura Karnataka from January 2017 to December 2018. Results: Out of 50 cases of primary infertility, 38(76%) were primary infertility and 12(24%) were secondary infertility. The most common age group of primary infertility is 21-25 years and secondary is 26-30 years, With mean duration of 4.6 years for primary and 4.9 years for secondary infertility. Laparoscopic findings of ovary showed 7 cases (58.33%) of PCOD, 3 cases (25%) of simple ovarian cyst and 2 cases(16.67%) of chocolate cyst in primary infertility, while in secondary infertility PCOD was 1 case(33.34%), Simple ovarian cyst 1 case(33.33%) and chocolate cyst 1 case(33.33%). Laparoscopic examination of tubes in primary infertility showed 5 cases (13.15%) with unilateral block and 1 case(2.63%) with bilateral block, while in secondary infertility 2 cases(16.66%) had unilateral block and 2 cases(16.66%) had bilateral tubal block. On peritoneal examination in primary infertility, 7 cases(18.42%) had endometriosis and 2 cases(5.26%) had peritoneal adhesions, while in secondary infertility 1 case(8.33%) had endometriosis and 4 cases(33.33%) had pelvic adhesions. Laparoscopic examination of uterus in primary infertility showed 2 cases(5.26%) of myoma and 2 cases(5.26%) of uterine anomalies, While in secondary infertility 3 cases(25%) had myomas and 1 case(8.53%) had uterine anomaly. Conclusion: Laparoscopy is useful in the diagnosis of pelvic adhesions, endometriosis and external part of tube, fimbriae, Relations of tubes and ovaries. Hysterosalpingography is useful in the evaluation of endometrial and tubal pathology.

  93. Dr. Rajiv B. Jadhav, Dr. Vijay N. and Dr. Sharik MD.

    Background: To study the of benign breast disease in relation to clinical presentation investigation and management. Material and methods: This prospective study was done for 120 patients presenting with benign breast disease in the department of surgery. Results: Highest incidence in age group 21-30(48%), right breast affected in 48%, patients, while the left breast was affected in 40%, Most common presentation was found to be lump in the breast 70%.fibroadenoma was commonly observed followed by fibroadneosis. Conclusion: Benign breast disease is a common problem in female, fibroadenoma is the commonest of them.

  94. Chairul Munir, Etti Sudaryati and Roymond H.Simamora

    Background: the on job training protocol on new nurses is a guide develop as a guide for running a trial period on new nurses accompanied by grooves and modules. Aims: to develop the on job training protocol on new nurses at MitraMedika Medan hospital. Methods: the study design used action research conducted in one cycle from July 2017 to January 2018. There were 13 participants who qualified using purposive sampling based on the inclusion criteria. The data were gathered focus group discussion and questionnaire. The data were analyzed qualitatively using content analysis and quantitatively using descriptive statistic. Results: the research emerged six themes: establishment of protocol on job training of new nurses, improvement in the process of forming the protocol on job training, barriers to the process of forming the protocol on job training, benefits of the process of forming on job training for participants, hope the process of forming on job training and, and supporting factors of formulation on job training. Result of quantitative analyze showed that managerial knowledge of hospital manager onjob training in new nurses before research activity was 84.6%, and after it increased to 96.7% with an average value increase from 10.7% to 13.0%. Conclusion: the results show a on job training that has become the new policy of the standard operating procedures, grooves, and on job training modules.

  95. Dr. Maheboob Bagali, Dr. Nasheen Bagali and Dr. Mahmood Gulsha

    Background: in india drowning is one of the most common cause of death and it is mostly related to plenty of water resources from rivers, ponds, wells and extensive sea coast. Aim: to study death related to drowning. Materials and methods: this is a retrospective study of death due to drowning which underwent postmortem from 2008-2018 in department of Forensic medicine, Al Ameen medical college Bijapur, Karnataka. Results: Drowning deaths were predominantly seen in males (70%) followed by females (30%)with male to female ratio 2.33:1. Most common age group involved is 21-30 years(30%) followed by 31-40 years (20%). Most of the victims are married (48%) followed by unmarried(30%). Maximum number of deaths due to drowning has occurred in rural area (58%) followed by urban area (42%). Most of the victims are students (16%). Most of the victims belong to Hindu community(62%) followed by muslim community(20%). Most of the victims belong to upper lower class (36%) followed by lower calss (22%). Familial and Financial problem (22%) is the most common cause followed by Chronic alcoholism (20%). Lake (42%) is the most common place of occurrence. Most of the cases (92%) are showing positive result for some diatoms in bone marrow and sample water. In 6% cases, sample water only and 2% cases showing no diatoms in bone marrow and sample water. Conclusion: Deaths due to drowning is commonly observed in males in younger age group, married people, students followed by farmers and mostly people from rural population having familial and financial problems were commonly observed victims.

  96. Abin Varghese and Gigini George

    Background: The OSCE assessment tool has been used in the medicine field long back to assess the competence of students but currently it has been extensively used in nursing field to appraise the clinical competence of nursing students. Method: A systematic review was conducted to bring out the perception on OSCE from faculty and students and the complexities associated with it. An extensive review of nursing literature through different databases was conducted by 2 independent reviewers. Results: The faculty and students perceived OSCE as an effective tool for competency assessment among nursing students and a better evaluation tool over the Traditional Clinical Exam. The various attributes of OSCE; objectivity, skill mix, and well structured format were appreciated but the complexities in OSCE ; time allotted at different stations, student anxiety and the implementation cost were addressed as barriers. Conclusion: Guidelines for the conduct of OSCE has been developed from the review.

  97. Chowdhury, D.

    Intoxicated head injury constitutes a significant proportion of Emergency Department presentations throughout the United Kingdom. The presentation can be widely varied from isolated head injury to the multiply injured patient with co-existing head injury. As a result, the presentation can range from the inebriated walking patient to the patient brought in by ambulance with a standby-call in to the Department. In several Emergency departments across the United Kingdom have an ambulatory care unit where the patient with isolated inebriated head injury without any neurological deficit (and no acute findings on CT imaging) is admitted for neurological observations. In the presence of distracting head injuries, it is important to exclude the presence of any additional injuries. In this article, our main aim is to discuss isolated head injuries secondary to alcohol consumption.

  98. Nasheen Bagali and Maheboob Bagali

    Background: To study the patterns of benign breast disease with is co-relation with pathology findings. Material and methods: A total of 300 female suggestive of benign breast disease were refered to pathology department. Results: Highest incidence in age group 21-30, commonest presentation is breast lumps fibroadenoma was commonly observed followed by ibroadneosis. Conclusion :Benign breast disease is a common problem in female, fibroadenoma is the commonest of them .diagnostic accuracy of FNAC is high in the diagnosis of benign breast diseases

  99. Dr. Harsh Patel and Dr. Archana Mehta

    Flexibility is considered a component of physical fitness that is related to health and flexibility training is recommended in different contexts. Muscle contraction during stretching exercise might increase hemodynamic response which appears to be influenced by the amount of activated muscle mass and intensity of stretching. These changes are primarily mediated by type 3 afferent fibers which are sensitive to mechanical stress. The stimulation of these peripheral mechanoreceptors includes Vagal withdrawal and increase sympathetic activity .The Valsalva maneuver is a forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway. It can be used to clear the ears, unintentionally during coughing or a bowel movement or as a Diagnostic or treatment aid. There is a increase in heart rate blood pressure and rate pressure product due to Valsalva maneuver. The influence of the Valsalva maneuver during flexibility training routine is also requires investigation because cardiovascular response are probably greater when is perform. This maneuver might frequently be used during stretching exercise especially in case of less flexible individuals due to difficult reaching and sustaining extreme range of motion for several seconds from a practical perspective studying these variables is important because variable such as the set number length stimulus interval between sets and training method likely affect the hemodynamic responses to acute stretching exercise .although previous studies have shown that acute stretching exercise include transient hemodynamic response, the pattern of this response is controversial. So the objective of study was to compare the acute response of blood pressure, Heart rate and rate pressure product during 10 sets of passive static stretching of hamstring muscle perform with or without Valsalva maneuver. Method: 100 subjects with hamstring tightness with Maximum ROM of 125° for unilateral knee extension and with no previous flexibility training experience were enrolled and divided into 2 groups randomly. Group A- stretching exercise was giving for 30secs for 10 sets along with Valsalva maneuver where active breath hold was done for last 15secs of each set. Group B- stretching exercise was giving for 30secs for 10 sets without breath hold. Heart rate, blood pressure were measured before and after intervention. Result: when comparison was made between post hemodynamic parameters, heart rate, blood pressure and rate pressure product was significantly increased in Group A. Conclusion: 10 sets of hamstring stretching with Valsalva maneuver significantly increase heart rate, blood pressure and rate pressure product. The performance of Valsalva maneuver intensified all hemodynamic response, which resulted in significant increase in cardiac work during stretching exercise.

  100. Kuldeep Nahar

    31 yr old male presents to me for traumatic ipsilateral fracture of trochanteric region with transverse fracture of actabulam having posterior wall and posterior coloumn fracture alongside posterior dislocation of hip. patient was operated for intertrochanteric fracture first by fixation with dynamic screw plate system on fracture table. simultaneously acetabulum was fixed with plates and screw on simple table in lateral position.patient was followed for 2.5 yrs and doing well in terms of union,range of motion of hip, vascularity of head except some gluteal muscle proper planning and surgical skill yielded good result.

  101. Shujie Tang

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of position on lumbar loadings. Methods: Ten healthy participants were recruited for the study. A motion analysis system was used to collect kinematic data, a force platform measured ground reaction force, and spherical reflective markers were attached into the upper, low extremities and trunk of each participant during lumbar flexion, extension, left bending and left axial rotation. The marker’s data and ground reaction force data were input to Open Sim and the compression and shear force in each segment of the lumbar spine was calculated. Results: In each position, the compression force and shear force from L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L4 to L4-L5 increased gradually, but compared with L4-5 segment, the values in L5-S1 segment were decreased. In each segment, there were significant differences in compression and shear forces among flexion, extension, left lateral bending and left axial rotation (p<0.05). The compression forces presented with the largest values in flexion, followed by lateral bending, extension, and left axial rotation, and the shear force presented with the largest value in flexion, followed by left axial rotation, extension and left lateral bending. Conclusion: In the lumbar spine L4-5 and L5-S1 segment support more loadings than other segments, especially during flexion and axial rotation.

  102. Prathamesh Karpe

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is very common condition seen in middle aged and elderly females. Currently there are irrational ayurvedic management of UTI are done with multi formulations and panchakarma therapies with less or no positive outcome. Science based evidence based Ayurveda (SBEBA) management of infections helps in achieving positive result with minimum medications without irrational combination of allopathic medicines and other therapies. In this case study an attempt being made to explain scientific understanding of infections and their management in Ayurveda along with highlighting the concept of Agantu and Sthani doshas.

  103. Dr. Vinay, Dr. J. S. Malik and Vidya Deswal

    Background: Women contribute a lot towards society development. Gender equality is essential for society to ensure sustainable development of the country. Better is the status of women more developed are the societies. Status of women can be increased with their empowerment. Objectives of the study: To study awareness and participation of women in women empowerment activities in rural areas of Haryana. Method: Type of Study: Cross-sectional descriptive. Study Settings: Block Lakhan Majra. Study population: Women 18 years and above. Sample and sampling Technique: Stratified sampling technique for selection of study population to represent the all strata of population in equal proportion. Systematic random sampling for interviewing the study subjects. Results: Among1000 study participants 47.8% were house wives. Mobility of females in rural areas is restricted and they are not permitted to move out of house independently. Among the participants 4.7 % women owned land, 6.3% women having their own productive assets like cattle, sewing machines and 11% women having their own cash savings. 16.8% participants were aware toward political involvement of women in political activities and 83.2% were not aware and involved in political activities and they were not allowed to participate in political activities. It has been observed that 9.4% participants exercised voting by their own understanding and 51.2% voted according to desire of male members of the family. Conclusion: It is concluded that awareness among females of rural areas regarding women empowerment is very low. Overall awareness regarding political activities and voting rights is also low and these females are not empowered.

  104. Dr. Surendra Kumar, Dr. Desh Pal Singh and Dr. Praveen Kumar

    Background: Propofol and fentanyl are the commonly used drugs for induction of general anaesthesia. Propofol when given alone does not cause much changes in hemodynamic status of normal healthy (ASA grade1) individuals. When it is given in combination with fentanyl causes detrimental effects in patients especially compromised patients. The most common deleterious effects is hypotension and other cardio respiratory disturbances. These hazardous and sometimes fatal effects can be reduced and eliminated by preloading the patients with crystalloid solutions (Ringer Lactate). This study was planned to find the effects of preloading the patients with crystalloid fluids and study the hemodynamic effects of these drugs during induction of general anaesthesia. Objective: To find out the effect of intravenous crystalloid fluids preload on haemodynamic changes produced by propofol and fentanyl induction in general anesthesia. Method: We selected 60 patients who visited this hospital. All the investigations and pre-anaesthetic check-up was done routinely. These patients had to undergo different surgical procedures under general anaesthesia. The induction of anaesthesia was done with propofol and fentanyl. These patients were divided in two groups A and B. Group A patients did not receive any preloading with fluids. Group B was preloaded with crystalloid (Ringer Lactate solution). The hemodynamic changes were noted and analysed statistically. Conclusions: We concluded that preload with crystalloids fluids is beneficial to counter the detrimental effects of propofol and fentanyl induction for general anaesthesia. The preload of fluid stabilise the patient haemodynamically.

  105. Obaya Valdivia, A., Montaño Osorio, C., Vargas-Rodríguez, G.I., Giammatteo, L. and Vargas-Rodríguez Y.M.

    Reactors are equipment in which a chemical reaction takes place. For the chemical engineer, it is an operation of great importance since products that society needs are obtained by chemical transformations of raw materials. It is then fundamental to understand the mathematical models that describe the reacting systems. For a system of sequential reactions the speed law for each participating species is set, obtaining in this way separable differential equations and first order linear differential equations. Undesired reactions that accompany the main reaction can occur in a reactor, so it is relevant to consider all the lateral stages A characteristic example is the antibiotic hydrolysis which can be represented as a series of first order stages in which the desired product is the intermediary [A  I P]. Hence, it is necessary that the reactors modelling provides the maximum yield through establishing and solving a differential equation per reaction component. This paper presents the conceptual and procedural learning to obtain the sizing for an intermediary product oxacillin reactor [flucloxacillin  oxacillin  meticillin], through establishing the differential equations in which the students apply their knowledge in differential and integral calculus, as well as geometrical interpretation of derivatives and integrals. These concepts are necessary to be applied in the interpretation of the point reactor.

  106. Sudheer Kanchodu and Manjusha M. Litake

    Background: POSSUM AND P-POSSUM are two well known scoring systems for the evaluation of mortality and morbidity. It uses both preoperative and intra operative parameters of the patient for calculation of the score. Mortality rate alone cannot be used to compare the outcome of surgery between units or institutions. These scores can be used for the prediction of mortality and also for surgical audit, thus help in improvisation of our skill and proper documentation of patient details. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in 300 patients above the age of 12 years from 2016 to June 2018, undergoing major surgery. This is a prospective observational study. Results: POSSUM and P-POSSUM had cut off of 42.3% and 22.3% respectively from ROC curve, above which proved equally good in predicting mortality. Overall mortality was 13.7%, of which 9.6% was from emergency. Both scores accurately predicted mortality in 81% of total patients. The discriminative ability to predict mortality was excellent. The area under the ROC curve (AUC), for POSSUM with 95% CI = 0.879 [0.810 – 0.938], P-value<0.001; P-POSSUM: AUC with 95% CI = 0.852 [0.795 – 0.928], P-value<0.001. O/E ratio for mortality was 0.32, 0.57, 0.5 respectively for POSSUM score and 0.28, 0.61, 0.57 respectively for P-POSSUM, in <60, 60-70, >70 year age group. Conclusion: Both POSSUM and P-POSSUM can be used as tool for prediction of mortality. But both POSSUM and P-POSSUM slightly over predicted the mortality in younger and low risk age group. Patients with higher scores can be given special attention, thus may help to bring down the mortality to some extent. They can be good tool for surgical audit as well.

  107. Kshitija Milind Newaskar, Dr. Vittaldas Shetty and Vineet Vinay

    Background: School personnel play a vital role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, as they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of primary school teachers and school bus attendants regarding child abuse case detection and handling. Methods: Focus group interviews were held among 14 primary school teachers and 14 school bus attendants. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed according to determinants such as knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, skills, social influences and barriers influencing detection and reporting of child abuse. Results: Findings showed that although both groups of school personnel are aware of child abuse signs and risks, they are also lacking specific knowledge and the formal training regarding the detection and reporting guidelines. Conclusion: The results suggest that frontline workers are in need of supportive tools in the child abuse detection and reporting process.

  108. Eliezer B. Borketey-La, Peter Kwapong, Mary A. Botchey and Grace Vanderpuije

    Pollinators provide essential services to Shea trees (V. paradoxa) in parklands. Parklands are modified into landscapes through human usage. Shea trees are found within landscapes in parklands of the Northern region of Ghana. However, influence of landscapes on pollinators is not known. This study therefore sought to find the influence of parkland landscapes on Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) pollination in Northern Region of Ghana from November 2011 to March 2012. A bagging experiment with muslin was used to assess the type of pollination. Visual inspection and a long sweep-net were used to collect insect flower visitors or pollinators and assessed their abundance in the landscapes (farm land, settlement, undisturbed land and burnt land) within communities (Pagazaa, Kpalon and Zoonayili). ANOVA, t-test and regression analyses were used to analyze the results. It was found that V. paradoxa mostly undergoes cross pollination with little self-pollination. Fruiting due to cross-pollination on undisturbed land and settlement at Kpalon, Farm land and settlement at Pagazaa and Zoonayili were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than self-pollination. Three species of bees namely; Apis mellifera, Meliponula ferruginea and Hypotrigona sp. were the pollinators of V. paradoxa found with Apis mellifera as dominant. The study revealed that the number of insect visitors (abundance of pollinators (%) linearly and positively correlated with the number of fruits per Shea trees in the study area.

  109. Gemechisa Yadeta

    Utilization of appropriate agricultural mechanization is expected to enhance the Ethiopia GTP II program implementation. Therefore, this study was proposed to identify the existing improved farm implements and powered machineries for agricultural operations and to survey small holder farmers need for mechanization implements in western oromia National regional state, Ethiopia. Primary and secondary data were used to obtain the target of the objective of the study. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select ten districts and twenty sample Peasant association (PAs). Survey data was collected from 185 sample respondents through structured questioner. Only descriptive analyses were employed for the study. The result of the study indicated that, out of the 185 household heads, more than 36% of the smallholder farmers owned either one or no oxen. The average size of land holding possessed by sample households was 2 ha (at least more than the national holding level) during the survey was conducted. In addition, only 22% of sampled respondents own one or more non-farm enterprises income. The results of the survey confirm, mostly 43% the respondent’s labor shortage happened during harvesting, while 31% said occurred during threshing time. According to the time series between 1998 and 2008 crop year’s different implements distributed thorough the center were decreased and totally 67%, 55%, and 18% of respondent heard, seen and used(either by hire or own as an asset) either one or more improved implements respectively.

  110. Nagwa M. M. Hamada, Yasmen M. Moghazy, Magda F. Fathalla, Yasser R. Elmarassi and Ezzat A. Hamed

    The density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-311G (d, p) basis setisused for determination of chemical reactivity (stability) and selective sites of aryl 1-(2,4-dinitronapthyl) etherand amine derivatives.The calculation of dihedral angles indicates that the phenyl and naphthyl rings are not planar. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential maps and frontier molecular orbitals were performed at B3LYP/6-311G (d, p) level of theory. Mulliken, NBO atomic charge of both ethers and amines, IR, UV and 1HNMR are calculated. DFT global chemical reactivity descriptors (chemical hardness, energy, electronic chemical potential and electrophilicity) are calculated for the title molecules and used to predict their relative stability and reactivity. The active sites for nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks have been chosen by relating them to the Fukui function.The regioselectivity of nucleophilic attack on ether is presumably achieved from calculating and comparing the energies of the activated complexes obtained from nucleophilic attack on C1 and C1`.

  111. Shivani Jani, Nimesh Rupala and Priya Mehta

    Cancer in an multifactorial disease that occurs due to the uncontrolled cell division which invades surrounding tissue replacing native cells and ultimately resulting into the disease leading to death. Development of high throughout cancer vaccine is the need of the century in order to control increasing incidence of death among cancer patients. The aim of cancer vaccines is to stimulate the immune system of the individual, to be able to recognize and differentiate cancer cells as abnormal and destroy them specifically. Current research in field of molecular biology and immunology has resulted in the development of a range of recombinant vaccines viz., antigen, tumor cell, anti-idiotype antibody-based, dendritic cell-, DNA-, and viral- vector based- vaccines. Although success of cancer vaccine appears to be limited, still one such mile stone treatment for cancer is giving hope to the people in order to get cure. Cancer vaccines have been exclusively studied all through the past decades, and have made exceptional achievements in cancer treatment. Few cancer vaccines have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Majorly, cancer vaccine research is in progress to develop universal as well as specific cancer vaccine. the present presentation briefly details about the recent developments in cancer therapy especially by empahising vaccine development against cancer.

  112. Mkuu, D.E., Harding, I.C., Marshall, J.E.A. and Pearce, M.

    The Cretaceous strata of the Mvule # 1 well from the Deep Offshore Basin of Tanzania contain large amount of shale and laminated mudstone, which under favourable conditions may be possible potential source rocks for hydrocarbons. This study examines hundred samples from early to late Cretaceous age by means of total organic carbon (TOC) content, palynofacies analysis and thermal maturities. These analyses have been performed to determine the hydrocarbon source rock potential, kerogen type, maturity level of the source rocks and to provide the biostratigraphic framework of these Cretaceous sediments. The organic richness from Mvule # 1 well (TOC - all in wt %) ranges from 1.0% - 3.4%. Palynofacies particles represent mixed macerals with clear higher abundance of marine influenced and black wood materials inferring marine depositional environments under oxygen-deficient bottom water. Four palynofacies zones have been recognised and presented here. Palynomaceral components from Mvule # 1 well are characterised by kerogen type II and III respectively. Vitrinite reflectance measurements of this well range from 0.7% - 1.6% Rv indicating maturity levels that encompass the entire oil and gas window. Preservation of palynomorphs is relatively poor to well preserve. This paper presents fifty-two species recorded from a total of thirty cutting samples ranging from interval 3700m - 4800m with the exceptional samples (ranging from 4150 - 4800m) that yielded moderate to good preserved palynomorphs assemblages for identification. The studied sections of the Mvule # 1 well contain a distinct palynological association dominated by abundance species including Classopollis classoides, Criboperidinium muderongense, Pterodinium cingulatum, Spiniferites twistringensis and Subtilisphera perlucida. Common species such as Exesipollenites tumulus, Sepispinula huguoniotii, Litosphaeridium siphoniphorum, Dinopterygium tuberculatum, Odontochitina operculatum, and Cyclonephelium sp., were also present, including rare species assemblages of Adnatosphaeridium tutulosum, Hapocysta peridictya and Florentinia mantelii.

  113. Batra, H.S., Sharma, M., Singh, I.D., Banerjee, M., Jagani, R., Choudhury, B. and Aggarwal, D.

    Background: Hypermethylation of promoter regions of tumour suppressor genes is known to cause downregulation of tumour suppressor genes. We evaluated DNA methylation of two tumour suppressor genes p15 & E cadherin on histopathologically proven cases of head and neck cancers. Objectives: To study Methylation in the promoter region of p15 and E Cadherin genes from tissue samples of head & neck cancer and compare it with peripheral blood. Methodology: Forty three cases of head & neck cancer were taken as study subjects. DNA was extracted from HPE proven head & neck cancers. This DNA was bisulphite modified. Methylation Specific PCR was done on the modified DNA to detect methylation pattern. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of the same patients and the same procedure was followed on the modified DNA to compare the methylation patterns in head & neck cancer tissue as well as in the blood. Results: DNA methylation was detected in 49% tissue samples and 40% peripheral blood samples in p15 gene & 63% tissue samples and 44% peripheral blood samples in E cadherin gene. Kappa coefficient is 0.346 for p15 gene and 0.277 for E cadherin. Conclusion: DNA methylation of promoter region of E cadherin & p15 tumour suppressor genes which causes them to become downregulated may be one of the mechanisms of development of head & neck cancer. This is a reversible mechanism. Demethylating agents like Azacytidine and Decitabine can be exhibited to patients of Head & neck carcinoma who show evidence of DNA methylation.

  114. Dr. Sarathkumar, B., Dr. Noor Bano, Dr. Dubey, R.K., Dr. Arul Selvan, Dr. Siva Kumar Elangovan, Dr. Sugumar, Dr. Mohan and Dr. Santosh

    Background: The recent advent of newer designs in supraglottic airway devices (SAD) provides a possible alternative technique to the traditional use of tracheal tubes during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Among the supraglottic devices there are possible pros and cons for each device in laparoscopic surgeries. In our study, we compared the haemodynamic and respiratory mechanics of P-LMA and I-Gel in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Objective: To compare the haemodynamic stability and respiratory mechanics between I-gel and proseal LMA in laparoscopic surgeries. Methods: Under optimal induction and muscle relaxation the SAD’s were inserted into the patients oral cavity and position was checked with ideal ventilation and chest rise.base line, post induction, after insertion of SAD’s, after pneuoperitonium and post operative care respiratory and haemodynamic parameters were recorded and compared. Results: Mean arterial pressure reading after insertion of SAD’S and dynamic compliance after pneumoperitonium were statistically significant with pvalue>0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that i.Gel had better haemdynamic stability and respiratory dynamics than proseal LMA.

  115. Rukiya Aliyi and Chaubey, A. K.

    The activity concentration of Naturally Occurring Radio-nuclides such as 238U, 232Th and 40K in the collected soil sample from the selected area were measured by using Gamma ray spectroscopy employed by HPGe detector to perform the measurements. The average activity concentration values was found to be 46.708, 97.54, 795.414 and 2.23Bq/Kg for 238U, 232Th,40K and 137Cs respectively. These values were higher than the world average values given by UNSCEAR (2000). The average associated radiological hazard parameters indices Raeq, Dr, Din, Dout, AEDE, Hin, Hex, and I of natural radio-nuclides were determined to be as follow 191.7643, 148.5117, 1.020513, 0.182235, 1.202748, 0.794464, 0.668224 and 1.817106 Bq/Kg respectively. Some results such as Dout, Din, AEDE and I were found to be higher than the recommended world average values UNSCEAR (2000) and others were Raeq, Hex and Hin below the standard. Accordingly, the investigated soil sites were not radiation hazard free.

  116. Komlan A. KASSEGNE, Kokou F. WOTODZO, Folly K. ABEVI, Sonnou TIEM and Kossi NAPO

    A parametric model to represent the profiles of ZA, ZI and ZK-types worms and a hollow wheel in the transverse plane (plane normal to the axis of the worm) has been developed, based on their characteristics. The profiles represented by a relatively fine meshing are more representative and can be used to generate wheels and worms more easily under the CAD and the finite element software’s. As a result, these models can be useful in rapid prototyping to manufacture worm gears according to the perfect theoretical model.

  117. Swetha Kannamparambil, Dr. Roseline Meshramkar, Dr. Lekha K. and Dr. Ramesh K. Nadiger

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the stress distribution on simulated anterior FPD models by using a fiber reinforced composite framework, modified with 2 types of fibers – polyethylene and glass fiber reinforced – and of standardized thickness. Materials and Methods: A three-unit FPD replacing the maxillary lateral incisor was constructed using finite element analysis software. A fiber framework of the pontic was designed with three variations: with the main framework curved labially (FRC1), located in the center (FRC2), or curved lingually (FRC3). Each framework was compared with a hybrid composite FPD without any fiber reinforcement. A lateral load was applied to the three different loading points of the pontic 0mm, 3mm, and 6mm from the incisal edge, each representing loading conditions 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Stress analysis was by using two dimensional finite element method. Results: Maximum principle stresses developed in both the crown as well as the dentin of glass fiber reinforced composite anterior FPD was seen to be lesser than that developed in the same of polyethylene reinforced composite anterior FPD for all three loading conditions. Conclusion: Tensile stresses in the crown of glass fiber reinforced composite is less than that observed in the crown of polyethylene reinforced composite. Hence glass reinforced composite has more strength against masticatory forces.

  118. Hayfaa Hashim Mohammed

    Background and objective: Hydatid disease is a zoonosis that can involve almost any organ in the human body. After the liver, the lungs are the most common site for hydatid disease in adults. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of the disease, as clinical features are often nonspecific. The aim of this study is to present the common imaging finding of this disease in our locality. Methods: In this study, we reviewed the imaging findings of twenty five patients with pulmonary hydatid cysts in Mosul teaching hospital over 3 years (Jan.1999-Dec.2002).The main objective was to study the imaging finding of this disease. Results: Twenty five patients were reported to have pulmonary hydatid cysts by different imaging modalities. Seventeen patients where male and the main age was 39 years (6-72), fourteen patients were diagnosed by chest x ray. Conclusions: Hydatid disease is a manifestation of larval infestation by the echinococcustapeworm. In adults, the lungs are second-most common organ to be involved by hematogenous dissemination. Uncomplicated pulmonary hydatid cysts are most commonly diagnosed incidentally on imaging.

  119. Ms. Remya Radhakrishnan Pillai and Dr. Sara, B.

    Background: Nocturnal enuresis has a significant psychological impact on both children and their parents. Parenteral attitudes and perceptions immensely affect the management and resolution of bedwetting in children. This study evaluates the parenteral attitudes and perceptions regarding nocturnal enuresis. Methods: A descriptive explorative study was carried out on parents of children studying in selected schools of Nashik. A survey was conducted to determine the students with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. Out of 127 enuretic children aged 6 to 12 years, parents of 50 children who met the inclusion criteria were selected for the study. Results: Majority of parents 12(24%) considered deep sleeping the main cause of nocturnal enuresis while 3 (6%) considered it is caused by a neurological problem. The results of parents emotional reactions on their child’s enuresis revealed majority 18 (36%) regarded their child’s bedwetting as troublesome while 7 (14%) felt angry. On basis of their perceptions about useful management strategies12 (24%) considered limiting fluid intake before bedtime while 8 (16%) considered punishing and scolding the child as a useful remedy. All 7 parents who react angrily for their child’s bedwetting had either primary or secondary education. Parenteral education level was also related to management of enuresis where all 8 parents who considered punishing belonged to parents with either primary or secondary education. Parents with a positive family history of bedwetting considered limiting fluid intake and praising the child as useful management strategies. Parents with children who wet their bed every night (26%) felt more worried and angry on child’s bedwetting habit. Conclusion: Parents’ educational status and positive family history of bedwetting has a major role in their attitude and perception regarding emotional reactions and management of nocturnal enuresis where as parents’ educational status was not related to their beliefs about nocturnal enuresis causes. The results emphasize the need for proper educational or bladder training programs for parents to help manage their children with nocturnal enuresis.

  120. Dr. Ahmed Hasan Jehad, Dr. Abduljabar Abd- Alrahman Khalaf and Dr. Mohammed Abd- Alwahed Esmaeel

    Neonatal period is a highly vulnerable period of life when a neonate may develop certain serious problems which lead to death. Neonatal period is the most hazardous period of life because of various problems and diseases which a neonate faces. In Iraq, deaths in neonatal period account for more than half of under-five year's children deaths, highlighting urgent need to introduce health interventions to improve essential neonatal care and to evaluate and determine the main causes of death.

  121. Dr. Meril Ann Soman and Dr. Rani Nallathamby

    Background: Kidneys are bean shaped excretory organs found on either side of the vertebral column in the posterior abdominal wall. Anatomical knowledge regarding renal morphometry and hilar structural pattern are important during urological surgical procedures. They serve as important indicators in the progression of any disease in both nephrology and urology practice. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphometric features of both right and left kidneys and to compare it with the previous studies. The features analyzed were length, breadth, width and weight of both right and left kidneys. Shape of the kidneys, lobulations and variations in the hilar patterns were also noted. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore. A total of 60 (30 right and 30 left) adult human cadaveric kidneys were studied. Length, breadth, width and weight of all the kidneys were noted. The average valuewas noted for all parameters. Shape of the kidneys, Lobulations and variations in the hilar patterns were also observed. Results: The length of right kidney varied between 7 and 11cms with an average of 8.72cms whereas the length of left kidney ranged between 7.1and 11.7cms with an average of 9cms. The breadth of right kidney varied between 4 and 6cms with an average of 4.92cms. The breadth of left kidney ranged between 3.7 and 6.4cms with an average of 5cms. The width of right kidney varied between 2.9 and 4.4cms with an average of 3.53cms whereas the width of left kidney ranged between 2.4 and 5cms with an average of 3.76cms. The weight of right kidneys ranged from 60 to 140grams with an average of 88.44 grams. The weight of left kidneys ranged from 56 to 142 grams with an average of 90 grams. Lobulations were seen in both right and left kidneys along with variations in the hilar pattern. The hilar structural pattern arrangement were classified into six types. The antero-posterior arrangement of renal vein, artery and pelvis was the most predominant one. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding the variations in the morphological features and vascular patterns of kidneys are important in the field of renal transplantation and posterior abdominal wall surgeries. Hence, the detailed knowledge regarding these parameters are of great use for anatomists, surgeons, urologists and radiologists in their field of practice.

  122. Dr. Maheboob Bagali, Dr. Nasheen Bagali and Dr. Mahmood Gulsha

    Background: Poisoning related deaths were commonly encountered in forensic autopsy. Poisoning related deaths mostly suicidal sometimes accidental and rarely homicidal. Aim: To study death due to suicidal poisoning in our area. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 100 cases of death due to suicidal poisoning which underwent Postmortem, from 2008-2018, Al Ameen Medical College, Bijapur. Results: In total 100 cases of death due to suicidal poisoning 72 were males and 28 were females with male to female ratio 2.5:1. 21-30 age group is more commonly involved around 52%. Most of the victims are Hindus and from lower socioeconomic group(64%). Observed lethal period is around 6pm-12am (54%), mostly in summer season, Maximum cases educated upto High school (30%). In 94% cases, incidence took place of residence and majority were married(76%). Reasons of poisoning were financial problems (32%), family problems(28%), Unemployment(18%), ill health(8%)psychological ill health (4%), love failure(8%) and Marital unemployment, stress and family dispute. Poison consumed were Organophosphorous(64%), Aluminium phosphide(32%), Pyrethroid(1%), ethyl alcohol (1%), Paraquat(1%) and Alprazolem (1%). In present study external autopsy findings showed cyanosis (72%), froth around mouth(46%), petechial hemorrhage(56%) and injury over body(1%). Specific smell of content of stomach and small intestine being kerosene like in stomach (64%) and small intestine (26%), other findings include congestion in kidney(92%) and liver (87%). Conclusion: Suicidal poisoning is more common in younger age group and Organophosphorous is most commonly used poison.

  123. Dr. Chaitany Patel, Chandani Devaliya and Nirali Patel

    Objectives: To study the effect of stair gait training for dynamic balance and walking ability in stroke patients. To study the effect of varied over ground training for dynamic balance and walking ability in stroke patients. To compare the effect of stair gait training vs varied over ground training for dynamic balance and walking ability in stroke patients. Methods: Cross Sectional Study design assigned by convenient samplingwith30 Subjects in each group. Outcome Measure: BBS, 5 METER WALK TEST, TUG test LEFS. Results: stair gait training for dynamic component in BBS score42.73 – 51.40(8.67mean differences) and in varied over ground training BBS score is 38.35- 46.73 (8.37 mean differences) which mean differences shows the both are statistically significant and highly significant in stair gait training as well as in LEFS score. Conclusion: Stair gait training and varied over ground training shows significant improvement in dynamic balance, gait speed and lower limb function activity. Dynamic balance and lower limb functional activity shows more improvement in stair gait training. In gait speed for TUG Test, and 5 Meter Walk Test shows equally improvement in both the training group.

  124. Hiago Parreão Braga, Luis Guilherme Mello Albuquerque, Mateus Rufino Melo, Amélio Marques Neto, Aramys Silva dos Reis and Ebenézer de Mello Cruz

    Background: To evaluate the consequences of drug interactions prescribed in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a large public hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional and retrospective study, performed with medical records of patients admitted to the adult ICU of a large hospital in the city of Imperatriz Maranhão, from January to March 2018. The selected patients were older than 18 years, and had a length of stay in the ICU for a equal or superior period of 24 hours and prescription with at least two drugs. Potential drug interactions have been quantified and classified using the MicromedexTM database. Results: The 95 prescriptions included in this study contained 93 different drugs, with an average of 8.87 (± 2.28) drugs per prescription. Potential drug interactions were identified in 94.7% of prescriptions, with an average of 6.33 (± 4.01) interactions per prescription. From the 602 potential interactions identified, important and moderate interactions were present in 65.28% and 26.74%, respectively. The number of drug interactions showed a significant correlation with the number of drugs prescribed and the length of stay in the intensive care unit. Conclusion: Through the accomplishment of this study, it was demonstrated the high prevalence of potential drug interactions in the intensive care unit sector and its clinical consequences for the patient, highlighting the need to implement strategies to increase patient safety.

  125. Dr. Chaitany Patel, Chandani Devaliya and Nirali Patel

    Objectives: To study the effect of stair gait training for dynamic balance and walking ability in stroke patients. To study the effect of varied over ground training for dynamic balance and walking ability in stroke patients. To compare the effect of stair gait training vs varied over ground training for dynamic balance and walking ability in stroke patients. Methods: Cross Sectional Study design assigned by convenient samplingwith30 Subjects in each group. Outcome Measure: BBS, 5 METER WALK TEST, TUG test LEFS. Results: stair gait training for dynamic component in BBS score42.73 – 51.40(8.67mean differences) and in varied over ground training BBS score is 38.35- 46.73 (8.37 mean differences) which mean differences shows the both are statistically significant and highly significant in stair gait training as well as in LEFS score. Conclusion: Stair gait training and varied over ground training shows significant improvement in dynamic balance, gait speed and lower limb function activity. Dynamic balance and lower limb functional activity shows more improvement in stair gait training. In gait speed for TUG Test, and 5 Meter Walk Test shows equally improvement in both the training group.

  126. Kiranbir Kaur, Dr. Ghanshyam Tak and Dr. Suman Bala Sharma

    Background of the study: Majority of nursing students face burnout symptoms both in academic and clinical settings due to high demands of training. This leads to an imbalance in the state of well-being status of nursing students and causes physical and psychological illnesses. There is a need to integrate proactive strategies in nursing training to promote the well-being of nursing students. Positivity module is a way to improve the skills of self-care in nursing students and have a direct effect on patient care in future. Objectives of the study: The aim of the study was to explore the extent to which the “values in health care” selected module intervention enhances well-being status of nursing students. Material and Methods: A quantitative research approach and Quasi-experimental research design were used. Non-probability convenient sampling technique was used to select 60 nursing students. Questionnaire method was used to collect data by Singh and Gupta Well-being scale. Values in healthcare selected module positivity were given to the experimental group for 2 consecutive days. The duration of intervention was 5-6 hours in a day and post-test was done on the 7th and 21st day. The data analysis was done with descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The findings of the study reveals that during the pre-interventional assessment the majority of nursing students had average well-being of 76.66% in the experimental group and 50% in the control group. In post-interventional assessment after 7 days, the majority of nursing students in the experimental group were in high well-being 63.34% whereas in control group majority was in average well-being 76.66%. In post-interventional assessment after 21days, the majority of nursing students in the experimental group were in high well-being category (60%) whereas in the control group in average well-being 73.34%. There was statistically significant difference between pre interventional assessment and post-interventional assessment t=11.2336, df=29, p = <0.0001 well-being status after 7 days in the experimental group at 0.05 level of significance. There was statistically significant difference between pre interventional assessment and post-interventional assessment t=4.7355, df=29 well-being status after 21 days in the experimental group at 0.05 level of significance. There was no statistically significant difference between pre-interventional assessment and post-interventional assessment on well-being status in control group after 7 days and 21 days at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusion: This study concluded that values in health care selected module positivity was effective in enhancing the well-being status of nursing students.

  127. Ms. Meenakshi, Dr. Ghanshyam Tak and Mr. Sanjay Kumar Gupta

    Background of the study: Student nurses have different types of stressors e.g. financial stress, academic pressure from teachers and parents, time and health-related issues. This stress leads to affective, cognitive, social and physical changes. Sometimes mild stress is beneficial for academic tasks and performance while progressive high stress leads to affective and cognitive Impairment. Changes in affective and cognitive functions is one of the common mental health related issue among nursing students studying in nursing colleges and Raj yoga Meditation may help in improving their quality of life in terms of improving affective and cognitive functions and it is a safe, non-pharmacological, non–invasive, cost effective method and easy to practice. Objectives of the study: The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of meditation on affective and cognitive functions of nursing students in selected nursing colleges of Punjab. Material and Methods: A quantitative research approach and a quasi- experimental research design was used. Non-probability convenient sampling technique was used to select 60 nursing students. Questionnaire method was used to collect data by using Subjective Happiness Scale and Modified Rey osterrieth complex figure test. Raj yoga Meditation was given to experimental group for 20 minutes once a day for 21 consecutive days. Results: The findings of the study revealed in the experimental group, the pre-interventional mean±S.D is 4.958±0.8229 and post-interventional mean±S.D is 6.113±0.7357, t=6.0511, in affective function. In experimental group, the pre-interventional mean±S.D is 31.7±2.046 and post-interventional mean±S.D is 34.2±1.750, in copy trial. In the experimental group, the pre-interventional mean±S.D is 21.30±3.72 and post-interventional mean±S.D is 27.3±3.08, t=7.9145, in memory trial. In control group, pre-interventional mean±S.D is 4.708±1.0988 and post-interventional mean±S.D is 4.996±0.5549 in affective function. In control group, pre-interventional mean±S.D is 31.0±1.896 and post- interventional mean±S.D is 30.7±0.8632 in copy trial. In control group, pre- interventional mean±S.D is 19.57±3.65 and post-interventional mean±S.D is 21.30±4.24 in memory trial. Conclusion: This study concluded that Raj yoga meditation was effective in improving the affective and cognitive functions of nursing students.

  128. Thavamani, J., Aruna Gwalani and Brinda Panneerselvam

    Intro: The science of our body is to gain health in every walk of the life, personal power, to develop knowledge and attain peace of mind. It also reduces stress, tension in the physical body, activates the parasympathetic nervous system. Methodology: For the study, 75 school students from a private school in Bangalore, were selected as subjects. Their age ranged between 13 to 17 years. The subjects have been segregated into three groups each consisting of equal members. Experimental Group I were given Counselling, Meditation and Diet; Experimental Group II were given Physical activities & Diet for 12 weeks. Controlled Group were not given any kind of training. Results: The results of study showed a significant difference in the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) of psychological variable on Experimental Groups I, II subjects than the Controlled group. Through the Meditation, counselling and Diet their pressure which they felt before has got reduced and performance of them had increased. Conclusion: It is being concluded that meditation, counselling and diet helps in improving the Depression Anxiety and Stress.

  129. Jamre Jyoti and Dr. Agrawal Shikha

    The objective of research work is to enhance the solubility and dissolution of allopurinol by solid dispersion using different concentration of sugar carriers (lactose and mannitol). The allopurinol solid dispersions were prepared by kneading method using lactose and mannitol with different ratio of drug and carrier such as 1:1, 1:3, 1:5 and after the formulation all the physiochemical properties were examined. All the formulations were found within the permissible pharmacopoeial limits for various physicochemical parameters. The pre-formulation studies, like Fourier, transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed the absence of drug-excipient interactions. The solubility and dissolution profiles of the sample were increased with increasing the concentration of allopurinol solid dispersions. Kneading method was proved to be a successful technique for the development of stable solid dispersion of allopurinol. The dissolution amount percentage of allopurinol formulations was found between 89.43 to 98.43% within 60 min. Hence, from the all evaluation studies, it was evident that F5 formulation was the better formulation. F5 formulation (Allopurinol: Mannitol in the ratio of 1:3), 98.43% drug released within 60 min.

  130. Tilahun Saol Tura

    HIV/AIDS is currently a major public health problem in Ethiopia and mother to child transmission (MTCT]. The transmission of HIV from infected mothers to babies could occur during antenatal period, as well as during delivery and breastfeeding (postnatal period). Since breastfeeding is essential for child survival, it is also necessary to assess mothers’ knowledge attitude and practice towards HIV transmission and its prevention during breastfeeding. Objective of the study is to assess knowledge attitudes and practice of pregnant women attending Durame general hospital regarding PMTCT of HIV infection. A cross sectional, descriptive study was conducted to assess knowledge attitude and practice towards PMTCT among ANC clients in Durame general hospital from November 28, 2018 to June 20, 2018. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select 200 ANC attendants. Data was analyzed using tally sheet, and finally presented with table and graphs. 220 pregnant women were participated in the study which accounts (100%). 215 of the respondents reported that they have heard about HIV/AIDS. 165(75%) know that MTCT of HIV is preventable. 210(95.5%) of them were willing to have HIV test and the reasons mentioned were to protect their partner and child. Finally, it is concluded that most of the ANC clients knew HIV transmissions from infected mothers to their child during pregnancy, delivery and breast feeding and it is preventable.

  131. Dr. Desh Pal Singh, Dr. Surendra Kumar and Dr. Neel Kamal Gola

    Background: Acute pancreatitis is a common disease having wide clinical variations. It may vary in severity from mild self-limiting pancreatic inflammation to pancreatic necrosis which is a life threatening condition causing to multi organ failure syndrome. Methodology: We conducted a retrospective study in Rama Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Pilkhuwa, Hapur in the Department of surgery from April 2017 to April 2019.All the patients with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were included in this study. Results: The present study was done in the patients who were admitted in the surgery ward with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis during April 2017 to 2019.Fifty nine patients of acute pancreatitis were there. Out of these female patients were more in number followed by male patients. The foremost cause of acute pancreatitis was gall stone diseases in female patients and alcoholism in male patients. The mean age was 45-55 years in both sexes. Most patients were managed conservatively in high dependency surgical intensive care unit. Severe acute pancreatitis had poor prognosis. Surgical outcome was also not good. Conclusion: Acute pancreatitis is more prevalent in female population followed by male. Gall stone pancreatitis was more common in females and alcohol abuse in males. Conservative management was more fruitful than surgical intervention.

  132. Dr. Maria Vasilievna Kushnareva, Vladlena Vladimirovna Garmaeva, Dr. Galina Mihailovna Dementyeva

    The rationale for the use of the drug L-carnitine (Levocarnitine) in the complex treatment of neonatal pneumonia was metabolic disorders and carnitine deficiency in premature infants with perinatal pathology. The aim of the study was to increase the effectiveness of treatment of premature newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome complicated by "ventilator-associated" pneumonia on the basis of correction of carnitine deficiency. We examined 80 premature infants with this pathology. All infants received basic therapy (antibiotics, intravenous immunoglobulin, oxygen therapy, infusion therapy, parenteral and enteral nutrition, oxygen therapy, treatment of anemia). 40 infants received an additional drug L-carnitine at a dose of 100 mg/kg per day enteral for 25 days. The daily dose was divided into two administrations. 40 infants did not receive L-carnitine and were on basic therapy. The use of L-carnitine in the complex treatment of RDS complicated by VAP had a positive therapeutic effect. We noted an increase in the rate of baby body weight, a reduction in the time of relief of clinical symptoms of the disease, the duration of oxygen therapy, antibiotic therapy, hospital stay in comparison with infants who did not receive this drug.

  133. Fouzia Bashir

    The various traditional systems such as Unani, Ayurveda and Siddha use several plant species to treat different ailments. The Unani (Greco-Arab) system of medicine has been practiced since ancient times for the treatment of range of diseases. Mako (Solanum nigrum) is an important plant in traditional medicines belonging to the Solanaceae family. The plant is cultivated throughout the country in dry parts, quite common in cultivated lands, road sides and gardens. The Unani physicians have prescribed Mako in various ailments like Ascites, Piles, Chronic cirrhosis of the liver, Gonorrhoea, rheumatic and gouty joints and various skin disorders. Through this paper, an effort has been made to collect information on medicinal properties of Mako mentioned in Unani classical literature as well as those which have been validated in the light of recent scientific studies.

  134. Simranjeet Kaur, Dr. Ghanshyam Tak, and Sunil Kumar Garg

    Background of the study: Self-esteem is fundamental component in psychological health and is affected with dynamics of physical exercise. And there is a close relationship between self-esteem and physical health. Individuals with a healthy self-esteem have a tendency to take care of themselves by eating well, exercising, and being good to themselves and others. This study will explore the effects of selected aerobic exercise programs on self-esteem. Objectives of the study: The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of aerobic exercises on self-esteem of female students in selected nursing colleges of Punjab. Material and Methods: A quantitative research approach and a Quasi experimental research design was used. Non-probability convenient sampling technique was used to select 60 female nursing students. Questionnaire method was used to collect data by using Coopersmith self-esteem inventory for adults. Aerobic exercise was given to experimental group for 60 min. once a day for 21 consecutive days. Results: The findings of the study revealed that in experimental group majority 24(80%) of female nursing students in the experimental group had low self-esteem. 6 (20%) had medium self-esteem whereas no one had high self-esteem in the pre-test. And after the post-intervention 04 (33.34%) female nursing students in the experimental group had a high level of self-esteem while 10 (36.66%) had a medium level of self-esteem and 16 (53.34%) had a low level of self-esteem. Whereas in the control group of female nursing students, majority had low self-esteem 22 (73.34%), and 8 (26.66%) in the medium self-esteem group and no one had high self-esteem in the pre-test. And after the post-test, the control group of 23 (76.66%) female nursing students had a low level of self-esteem, 7 (23.34%) had a medium level of self-esteem and no one in the high level of self-esteem. In experimental group difference between pre-test 57.80±10.54 and post-test 70.93±12.91, level of self-esteem was statistically significant at 0.05 level but difference between pretest 52.80±19.18 and posttest 54.60±13.36 levelof self-esteem of control group was statistically non-significant at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusion: This study concluded that aerobic exercise was effective in improving the self-esteem of female nursing students.

  135. Dr. Harshita Pathak, Dr. Anubhuti, Dr. Priyanka Kumari and Dr. Ravi Raj

    Introduction: The success of periapical surgery is dictated by elimination of infected tissues and adequate apical seal. Among the various materials tested, MTA has shown good sealing ability and biocompatibility in previous studies. Materials like Biodentine, ESBCRRM have been introduced with the aim of overcoming some of the disadvantages of the MTA. Hence the aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of Biodentine, MTA and Endosequence, as a root end filling material, using stereomicroscope. Aim: To Compare and evaluate the sealing ability of MTA, Endosequence and Biodentine as retrograde filling material. Methodology: Sixty extracted maxillary permanent incisors were selected and stored in normal saline. The coronal portion was sectioned at CEJ access cavities were prepared, The working length was determined, BMP was done. Obturation done with gutta-percha. All sample were stored at 37 ± 1°C and 100% relative humidity for 7 days in incubator. The obturated samples were randomly divided into 5 groups.12 samples each group 1-negative control, group 2- positive control, group 3- mta, group 4- endosequence, group 5- biodentine. The apical 3mm of each root were sectioned. Round bur was used to prepare a 3mm root end preparation in all teeth. Apical leakage was evaluated using Rhodamine B dye and measured stereomicroscope. Mean and standard deviation was performed using a one - way ANOVA analysis of variance. Result: There was significantly less microleakage in Group - IV (endosequence) when compared to Group - V (Biodentine) and Group - III (MTA), but there was no significant difference between Group - V (Biodentine) and Group - III (MTA). Conclusion: On comparative evaluation of results of this in vitro study, it was concluded that ES-BCRR, Biodentine& MTA exhibited microleakage with Group II (ES-BCRR) showing the least microleakage of all.

  136. Swati Aggarwal, Alka Mittal, Nikita Choudhary and Kusum Mathur

    Schwannoma, also known as neurilemmoma, is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising from Schwann cells. Schwannoma of ocular area are very rare with most common being in the orbit. The eyelid schwannoma are very rare with only limited number of cases published till date. Here we report a case of 26 year female who presented with a slow growing mass on upper eyelid since 10 years. Histopathological examination of the mass showed features of schwannoma. The lesion was positive for S100 on immunohistochemistry confirming the lesion. Eyelid schwannoma although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of eyelid lesions. Excision of the lesion is the recommended treatment.

  137. Dr. Pallvi Sharma, Dr. Sumeet Khanduja, Dr. Rouli Sud and Dr. Dinesh Gupta

    Purpose: To compare surgically induced astigmatism between 2.8 mm and 3.2 mm superotemporal clear corneal incision in phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation. Material and methods: A prospective study of 100 eyes of 100 patients undergoing cataract surgery were randomly divided in two groups of 50 each Group1-underwent phacoemulsification through 2.8 mm clear corneal inscision. Group II- patients underwent phacoemulsification through 3.2 mm clear corneal incision. Postoperative assessment visual acuity and keratometry was done at Day 1, week 1, week 6 and 3rd month. Results: Surgically induced astigmatism at month 3 was found to be higher in group II(0.39D =/-0.16D) than in group I (0.32D ± 0.22D), but the difference was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.07). Conclusion: Reducing the size of superotemporal clear corneal incision incision from 3.2 mm to 2.8 mm in phacoemulsification does not significantly reduce amount of surgically induced astigmatism.

  138. Deepthi, K. and Dr. Nagarathnam, M.

    Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are currently the major cause of mortality and morbidity around the world. Among the CVD’s, coronary artery disease is the most common cause of deaths. Objectives: To elicit the lived experiences of patients underwent coronary angiography, to analyze the lived experiences of patients underwent coronary angiography, and to associate the lived experiences of coronary angiography patients with selected demographic variables. Materials and methods: Qualitative Phenomenological research design with convenient sampling technique was used which include 50 patients who underwent coronary angiography for the first time were selected as sample, at cardiology OPD, SVIMS. A Self structured questionnaire with preconceived ideas was used to interview the lived experiences of coronary angiography patients, which were classified as physical, psychological, social, economical, vocational, educational and spiritual dimensions. Interviewed data were analysed by using Colaizzi’s framework analysis. Results: The study findings revealed that the participants had unique expectations about coronary angiography. The experiences of the patients vary depending on age, their role in the family, occupation, financial status, social and family support system. The association was found between the educational status, occupation and the socio economic status of the patients through the lived experiences. Conclusion: Patients who underwent CAG have diverse expectations from the angiography procedure and the health care team. Nurses, as the key member of medical team, should include these expectations in their routine care program and assist the patients to have better life adaptability. Sensitivity to the patient’s expectations and assisting them results in higher awareness and less psychological problems.

  139. Dr. Abhijit A. Whatkar, Dr. Bhushan H. Mahamulkar and Dr. Krishna Narayan Tiwari

    In 1898 Banti described a disorder characterized by splenomegaly and hypersplenism, resulting in portal hypertension and anemia in the absence of hematological disease. It usually occurs around 3rd to 4th decade of life. It is known as non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH) in India and Idiopathic Portal Hypertension (IPH) in Japan. Hepatoportal sclerosis seems to be its counterpart in the United States. Banti's syndrome is a disorder of unknown etiology. It has been reported from Indian subcontinent. We report a case of atypical presentation Banti's syndrome in 34-year old man presenting to us with perianal and scrotal swelling. He was subsequently diagnosed to have Banti’s syndrome.

  140. Rajesh, D.P., Anjanayappa, H. N., Ganesh Prasad, L. and Benakappa, S.

    The fishes of the family Carangidae, (Atropus atropos) commonly called as “Cleftbelly trevally” are distributed in the tropical and sub-tropical waters of the Indo-West Pacific region. The population parameters viz., growth, mortality, exploitation ratio and length at first capture were investigated to derive requisite information for their effective management. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were derived as Lt =26.25 [1-e –0.69 (t+0.2425)]. The annual total instantaneous mortality (Z), natural mortality (M) and fishing mortality (F) were assessed as 2.94, 2.34 and 0.6 respectively. The estimated exploitation ratio (E) and exploitation rate (U) were 0.20 and 0.193 respectively. The estimated probability of Length at capture (Lc) of fish, the length at which 25 percent of fish (L25) vulnerable for capture by the gear was 11.23 cm; length at which 50 percent of fish (L50) vulnerable for capture by the gear was 12.44 cm. Similarly for L 75 was at 13.66 cm.

  141. Dr. Choudhary Alka, Dr. Rajput Poonam, Dr. Sidhu S. Simran, Dr. Gupta Rajeev and Dr. Kaprate Tanmay

    Complexities of the root canal anatomy make it complex for dental practitioner to correctly diagnose. The c-shaped canal is one of the rare anatomic variation which is mostly seen in mandibular second molars because of the shape of the canal and root. A profound expertise of the tooth, root and root canal anatomy is essential for the success of the endodontic treatment. This case report presents a rare root canal system in a mandibular second molar tooth, a single root with a single canal. Shaped canals with varying configuration are commonly observed in single rooted mandibular second molars.

  142. Remiya Mohan

    With a view to assess the coping strategies adopted by children with impaired hearing a qualitative research approach with exploratory survey research design was conducted to assess the coping strategies among children with impaired hearing. Non Probability Purposive sampling technique was used for selecting 100 children of age 10-16 years studying in various deaf schools of Pune city in India who were suffering from varying degree of hearing impairment. Data collection tool included self-structured questionnaire. The results showed that 88 (88%) children were adapted, 11 (11%) children were less adapted, 1 (1%) child was well adapted and none of the children were poorly adapted.

  143. Ambaga, М. and Tumen-Ulzii, А.

    Horizantal gene transfer during which genes are inserted into a genome by viruses, plasmids, and other foreign agents at example of archaea and bacteria cells had been served a more important role in the formation of substrate - substance basis, leading to origin of species during bioevolutionary time, also leading to further creation of NCM medicine and integration of Traditional and Modern medicines, which lasted from October 06 was day (one day is equal to 42 million years) - 3,6 bya years ago until December 31-1:00 a.m (40 mya) first monkeys, 9:00 p.m (5-6 mya) first hominins, 10:30 p.m (2,5 mya) - first stone tools, 11:22 p.m (0,5 mya) -first use of fire, 11:59 p.m (30 000 ya) - Cave paintings, 11:59:35 p.m (12 000 ya) -farming, 11:59:55 p.m (2 000 ya) - common era begins, 11:59:59 p.m (500 ya) -Renaissance. The recent literature date, relating to that archaea and bacteria are the deepest branches of the tree of life, the two groups are similar in morphology and share some fundamental biochemistry, including the genetic code have been confirmed that the day of formation of substrate - substance basis leading to further creation of NCM medicine and integration of Traditional and Modern medicines is October 06 (3,6 bya years ago when life established, first fossils - accorting to a brief evolutionary time table, because in the interval of this day, which lasted 42 million years, had been created the basic elements of membrane - redoxy potentials three state line systems as one is unseparable part of the full 9 stepped cycle of proton, electron conductance inside human body, leading to formation of RNA, DNA, ribosome, genetic code. What about general features of bioevolutional events happened in the October 06, 3,6 bya years ago was the early forms of life establishment in the form of Archea owing to natural geochemically sustained proton gradients of LUCA had been existed in the geochemical origin - hydrothermal vent of this time, giving the fundaments of following appearance of Bacteria, facilitating ecological spread and divergence by Horizantal gene transfer during which genes are inserted into a genome by viruses, plasmids, and other foreign agents at example of archaea and bacteria. The formation of substrate - substance basis during bioevolutionary time, leading to further creation of NCM medicine and integration of Traditional and Modern medicines within October 06 - 3,6 bya years ago had been conducted owing to transformation- the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA. By us have been established that the day of formation of substrate- substance basis leading to further creation of NCM medicine after 3,59 bya years of these historical events and integration of Traditional and Modern medicines is October 06 (3,6 bya, life established, first fossils)- because in the interval of this day, which lasted 42 million years, had been created the basic elements of membrane - redoxy potentials three state line systems as one is unseparable part of the full 9 stepped cycle of proton, electron conductance inside human body, leading to formation of RNA, DNA, ribosome, genetic code. The membrane - redoxy potentials three state line systems formed during October 06 was day (one day is equal to 42 million years) - 3,6 bya years agoas one is unseparable part of the full 9 stepped cycle of proton, electron conductance inside human body, leading to formation of RNA, DNA, ribosome, genetic code had been coded 3000 years ago had been coded by abstract triple code as Khii, Shar, Badgan (K.S.B) in Traditional medicine, when intellectual capacity of humans was developed in high level to find the triple code as (K.S.B).

  144. Maria Morena de la Pena

    Tripikon is a pipe usage model as a means of modified infiltration ditch as an effort of water pollution minimization. The purpose of this research was to analyze the decrease of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Most Probable Number (MPN) Coliform level of domestic waste in tripikon infiltration ditch at narrow field. This research was an experimental research with a group of pre and posttest design. The result of this research was it indicated a decrease of BOD level in tripikon, thus, it was in accordance with Minister of Environment and Forestry Regulation Number 68 in 2016 concerning with domestic waste quality standards, which the maximum was 30 mg/ L. Likewise MPN Coliform level in infiltration ditch was still below the maximum level of waste water (3000 per 100 ml). The decrease of BOD level was 36.8%.

  145. Efstathios K. Metaxas, Vasiliki Kapaki and Demetra E. Galliaki

    Background: The study aims the analysis of leadership in National Health System. The present study focused at exploring the leadership models based on the answers of Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire by medical and nursing staff at St. Panteleimon, General Hospital of Nicaea Greece. Methods: The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (M.L.Q) by Avolio & Bass was given and convenience sampling method was used on May 2018. The population of the study was 386 male and female, medical 179 and nursing staff 205. Results: The Transformational leadership and intellectual stimulator, followed by idealized influenced- behavior and idealized influence-attributed are the most common answers. The laisser-faire management seems that is less dominant. The nursing staff seems that prefers the Transformational leadership rather than medical and the female population adopts Transformational leadership rather than men. The PhD and MSc owners prefer less passive management and laisser-faire management rather than the rest of the population study. Population with more years of experience prefers Transformational leadership with idealized influenced- behavior or idealized influence-attributed or inspirational motivator or intellectual stimulator rather than the youngest group age of population. Conclusion: Finally, the Transformational Leadership and intellectual stimulator, followed by idealized influenced- behavior and idealized influence-attributed are the most common answers.

  146. Dr. Tiglu Geza Nisrane

    This study focuses on the impact of mother tongue education in preventing language shift with reference to Silt’e. The goal of the study is to examine the relationship between social and linguistic factors in considering the causes and effects of language shift in the speech community. It used a mixed method concurrent design, and data were collected using questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussion. The finding showed that using mother tongue in education is not the endpoint in the development of a language. Local language should also be used for official purposes, mass communication and personal communication in oral and written form in all socioeconomic domains.

  147. Made Jayantara

    Arrangement on the regional government-private partnership pattern is indispensable. In line with that, the ways to overcome the norms that arise in regulating such partnership pattern are also needed. This article aims to analyze the arrangement on the regional government-private partnership pattern and to find ways to overcome the problem of norms that arise in the arrangement of such partnership pattern. This is a normative legal research that employs statute and conceptual approaches. The results show that regional government can carry out partnership with private party (third party) in terms of, among others, utilization of region-owned property which is not used to carry out the duties and functions of the Regional Work Unit (Satuan Kerja Perangkat Daerah) and/or optimization of region-owned property by not changing the ownership status in a number of forms already regulated in the statutory provisions.

  148. Dr. Jayaprakash R.K. and Dr. Sethu S Nath

    The research study reveals that the achievement motivation of students at secondary level depends on their self efficacy. Achievement motivation is an individual’s desire for significant achievement. It is the driving force behind each action. Self-efficacy has a major role in determining the achievement motivation of the learner. The self belief of the students to manage difficult learning situations and the desire to satisfy the needs have a strong impact on the direction of their action. The study also reveals that different learning environment provided by different types of management has a strong influence on the self-efficacy and achievement motivation of the learner. The government school students have low achievement motivation and self-efficacy than aided and private school students.

  149. Solomon Mekonnen

    University studentsare often viewed as being at higher risks to acquire STIs/HIV infection, and they are categorized under the ‘most at risk groups’. Hence, to tackle the problem of HIV/AIDS in university, designing HIV/AIDS prevention messages is mandatory. This study was made to assess Jimma’s University students HIV/AIDS prevention message framing preferences. To do that, out of total of 1290 third year students, 305 students were selected using Sloven’s sample size determination formula. Questionnaire and interview were used to get quantitative and qualitative data respectively. The results indicated that in terms of detection –related behaviors, both the survey and interview showed that students generally preferred loss-framed messages so that they would be influenced to get HIV testing. Similarly, regarding messages that have prevention-related themes, majorities of the students preferred negatively framed HIV/AIDS prevention messages. In conclusion, in relation to prevention behavior, the finding failed to meet what health message framing theory advocates i.e. prevention –related behaviors would be most effective when they are framed in gain-manner. On the other hand, in relation to detection behavior the finding conceded with the theory that advocates that detection related behaviors would be most effective when they are designed in loss frame. To recommend, other factors that influence students’ preferences of HIV/AIDS prevention message framing should be well studied.

  150. Dhonde Dhavalkumar Dipakbhai

    To study has been undertaken to determine the impact of various factors on the firm and its relationship and impact of the dependent and independent variables on capital structure. Dependent-variables of Short-Term Debt-Equity Ratio, Long-Term Debt-Equity Ratio,-Total Debt Equity Ratio and Independent-variables profitability, Tangibility, Growth, Liquidity and Tax Rate. The hypothesis was formulated and tested on 5 variables viz profitability, tangibility, growth, liquidity and tax rate and five years (2011-2012 to 2015-2016) audited annual financial statements of 5 selected Indian Chemical Industries Company was consider. In future, before taking the financial decision the company should mainly focus on asset tangibility and liquidity. As it has a significant relationship with debt or borrowing of the company. The study also reveals that there was a more significant impact of short term debt-equity ratio and total debt equity ratio.

  151. Josiah Song’oro Birundu and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    School counselors use the available infrastructure to design, deliver and manage inclusive school counseling programs that are meant to promote student achievement. The counseling programs focus on academic, career, and social/emotional curriculum that is delivered through classroom lessons, small group, and individual consultation. Despite availability of Guidance and counseling programs and the available infrastructure students academic achievement has been unsatisfactory for a number of decades. Evidence shows that many students have emotional and behavioral problems which cause frustrations and despair. Guidance and counseling is a powerful means of giving students support and help to perform well in their academics. The objective of the study was to establish the effect of management of guidance and counseling infrastructure on students’ academic performance. This study was based on the principles of person-centered and social learning theory. The study established that there was a statistically significant and positive relationship between management of Guidance and counseling and students academic performance. The study recommended that management of guidance and counselling infrastructure be given more attention in school strategic development plan and budget with the support of School Management Boards.

  152. Josiah Song’oro Birundu, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Kawasonga, M. A.

    Financial resources allocated to guidance and counseling services help school counselors to design, deliver and manage inclusive school counseling programs that are meant to promote student achievement. The counseling program is meant to focus on academic, career, and social/emotional curriculum that is delivered through classroom lessons, small groups, and individual consultation. Despite such programs, various research studies have indicated cases of student unrest and poor performance in most schools in Kenya in the recent past. Evidence from studies worldwide shows that many students have emotional and behavioral problems which cause frustrations and despair. Guidance and counseling is a powerful means of giving students support and help with individual problems. The purpose of the study was therefore to establish the effect of Guidance and Counseling Services financial resource management on students’ academic performance in Kenya using Kisii County as the site of the study. Based on the findings of the study it was established that there was a statistically significant relationship between the principals’ provision of Guidance and Counseling financial resources to students’ academic performance. The actual effect was that financial management of resources allocated to Guidance and Counseling services accounted for 66.7% of students’ academic performance. The study recommend that funds allocated to Guidance and Counseling resource management be prudently used.

  153. Akram Q. M. Al-Hashimi

    Introduction: Otitis media with effusion OME, which refers to the accumulation of fluid in the middle ear cavity without any signs of acute infection. The aim of study is to determine the prevalence, the risk factors and treatment. Early detection of OME leads to obtain good result within short time and help children for retaining their normal hearing. Untreated OME leads to serious social complications to the child, school, teachers and society like loss of hearing, mental retardation behavioral abnormality, speech problem, learning problem and school performance. Treatment of OME was by eradication of risk factors, medical treatment, eustachian tube rehabilitation and surgical interference. Material and methods: 1812 children examined from the first and second grade in primary schools by pneumatic otoscope. 308 children positive OME send for assessment of hearing and measuring the middle ear pressure by pure tone audiometry and tympanometry. Medical treatment was given (local steroid as Mometazone for 8 weeks, systemic antibiotic for 10 days as Amoxacillin, and systemic decongestant for 8 weeks as Montelukast, loratadine). Results: OME prevalence was 17% in Mosul city. 308 from 1812 children have had OME, those children were given medical treatment, 66% cured completely and their regaining their hearing. Only 34% resist the medical treatment and they need further treatment, follow up and surgical interferences. 21 children underwent bilateral tympanostomy with insertion of ventilation tube, 8 children underwent bilateral adenotonsillectomy with bilateral insertion of ventilation tube. Conclusion: OME is a common health problem in pre and primary school children, need early detection and early treatment with eradication of risk factors to retain their hearing for improving their school work performance

  154. Dr. Anindita Choudhury

    The Word Child” means a human being of either gender especially one between infancy and youth. They are the most innocent and also loveliest creature of nature. A child today is a man tomorrow. They are the Country’s future. Everywhere in the society the child is well taken care, because the Country’s future lies on their healthy growth. Our mythology like Ramayana, Mahabharata, Vedas, etc also places the children in the throne of various Gods like Balgopal, Nandalal etc. As the children are innocent, tender in age, physically weaker, they cannot protect themselves. So, their rights need to be protected by the Society as well as law. Lacks of experiences, exposures, improper care/guidance are some of the contributing factors for their vulnerability and external influences. Children from ancient India till now are open to various heinous crimes, abuses, exploitation. And their basic human rights are usually vanished by different kinds of evil from their very tender age. They are becoming the subject of Socio-Political and economic exploitation leading to various crimes. Usually those exploited child becomes defenceless both physically and mentally. There is no dearth of laws for protecting the child’s right. But inspite of presence of various laws, those children are usually abused both in their home and outside home. In this way the buds of the flower are obstructed to blossom further. Children even being the greatest hope and assets of our nation are the sufferer of various human rights violation. During the recent years unfortunately the vulnerability against children are on increase. Children are thus exploited and abused in several forms. As every human being is born free having their own dignity and rights, those rights must be provided to the full extent by the State and the Society. Our Noble Laureate Rabindranath Tagore once expressed – “Every Child brings with his birth, the message of God”

  155. Guruprasad, M., Vijay Tandon, Chahat Mishra, Harshit Khandelwal, Ditrilla Borana, Bedant Kumar and Abhishek Arya

    OYO Hotels & Homes is one of the most exceptional hotel industry growth stories of recent years. OYO has raised massive funding from major players, namely Japanese conglomerate Soft Bank Group and the American company, Airbnb. The hotel chain now has over 1,70,000 rooms in India and claims it is witnessing a 3X growth in transactions year-on-year in the country. OYO rooms start at very affordable rates and the company earns a significant commission from hotel owners for the bookings done on its platform. By the end of FY 2018, its top line had scaled to Rs 415 crore. Year on year, OYO saw its revenues climb almost thrice year-on-year. OYO has an ambition of becoming a full-scale hospitality company, and today it leases or franchises over 18,000 buildings across 22 countries. The research study focuses on understanding the exponential growth of OYO rooms globally and its correlation with the investment made by the company. A key facet of this study is to analyse the increasing demand for affordable hotel services across the globe and understand the gap in the market.

  156. Dr. Maheshvari, R. and Meenakshi, N.

    India has a greater part of area, around 60.3 per cent land as agricultural land, according to World Bank, with 50 per cent population engaged in agricultural activities while over 70 per cent of the rural households depend on agriculture as their principal means of livelihood. Agriculture sector in India contributes 16 per cent - 18 per cent to GDP. In Tamil Nadu, agriculture is the most over riding sector in the economy. Tamil Nadu is the highest producer of bananas and coconuts in the whole country. The national output share of coconut is 29.1 per cent. The Present agricultural credit structure in India has several sources and agencies engaged in extending credit to the rural people. Some agencies are in the organized sector, some others are in the unorganized sector, Similarly, some agencies are engaged in providing credit directly to the farmers, others are engaged in indirect financing, i.e., through refinancing.

  157. Carolyne Auma Goro, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Olive T. Baraza

    Although the Government of Kenya and parents value primary school education, disparities have continued to exist in academic performance in each school. Academic achievement of pupils in Kisumu West Sub County had remained low in comparison with other neighboring sub counties for the period 2011 to 2014, yet studies linking poor performance with level of education status of parents in this particular area of study were limited. Between 2011 and 2014, Kisumu West’s mean score was 243.17; Kisumu East 256.19; Kisumu Central 278.14, Nyando 248.66 and Muhoroni 258.46. The purpose of this study was therefore to establish the influence of parental level of education on pupils’ academic achievement in public primary schools in Kisumu West Sub County. It was conceptualized in the study that pupils’ academic achievement depends on parental level of education and these variables helped to guide the study. The study established that Parental level of education had positive influence on pupils’ academic achievement. The influence was moderate as signified by r -value of .503 at a p-value of .000, and accounted for 25% of the variation in pupils’ academic achievement. The study concluded that parental level of education moderately influences pupils’ academic achievement in public primary schools. The study recommended that parents regardless of their level of education, should be encouraged to enhance their children’s education by instilling into them academic discipline.

  158. Enose M.W. Simatwa, Carolyne Auma Goro and Olive T. Baraza

    The occupation of parents is more or less synonymous with the socio-economic status of person thus more often than not people are distinguished and classified in society on the basis of occupation. In almost all cases people cherish their occupations or careers. Children also get more associated with parental occupations. This is because most friends of their parents to whom they are often exposed belong to the same occupation as their parents. It is therefore argued that occupation type plays a nature role in the lives and aspirations of children. It is therefore notable in some cases that there are disparities in children’s academic achievement as there are disparities in occupation type. Academic achievement of pupils in Kisumu West Sub County had remained low in comparison with other neighboring sub counties. Between 2011 and 2014, Kisumu West’s mean score was 243.17; Kisumu East 256.19; Kisumu Central 278.14, Nyando 248.66 and Muhoroni 258.46. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of occupation type of parents on pupils’ academic achievement in public primary schools in Kisumu West Sub Count. It was conceptualized in the study that pupils’ academic achievement depends on occupation type of parents. The study established that occupation type of parents had high influence on pupils’ academic achievement indicated by an overall mean of 3.84. The study concluded that parental occupation type moderately influenced pupils’ academic achievement in public primary schools. It is recommended that single parents should inculcate discipline among their children to control truancy behaviour among them so as to enhance their academic achievement. The study findings are of significance to school administrators, policy makers, and parents on ways of contributing to students’ academic achievement.

  159. Carolyne Auma Goro, Olive T. Baraza and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    The Government of Kenya provides trained teachers and free primary education funds for each pupil in public schools, disparities have continued to exist in academic performance in each school. Academic achievement of pupils in Kisumu West Sub County had remained low in comparison with other neighboring sub counties for the years 2011 to 2017 yet studies linking poor performance with socio economic status of parents in this particular area were limited. Between 2011 and 2014, Kisumu West’s mean was 243.17; Kisumu East 256.19; Kisumu Central 278.14, Nyando 248.66 and Muhoroni 258.46. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of parents’ income level on pupils’ academic achievement in public primary schools in Kisumu West Sub County. It was conceptualized in the study that pupils’ academic achievement depends on socio economic status of parents. The study established that parental level of income had positive influence on pupils’ academic achievement. The influence was moderate as signified by the r – value of .451 at a p-value of .000, accounting for 20% of the variation in pupils academic achievement. The study concluded that parental level of income influenced pupils academic achievement and recommended that parents should be encouraged to spend more of their income on the basic needs of their children in order to enhance their academic achievement in schools.

  160. Tafano Ouke Labiso

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the satisfaction level of the summer undergraduate students of wolaita Sodo University. The target population used were the senior (5th year) undergraduate summer students of the 6 departments of 3 colleges and 3 schools of Wolaita Sodo university. So that to manage the study and based on the nature of the study, purposive sampling techniques were employed for the selection of 60 students from 6 departments of the university and departments and colleges of the university. In order to realize the purpose of the study, both open-ended and close ended questionnaire, and participant observation of two solid months and document analysis were employed. Descriptive survey was employed based on the nature of the study. Mixed approach was employed with the concurrent techniques of data collection. Percentage of the descriptive statistics and independent t-test of the inferential statistics were employed for the analysis of quantitative data, and narration of the quantitative data was made. The findings showed that quality of in-service training failed to get attention as part of the overall quality of education on the part of general quality of education on the part of instructors, leaders at different positions, students, the university, and the government as a whole. Furthermore, there are scarcity of materials and facilities and also, there observed the negative attitudes on the part of administrative and support providing employees regarding summer students. Hence, it could be concluded that heads of this program at different levels and wings had no awareness or little awareness about the importance and purpose of the in-service program (in this regard, the summer). Therefore, it is recommended that the institution should give ample orientation for those who are assigned at different positions and levels regarding both the policy and importance of the summer training and its impacts on the development of the society and the country as well and also it is recommended that those who are in charge of running this program directly or indirectly should make the facilities and materials available for the trainees on the right time. And also the institution should adjust the time duration and calendar of summer program so that to reduce the load from the trainees and the trainers as well.

  161. Tafano Ouke Labiso

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the major factors for the ineffective implementation of continuous assessment and poor performance of students. Hence, in order to realize this overriding purpose, all the 3rd year senior students from colleges of engineering, natural and computational sciences, and Health and Medicine, instructors of these colleges were used as target population. Samples of 60 students and 45 instructors were selected using simple random sampling technique and purposive sampling respectivel, and observation of documents on the student assessments were used for analysis. Both qualitative and quantitative methods for data collection were employed and also the descriptive survey was employed. Open-ended and close-ended questionnaire and documents were used for data collection. Frequency counts and percentages were employed for analysis of quantitative data and qualitative data through open-ended questionnaire were narrated and used to support that of the quantitative one. The findings showed that there was a high gap of knowledge regarding the importance of continuous assessment on the parts of majority of instructors, leaders and students, and lack of commitment on the part of leaders as well were some of the major problems. Moreover, there were no programs and plans on the part of leaders at different levels to follow-up the continuous assessment along with other reasons. Hence, it was concluded that there was both competence and commitment problems on the part of leaders, instructors, and students as well. Therefore, it was recommended that sufficient orientation from the outset should be given to instructors, leaders, and students as well about the importance of continuous assessment; and all the necessary facilities should be availed to both the learners and instructors. Moreover, the policy regarding mode of delivery of the modules and regarding the clarity of assessment weights should be revised and made clear for all.

  162. Tilahun Alaye

    This study was aimed at analyzing value chain of wheat in Wenberma District in west Gojam Zone with specific objectives of identifying wheat value chain actors and their roles, examining the market performance of wheat in the value chain. The data were obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Using survey the data were collected from randomly selected 120 farmers and one processor, 39 traders and 10 consumers. Descriptive analysis was used for characterizing farmers, describing value chain and examining market performance and econometrics analysis was used for identifying determinants of marketed supply of wheat and factors affecting wheat value addition. The value chain analysis revealed that the major value chain actors are input suppliers, producers, cooperatives/union, collectors, wholesalers, processors, retailers, and consumers. Value chain supporters includes NGOs and governmental offices such as Office of Wenberma District Agricultural Development, Office of Trade and Transport, District Administration, Amhara Credit and Saving Institution, and Commercial Banks, District Cooperative Promotion Office, Amhara Seed Enterprise, Wenberma Agricultural Research Center. The total production cost of farmers was 311.37Birr/quintal and netreturn 226.92% at selling price. Total gross marketing margin was 22.19% and producers share as 77.81% of the price paid by consumers.

  163. Le Chi Luc

    Ly-Tran dynasty (1009 – 1400 A.D.) was the peak period of Vietnamese feudalism history. It was also known as the golden age of Vietnamese Buddhism. Therefore, the finding of study aim on the explore influence of Buddhist culture in Vietnam during Ly-Tran Dynasty (1009-1400 A.D.), that finds absorbed and deeply influenced in Vietnamese culture. This article addresses the main influences of Buddhist culture on the decisive ideology of this period, which is the premise to create a great landmark in the history of Vietnamese Buddhism finds the influence several aspects related the Vietnamese Buddhists 4 aspects as followed (1) influence on political - social thought, (2) influence on traditional and customs of Vietnamese, (3) influence on literature, and (4) influence on architecture and sculpture.

  164. Dr. Isa-Allean Blacksher, N.D.

    Pain is often a major aspect of most patient’s health problems. It is not uncommon that doctors try to look for the best way to care for and treat their patients to make them comfortable by resolving these pain issues. Patients also look for the fastest and most effective ways to eliminate their pain to find relief from their discomforts. With this strong need for pain management, opioids have been the answer for many years and are being heavily prescribed by western doctors; unfortunately addiction problems have occurred. Although opioids effectively numb pain and give relief, they are also extremely dangerous and highly addictive! Many times opioids are even ethically misused, over prescribed, abused and systematically wrongly applied and now for the western medical system this is now very hard to control. A better treatment option is needed for what has turned into an epidemic as it gets worse with the increase of opioid prescriptions, consequently there are more people dying now in America due to opioid overdose than in traffic accidents! So, with so many suffering from pain in the mainstream US health care system and now from addiction from taking highly addictive opium-based pain killers the new challenge of trying to find a better form of treatment has arisen but has yet to be solved. Common sense tells us that exchanging the problem of chronic pain for the deadlier problem of having a prescription opioid addiction - is no solution at all. So what is a better solution for pain management? Integrative medicine combining the powers of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Acupuncture along with western medicine is. The Simple Fact: TCM is better for treating pain, this is a simple fact, and truthfully, since the root of the real illness in many patients is not really being addressed or rectified this reveals that using opioids to treat pain is not the most intelligent system for treating a health problem - it is just a temporary fix. In fact, instead of helping, this system is leading millions to become dependent to solving their health issues with a highly addictive substance and this is leading to the development of a deadly cycle. The cycle of pain and illness, medicating with opioid medication, leading to addiction pain. Repeat…. pain, opioids, addiction - pain, repeat….and the cycle goes on and on – usually continuing until overdose. In 1999 there were 4,000 deaths attributed to opioid prescription painkillers and by 2011 that number more than tripled to 14,000 and that is more patients dying than overdose from the people on the street using street drugs like cocaine and heroin combined - in 2014 death from opioids rose again to 18,893. These figures show that from 1999 to 2015 over half a million Americans have died from overdosing on opioid prescription drugs - these statistics are according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and because of this the whole situation is now being labeled as “an opioid crisis” and an “overdose epidemic.” Presently this cycle of addiction to opioids has contributed to the degeneration of a whole nation of people, their families and their communities, struggle to find a balance with opioid pain medications - where there is none.

  165. Dr. Razeena Karim, L.

    The present study highlights the bioaccumulation of heavy metal and subsequent changes in the estuarine fish Liza parsia from Ashtamudi lake. The results of the present study on the quality of water and various aspects of L. parsia proved the grave situation of the lake. Morphology, biological constituents and reproductive organs of the fishes are greatly affected due to the pollutants. It will directly as well as indirectly affect the human being through the food chain. If the quantum of pollution status of the lake persists like this or increases, the quality of water, fishes and other biota of the lake will get deteriorated at a greater magnitude, becoming a serious threat to mankind.

  166. Amarech Alaye and Wondimu Tegegne

    The main objective of the current study was to examine the practices teaching English language skills via integrative language teaching approach in the actual classroom situation. For this purpose, Areka Preparatory School was selected as a research setting. Descriptive research design was employed for the current study. Besides, systematic random sampling was used to select sample of students. To collect the necessary data for the study, semi-structured interview for six teachers, questionnaire for one hundred seventy students, classroom observation and document analysis were employed. To analyze the collected data, qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis were employed. That is, data collected through questionnaires were analyzed employing statistical tools such as frequency and percentage using SPSS version 20, while responses obtained from interview was described and discussed. In addition, data obtained via document analysis and classroom observation were tallied and converted to numbers and analyzed to validate and substantiate the data obtained from interview and questionnaire. From the analysis of data, different findings were obtained. The study revealed that English language teachers use integrative language teaching approach when necessary and based on the topic being taught. Besides, it was found out that English language teachers use various techniques to teach language skills integratively. The findings of the study divulged that the majority teachers responded that they use cooperative teaching in integrative language classes. Based on the findings, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are forwarded to improve the implementation of integrative language skills teaching approach.

  167. Devi Sarita, Sharma Preksha, Kaur Shaminder and Banipal Raja P.S.

    Introduction: Cancer is describes as the disease that results due to cellular changes and these changes cause the uncontrolled growth and division of cells. A cell receives instructions to die so that the body can replace it with a newer cell that functions better. Cancerous cells lack the components that instruct them to stop dividing and to die. Chemotherapeutic drugs (CDs) are the most widespread worldwide modality used in cancer treatment, and other autoimmune diseases. However, their non-selective mechanism of action affects both cancerous and non-cancerous cells, that resulting in well documented side effects. Nurses are at risk of suffering side effects. Little negligence or mistake may lead to adverse unpleasant effects for patients, staff and environment. This study was undertaken to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding safe handling of chemotherapeutic drugs among nursing personnel in tertiary care hospital, India. Aim: The aim is to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding safe handling of chemotherapeutic drugs among nursing personnel. Material & Methods: Non-experimental descriptive cross sectional survey approach was used. Through convenient sampling, 60 subjects were selected. The knowledge questionnaire to assess knowledge and Likert’s scale to assess attitude was used. Descriptive statistics, pearson corelation and ANOVA /t- tests were used to analysis data. Results: The result revealed that the majority of nursing personnel (55%) had poor knowledge and (46.7%) had mild positive attitude regarding safe handling of chemotherapeutic drugs. The statistically significant association was found between knowledge regarding safe handling of chemotherapeutic drugs and gender, education of nursing personnel. The statistically highly significant association was found between attitude regarding safe handling of chemotherapeutic drugs and oncology work experience of nursing personnel. Conclusion: The results of the present study reveal that there is poor knowledge and mild positive attitude regarding safe handling of chemotherapeutic drugs among nursing personnel of tertiary care hospital, India.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
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Dr. Recep TAS
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Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
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Dr. Imran Azad
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Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari